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Sample records for plants solanum tuberosum

  1. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  2. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Millam, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. It has been the focus of substantial study because of its use both as a staple food crop and as a potentially significant source of compounds of interest. This has included the development and application of transgenic technology for introducing novel traits of fundamental and applied interest. This chapter describes a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective system for the routine transformation of this crop plant at rates above 40% efficiency, calculated as the mean number of Southern blot- confirmed independent transgenics per number of internodal explants originally plated. Internodal sections are co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subjected to a two-stage callus induction/shoot outgrowth system under kanamycin selection. Shoot regeneration rates are high using the described method, and excised independent shoots rooting from the cut end of the stem after two further subcultures on kanamycin are 95% certain to be transformed. The transgenic status can be confirmed by molecular analysis and the plants grown on for tuber production enabling a wide spectrum of further studies.

  3. [Somatic hybrids among transgenic Solanum tuberosum and transplastomic Solanum rickii].

    PubMed

    Marveeva, N A; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Kuchuk, N V

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid plants with transformed plastids were regenerated after fusion of mesophyll protoplasts of Solanum rickii with aadA chloroplast selective marker gene and Solanum tuberosum with nptII nuclear selective marker gene. The hybrid callus clones were selected on the medium containing streptomycine, spectinomycine and kanamycine. The hybrids were identified on the base of PCR analysis of nuclear and plastid DNAs. The analysis have shown that regenerated plants were somatic hybrids containing aadA and nptII genes, Solanum rickii and Solanum tuberosum nuclear and chloroplast DNA.

  4. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknić, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H. H.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of S. commersonii and S. tuberosum were therefore compared to determine whether there might be differences that contribute to their differences in ability to cold acclimate. The results indicated that both plants alter gene expression in response to low temperature to similar degrees with similar kinetics and that both plants have CBF regulons composed of hundreds of genes. However, there were considerable differences in the sets of genes that comprised the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of the two species. Thus differences in cold regulatory programmes may contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance of these two species. However, 53 groups of putative orthologous genes that are cold-regulated in S. commersonii, S. tuberosum, and A. thaliana were identified. Given that the evolutionary distance between the two Solanum species and A. thaliana is 112–156 million years, it seems likely that these conserved cold-regulated genes—many of which encode transcription factors and proteins of unknown function—have fundamental roles in plant growth and development at low temperature. PMID:21511909

  5. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Carvallo, Marcela A; Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknic, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Doherty, Colleen J; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H H; Thomashow, Michael F

    2011-07-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of S. commersonii and S. tuberosum were therefore compared to determine whether there might be differences that contribute to their differences in ability to cold acclimate. The results indicated that both plants alter gene expression in response to low temperature to similar degrees with similar kinetics and that both plants have CBF regulons composed of hundreds of genes. However, there were considerable differences in the sets of genes that comprised the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of the two species. Thus differences in cold regulatory programmes may contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance of these two species. However, 53 groups of putative orthologous genes that are cold-regulated in S. commersonii, S. tuberosum, and A. thaliana were identified. Given that the evolutionary distance between the two Solanum species and A. thaliana is 112-156 million years, it seems likely that these conserved cold-regulated genes-many of which encode transcription factors and proteins of unknown function-have fundamental roles in plant growth and development at low temperature.

  6. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Poiatti, Vera A D; Dalmas, Fernando R; Astarita, Leandro V

    2009-01-01

    The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in defense mechanisms

  7. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  8. In vitro maintenance and cryopreservation of Plant Variety Protection vouchers germplasm of Solanum tuberosum cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the voucher germplasm of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) potato (S. tuberosum) cultivars registered with the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Office. The potato cultivars are deposited at the Center as tissue culture and are main...

  9. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  10. Physiology of Tuberization in Solanum tuberosum L

    PubMed Central

    Mauk, Craighton S.; Langille, Alan R.

    1978-01-01

    Using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cucumber cotyledon bioassay, and mass spectrometry a cytokinin isolated from Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Katahdin plant tissues has been identified as cis-zeatin riboside. Zeatin riboside (ZR) levels in plants grown under inducing conditions (28 C day and 13 C night with a 10-hour photoperiod) were significantly higher than those in plants grown under noninducing conditions (30 C day and 28 C night with an 18-hour photoperiod). The highest level of ZR was noted in below-ground tissue after 4 days exposure to inducing conditions, with tuber initiation observed after 8 days. A companion study conducted to determine the effect of ZR on in vitro tuberization of noninduced rhizomes revealed that after 1 month in culture, controls exhibited 0% tuberization, while ZR treatments of 0.3 and 3.0 milligrams per liter showed 39 and 75% tuberization, respectively. PMID:16660533

  11. Jasmonic acid affects plant morphology and calcium-dependent protein kinase expression and activity in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Rita M; Raíces, Marcela; MacIntosh, Gustavo C; Maldonado, Sara; Téllez-Iñón, María T

    2002-07-01

    The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on plant growth and on calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity and expression was studied in non-photoperiodic potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. var. Spunta, grown in vitro. Stem cuttings were grown for 45 days (long treatment, LT) in MS medium with increasing concentrations of JA. For short treatments (ST) adult plants grown in MS were transferred for 1, 4 and 20 h to JA containing media. During the LT, low concentrations of JA promoted cell expansion and shoot elongation while higher concentrations caused growth inhibition. Under these conditions, treated plants showed root shortening and tuber formation was not induced. Morphological and histochemical studies using light microscopy and TEM analysis of leaves from treated plants revealed that JA also affected subcellular organelles of mesophyll cells. Peroxisomes increased in size and number, and an autophagic process was triggered in response to high concentrations of the hormone. CDPK activity, determined in crude extracts of treated plants (LT), was inhibited (up to 80%). Plant growth and CDPK inhibition were reverted upon transfer of the plants to hormone-free medium. Soluble CDPK activity decreased in response to JA short treatment. Concomitantly, a decline in the steady state levels of StCDPK2 mRNA, a potato CDPK isoform that is expressed in leaves, was observed. These data suggest that the phytohormone down-regulated the expression and activity of the kinase.

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  13. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    PubMed

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  14. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    PubMed Central

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26172952

  15. Expression of xylanase with high specific activity from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis A1 in transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Peilong; Wang, Yaru; Bai, Yingguo; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Yuan, Tiezheng; Fan, Yunliu; Yao, Bin

    2007-04-01

    The gene, xynB, from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis A1 encoding xylanase, XYNB, with a high specific activity for xylan, was transformed into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The integration of xynB into genomic DNA was confirmed by PCR and reverse transcriptase-PCR. The gene was expressed under the control of a constitutive double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Both SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis showed high levels of expression of the 21 kDa and 31 kDa XYNB proteins in transgenic potato plants transformed by the binary vectors pBinXy and signal peptide contained pBinSPXy, respectively. The recombinant XYNB protein was present at up to 5% of total soluble leaf protein in the cytoplasm. In transgenic leaf and tuber extracts, xylanase activity was up to 87 micromol min(-1) g(-1) fresh leaf (9.7 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) total soluble protein). The xylanase was stable at 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C in buffers (pH 5.2) for 5 min. Furthermore, the xylanase enzymatic activity remained virtually unchanged over several generations of potato. These results demonstrate that the transgenic potato can be used to produce recombinant xylanase with high specific enzyme activity and can potentially be an alternative to present-day xylanase additives to animal feed.

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon’s response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  18. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant to moderately elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert D; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Usman, Muhammad; Verrall, Susan R; Fuller, John; Simpson, Craig G; Zhang, Runxuan; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Although significant work has been undertaken regarding the response of model and crop plants to heat shock during the acclimatory phase, few studies have examined the steady-state response to the mild heat stress encountered in temperate agriculture. In the present work, we therefore exposed tuberizing potato plants to mildly elevated temperatures (30/20 °C, day/night) for up to 5 weeks and compared tuber yield, physiological and biochemical responses, and leaf and tuber metabolomes and transcriptomes with plants grown under optimal conditions (22/16 °C). Growth at elevated temperature reduced tuber yield despite an increase in net foliar photosynthesis. This was associated with major shifts in leaf and tuber metabolite profiles, a significant decrease in leaf glutathione redox state and decreased starch synthesis in tubers. Furthermore, growth at elevated temperature had a profound impact on leaf and tuber transcript expression with large numbers of transcripts displaying a rhythmic oscillation at the higher growth temperature. RT-PCR revealed perturbation in the expression of circadian clock transcripts including StSP6A, previously identified as a tuberization signal. Our data indicate that potato plants grown at moderately elevated temperatures do not exhibit classic symptoms of abiotic stress but that tuber development responds via a diversity of biochemical and molecular signals.

  19. Ploidy and morphological characteristics of Solanum tuberosum x Solanum phureja hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dolničar, Peter; Bohanec, Borut

    2000-01-01

    In attempt to induce doubled haploids in potato we studied interspecific hybrids between tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cultivars Igor, Jana, Vesna, Romano, Arinda, Fianna, Donald and Vital and Solanum phureja (clone IVP 48). Four out of eight cultivars produced 21 berries in total and 149 seedlings were obtained. Their ploidy was measured using flow cytometry. Analysis revealed 137 tetraploids, 10 triploids and 2 haploids. One haploid, 6 triploids and most of the tetraploids produced tubers. Nine out of 10 triploids were produced in a cross between cv. Igor and S. phureja. The vigour of the haploid plant was weak and produced characteristic long light yellow tubers. Triploid plants were characterized by a dark violet coloration of the stem, which was the same as the coloration of the S. phureja. Tubers had violet skin colour of various intensities and deep eyes. The majority of the tetraploid plants (135) were phenotypically similar to the S. tuberosum, while two plants had a similar violet stem and tubers as the triploids. Triploids were interspecific hybrids and tetraploids were produced by spontaneous chromosome doubling from S. tuberosum gametes. Two tetraploid plants expressing violet coloration might have been interspecific hybrids formed from 2n S. phureja gametes. Further studies are needed to confirm these assumptions.

  20. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  1. Dickeya solani sp. nov., a pectinolytic plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    van der Wolf, Jan M; Nijhuis, Els H; Kowalewska, Malgorzata J; Saddler, Gerry S; Parkinson, Neil; Elphinstone, John G; Pritchard, Leighton; Toth, Ian K; Lojkowska, Ewa; Potrykus, Marta; Waleron, Malgorzata; de Vos, Paul; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Pirhonen, Minna; Garlant, Linda; Hélias, Valérie; Pothier, Joël F; Pflüger, Valentin; Duffy, Brion; Tsror, Leah; Manulis, Shula

    2014-03-01

    Pectinolytic bacteria have been recently isolated from diseased potato plants exhibiting blackleg and slow wilt symptoms found in a number of European countries and Israel. These Gram-reaction-negative, motile, rods were identified as belonging to the genus Dickeya, previously the Pectobacterium chrysanthemi complex (Erwinia chrysanthemi), on the basis of production of a PCR product with the pelADE primers, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl esterase analysis, the production of phosphatases and the ability to produce indole and acids from α-methylglucoside. Differential physiological assays used previously to differentiate between strains of E. chrysanthemi, showed that these isolates belonged to biovar 3. Eight of the isolates, seven from potato and one from hyacinth, were analysed together with 21 reference strains representing all currently recognized taxa within the genus Dickeya. The novel isolates formed a distinct genetic clade in multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using concatenated sequences of the intergenic spacer (IGS), as well as dnaX, recA, dnaN, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, rpoS and gyrA. Characterization by whole-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, pulsed field gel electrophoresis after digestion of whole-genome DNA with rare-cutting restriction enzymes, average nucleotide identity analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, showed that although related to Dickeya dadantii, these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Dickeya, for which the name Dickeya solani sp. nov. (type strain IPO 2222(T) = LMG25993(T) = NCPPB4479(T)) is proposed.

  2. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    formation, yield quantity of potato depended decisively on the time of year when they were experienced and the period for which they lasted. Droughts in the winter or summer half-year had much the same effect on yield. Precipitation deficiency in the winter could not be counterbalanced by average rainfall during the vegetation period, and its effect on the yield was similar to that of summer drought. It was also concluded that economic yields could not be achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 0-150 kg ha-1 nitrogen and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations. Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5). And with the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of N: Y'=380.18-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NP: Y'=387.19-3.04x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96, NK: Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NPK: Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96 and NPKMg: Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96 nutrition systems. The optimum yields ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. Acknowledgement: This study were supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (RISSAC-HAS), Budapest. References Johnston, A. E., 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139, 8. Kádár, I., Márton, L., Horváth, S., 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49, 291-306. Kádár, I., Szemes, I., 1994. A nyírlugosi tartamkísérlet 30 éve. MTA TAKI, Budapest, 248 p. Láng, I., 1973. Műtrágyázási tartamkísérletek homoktalajon. MTA Doktori értekezés. MTA TMB. Budapest

  3. Phosphorous uptake by potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from biochar amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of plant nutrients by biochar from dairy storage lagoons and use as a supplemental fertilizer off site is a beneficial strategy to reduce nutrient contamination around dairies and supply nutrients to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and other crops. This research evaluated potato growth respo...

  4. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-03-16

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7.

  5. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lydia J. R.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Murphy, Alex M.; Pate, Adrienne E.; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A.; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7. PMID:26979928

  6. Analysis of cytosolic heteroglycans from leaves of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants that under- or overexpress the Pho 2 phosphorylase isozyme.

    PubMed

    Fettke, Joerg; Poeste, Simon; Eckermann, Nora; Tiessen, Axel; Pauly, Markus; Geigenberger, Peter; Steup, Martin

    2005-12-01

    During starch degradation, chloroplasts export neutral sugars into the cytosol where they appear to enter a complex glycan metabolism. Interactions between glycans and glucosyl transferases residing in the cytosol were studied by analyzing transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants that possess either decreased or elevated levels of the cytosolic (Pho 2) phosphorylase isoform. Water-soluble heteroglycans (SHGs) were isolated from these plants and were characterized. SHG contains, as major constituents, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and glucose. Non-aqueous fractionation combined with other separation techniques revealed a distinct pool of the SHG that is located in the cytosol. Under in vitro conditions, the cytosolic heteroglycans act as glucosyl acceptor selectively for Pho 2. Acceptor sites were characterized by a specific hydrolytic degradation following the Pho 2-catalyzed glucosyl transfer. The size distribution of the cytosolic SHG increased during the dark period, indicating a distinct metabolic activity related to net starch degradation. Antisense inhibition of Pho 2 resulted in increased glucosyl and rhamnosyl contents of the glycans. Overexpression of Pho 2 decreased the content of both residues. Compared with the wild type, in both types of transgenic plants the size of the cytosolic glycans was increased.

  7. Unexpected effects of chitinases on the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) when delivered via transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum Linné) and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saguez, Julien; Hainez, Romaric; Cherqui, Anas; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Jeanpierre, Haude; Lebon, Gaël; Noiraud, Nathalie; Beaujean, Antony; Jouanin, Lise; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    With the aim of producing insect-resistant potato plants, internode explants of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée were transformed with an Agrobacterium strain C58pMP90 containing an insect (Phaedon cochleariae: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) chitinase gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as selectable marker, both under the control of the viral CaMV 35S promoter. Three transformed potato lines (CH3, CH5 and CH25) exhibiting the highest chitinolytic activities were selected for feeding experiments with the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions. Aphids fed on transgenic potato plants showed a reduced pre-reproductive period and an enhanced daily fecundity. Transgenic potato lines did not affect nymphal mortality, but improved several biological parameters related to aphid population's growth. Artificial diets were used to provide active (1, 10, 100 and 500 microg ml(-1)) and inactive (500 microg ml(-1)) bacterial (Serratia marcescens) chitinase to M. persicae. These compounds increased nymph survival at all active chitinase doses when compared to the control diet, while inactive chitinase did not. Although the pre-reproductive period was slightly shortened and the daily fecundity slightly higher, active and inactive chitinase provided as food led a reduction from 1 to 1.5 day population's doubling time. Therefore chitinase activity was responsible for the probiotic effects on aphids. Our results question the relevance of a chitinase-based strategy in the context of potato culture protection.

  8. Inhibition of a ubiquitously expressed pectin methyl esterase in Solanum tuberosum L. affects plant growth, leaf growth polarity, and ion partitioning.

    PubMed

    Pilling, J; Willmitzer, L; Bücking, H; Fisahn, J

    2004-05-01

    Two pectin methyl esterases (PMEs; EC 3.1.1.11) from Solanum tuberosum were isolated and their expression characterised. One partial clone ( pest1) was expressed in leaves and fruit tissue, while pest2 was a functional full-length clone and was expressed ubiquitously, with a preference for aerial organs. Potato plants were transformed with a chimeric antisense construct that was designed to simultaneously inhibit pest1 and pest2 transcript accumulation; however, reduction of mRNA levels was confined to pest2. The decrease in pest2 transcript was accompanied by up to 50% inhibition of total PME activity, which was probably due to the reduction of only one PME isoform. PME inhibition affected plant development as reflected by smaller stem elongation rates of selected transformants when compared with control plants, leading to a reduction in height throughout the entire course of development. Expansion rates of young developing leaves were measured simultaneously by two displacement transducers in the direction of the leaf tip (proximal-distal axis) and in the perpendicular direction (medial-lateral axis). Significant differences in leaf growth patterns were detected between wild-type and transgenic plants. We suggest that these visual phenotypes could be correlated with modifications of ion accumulation and partitioning within the transgenic plants. The ion-binding capacities of cell walls from PME-inhibited plants were specifically modified as they preferentially bound more sodium, but less potassium and calcium. X-ray microanalysis also indicated an increase in the concentration of several ions within the leaf apoplast of transgenic plants. Moreover, quantification of the total content of major cations revealed differences specific for a given element between the leaves of PME-inhibited and wild-type plants. Reduced growth rates might also be due to effects of PME inhibition on pectin metabolism, predominantly illustrated by an accumulation of galacturonic acid

  9. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  10. A reassessment of Solanum maglia in the origin of Chilean landraces of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum Group)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum is adapted to long days, has a 241 bp pl...

  11. The enigma of Solanum maglia in the origin of the Chilean cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum Group landraces are adapted to long days...

  12. Accumulation of vitamin E in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Elizabeth F; McGrath, J Mitchell; Douches, David S

    2008-04-01

    Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a powerful antioxidant essential for human health and synthesized only by photosynthetic organisms. The effects of over-expression of tocopherol biosynthetic enzymes have been studied in leaves and seeds, but not in a non-photosynthetic, below-ground plant organ. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to determine if increased levels of tocopherols can be accumulated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers through metabolic engineering. Two transgenes were constitutively over-expressed in potato: Arabidopsis thaliana p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (At-HPPD) and A. thaliana homogentisate phytyltransferase (At-HPT). alpha-Tocopherol levels in the transgenic plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In potato tubers, over-expression of At-HPPD resulted in a maximum 266% increase in alpha-tocopherol, and over-expression of At-HPT yielded a 106% increase. However, tubers from transgenic plants still accumulated approximately 10- and 100-fold less alpha-tocopherol than leaves or seeds, respectively. The results indicate that physiological and regulatory constraints may be the most limiting factors for tocopherol accumulation in potato tubers. Studying regulation and induction of tocopherol biosynthesis should reveal approaches to more effectively engineer crops with enhanced tocopherol content.

  13. MicroRNA156: A Potential Graft-Transmissible MicroRNA That Modulates Plant Architecture and Tuberization in Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bhogale, Sneha; Mahajan, Ameya S.; Natarajan, Bhavani; Rajabhoj, Mohit; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Banerjee, Anjan K.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA156 (miR156) functions in maintaining the juvenile phase in plants. However, the mobility of this microRNA has not been demonstrated. So far, only three microRNAs, miR399, miR395, and miR172, have been shown to be mobile. We demonstrate here that miR156 is a potential graft-transmissible signal that affects plant architecture and tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Under tuber-noninductive (long-day) conditions, miR156 shows higher abundance in leaves and stems, whereas an increase in abundance of miR156 has been observed in stolons under tuber-inductive (short-day) conditions, indicative of a photoperiodic control. Detection of miR156 in phloem cells of wild-type plants and mobility assays in heterografts suggest that miR156 is a graft-transmissible signal. This movement was correlated with changes in leaf morphology and longer trichomes in leaves. Overexpression of miR156 in potato caused a drastic phenotype resulting in altered plant architecture and reduced tuber yield. miR156 overexpression plants also exhibited altered levels of cytokinin and strigolactone along with increased levels of LONELY GUY1 and StCyclin D3.1 transcripts as compared with wild-type plants. RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends analysis validated SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE3 (StSPL3), StSPL6, StSPL9, StSPL13, and StLIGULELESS1 as targets of miR156. Gel-shift assays indicate the regulation of miR172 by miR156 through StSPL9. miR156-resistant SPL9 overexpression lines exhibited increased miR172 levels under a short-day photoperiod, supporting miR172 regulation via the miR156-SPL9 module. Overall, our results strongly suggest that miR156 is a phloem-mobile signal regulating potato development. PMID:24351688

  14. Glycoalkaloid profile in potato haploids derived from solanum tuberosum-S. bulbocastanum somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Carputo, Domenico; Savarese, Salvatore; Andolfi, Anna; Aversano, Riccardo; Cimmino, Alessio; Frusciante, Luigi; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Cultivated and wild potato species synthesize a wide variety of steroidal glycoalkaloids (GA) that may affect either human health or biotic stress resistance. Therefore, GA composition must be a major criterion in the evaluation of breeding products when species genomes are merged and/or manipulated. This work reports the results of GA analysis performed on unique haploid (2n=2x=24) plants obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum bulbocastanum-S. tuberosum hybrids through in vitro anther culture. Glycoalkaloids were extracted from tubers and analyzed by HPLC. Haploids generally showed the occurrence of parental GA. However, in several cases loss of parental GA and gain of new GA lacking in the parents was observed. It may be hypothesized that new GA profiles of our haploids is the result of either genetic recombination or combinatorial biochemistry events. To highlight differences between haploids and parents, soluble proteins and antioxidant activities were also determined. Both were always higher in haploids compared to their parents. The nature of the newly formed GAs will be further investigated, because they may represent new metabolites that can be used against pest and diseases, or are useful for human health.

  15. Alteration of pathogenicity-linked life-history traits by resistance of its host Solanum tuberosum impacts sexual reproduction of the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Clément, J A J; Magalon, H; Pellé, R; Marquer, B; Andrivon, D

    2010-12-01

    Although sexual reproduction implies a cost, it represents an evolutionary advantage for the adaptation and survival of facultative sexual pathogens. Understanding the maintenance of sex in pathogens requires to analyse how host resistance will impact their sexual reproduction through the alteration of their life-history traits. We explored this experimentally using potato (Solanum tuberosum) and one of its pathogens, the heterothallic oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Sexual reproduction was highest on hosts favouring asexual multiplication of the pathogen, suggesting similar nutritional requirements for both sexual and asexual sporulation. Sexual reproduction was also highest on hosts decreasing the latent period, probably because of a trade-off between growth and reproduction. Distinguishing host effects on each pathogenic trait remains however uneasy, as most life-history traits linked to pathogenicity were not independent of each other. We argue that sexual reproduction of P. infestans is an adaptation to survive when the host is susceptible and rapidly destroyed.

  16. Glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulations associated with infection by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus in potato species Solanum acaule and Solanum tuberosum and their interspecific somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Rokka, V-M; Laurila, J; Tauriainen, A; Laakso, I; Larkka, J; Metzler, M; Pietilä, L

    2005-03-01

    Solanum acaule Bitt., a wild potato species, is closely related to cultivated potato (Solanum. tuberosum L.). Incorporation of desirable traits from allotetraploid [2n=4x=48, 2 endosperm balance number (EBN)] S. acaule (acl) into autotetraploid (2n=4x=48, 4EBN) S. tuberosum (tbr) is difficult due to incongruity boundaries. In this study, three hybrid combinations, each with a specific genome constitution, were produced through protoplast fusion: (1) hexaploid 2x acl (+) 4x tbr, (2) tetraploid 2x acl (+) 2x tbr, and (3) hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids. In terms of glycoalkaloid aglycones, the hybrids produced demissidine, tomatidine and solanidine, similarly to the S. acaule parental species, but S. tuberosum synthesised only solanidine. Inoculations with Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), which is the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato, yielded significantly lower total glycoalkaloid aglycone accumulation both in S. acaule plants and in interspecific hybrids in comparison with the corresponding mock-inoculated plants. However, in S. tuberosum the aglycone levels were either higher or unchanged as a result of infection by Cms. To incorporate the desirable traits of the interspecific somatic hybrids into 4EBN S. tuberosum, sexual backcrosses were carried out. The hexaploid 4x acl (+) 2x tbr hybrids with the hypothetical 4EBN showed the greatest capacity to undergo backcrosses with S. tuberosum.

  17. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-05-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Désirée, Merkur and transgenic Désirée line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons between both experiments were made using Désirée plants. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches were used to demonstrate effects on total bacterial, actinobacterial and Pseudomonas communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils and endospheres. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints prepared with group-specific primers were analyzed using multivariate analyses and revealed that bacterial communities in Achirana Inta plants differed most from those of Désirée and Merkur. No significant effects were found between Désirée and DL12 lines. Plant growth stage strongly affected different plant-associated communities in both experiments. To investigate the effect of plant-associated communities on plant health, 800 isolates from rhizospheres and endospheres at the flowering stage were tested for suppression of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 and/or Rhizoctonia solani AG3. A group of isolates closely resembling Lysobacter sp. dominated in young plants. Its prevalence was affected by plant growth stage and experiment rather than by plant genotype. It was concluded that plant growth stage overwhelmed any effect of plant genotype on the bacterial communities associated with potato.

  18. Phenotypic performance of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with pyramided rice cystatin genes (OCI and OCII)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evaluation of transgenic plants commonly carried out under controlled conditions in culture rooms and greenhouses can give valuable information about the influence of introduced genes on transgenic plant phenotype. However, an overall assessment of plant performance can only be made by testing t...

  19. Influence of root temperature on phytoaccumulation of As, Ag, Cr, and Sb in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Spunta).

    PubMed

    Baghour, M; Moreno, D A; Hernández, J; Castilla, N; Romero, L

    2001-01-01

    Three consecutive years of field experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of root temperatures induced by the application of mulches for phytoextraction of As, Ag, Cr and Sb using potato plants (roots, tubers, stems and leaflets). Four different plastic covers were used (T1: transparent polyethylene; T2: white polyethylene; T3: white and black coextruded polyethylene; and T4: black polyethylene), taking uncovered plants as control (T0). The different treatments had a significant effect on mean root temperatures (T0 = 16 degrees C, T1 = 20 degrees C, T2 = 23 degrees C, T3 = 27 degrees C and T4 = 30 degrees C) and induced a significantly different response in the As, Ag, Cr and Sb phytoaccumulation. The T3 treatment gave rise to the greatest phytoaccumulation of As, Ag, Cr and Sb in the roots, leaflets and tubers. In terms of the relative distribution of the phytoaccumulated metals (with respect to the total of the plant), As accumulated mainly in the roots and leaflets whereas Ag, Cr and Sb accumulated primarily in the tubers, establishing a close relationship between biomass development of each organ and phytoaccumulation capacity of elements in response to temperature in the root zone. With regard to phytoremediation using the potato plant, it is necessary to ascertain the influence and include the control of the thermal regime of the soil to optimize the phytoextraction of pollutants.

  20. Solanidine isolation from Solanum tuberosum by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Attoumbré, Jacques; Giordanengo, Philippe; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the preparative isolation of solanidine (aglycone of the two main potato glycoalkaloids: α-chaconine and α-solanine) from fresh Solanum tuberosum (cv. Pompadour) material by implementing a new preparation scheme using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). A setup for obtaining solanidine by hydrolysis of the glycoalkaloids found in the skin and sprouts of S. tuberosum was first developed. Then its isolation was carried out by the development of CPC conditions: the solvent system used for separation was ethyl acetate/butanol/water in the ratio 42.5:7.5:50 v/v/v, 0.6 g of crude extract were separated with a 8 mL/min flow rate of mobile phase while rotating at 2500 rpm. A run yielded 98 mg of solanidine (86.7% recovery from the crude extract) in a one-step separation. The purity of the isolated solanidine was over 98%. Thus, CPC has proven to be the method of choice to get solanidine of very high purity from S. tuberosum biomass in large quantities.

  1. Plant defense genes associated with quantitative resistance to potato late blight in Solanum phureja x dihaploid S. tuberosum hybrids.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Friederike; Manosalva, Patricia; Gysin, Rene; Niñio-Liu, David; Simon, Reinhard; del Herrera, Ma Rosario; Trognitz, Bodo; Ghislain, Marc; Nelson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    Markers corresponding to 27 plant defense genes were tested for linkage disequilibrium with quantitative resistance to late blight in a diploid potato population that had been used for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for late blight resistance. Markers were detected by using (i) hybridization probes for plant defense genes, (ii) primer pairs amplifying conserved domains of resistance (R) genes, (iii) primers for defense genes and genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors, and (iv) primers allowing amplification of sequences flanking plant defense genes by the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction. Markers were initially screened by using the most resistant and susceptible individuals of the population, and those markers showing different allele frequencies between the two groups were mapped. Among the 308 segregating bands detected, 24 loci (8%) corresponding to six defense gene families were associated with resistance at chi2 > or = 13, the threshold established using the permutation test at P = 0.05. Loci corresponding to genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonium lyase [PAL], chalcone isomerase [CHI], and chalcone synthase [CHS]), loci related to WRKY regulatory genes, and other -defense genes (osmotin and a Phytophthora infestans-induced cytochrome P450) were significantly associated with quantitative disease resistance. A subset of markers was tested on the mapping population of 94 individuals. Ten defense-related markers were clustered at a QTL on chromosome III, and three defense-related markers were located at a broad QTL on chromosome XII. The association of candidate genes with QTLs is a step toward understanding the molecular basis of quantitative resistance to an important plant disease.

  2. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cutttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell, C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cutting of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamp (LPS/CWF). Results suggested that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  3. Breeding for resistance to early blight in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. We have identified two early blight resistant clones EB24-24 and EB24-3, which are hybrids between the cultivated (S. tuberosum) potato clone US-W4 (2x=24) ...

  4. Inheritance of morphological characters and glycoalkaloids in potatoes of somatic hybrids between dihaploid Solanum acauleand tetraploid Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Kozukue, N; Misoo, S; Yamada, T; Kamijima, O; Friedman, M

    1999-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids occur in potatoes and are reported to impart resistance to phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, and insects. Because glycoalkaloids can be passed to progenies during breeding programs designed to develop improved potatoes, it is of importance to determine the quality of desired characteristics and the composition of glycoalkaloids of new somatic hybrids. The objective of this study was to determine the appearance, size, and shape (morphological characters) as well as the glycoalkaloid content of potato tubers of somatic hybrids between tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cv. Dejima (2n = 4x = 48 chromosomes) and the dihaploid clone ATDH-1 (2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes) induced by anther culture from Solanum acuale-T (acl-T, 2n = 4x = 48 chromosomes). Tuber size and shape in somatic hybrids were in accord with those of cv. Dejima, whereas the tuber skin color resembled that of ATDH-1. Thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry studies showed that the two steroidal glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine) were present in the tubers of S. tuberosum, whereas acl-T and ATDH-1 tubers were found to contain alpha-tomatine and demissine. The concentrations of total glycoalkaloids in both acl-T and ATDH-1 was >100 mg/100 g of fresh weight tuber cortex, much higher than in S. tuberosum. All somatic hybrids, except one clone, contained four glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine, and demissine) derived from the fusion parents. The lack of alpha-tomatine in the remaining clone may be due to somaclonal variation. The results show that character expression is influenced by ploidy level and that total glycoalkaloid levels in most somatic hybrids were intermediate between those of the fusion parents. The possible significance of these findings for plant breeding and food safety is discussed.

  5. Salicylic acid is important for basal defense of Solanum tuberosum against Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Halim, Vincentius A; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Altmann, Simone; Birschwilks, Mandy; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine

    2007-11-01

    The importance of the signaling compound salicylic acid for basal defense of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) against Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, was assessed using transgenic NahG potato plants which are unable to accumulate salicylic acid. Although the size of lesions caused by P. infestans was not significantly different in wild-type and transgenic NahG plants, real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a drastic enhancement of pathogen growth in potato plants depleted of salicylic acid. Increased susceptibility of NahG plants correlated with compromised callose formation and reduced early defense gene expression. NahG plants pretreated with the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid allowed pathogen growth to a similar extent as did wild-type plants, indicating that salicylic acid is an important compound required for basal defense of potato against P. infestans.

  6. Evidence from Solanum tuberosum in support of the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.F.; Doong, R.L.; Jensen, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    Key branchpoint enzymes of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DS) and chorismate mutase (CM), have previously been shown to exist as separate compartmentalized isozymes in the chloroplasts and cytosol of tobacco, sorghum and spinach. Although additional examples of plants containing these isozyme pairs are accumulating, some studies in the literature report the presence of only the single plastidic DS or CM enzyme. Such apparent exceptions contradict the universality of pathway organization existing in higher plants that is implied by the dual-pathway hypothesis of aromatic biosynthesis. Since potato (Solanum tuberosum) exemplifies a case where only a single species of both DS and CM have been reported, we selected this system for further analysis. The DS-Mn and DS-Co isozyme pair, exhibiting all of the differential properties described in Nicotiana silvestris, have now been identified in S. tuberosum. Likwise, partial purification via DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two isozymes of CM in disks excised from tubers of S. tuberosum. The differential regulatory properties of these isozymes were comparable to the CM-1 and CM-2 isozymes of N. silvestris.

  7. Construction of Artificial miRNAs to Prevent Drought Stress in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska, Anna; Pieczynski, Marcin; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) is still a relatively new technique in molecular biology with a wide range of applications in life sciences. Here, we describe the silencing of the CBP80/ABH1 gene in Solanum tuberosum with the use of amiRNA. The CBP80/ABH1 protein is part of the Cap Binding Complex (CBC), which is involved in plant responses to drought stress conditions. Transformed plants with a decreased level of CBP80/ABH1 display increased tolerance to water shortage conditions. We describe how to design amiRNA with the Web MicroRNA Designer platform in detail. Additionally, we explain how to perform all steps of a procedure aiming to obtain transgenic potato plants with the use of designed amiRNA, through callus tissue regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 as a transgene carrier.

  8. Development of a sparging technique for volatile emissions from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdis, Elizabeth; Peterson, Barbara Vieux; Yorio, Neil C.; Batten, Jennifer; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile emissions from plants grown in tightly closed growth chambers may have allelopathic or phytotoxic properties. Whole air analysis of a closed chamber includes both biotic and abiotic volatile emissions. A method for characterization and quantification of biogenic emissions solely from plantlets was developed to investigate this complex mixture of volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) were isolated, separated and identified using an in-line configuration consisting of a purge and trap concentrator with sparging vessels coupled to a GC/MS system. Analyses identified plant volatile compounds: transcaryophyllene, alpha-humulene, thiobismethane, hexanal, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and cis-3-hexenyl acetate.

  9. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H.; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J.; Strömvik, Martina V.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha−1 was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency. PMID:27193058

  10. Gene transfer into Solanum tuberosum via Rhizobium spp.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Winckelmann, Dominik; Mullins, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) is the preferred technique for gene transfer into crops. A major disadvantage of the technology remains the complexity of the patent landscape that surrounds ATMT which restricts its use for commercial applications. An alternative system has been described (Broothaerts et al. in Nature 433:629-633, 2005) detailing the propensity of three rhizobia to transform the model crop Arabidopsis thaliana, the non-food crop Nicotiana tabacum and, at a very low frequency, the monocotyledonous crop Oryza sativa. In this report we describe for the first time the genetic transformation of Solanum tuberosum using the non-Agrobacterium species Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium sp. NGR234 and Mesorhizobium loti. This was achieved by combining an optimal bacterium and host co-cultivation period with a low antibiotic regime during the callus and shoot induction stages. Using this optimized protocol the transformation frequency (calculated as % of shoots equipped with root systems with the ability to grow in rooting media supplemented with 25 μg/ml hygromycin) of the rhizobia strains was calculated at 4.72, 5.85 and 1.86% for S. meliloti, R. sp. NGR234 and M. loti respectively, compared to 47.6% for the A. tumefaciens control. Stable transgene integration and expression was confirmed via southern hybridisation, quantitative PCR analysis and histochemical screening of both leaf and/or tuber tissue. In light of the rapid advances in potato genomics, combined with the sequencing of the potato genome, the ability of alternative bacteria species to genetically transform this major food crop will provide a novel resource to the Solanaceae community as it continues to develop potato as both a food and non-food crop.

  11. Induction of systemic resistance in different varieties of Solanum tuberosum by pure and crude elicitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Bariya, Himanshu S; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakkar, Amit N; Subramanian, R B

    2011-02-01

    A 10 kD elicitor protein (infestin) produced by Phytopthora infestans was purified and its efficacy for induction of systemic resistance in resistant and susceptible varieties of Solanum tuberosum was studied. Culture filtrates from P. infestans with and without purified elicitor (infestin) were used as elicitors to understand the effect of purified elicitor (infestin) on development of systemic resistance. Culture filtrate and purified elicitor (infestin) were found to induce hypersensitive reaction on the leaves of resistant varieties, but not on susceptible varieties after 48 h. Culture filtrate devoid of purified elicitor (infestin) did not induce any necrotic spots even on resistant variety. Purified elicitor (infestin) was found to induce glucose oxidase, NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase and peroxidase enzymes in resistant S. tuberosum plants, however the induction of these enzymes was low in susceptible varieties. The oxidative enzymes were found to induce earlier than antioxidative enzymes and there was negative correlation between these two groups of enzymes. Levels of salicylic acid, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1, 3 glucanase and chitinase activities were also found higher in resistant than in susceptible varieties. It was observed that purified elicitor (infestin) was superior to crude culture filtrate, but was not capable of inducing systemic resistance in susceptible varieties.

  12. Transport and sorting of the solanum tuberosum sucrose transporter SUT1 is affected by posttranslational modification.

    PubMed

    Krügel, Undine; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M; Langbein, Jennifer; Wiederhold, Elena; Liesche, Johannes; Friedrich, Thomas; Grimm, Bernhard; Martinoia, Enrico; Poolman, Bert; Kühn, Christina

    2008-09-01

    The plant sucrose transporter SUT1 from Solanum tuberosum revealed a dramatic redox-dependent increase in sucrose transport activity when heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant plasma membrane vesicles do not show any change in proton flux across the plasma membrane in the presence of redox reagents, indicating a SUT1-specific effect of redox reagents. Redox-dependent sucrose transport activity was confirmed electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes with SUT1 from maize (Zea mays). Localization studies of green fluorescent protein fusion constructs showed that an oxidative environment increased the targeting of SUT1 to the plasma membrane where the protein concentrates in 200- to 300-nm raft-like microdomains. Using plant plasma membranes, St SUT1 can be detected in the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. Importantly, in yeast and in plants, oxidative reagents induced a shift in the monomer to dimer equilibrium of the St SUT1 protein and increased the fraction of dimer. Biochemical methods confirmed the capacity of SUT1 to form a dimer in plants and yeast cells in a redox-dependent manner. Blue native PAGE, chemical cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation, as well as the analysis of transgenic plants with reduced expression of St SUT1, confirmed the dimerization of St SUT1 and Sl SUT1 (from Solanum lycopersicum) in planta. The ability to form homodimers in plant cells was analyzed by the split yellow fluorescent protein technique in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and protoplasts. Oligomerization seems to be cell type specific since under native-like conditions, a phloem-specific reduction of the dimeric form of the St SUT1 protein was detectable in SUT1 antisense plants, whereas constitutively inhibited antisense plants showed reduction only of the monomeric form. The role of redox control of sucrose transport in plants is discussed.

  13. Differential expression of invertase genes in internal and external phloem tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hedley, P E; Maddison, A L; Davidson, D; Machray, G C

    2000-04-01

    The cloning of promoter sequences of two invertase genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is described. Histochemical analysis of series of reporter transgenic lines reveals phloem-specific expression from both promoters, with one expressed preferentially in internal phloem and the other in external phloem of stem vascular bundles.

  14. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  15. FOLIAR AND TUBER BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN A SOLANUM TUBEROSUM BREEDING LINES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the genetic basis of foliar and tuber resistance to Phytophthora infestans in a potato breeding population developed from a cross between two tetraploid Solanum tuberosum lines, NY121 and NY115. The parent with high foliar resistance, NY121, was highly s...

  16. Foliar and tuber late blight resistance in a Solanum tuberosum potato mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar and tuber resistance to Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in a mapping population (n=94) developed between two Solanum tuberosum breeding lines, NY121 x NY115. Foliar disease severity of the progeny clones was measured by the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) in field tests in...

  17. Effect of regurgitant from Leptinotarsa decemlineata on wound responses in Solanum tuberosum and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kruzmane, Dace; Jankevica, Liga; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2002-08-01

    The effect of regurgitant from Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say larvae on wound-induced responses was studied using two plant species, Solanum tuberosum L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Wounding of one leaf of intact S. tuberosum plants differentially affected ethylene production and activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Only polyphenol oxidase activity was stimulated by wounding in both wounded and systemic leaves. Peroxidase activity was not affected by wounding. Wounding caused only a transient increase of ethylene production from wounded leaves. The application of regurgitant to wound surfaces stimulated ethylene production as well as activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in both wounded and systemic leaves. Wounding significantly enhanced ethylene production and polyphenol oxidase activity in wounded and systemic leaves of P. vulgaris. The application of regurgitant caused an amplification of ethylene production, peroxidase activity, and polyphenol oxidase activity, in both wounded and systemic leaves of bean plants. Several substances were tested for their role as possible endogenous signals in P. vulgaris. Hydrogen peroxide and methyl jasmonate appeared as potential local and systemic signals of ethylene formation in wounded bean plants. Local ethylene production in leaf discs was differentially affected by the regurgitant application in potato versus bean plants. While all tested concentrations of regurgitant caused stimulation of ethylene formation from potato leaf discs, ethylene production was completely inhibited by increasing concentrations of the regurgitant in bean leaf discs. Our data present evidence that ethylene may play an important role in the interaction between plants and herbivores at the level of recognition of a particular herbivore leading to specific induction of signalling cascades.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Mapping of NBS-Encoding Resistance Genes in Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Roberto; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Mostajo, Nelly; Orjeda, Gisella

    2012-01-01

    The majority of disease resistance (R) genes identified to date in plants encode a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain containing protein. Additional domains such as coiled-coil (CC) and TOLL/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains can also be present. In the recently sequenced Solanum tuberosum group phureja genome we used HMM models and manual curation to annotate 435 NBS-encoding R gene homologs and 142 NBS-derived genes that lack the NBS domain. Highly similar homologs for most previously documented Solanaceae R genes were identified. A surprising ∼41% (179) of the 435 NBS-encoding genes are pseudogenes primarily caused by premature stop codons or frameshift mutations. Alignment of 81.80% of the 577 homologs to S. tuberosum group phureja pseudomolecules revealed non-random distribution of the R-genes; 362 of 470 genes were found in high density clusters on 11 chromosomes. PMID:22493716

  19. Field testing, gene flow assessment and pre-commercial studies on transgenic Solanum tuberosum spp. tuberosum (cv. Spunta) selected for PVY resistance in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Rudoy, Valeria; Welin, Bjorn; Segretin, María Eugenia; Bedogni, María Cecilia; Stolowicz, Fabiana; Criscuolo, Marcelo; Foti, Marcelo; Gomez, Maximiliano; López, Mariana; Serino, Germán; Cabral, Silvia; Dos Santos, Cristina; Huarte, Marcelo; Mentaberry, Alejandro

    2012-10-01

    Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (cv. Spunta) was transformed with a chimeric transgene containing the Potato virus Y (PVY) coat protein (CP) sequence. Screening for PVY resistance under greenhouse conditions yielded over 100 independent candidate lines. Successive field testing of selected lines allowed the identification of two genetically stable PVY-resistant lines, SY230 and SY233, which were further evaluated in field trials at different potato-producing regions in Argentina. In total, more than 2,000 individuals from each line were tested along a 6-year period. While no or negligible PVY infection was observed in the transgenic lines, infection rates of control plants were consistently high and reached levels of up to 70-80%. Parallel field studies were performed in virus-free environments to assess the agronomical performance of the selected lines. Tubers collected from these assays exhibited agronomical traits and biochemical compositions indistinguishable from those of the non-transformed Spunta cultivar. In addition, an interspecific out-crossing trial to determine the magnitude of possible natural gene flow between transgenic line SY233 and its wild relative Solanum chacoense was performed. This trial yielded negative results, suggesting an extremely low probability for such an event to occur.

  20. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  1. Involvement of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in Response to Potato virus Y

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Špela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Žel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant–pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence. PMID:25111695

  2. Characterization and functional analysis of a pollen-specific gene st901 in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qian; Ao, Guangming; Yu, Jingjuan

    2006-07-01

    A pollen-specific gene, sb401, which was isolated from a cDNA library of in vitro geminated pollen of the diploid potato species Solanum berthaultii, belongs to the class of genes expressed late during pollen development. Using sb401 as a probe, a pollen-specific gene st901 was isolated from the genomic library of a potato species Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree. Sequencing and RT-PCR analysis showed that the st901 genomic gene is 2,889 bp long, contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a putative polypeptide of 217 residues. The predicted protein sequence contains four imperfect repeated motifs of V-V-E-K-K-N/E-E; the core sequence of the repeats (K-K-N/E-E) resembles a microtubule-binding domain of the microtubule-associated protein MAP1B from mouse. The examination of a promoter-reporter construct in transgenic potato plants revealed that the st901 is expressed exclusively in mature pollen grains, which is consistent with the results of Northern blot and RT-PCR. For analysis of the function of st901, transgenic plants harboring antisense copies of st901 cDNA driven by a native st901 promoter were generated. Suppression of st901 gene in potato resulted in aberrant pollen at maturation and pollen viability of transgenic plants ranged from 4.4 to 14.8%, while that of control plants were more than 90%. These results strongly suggest that st901 has an essential role in pollen development.

  3. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    PubMed

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy.

  4. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    PubMed

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health.

  5. Bioactivity of Ruta graveolens and Satureja montana Essential Oils on Solanum tuberosum Hairy Roots and Solanum tuberosum Hairy Roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi Co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Faria, Jorge M S; Rodrigues, Ana M; Sena, Inês; Moiteiro, Cristina; Bennett, Richard N; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2016-10-12

    As a nematotoxics screening biotechnological system, Solanum tuberosum hairy roots (StHR) and S. tuberosum hairy roots with Meloidogyne chitwoodi co-cultures (StHR/CRKN) were evaluated, with and without the addition of the essential oils (EOs) of Satureja montana and Ruta graveolens. EOs nematotoxic and phytotoxic effects were followed weekly by evaluating nematode population density in the co-cultures as well as growth and volatile profiles of both in vitro cultures types. Growth, measured by the dissimilation method and by fresh and dry weight determination, was inhibited after EO addition. Nematode population increased in control cultures, while in EO-added cultures numbers were kept stable. In addition to each of the EOs main components, and in vitro cultures constitutive volatiles, new volatiles were detected by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in both culture types. StHR with CRKN co-cultures showed to be suitable for preliminary assessment of nematotoxic EOs.

  6. Impact of pr-10a overexpression on the cryopreservation success of Solanum tuberosum suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Vaas, Lea A I; Marheine, Maja; Seufert, Stephanie; Schumacher, Heinz Martin; Kiesecker, Heiko; Heine-Dobbernack, Elke

    2012-06-01

    Although many genes are supposed to be a part of plant cell tolerance mechanisms against osmotic or salt stress, their influence on tolerance towards stress during cryopreservation procedures has rarely been investigated. For instance, the overexpression of the pathogenesis-related gene 10a (pr-10a) leads to improved osmotic tolerance in a transgenic cell culture of Solanum tuberosum cv. Désirée. In this study, a cryopreservation method, consisting of osmotic pretreatment, cryoprotection with DMSO and controlled-rate freezing, was used to characterize the relation between cryopreservation success and pr-10a expression in suspension cultures of S. tuberosum wild-type cells and cells overexpressing pathogenesis-related protein 10a (Pr-10a). By varying the sorbitol concentration, thus modifying the strength of the osmotic stress during the pretreatment phase, it can be shown that the wild type can successfully be cryopreserved only in a relatively narrow range of sorbitol concentrations, while the pr-10a overexpression leads to an enhanced cryopreservation success over the whole range of applied sorbitol concentrations. Together with transcription data we show that the pr-10a overexpression causes an enhanced osmotic tolerance, which in turn leads to enhanced cryopreservability, but also indicates a role of pr-10a in signal transduction. An increased cryopreservability of the transgenic cell line occurs for pretreatments longer than 24 h. Since both genotypes, characterized by distinct baseline levels of expression, exhibited similar patterns of expression induction, the induction of pr-10a appears to be a key step in the stress signal transduction of plant cells under osmotic stress.

  7. Interspecific somatic hybrids Solanum villosum (+) S. tuberosum, resistant to Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Tarwacka, Justyna; Polkowska-Kowalczyk, Lidia; Kolano, Bożena; Śliwka, Jadwiga; Wielgat, Bernard

    2013-11-15

    The interspecific somatic hybrids 4x S. villosum (+) 2x S. tuberosum clone DG 81-68 (VT hybrids) were obtained and characterized molecularly and cytogenetically. The morphology of fusion-derived plants was intermediate in relation to the parental species. The expected ploidy level of the regenerants was 6x for the VT hybrids, but the real ploidy of the hybrids varied, with some of them being euploids, and others - aneuploids. The hybridity of the regenerants was verified by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Despite the variation in ploidy, the RAPD patterns of the hybrids were mostly uniform, suggesting similarity of the genotypes of the VT clones. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis discriminated between the chromosomes of both parental genomes in VT somatic hybrids and also confirmed their hybridity. The resistance of VT somatic hybrids to Phytophthora infestans was evaluated and all of the hybrids proved to be highly resistant. In search of the mechanisms involved in resistance of the Solanum species to P. infestans, the biochemical reactions occurring early after elicitor treatment were studied. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as one of the earliest reactions induced by pathogens or their elicitors, was examined in the resistant wild species S. villosum, susceptible S. tuberosum clone DG 81-68 and in the VT hybrid, resistant to P. infestans. After treatment of the leaves with elicitor, the relative increase in ROS production was higher in leaves of the susceptible potato clone than in the resistant plants of S. villosum and the somatic hybrid.

  8. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and. alpha. -tocopherol content of stored potato tubers. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Spychalla, J.P.; Desborough, S.L. )

    1990-11-01

    Activated oxygen or oxygen free radical mediated damage to plants has been established or implicated in many plant stress situations. The extent of activated oxygen damage to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during low temperature storage and long-term storage is not known. Quantitation of oxygen free radical mediated damage in plant tissues is difficult. However, it is comparatively easy to quantitate endogenous antioxidants, which detoxify potentially damaging forms of activated oxygen. Three tuber antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol were assayed from four potato cultivars stored at 3{degree}C and 9{degree}C for 40 weeks. Tubers stored at 3{degree}C demonstrated increased superoxide dismutase activities (up to 72%) compared to tubers stored at 9{degree}C. Time dependent increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and {alpha}-tocopherol occurred during the course of the 40 week storage. The possible relationship between these increases in antioxidants and the rate of activated oxygen production in the tubers is discussed.

  9. The systemin precursor gene regulates both defensive and developmental genes in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Vasquez, Javier; Ryan, Clarence A

    2002-11-26

    Transformation of Solanum tuberosum, cv. Desiree, with the tomato prosystemin gene, regulated by the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter, resulted in constitutive increase in defensive proteins in potato leaves, similar to its effects in tomato plants, but also resulted in a dramatic increase in storage protein levels in potato tubers. Tubers from selected transformed lines contained 4- to 5-fold increases in proteinase inhibitor I and II proteins, >50% more soluble and dry weight protein, and >50% more total nitrogen and total free amino acids than found in wild-type tubers. These results suggest that the prosystemin gene plays a dual role in potato plants in regulating proteinase inhibitor synthesis in leaves in response to wounding and in regulating storage protein synthesis in potato tubers in response to developmental cues. The results indicated that components of the systemin signaling pathway normally found in leaves have been recruited by potato plants to be developmentally regulated to synthesize and accumulate large quantities of storage proteins in tubers.

  10. Functional characterization of the pollen-specific SBgLR promoter from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Lang, Zhihong; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jingjuan; Ao, Guangming; Zhao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    SBgLR (Solanum tuberosum genomic lysine-rich) gene was isolated from a potato genomic library using SB401 (S. berthaultii 401) cDNA as probe. RT-PCR analysis of SBgLR gene expression profile and microscopic analysis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in tobacco plants transformed with SBgLR promoter-GFP reporters indicate that SBgLR is a pollen-specific gene. A series of 5'deletions of SBgLR promoter were fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and stably introduced into tobacco plants. Histochemical and quantitative assays of GUS expression in transgenic plants allowed us to localize an enhancer of SBgLR promoter to the region -345 to -269 relative to the translation start site. This 76 bp (-345 to -269) fragment enhanced GUS expression in leaves, stems and roots when fused to -90/+6 CaMV 35S minimal promoter. Deletion analysis showed that a cis-element, which can repress gene expression in root hairs, was located in the region -345 to -311. Further study indicated that the -269 to -9 region was sufficient to confer pollen-specific expression of GFP when fused to CaMV 35S enhancer.

  11. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  12. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  13. rbcS genes in Solanum tuberosum: conservation of transit peptide and exon shuffling during evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Wolter, F P; Fritz, C C; Willmitzer, L; Schell, J; Schreier, P H

    1988-01-01

    Five genes of the rbcS gene family of Solanum tuberosum (potato) were studied. One of these is a cDNA clone; the other four are located on two genomic clones representing two different chromosomal loci containing one (locus 1) and three genes (locus 2), respectively. The intron/exon structure of the three genes in locus 2 is highly conserved with respect to size and position. These genes contain two introns, whereas the gene from locus 1 contains three introns. Although in most cases the amino acid sequences in the transit peptide part of different rbcS genes from the same species varied considerably more than the corresponding mature amino acid sequences, one exception found in tomato and potato indicates that the transit peptide of rbcS could have a special function. A comparison of the rbcS genes of higher plants with those of prokaryotes offers suggestive evidence that introns first served as spacer material in the process of exon shuffling and then were removed stepwise during the evolution of higher plants. PMID:3422467

  14. Product stability and sequestration mechanisms in Solanum tuberosum engineered to biosynthesize high value ketocarotenoids.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Cara L; Misawa, Norihiko; Ducreux, Laurence; Campbell, Raymond; Bramley, Peter M; Taylor, Mark; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    To produce commercially valuable ketocarotenoids in Solanum tuberosum, the 4, 4' β-oxygenase (crtW) and 3, 3' β-hydroxylase (crtZ) genes from Brevundimonas spp. have been expressed in the plant host under constitutive transcriptional control. The CRTW and CRTZ enzymes are capable of modifying endogenous plant carotenoids to form a range of hydroxylated and ketolated derivatives. The host (cv. Désirée) produced significant levels of nonendogenous carotenoid products in all tissues, but at the apparent expense of the economically critical metabolite, starch. Carotenoid levels increased in both wild-type and transgenic tubers following cold storage; however, stability during heat processing varied between compounds. Subcellular fractionation of leaf tissues revealed the presence of ketocarotenoids in thylakoid membranes, but not predominantly in the photosynthetic complexes. A dramatic increase in the carotenoid content of plastoglobuli was determined. These findings were corroborated by microscopic analysis of chloroplasts. In tuber tissues, esterified carotenoids, representing 13% of the total pigment found in wild-type extracts, were sequestered in plastoglobuli. In the transgenic tubers, this proportion increased to 45%, with esterified nonendogenous carotenoids in place of endogenous compounds. Conversely, nonesterified carotenoids in both wild-type and transgenic tuber tissues were associated with amyloplast membranes and starch granules.

  15. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. "Longshu No. 3") plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  16. A metabolomics study of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) groups Andigena, Phureja, Stenotomum, and tuberosum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Gary; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; Griffiths, Wynne D; Ramsay, Gavin; McNicol, James W; Davies, Howard V; Stewart, Derek

    2010-01-27

    Phytochemical diversity was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tubers of genotypes belonging to groups Andigena, Phureja, Stenotomum, and Tuberosum of the potato, Solanum tuberosum. Polar extracts (mainly amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols) and nonpolar extracts (mainly fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and sterols) were examined. There was a large range in levels of metabolites, including those such as asparagine, fructose, and glucose, that are important to tuber quality, offering considerable scope for selecting germplasm for breeding programmes. There were significant differences in the levels of many metabolites among the groups. The metabolite profiles of genotypes belonging to Phureja and Stenotomum were similar and different from those of Tuberosum and the majority of Andigena genotypes. There was some agreement with the phylogeny of the groups in that Stenotomum is believed to be the ancestor of Phureja and they are both distinct from Tuberosum. Andigena genotypes could be partially distinguished according to geographical origin, Bolivian genotypes being particularly distinct from those from Ecuador. Biosynthetic links between metabolites were explored by performing pairwise correlations of all metabolites. The significance of some expected and unexpected strong correlations between many amino acids (e.g., between isoleucine, lysine, valine, and other amino acids) and between several nonpolar metabolites (e.g., between many fatty acids) is discussed. For polar metabolites, correlation analysis gave essentially similar results irrespective of whether the whole data set, only Andigena genotypes, or only Phureja genotypes were used. In contrast, for the nonpolar metabolites, Andigena only and Phureja only data sets resulted in weaker and stronger correlations, respectively, compared to the whole data set, and may suggest differences in the biochemistry of the two groups, although the interpretation should be viewed with some

  17. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-01-01

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with herbicides (cloransulam, dicamba, glyphosate, imazapyr, primsulfuron, sulfometuron, or tribenuron) at simulated drift levels [Plant height was measured approximately 14 d after treatment (DAT). Production of small tubers and shoot dry weight were determined at approximately 28 DAT. Imazapyr, sulfometuron, and tribenuron caused significant reductions in tuber fresh weight, with the effective concentrations producing a 25% potato tuber fresh weight (EC25) of 0.00038, 0.0016, and 0.0021 x f.a.r. of 1,124, 52, and 9 g active ingredient hectare(-1) (g a.i. HA(-1)), respectively. Primisulfuron, dicamba, and cloransulam also significantly reduced tuber fresh weight, but with higher EC25 values of 0.011, 0.07, and 0.010 to 0.2 x f.a.r. of 40, 558, and 18 g a.i. HA(-1), respectively. Glyphosate had little effect on tuber fresh weight, with a significant reduction in only one experiment. Sulfometuron reduced tuber fresh weight at an EC25 value lower than the EC25 values for shoot dry weight or plant height. For other herbicides, the reduction in tuber fresh weight occurred within the range of EC25 values for other responses. Although additional experiments are required to develop further a phytotoxicity test, these results indicated that tuber production in young potato plants (harvested approximately 42 DAE) may be an effective assay for below-ground asexual reproductive responses to herbicides, especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors.

  18. Isolation and characterization of StERF transcription factor genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zemin; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Xiangyan; Fan, Qiang; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) is a major subfamily of the AP2/ERF family and plays significant roles in the regulation of abiotic- and biotic-stress responses. ERF proteins can interact with the GCC-box cis-element and then initiate a transcriptional cascade activating downstream ethylene response and enhancing plant stress tolerance. In this research, we cloned five StERF genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The expressional analysis of StERF genes revealed that they showed tissue- or organ-specific expression patterns and the expression levels in leaf, stem, root, flower, and tuber were different. The assays of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of five StERF genes was regulated by ethephon, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salt and drought stress. The result from the yeast one-hybrid experiment showed that five StERFs had trans-activation activity and could specifically bind to the GCC-box cis-elements. The StERFs responded to abiotic factors and hormones suggested that they possibly had diverse roles in stress and hormone regulation of potato.

  19. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the Solanum tuberosum aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Jelli; Yu, Jae-Woong; Park, Se Won

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins belongs to the major intrinsic proteins involved in the transcellular membrane transport of water and other small solutes. A comprehensive genome-wide search for the homologues of Solanum tuberosum major intrinsic protein (MIP) revealed 41 full-length potato aquaporin genes. All potato aquaporins are grouped into five subfamilies; plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) and x-intrinsic proteins (XIPs). Functional predictions based on the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters and Froger's positions showed a remarkable difference in substrate transport specificity among subfamilies. The expression pattern of potato aquaporins, examined by qPCR analysis, showed distinct expression profiles in various organs and tuber developmental stages. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of potato plantlets, subjected to various abiotic stresses revealed the marked effect of stresses on expression levels of aquaporins. Taken together, the expression profiles of aquaporins imply that aquaporins play important roles in plant growth and development, in addition to maintaining water homeostasis in response to environmental stresses.

  20. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cuttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cuttings of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamps (LPS/CWF). For cultivars, stem lengths after 4 wks were longest under LPS, follow by RF, LPS/CWF, VF, and BF (in descending order). Microscopic studies revealed that cells were shortest when cultured in BF or VF environments, and were longest in RF or LPS lamp environments. The highest number axillary branches occurred on plantlets grown with LPS or LPS/CWF, whereas the lowest number occurred with BF. No leaf or stem edema (callus or gall-like growths) occurred iwth LPS or LPS/cwf lighting, and no edema occurred on cv. Norland plantlets, regardless of lighting. Results suggest that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  1. Somatic hybrids Solanum nigrum (+) S. tuberosum: morphological assessment and verification of hybridity.

    PubMed

    Szczerbakowa, A; Maciejewska, U; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E; Wielgat, B

    2003-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between the cultivated potato diploid hybrid clone, ZEL-1136, and hexaploid non-tuber-bearing wild species Solanum nigrum L. exhibiting resistance to Phytophthora infestans were regenerated after PEG-mediated fusion of mesophyll protoplasts. The objective was to transfer the late-blight resistance genes from the wild species into plants of the cultivated potato clone. From a total of 59 regenerants, 40 clones survived and have been maintained in vitro on hormone-free MS/2 medium. Thirty-two somatic hybrids were identified by their intermediate morphology (leaves of nigrum type and flowers of tuberosum type) and verified by flow cytometry and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns. The RAPD analysis of nuclear DNA confirmed the hybrid nature of 29 clones. Flow cytometry revealed a wide range of ploidy in the generated hybrids, from nearly the tetra- to decaploid level. Most of the hybrid clones were stable in vitro, grew vigorously in soil, and set flowers and parthenocarpic berries. However, all of the flowering hybrids were male-sterile. Nine hybrid clones produced tuber-like structures in soil. The most vigorous flowering somatic hybrids were selected for assessment of the late-blight resistance.

  2. Infra-red Thermography for High Throughput Field Phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum

    PubMed Central

    Prashar, Ankush; Yildiz, Jane; McNicol, James W.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions. PMID:23762433

  3. A large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Matkovic, Karolina; Szewczyk, Adam; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2009-11-11

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a novel potassium channel in the plant [potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber] mitochondrial inner membrane. We found that substances known to modulate large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of potato tuber mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, Ca2+ and NS1619 {1,3-dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-ben-zimidazole-2-one; a potassium channel opener} were found to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential and to stimulate resting respiration. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin (a potassium channel inhibitor) in a potassium-dependent manner. Additionally, the electrophysiological properties of the large-conductance potassium channel present in the potato tuber inner mitochondrial membrane are described in a reconstituted system, using planar lipid bilayers. After incorporation in 50/450 mM KCl gradient solutions, we recorded large-conductance potassium channel activity with conductance from 502+/-15 to 615+/-12 pS. The probability of channel opening was increased by Ca2+ and reduced by iberiotoxin. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against the mammalian plasma-membrane large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channel identified a pore-forming alpha subunit and an auxiliary beta2 subunit of the channel in potato tuber mitochondrial inner membrane. These results suggest that a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel similar to that of mammalian mitochondria is present in potato tuber mitochondria.

  4. Tetraploid somatic hybrids of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) obtained from diploid breeding lines.

    PubMed

    Przetakiewicz, Jarosław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna; Kuć, Dominik; Orczyk, Wacław

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific somatic hybrids between 16 different diploid breeding lines of Solanum tuberosum L. were produced by PEG-induced fusion. Manually selected heterokaryons were cultured in a Millicells-CM using a post-fusion protoplast mixture. Plants were regenerated from calli derived from heterokaryons obtained from 10 out of 38 combinations of diploid lines. Of the tested putative somatic hybrids, 14.2% were diploid, 72.8% were tetraploid and 13% pentaploid. The DNA amplification pattern obtained with RAPD or semi-random primers confirmed that 6 fusion combinations were hybrids. In most cases, the morphological traits were intermediate to those of the diploid fusion partners. About 23.0% of the tested somatic hybrids showed variation in their morphology. Of the tested somatic hybrids, 78.0% flowered and 86.0% tuberized. The cytoplasm of 9 diploid lines and 6 somatic hybrid combinations was analysed. Two of the diploid lines had W/S chloroplasts and alpha or epsilon mitochondria; the remainder contained T chloroplasts and beta mitochondria. All the analysed somatic hybrids carried T chloroplasts and beta mitochondria.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a Solanum tuberosum subtilisin-like protein with caspase-3 activity (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Belén; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been widely studied during the last decade. Previously, we have reported the presence and induction of caspase-3 like activity in the apoplast of potato leaves during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interaction. In this work we have purified and identified a potato extracellular protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity from potato leaves infected with P. infestans. Results obtained from the size exclusion chromatography show that the isolated protease is a monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 70 kDa approximately. Purified protease was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, showing a 100% of sequence identity with the deduced amino acid sequence of a putative subtilisin-like protease from S. tuberosum (Solgenomics protein ID: PGSC0003DMP400018521). For this reason the isolated protease was named as StSBTc-3. This report constitutes the first evidence of isolation and identification of a plant subtilisin-like protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity. In order to elucidate the possible function of StSBTc-3 during plant pathogen interaction, we demonstrate that like animal caspase-3, StSBTc-3 is able to produce in vitro cytoplasm shrinkage in plant cells and to induce plant cell death. This result suggest that, StSBTc-3 could exert a caspase executer function during potato- P. infestans interaction, resulting in the restriction of the pathogen spread during plant-pathogen interaction.

  6. Collinearity between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and wild relatives assessed by comparative cytogenetic mapping.

    PubMed

    Gaiero, Paola; van de Belt, José; Vilaró, Francisco; Schranz, M Eric; Speranza, Pablo; de Jong, Hans

    2017-03-01

    A major bottleneck to introgressive hybridization is the lack of genome collinearity between the donor (alien) genome and the recipient crop genome. Structural differences between the homeologs may create unbalanced segregation of chromosomes or cause linkage drag. To assess large-scale collinearity between potato and two of its wild relatives (Solanum commersonii and Solanum chacoense), we used BAC-FISH mapping of sequences with known positions on the RH potato map. BAC probes could successfully be hybridized to the S. commersonii and S. chachoense pachytene chromosomes, confirming their correspondence with linkage groups in RH potato. Our study shows that the order of BAC signals is conserved. Distances between BAC signals were quantified and compared; some differences found suggest either small-scale rearrangements or reduction/amplification of repeats. We conclude that S. commersonii and S. chacoense are collinear with cultivated Solanum tuberosum on the whole chromosome scale, making these amenable species for efficient introgressive hybridization breeding.

  7. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    PubMed

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  8. Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under continuous light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    The growth and tuberization of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) maintained for 6 weeks under four different regimes of continuous irradiance were compared to plants given 12 hours light and 12 hours dark. Treatments included: (a) continuous photosynthetic photon flux of 200 micromoles per square meter per second cool-white fluorescent (CWF); (b) continuous 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF; (c) 12 hours 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim CWF at 5 micromoles per square meter per second; (d) 12 hours [400] micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim incandescent (INC) at 5 micromoles per square meter per second and a control treatment of 12 hours light at 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF and 12 hours dark. The study included five cultivars ranging from early- to late-season types: 'Norland,' 'Superior,''Norchip,' 'Russet Burbank,' and 'Kennebec,' Tuber development progressed well under continuous irradiation at 400 micromoles per square meter per second and under 12 hours irradiance and 12 hours dark, while tuber development was suppressed in all other light treatments. Continuous irradiation at 200 or 400 micromoles per square meter per second resulted in severe stunting and leaf malformation on 'Superior' and 'Kennebec' plants, but little or no injury and vigorous shoot growth in the other cultivars. No injury or stunting were apparent under 12-dim light or 12-dark treatments. Plants given 12 hours dim INC showed significantly greater stem elongation but less total biomass than plants in other treatments. The continuous light encouraged shoot growth over tuber growth but this trend was overridden by providing a high irradiance level. The variation among cultivars for tolerance to continuous lighting indicates that potato may be a useful species for photoinhibition studies.

  9. Growth and tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under continuous light.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W

    1986-01-01

    The growth and tuberization of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) maintained for 6 weeks under four different regimes of continuous irradiance were compared to plants given 12 hours light and 12 hours dark. Treatments included: (a) continuous photosynthetic photon flux of 200 micromoles per square meter per second cool-white fluorescent (CWF); (b) continuous 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF; (c) 12 hours 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim CWF at 5 micromoles per square meter per second; (d) 12 hours [400] micromoles per square meter per second CWF plus 12 hours dim incandescent (INC) at 5 micromoles per square meter per second and a control treatment of 12 hours light at 400 micromoles per square meter per second CWF and 12 hours dark. The study included five cultivars ranging from early- to late-season types: 'Norland,' 'Superior,''Norchip,' 'Russet Burbank,' and 'Kennebec,' Tuber development progressed well under continuous irradiation at 400 micromoles per square meter per second and under 12 hours irradiance and 12 hours dark, while tuber development was suppressed in all other light treatments. Continuous irradiation at 200 or 400 micromoles per square meter per second resulted in severe stunting and leaf malformation on 'Superior' and 'Kennebec' plants, but little or no injury and vigorous shoot growth in the other cultivars. No injury or stunting were apparent under 12-dim light or 12-dark treatments. Plants given 12 hours dim INC showed significantly greater stem elongation but less total biomass than plants in other treatments. The continuous light encouraged shoot growth over tuber growth but this trend was overridden by providing a high irradiance level. The variation among cultivars for tolerance to continuous lighting indicates that potato may be a useful species for photoinhibition studies.

  10. Ethylene responsive element binding protein 1 (StEREBP1) from Solanum tuberosum increases tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Eun; Shin, Dongjin; Park, Sang Ryeol; Han, Sang-Eun; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kwon, Tack-Ryun; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Yi, Bu Young; Kwon, Hawk-Bin; Byun, Myung-Ok

    2007-02-23

    To identify components of the plant stress signal transduction cascade and response mechanisms, we screened plant genes using reverse Northern blot analysis, and chose the ethylene responsive element binding protein 1 (StEREBP1) for further characterization. To investigate its biological function in the potato, we performed Northern blot analysis and observed enhanced levels of transcription in response to several environmental stresses including low temperature. In vivo targeting experiments using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter indicated that StEREBP1 localized to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells. StEREBP1 was found to bind to GCC and DRE/CRT cis-elements and both microarray and RT-PCR analyses indicated that overexpression of StEREBP1 induced expression of several GCC box-containing stress response genes. In addition, overexpression of StEREBP1 enhanced tolerance to cold and salt stress in transgenic potato plants. The results of this study suggest that StEREBP1 is a functional transcription factor that may be involved in abiotic stress responses in plants.

  11. Profiles of the biosynthesis and metabolism of pyridine nucleotides in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Katahira, Riko; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    As part of a research program on nucleotide metabolism in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.), profiles of pyridine (nicotinamide) metabolism were examined based on the in situ metabolic fate of radio-labelled precursors and the in vitro activities of enzymes. In potato tubers, [(3)H]quinolinic acid, which is an intermediate of de novo pyridine nucleotide synthesis, and [(14)C]nicotinamide, a catabolite of NAD, were utilised for pyridine nucleotide synthesis. The in situ tracer experiments and in vitro enzyme assays suggest the operation of multiple pyridine nucleotide cycles. In addition to the previously proposed cycle consisting of seven metabolites, we found a new cycle that includes newly discovered nicotinamide riboside deaminase which is also functional in potato tubers. This cycle bypasses nicotinamide and nicotinic acid; it is NAD --> nicotinamide mononucleotide --> nicotinamide riboside --> nicotinic acid riboside --> nicotinic acid mononucleotide --> nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide --> NAD. Degradation of the pyridine ring was extremely low in potato tubers. Nicotinic acid glucoside is formed from nicotinic acid in potato tubers. Comparative studies of [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid metabolism indicate that nicotinic acid is converted to nicotinic acid glucoside in all organs of potato plants. Trigonelline synthesis from [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid was also found. Conversion was greater in green parts of plants, such as leaves and stem, than in underground parts of potato plants. Nicotinic acid utilised for the biosynthesis of these conjugates seems to be derived not only from the pyridine nucleotide cycle, but also from the de novo synthesis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide.

  12. Regulation of aspartate-derived amino acid homeostasis in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) by expression of E. coli homoserine kinase.

    PubMed

    Rinder, J; Casazza, A P; Hoefgen, R; Hesse, H

    2008-02-01

    The availability of the carbon backbone O-phosphohomoserine (OPHS) is critical to methionine (met) and threonine (thr) synthesis. OPHS derives from homoserine and is formed by homoserine kinase (HSK). To clarify the function of HSK in cellular metabolism, the E. coli HSK ortholog thrB was expressed in potato plants targeting the EcHSK protein to chloroplasts and to the cytosol. Both approaches resulted in up to 11 times increased total HSK enzyme activity. Transgenic plants exhibited reduced homoserine levels while met and thr did not accumulate significantly. However, the precursor cysteine and upstream intermediates of met such as cystathionine and homocysteine did indicating an accelerated carbon flow towards the end products. Coincidently, plants with elevated cytosolic levels of EcHSK exhibited a reduction in transcript levels of the endogenous HSK, as well as of threonine synthase (TS), cystathionine beta-lyase (CbL), and met synthase (MS). In all plants, cystathionine gamma-synthase (CgS) expression remained relatively unchanged from wild type levels, while S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) expression increased. Feeding studies with externally supplied homoserine fostered the synthesis of met and thr but the regulation of synthesis of both amino acids retained the wild type regulation pattern. The results indicate that excess of plastidial localised HSK activity does not influence the de novo synthesis of met and thr. However, expression of HSK in the cytosol resulted in the down-regulation of gene expression of pathway genes probably mediated via OPHS. We integrated these data in a novel working model describing the regulatory mechanism of met and thr homeostasis.

  13. Root zone temperature affects the phytoextraction of Ba, Cl, Sn, Pt, and Rb using potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Spunta) in the field.

    PubMed

    Baghour, M; Moreno, D A; Víllora, G; Hernández, J; Castilla, N; Romero, L

    2002-01-01

    Three consecutive years of field experiments were conducted to investigate how different root-zone temperatures, manipulated by using different mulches, affect the phytoextraction of Ba, Cl, Sn, Pt and Rb in different organs of potato plants (roots, tubers, stems and leaves). Four different plastic covers were used (T1: transparent polyethylene; T2: white polyethylene; T3: white and black coextruded polyethylene, and T4: black polyethylene), using uncovered plants as control (T0). The different treatments had a significant effect on mean root zone temperatures (T0 = 16 degrees C, T1 = 20 degrees C, T2 = 23 degrees C, T3 = 27 degrees C and T4 = 30 degrees C) and induced a significantly different response in Ba, Cl, Sn, Pt and Rb concentration and accumulation. The T3 treatment gave rise to the greatest phytoextraction of Ba, Pt, Cl and Sn in the roots, leaflets and tubers. In terms of the relative distribution of the phytoaccumulated elements (as percentage of the total within the plant), Pt and Ba accumulated mainly in the roots whereas Rb, Sn and Cl accumulated primarily in tubers, establishing a close relationship between the biomass development of each organ and phytoaccumulation capacity of metals in response to temperature in the root zone.

  14. [Effects of light quality on microtuber induction of Solanum tuberosum L].

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong; Wang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Di; Zhang, Feng

    2009-08-01

    With the detoxified test-tube seedlings of two Solanum tuberosum L. varieties as test materials, this paper studied their development and microtuber induction under effects of different light quality (red, blue, and white lights). Under red light, the seedlings leaf net photosynthetic rate, soluble sugar content, and biomass were the highest, and the leaf number was the greatest. Blue light increased the seedlings dry matter content and microtuber number, advanced the date of microtuber initiation, but inhibited seedlings height. Under white light, the seedlings had the lowest net photosynthetic rate and dry matter content. Different S. tuberosum varieties had definite differences in the demand of light quality for their microtuber induction. Applying red light at seedlings development stage and supplying blue light at microtuber induction stage could gain higher productivity.

  15. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  16. Association genetics in Solanum tuberosum provides new insights into potato tuber bruising and enzymatic tissue discoloration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most agronomic plant traits result from complex molecular networks involving multiple genes and from environmental factors. One such trait is the enzymatic discoloration of fruit and tuber tissues initiated by mechanical impact (bruising). Tuber susceptibility to bruising is a complex trait of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) that is crucial for crop quality. As phenotypic evaluation of bruising is cumbersome, the application of diagnostic molecular markers would empower the selection of low bruising potato varieties. The genetic factors and molecular networks underlying enzymatic tissue discoloration are sparsely known. Hitherto there is no association study dealing with tuber bruising and diagnostic markers for enzymatic discoloration are rare. Results The natural genetic diversity for bruising susceptibility was evaluated in elite middle European potato germplasm in order to elucidate its molecular basis. Association genetics using a candidate gene approach identified allelic variants in genes that function in tuber bruising and enzymatic browning. Two hundred and five tetraploid potato varieties and breeding clones related by descent were evaluated for two years in six environments for tuber bruising susceptibility, specific gravity, yield, shape and plant maturity. Correlations were found between different traits. In total 362 polymorphic DNA fragments, derived from 33 candidate genes and 29 SSR loci, were scored in the population and tested for association with the traits using a mixed model approach, which takes into account population structure and kinship. Twenty one highly significant (p < 0.001) and robust marker-trait associations were identified. Conclusions The observed trait correlations and associated marker fragments provide new insight in the molecular basis of bruising susceptibility and its natural variation. The markers diagnostic for increased or decreased bruising susceptibility will facilitate the combination of superior

  17. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest.

  18. Gamma-caprolactone stimulates growth of quorum-quenching Rhodococcus populations in a large-scale hydroponic system for culturing Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Cirou, Amélie; Raffoux, Aurélie; Diallo, Stéphanie; Latour, Xavier; Dessaux, Yves; Faure, Denis

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria degrading quorum sensing (QS) signals have been proposed as biocontrol agents able to quench QS-dependent expression of virulence symptoms caused by Pectobacterium on potato plants. We report here that gamma-caprolactone (GCL) treatment stimulated growth of the native QS-degrading bacterial community in an industrial plant hydroponic system for culturing Solanum tuberosum. Post-GCL treatment, QS-degrading bacteria were mainly identified as Rhodococcus isolates, while Agrobacterium isolates dominated under similar untreated conditions. Most of the assayed Rhodococcus isolates exhibited efficient biocontrol activity for protecting potato tubers. Analytical chemistry approach revealed the rapid degradation of GCL introduced in the plant cultures.

  19. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the ERF transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Charfeddine, Mariam; Saïdi, Mohamed Najib; Charfeddine, Safa; Hammami, Asma; Gargouri Bouzid, Radhia

    2015-04-01

    The ERF transcription factors belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. They play important roles in plant development processes, as well as in the response to biotic, abiotic, and hormone signaling. In the present study, 155 putative ERF transcription factor genes were identified from the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome database, and compared with those from Arabidopsis thaliana. The StERF proteins are divided into ten phylogenetic groups. Expression analyses of five StERFs were carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and compared with published RNA-seq data. These latter analyses were used to distinguish tissue-specific, biotic, and abiotic stress genes as well as hormone-responsive StERF genes. The results are of interest to better understand the role of the AP2/ERF genes in response to diverse types of stress in potatoes. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of the ERF family genes in S. tuberosum is required to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms.

  20. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species.

  1. A novel antimicrobial protein isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) shares homology with an acid phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Yuan, Fenghua; Gao, Yin; Liang, Chenggang; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Changling; He, Liyuan

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide and amino acids sequences for AP(1) will appear in the GenBank(R) and NCBI databases under accession number AY297449. A novel antimicrobial protein (AP(1)) was purified from leaves of the potato ( Solanum tuberosum, variety MS-42.3) with a procedure involving ammonium sulphate fractionation, molecular sieve chromatography with Sephacryl S-200 and hydrophobic chromatography with Butyl-Sepharose using a FPLC system. The inhibition spectrum investigation showed that AP(1) had good inhibition activity against five different strains of Ralstonia solanacearum from potato or other crops, and two fungal pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria solani from potato. The full-length cDNA encoding AP(1) has been successfully cloned by screening a cDNA expression library of potato with an anti-AP(1) antibody and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR. Determination of the nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of an open reading frame encoding 343 amino acids. At the C-terminus of AP(1) there is an ATP-binding domain, and the N-terminus exhibits 58% identity with an/the acid phosphatase from Mesorhizobium loti. SDS/PAGE and Western blotting analysis suggested that the AP(1) gene can be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and recognized by an antibody against AP(1). Also the expressed protein showed an inhibition activity the same as original AP(1) protein isolated from potato. We suggest that AP(1) most likely belongs to a new group of proteins with antimicrobial characteristics in vitro and functions in relation to phosphorylation and energy metabolism of plants. PMID:12927022

  2. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase.

  3. Effect of selenate supplementation on glycoalkaloid content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Turakainen, Marja; Väänänen, Tiina; Anttila, Katja; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Hartikainen, Helinä; Seppänen, Mervi

    2004-11-17

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) supplemented with increasing amounts of sodium selenate were analyzed for glycoalkaloid (GA) content. GAs were extracted with 5% acetic acid from freeze-dried tubers of two potato cultivars, Satu and Sini, harvested 10 weeks after planting as immature. The GAs alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine were quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with diode array detection. Two independent experiments were performed. In the first experiment, the total GA concentration +/- standard error of the tubers ranged between 105 +/- 9 and 124 +/- 10 mg kg(-1) fresh weight in Satu and between 194 +/- 26 and 228 +/- 10 mg kg(-1) fresh weight in Sini. The ratio of alpha-solanine to alpha-chaconine was 0.2 in Satu and 0.5-0.6 in Sini. In the second experiment, the total GA concentration +/- standard error was 75 +/- 4 to 96 +/- 11 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, and the ratio of alpha-solanine to alpha-chaconine was 0.3-0.4 in Satu. A high sodium selenate supplementation (0.9 mg of Se kg(-1) quartz sand) slightly decreased the GA content in Satu, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Furthermore, at this addition level the Se concentration increased to a very high level of 20 microg g(-1) dry weight, which cannot be recommended for human consumption. In both experiments, the Se concentration in tubers increased with increasing sodium selenate application levels. Our results show that acceptable application levels of selenate did not have an effect on the GA concentration in immature potato tubers.

  4. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  5. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, Inga A.; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A.; Ingham, Russ E.

    2013-01-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. ‘Russet Burbank,’ ‘Desiree,’ ‘Modac,’ ‘Norland,’ ‘Umatilla,’ and ‘Yukon Gold’ were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties ‘Maris Piper,’ ‘Atlantic,’ and ‘Satina,’ all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera

  6. Transport and Sorting of the Solanum tuberosum Sucrose Transporter SUT1 Is Affected by Posttranslational Modification[W

    PubMed Central

    Krügel, Undine; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Langbein, Jennifer; Wiederhold, Elena; Liesche, Johannes; Friedrich, Thomas; Grimm, Bernhard; Martinoia, Enrico; Poolman, Bert; Kühn, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The plant sucrose transporter SUT1 from Solanum tuberosum revealed a dramatic redox-dependent increase in sucrose transport activity when heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant plasma membrane vesicles do not show any change in proton flux across the plasma membrane in the presence of redox reagents, indicating a SUT1-specific effect of redox reagents. Redox-dependent sucrose transport activity was confirmed electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes with SUT1 from maize (Zea mays). Localization studies of green fluorescent protein fusion constructs showed that an oxidative environment increased the targeting of SUT1 to the plasma membrane where the protein concentrates in 200- to 300-nm raft-like microdomains. Using plant plasma membranes, St SUT1 can be detected in the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. Importantly, in yeast and in plants, oxidative reagents induced a shift in the monomer to dimer equilibrium of the St SUT1 protein and increased the fraction of dimer. Biochemical methods confirmed the capacity of SUT1 to form a dimer in plants and yeast cells in a redox-dependent manner. Blue native PAGE, chemical cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation, as well as the analysis of transgenic plants with reduced expression of St SUT1, confirmed the dimerization of St SUT1 and Sl SUT1 (from Solanum lycopersicum) in planta. The ability to form homodimers in plant cells was analyzed by the split yellow fluorescent protein technique in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and protoplasts. Oligomerization seems to be cell type specific since under native-like conditions, a phloem-specific reduction of the dimeric form of the St SUT1 protein was detectable in SUT1 antisense plants, whereas constitutively inhibited antisense plants showed reduction only of the monomeric form. The role of redox control of sucrose transport in plants is discussed. PMID:18790827

  7. Decreased sucrose content triggers starch breakdown and respiration in stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Börnke, Frederik; Peisker, Martin; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Lerchl, Jens; Kirakosyan, Ara; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    To change the hexose-to-sucrose ratio within phloem cells, yeast-derived cytosolic invertase was expressed in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée) plants under control of the rolC promoter. Vascular tissue specific expression of the transgene was verified by histochemical detection of invertase activity in tuber cross-sections. Vegetative growth and tuber yield of transgenic plants was unaltered as compared to wild-type plants. However, the sprout growth of stored tubers was much delayed, indicating impaired phloem-transport of sucrose towards the developing bud. Biochemical analysis of growing tubers revealed that, in contrast to sucrose levels, which rapidly declined in growing invertase-expressing tubers, hexose and starch levels remained unchanged as compared to wild-type controls. During storage, sucrose and starch content declined in wild-type tubers, whereas glucose and fructose levels remained unchanged. A similar response was found in transgenic tubers with the exception that starch degradation was accelerated and fructose levels increased slightly. Furthermore, changes in carbohydrate metabolism were accompanied by an elevated level of phosphorylated intermediates, and a stimulated rate of respiration. Considering that sucrose breakdown was restricted to phloem cells it is concluded that, in response to phloem-associated sucrose depletion or hexose elevation, starch degradation and respiration is triggered in parenchyma cells. To study further whether elevated hexose and/or hexose-phosphates or decreased sucrose levels are responsible for the metabolic changes observed, sucrose content was decreased by tuber-specific expression of a bacterial sucrose isomerase. Sucrose isomerase catalyses the reversible conversion of sucrose into palatinose, which is not further metabolizable by plant cells. Tubers harvested from these plants were found to accumulate high levels of palatinose at the expense of sucrose. In addition, starch content decreased

  8. [Effects of hydroxyapatite on growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Cd polluted soil].

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; He, Tan; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han

    2010-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a glasshouse to study effects of hydroxyapatite amending Cd polluted soil on growth and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In the experiment, 3 levels of Cd pollution (0, 5, and 10 mg x kg(-1)) and 6 levels of hydroxyapatite application (0, 4, 8, 10, 16, and 30 g x kg(-1)) in soil were prepared to plant 2 potato varieties (Zhongshusanhao and Daxiyang in Chinese system). The results showed that Cd pollution in soil resulted in decrease in yield per plant of potato; for example, in the soils with 5 and 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd, the yield per plant decreased 24%-31% and 41%-45%, respectively. Applying hydroxyapatite to Cd pollution could greatly increase yield per plant of potato. Compared to the soil without hydroxyapatite, 10 or 30 g x kg(-1) hydroxyapatite added to the soil with 5 or 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd increased 17%-9% or 45%-58% in yield per plant. Due to hydroxyapatite amending Cd polluted soil, chlorophyll contents in leaves and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in tubers enhanced and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in tubers declined apparently. Meanwhile, quality of potato tubers was obviously improved, such as increase in vitamin C contents, starch contents, and protein contents in potato tubers. With hydroxyapatite applying from 0 to 30 g x kg(-1), Cd contents in potato tubers deceased from 0.87-0.95 mg x kg(-1) to 0.13-0.21 mg x kg(-1) by 78%-85% in the soils with 5 mg x kg(-1) of Cd, and from 1.86-1.93 mg x kg(-1) to 0.52-0.65 mg x kg(-1) by 66%-72% in the soils with 10 mg x kg(-1) of Cd. The experiment indicated that the mechanism of hydroxyapatite alleviating soil Cd toxicity main included rising soil pH values, reducing effective Cd contents in soil, and Ca from hydroxyapatite blocking soil Cd moving to potato. However, ability of hydroxyapatite alleviating soil Cd toxicity was limited, and excessive hydroxyapatite to soil exhibited stress effects on growth and quality of potato. In the Cd polluted soils with

  9. Analysis of plastome and chondriome genome types in potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jagesh K; Chandel, Poonam; Singh, Bir Pal; Bhardwaj, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasm types of the potato somatic hybrids from Solanum tuberosum × Solanum etuberosum were analysed using chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) organelle genomes-specific markers. Of the 29 markers (15 cpDNA and 14 mtDNA) amplified in the 26 genotypes, 5 cpDNA (H3, NTCP4, NTCP8, NTCP9, and ALC1/ALC3) and 13 mtDNA markers showed polymorphism. The cluster analysis based on the mtDNA markers detected higher diversity compared with the cpDNA markers. Presence of new mtDNA fragments of the markers, namely, T11-2, Nsm1, pumD, Nsm3, and Nsm4, were observed, while monomorphic loci revealed highly conserved genomic regions in the somatic hybrids. The study revealed that the somatic hybrids had diverse cytoplasm types consisting predominantly of T-, W-, and C-, with a few A- and S-type cp genomes; and α-, β-, and γ-type mt genomes. Somatic hybridization has unique potential to widen the cytoplasm types of the cultivated gene pools from wild species through introgression by breeding methods.

  10. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  11. [Application of somatic hybrids between dihaploids of potato Solanum tuberosum L. and wild diploid species from Mexico in breeding: generation and backcrossing of dihaploids of somatic hybrids].

    PubMed

    Ermishin, A P; Makhan'ko, O V; Voronkova, E V

    2006-12-01

    The efficiency of an original approach to involvement of the valuable genetic pool of wild diploid potato species from Mexico is estimated. The essence of this method is in generation of dihaploids (2n = 2x = 24) of tetraploid somatic hybrids (2n = 4x = 48) followed by backcrossing with dihaploids of Solanum tuberosum. A haploid producer, S. phureja IvP35, was used to generate ten dihaploids of S. tuberosum + S. pinnatisectum, all of which crossed with fertile S. tuberosum dihaploids and developed plump viable seeds. This gives the possibility of an efficient introgression of the genes valuable for breeding from wild species to the bred plants at a diploid level, which has several advantages compared with the corresponding procedure at a tetraploid level. A part of the dihaploids produced was compatible (the pollen tubes reached the ovary) with diploid and tetraploid forms of S. pinnatisectum; however, no viable seeds were developed. The attempt to generate the dihaploids of S. tuberosum + S. bulbocastanum somatic hydrides using the haploid producer S. phureja IvP35 was unsuccessful.

  12. Constitutive and dark-induced expression of Solanum tuberosum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enhances stomatal opening and photosynthetic performance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kebeish, Rashad; Niessen, Markus; Oksaksin, Mehtap; Blume, Christian; Peterhaensel, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    The effect of constitutive and dark-induced expression of Solanum tuberosum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) on the opening state of stomata and photosynthetic performance in Arabidopsis thaliana plants was studied. Transcript accumulation analyses of the A. thaliana dark-induced (Din10 and Din6) and the Pisum sativum asparagine synthetase 2 promoters (Asn2) in transiently transformed tobacco leaves showed that Din10 promoter induced more DsRed accumulation in the dark compared to the other din genes. Overexpression of PEPC under the control of the constitutive enhanced CaMV 35S (p35SS) and dark-induced Din10 promoter in stably transformed A. thaliana plants increased the number of opened stomata in dark adapted leaves. Gas exchange measurements using A. thaliana plants transgenic for p35SS-PEPC and Din10-PEPC revealed a marked increase in stomatal conductance, transpiration, and dark respiration rates measured in the dark compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, measurement of CO(2) assimilation rates at different external CO(2) concentrations (C(a) ) and different light intensities shows an increase in the CO(2) assimilation rates in transgenic Arabidopsis lines compared to wild-type plants. This is considered as first step towards transferring the aspects of Crassulacean acid metabolism-like photosynthetic mechanism into C3 plants.

  13. Subcellular pyrophosphate metabolism in developing tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Farré, Eva M; Tech, Susanne; Trethewey, Richard N; Fernie, Alisdair R; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2006-09-01

    PPi has previously been implicated specifically in the co-ordination of the sucrose-starch transition and in the broader context of its role as co-factor in heterotrophic plant metabolism. In order to assess the compartmentation of pyrophosphate (PPi) metabolism in the potato tuber we analysed the effect of expressing a bacterial pyrophosphatase in the amyloplast of wild type tubers or in the cytosol or amyloplast of invertase-expressing tubers. The second and third approaches were adopted since we have previously characterized the invertase expressing lines to both exhibit highly altered sucrose metabolism and to contain elevated levels of PPi (Farré et al. (2000a) Plant Physiol 123:681) and therefore this background rendered questions concerning the level of communication between the plastidic and cytosolic pyrophosphate pools relatively facile. In this study we observed that the increase in PPi in the invertase expressing lines was mainly confined to the cytosol. Accordingly, the expression of a bacterial pyrophosphatase in the plastid of either wild type or invertase-expressing tubers did not lead to a decrease in total PPi content. However, the expression of the heterologous pyrophosphatase in the cytosol of cytosolic invertase-expressing tubers led to strong metabolic changes. These results are discussed both with respect to our previous hypotheses and to current models of the compartmentation of potato tuber metabolism.

  14. Polyphenol oxidase expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers inhibited to sprouting by treatment with iodine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eolini, Francesco; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Credi, Andrea; Rodríguez, Antonio Gonzàlez Vara Y; Poggi, Valeria

    2004-08-01

    Iodine-saturated atmosphere was found to inhibit the sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. The iodine concentration in tuber tissues increased as a function of exposure length, and the onset of inhibition of sprouting was found to depend on tubers genotype. During the time-course of the treatment, the transcription of polyphenol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1 and EC 1.14.18.1) was undetectable in tuber peel, whereas in bud tissues featured an increase, followed by a decrease occurring simultaneously with the suppression of sprouting. The treatment of tubers with iodine strongly affected the expression of polyphenol oxidases at the transcriptional level. Polyphenol oxidase activity in buds poorly reflected the corresponding level of transcription; similarly, little differences were found among the enzyme isoforms expressed in buds as a function of length of exposure to iodine. These findings suggest that the induction of polyphenol oxidases mRNAs transcription could probe the inhibition of sprouting by iodine.

  15. Chemical Composition and Ultrastructure of Suberin from Hollow Heart Tissue of Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Dean, B B; Kolattukudy, P E; Davis, R W

    1977-05-01

    The disorder of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum var. Russet Burbank) called "hollow heart" is manifested by the occurrence of hollow regions in internal parts of the tuber. The structure and composition of the suberin from the tissue lining of these internal cavities were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of the LiAlH(4)-hydrogenolysis products. Identification of octadecene-1,18-diol as the major component and the presence of hexadecane-1,16-diol and very long chain (>C(18)) alcohols in the hydrogenolysate showed that the suberin lining the internal cavities is quite similar to that found in the periderm of external wounds and the natural skin. Electron microscopic examination showed similar lamellar structure for the suberin of hollow heart, external wound periderm, and the natural skin of potato tubers. The results show that suberin can develop in a tissue which is not exposed to the external environment.

  16. Wound-Induced Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Li

    2006-01-01

    Suberin, a cell specific, wall-associated biopolymer, is formed during normal plant growth and development as well as in response to stress conditions such as wounding. It is characterized by the deposition of both a poly(phenolic) domain (SPPD) in the cell wall and a poly(aliphatic) domain (SPAD) thought to be deposited between the cell wall and plasma membrane. Although the monomeric components that comprise the SPPD and SPAD are well known, the biosynthesis and deposition of suberin is poorly understood. Using wound healing potato tubers as a model system, we have tracked the flux of carbon into the aliphatic monomers of the SPAD in a time course fashion. From these analyses, we demonstrate that newly formed fatty acids undergo one of two main metabolic fates during wound-induced suberization: (1) desaturation followed by oxidation to form the 18:1 ω-hydroxy and dioic acids characteristic of potato suberin, and (2) elongation to very long chain fatty acids (C20 to C28), associated with reduction to 1-alkanols, decarboxylation to n-alkanes and minor amounts of hydroxylation. The partitioning of carbon between these two metabolic fates illustrates metabolic regulation during wound healing, and provides insight into the organization of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:19521477

  17. A cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase is involved in the salvage of extracellular ATP in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in plant development and growth. To investigate the fate of eATP within the apoplast, we used intact potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices as an experimental system enabling access to the apoplast without interference of cytosolic contamination. (i) Incubation of intact tuber slices with ATP led to the formation of ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine and ribose, indicating operation of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase. (ii) Measurement of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase activities in fractionated tuber tissue confirmed the apoplastic localization for apyrase and phosphatase in potato and led to the identification of a novel cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase activity. (iii) When intact tuber slices were incubated with saturating concentrations of adenosine, the conversion of adenosine into adenine was much higher than adenosine import into the cell, suggesting a potential bypass of adenosine import. Consistent with this, import of radiolabeled adenine into tuber slices was inhibited when ATP, ADP or AMP were added to the slices. (iv) In wild-type plants, apyrase and adenosine nucleosidase activities were found to be co-regulated, indicating functional linkage of these enzymes in a shared pathway. (v) Moreover, adenosine nucleosidase activity was reduced in transgenic lines with strongly reduced apoplastic apyrase activity. When taken together, these results suggest that a complete ATP salvage pathway is present in the apoplast of plant cells.

  18. Glucose 1-phosphate is efficiently taken up by potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber parenchyma cells and converted to reserve starch granules.

    PubMed

    Fettke, Joerg; Albrecht, Tanja; Hejazi, Mahdi; Mahlow, Sebastian; Nakamura, Yasunori; Steup, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Reserve starch is an important plant product but the actual biosynthetic process is not yet fully understood. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber discs from various transgenic plants were used to analyse the conversion of external sugars or sugar derivatives to starch. By using in vitro assays, a direct glucosyl transfer from glucose 1-phosphate to native starch granules as mediated by recombinant plastidial phosphorylase was analysed. Compared with labelled glucose, glucose 6-phosphate or sucrose, tuber discs converted externally supplied [(14)C]glucose 1-phosphate into starch at a much higher rate. Likewise, tuber discs from transgenic lines with a strongly reduced expression of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase, phosphorylase or transglucosidase converted glucose 1-phosphate to starch with the same or even an increased rate compared with the wild-type. Similar results were obtained with transgenic potato lines possessing a strongly reduced activity of both the cytosolic and the plastidial phosphoglucomutase. Starch labelling was, however, significantly diminished in transgenic lines, with a reduced concentration of the plastidial phosphorylase isozymes. Two distinct paths of reserve starch biosynthesis are proposed that explain, at a biochemical level, the phenotype of several transgenic plant lines.

  19. Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongyu; Chen, Zhifan; Sun, Ke; Yan, Dong; Kang, Mingjie; Zhao, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem worldwide. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was used to investigate how different concentrations of Cd (1, 5, and 25mgkg(-1)) affected the physiological parameters and the subcellular distribution of Cd in the potato. The analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The results suggest that the leaf is the organ with the highest accumulation of Cd. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and the chlorophyll content decreased in response to high level of Cd. The SEM-EDX microanalysis revealed that Cd was primarily deposited in the spongy and palisade tissues of the leaf. Furthermore, Cd was also detected in the cortex and the adjacent phloem and was observed inside the intercellular space, the interior surface of the plasma membrane, and on the surface of the elliptical starch granules in the tubers of the potato. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to the tuber, the accumulation of Cd in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be seriously evaluated because Cd-containing potatoes might present high health risk to humans.

  20. Four potato (Solanum tuberosum) ABCG transporters and their expression in response to abiotic factors and Phytophthora infestans infection.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Michelina; Ambrosino, Patrizia; Lanzuise, Stefania; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Lorito, Matteo; Scala, Felice

    2011-12-15

    Pleiotropic drug resistant (PDR/ABCG) genes are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, we cloned, from Solanum tuberosum, four PDR/ABCG transporter genes named StPDR1, StPDR2, StPDR3 and StPDR4, which were differentially expressed in plant tissues and cell cultures. A number of different chemically unrelated compounds were found to regulate the transcript levels of the four genes in cultured cells. In particular, StPDR2 was highly up-regulated in the presence of Botrytis cinerea cell walls, NaCl, 2,4-dichlorophenol, sclareol and α-solanin and biological compounds. The expression of the genes was also investigated by real time RT-PCR during infection by Phytophthora infestans. StPDR1 and StPDR2 were up-regulated about 13- and 37-fold at 48 h post-infection (hpi), StPDR3 was expressed (4-5-fold) at 24 and 48 hpi and then rapidly decreased, while StPDR4 RNA accumulation was stimulated (about 4-fold) at 12 and 24 hpi, decreased at 48 hpi and increased again at 96 hpi. We discuss the role of StPDR1-4 genes in response to pathogens and abiotic stresses.

  1. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  2. Formulation and development of plasma volume expander using natural and modified starch from Solanum tuberosum

    PubMed Central

    Thombre, Nilima A.; Vishwakarma, Ajit V.; Jadhav, Trupti S.; Kshirsagar, Sanjay J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To formulation and development of plasma volume expander (PVE) by using natural and modified starch from Solanum tuberosum. The function of blood circulation is to provide the needs of the body tissues and to maintain an appropriate environment in all tissue fluids of the body for the optimal survival and functions of the cells. Rapid restoration of the blood volume is necessary to decrease reduction in the amount of the blood. The PVEs are isotonic colloidal solutions, act by increasing the osmotic pressure of the intravascular compartment, which leads to the influx of the interstitial fluids through the capillary pore which, in turn, leads to the increase in the volume of the blood. Therefore, there is a need to discover the PVE with less side effects. The main aim of the present study is to use amylopectin as PVEs, fractionated from natural and modified starch obtained from S. tuberosum. Methods: The starch extracted from the normal grains and the tubers of potatoes was selected for the production of starch. Statistical analysis includes in vitro characterization that involves viscosity studies, plasma–product interaction, osmotic pressure detection, molecular weight–viscosity relationship, determination of weight average molecular weight, enzymatic interaction, and in vivo characterization such as toxicity studies and the effect of the products on the blood coagulation. The isolated starch and fractionated amylopectin were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics. Result and Conclusion: The amylopectin fractionated from isolated starch from grains and tubers of potatoes can be used as PVE, as per the outcome of the study. PMID:28123990

  3. A purine nucleoside phosphorylase in Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) with specificity for cytokinins contributes to the duration of tuber endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Jennifer R; Warnes, Barbara J; Newell, Christine A; Thomson, Jamie C P; James, Celia M; Turnbull, Colin G N; Hanke, David E

    2014-03-01

    StCKP1 (Solanum tuberosum cytokinin riboside phosphorylase) catalyses the interconversion of the N9-riboside form of the plant hormone CK (cytokinin), a subset of purines, with its most active free base form. StCKP1 prefers CK to unsubstituted aminopurines. The protein was discovered as a CK-binding activity in extracts of tuberizing potato stolon tips, from which it was isolated by affinity chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence matched the translation product of a set of ESTs, enabling a complete mRNA sequence to be obtained by RACE-PCR. The predicted polypeptide includes a cleavable signal peptide and motifs for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity. The expressed protein was assayed for purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity against CKs and adenine/adenosine. Isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin, dihydrozeatin and adenine were converted into ribosides in the presence of ribose 1-phosphate. In the opposite direction, isopentenyladenosine, trans-zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside and adenosine were converted into their free bases in the presence of Pi. StCKP1 had no detectable ribohydrolase activity. Evidence is presented that StCKP1 is active in tubers as a negative regulator of CKs, prolonging endodormancy by a chill-reversible mechanism.

  4. The expression of a recombinant glycolate dehydrogenase polyprotein in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plastids strongly enhances photosynthesis and tuber yield.

    PubMed

    Nölke, Greta; Houdelet, Marcel; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We have increased the productivity and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by developing a novel method to enhance photosynthetic carbon fixation based on expression of a polyprotein (DEFp) comprising all three subunits (D, E and F) of Escherichia coli glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH). The engineered polyprotein retained the functionality of the native GlcDH complex when expressed in E. coli and was able to complement mutants deficient for the D, E and F subunits. Transgenic plants accumulated DEFp in the plastids, and the recombinant protein was active in planta, reducing photorespiration and improving CO2 uptake with a significant impact on carbon metabolism. Transgenic lines with the highest DEFp levels and GlcDH activity produced significantly higher levels of glucose (5.8-fold), fructose (3.8-fold), sucrose (1.6-fold) and transitory starch (threefold), resulting in a substantial increase in shoot and leaf biomass. The higher carbohydrate levels produced in potato leaves were utilized by the sink capacity of the tubers, increasing the tuber yield by 2.3-fold. This novel approach therefore has the potential to increase the biomass and yield of diverse crops.

  5. Tuber-specific cytosolic expression of a bacterial phosphoglucomutase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) dramatically alters carbon partitioning.

    PubMed

    Lytovchenko, Anna; Schauer, Nicolas; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-04-01

    Constitutive antisense inhibition of the cytosolic isoform of phosphoglucomutase in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) results in restriction of photosynthesis, growth inhibition and modified tuber morphology, and a severe restriction of tuber starch synthesis. Here we describe the consequences of the tuber-specific expression of an Escherichia coli phosphoglucomutase in the cytosol. Analysis of [14C]glucose metabolism by tuber discs isolated from wild type and transformants revealed that the rates of sucrose and starch synthesis were unaltered but that the rate of glycolysis was depressed in the transgenics. The transformant tubers also contained dramatically reduced amino acid content and significantly higher levels of ADP, but were characterized by elevated levels of Krebs cycle intermediates and an unaltered rate of respiration. In addition to these metabolic consequences of the overexpression of the E. coli enzyme, we observed morphological changes in tubers, with the transformants having a smaller number of larger tubers which exhibited delayed rates of sprouting with respect to the wild type. These results are discussed with respect to current models of the regulation of central plant metabolism and tuber dormancy.

  6. Characterization and Transcriptional Profile of Genes Involved in Glycoalkaloid Biosynthesis in New Varieties of Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther J; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2016-02-03

    Before commercial release, new potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties must be evaluated for content of toxic compounds such as glycoalkaloids (GAs), which are potent poisons. GA biosynthesis proceeds via the cholesterol pathway to α-chaconine and α-solanine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total glycoalkaloid (TGA) content and the expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. TGA content was measured by HPLC-MS, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to determine the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes. We searched for cis-elements of the transcription start site using the PlantPAN database. There was a relationship between TGA content and the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. Putative promoter regions showed the presence of several cis-elements related to biotic and abiotic stresses and light. These findings provide an important step toward understanding TGA regulation and variation in potato tubers.

  7. Expression of G-Ry derived from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) increases PVY(O) resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changsu; Park, Jaeyoung; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Yoonkyung; Cheong, Hyeonsook

    2010-06-23

    In Solanaceae, potato virus Y(O) (PVY(O)) is a widespread virus leading to severe damages such as necrosis, molting, and yield reduction. The resistance Y gene (Ry gene) of potato specifically confers resistance to PVY infection. Previously, potatoes resistant to PVY(O) infection were screened among the 32 Korean cultivars. 'Golden Valley' displayed the most resistance to PVY(O) infection. 'Golden Valley''s Ry gene (G-Ry) was cloned from 'Golden Valley', and the function was investigated. G-Ry protein contains 1134 amino acid residues and is structurally similar to the Y-1, which confers resistance to PVY infection in Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena. To generate a PVY(O)-resistant potato, the G-Ry gene has been introduced into 'Winter Valley', the cultivar most susceptible to PVY(O) infection among the 32 Korean cultivars. Transgenic 'Winter Valley' ('Winter Valley'-G) showed an increased resistance to PVY infection. This approach may ultimately lead to the development of a virus-resistant plant.

  8. Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung extract inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung Ah; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. cv Hongyoung (SH) is a widely consumed anthocyanin-rich food and medicinal plant, which possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. The present study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of SH extract on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by the topical application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice. SH extract was orally administered to the DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice. The anti-AD effects of SH extract were examined by measuring symptom severity; ear thickness; scratching behavior; serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E; T-helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels in the spleen; mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; and tissue infiltration of inflammatory cells. The results demonstrated that SH extract inhibited the development of AD-like lesions, and reduced IgE levels and the production of cytokines. Furthermore, SH extract significantly suppressed the expression of AD-associated mRNAs in lesional skin. Histological alterations in the AD-like lesions were visualized using hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining in the DNCB-treated group; the alterations were attenuated following SH treatment. In addition, thickening of the epidermis and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the DNCB-treated mice were suppressed by SH treatment. These results suggested that SH extract may suppress the development of AD symptoms through modulation of the Th1 and Th2 responses. PMID:27510042

  9. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Panter, K E; Gaffield, W; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    2005-02-01

    alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n=2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n=2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation embryo development. Furthermore, we suggest that ingestion of Solanum species containing toxic amounts of glycoalkaloids may have negative effects on pre-implantation embryonic survival.

  10. Fibrin(ogen)olytic and antiplatelet activities of a subtilisin-like protease from Solanum tuberosum (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alfonso; Frey, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Fernando; Fernández, María Belén; Pedraza, Anabela; Galbán, Gustavo; García, Diana Noemí; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Plant serine proteases have been widely used in food science and technology as well as in medicine. In this sense, several plant serine proteases have been proposed as potential anti-coagulants and anti-platelet agents. Previously, we have reported the purification and identification of a plant serine protease from Solanum tuberosum leaves. This potato enzyme, named as StSBTc-3, has a molecular weight of 72 kDa and it was characterized as a subtilisin like protease. In this work we determine and characterize the biochemical and medicinal properties of StSBTc-3. Results obtained show that, like the reported to other plant serine proteases, StSBTc-3 is able to degrade all chains of human fibrinogen and to produces fibrin clot lysis in a dose dependent manner. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzes β subunit followed by partially hydrolyzed α and γ subunits of human fibrinogen. Assays performed to determine StSBTc-3 substrate specificity using oxidized insulin β-chain as substrate, show seven cleavage sites: Asn3-Gln4; Cys7-Gly8; Glu13-Ala14; Leu15-Tyr16; Tyr16-Leu17; Arg22-Gly23 and Phe25-Tyr26, all of them were previously reported for other serine proteases with fibrinogenolytic activity. The maximum StSBTc-3 fibrinogenolytic activity was determined at pH 8.0 and at 37 C. Additionally, we demonstrate that StSBTc-3 is able to inhibit platelet aggregation and is unable to exert cytotoxic activity on human erythrocytes in vitro at all concentrations assayed. These results suggest that StSBTc-3 could be evaluated as a new agent to be used in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

  11. UV-C treatment on physiological response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during low temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Xie, Yajing; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Shuzhen; Xie, Xinfang; Guan, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    The storage of potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) at low temperatures minimizes sprouting and disease but can cause cold-induced sweetening (CIS), which leads to the production of the cancerogenic substance acrylamide during the frying processing. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of UV-C treatment on CIS in cold stored potato tuber. 'Atlantic' potatoes were treated with UV-C for an hour and then stored at 4 °C up to 28 days. The UV-C treatment significantly prevented the increase of malondialdehyde content (an indicator of the prevention of oxidative injury) in potato cells during storage. The accumulation of reducing sugars, particularly fructose and glucose, was significantly reduced by UV-C treatment possibly due to the regulation of the gene cascade, sucrose phosphate synthase, invertase inhibitor 1/3, and invertase 1 in potato tuber, which were observed to be differently expressed between treated and untreated potatoes during low temperature storage. In summary, UV-C treatment prevented the existence of oxidative injury in potato cells, thus, lowered the amount of reducing sugar accumulation during low temperature storage of potato tubers.

  12. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C K; Ghosh, C K

    2015-07-05

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles.

  13. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles.

  14. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ivanesa G M; Silva, Edvane B; Amaral, Ademir J; Machado, Erilane C L; Silva, Josenilda M

    2016-06-07

    This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L.), including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2) and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  15. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Multicystatin and Its Structural comparison with Other Cystatins[OA

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Mark S.; Kumar, G.N. Mohan; Youn, Buhyun; Knowles, D. Benjamin; Lam, Ka Sum; Ballinger, W. Jordan; Knowles, N. Richard; Kang, ChulHee

    2009-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) multicystatin (PMC) is a crystalline Cys protease inhibitor present in the subphellogen layer of potato tubers. It consists of eight tandem domains of similar size and sequence. Our in vitro results showed that the pH/PO4−-dependent oligomeric behavior of PMC was due to its multidomain nature and was not a characteristic of the individual domains. Using a single domain of PMC, which still maintains inhibitor activity, we identified a target protein of PMC, a putative Cys protease. In addition, our crystal structure of a representative repeating unit of PMC, PMC-2, showed structural similarity to both type I and type II cystatins. The N-terminal trunk, α-helix, and L2 region of PMC-2 were most similar to those of type I cystatins, while the conformation of L1 more closely resembled that of type II cystatins. The structure of PMC-2 was most similar to the intensely sweet protein monellin from Dioscorephyllum cumminisii (serendipity berry), despite a low level of sequence similarity. We present a model for the possible molecular organization of the eight inhibitory domains in crystalline PMC. The unique molecular properties of the oligomeric PMC crystal are discussed in relation to its potential function in regulating the activity of proteases in potato tubers. PMID:19304935

  16. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Multicystatin and the Significance of Core Domains[C

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abigail R.; Nissen, Mark S.; Kumar, G.N. Mohan; Knowles, N. Richard; Kang, ChulHee

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) multicystatin (PMC) is a unique cystatin composed of eight repeating units, each capable of inhibiting cysteine proteases. PMC is a composite of several cystatins linked by trypsin-sensitive (serine protease) domains and undergoes transitions between soluble and crystalline forms. However, the significance and the regulatory mechanism or mechanisms governing these transitions are not clearly established. Here, we report the 2.2-Å crystal structure of the trypsin-resistant PMC core consisting of the fifth, sixth, and seventh domains. The observed interdomain interaction explains PMC’s resistance to trypsin and pH-dependent solubility/aggregation. Under acidic pH, weakening of the interdomain interactions exposes individual domains, resulting in not only depolymerization of the crystalline form but also exposure of cystatin domains for inhibition of cysteine proteases. This in turn allows serine protease–mediated fragmentation of PMC, producing ∼10-kD domains with intact inhibitory capacity and faster diffusion, thus enhancing PMC’s inhibitory ability toward cysteine proteases. The crystal structure, light-scattering experiments, isothermal titration calorimetry, and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the critical role of pH and N-terminal residues in these dynamic transitions between monomer/polymer of PMC. Our data support a notion that the pH-dependent structural regulation of PMC has defense-related implications in tuber physiology via its ability to regulate protein catabolism. PMID:24363310

  17. Purification of a polyphenol oxidase isoform from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Marri, Costanza; Frazzoli, Alessandra; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Poggi, Valeria

    2003-08-01

    A different expression pattern of polyphenol oxidases has been observed during storage in cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) featuring different length of dormancy: a short-dormant cultivar showed, at the end of the dormancy, both the highest polyphenol oxidase activity and the largest number of enzyme isoforms. An isoform of polyphenol oxidase isolated at the end of the physiological dormancy from a short-dormant cultivar has been purified to homogeneity by means of column chromatography on phenyl Sepharose and on Superdex 200. The purification factor has been determined equal to 88, and the molecular mass of the purified isoform has been estimated to be 69 and 340 kDa by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 200, respectively, indicating this PPO isoform as a multimer. The corresponding zymogram features a diffused single band at the cathodic region of the gel and the pI of this polyphenol oxidase has been calculated equal to 6.5.

  18. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum multicystatin and its structural comparison with other cystatins.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Mark S; Kumar, G N Mohan; Youn, Buhyun; Knowles, D Benjamin; Lam, Ka Sum; Ballinger, W Jordan; Knowles, N Richard; Kang, Chulhee

    2009-03-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) multicystatin (PMC) is a crystalline Cys protease inhibitor present in the subphellogen layer of potato tubers. It consists of eight tandem domains of similar size and sequence. Our in vitro results showed that the pH/PO(4)(-)-dependent oligomeric behavior of PMC was due to its multidomain nature and was not a characteristic of the individual domains. Using a single domain of PMC, which still maintains inhibitor activity, we identified a target protein of PMC, a putative Cys protease. In addition, our crystal structure of a representative repeating unit of PMC, PMC-2, showed structural similarity to both type I and type II cystatins. The N-terminal trunk, alpha-helix, and L2 region of PMC-2 were most similar to those of type I cystatins, while the conformation of L1 more closely resembled that of type II cystatins. The structure of PMC-2 was most similar to the intensely sweet protein monellin from Dioscorephyllum cumminisii (serendipity berry), despite a low level of sequence similarity. We present a model for the possible molecular organization of the eight inhibitory domains in crystalline PMC. The unique molecular properties of the oligomeric PMC crystal are discussed in relation to its potential function in regulating the activity of proteases in potato tubers.

  19. Glycoalkaloid development during greening of fresh market potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Grunenfelder, Laura A; Knowles, Lisa O; Hiller, Larry K; Knowles, N Richard

    2006-08-09

    Chlorophyll and glycoalkaloid synthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers occur in direct response to light. The two processes are concurrent, but independent. Color photographic indices to subjectively grade fresh market potatoes for the extent of greening were developed under lighting conditions consistent with those of retail markets. Total glycoalkaloid (TGA) and chlorophyll accumulation for four cultivars were determined over the respective greening scales, thus calibrating the scales for TGA content. On average, TGA concentrations in complete longitudinal sections of tubers (flesh samples) were highest in Dark Red Norland followed by Russet Norkotah, Yukon Gold, and White Rose. TGA concentrations of flesh samples of White Rose and Yukon Gold tubers were somewhat variable and did not increase in direct proportion to greening level and chlorophyll content, particularly at higher levels of greening. TGA concentrations in Dark Red Norland and Russet Norkotah tubers were highly correlated (P < or = 0.001) with greening level and chlorophyll concentrations. When averaged over greening levels, skin samples contained 3.4- to 6.8-fold higher concentrations of TGAs than flesh samples, depending on the cultivar. The TGA concentration in periderm samples ranged from 37 to 160 mg/100 g of dry wt. Regardless of greening level, concentrations of TGAs in the flesh samples (including attached periderm) remained within limits presumed safe for human consumption. Discrimination of greened tubers on the basis of perceived glycoalkaloid toxicity is likely unfounded for the cultivars and greening levels studied.

  20. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition of Solanum bulbocastanum (+) S. tuberosum somatic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Iovene, Marina; Savarese, Salvatore; Cardi, Teodoro; Frusciante, Luigi; Scotti, Nunzia; Simon, Philipp W; Carputo, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    Somatic hybrids between the wild incongruent species Solanum bulbocastanum (2n = 2x = 24) and S. tuberosum haploids (2n = 2x = 24) have been characterized for their nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition. Cytologic observations revealed the recovery of 8 (near-)tetraploid and 3 hexaploid somatic hybrids. Multicolor genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis was carried out to study the genomic dosage of the parental species in 5 somatic hybrids with different ploidy. The GISH procedure used was effective in discriminating parental genomes in the hybrids; most chromosomes were unambiguously colored. Two (near-)tetraploid somatic hybrids showed the expected 2:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage; 2 hexaploids revealed a 4:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage, and 1 hexaploid had a 2:4 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage. Characterization of hybrid cytoplasmic genomes was performed using gene-specific primers that detected polymorphisms between the fusion parents in the intergenic regions. The analysis showed that most of the somatic hybrids inherited the plastidial and mitochondrial DNA of the cultivated parent. A few hybrids, with a rearranged mitochondrial genome (showing fragments derived from both parents), were also identified. These results confirmed the potential of somatic hybridization in producing new variability for genetic studies and breeding.

  1. Proteomic evaluation of wound-healing processes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Inês; Pinheiro, Carla; Paiva, Jorge A P; Planchon, Sébastien; Sergeant, Kjell; Renaut, Jenny; Graça, José A; Costa, Gonçalo; Coelho, Ana V; Ricardo, Cândido P Pinto

    2009-09-01

    Proteins from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber slices, related to the wound-healing process, were separated by 2-DE and identified by an MS analysis in MS and MS/MS mode. Slicing triggered differentiation processes that lead to changes in metabolism, activation of defence and cell-wall reinforcement. Proteins related to storage, cell growth and division, cell structure, signal transduction, energy production, disease/defence mechanisms and secondary metabolism were detected. Image analysis of the 2-DE gels revealed a time-dependent change in the complexity of the polypeptide patterns. By microscopic observation the polyalyphatic domain of suberin was clearly visible by D4, indicating that a closing layer (primary suberisation) was formed by then. A PCA of the six sampling dates revealed two time phases, D0-D2 and D4-D8, with a border position between D2 and D4. Moreover, a PCA of differentially expressed proteins indicated the existence of a succession of proteomic events leading to wound-periderm reconstruction. Some late-expressed proteins (D6-D8), including a suberisation-associated anionic peroxidase, have also been identified in the native periderm. Despite this, protein patterns of D8 slices and native periderm were still different, suggesting that the processes of wound-periderm formation are extended in time and not fully equivalent. The information presented in this study gives clues for further work on wound healing-periderm formation processes.

  2. Metabolic regulation of pathways of carbohydrate oxidation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Danilo C; Oliver, Sandra N; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Geigenberger, Peter; Machado, Daniel N; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Silva, Marco A P; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2008-08-01

    In the present article we evaluate the consequence of tuber-specific expression of yeast invertase, on the pathways of carbohydrate oxidation, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree). We analysed the relative rates of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway that these lines exhibited as well as the relative contributions of the cytochrome and alternative pathways of mitochondrial respiration. Enzymatic and protein abundance analysis revealed concerted upregulation of the glycolytic pathway and of specific enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the alternative oxidase but invariant levels of enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and proteins of the cytochrome pathway. When taken together these experiments suggest that the overexpression of a cytosolic invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) results in a general upregulation of carbohydrate oxidation with increased flux through both the glycolytic and oxidative pentose phosphate pathways as well as the cytochrome and alternative pathways of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover these data suggest that the upregulation of respiration is a consequence of enhanced efficient mitochondrial metabolism.

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Paola; Carafa, Vincenzo; Grassi, Roberto; Basile, Adriana; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Altucci, Lucia

    2013-05-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte is a potato variety widely used for human consumption. The pigments responsible for its attractive color belong to the class of anthocyanins. The objectives of this study were to characterize and measure the concentration of anthocyanins in pigmented potatoes and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their anti-proliferative effects in solid and hematological cancer cell lines. Anthocyanins exert anti-bacterial activity against different bacterial strains and a slight activity against three fungal strains. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Rhyzoctonia solani were the most affected microorganisms. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP methods; the extract showed a higher reducing capability than anti-radical activity. Moreover, we found that in different cancer cell models the anthocyanins cause inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. These biological activities are likely due to the high content of malvidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside and petunidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside.

  4. Metabolic Biosynthesis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum l.) Antioxidants and Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Lovat, Christie; Nassar, Atef M K; Kubow, Stan; Li, Xiu-Qing; Donnelly, Danielle J

    2016-10-25

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is common, affordable, readily stored, easily prepared for consumption, and nutritious. For these reasons, potato has become one of the top five crops consumed worldwide. Consequently, it is important to understand its contribution to both our daily and long-term health. Potato is one of the most important sources of antioxidants in the human diet. As such, it supports the antioxidant defense network in our bodies that reduces cellular and tissue toxicities that result from free radical-induced protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and DNA damage. In this way, potato antioxidants may reduce the risk for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even radiation damage. A better understanding of these components of potato is needed by the food industry, health professionals, and consumers. This review provides referenced summaries of all of the antioxidant groups present in potato tubers and updated schematics including genetic regulation for the major antioxidant biosynthesis pathways. This review complements current knowledge on the role of potato in human health. We hope it will provide impetus toward breeding efforts to develop cultivars with increased antioxidant capacity as 'functional foods' and encourage potato consumers and processors to work toward preservation of antioxidant capacity in cooked potato and potato products.

  5. The subunit structure of potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase. [Solanum tuberosum L

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, T.W.; Nakata, P.A.; Anderson, J.M. ); Sowokinos, J. ); Morell, M.; Preiss, J. )

    1990-06-01

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase has been extensively purified from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber tissue to study its structure. By employing a modified published procedure together with Mono Q chromatography, a near homogeneous enzyme preparation was obtained with substantial improvement in enzyme yield and specific activity. In single dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, the enzyme migrated as a single polypeptide band with a mobility of about 50,000 daltons. Analysis by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, however, revealed the presence of two types of subunits which could be distinguished by their slight differences in net charge and molecular weight. The smaller potato tuber subunit was recognized by antiserum prepared against the smaller spinach leaf 51 kilodalton ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase subunit. In contrast, the anti-54 kilodalton raised against the spinach leaf subunit did not significantly react to the tuber enzyme subunits. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase is not composed of a simple homotetramer as previously suggested, but is a product of two separate and distinct subunits as observed for the spinach leaf and maize enzymes.

  6. Generation and Inheritance of Targeted Mutations in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using the CRISPR/Cas System.

    PubMed

    Butler, Nathaniel M; Atkins, Paul A; Voytas, Daniel F; Douches, David S

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) offers an alternative approach to conventional genetic engineering and an opportunity to extend the benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture. Currently available SSN platforms, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas)) have been used in a range of plant species for targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are just beginning to be explored in crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum L.). In this study, CRISPR/Cas reagents expressing one of two single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (StALS1) gene were tested for inducing targeted mutations in callus and stable events of diploid and tetraploid potato using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either a conventional T-DNA or a modified geminivirus T-DNA. The percentage of primary events with targeted mutations ranged from 3-60% per transformation and from 0-29% above an expected threshold based on the number of ALS alleles. Primary events with targeted mutation frequencies above the expected threshold were used for mutation cloning and inheritance studies using clonal propagation and crosses or selfing. Four of the nine primary events used for mutation cloning had more than one mutation type, and eight primary events contained targeted mutations that were maintained across clonal generations. Somatic mutations were most evident in the diploid background with three of the four primary events having more than two mutation types at a single ALS locus. Conversely, in the tetraploid background, four of the five candidates carried only one mutation type. Single targeted mutations were inherited through the germline of both diploid and tetraploid primary events with transmission percentages ranging from 87-100%. This demonstration

  7. Generation and Inheritance of Targeted Mutations in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using the CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Nathaniel M.; Atkins, Paul A.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Douches, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) offers an alternative approach to conventional genetic engineering and an opportunity to extend the benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture. Currently available SSN platforms, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems (Cas)) have been used in a range of plant species for targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are just beginning to be explored in crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum L.). In this study, CRISPR/Cas reagents expressing one of two single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (StALS1) gene were tested for inducing targeted mutations in callus and stable events of diploid and tetraploid potato using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either a conventional T-DNA or a modified geminivirus T-DNA. The percentage of primary events with targeted mutations ranged from 3–60% per transformation and from 0–29% above an expected threshold based on the number of ALS alleles. Primary events with targeted mutation frequencies above the expected threshold were used for mutation cloning and inheritance studies using clonal propagation and crosses or selfing. Four of the nine primary events used for mutation cloning had more than one mutation type, and eight primary events contained targeted mutations that were maintained across clonal generations. Somatic mutations were most evident in the diploid background with three of the four primary events having more than two mutation types at a single ALS locus. Conversely, in the tetraploid background, four of the five candidates carried only one mutation type. Single targeted mutations were inherited through the germline of both diploid and tetraploid primary events with transmission percentages ranging from 87–100%. This

  8. Novel somatic hybrids (Solanum tuberosum L.+Solanum tarnii) and their fertile BC1 progenies express extreme resistance to potato virus Y and late blight.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Antonova, Olga; Schubert, Jörg; Nachtigall, Marion; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Solanum tarnii, a wild diploid, tuber-bearing Mexican species belonging to the series Pinnatisecta is highly resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY) and Colorado potato beetle and shows a strong hypersensitive reaction to Phytophthora infestans. Therefore, it could be a potential source of resistance to pathogens for potato breeders. S. tarnii (2n=2x=24) is reproductively isolated from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum and hence difficult to include in potato breeding programmes. In this study, interspecific somatic hybrids were produced for the first time by protoplast electrofusion of the cells of potato cv. Delikat (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Solanum tarnii. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Selected somatic hybrids were successfully backcrossed with cv. Delikat. Parental lines, primary somatic hybrids and BC1 progeny were assessed for resistance to PVY by mechanical inoculation, grafting and exposure to viruliferous aphid vectors in the field, and resistance to late blight (P. infestans) by detached leaflet and whole tuber tests. The somatic hybrids showed no symptoms of viral infection and most of them displayed high levels of resistance to foliage blight. The BC1 progenies were highly resistant to PVY and a few were resistant to foliage blight. Selected hybrids and BC1 clones were evaluated in the field for tuber quality and tuber yield. Some BC1 clones produced yields of good quality tubers. The results confirm that both the resistance to PVY and to late blight of S. tarnii is expressed in somatic hybrids, and PVY resistance is transferred to BC1 progeny, whereas blight resistance is harder to transfer. Somatic hybridization again proved to be a valuable tool for producing pre-breeding material with increased genetic diversity.

  9. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter∷GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs.

  10. Growth, yield and tuber quality of Solanum tuberosum L. under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation at different NPK levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Kumari, R; Agrawal, M; Agrawal, S B

    2011-05-01

    In many areas, decreases in the stratospheric ozone layer have resulted in an increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315 nm) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. The present study was conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B) and mineral nutrients on a tuber crop, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. var Kufri Badshah), under natural field conditions in a dry tropical environment. The nutrient treatments were the recommended dose of NPK (F(o)), 1.5 times the recommended dose of NPK (F(1)), 1.5 times the recommended dose of N (F(2)) and 1.5 times the recommended dose of K (F(3)). The response of potato plants to sUV-B varied with nutrient treatment and concentration. sUV-B adversely affected growth, yield and quality of tubers, causing an increase in reducing sugars in the tubers and thus reducing the economic value. Growth and fresh weight of tubers was maximal with sUV-B at 1.5 times recommended NPK, but the dry weight of tubers were highest with the recommended NPK dose. Reducing sugar content was lower in potato plants treated with sUV-B and the recommended NPK than with sUV-B and 1.5 times the recommended NPK. This study thus clearly shows that growing potato with 1.5 times the recommended NPK or 1.5 times the recommended dose of N/K does not alleviate the sUV-B induced changes in yield and quality of tubers compared to the recommended NPK dose.

  11. Transformation of Solanum tuberosum plastids allows high expression levels of β-glucuronidase both in leaves and microtubers developed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Segretin, María Eugenia; Lentz, Ezequiel Matías; Wirth, Sonia Alejandra; Morgenfeld, Mauro Miguel; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando Félix

    2012-04-01

    Plastid genome transformation offers an attractive methodology for transgene expression in plants, but for potato, only expression of gfp transgene (besides the selective gene aadA) has been published. We report here successful expression of β-glucuronidase in transplastomic Solanum tuberosum (var. Desiree) plants, with accumulation levels for the recombinant protein of up to 41% of total soluble protein in mature leaves. To our knowledge, this is the highest expression level reported for a heterologous protein in S. tuberosum. Accumulation of the recombinant protein in soil-grown minitubers was very low, as described in previous reports. Interestingly, microtubers developed in vitro showed higher accumulation of β-glucuronidase. As light exposure during their development could be the trigger for this high accumulation, we analyzed the effect of light on β-glucuronidase accumulation in transplastomic tubers. Exposure to light for 8 days increased β-glucuronidase accumulation in soil-grown tubers, acting as a light-inducible expression system for recombinant protein accumulation in tuber plastids. In this paper we show that plastid transformation in potato allows the highest recombinant protein accumulation in foliar tissue described so far for this food crop. We also demonstrate that in tubers high accumulation is possible and depends on light exposure. Because tubers have many advantages as protein storage organs, these results could lead to new recombinant protein production schemes based on potato.

  12. Stable expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein VP1 fused with cholera toxin B subunit in the potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    He, Dong-Mei; Qian, Kai-Xian; Shen, Gui-Fang; Li, Yi-Nü; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Su, Zhong-Liang; Shao, Hong-Bo

    2007-04-01

    The expression vector, pBI121CTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructed by fused PCR and transferred into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformed plants were obtained by selecting on kanamycin-resistant medium strictly and regenerated. The transgenic plantlets were identified by PCR, Southern-blot and the production of fused protein was confirmed and quantified by Western-blot and ELISA assays. The results showed that the fused genes were expressed stablely under the control of specific-tuber patatin promoter. The expressed fused proteins have a certain degree of immunogenicity.

  13. Selection of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Analysis of Edible Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C. B.; Van Dijk, Jeroen P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples. PMID:25830330

  14. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin.

  15. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  16. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications.

  17. Induction of terata in hamsters by solanidane alkaloids derived from Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Gaffield, W; Keeler, R F

    1996-03-01

    The potential induction of terata by solanidanes has been of public health concern since a report in 1972 hypothesized that certain birth defects in humans could be attributed to ingestion of blighted potatoes. The potential teratogenicity of solanidane alkaloids from potatoes and tomatoes in domestic livestock had been considered even earlier. In the present report, oral administration of the steroidal alkaloid glycosides alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine and their aglycone solanidine is shown to induce craniofacial malformations (exencephaly, encephalocele, and anophthalmia) in Syrian hamsters. All three alkaloids, that were either isolated or obtained by hydrolysis from Solanum tuberosum (var. Kennebec) sprouts, possessed the 22-(R),25(S)-configuration in the indolizidine moiety with no other isomers present. Toxicity constraints precluded administration of dosages high enough to induce statistically significant levels of terata in litters dosed with alpha-chaconine and permitted the attainment of only marginal statistical significance for alpha-solanine. However, malformation induction at p < 0.005 was observed in litters upon dosing both the nontoxic aglycone solanidine and the derivative solanidine N-oxide at higher levels. The relatively high teratogenicity of nontoxic solanidine, compared to the glycosides, demonstrates that terata induction by solanidanes is not due to maternal toxicity nor is the oligosaccharide portion of steroidal alkaloid glycosides required to facilitate passage of the teratogen to the fetus. The teratogenicity of solanidine N-oxide, a putative metabolite, suggests that N-oxidation is not an effective mammalian detoxification pathway. Relative teratogenic potencies (RTP) were assigned to solanidanes by conversion of literature data to equimolar doses compared to the powerful Veratrum teratogen jervine and the nonteratogenic spirosolane tomatidine. RTP values are as follows: jervine (100), 22(S),-25(R)-solanidanes (50), alpha

  18. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S M; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+) homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+) levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+) concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+) shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+) accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+) points to a role of stem Na(+) accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+) accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+) transport to the leaves.

  19. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  20. Characterization of three members of the ACC synthase gene family in Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Destéfano-Beltrán, L J; van Caeneghem, W; Gielen, J; Richard, L; van Montagu, M; van der Straeten, D

    1995-02-20

    Two genomic clones corresponding to three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) have been isolated and sequenced. Two highly homologous genes, ST-ACS1A and ST-ACS1B, transcribed in opposite directions were found in an 8.9 kb region. Their coding sequences are interrupted by two introns at identical positions. Their closest relative in tomato is the LE-ACS3 gene. The third gene in potato, ST-ACS2, was found in a 4 kb region and shows a gene structure similar to that of the tomato LE-ACS4 gene and to the mung bean VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5 genes. Based on its lack of significant homology to the tomato gene family and its closeness to the VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5 genes, we propose that LE-ACS7 represents an additional isoform in the tomato genome. Moreover, in a phylogenetic comparison of known ACC synthases, the ST-ACS2 isoform was grouped in a separate lineage together with the mung bean VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5, and the moth orchid DS-ACS1A and DS-ACS1B gene products. Expression of the three potato genes was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on total RNA. The twin genes are positively regulated by indole-3-acetic acid in hypocotyls and expression is modulated by wounding in the leaves. The third gene is responsive to ethylene and wounding mainly in tubers. The roles of these three genes and of other members of the ACC synthase gene family in vegetative processes of potato such as tuberization, dormancy, and sprouting have yet to be determined.

  1. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    PubMed

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  2. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F. ); Sharkey, T.D. ); Seemann, J.R. )

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  3. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  4. First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ subgroup 16SrI-A associated with a disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of little leaf, witches’-broom, and abnormally small and deformed potatoes, suggestive of possible phytoplasmal infection, were observed in diseased potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Hannibal arba Kestrel) in the Vilnius region of Lithuania. DNA extracted from symptomatic leaves and shoots we...

  5. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção assima de 250% em médio da duas misturas. 12. Numero de tuberculos 0-20 mm e 20 mm- por planta com os manejos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 foi possível aumentar em media 200% sobre a mistura padrão. Os manejo de 18.0 grama de adubo vaso-1 já causaram importante diminuição em relação caso a absoluto controle. 13. Numero total de tuberculos por planta entre manejos foi melhor a dosagem de 7.2 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K comparando da mistura padrão. Nos verificamos-se que a mistura padrão sempre deu menor rasultados do que as outras misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2). Entre as misturas 1 e 2 a melhor foi a número 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Com esta mistura e com relação a mistura padrão, foi possível aumentar o número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com 77%. No caso do adubação, verificamos que grande quantidades de adubo acima de 7.2 grama vaso-1, de modo rigoroso diminuiu a produção de batata-semente pré- básica. Este fato deve ser considerado para a eleição das dosagens de adubos. Deve-se indicar o caso de número de tuberculos acima 20 mm-, onde em relação mistura padrão foi possivel aumentar em média 73% os resultados. Reconhecimento: Esta pesquisa foi apoio da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, Brasília-DF e Centro Pesquisa de Solo e Agroquímica do Academia Húngara de Ciências, Budapest References Kádár I-Márton L.-Horváth S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. Kurnik E.-Németh T.-Márton L.-Radimszki L. 2001. Effects of a new environment friendly deep fertilization system on a limy chernozem soil parameters. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press László M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81

  6. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  7. Histological analysis of the maturation of native and wound periderm in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Tuber.

    PubMed

    Sabba, Robert P; Lulai, Edward C

    2002-07-01

    Maturation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber native and wound periderm and development of resistance to periderm abrasion were investigated utilizing cytological and histochemical techniques. Both native and wound periderm consist of three different tissues: phellem, phellogen and phelloderm. It was previously determined that the phellogen walls of immature native periderm are thin and prone to fracture during harvest, leading to periderm abrasion (excoriation). Phellogen walls thicken and become less susceptible to fracture upon maturation of the periderm, leading to resistance to excoriation. We now demonstrate that phellogen cells of immature wound periderm also have thin radial walls and that wound periderm abrasion is due to fracture of these walls. Maturation of the wound periderm is also associated with an increase in the thickness of the phellogen radial walls. Histological analysis with ruthenium red and hydroxylamine-FeCI2, which stain unesterified and highly methyl-esterified pectins, respectively, indicates that the phellogen cell walls of native and wound periderm differ significantly regardless of the stage of maturity. Results obtained by staining with ruthenium red and hydroxylamine-FeCI2 imply that phellogen cell walls of immature native periderm contain methyl-esterified pectin, but are lacking in unesterified (acidic) pectins. Maturation of native periderm is accompanied by an apparent increase in unesterified pectins in the walls of phellogen cells, which may allow for the strengthening of phellogen cell walls via calcium pectate formation. Histological staining of the phellogen walls of wound periderm, on the other hand, implies that these walls are deficient in pectins. Moreover, maturation of wound periderm is not accompanied by an increase in unesterified pectins in these walls. Since peroxidase is known to catalyse the cross-linking of cell wall polymers, we stained native and wound periderm for the presence of peroxidase utilizing

  8. Reduction of the plastidial phosphorylase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals impact on storage starch structure during growth at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Orawetz, Tom; Malinova, Irina; Orzechowski, Slawomir; Fettke, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), one of the most important crops, are a prominent example for an efficient production of storage starch. Nevertheless, the synthesis of this storage starch is not completely understood. The plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1; EC 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of glucosyl residues from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of α-glucans with the release of orthophosphate. Thus, the enzyme is in principle able to act during starch synthesis. However, so far under normal growth conditions no alterations in tuber starch metabolism were observed. Based on analyses of other species and also from in vitro experiments with potato tuber slices it was supposed, that Pho1 has a stronger impact on starch metabolism, when plants grow under low temperature conditions. Therefore, we analyzed the starch content, granule size, as well as the internal structure of starch granules isolated from potato plants grown under low temperatures. Besides wild type, transgenic potato plants with a strong reduction in the Pho1 activity were analyzed. No significant alterations in starch content and granule size were detected. In contrast, when plants were cultivated at low temperatures the chain length distributions of the starch granules were altered. Thus, the granules contained more short glucan chains. That was not observed in the transgenic plants, revealing that Pho1 in wild type is involved in the formation of the short glucan chains, at least at low temperatures.

  9. Alternative oxidase of potato is an integral membrane protein synthesized de novo during aging of tuber slices. [Solanum tuberosum

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, C.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The rise in alternative respiratory capacity upon aging of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices is correlated with changes in mitochondrial membrane protein composition and a requirement for cytoplasmic protein synthesis. However, the lack of an antibody specific to the alternative oxidase has, until recently, prevented examination of the alternative oxidase protein(s) itself. We have employed a monoclonal antibody raised against the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase to investigate developmental changes in the alternative pathway of aging potato slice mitochondria and to characterize the potato alternative oxidase by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The relative levels of a 36 kilodalton protein parallel the rise in alternative path capacity. A plausible interpretation is that this alternative oxidase protein is synthesized de novo during aging of potato slices.

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0

  11. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Gogu valley) protein as a novel antimicrobial agent in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z; Yang, Y X; Choi, J Y; Shinde, P L; Yoon, S Y; Hahn, T-W; Lim, H T; Park, Y; Hahm, K-S; Joo, J W; Chae, B J

    2008-07-01

    A total of 280 weaned pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc) were used in a 28-d growth study to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of potato proteins on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune response, small intestinal morphology, and bacterial populations in feces and large intestine. Pigs (initially 6.42 +/- 0.74 kg of BW and 23 +/- 3 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW, each treatment composed of 4 pens, each pen having 14 pigs. Dietary treatments included positive control (PC; basal diet + 150 mg/kg apramycin and 10 mg/ kg colistin sulfate); and potato protein (PP), consisting of the basal diet with 0, 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75% of potato protein. Diets were fed in 2 phases: phase I (d 0 to 14 postweaning) and phase 2 (d 14 to 28 postweaning). Potato protein was extracted from a value-added type of the new potato variety, Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Gogu valley, and was shown to have a minimum inhibitory concentration of 300 to 500 mug/mL. Performance of PC was compared with 0.25 to 0.75% PP, whereas linear and quadratic trends of increasing PP (0 to 0.75% PP) were tested. Over the 28-d trial, pigs fed the PC diets showed improved overall ADG (P < 0.05) and G:F (P = 0.090) compared with pigs fed PP, whereas increasing levels of PP linearly improved ADG (P < 0.05), ADFI (P = 0.052), and G:F (P = 0.098). The digestibility of DM and CP in both the phases was greater in PC than PP, and feeding of PP linearly improved the DM digestibility (P < 0.05) in phase II. The bacterial populations in the feces of pigs fed PC and PP were comparable, except for total bacteria and coliform bacteria in the feces at d 14 and 28, which were decreased in PC; and feeding of PP was effective in linearly reducing the populations of microbes in feces and contents of cecum, colon, and rectum. There was linear increase (P < 0.10) in skin-fold thickness in response to phytohemagglutinin with an increase in PP levels. Haemagglutinin titers on

  12. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  13. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  14. The sub-cellular localisation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes, CrtRb2 and PSY2.

    PubMed

    Pasare, Stefania; Wright, Kathryn; Campbell, Raymond; Morris, Wayne; Ducreux, Laurence; Chapman, Sean; Bramley, Peter; Fraser, Paul; Roberts, Alison; Taylor, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoids with important biological roles both for plants and animals. The yellow flesh colour of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers is a quality trait dependent on the types and levels of carotenoids that accumulate. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is well characterised, facilitating the successful engineering of carotenoid content in numerous crops including potato. However, a clear understanding concerning the factors regulating carotenoid accumulation and localisation in plant storage organs, such as tubers, is lacking. In the present study, the localisation of key carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes was investigated, as one of the unexplored factors that could influence the accumulation of carotenoids in potato tubers. Stable transgenic potato plants were generated by over-expressing β-CAROTENE HYDROXYLASE 2 (CrtRb2) and PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 2 (PSY2) genes, fused to red fluorescent protein (RFP). Gene expression and carotenoid levels were both significantly increased, confirming functionality of the fluorescently tagged proteins. Confocal microscopy studies revealed different sub-organellar localisations of CrtRb2-RFP and PSY2-RFP within amyloplasts. CrtRb2 was detected in small vesicular structures, inside amyloplasts, whereas PSY2 was localised in the stroma of amyloplasts. We conclude that it is important to consider the location of biosynthetic enzymes when engineering the carotenoid metabolic pathway in storage organs such as tubers.

  15. Genome Reduction Uncovers a Large Dispensable Genome and Adaptive Role for Copy Number Variation in Asexually Propagated Solanum tuberosum[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hardigan, Michael A.; Crisovan, Emily; Hamilton, John P.; Laimbeer, Parker; Leisner, Courtney P.; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C.; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M.; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Zeng, Zixian; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Clonally reproducing plants have the potential to bear a significantly greater mutational load than sexually reproducing species. To investigate this possibility, we examined the breadth of genome-wide structural variation in a panel of monoploid/doubled monoploid clones generated from native populations of diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum), a highly heterozygous asexually propagated plant. As rare instances of purely homozygous clones, they provided an ideal set for determining the degree of structural variation tolerated by this species and deriving its minimal gene complement. Extensive copy number variation (CNV) was uncovered, impacting 219.8 Mb (30.2%) of the potato genome with nearly 30% of genes subject to at least partial duplication or deletion, revealing the highly heterogeneous nature of the potato genome. Dispensable genes (>7000) were associated with limited transcription and/or a recent evolutionary history, with lower deletion frequency observed in genes conserved across angiosperms. Association of CNV with plant adaptation was highlighted by enrichment in gene clusters encoding functions for environmental stress response, with gene duplication playing a part in species-specific expansions of stress-related gene families. This study revealed unique impacts of CNV in a species with asexual reproductive habits and how CNV may drive adaption through evolution of key stress pathways. PMID:26772996

  16. Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Candice N; Hirsch, Cory D; Felcher, Kimberly; Coombs, Joseph; Zarka, Dan; Van Deynze, Allen; De Jong, Walter; Veilleux, Richard E; Jansky, Shelley; Bethke, Paul; Douches, David S; Buell, C Robin

    2013-06-21

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, has been bred for distinct market classes, including fresh market, pigmented, and processing varieties. Breeding efforts have relied on phenotypic selection of populations developed from intra- and intermarket class crosses and introgressions of wild and cultivated Solanum relatives. To retrospectively explore the effects of potato breeding at the genome level, we used 8303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to genotype a 250-line diversity panel composed of wild species, genetic stocks, and cultivated potato lines with release dates ranging from 1857 to 2011. Population structure analysis revealed four subpopulations within the panel, with cultivated potato lines grouping together and separate from wild species and genetic stocks. With pairwise kinship estimates clear separation between potato market classes was observed. Modern breeding efforts have scarcely changed the percentage of heterozygous loci or the frequency of homozygous, single-dose, and duplex loci on a genome level, despite concerted efforts by breeders. In contrast, clear selection in less than 50 years of breeding was observed for alleles in biosynthetic pathways important for market class-specific traits such as pigmentation and carbohydrate composition. Although improvement and diversification for distinct market classes was observed through whole-genome analysis of historic and current potato lines, an increased rate of gain from selection will be required to meet growing global food demands and challenges due to climate change. Understanding the genetic basis of diversification and trait improvement will allow for more rapid genome-guided improvement of potato in future breeding efforts.

  17. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a more important throughout the world between field crops. As potato is such a potassium demanding crop, it is particularly important that the potassium fertilizers used should be correctly balanced. Applying the adequate quantity of balanced K- fertilizer is the first requirement for achieving optimum yield and doing so will result in potatoes of acceptable quality. Potato potassium nutrition has been studied at the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (RISSAC-HAS)- Experiment Station, Nagyhörcsök (chernozem soil) in a long term field experiment designed to determine NPK- nutrient requirements. The method of the experiment was 43 mixed factorial design with 64 treatments in 2 repetitions with 128 plots. The residual effects of K- levels brought about by build- up fertilization were studied. Potato were planted in 1978. The experimental dates were estimated by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). On the basis of foliar analysis at early flowering about 4.5 to 5.0% K in dry matter proved to be satisfactory for obtaining maximum yield (32.6 t/ha). The yields increased by 22%, 34%, and 38% at 124-140, 141-168 and 169-208 ppm soil AL- K2O rates, respectively. The tubers concentrated much N 19% and less P 81% than potassium. Results for tuber maximum uptake of potassium reached a maximum about 130 days after planting. The improvement of the K supply of the soil increased yield and induced low concentrations of numerous microelements on leaves considered to be important. Key words: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chernozem soil, potassium, yield Introduction Potato is an important food crop, more particularly in the temperate zone, especially in Europe and Asia. Between 1981 and 1995, in spite of an 18% decrease in cultivated area production increased by 13% because the average yield increased from 11.0 to 15.1 t/ha. Potato is a soil nutrients demanding crop

  18. Isolation and characterization of the organ-specific and light-inducible promoter of the gene encoding rubisco activase in potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Qu, D; Song, Y; Li, W M; Pei, X W; Wang, Z X; Jia, S R; Zhang, Y Q

    2011-04-12

    Constitutive promoters have been widely used in crop biotechnology applications. Tissue-specific or inducible promoters, however, have advantages in some cases. We isolated the 731-bp 5' flanking sequence of a potato (Solanum tuberosum) gene, encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase (RCA), which was isolated by genome walking. By using GUS as a reporter and with Northern blot analysis, the 702-bp fragment (referred to as StRCAp), ranging from nt -731 to -30 relative to the initiation code of the RCA gene, was analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants. The activity of StRCAp in leaves was 0.4-fold less than that of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and was expressed throughout the green part of the light-grown transgenic T(1) seedlings, including cytoledons, leaves and young stems, but not roots. Further deletion analysis revealed that a shorter fragment (nt -249 to -30, StRCAp2) retained light-inducible features in cytoledons and leaves, but showed no detectable activity in young stems and roots. Although the activity of StRCAp2 in leaves was reduced significantly compared with that of StRCAp, the overall data indicated that cis-elements sufficient to regulate organ-specific and light-inducible transcription are within the 220-bp fragment. There is potential for application of StRCAp in plant genetic engineering.

  19. Introduction of the carrot HSP17.7 into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) enhances cellular membrane stability and tuberization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Zimmerman, J Lynn

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the ability of a carrot (Daucus carota L.) heat shock protein gene encoding HSP17.7 (DcHSP17.7) to confer enhanced heat tolerance to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a cool-season crop. The DcHSP17.7 gene was fused to a 6XHistidine (His) tag to distinguish the engineered protein from endogenous potato proteins and was introduced into the potato cultivar 'Désirée' under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Western analysis showed that engineered DcHSP17.7 was constitutively, but not abundantly, expressed in transgenic potato lines before heat stress. Leaves from multiple regenerated potato lines that contain the transgene exhibited significantly improved cellular membrane stability at high temperatures, compared with wild-type and vector control plants. Transgenic potato lines also exhibited enhanced tuberization in vitro: under a condition of constant heat stress, at 29 degrees C, nodal sections of the transgenic lines produced larger and heavier microtubers at higher rates, compared to the wild type and vector controls. The dry weight and percentages of microtubers that were longer than 5 mm were up to three times higher in the transgenic lines. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of carrot HSP17.7 can enhance thermotolerance in transgenic potato plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that the thermotolerance of potato can be enhanced through gene transfer.

  20. Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

    2012-06-01

    Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who wish to generate novel varieties for a commercial purpose. The potential of non-Agrobacterium strains (Transbacter(™)) to modify a plant genome has previously been described. However, they are unlikely to be widely used without significant adjustments in transformation protocols in order to improve their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both Arabidopsis thaliana (0.12%) and potato (mean transformation frequency 35.1%). Thereafter, Ensifer adhaerens was used to generate blight- (causative organism Phytophthora infestans) resistant potato using the Solanum bulbocastanum 'resistance to blight' (RB) gene. Resistant genotypes were confirmed by associated molecular analysis and resistant phenotypes demonstrated by the development of hypersensitive lesions on inoculated leaf tissue post-pathogen inoculation. These data confirm the potential of Ensifer-mediated transformation (EMT) as a novel platform for the high frequency generation of transgenic potato.

  1. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    PubMed

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  2. Mapping the R10 and R11 genes for resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) present in the potato (Solanum tuberosum) R-gene differentials of black.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John E; Bryan, Glenn J; Lees, Alison K; McLean, Karen; Solomon-Blackburn, Ruth M

    2006-02-01

    The R10 and R11 late blight differentials of Black (tetraploid clones 3681ad1 and 5008ab6) were crossed with the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar Maris Piper and the progeny were assessed for blight resistance in a whole plant glasshouse test using race 1,2,3,4,6,7 of Phytophthora infestans. The disease scores for the R10 population displayed a continuous distribution whereas the progeny in the R11 population could be categorised as resistant or susceptible. A bulk segregant analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphism assays was done on the ten most resistant and ten most susceptible progeny in each population and two closely linked markers were found to be associated with resistance. R11 mapped to 8.5 cM from marker PAG/MAAG_172.3 and R10 mapped as a quantitative trait locus in which marker PAC/MATC_264.1 explained 56.9% of the variation in disease scores. The results were consistent with R10 and R11 being allelic versions of genes at the R3 locus on chromosome 11. The implications are discussed for mapping R-genes which fail to give complete immunity to a pathogen.

  3. Physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to partial root-zone drying: ABA signalling, leaf gas exchange, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fulai; Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias N; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian R

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Folva) to partial root-zone drying (PRD) were investigated in potted plants in a greenhouse (GH) and in plants grown in the field under an automatic rain-out-shelter. In the GH, irrigation was applied daily to the whole root system (FI), or to one-half of the root system while the other half was dried, for 9 d. In the field, the plants were drip irrigated either to the whole root system near field capacity (FI) or using 70% water of FI to one side of the roots, and shifted to the other side every 5-10 d (PRD). PRD plants had a similar midday leaf water potential to that of FI, whereas in the GH their root water potential (Psi(r)) was significantly lowered after 5 d. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) was more sensitive to PRD than photosynthesis (A) particularly in the field, leading to greater intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) (i.e. A/g(s)) in PRD than in FI plants on several days. In PRD, the xylem sap abscisic acid concentration ([ABA](xylem)) increased exponentially with decreasing Psi(r); and the relative [ABA](xylem) (PRD/FI) increased exponentially as the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) in the drying side decreased. In the field, the leaf area index was slightly less in PRD than in FI treatment, while tuber biomass was similar for the two treatments. Compared with FI, PRD treatment saved 30% water and increased crop water use efficiency (WUE) by 59%. Restrictions on leaf area expansion and g(s) by PRD-induced ABA signals might have contributed to reduced water use and increased WUE.

  4. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (p<0.05) and were consistently highest in T1 and lowest in T4. Mean cumulative soil loss reduced by 6.4, 13.3 and 24.4 t ha-1from T2, T3 and T4 respectively compared to sole potato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, p<0.05). Statistically significant linear dependence of runoff and soil loss on surface roughness and crop cover was found in T4 (p<0.05) indicating that this system was highly effective in minimizing soil loss and runoff. Enrichment ratio was on average

  5. Structural studies of the carbohydrate moieties of lectins from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and thorn-apple (Datura stramonium) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, David; Desai, Nila N.; Allen, Anthony K.; Neuberger, Albert; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Selvendran, Robert R.

    1982-01-01

    1. Methylation analysis of potato (Solanum tuberosum) lectin and thorn-apple (Datura stramonium) lectin confirmed previous conclusions that both glycoproteins contained high proportions of l-arabinofuranosides and lesser amounts of d-galactopyranosides. The arabinofuranosides are present in both lectins as short unbranched chains containing 1→2- and 1→3-linkages, which are known to be linked to hydroxyproline. Galactopyranosides are present as monosaccharides, which are known to be attached to serine, in potato lectin and as both the monosaccharide and the 1→3-linked disaccharide in Datura lectin. 2. Alkaline digestion of potato lectin and subsequent separation of the components by gel filtration led to the isolation of four fractions corresponding to the mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-arabinosides of hydroxyproline. The latter two fractions accounted for over 70% of the total hydroxyproline. 3. Methylation analysis was used to show that the triarabinoside contained only 1→2-linkages between sugars, but that the tetra-arabinoside contained both 1→2- and 1→3-linkages. Direct-insertion mass spectrometry of these compounds using electron impact and chemical ionization, in a comparison with other known structural patterns, was used to determine the sequences of the sugars, which were Araƒ1→2Araƒ1→2Araƒ1→Hyp and Araƒ1→3Araƒ1→2Araƒ1→2Araƒ 1→Hyp. 4. On the basis of optical rotation it had previously been suggested [Allen, Desai, Neuberger & Creeth (1978) Biochem. J. 171, 665–674] that all the arabinose of potato lectin was present as the β-l-furanoside. However, measurement of the optical rotations of the hydroxyprolyl arabinosides showed that whereas the diarabinoside had a molar rotation ([m]) value close to that predicted, the triarabinoside was more dextrorotatory and the tetra-arabinoside was less dextrorotatory than expected. Possible explanations for these findings are that, although the di- and tri-arabinosides contain exclusively

  6. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in increased levels of starch, ADPglucose and UDPglucose and total yield.

    PubMed

    Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Montero, Manuel; Etxeberria, Ed; Sesma, María Teresa; Ovecka, Miroslav; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Ezquer, Ignacio; Li, Jun; Prat, Salomé; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2009-09-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. To determine the impact of SuSy activity in starch metabolism and yield in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers we measured sugar levels and enzyme activities in tubers of SuSy-overexpressing potato plants grown in greenhouse and open field conditions. We also transcriptionally characterized tubers of SuSy-overexpressing and -antisensed potato plants. SuSy-overexpressing tubers exhibited a substantial increase in starch, UDPglucose and ADPglucose content when compared with controls. Tuber dry weight, starch content per plant and total yield of SuSy-overexpressing tubers increased significantly over those of control plants. In contrast, activities of enzymes directly involved in starch metabolism in SuSy-overexpressing tubers were normal when compared with controls. Transcriptomic analyses using POCI arrays and the MapMan software revealed that changes in SuSy activity affect the expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes, but not that of genes directly involved in starch metabolism. These analyses also revealed a reverse correlation between the expressions of acid invertase and SuSy-encoding genes, indicating that the balance between SuSy- and acid invertase-mediated sucrolytic pathways is a major determinant of starch accumulation in potato tubers. Results presented in this work show that SuSy strongly determines the intracellular levels of UDPglucose, ADPglucose and starch, and total yield in potato tubers. We also show that enhancement of SuSy activity represents a useful strategy for increasing starch accumulation and yield in potato tubers.

  7. Molecular characterization of StCDPK1, a calcium-dependent protein kinase from Solanum tuberosum that is induced at the onset of tuber development.

    PubMed

    Raíces, M; Chico, J M; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Ulloa, R M

    2001-07-01

    We isolated a full-length cDNA clone (StCDPK1) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) by screening a stolon tip cDNA library from potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA reveals a high degree of similarity with other members of the CDPK family except in the N-terminal region. As described for other CDPKs, StCDPK1 has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence. A coupled transcription/translation system was used to demonstrate that this post-translational modification occurs in vitro. The behaviour of the myristoylated form of StCDPK1 during its purification on a phenyl-Sepharose column mimics that of the endogenous potato enzyme suggesting that this modification occurs in vivo. In addition, a possible palmitoylation site is present in StCDPK1. Southern blot analysis suggests that more than one CDPK isoform is present in potato plants. Northern blot analysis of steady-state mRNA levels for StCDPK1 in different tissues of potato plants shows that the transcript is differentially expressed in tuberizing stolons. The transcript appears in the early steps of tuber formation before the induction of other genes, such as Pin2 and patatin. This result parallels previous data on CDPK activity in potato plants which was highest at the beginning of tuberization. Our results suggest that StCDPK1 is developmentally regulated. The early and transient expression of this CDPK isoform in the tuberization process suggests that this kinase could trigger a cascade of phosphorylation events involved in tuber induction.

  8. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum x S. sparsipilum located on chromosome I.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Christiansen, Jørgen

    2008-06-01

    New potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties are required to contain low levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids and a potential approach to obtain this is through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Before applying MAS it is necessary to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC(1) population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum(1)) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum(2) x S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA) after field trials. In addition, tubers were assayed for TGA content after exposure to light. A detailed analysis of segregation patterns indicated that a major QTL is responsible for the TGA content in tubers of this potato population. One highly significant QTL was mapped to chromosome I of the HAG and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were observed for tubers exposed to light. The simple sequence repeat marker STM5136 was closely linked to the identified QTL.

  9. Life-history parameters of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on seven commercial cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Seyed Ali Asghar; Fakhr-Taha, Zoha; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an important pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), crops in the Ardabil region of Iran. In this research, the life-history parameters of L. decemlineata were investigated on seven potato cultivars, namely Agria, Aozonia, Diamant, Cosmus, Kondor, Morene, and Savalan, in a greenhouse at 23 ± 1° C and 55 ± 5% RH under a natural photoperiod. The results indicated that the development time of larvae was longest on Savalan (18.3 days) among the tested potato cultivars. The survival rates (egg to adult) on Savalan and Morene were significantly lower than on the other studied cultivars. L. decemlineata reared on Savalan had the lowest fecundity (286.3 eggs/female) among the tested potato cultivars. The oviposition period of females was significantly shorter on Savalan and Diamant than on Kondor, Aozonia, Morene, Agria, and Cosmus. The values of intrinsic rate of natural increase and population growth rate were lowest on Savalan (0.055 and 1.056, respectively). The generation time and doubling time were significantly longest on Savalan (69.5 and 12.7 days, respectively). Based on these results, it can be concluded that Savalan is the least suitable cultivar for L. decemlineata among the ones tested. These results can be useful in integrated management of L. decemlineata in potato fields.

  10. Engineering the expression level of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate kinase in transgenic Solanum tuberosum roots alters growth, respiration and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; Rivoal, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity. Root growth, O2 uptake, flux of carbon between sucrose and CO2 , levels of reactive oxygen species and some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were positively correlated with levels of NDPK1 expression. In addition, NDPK1 levels positively affected UDP-glucose and cellulose contents. The activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was higher in antisense roots than in roots overexpressing NDPK1. Further analyses demonstrated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was more oxidized, and therefore less active, in sense clones than antisense clones. Consequently, antisense NDPK1 roots accumulated more starch and the starch to cellulose ratio was negatively affected by the level of NDPK1. These data support the idea that modulation of NDPK1 affects the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose biosynthetic pathways.

  11. Effect of irradiance, sucrose, and CO2 concentration on the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorio, Neil C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Weigel, Russell C.

    1995-01-01

    Growth measurements were taken of potato plantlets (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland (NL), Denali (DN), and Kennebec (KN), grown in vitro. Studies were conducted in a growth chamber, with nodal explants grown for 21 days on Murashige and Skoog salts with either 0, 1, 2, or 3% sucrose and capped with loose-fitted Magenta 2-way caps that allowed approximately 2.25 air exchanges/hour. Plantlets were exposed to either 100 or 300 micro mol/sq m/s photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and the growth chamber was maintained at either 400 or 4000 micro mol/mol CO2. Regardless of PPF, all cvs. that were grown at 4000 micro mol/mol CO2 showed significant increases in total plantlet dry weight (TDW) and shoot length (SL) when sucrose was omitted from the media, indicating an autotrophic response. At 400 micro mol/mol CO2, all cvs. showed an increase in TDW and SL with increasing sucrose under both PPF levels. Within any sucrose treatment, the highest TDW for all cvs. resulted from 300 micro mol/sq m/s PPF and 4000 micro mol/mol CO2 At 4000 micro mol/mol CO2, TDW showed no further increase with sucrose levels above 1% for cvs. NL and DN at both PPF levels, suggesting that sucrose levels greater than 1% may hinder growth when CO2 enrichment is used.

  12. Genetic diversity and association mapping in the Colombian Central Collection of Solanum tuberosum L. Andigenum group using SNPs markers

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Cely, Jhon; Valbuena, Raúl Iván; Sánchez-Betancourt, Erika; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2017-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth most important crop food in the world and Colombia has one of the most important collections of potato germplasm in the world (the Colombian Central Collection-CCC). Little is known about its potential as a source of genetic diversity for molecular breeding programs. In this study, we analyzed 809 Andigenum group accessions from the CCC using 5968 SNPs to determine: 1) the genetic diversity and population structure of the Andigenum germplasm and 2) the usefulness of this collection to map qualitative traits across the potato genome. The genetic structure analysis based on principal components, cluster analyses, and Bayesian inference revealed that the CCC can be subdivided into two main groups associated with their ploidy level: Phureja (diploid) and Andigena (tetraploid). The Andigena population was more genetically diverse but less genetically substructured than the Phureja population (three vs. five subpopulations, respectively). The association mapping analysis of qualitative morphological data using 4666 SNPs showed 23 markers significantly associated with nine morphological traits. The present study showed that the CCC is a highly diverse germplasm collection genetically and phenotypically, useful to implement association mapping in order to identify genes related to traits of interest and to assist future potato genetic breeding programs. PMID:28257509

  13. The effect of packaging material and storage period on microwave-dried potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cubes.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Shahrzad; Ziaolhagh, Hamid Reza; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Heydari-Majd, Mojtaba; Tajali, Rohallah; Nezarat, Somayeh; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-06-01

    The effect of three packaging materials (transparent biaxially oriented polypropylene laminate (BOPP); semi-transparent BOPP; polyethylene-polyamide (PE-PA) laminate) in three packaging conditions (vacuum, N2, natural atmosphere) and in two temperature treatments (blanching in hot water; steam) on microwave-dried potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) cubes was studied. After storage for 60 and 120 days, the amount of ascorbic acid (AA), shrinkage and rehydration were determined. Dried potato cubes packaged under N2 atmosphere had the highest rehydration value (3.142 %). Since there is a direct relationship between the amount of water loss and shrinkage, samples packaged in PE-PA laminate packages under vacuum showed 4.947 % less shrinkage than transparent BOPP or semi-transparent BOPP due to low permeability of these packages. Potatoes stored for 120 days resulted in 7.89 % more shrinkage than those stored for 60 days. The least loss in AA occurred in PE-PA laminate packaging. The shelf-life of potato cubes can be increased and their quantitative and qualitative characteristics can be best preserved by package-drying in PE-PA laminate under vacuum conditions.

  14. Curdlan β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides induce the defense responses against Phytophthora infestans infection of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1) leaf cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Lu, Guangxing; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system before the invasion of pathogens is a promising way to improve the resistance of plant against infection while reducing the use of agricultural chemicals. Although several elicitors were used to induce the resistance of potato plant to microbial pathogen infection, the role of curdlan oligosaccharide (CurdO) has not been established. In the current study, the defense responses were investigated at biochemical and proteomic levels to elucidate the elicitation effect of CurdOs in foliar tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1). The results indicate that the CurdOs exhibit activation effect on the early- and late-defense responses in potato leaves. In addition, glucopentaose was proved to be the shortest active curdlan molecule based on the accumulation of H₂O₂ and salicylic acid and the activities of phenylalanine amino-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase. The 2D-PAGE analysis reveals that CurdOs activate the integrated response reactions in potato cells, as a number of proteins with various functions are up-regulated including disease/defense, metabolism, transcription, and cell structure. The pathogenesis assay shows that the ratio of lesion area of potato leaf decreased from 15.82%±5.44% to 7.79%±3.03% when the plants were treated with CurdOs 1 day before the infection of Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, the results on potato yield and induction reactions indicate that the defense responses induced by CurdOs lasted for short period of time but disappeared gradually.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Naqqash, Tahir; Shahid, Muhammad; Van Elsas, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655) was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 μg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 μg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 μg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 μg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein) than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 × 10-10 kat mg-1 protein). B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic potential. Phytase-encoding gene β-propeller (BPP) showed 92% amino acid similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no.WP_014114128.1) and 83% structural similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no 3AMR_A). Potato inoculation with B. subtilis strain KPS-11 increased the root/shoot length and root/shoot weight of potato as compared to non-inoculated control plants. Moreover, rifampicin-resistant derivative of KPS-11 were able to survive in the rhizosphere and on the roots of potato up to 60 days showing its colonization potential. The study indicates that B. subtilis strain KPS-11 can be a potential candidate for development of potato inoculum in P-deficient soils. PMID:26106383

  16. Role for Ca/sup 2 +/ in the elicitation of rishitin and lubimin accumulation in potato tuber tissue. [Solanum tuberosum

    SciTech Connect

    Zook, M.N.; Rush, J.S.; Kuc, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Calcium and strontium ions enhanced rishitin but not lubimin accumulation in tuber tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Kennebec) treated with arachidonic acid (AA). The same cations in the presence of poly-L-lysine (PL) enhanced the accumulation of lubimin more than rishitin. In contrast, Mg/sup 2 +/ did not affect AA-elicited rishitin and lubimin accumulation and inhibited the accumulation of these compounds following application of PL. AA-elicited potato tuber tissue remained sensitive to the stimulatory effects of Ca/sup 2 +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ up to 24 h after application of AA, but PL-elicited tuber tissue was sensitive to Ca/sup 2 +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ for only 6 hours after PL application. Etyleneglycol-bis (..beta..-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid and La/sup 3 +/ both inhibited rishitin and lubimin accumulation elicited by AA. The inhibition by either agent was overcome by the addition of Ca/sup 2 +/. Calcium was more effective in overcoming lanthanum inhibition when applied simultaneously than when applied 12 hours later. Lanthanum was only effective in inhibiting rishitin and lubimin accumulation when applied within 3 hours of the application of AA. Inhibition of phytoalexin accumulation was greater when La/sup 3 +/ was greater when La/sup 3 +/ was applied simultaneously with AA compared to La/sup 3 +/ application after AA aplication to discs. These observations suggest that the mobilization of calcium may play a central regulatory role in the expression of phytoalexin accumulation following elicitation in potato tissue.

  17. Concentration levels of selected essential and toxic metals in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) of West Gojjam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Berhe; Atlabachew, Minaleshewa; Mekonnen, Kebede Nigussie

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most widely used as a staple food crop for human diets. It is an excellent source of minerals. In this study, contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cd and Pb in potato cultivars cultivated in Yilmana Densa, and Mecha districts of the West Gojjam zone, Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A 0.50 g oven-dried potato sample was digested using a mixture of 10 mL HNO3:HClO4 (4:1 v/v) at 120 °C for 3 h. The concentration ranges in dry weight basis in decreasing order were: Mg (420-438 mg/kg) > Ca (176-254 mg/kg) > Fe (27.3-90.4 mg/kg) > Zn (20.6-77.7 mg/kg) > (2.00-17.4 mg/kg) for Pb. The toxic heavy metal Cd was below the limit of detection in all the analyzed samples (<0.1 mg/kg). The Mg found in highest contents while Fe was the most abundant microelement. The Cd was found below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of WHO/FAO and European Commission (EC) while Pb was above the limit. A wide range of variations was observed in the metal contents of potato cultivars collected from the two districts. Potato cultivars grown in West Gojam zone of Ethiopian could contribute a substantial amount of Fe and Zn together with the major elements, Ca and Mg to the individual's daily dietary needs if consumed on a regular basis.

  18. Solanum tuberosum lectin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for nose-to-brain delivery: in vivo and in vitro evaluations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Qingfeng; Shao, Xiayan; Feng, Chengcheng; Shen, Yehong; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2012-02-01

    Solanum tuberosum lectin (STL) conjugated poly (DL-lactic-co- glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle (STL-NP) was constructed in this paper as a novel biodegradable nose-to-brain drug delivery system. The in vitro uptake study showed markedly enhanced endocytosis of STL-NP compared to unmodified PLGA nanoparticles (NP) in Calu-3 cells and significant inhibition of uptake in the presence of inhibitor sugar (chitin hydrolysate). Following intranasal administration, coumarin-6 carried by STL-NP was rapidly absorbed into blood and brain. The AUC((0→12 h)) of coumarin-6 in blood, olfactory bulb, cerebrum and cerebellum were about 0.77-, 1.48-, 1.89- and 1.45-fold of those of NP, respectively (p < 0.05). STL-NP demonstrated 1.89-2.45 times (p < 0.01) higher brain targeting efficiency in different brain tissues than unmodified NP. Enhanced accumulation of STL-NP in the brain was also observed by near infrared fluorescence probe image following intranasal administration. The fluorescence signal of STL-NP appeared in olfactory bulb, cerebrum and brainstem early at 0.25 h. The signal in olfactory bulb decreased gradually after 2 h, while the obvious signal in brainstem, cerebrum and cerebellum lasted for more than 8 h. The STL-NP safety experiments showed mild cytotoxicity and negligible cilia irritation. These intriguing in vitro and in vivo results suggest that STL-NP might serve as a promising brain drug delivery system.

  19. Greenhouse gas fluxes from an irrigated sweet corn (Zea mays L.)-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rotation.

    PubMed

    Haile-Mariam, S; Collins, H P; Higgins, S S

    2008-01-01

    Intensive agriculture and increased N fertilizer use have contributed to elevated emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In this study, the exchange of CO(2), N(2)O, and CH(4) between a Quincy fine sand (mixed, mesic Xeric Torripsamments) soil and atmosphere was measured in a sweet corn (Zea mays L.)-sweet corn-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rotation during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons under irrigation in eastern Washington. Gas samples were collected using static chambers installed in the second-year sweet corn and potato plots under conventional tillage or reduced tillage. Total emissions of CO(2)-C from sweet corn integrated over the season were 2071 and 1684 kg CO(2)-C ha(-1) for the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. For the same period, CO(2) emissions from potato plots were 1571 and 1256 kg of CO(2)-C ha(-1). Cumulative CO(2) fluxes from sweet corn and potato fields were 17 and 13 times higher, respectively, than adjacent non-irrigated, native shrub steppe vegetation (NV). Nitrous oxide losses accounted for 0.5% (0.55 kg N ha(-1)) of the applied fertilizer (112 kg N ha(-1)) in corn and 0.3% (0.59 kg N ha(-1)) of the 224 kg N ha(-1) applied fertilizer. Sweet corn and potato plots, on average, absorbed 1.7 g CH(4)-C ha(-1) d(-1) and 2.3 g CH(4)-C ha(-1) d(-1), respectively. The global warming potential contributions from NV, corn, and potato fields were 459, 7843, and 6028 kg CO(2)-equivalents ha(-1), respectively, for the 2005 growing season and were 14% lower in 2006.

  20. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown.

  1. The development of a high-yield recombinant protein bioreactor through RNAi induced knockdown of ATP/ADP transporter in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Reynald; Diao, Hong; Hüner, Norm; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Ma, Shengwu

    2011-10-20

    There is an increased need for high-yield protein production platforms to meet growing demand. Tuber-based production in Solanum tuberosum offers several advantages, including high biomass yield, although protein concentration is typically low. In this work, we investigated the question whether minor interruption of starch biosynthesis can have a positive effect on tuber protein content and/or tuber biomass, as previous work suggested that partial obstruction of starch synthesis had variable effects on tuber yield. To this end, we used a RNAi approach to knock down ATP/ADP transporter and obtained a large number of transgenic lines for screening of lines with improved tuber protein content and/or tuber biomass. The initial screening was based on tuber biomass because of its relative simplicity. We identified a line, riAATP1-10, with minor (less than 15%) reduction in starch, that had a nearly 30% increase in biomass compared to wild-type, producing both more and larger tubers with altered morphological features compared to wild-type. riAATP1-10 tubers have a higher concentration of soluble protein compared to wild-type tubers, with nearly 50% more soluble protein. We assessed the suitability of this line as a new bioreactor by expressing a human scFv, reaching over 0.5% of total soluble protein, a 2-fold increase over the highest accumulating line in a wild-type background. Together with increased biomass and increased levels in total protein content, foreign protein expression in riAATP1-10 line would translate into a nearly 4-fold increase in recombinant protein yield per plant. Our results indicate that riAATP1-10 line provides an improved expression system for production of foreign proteins.

  2. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores.

  3. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future.

  4. Wax and suberin development of native and wound periderm of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its relation to peridermal transpiration.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Hartmann, Klaus

    2005-02-01

    Native and wound periderm was isolated enzymatically from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers at different time intervals between 0 days up to 4 weeks after harvesting. Wound periderm formation was induced by carefully removing native periderm from freshly harvested tubers before storage. The chemical composition of lipids (waxes) obtained by chloroform extraction, as well as the monomeric composition of native and wound suberin polymer after transesterification by boron trifluoride/methanol, was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Both types of periderm contained up to 20% extractable lipids. Besides linear long-chain aliphatic wax compounds, alkyl ferulates were detected as significant constituents. In wound periderm they amounted to more than 60% of the total extracts. Within 1 month of storage, suberin amounts in the polymer increased 2-fold in native periderm (180 microg cm(-2)), whereas in wound periderm about 75.0 microg cm(-2) suberin polymer was newly synthesized. Native potato tuber periderm developed a very efficient transport barrier for water with permeances decreasing from 6.4 x 10(-10) m s(-1) to 5.5 x 10(-11) m s(-1) within 1 month of storage. However, the water permeability of wound periderm was on average 100 times higher with permeances decreasing from 4.7 x 10(-8) m s(-1) after 3 days to only 5.4 x 10(-9) m s(-1) after 1 month of storage, although suberin and wax amounts in wound periderm amounted to about 60% of native periderm. From this result it must be concluded that the occurrence of suberin with wax depositions in cell walls does not necessarily allow us to conclude that these cell walls must be nearly perfect barriers to water transport. In addition to the occurrence of the lipophilic biopolymer suberin and associated waxes, the still unknown molecular arrangement and precisely localized deposition of suberin within the cell wall must contribute to the efficiency of suberin as a barrier to water

  5. Interspecific hybridization between the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subspecies tuberosum L. and the wild species S. circaeifolium subsp. circaeifolium Bitter exhibiting resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and Globodera pallida (Stone) Behrens : 2. Sexual hybrids.

    PubMed

    Louwes, K M; Hoekstra, R; Mattheij, W M

    1992-07-01

    Crossability between the diploid species S. circaeifolium subsp. circaeifolium (crc) and other diploid species, primarily diploid S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (tbr-2x), was studied. Forty-seven hybrids were obtained from crosses between crc as female parent and tbr-2x and some other species from series Tuberosa as male parents. Of these hybrids 17% were diploids; the other 83% were triploids, probably carrying two genomes of crc. Female fertility was sufficient to obtain offspring from backcrosses with the cultivated parent. Pollen stainability of the f1 varied, and micro-pollen as well as unreduced pollen occurred. During meiosis of the diploids and triploids a rather high proportion of univalents was found, and in the triploids on average two or three trivalents per cell were found. All hybrids were resistant to Globodera pallida pathotypes 2 and 3, and 75% of the tested genotypes were highly resistant to Phytophthora infestans. Solanidine, tomatidine, tomatidenol, and demissidine glycosides were found in tubers of the hybrids. Comparisons with somatic hybrids between crc and tbr-2x are made. It is concluded that crc is a valuable Solanum species that can and should be included in potato breeding programs.

  6. Identification of genetically modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars using event specific polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marie-José; Meldrum, Allison J; Raymond, Philippe; Dollard, Cheryl

    2005-08-24

    Several genetically modified (GM) cultivars are registered in Canada although they are not currently in commercial production. The GM cultivars can be distinguished from the non-GM and other GM cultivars by analyzing the DNA nucleotide sequence at the insertion site of the transgene corresponding to a single transformation event in the plant genome. Techniques based on modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies were used to generate sequence information from the plant genome flanking the insertion site of transgenic DNA for specific GM potato events. The plant genome sequence adjacent to the transgenic insertion was used to design PCR primers, which could be used in combination with a primer annealing to one of the nearby inserted genetic elements to amplify an event specific DNA fragment. The event specific PCR fragments generated were sequenced to confirm the specificity of the method.

  7. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks.

  8. Identification of metabolites associated with water stress responses in Solanum tuberosum L. clones.

    PubMed

    Drapal, M; Farfan-Vignolo, E R; Gutierrez, O R; Bonierbale, M; Mihovilovich, E; Fraser, P D

    2017-03-01

    Water deficiency has become a major issue for modern agriculture as its effects on crop yields and tuber quality have become more pronounced. Potato genotypes more tolerant to water shortages have been identified through assessment of yield and dry matter. In the present study, a combination of metabolite profiling and physiological/agronomical measurements has been used to explore complex system level responses to non-lethal water restriction. The metabolites identified were associated with physiological responses in three different plant tissues (leaf, root and tuber) of five different potato genotypes varying in susceptibility/tolerance to drought. This approach explored the potential of metabolite profiling as a tool to unravel sectors of metabolism that react to stress conditions and could mirror the changes in the plant physiology. The metabolite results showed different responses of the three plant tissues to the water deficit, resulting either in different levels of the metabolites detected or different metabolites expressed. The leaf material displayed the most changes to drought as reported in literature. The results highlighted genotype-specific signatures to water restriction over all three plant tissues suggesting that the genetics can predominate over the environmental conditions. This will have important implications for future breeding approaches.

  9. Pyramiding rice cystatin genes (OCI and OCII) in potato (Solanum tuberosum L cv. Jelica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major advances being used in current biotechnology to improve disease and pest control is the introduction of more than one beneficial gene into transgenic plants. Proteinase inhibitors oryzacystatins I and II (OCI and OCII) show potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine prote...

  10. Geminivirus-Mediated Genome Editing in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Sequence-Specific Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Nathaniel M.; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Douches, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) is rapidly being developed for genetic engineering in crop species. The utilization of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated systems (CRISPR/Cas) for inducing double-strand breaks facilitates targeting of virtually any sequence for modification. Targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) has been demonstrated extensively as being the preferred DNA repair pathway in plants. However, gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) remains more elusive but could be a powerful tool for directed DNA repair. To overcome barriers associated with gene targeting, a geminivirus replicon (GVR) was used to deliver SSNs targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (ALS1) gene and repair templates designed to incorporate herbicide-inhibiting point mutations within the ALS1 locus. Transformed events modified with GVRs held point mutations that were capable of supporting a reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype, while events transformed with conventional T-DNAs held no detectable mutations and were similar to wild-type. Regeneration of transformed events improved detection of point mutations that supported a stronger reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype. These results demonstrate the use of geminiviruses for delivering genome editing reagents in plant species, and a novel approach to gene targeting in a vegetatively propagated species. PMID:27493650

  11. Geminivirus-Mediated Genome Editing in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Sequence-Specific Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Butler, Nathaniel M; Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F; Douches, David S

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) is rapidly being developed for genetic engineering in crop species. The utilization of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated systems (CRISPR/Cas) for inducing double-strand breaks facilitates targeting of virtually any sequence for modification. Targeted mutagenesis via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) has been demonstrated extensively as being the preferred DNA repair pathway in plants. However, gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) remains more elusive but could be a powerful tool for directed DNA repair. To overcome barriers associated with gene targeting, a geminivirus replicon (GVR) was used to deliver SSNs targeting the potato ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE1 (ALS1) gene and repair templates designed to incorporate herbicide-inhibiting point mutations within the ALS1 locus. Transformed events modified with GVRs held point mutations that were capable of supporting a reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype, while events transformed with conventional T-DNAs held no detectable mutations and were similar to wild-type. Regeneration of transformed events improved detection of point mutations that supported a stronger reduced herbicide susceptibility phenotype. These results demonstrate the use of geminiviruses for delivering genome editing reagents in plant species, and a novel approach to gene targeting in a vegetatively propagated species.

  12. Diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a model crop to study transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna; Pietrusinska, Aleksandra; Binka-Wyrwa, Agnieszka; Kuc, Dominik; Orczyk, Wacław

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for two diploid breeding lines of potato, and gives a detailed analysis of reporter gene expression. In our lab, these lines were also used to obtain tetraploid somatic hybrids. We tested four newly prepared constructs based on the pGreen vector system containing the selection gene nptII or bar under the 35S or nos promoter. All these vectors carried gus under 35S. We also tested the pDM805 vector, with the bar and gus genes respectively under the Ubi1 and Act1 promoters, which are strong for monocots. The selection efficiency (about 17%) was highest in the stem and leaf explants after transformation with pGreen where nptII was under 35S. About half of the selected plants were confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis to be transgenic and, depending on the combination, 0 to 100% showed GUS expression. GUS expression was strongest in multi-copy transgenic plants where gus was under Act1. The same potato lines carrying multi-copy bar under Ubi1 were also highly resistant to the herbicide Basta. The suggestion of using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of diploid lines of potato as a model crop is discussed herein.

  13. Effect of water stress on proline accumulation of genetically modified potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) generating fructans.

    PubMed

    Knipp, Gabriele; Honermeier, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on the accumulation of proline in the leaves of transgenic potato lines generating fructans. The results of the series of bifactorial experiments in 2002 and 2003 indicated an increase of the proline level in leaves of all potato lines examined under water deficit. In addition, an increase in proline concentration during plant development was observed. The proline content was related to leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC), which indicates that proline could be involved in osmoregulation of potato plants under the experimental conditions. Surprisingly, under water deficit, the proline level was lowest in most of the transgenic SST/FFT-lines, which generate fructan molecules with a high degree of polymerization. Therefore, a pleiotropic effect can not be excluded as the reason for the divergence in behavior of these transgenic lines. The present results suggest that the modification of carbohydrate metabolism, especially the high content of soluble carbohydrates, may affect water stress-induced proline accumulation.

  14. [Incidence and altitudinal distribution of 13 virus cultures in Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae) from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Viviana; Montero-Astúa, Mauricio; Rivera, Carmen

    2006-12-01

    A survey was conducted in 30 fields located at three different altitudes in Cartago, Costa Rica's main potato producing area. Twenty plants were sampled per farm, for a total of 600 samples with 200 samples per altitude. ELISA was used with commercial reagents to independently test for PVX, PVY, PVM, PVA, PVS, PLRV, PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT, APLV, APMoV and TRSV. The presence of the following viruses was determined: PVX (77 %), PAMV (62 %), PLRV (42 %), TRSV (42 %), PVT (39 %), PVV (37 %), PMTV (31%), PVY (30 %), PVS (19 %), PVM (13 %), PVA (8 %), and APMoV (8%). APLV was not detected in any sample. This is the first report in Costa Rica of the presence of the viruses PMTV, PAMV, PVV, PVT and APMoV. A high viral incidence in the tuber seed production area as well as a high rate of mixed infections is reported.

  15. Comprehensive MS and Solid-State NMR Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Molecular Variations in Native Periderms from Four Solanum tuberosum Potato Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenlin; Serra, Olga; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Jin, Liqing; Yang, Lijia; Stark, Ruth E

    2017-03-15

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) ranks third in worldwide consumption among food crops. Whereas disposal of potato peels poses significant challenges for the food industry, secondary metabolites in these tissues are also bioactive and essential to crop development. The diverse primary and secondary metabolites reported in whole tubers and wound-healing tissues prompted a comprehensive profiling study of native periderms from four cultivars with distinctive skin morphologies and commercial food uses. Polar and nonpolar soluble metabolites were extracted concurrently, analyzed chromatographically, and characterized with mass spectrometry; the corresponding solid interfacial polymeric residue was examined by solid-state (13)C NMR. In total, 112 secondary metabolites were found in the phellem tissues; multivariate analysis identified 10 polar and 30 nonpolar potential biomarkers that distinguish a single cultivar among Norkotah Russet, Atlantic, Chipeta, and Yukon Gold cultivars which have contrasting russeting features. Compositional trends are interpreted in the context of periderm protective function.

  16. Effect of cooking on the anthocyanins, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, and resistant starch content in two pigmented cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Mulinacci, Nadia; Ieri, Francesca; Giaccherini, Catia; Innocenti, Marzia; Andrenelli, Luisa; Canova, Giulia; Saracchi, Marco; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2008-12-24

    HPLC/DAD/MS analysis of the phenolic acids and anthocyanin content of three cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. (Vitelotte Noire, Highland Burgundy Red, with pigmented flesh, and Kennebec with white pulp) was performed. The analyses were carried out both on fresh tubers and after cooking treatments (boiling and microwaves). Starch digestibility and the % of resistant starch were also determined on cooked tubers by in vitro methods. For the pigmented potatoes, the heating treatment did not cause any changes in the phenolic acids content, while anthocyanins showed only a small decrement (16-29%). The cv. Highland Burgundy Red showed anthocyanins and phenolic acid concentrations close to 1 g/kg and more than 1.1 g/kg, respectively. Vitellotte Noire showed the highest amounts of resistant starch. Potato starch digestibility and % of resistant starch, considered as a component of dietary fiber, were affected both by cultivar and by heating/cooling treatments.

  17. Multiple alleles for resistance and susceptibility modulate the defense response in the interaction of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Synchytrium endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18.

    PubMed

    Ballvora, Agim; Flath, Kerstin; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2011-12-01

    The obligate biotrophic, soil-borne fungus Synchytrium endobioticum causes wart disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is a serious problem for crop production in countries with moderate climates. S. endobioticum induces hypertrophic cell divisions in plant host tissues leading to the formation of tumor-like structures. Potato wart is a quarantine disease and chemical control is not possible. From 38 S. endobioticum pathotypes occurring in Europe, pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 are the most relevant. Genetic resistance to wart is available but only few current potato varieties are resistant to all four pathotypes. The phenotypic evaluation of wart resistance is laborious, time-consuming and sometimes ambiguous, which makes breeding for resistance difficult. Molecular markers diagnostic for genes for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 would greatly facilitate the selection of new, resistant cultivars. Two tetraploid half-sib families (266 individuals) segregating for resistance to S. endobioticum pathotypes 1, 2, 6 and 18 were produced by crossing a resistant genotype with two different susceptible ones. The families were scored for five different wart resistance phenotypes. The distribution of mean resistance scores was quantitative in both families. Resistance to pathotypes 2, 6 and 18 was correlated and independent from resistance to pathotype 1. DNA pools were constructed from the most resistant and most susceptible individuals and screened with genome wide simple sequence repeat (SSR), inverted simple sequence region (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Bulked segregant analysis identified three SSR markers that were linked to wart resistance loci (Sen). Sen1-XI on chromosome XI conferred partial resistance to pathotype 1, Sen18-IX on chromosome IX to pathotype 18 and Sen2/6/18-I on chromosome I to pathotypes 2,6 and 18. Additional genotyping with 191 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers confirmed the

  18. Plasma membrane localization of Solanum tuberosum remorin from group 1, homolog 3 is mediated by conformational changes in a novel C-terminal anchor and required for the restriction of potato virus X movement].

    PubMed

    Perraki, Artemis; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Lins, Laurence; Castroviejo, Michel; German-Retana, Sylvie; Mongrand, Sébastien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-10-01

    The formation of plasma membrane (PM) microdomains plays a crucial role in the regulation of membrane signaling and trafficking. Remorins are a plant-specific family of proteins organized in six phylogenetic groups, and Remorins of group 1 are among the few plant proteins known to specifically associate with membrane rafts. As such, they are valuable to understand the molecular bases for PM lateral organization in plants. However, little is known about the structural determinants underlying the specific association of group 1 Remorins with membrane rafts. We used a structure-function approach to identify a short C-terminal anchor (RemCA) indispensable and sufficient for tight direct binding of potato (Solanum tuberosum) REMORIN 1.3 (StREM1.3) to the PM. RemCA switches from unordered to α-helical structure in a nonpolar environment. Protein structure modeling indicates that RemCA folds into a tight hairpin of amphipathic helices. Consistently, mutations reducing RemCA amphipathy abolished StREM1.3 PM localization. Furthermore, RemCA directly binds to biological membranes in vitro, shows higher affinity for Detergent-Insoluble Membranes lipids, and targets yellow fluorescent protein to Detergent-Insoluble Membranes in vivo. Mutations in RemCA resulting in cytoplasmic StREM1.3 localization abolish StREM1.3 function in restricting potato virus X movement. The mechanisms described here provide new insights on the control and function of lateral segregation of plant PM.

  19. 13C pulse-labeling assessment of the community structure of active fungi in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline.

    PubMed

    Hannula, S E; Boschker, H T S; de Boer, W; van Veen, J A

    2012-05-01

    • The aim of this study was to gain understanding of the carbon flow from the roots of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline to the soil fungal community using stable isotope probing (SIP). • The microbes receiving (13)C from the plant were assessed through RNA/phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) at three time-points (1, 5 and 12 d after the start of labeling). The communities of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were analysed separately with RT-qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). • Ascomycetes and glomeromycetes received carbon from the plant as early as 1 and 5 d after labeling, while basidiomycetes were slower in accumulating the labeled carbon. The rate of carbon allocation in the GM variety differed from that in its parental variety, thereby affecting soil fungal communities. • We conclude that both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi rapidly metabolize organic substrates flowing from the root into the rhizosphere, that there are large differences in utilization of root-derived compounds at a lower phylogenetic level within investigated fungal phyla, and that active communities in the rhizosphere differ between the GM plant and its parental cultivar through effects of differential carbon flow from the plant.

  20. Plasma Membrane Localization of Solanum tuberosum Remorin from Group 1, Homolog 3 Is Mediated by Conformational Changes in a Novel C-Terminal Anchor and Required for the Restriction of Potato Virus X Movement1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Perraki, Artemis; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Crowet, Jean-Marc; Lins, Laurence; Castroviejo, Michel; German-Retana, Sylvie; Mongrand, Sébastien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The formation of plasma membrane (PM) microdomains plays a crucial role in the regulation of membrane signaling and trafficking. Remorins are a plant-specific family of proteins organized in six phylogenetic groups, and Remorins of group 1 are among the few plant proteins known to specifically associate with membrane rafts. As such, they are valuable to understand the molecular bases for PM lateral organization in plants. However, little is known about the structural determinants underlying the specific association of group 1 Remorins with membrane rafts. We used a structure-function approach to identify a short C-terminal anchor (RemCA) indispensable and sufficient for tight direct binding of potato (Solanum tuberosum) REMORIN 1.3 (StREM1.3) to the PM. RemCA switches from unordered to α-helical structure in a nonpolar environment. Protein structure modeling indicates that RemCA folds into a tight hairpin of amphipathic helices. Consistently, mutations reducing RemCA amphipathy abolished StREM1.3 PM localization. Furthermore, RemCA directly binds to biological membranes in vitro, shows higher affinity for Detergent-Insoluble Membranes lipids, and targets yellow fluorescent protein to Detergent-Insoluble Membranes in vivo. Mutations in RemCA resulting in cytoplasmic StREM1.3 localization abolish StREM1.3 function in restricting potato virus X movement. The mechanisms described here provide new insights on the control and function of lateral segregation of plant PM. PMID:22855937

  1. Symplastic connection is required for bud outgrowth following dormancy in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Viola, Roberto; Pelloux, Jérôme; van der Ploeg, Anke; Gillespie, Trudi; Marquis, Nicola; Roberts, Alison G; Hancock, Robert D

    2007-08-01

    To gain greater insight into the mechanism of dormancy release in the potato tuber, an investigation into physiological and biochemical changes in tuber and bud tissues during the transition from bud dormancy (immediately after harvest) to active bud growth was undertaken. Within the tuber, a rapid shift from storage metabolism (starch synthesis) to reserve mobilization within days of detachment from the mother plant suggested transition from sink to source. Over the same period, a shift in the pattern of [U-(14)C]sucrose uptake by tuber discs from diffuse to punctate accumulation was consistent with a transition from phloem unloading to phloem loading within the tuber parenchyma. There were no gross differences in metabolic capacity between resting and actively growing tuber buds as determined by [U-(14)C]glucose labelling. However, marked differences in metabolite pools were observed with large increases in starch and sucrose, and the accumulation of several organic acids in growing buds. Carboxyfluorescein labelling of tubers clearly demonstrated strong symplastic connection in actively growing buds and symplastic isolation in resting buds. It is proposed that potato tubers rapidly undergo metabolic transitions consistent with bud outgrowth; however, growth is initially prevented by substrate limitation mediated via symplastic isolation.

  2. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is not reflected in decreased levels of nuclear diversity

    PubMed Central

    Provan, J.; Powell, W; Dewar, H.; Bryan, G.; Machray, G. C.; Waugh, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the polymorphic chloroplast (cp) and nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyse levels of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum). Primers designed from the complete chloroplast sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were used to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cpSSR loci gave 26 haplotypes, one of which (haplotype A) accounted for 151 out of the 178 individuals studied and corresponded to the T-type cytoplasm previously identified in cultivated potatoes using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Phylogenetic and diversity analyses of the relationships between cpSSR haplotypes confirmed much higher levels of cytoplasmic diversity outwith the T-type group. Diversity levels at eight nuclear SSR loci, however, were not significantly different between cytoplasmic groups, suggesting a severe maternal bottleneck in the evolution of the modern cultivated potato. These results highlight the importance in quantifying levels of cytoplasmic as well as nuclear diversity and confirm the need for a change in breeding practices to increase levels of non-T-type cytoplasm in the cultivated gene pool, thus helping reduce problems associated with pollen sterility. This may be facilitated by germplasm analysis using cpSSRs, which will allow efficient selection of diverse cytoplasm donors.

  3. In muro fragmentation of the rhamnogalacturonan I backbone in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) results in a reduction and altered location of the galactan and arabinan side-chains and abnormal periderm development.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Ronald J F J; Doeswijk-Voragen, Chantal H L; Bush, Maxwell S; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Borkhardt, Bernhard; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Corsar, Julia; Ulvskov, Peter; Voragen, Alphons G J; McCann, Maureen C; Visser, Richard G F

    2002-05-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I is a branched pectic polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Rhamnogalacturonan lyase (eRGL) from Aspergillus aculeatus is able to cleave the RG I backbone at specific sites. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were made by the introduction of the gene encoding eRGL, under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter. The eRGL protein was successfully expressed and translated into an active form, demonstrated by eRGL activity in the tuber extracts. The transgenic plants produced tubers with clear morphological alterations, including radial swelling of the periderm cells and development of intercellular spaces in the cortex. Sugar compositional analysis of the isolated cell walls showed a large reduction in galactosyl and arabinosyl residues in transgenic tubers. Immunocytochemical studies using the LM5 (galactan) and LM6 (arabinan) antibodies also showed a large reduction in galactan and arabinan side-chains of RG I. Most of the remaining LM5 epitopes were located in the expanded middle lamella at cell corners of eRGL tubers, which is in contrast to their normal location in the primary wall of wild type tubers. These data suggest that RG I has an important role in anchoring galactans and arabinans at particular regions in the wall and in normal development of the periderm.

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Chilling-Induced Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); a Data Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Koc, I; Vatansever, R; Ozyigit, I I; Filiz, E

    2015-10-01

    Cold stress, as chilling (<20 °C) or freezing (<0 °C), is one of the frequently exposed stresses in cultivated plants like potato. Under cold stress, plants differentially modulate their gene expression to develop a cold tolerance/acclimation. In the present study, we aimed to identify the overall gene expression profile of chilling-stressed (+4 °C) potato at four time points (4, 8, 12, and 48 h), with a particular emphasis on the genes related with transcription factors (TFs), phytohormones, lipid metabolism, signaling pathway, and photosynthesis. A total of 3504 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at four time points of chilling-induced potato, of which 1397 were found to be up-regulated while 2107 were down-regulated. Heatmap showed that genes were mainly up-regulated at 4-, 8-, and 12-h time points; however, at 48-h time point, they inclined to down-regulate. Seventy five up-regulated TF genes were identified from 37 different families/groups, including mainly from bHLH, WRKY, CCAAT-binding, HAP3, and bZIP families. Protein kinases and calcium were major signaling molecules in cold-induced signaling pathway. A collaborated regulation of phytohormones was observed in chilling-stressed potato. Lipid metabolisms were regulated in a way, highly probably, to change membrane composition to avoid cold damage and render in signaling. A down-regulated gene expression profile was observed in photosynthesis pathway, probably resulting from chilling-induced reduced enzyme activity or light-triggered ROSs damage. The findings of this study will be a valuable theoretical knowledge in terms of understanding the chilling-induced tolerance mechanisms in cultivated potato plants as well as in other Solanum species.

  5. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 150 kg ha-1 potassium combinations (NK, NPK, NPKMg). Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5 and 6). With the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of NK (Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95), NPK (Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96) and NPKMg (Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96) nutrition systems. The optimum yield ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. From 1962 to 1979 the weather was highly variable, with particularly frequent droughts and over rainfall resulting in yield losses of 13 to 32 percentin in this period. Thus it is important to analyse the consequences of possible future climate change on crop in Hungary. REFERENCES A.E. Johnston. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. Kádár, I-Márton, L.-Horváth, S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. László, M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László, M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László, M. 2001b. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M.-Imre, K.-Jose, E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99

  6. Microarray analysis of gene expression patterns in the leaf during potato tuberization in the potato somatic hybrid Solanum tuberosum and Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jagesh Kumar; Devi, Sapna; Sundaresha, S; Chandel, Poonam; Ali, Nilofer; Singh, Brajesh; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Singh, Bir Pal

    2015-06-01

    Genes involved in photoassimilate partitioning and changes in hormonal balance are important for potato tuberization. In the present study, we investigated gene expression patterns in the tuber-bearing potato somatic hybrid (E1-3) and control non-tuberous wild species Solanum etuberosum (Etb) by microarray. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and leaves were collected at eight tuber developmental stages for microarray analysis. A t-test analysis identified a total of 468 genes (94 up-regulated and 374 down-regulated) that were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) and differentially expressed in E1-3 and Etb. Gene Ontology (GO) characterization of the 468 genes revealed that 145 were annotated and 323 were of unknown function. Further, these 145 genes were grouped based on GO biological processes followed by molecular function and (or) PGSC description into 15 gene sets, namely (1) transport, (2) metabolic process, (3) biological process, (4) photosynthesis, (5) oxidation-reduction, (6) transcription, (7) translation, (8) binding, (9) protein phosphorylation, (10) protein folding, (11) ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, (12) RNA processing, (13) negative regulation of protein, (14) methylation, and (15) mitosis. RT-PCR analysis of 10 selected highly significant genes (p ≤ 0.01) confirmed the microarray results. Overall, we show that candidate genes induced in leaves of E1-3 were implicated in tuberization processes such as transport, carbohydrate metabolism, phytohormones, and transcription/translation/binding functions. Hence, our results provide an insight into the candidate genes induced in leaf tissues during tuberization in E1-3.

  7. Implications of miR166 and miR159 induction to the basal response mechanisms of an andigena potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena) to salinity stress, predicted from network models in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kitazumi, Ai; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Onda, Ty S; De Koeyer, David; de los Reyes, Benildo G

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) mediated changes in gene expression by post-transcriptional modulation of major regulatory transcription factors is a potent mechanism for integrating growth and stress-related responses. Exotic plants including many traditional varieties of Andean potatoes (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena) are known for better adaptation to marginal environments. Stress physiological studies confirmed earlier reports on the salinity tolerance potentials of certain andigena cultivars. Guided by the hypothesis that certain miRNAs play important roles in growth modulation under suboptimal conditions, we identified and characterized salinity stress-responsive miRNA-target gene pairs in the andigena cultivar Sullu by parallel analysis of noncoding and coding RNA transcriptomes. Inverse relationships were established by the reverse co-expression between two salinity stress-regulated miRNAs (miR166, miR159) and their target transcriptional regulators HD-ZIP-Phabulosa/Phavulota and Myb101, respectively. Based on heterologous models in Arabidopsis, the miR166-HD-ZIP-Phabulosa/Phavulota network appears to be involved in modulating growth perhaps by mediating vegetative dormancy, with linkages to defense-related pathways. The miR159-Myb101 network may be important for the modulation of vegetative growth while also controlling stress-induced premature transition to reproductive phase. We postulate that the induction of miR166 and miR159 under salinity stress represents important network hubs for balancing gene expression required for basal growth adjustments.

  8. CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 characterized from Solanum tuberosum oxidize fatty acids in vitro and partially restore the wild phenotype in an Arabidopsis thaliana cutin mutant.

    PubMed

    Grausem, B; Widemann, E; Verdier, G; Nosbüsch, D; Aubert, Y; Beisson, F; Schreiber, L; Franke, R; Pinot, F

    2014-09-01

    Cutin and suberin represent lipophilic polymers forming plant/environment interfaces in leaves and roots. Despite recent progress in Arabidopsis, there is still a lack on information concerning cutin and suberin synthesis, especially in crops. Based on sequence homology, we isolated two cDNA clones of new cytochrome P450s, CYP77A19 and CYP77A20 from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). Both enzymes hydroxylated lauric acid (C12:0) on position ω-1 to ω-5. They oxidized fatty acids with chain length ranging from C12 to C18 and catalysed hydroxylation of 16-hydroxypalmitic acid leading to dihydroxypalmitic (DHP) acids, the major C16 cutin and suberin monomers. CYP77A19 also produced epoxides from linoleic acid (C18:2). Exploration of expression pattern in potato by RT-qPCR revealed the presence of transcripts in all tissues tested with the highest expression in the seed compared with leaves. Water stress enhanced their expression level in roots but not in leaves. Application of methyl jasmonate specifically induced CYP77A19 expression. Expression of either gene in the Arabidopsis null mutant cyp77a6-1 defective in flower cutin restored petal cuticular impermeability. Nanoridges were also observed in CYP77A20-expressing lines. However, only very low levels of the major flower cutin monomer 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate and no C18 epoxy monomers were found in the cutin of the complemented lines.

  9. Purification of a novel chitin-binding lectin with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities from a bangladeshi cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kabir, Syed Rashel

    2014-04-01

    A new chitin-binding lectin was purified from a Bangladeshi cultivar 'Deshi' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies using a chitin column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the molecular mass of the lectin as 20,000 Daltons. This molecular mass was almost half of the molecular masses of chitin-binding lectins derived from other potatoes. The lectin showed both bactericidal and growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella boydii) pathogenic bacteria. It also showed antifungal activity against Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger. Biofilm produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was dose-dependently reduced by 5-20% in 24 h after administration of the lectin, which was attributed to the glycan-binding property of the lectin having affinity to GlcNAc polymers. It was the first observation that any potato lectin prevented biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa and, therefore, could have possible applications in clinical microbiology and biomedical science.

  10. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of purple potato extracts (Solanum tuberosum cv Vitelotte noire) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Ombra, Maria Neve; Fratianni, Florinda; Granese, Tiziana; Cardinale, Federica; Cozzolino, Autilia; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of antioxidant and in vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of anthocyanin-rich extracts from purple potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L. cv Vitelotte noire (Solanaceae), were performed by simulating both a domestic cooking process and human digestion. Extracts of crude and cooked purple potato did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the tester strains: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The behaviour changed after the simulated gastrointestinal transit, when an inhibition halo was observed against all tester strains used, ranging from 0.53 cm against B. cereus to 0.82 cm against E. coli. In addition antioxidant activity exhibited, before and after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion (5.96 mg/mL ± 0.92; 28 mg/mL ± 0 .13, respectively) and the persistence of anti-proliferative activity against the colon cancer cells Caco-2, SW48 and MCF7, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, after the simulated digestion, (EC50 = 0.21; 1.13 μg/mL), suggest that vitelotte consumption might bring tangible benefits for human health.

  11. Infestation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) alters cellular redox status and is influenced by ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) is a major pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but the molecular characterization of this interaction particularly with regard to oxidants and antioxidants remains to be undertaken. Aphid colonies reared on potato leaves containing high ascorbate were twice the size of those grown on leaves with low ascorbate. Infestation-dependent decreases in the abundance of key transcripts such as chloroplastic FeSOD, peroxisomal catalase 2, PR1 and JAZ1 preceded detectable leaf H(2)O(2) or polyphenol accumulation. The leaf glutathione pool was increased 48 h after infestation, but the amount of ascorbate was unchanged. The ascorbate/dehydroacorbate (DHA) ratio was lower at 48 h but the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was unchanged. While DHA reductase and GSSG reductase activities were unaffected by aphid feeding, non-specific peroxidase activities were enhanced 48 h following aphid infestation. Brown ethanol-insoluble deposits were observed close to leaf veins following aphid infestation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that high ascorbate favours aphid colony expansion and that perturbations in the leaf antioxidant system are intrinsic to the potato leaf response to aphids. Moreover, these changes together with the induction of hormone-related transcripts precede the deposition of defence-associated oxidized polyphenols along the stylet track.

  12. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  13. Potential health risk assessment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown on metal contaminated soils in the central zone of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Yasmeen, Sumaira; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad; Mehmood, Naunain

    2017-01-01

    Metal buildup was estimated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), grown in central Punjab, Pakistan. This crop was irrigated with multiple water sources like ground, sewage and canal water. Concentrations of different metals like zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) were assessed in the potato crop irrigated with different types of waters. Sewage water treated crop and soil had higher metal concentrations than those treated with other two treatments. All metals had positive and significant correlation except for Mo which was non-significantly correlated between the vegetable and soil. Highest daily intake was observed for Fe (0.267), whereas the lowest was seen for Se (0.003). The enrichment factor and health index varied between 0.135-15.08 and 0.285-83.77, respectively. This study concludes that vegetables cultivated on soil treated with sewage water is a potent threat for human health as the metals manifest toxicity after entering the food chain.

  14. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  15. Two carbon fluxes to reserve starch in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells are closely interconnected but differently modulated by temperature.

    PubMed

    Fettke, Joerg; Leifels, Lydia; Brust, Henrike; Herbst, Karoline; Steup, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Parenchyma cells from tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. convert several externally supplied sugars to starch but the rates vary largely. Conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to starch is exceptionally efficient. In this communication, tuber slices were incubated with either of four solutions containing equimolar [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate, [U-¹⁴C]sucrose, [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate plus unlabelled equimolar sucrose or [U-¹⁴C]sucrose plus unlabelled equimolar glucose 1-phosphate. C¹⁴-incorporation into starch was monitored. In slices from freshly harvested tubers each unlabelled compound strongly enhanced ¹⁴C incorporation into starch indicating closely interacting paths of starch biosynthesis. However, enhancement disappeared when the tubers were stored. The two paths (and, consequently, the mutual enhancement effect) differ in temperature dependence. At lower temperatures, the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is functional, reaching maximal activity at approximately 20 °C but the flux of the sucrose-dependent route strongly increases above 20 °C. Results are confirmed by in vitro experiments using [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate or adenosine-[U-¹⁴C]glucose and by quantitative zymograms of starch synthase or phosphorylase activity. In mutants almost completely lacking the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme(s), the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is largely impeded. Irrespective of the size of the granules, glucose 1-phosphate-dependent incorporation per granule surface area is essentially equal. Furthermore, within the granules no preference of distinct glucosyl acceptor sites was detectable. Thus, the path is integrated into the entire granule biosynthesis. In vitro C¹⁴C-incorporation into starch granules mediated by the recombinant plastidial phosphorylase isozyme clearly differed from the in situ results. Taken together, the data clearly demonstrate that two closely but flexibly interacting general paths of starch biosynthesis are functional

  16. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  17. Impact of Multi-year Cropping Regimes on Solanum tuberosum Tuber Yields in the Presence of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bird, G W; Mather, R L

    1995-12-01

    Five cropping regimes involving combinations of 2 legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and yellow sweet dover (Melilotus officinalis), 2 monocots, corn (Zea mays) and sudax (Sorghum halupeuse x Sorghum sudanese), and potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) were tested for their impact on potato yields in a field infested with Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae. No differences in 1990 tuber yields were observed among the five cropping regimes (P < 0.05). In 1991, yields following 1 year of corn, sudax, sweet clover, or alfalfa and 2 years of potato were not different from that of 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.05). Two years of sweet clover or alfalfa followed by potato resulted in significantly increased potato tuber yields compared with 3 years of potato (P < 0.05). The 2-year legume and 2-year grain rotations resulted in lower P. penetrans population densities at the end of the 3-year rotation compared with 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.01). The highest preplant V. dahliae population density (34 cfu/g soil), together with a P. penetrans density of 12/100 cm(3) of soil was in the sudax-sudax-potato cropping regime and resulted in the lowest potato tuber yield. The highest preplant P. penetrans population density (54/100 cm(3) soil), together with a V. dahliae population density of 19.5 cfu/g soil was observed in the corn-corn-potato cropping regime and resulted in the second lowest potato tuber yield in 1991. After 3 years, potato tuber yields were negatively related to preplant densities of V. dahliae (r(2) = 0.237), P. penetrans (r(2) = 0.175), and both pathogens (r(2) = 0.380). A comprehensive regression model was developed to isolate pathogen effects on potato yields from cropping regime effects encompassing all 10 cropping regimes (r(2) = 0.915).

  18. Impact of Multi-year Cropping Regimes on Solanum tuberosum Tuber Yields in the Presence of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Bird, G. W.; Mather, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Five cropping regimes involving combinations of 2 legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and yellow sweet dover (Melilotus officinalis), 2 monocots, corn (Zea mays) and sudax (Sorghum halupeuse × Sorghum sudanese), and potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) were tested for their impact on potato yields in a field infested with Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae. No differences in 1990 tuber yields were observed among the five cropping regimes (P < 0.05). In 1991, yields following 1 year of corn, sudax, sweet clover, or alfalfa and 2 years of potato were not different from that of 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.05). Two years of sweet clover or alfalfa followed by potato resulted in significantly increased potato tuber yields compared with 3 years of potato (P < 0.05). The 2-year legume and 2-year grain rotations resulted in lower P. penetrans population densities at the end of the 3-year rotation compared with 3 years of continuous potato (P < 0.01). The highest preplant V. dahliae population density (34 cfu/g soil), together with a P. penetrans density of 12/100 cm³ of soil was in the sudax-sudax-potato cropping regime and resulted in the lowest potato tuber yield. The highest preplant P. penetrans population density (54/100 cm³ soil), together with a V. dahliae population density of 19.5 cfu/g soil was observed in the corn-corn-potato cropping regime and resulted in the second lowest potato tuber yield in 1991. After 3 years, potato tuber yields were negatively related to preplant densities of V. dahliae (r² = 0.237), P. penetrans (r² = 0.175), and both pathogens (r² = 0.380). A comprehensive regression model was developed to isolate pathogen effects on potato yields from cropping regime effects encompassing all 10 cropping regimes (r² = 0.915). PMID:19277337

  19. Production and characterization of arboreous and fertile Solanum melongena + Solanum marginatum somatic hybrid plants.

    PubMed

    Borgato, Lorena; Conicella, Clara; Pisani, Federica; Furini, Antonella

    2007-09-01

    In crop plants the shift from being annuals to perennials may allow future agricultural systems requiring less energy inputs. The practicability of this was tested for Solanum melongena. Leaf protoplasts of S. melongena (2n = 2x = 24) and one of the related arborescent species Solanum marginatum (2n = 2x = 24) were electrofused and fertile somatic hybrids with arborescent habit regenerated. The magnetic cell sorter (MACS) technique was used for the selection of heterokaryons. The hybrid nature of 18 regenerated plants was assessed on the banding patterns generated by inter-simple sequence repeat PCR. When taken to maturity in the greenhouse, hybrids grew more vigorously compared to the parental species. Their morphological traits were intermediate between those of S. melongena and S. marginatum. Hybrids flowered and produced an average of 85% stainable viable pollen and fertile fruits. The somatic hybrids were maintained in the greenhouse for more than 3 years and continued to produce flowers developing into two types of fruits with plentiful seeds. Fruits were either striated green containing non-germinable seeds or yellow with fully germinable seeds. Their S(1) progenies showed common features with S(0) hybrids, including fertility and arborescent habit. Cytologically, somatic hybrids exhibited the expected chromosome number of 2n = 4x = 48, while chromosome pairing during microsporogenesis was associated with a low frequency of intergenomic pairing. It is concluded that an arborescent perennial species has been obtained by somatic hybridization. The usefulness of this species per se or in eggplant breeding will depend not only on the transmission of the arborescent habit to cultivated eggplant varieties, but also on the variability that should be created from backcrossing the S. melongena + S. marginatum hybrids to S. melongena.

  20. Variation amongst protoplast-derived potato plants (Solatium tuberosum cv. 'Maris Bard').

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Bright, S W; Franklin, J; Lancaster, V A; Miflin, B J; Gibson, R

    1982-03-01

    Plants were obtained from protoplasts of shoot cultures of potato (Solarium tuberosum L. cv. 'Maris Bard') and from in situ calluses upon plants of cv. 'Majestic'. None of the protoplast-derived plants resembled each other in all of ten morphological characteristics scored and only one resembled the parental 'Maris Bard' type. As there were a number of plants regenerated from each of ten protoplast-derived calluses it is concluded that variation arose after protoplast isolation during the cell culture phase. Plants regenerated from in situ calluses of cv. 'Majestic' were quite uniform. Reported cases of variation and uniformity from cultured potato tissues are discussed. It is concluded that the variation is not a consequence of using protoplasts and that the expression or induction of variation is controllable.

  1. The futile cycling of hexose phosphates could account for the fact that hexokinase exerts a high control on glucose phosphorylation but not on glycolytic rate in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots.

    PubMed

    Claeyssen, Eric; Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; He, Jiang Zhou; Wally, Owen; Chen, Jingkui; Auslender, Evgenia L; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Jolicoeur, Mario; Rivoal, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots constitutively over- and underexpressing hexokinase (HK, EC 2.7.1.1) was examined. An 11-fold variation in HK activity resulted in altered root growth, with antisense roots growing better than sense roots. Quantification of sugars, organic acids and amino acids in transgenic roots demonstrated that the manipulation of HK activity had very little effect on the intracellular pools of these metabolites. However, adenylate and free Pi levels were negatively affected by an increase in HK activity. The flux control coefficient of HK over the phosphorylation of glucose was measured for the first time in plants. Its value varied with HK level. It reached 1.71 at or below normal HK activity value and was much lower (0.32) at very high HK levels. Measurements of glycolytic flux and O(2) uptake rates demonstrated that the differences in glucose phosphorylation did not affect significantly glycolytic and respiratory metabolism. We hypothesized that these results could be explained by the existence of a futile cycle between the pools of hexose-Ps and carbohydrates. This view is supported by several lines of evidence. Firstly, activities of enzymes capable of catalyzing these reactions were detected in roots, including a hexose-P phosphatase. Secondly, metabolic tracer experiments using (14)C-glucose as precursor showed the formation of (14)C-fructose and (14)C-sucrose. We conclude that futile cycling of hexose-P could be partially responsible for the differences in energetic status in roots with high and low HK activity and possibly cause the observed alterations in growth in transgenic roots. The involvement of HK and futile cycles in the control of glucose-6P metabolism is discussed.

  2. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  3. Modeling the influence of raindrop size on the wash-off losses of copper-based fungicides sprayed on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Paradelo, Marcos; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Fernández-Calviño, David; López-Periago, José Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the pesticide wash-off by raindrops is important for predicting pesticide losses and the subsequent transport of pesticides to soil and in soil run-off. Three foliar-applied copper-based fungicide formulations, specifically the Bordeaux mixture (BM), copper oxychloride (CO), and a mixture of copper oxychloride and propylene glycol (CO-PG), were tested on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves using a laboratory raindrop simulator. The losses in the wash-off were quantified as both copper in-solution loss and copper as particles detached by the raindrops. The efficiency of the raindrop impact on the wash-off was modeled using a stochastic model based on the pesticide release by raindrops. In addition, the influence of the raindrop size, drop falling height, and fungicide dose was analyzed using a full factorial experimental design. The average losses per dose after 14 mm of dripped water for a crop with a leaf area index equal to 1 were 0.08 kg Cu ha(-1) (BM), 0.3 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO) and 0.47 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO-PG). The stochastic model was able to simulate the time course of the wash-off losses and to estimate the losses of both Cu in solution and as particles by the raindrop impacts. For the Cu-oxychloride fungicides, the majority of the Cu was lost as particles that detached from the potato leaves. The percentage of Cu lost increased with the decreasing raindrop size in the three fungicides for the same amount of dripped water. This result suggested that the impact energy is not a limiting factor in the particle detachment rate of high doses. The dosage of the fungicide was the most influential factor in the losses of Cu for the three formulations studied. The results allowed us to quantify the factors that should be considered when estimating the losses by the wash-off of copper-based fungicides and the inputs of copper to the soil by raindrop wash-off.

  4. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method to quantify sucrose, glucose, and fructose in tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Delgado, Diana; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Kushalappa, Ajjamada; Mosquera-Vásquez, Teresa

    2015-01-15

    A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to quantify sucrose (non-reducing sugar), glucose, and fructose (reducing sugars) in raw tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja. Chromatographic analysis was performed using an AMINEX HPX 87H column, at 18 °C, linked to a refraction index detector, at 35 °C. The eluent was 10mM sulfuric acid. The conditions established for the method provided an optimum separation of sugars, citric acid, and malic acid, with resolution values higher or equal to one. Among the four sugar extraction methods tested, the double 50% (v/v) aqueous methanol extraction gave the highest level of analytes. Recovery of this extraction method ranged between 94.14 and 99.77%. The HPLC method was validated for repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, and limits of detection, and quantification. Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than five, when testing repeatability and reproducibility, which is suitable considering a range of acceptability from 5.3 to 7.3. Additionally, the regression analyses supported the method linearity in a range of quantification from 3 to 100 mg/L with regression coefficients values greater than 0.998 for the three analytes. Limits of detection were 3.0 mg/L for the three sugars and limits of quantification were 2.0 mg/L for sucrose and 3.0 mg/L for glucose and fructose. Four Colombian commercial cultivars (Criolla Guaneña, Criolla Paisa, Criolla Galeras, and Criolla Colombia) and five landrace accessions from the Colombian Core Collection of Group Phureja were grown in the district of Usme (Bogotá) fields to analyze their sugar contents. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents were found ranging from 0.93 to 3.11 g/100 g tuber dried weight (DW), from 0.25 to 4.53 g/100 g tuber DW, and from 0.10 to 1.49 g/100 g tuber DW, respectively. Therefore, a high range in the variability of sugar contents was found among genotypes. However, the variability was low among

  5. Effects of selenium treatments on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and concentrations of soluble sugars and starch.

    PubMed

    Turakainen, Marja; Hartikainen, Helinä; Seppänen, Mervi M

    2004-08-25

    The effect of selenium (Se) treatments on potato growth and Se, soluble sugar, and starch accumulation was investigated. Potato plants were cultivated in quartz sand without or with sodium selenate (0, 0.075, 0.3 mg Se kg(-1) sand). In young potato plants, Se treatment resulted in higher starch concentrations in upper leaves. The tuber yield of Se-treated potato plants was higher and composed of relatively few but large tubers. At harvest, the starch concentration in tubers did not differ significantly between treatments. The higher Se addition (0.3 mg Se kg(-1)) may have delayed the aging of stolons and roots, which was observed as high concentrations of soluble sugar and starch. Together with the earlier results showing elevated starch concentration in Se-treated lettuce, the findings of this research justify the conclusion that Se has positive effects also on potato carbohydrate accumulation and possibly on yield formation.

  6. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  7. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety.

    PubMed

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Hengel, Matt J; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  8. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on Metalaxyl Degradation and Metabolite Profile of Potato Seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) Alpha Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G.; Miller, Marion G.; Aldana-Madrid, Maria L.; Hengel, Matt J.; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Contreras-Cortés, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively) compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC–TOF–MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism. PMID:22363586

  9. Translation of nad9 mRNAs in mitochondria from Solanum tuberosum is restricted to completely edited transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann, L; Thieck, O; Herz, U; Schröder, W; Brennicke, A

    1994-01-01

    The pool of partially and completely edited mRNAs present in plant mitochondria could potentially be translated into a mixture of divergent proteins. This possibility was investigated for the nad9 gene in potato by characterization of the mRNA population and the corresponding protein sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of the nad9 gene product has significant similarity to the nuclear-encoded 30 kDa subunit of the bovine and Neurospora NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) and to the chloroplast ndhJ gene product. Immunoprecipitation of a 27 kDa in-organello 35S labelled mitochondrial translation product with an antibody directed against the wheat nad9 gene product demonstrates its functional expression in potato and wheat. Comparison of the nad9 genomic DNA and cDNA sequences reveals seven codons to be changed by a C to U RNA-editing. Direct sequencing of RT-PCR products derived from cDNAs of different tissues of potato plants shows the presence of a significant portion of only partially edited nad9 transcripts in the various tissues. Amino acid sequencing of internal peptides of the isolated 27 kDa protein from potato tubers demonstrates homogenous translation products of only completely edited nad9 mRNAs even in the presence of partially edited mRNAs. This result suggests a pretranslational selection between edited and incompletely edited mRNAs in plant mitochondria. Images PMID:8078764

  10. Identification, characterization and expression analysis of MicroRNAs and their targets in the potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Xie, Fuliang; Frazier, Taylor P; Zhang, Baohong

    2011-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as a class of important post-transcriptional expression regulators that act on their target genes by degradation of target mRNAs or by inhibition of target protein translation. Compared with the current numbers of identified miRNAs for other species in the plant kingdom, a large number of potential miRNAs remains to be identified in potato. In this study, using a newly modified comparative genome strategy, a total of 202 potential potato miRNAs were identified, which belong to 78 families. miR162, miR167, and miR396 are highly expressed in all tested organs. miR372 is highly expressed in flowers. A total of 1094 miRNA targets were predicted and some of them encode transcription factors as well as genes that function in stress response, signal transduction, and a variety of other metabolic processes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis implicates that these targets are involved in 545 biological processes. Of those processes, 28 are related to potato defense mechanisms against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, the metabolism of molecules such as carbon, sucrose, starch, and lipid, and the development of primary and lateral roots. Pathway enrichment analysis, based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), demonstrates that the identified miRNAs participated in 98 metabolism networks, some of which include sucrose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, carbon fixation, and the biosynthesis of plant hormones.

  11. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  12. Genome-Wide Organization and Expression Profiling of the NAC Transcription Factor Family in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-01-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement. PMID:23649897

  13. Photosynthetic assimilation of ¹⁴C into amino acids in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and asparagine in the tubers.

    PubMed

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Keys, Alfred J; Parry, Martin A J; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine is the predominant free amino acid in potato tubers and the present study aimed to establish whether it is imported from the leaves or synthesised in situ. Free amino acid concentrations are important quality determinants for potato tubers because they react with reducing sugars at high temperatures in the Maillard reaction. This reaction produces melanoidin pigments and a host of aroma and flavour volatiles, but if free asparagine participates in the final stages, it results in the production of acrylamide, an undesirable contaminant. ¹⁴CO₂ was supplied to a leaf or leaves of potato plants (cv. Saturna) in the light and radioactivity incorporated into amino acids was determined in the leaves, stems, stolons and tubers. Radioactivity was found in free amino acids, including asparagine, in all tissues, but the amount incorporated in asparagine transported to the tubers and stolons was much less than that in glutamate, glutamine, serine and alanine. The study showed that free asparagine does not play an important role in the transport of nitrogen from leaf to tuber in potato, and that the high concentrations of free asparagine that accumulate in potato tubers arise from synthesis in situ. This indicates that genetic interventions to reduce free asparagine concentration in potato tubers will have to target asparagine metabolism in the tuber.

  14. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the amino acid transporter superfamily in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Haoli; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Li, Silu; Gao, Junpeng; Ma, Yuling; Zhao, Qin; Chen, Qin

    2016-10-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) are integral membrane proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of amino acids and play important roles in various physiological processes of plants. However, there has not yet been a genome-wide overview of the StAAT gene family to date and only StAAP1 has been previously studied in potato. In this paper, a total of 72 StAATs were identified using a series of bioinformatics searches and classified into 12 subfamilies based on their phylogenetic relationship with known Arabidopsis and rice AATs. Chromosomal localization revealed their distribution on all 12 chromosomes. Nearly one-third of StAAT genes (23 of 72) were derived from gene duplication, among which tandem duplication made the greatest contribution to the expansion of the StAAT family. Motif analysis showed that the same subfamily had similar conserved motifs in both numbers and varieties. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing data was used to analyze the expression patterns of StAAT genes and was verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of StAAT genes exhibited both abundant and tissue-specific expression patterns, which might be connected to their functional roles in long- and short-distance transport. This study provided a comprehensive survey of the StAAT gene family, and could serve as a theoretical foundation for the further functional identification and utilization of family members.

  15. Chromosomal organizations of major repeat families on potato (Solanum tuberosum) and further exploring in its sequenced genome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaomin; Datema, Erwin; Guzman, Myriam Olortegui; de Boer, Jan M; van Eck, Herman J; Bachem, Christian W B; Visser, Richard G F; de Jong, Hans

    2014-12-01

    One of the most powerful technologies in unraveling the organization of a eukaryotic plant genome is high-resolution Fluorescent in situ hybridization of repeats and single copy DNA sequences on pachytene chromosomes. This technology allows the integration of physical mapping information with chromosomal positions, including centromeres, telomeres, nucleolar-organizing region, and euchromatin and heterochromatin. In this report, we established chromosomal positions of different repeat fractions of the potato genomic DNA (Cot100, Cot500 and Cot1000) on the chromosomes. We also analysed various repeat elements that are unique to potato including the moderately repetitive P5 and REP2 elements, where the REP2 is part of a larger Gypsy-type LTR retrotransposon and cover most chromosome regions, with some brighter fluorescing spots in the heterochromatin. The most abundant tandem repeat is the potato genomic repeat 1 that covers subtelomeric regions of most chromosome arms. Extensive multiple alignments of these repetitive sequences in the assembled RH89-039-16 potato BACs and the draft assembly of the DM1-3 516 R44 genome shed light on the conservation of these repeats within the potato genome. The consensus sequences thus obtained revealed the native complete transposable elements from which they were derived.

  16. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  17. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  18. Analysis of biologically active compounds in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), and jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seeds.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2004-10-29

    Potatoes and tomatoes, members of the Solanaceae plant family, serve as major, inexpensive low-fat food sources providing for energy, high-quality protein, fiber, vitamins, pigments, as well as other nutrients. These crops also produce biologically active secondary metabolites, which may have both adverse and beneficial effects in the diet. This limited overview, based largely on our studies with the aid of HPLC, TLC, ELISA, GC-MS, and UV spectroscopy, covers analytical aspects of two major potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids, alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, and their hydrolysis products (metabolites) with two, one, and zero carbohydrate groups; the potato water-soluble nortropane alkaloids calystegine A3 and B2; the principal potato polyphenolic compound chlorogenic acid; potato inhibitors of digestive enzymes; the tomato tetrasaccharide glycoalkaloids dehydrotomatine and alpha-tomatine and hydrolysis products; the tomato pigments beta-carotene, lycopene, and chlorophyll; and the anticholinergic alkaloids atropine and scopolamine present in Datura stramonium (jimson weed) seeds that contaminate grain and animal feed. Related studies by other investigators are also mentioned. Accurate analytical methods for these food ingredients help assure the consumer of eating a good-quality and safe diet.

  19. Control of enzymatic browning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by sense and antisense RNA from tomato polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, C; Corsini, D; Love, S; Pavek, J; Tumer, N

    2001-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of Russet Burbank potato was inhibited by sense and antisense PPO RNAs expressed from a tomato PPO cDNA under the control of the 35S promoter from the cauliflower mosaic virus. Transgenic Russet Burbank potato plants from 37 different lines were grown in the field. PPO activity and the level of enzymatic browning were measured in the tubers harvested from the field. Of the tubers from 28 transgenic lines that were sampled, tubers from 5 lines exhibited reduced browning. The level of PPO activity correlated with the reduction in enzymatic browning in these lines. These results indicate that expression of tomato PPO RNA in sense or antisense orientation inhibits PPO activity and enzymatic browning in the major commercial potato cultivar. Expression of tomato PPO RNA in sense orientation led to the greatest decrease in PPO activity and enzymatic browning, possibly due to cosuppression. These results suggest that expression of closely related heterologous genes can be used to prevent enzymatic browning in a wide variety of food crops without the application of various food additives.

  20. Biochemistry of Suberization: Incorporation of [1-C]Oleic Acid and [1-C]Acetate into the Aliphatic Components of Suberin in Potato Tuber Disks (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Dean, B B; Kolattukudy, P E

    1977-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the aliphatic components of suberin was studied in suberizing potato (Solanum tuberosum) slices with [1-(14)C]oleic acid and [1-(14)C]acetate as precursors. In 4-day aged tissue, [1-(14)C]oleic acid was incorporated into an insoluble residue, which, upon hydrogenolysis (LiA1H(4)), released the label into chloroform-soluble products. Radio thin layer and gas chromatographic analyses of these products showed that (14)C was contained exclusively in octadecenol and octadecene-1, 18-diol. OsO(4) treatment and periodate cleavage of the resulting tetraol showed that the labeled diol was octadec-9-ene-1, 18-diol, the product expected from the two major components of suberin, namely 18-hydroxyoleic acid and the corresponding dicarboxylic acid. Aged potato slices also incorporated [1-(14)C]acetate into an insoluble material. Hydrogenolysis followed by radio chromatographic analyses of the products showed that (14)C was contained in alkanols and alkane-alpha,omega-diols. In the former fraction, a substantial proportion of the label was contained in aliphatic chains longer than C(20), which are known to be common constituents of suberin. In the labeled diol fraction, the major component was octadec-9-ene-1,18-diol, with smaller quantities of saturated C(16), C(18), C(20), C(22), and C(24)-alpha,omega-diols. Soluble lipids derived from [1-(14)C]acetate in the aged tissue also contained labeled very long acids from C(20) to C(28), as well as C(22) and C(24) alcohols, but no labeled omega-hydroxy acids or dicarboxylic acids were detected. Label was also found in n-alkanes isolated from the soluble lipids, and the distribution of label among them was consistent with the composition of n-alkanes found in the wound periderm of this tissue; C(21) and C(23) were the major components with lesser amounts of C(19) and C(25). The amount of (14)C incorporated into these bifunctional monomers in 0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-day aged tissue were 0, 1.5, 2.5, 0.8, and 0.3% of the

  1. Identification of plant genes regulated in resistant potato Solanum sparsipilum during the early stages of infection by Globodera pallida.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Katell; Grenier, Eric; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Esquibet, Magali; Kerlan, Marie-Claire; Caromel, Bernard; Mugniéry, Didier; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2007-04-01

    Using a complementary (c)DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) approach, we investigated differential gene expression linked to resistance mechanisms during the incompatible potato - Globodera pallida interaction. Expression was compared between a resistant and a susceptible potato clone, inoculated or not inoculated with G. pallida. These clones were issued from a cross between the resistant Solanum sparsipilum spl329.18 accession and the susceptible dihaploid S. tuberosum Caspar H3, and carried, respectively, resistant and susceptible alleles at the resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Analysis was done on root fragments picked up at 4 time points, during a period of 6 days after infection, from penetration of the nematode in the root to degradation of the feeding site in resistant plants. A total of 2560 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were analyzed, resulting in the detection of 46 TDFs that were up- or downregulated. The number of TDFs that were up- or downregulated increased with time after inoculation. The majority of TDFs were upregulated at only 1 or 2 time points in response to infection. After isolation and sequencing of the TDFs of interest, a subset of 36 sequences were identified, among which 22 matched plant sequences and 2 matched nematode sequences. Some of the TDFs that matched plant genes showed clear homologies to genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, transcription regulation, resistance downstream signalling pathways, and defense mechanisms. Other sequences with homologies to plant genes of unknown function or without any significant similarity to known proteins were also found. Although not exhaustive, these results represent the most extensive list of genes with altered RNA levels after the incompatible G. pallida-potato interaction that has been published to date. The function of these genes could provide insight into resistance or plant defense mechanisms during incompatible potato-cyst nematode interactions.

  2. Factors influencing plant regeneration from seedling explants of Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A good model plant to investigate plant – pathogen interactions would be easy to grow, have a short life cycle, be a natural host of many pathogens, and be easy to manipulate genetically. Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) is a ubiquitous, fast growing weed that produces copious amounts of see...

  3. Impact of host plant connectivity, crop border and patch size on adult Colorado potato beetle retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tagged Colorado potato beetles (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were released on potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L., and tracked using a portable harmonic radar system to determine the impact of host plant spatial distribution on the tendency of the pest to remain on the colonized host plant...

  4. Targeted and Untargeted Approaches Unravel Novel Candidate Genes and Diagnostic SNPs for Quantitative Resistance of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Phytophthora infestans Causing the Late Blight Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Gómez, José M.; Muktar, Meki Shehabu; Paulo, Maria João; Steinemann, Sebastian; Li, Jinquan; Draffehn, Astrid; Hofmann, Andrea; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhardt; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, which can completely destroy the crop. Therefore, for the past 160 years, late blight has been the most important potato disease worldwide. The identification of cultivars with high and durable field resistance to P. infestans is an objective of most potato breeding programs. This type of resistance is polygenic and therefore quantitative. Its evaluation requires multi-year and location trials. Furthermore, quantitative resistance to late blight correlates with late plant maturity, a negative agricultural trait. Knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late maturity is very limited. It is however essential for developing diagnostic DNA markers that facilitate the efficient combination of superior resistance alleles in improved cultivars. We used association genetics in a population of 184 tetraploid potato cultivars in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with maturity corrected resistance (MCR) to late blight. The population was genotyped for almost 9000 SNPs from three different sources. The first source was candidate genes specifically selected for their function in the jasmonate pathway. The second source was novel candidate genes selected based on comparative transcript profiling (RNA-Seq) of groups of genotypes with contrasting levels of quantitative resistance to P. infestans. The third source was the first generation 8.3k SolCAP SNP genotyping array available in potato for genome wide association studies (GWAS). Twenty seven SNPs from all three sources showed robust association with MCR. Some of those were located in genes that are strong candidates for directly controlling quantitative resistance, based on functional annotation. Most important were: a lipoxygenase (jasmonate pathway), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (mevalonate pathway), a P450 protein (terpene biosynthesis

  5. Involvement of de Novo Protein Synthesis, Protein Kinase, Extracellular Ca2+, and Lipoxygenase in Arachidonic Acid Induction of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Genes and Isoprenoid Accumulation in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Choi, D.; Bostock, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    A series of inhibitors were tested to determine the participation of de novo protein synthesis, protein kinase activity, extracellular Ca2+, and lipoxygenase activity in arachidonic acid elicitation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene expression and sesquiterpene phytoalexin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kennebec). Gene-specific probes were used to discriminate effects on the expression of two HMGR genes (hmg1 and hmg2) that respond differentially in tuber tissue following wounding or elicitor treatment. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide completely blocked arachidonate-induced hypersensitive necrosis and browning, including HMGR gene induction and phytoalexin accumulation. This suggests that proteins necessary for coupling arachidonic acid reception to HMGR mRNA accumulation are either rapidly turned over or not present constitutively and are induced following elicitor treatment. Staurosporin, a potent inhibitor of protein kinases, and ethyleneglycol-bis([beta]-aminoethyl ether)-N,N[prime]-tetraacetic acid, a Ca2+ chelator, inhibited arachidonate-induction of hmg2 gene expression and phytoalexin accumulation but did not inhibit the wound-induced expression of hmg1. However, staurosporin inhibited arachidonate's suppression of hmg1 gene expression. Eicosatetraynoic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor that suppresses elicitor-induced phytoalexin accumulation, also inhibited arachidonate's suppression of hmg1 and induction of hmg2. The results indicate that arachidonate's suppression of hmg1 and activation of hmg2 depend on a common intermediate or set of intermediates whose generation is sensitive to the inhibitors tested. PMID:12232162

  6. Analysis of sphingolipids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Bartke, Nana; Fischbeck, Anne; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were detected. For ceramides and glucocerebrosides 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)) was found as the major long-chain base, with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)) and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)). 2-(Alpha-)hydroxypalmitic acid (C16:0h) was the major fatty acid, which was found to be acylated to the long-chain bases. For quantification of these compounds, an RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with an "echo-peak"-technique simulating internal standard injection was developed. The analyzed samples of potatoes and sweet potatoes showed amounts of approximately 0.1-8 microg/kg single ceramides and amounts up to 500 microg/kg glucocerebrosides, with C16:0h-glucosyl-4,8-sphingadienine as the major component.

  7. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, B; Bejan, M; Lucas, E; Giordanengo, P; Vincent, C

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae.

  8. Resistance of Wild Solanum Accessions to Aphids and Other Potato Pests in Quebec Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fréchette, B.; Bejan, M.; Lucas, É.; Giordanengo, P.; Vincent, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine the susceptibility of six wild potato accessions to the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Densities of aphid colonies were compared between caged Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae), S. polyadenium Greenmam, S. tarijense Hawkes, S. infundibuliforme Philippi, S. oplocense Hawkes, and S. stoloniferum Schlechted and Bouché, and the commercially cultivated potato plant S. tuberosum L. cv. Désirée. Moreover the susceptibility of S. polyadenium and S. tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was compared to that of S. tuberosum cv. Désirée in the field. Results indicated that S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant to M. persicae than S. pinnatisectum and the commercially cultivated S. tuberosum cv. Désirée. Solanum polyadenium was more resistant to aphids than S. tarijense in 2004, but not in 2005. Moreover, S. polyadenium and S. tarijense were more resistant than S. tuberosum cv. Désirée to L. decemlineata, E. cucumeris and E. fabae. PMID:21054161

  9. Comparative antimicrobial activity of callus and natural plant extracts of Solanum trilobatum L

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, S.M.; Kandasamy, S.; Chinnappa, R.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of natural plant and callus extracts of Solanum trilobatum L. was studied against two bacteria and fungi, for their antimicrobial activity using cup diffusion method. Various solvents such as chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used. The leaf and stem segments of the plant were culturedon Murashige and S koog basal medium supplemented with various growth regulators. Maximum callus was recorded on medium containing 0.5 mg/lNAA and 0.5 mgj IKinetin. The results reveals that the stem and leaf callus extracts has shown significant activity against the tested microorganisms than the natural sample. PMID:22557312

  10. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment, changes in diurnal light level and water stress on foliar metabolites of potato plants grown in naturally sunlit controlled environment chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kennebec) were grown in outdoor, naturally sunlit, soil-plant-atmosphere research (SPAR) chambers. Drought treatments were imposed at post-tuber initiation stage to assess water stress effects on leaf metabolites, and interactions with enriched CO2 concentrati...

  11. Species-Specific Identification from Incomplete Sampling: Applying DNA Barcodes to Monitoring Invasive Solanum Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling–through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application. PMID:23409092

  12. Repression of formate dehydrogenase in Solanum tuberosum increases steady-state levels of formate and accelerates the accumulation of proline in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Ambard-Bretteville, Françoise; Sorin, Céline; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Hourton-Cabassa, Cécile; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2.) is a soluble mitochondrial enzyme capable of oxidizing formate into CO2 in the presence of NAD+. It is abundant in non-green tissues and scarce in photosynthetic tissues. Under stress, FDH transcripts (and protein) accumulate in leaves, and leaf mitochondria acquire the ability to use formate as a respiratory substrate. In this paper, we describe the analysis of transgenic potato plants under-expressing FDH, obtained in order to understand the physiological function of FDH. Plants expressing low FDH activities were selected and the study was focused on a line (AS23) showing no detectable FDH activity. AS23 plants were morphologically indistinguishable from control plants, and grew normally under standard conditions. However, mitochondria isolated from AS23 tubers could not use formate as a respiratory substrate. Steady-state levels of formate were higher in AS23 leaves and tubers than in control plants. Tubers of untransformed plants oxidized 14C formate into 14CO2 but AS23 tubers accumulated it. In order to reveal a possible phenotype under stress conditions, control and AS23 plants were submitted to drought and cold. These treatments dramatically induced FDH transcripts in control plants but, whatever the growth conditions, no 1.4 kb FDH transcripts were detected in leaves of AS23 plants. Amongst various biochemical and molecular differences between stressed AS23 and control plants, the most striking was a dramatically faster accumulation of proline in the leaves of drought-stressed plants under-expressing FDH.

  13. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research.

  14. Plant growth-promoting potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Solanum nigrum leaves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Jung, Byung Kwon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Fungal endophytes have been characterized as producers of phytohormones and potent promoters of plant growth. In this study, two fungal endophytes, Fusarium tricinctum RSF-4L and Alternaria alternata RSF-6L, were isolated from the leaves of Solanum nigrum. Culture filtrates (CFs) from each isolate were initially screened for indole compounds, and assayed for their ability to promote the growth of Dongjin rice plants. Nearly all plant growth attributes examined (i.e., chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production) were significantly enhanced upon treatment with fungal CFs. Subsequently, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses were utilized to confirm the presence of phytohormones in the CF of each fungal endophytic isolate. These analyses revealed that RSF-4L and RSF-6L produced 54 and 30 µg/mL indole acetic acid, respectively, within their respective cultures. These findings suggest that the endophytes isolated in this study synthesize bioactive compounds that could play important roles in promoting plant growth.

  15. Effects of glycoalkaloids from Solanum plants on cucumber root growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang; Li, Shengyu; He, Dajun; Cao, Gang; Ni, Xiuzhen; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Wang, Deli

    2010-09-01

    The phytotoxic effect of four glycoalkaloids and two 6-O-sulfated glycoalkaloid derivatives were evaluated by testing their inhibition of cucumber root growth. The bioassays were performed using both compounds singly and in equimolar mixtures, respectively. Cucumber root growth was reduced by chaconine (C), solanine (S), solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS) with IC(50) values of 260 (C), 380 (S), 530 (SM), and 610 microM (SS). The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent. 6-O-sulfated chaconine and 6-O-sulfated solamargine had no inhibitory effects, which indicated that the carbohydrate moieties play an important role in inhibiting cucumber root growth. The equimolar mixtures of paired glycoalkaloids, both chaconine/solanine and solamargine/solasonine, produced synergistic effects on inhibition of cucumber root growth. By contrast, mixtures of unpaired glycoalkaloids from different plants had no obviously synergistic effects. The growth inhibited plant roots lacked hairs, which implied that inhibition was perhaps at the level of root hair growth.

  16. Endophytic Colonization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by a Novel Competent Bacterial Endophyte, Pseudomonas putida Strain P9, and Its Effect on Associated Bacterial Communities▿

    PubMed Central

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Araújo, Welington L.; de Azevedo, João L.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Overbeek, Leonard S.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain P9 is a novel competent endophyte from potato. P9 causes cultivar-dependent suppression of Phytophthora infestans. Colonization of the rhizoplane and endosphere of potato plants by P9 and its rifampin-resistant derivative P9R was studied. The purposes of this work were to follow the fate of P9 inside growing potato plants and to establish its effect on associated microbial communities. The effects of P9 and P9R inoculation were studied in two separate experiments. The roots of transplants of three different cultivars of potato were dipped in suspensions of P9 or P9R cells, and the plants were planted in soil. The fate of both strains was followed by examining colony growth and by performing PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Colonies of both strains were recovered from rhizoplane and endosphere samples of all three cultivars at two growth stages. A conspicuous band, representing P9 and P9R, was found in all Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE fingerprints for treated plants. The numbers of P9R CFU and the P9R-specific band intensities for the different replicate samples were positively correlated, as determined by linear regression analysis. The effects of plant growth stage, genotype, and the presence of P9R on associated microbial communities were examined by multivariate and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analyses of PCR-DGGE fingerprints. The presence of strain P9R had an effect on bacterial groups identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans, Pseudomonas veronii, and Pseudomonas syringae. In conclusion, strain P9 is an avid colonizer of potato plants, competing with microbial populations indigenous to the potato phytosphere. Bacterization with a biocontrol agent has an important and previously unexplored effect on plant-associated communities. PMID:19329656

  17. Behavioral Response of Nothanguina phyllobia to Selected Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A. F.; Orr, C. C.; Abernathy, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The silver-leaf nightshade nenmtode, Nothanguina phyllobia, is a promising biological control agent for its only reported host, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. When infective larvae of N. phyllobia and stem tissue of 39 econmnically important plant species were suspended in 0.5% water agar, nematodes aggregated about S. elaeagnifolium, Solanum carolinense L., Solanum melongena L., Solanum tuberosum L., and Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Ait. Nematodes responded to Solanum spp. via positive chemotaxis and/or klinokinesis, but aggregated near tissue of P. caroliniana as a result of orthokinetic effects. Nematodes aggregated away from tissue of Hibiscus esculentus L., Triticum aestivum L., Santolina sp., Rosa sp., and Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. in the absence of orthokinetic effects. Experiments that excluded light and maintained relative humidity at 100% showed N. phyllobia to ascend the stems of 35 plant species to a height of > 9 cm within 12 h. Differences in stem ascension were not attributable to stem surface characteristics. PMID:19305532

  18. Glycoalkaloids of wild and cultivated Solanum: effects on specialist and generalist insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Altesor, Paula; García, Álvaro; Font, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Haralambides, Alejandra; Vilaró, Francisco; Oesterheld, Martín; Soler, Roxina; González, Andrés

    2014-06-01

    Plant domestication by selective breeding may reduce plant chemical defense in favor of growth. However, few studies have simultaneously studied the defensive chemistry of cultivated plants and their wild congeners in connection to herbivore susceptibility. We compared the constitutive glycoalkaloids (GAs) of cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, and a wild congener, S. commersonii, by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We also determined the major herbivores present on the two species in field plots, and tested their preference for the plants and their isolated GAs in two-choice bioassays. Solanum commersonii had a different GA profile and higher concentrations than S. tuberosum. In the field, S. tuberosum was mostly attacked by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and by the specialist flea beetle Epitrix argentinensis. In contrast, the most common herbivore on S. commersonii was the specialist sawfly Tequus sp. Defoliation levels were higher on the wild species, probably due to the chewing feeding behavior of Tequus sp. As seen in the field, M. persicae and E. argentinensis preferred leaf disks of the cultivated plant, while Tequus sp. preferred those of the wild one. Congruently, GAs from S. commersonii were avoided by M. persicae and preferred by Tequus sp. The potato aphid performed well on both species and was not deterred by S. commersonii GAs. These observations suggest that different GA profiles explain the feeding preferences of the different herbivores, and that domestication has altered the defensive capacity of S. tuberosum. However, the wild relative is still subject to severe defoliation by a specialist herbivore that may cue on the GAs.

  19. Intraspecific competition facilitates the evolution of tolerance to insect damage in the perennial plant Solanum carolinense.

    PubMed

    McNutt, David W; Halpern, Stacey L; Barrows, Kahaili; Underwood, Nora

    2012-12-01

    Tolerance to herbivory (the degree to which plants maintain fitness after damage) is a key component of plant defense, so understanding how natural selection and evolutionary constraints act on tolerance traits is important to general theories of plant-herbivore interactions. These factors may be affected by plant competition, which often interacts with damage to influence trait expression and fitness. However, few studies have manipulated competitor density to examine the evolutionary effects of competition on tolerance. In this study, we tested whether intraspecific competition affects four aspects of the evolution of tolerance to herbivory in the perennial plant Solanum carolinense: phenotypic expression, expression of genetic variation, the adaptive value of tolerance, and costs of tolerance. We manipulated insect damage and intraspecific competition for clonal lines of S. carolinense in a greenhouse experiment, and measured tolerance in terms of sexual and asexual fitness components. Compared to plants growing at low density, plants growing at high density had greater expression of and genetic variation in tolerance, and experienced greater fitness benefits from tolerance when damaged. Tolerance was not costly for plants growing at either density, and only plants growing at low density benefited from tolerance when undamaged, perhaps due to greater intrinsic growth rates of more tolerant genotypes. These results suggest that competition is likely to facilitate the evolution of tolerance in S. carolinense, and perhaps in other plants that regularly experience competition, while spatio-temporal variation in density may maintain genetic variation in tolerance.

  20. Multiple copies of genes encoding XEGIPs and EDGPs are harbored in an 85kB region of potato genome(Solanum tuberosum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The XEGIPs (xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase inhibitor protein) and their closest homologues, the EDGPs (extracellular dermal glycoproteins) have been reported in a limited number of plants, principally Solanaceous ones. One function of XEGIP is limiting pathogen attack by interfering with family 1...

  1. Ethylene in the atmosphere of commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) storage bins and potential effects on tuber respiration rate and fried chip color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Careful storage management is required to maintain post-harvest potato tuber quality. The plant growth regulator ethylene has well documented effects on potato tuber respiration rate, fried product color, and sprouting, but data on the amount of ethylene present in ventilated potato storages and how...

  2. Comparative analysis of virus-specific small RNA profiles of three biologically distinct strains of Potato virus Y in infected potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Russet Burbank.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Khalid; Mitter, Neena; Harper, Artemus; Dhingra, Amit; Pappu, Hanu R

    2014-10-13

    Deep sequencing technology has enabled the analysis of small RNA profiles of virus-infected plants and could provide insights into virus-host interactions. Potato virus Y is an economically important viral pathogen of potato worldwide. In this study, we investigated the nature and relative levels of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in potato cv. Russet Burbank infected with three biologically distinct and economically important strains of PVY, the ordinary strain (PVY-O), tobacco veinal-necrotic strain (PVY-N) and tuber necrotic strain (PVY-NTN). The analysis showed an overall abundance of vsiRNAs of 20-24nt in PVY-infected plants. Considerable differences were present in the distribution of vsiRNAs as well as total small RNAs. The 21nt class was the most prevalent in PVY-infected plants irrespective of the virus strain, whereas in healthy potato plants, the 24nt class was the most dominant. vsiRNAs were derived from every position in the PVY genome, though certain hotspots were identified for each of the PVY strains. Among the three strains used, the population of vsiRNAs of different size classes was relatively different with PVY-NTN accumulating the highest level of vsiRNAs, while PVY-N infected plants had the least population of vsiRNAs. Unique vsiRNAs mapping to PVY genome in PVY-infected plants amounted to 3.13, 1.93 and 1.70% for NTN, N and O, respectively. There was a bias in the generation of vsiRNAs from the plus strand of the genome in comparison to the negative strand. The highest number of total vsiRNAs was from the cytoplasmic inclusion protein gene (CI) in PVY-O and PVY-NTN strains, whereas from PVY-N, the NIb gene produced maximum total vsiRNAs. These findings indicate that the three PVY strains interact differently in the same host genetic background and provided insights into virus-host interactions in an important food crop.

  3. Modulation of the cellulose content of tuber cell walls by antisense expression of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) CesA clones.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Ronald J F J; Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Bakx, Edwin J; Straatman-Engelen, Irma; Bush, Maxwell S; McCann, Maureen C; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2004-03-01

    Four potato cellulose synthase (CesA) homologs (StCesA1, 2, 3 and 4) were isolated by screening a cDNA library made from developing tubers. Based on sequence comparisons and the fact that all four potato cDNAs were isolated from this single cDNA-library, all four StCesA clones are likely to play a role in primary cell wall biosynthesis. Several constructs were generated to modulate cellulose levels in potato plants in which the granule-bound starch synthase promoter was used to target the modification to the tubers. The StCesA3 was used for up- and down-regulation of the cellulose levels by sense (SE-StCesA3) and antisense (AS-StCesA3) expression of the complete cDNA. Additionally, the class-specific regions (CSR) of all four potato cellulose synthase genes were used for specific down-regulation (antisense) of the corresponding CesA genes (csr1, 2, 3 and 4). None of the transformants showed an overt developmental phenotype. Sections of tubers were screened for altered cell wall structure by Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) and exploratory Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and those plants discriminating from WT plants were analysed for cellulose content and monosaccharide composition. Several transgenic lines were obtained with mainly decreased levels of cellulose. These results show that the cellulose content in potato tubers can be reduced down to 40% of the WT level without affecting normal plant development, and that constructs based on the CSR alone are specific and sufficient to down-regulate cellulose biosynthesis.

  4. Molecular cloning, functional characterization and expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum) 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 1 (StDXS1) in response to Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Maria Antonia; Soliman, Atta; Li, Genyi; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Ayele, Belay T; Daayf, Fouad

    2016-02-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) catalyzes the initial step of the plastidial 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP-MEP) pathway involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis. In this study, we cloned the complete cDNA of potato DXS gene that was designated StDXS1. StDXS1 cDNA encodes for 719 amino acid residues, with MW of 77.8 kDa, and is present in one copy in the potato genome. Phylogenetic analysis and protein sequence alignments assigned StDXS1 to a group with DXS homologues from closely related species and exhibited homodomain identity with known DXS proteins from other plant species. Late blight symptoms occurred in parallel with a reduction in StDXS1 transcript levels, which may be associated with the levels of isoprenoids that contribute to plant protection against pathogens. Subcellular localization indicated that StDXS1 targets the chloroplasts where isoprenoids are synthesized. Arabidopsis expressing StDXS1 showed a higher accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophyll as compared to wild type controls. Lower levels of ABA and GA were detected in the transgenic DXS lines as compared to control plants, which reflected on higher germination rates of the transgenic DXS lines. No changes were detected in JA or SA contents. Selected downstream genes in the DOXP-MEP pathway, especially GGPPS genes, were up-regulated in the transgenic lines.

  5. The characterization of novel mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporters from Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum uncovers functional redundancy in symbiotic phosphate transport in solanaceous species.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Réka; Karandashov, Vladimir; Chague, Véronique; Kalinkevich, Katsiaryna; Tamasloukht, M'barek; Xu, Guohua; Jakobsen, Iver; Levy, Avraham A; Amrhein, Nikolaus; Bucher, Marcel

    2005-04-01

    Solanaceous species are among the >200 000 plant species worldwide forming a mycorrhiza, that is, a root living in symbiosis with soil-borne arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. An important parameter of this symbiosis, which is vital for ecosystem productivity, agriculture, and horticulture, is the transfer of phosphate (Pi) from the AM fungus to the plant, facilitated by plasma membrane-spanning Pi transporter proteins. The first mycorrhiza-specific plant Pi transporter to be identified, was StPT3 from potato [Nature414 (2004) 462]. Here, we describe novel Pi transporters from the solanaceous species tomato, LePT4, and its orthologue StPT4 from potato, both being members of the Pht1 family of plant Pi transporters. Phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrates clustering of both LePT4 and StPT4 with the mycorrhiza-specific Pi transporter from Medicago truncatula [Plant Cell, 14 (2002) 2413] and rice [Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 99 (2002) 13324], respectively, but not with StPT3, indicating that two non-orthologous mycorrhiza-responsive genes encoding Pi transporters are co-expressed in the Solanaceae. The cloned promoter regions from both genes, LePT4 and StPT4, exhibit a high degree of sequence identity and were shown to direct expression exclusively in colonized cells when fused to the GUS reporter gene, in accordance with the abundance of LePT4 and StPT4 transcripts in mycorrhized roots. Furthermore, extensive sequencing of StPT4-like clones and subsequent expression analysis in potato and tomato revealed the presence of a close paralogue of StPT4 and LePT4, named StPT5 and LePT5, respectively, representing a third Pi transport system in solanaceous species which is upregulated upon AM fungal colonization of roots. Knock out of LePT4 in the tomato cv. MicroTom indicated considerable redundancy between LePT4 and other Pi transporters in tomato.

  6. Spirosolane-containing Solanum species and induction of congenital craniofacial malformations.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Baker, D C; Gaffield, W

    1990-01-01

    Comparison by GC analysis of purified alkaloid extracts of Solanum species revealed no measurable free solasodine, other spirosolanes, or any non-spirosolane steroidal alkaloid aglycones in unhydrolyzed total alkaloid fractions of fruit of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade), Solanum sarrachoides (S. villosum Lam.--hairy nightshade), Solanum dulcamara L. (European bittersweet nightshade) or Solanum melongena L. (eggplant). All alkaloidal material was apparently present as glycoside. Conversely, sprouts of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) contained 67% of its alkaloids as glycosides, which was freed only upon hydrolysis with the remaining 33% present as free solanidine. GC/MS analysis of hydrolysates of purified extracts of the test Solanum species revealed that solasodine was a principal or sole aglycone of the alkaloid glycosides in each of the test species except Solanum tuberosum. In the latter, solanidine was the sole aglycone. Among the test species, exclusive of S. tuberosum, only S. dulcamara contained aglycones other than solasodine. In addition to solasodine, S. dulcamara contained appreciable amounts of an unknown spirosolane, an aglycone provisionally identified as soladulcidine. The induction of congenital craniofacial malformations in hamsters by high oral doses of the four Solanum species that contained mainly solasodine glycosides--S. elaeagnifolium, S. dulcamara, S. sarrachoides and S. melongena was compared to inductions of malformations by Solanum tuberosum, that contained mainly solanidane glycosides. Compared to controls, Solanum elaeagnifolium and Solanum dulcamara fruit both induced a high percentage incidence of deformed litters (20.4 and 16.3, respectively) that was statistically significant (P less than 0.001 level) while percentage incidence of deformed litters induced by Solanum sarrachoides and Solanum melongena fruit (9.5 and 7.6 respectively) were both higher than controls (3.4%), in neither case was the incidence

  7. A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus.

  8. Solanum tuberosum ZPR1 encodes a light-regulated nuclear DNA-binding protein adjusting the circadian expression of StBBX24 to light cycle.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Czarnecka, Jagoda; Banachowicz, Ewa; Rey, Pascal; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    ZPR1 proteins belong to the C4-type of zinc finger coordinators known in animal cells to interact with other proteins and participate in cell growth and proliferation. In contrast, the current knowledge regarding plant ZPR1 proteins is very scarce. Here, we identify a novel potato nuclear factor belonging to this family and named StZPR1. StZPR1 is specifically expressed in photosynthetic organs during the light period, and the ZPR1 protein is located in the nuclear chromatin fraction. From modelling and experimental analyses, we reveal the StZPR1 ability to bind the circadian DNA cis motif 'CAACAGCATC', named CIRC and present in the promoter of the clock-controlled double B-box StBBX24 gene, the expression of which peaks in the middle of the day. We found that transgenic lines silenced for StZPR1 expression still display a 24 h period for the oscillation of StBBX24 expression but delayed by 4 h towards the night. Importantly, other BBX genes exhibit altered circadian regulation in these lines. Our data demonstrate that StZPR1 allows fitting of the StBBX24 circadian rhythm to the light period and provide evidence that ZPR1 is a novel clock-associated protein in plants necessary for the accurate rhythmic expression of specific circadian-regulated genes.

  9. Aqueous two-phase (PEG4000/Na2SO4) extraction and characterization of an acid invertase from potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Yuzugullu, Yonca; Duman, Yonca Avcı

    2015-01-01

    Invertases are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases have essential roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and stress responses. To study their isolation and purification from potato, an attractive system useful for the separation of biological molecules, an aqueous two-phase system, was used. The influence of various system parameters such as type of phase-forming salts, polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular mass, salt, and polymer concentration was investigated to obtain the highest recovery of enzyme. The PEG4000 (12.5%, w/w)/Na2SO4(15%, w/w) system was found to be ideal for partitioning invertase into the bottom salt-rich phase. The addition of 3% MnSO4 (w/w) at pH 5.0 increased the purity by 5.11-fold with the recovered activity of 197%. The Km and Vmax on sucrose were 3.95 mM and 0.143 U mL(-1) min(-1), respectively. Our data confirmed that the PEG4000/Na2SO4 aqueous two-phase system combined with the presence of MnSO4 offers a low-cost purification of invertase from readily available potato tuber in a single step. The biochemical characteristics of temperature and pH stability for potato invertase prepared from an ATPS make the enzyme a good candidate for its potential use in many research and industrial applications.

  10. Comparative assessment of genetic and epigenetic variation among regenerants of potato (Solanum tuberosum) derived from long-term nodal tissue-culture and cell selection.

    PubMed

    Dann, Alison L; Wilson, Calum R

    2011-04-01

    Three long-term nodal tissued cultured Russet Burbank potato clones and nine thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines, derived from the nodal lines, were assessed for genetic and epigenetic (in the form of DNA methylation) differences by AFLP and MSAP. The treated regenerant lines were originally selected for superior resistance to common scab disease and acceptable tuber yield in pot and field trials. The long-term, tissue culture clone lines exhibited genetic (8.75-15.63% polymorphisms) and epigenetic (12.56-26.13% polymorphisms) differences between them and may represent a stress response induced by normal plant growth disruption. The thaxtomin A-treated regenerant lines exhibited much higher significant (p < 0.05) genetic (2-29.38%) and epigenetic (45.22-51.76%) polymorphisms than the nodal cultured parent clones. Methylation-sensitive mutations accumulated within the regenerant lines are significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to disease resistance. However, linking phenotypic differences that could be of benefit to potato growers, to single gene sequence polymorphisms in a tetraploid plant such as the potato would be extremely difficult since it is assumed many desirable traits are under polygenic control.

  11. The Single Andigenum Origin of Neo-Tuberosum Potato Materials is not Supported by Microsatellite and Plastid Marker Analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neo-Tuberosum refers to cultivated potato adapted to long-day tuberization and a syndrome of related morphological and physiological traits, developed by intercrossing and selection of short-day adapted potatoes of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum Group, native from the Andes of western Venezuela to ...

  12. The influence and possible recombination of genotypes on the production of microspore embryoids in anther cultures of Solanum tuberosum and dihaploid hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, E; Sopory, S K

    1978-05-01

    In addition to physical and chemical factors, genotype appears to be a very important factor influencing success in anther culture. Recombination by making crosses with selected responding clones has been introduced as a possible helpful method to positively influence the success and response type via the factor genotype. From the progeny of such a cross, one genotype could be selected, producing in 30 to 40 percent of the cultured anthers, fully developed embryoids and plantlets, which are a mixture of polyploids, dihaploids and monohaploids.Further, a pleiotropic marker 'embryo spot' visible as a 'nodal band' in the plant stage, has been used to confirm the microsporic origin of dihaploids and polyploids and to prove their homozygous nature. This marker also shows potential use in confirming the origin of calli from individual microspores.

  13. Data integration and knowledge management to facilitate research on plant-pathogen interactions: case study Solanum tuberosum – Verticillium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is an important disease causing considerable economic losses in potato production globally. Soil and environmental conditions affect symptom expression and the effect of the disease on yield. A ten year field trial has been conducted in order to better understand the dynamics of wi...

  14. Expression of an Escherichia coli phosphoglucomutase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) results in minor changes in tuber metabolism and a considerable delay in tuber sprouting.

    PubMed

    Lytovchenko, Anna; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Eickmeier, Ira; Mittendorf, Volker; Sonnewald, Uwe; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of elevating the cytosolic activity of phosphoglucomutase (PGM; EC 5.4.2.2) on photosynthesis, growth and heterotrophic metabolism. Here we describe the generation of novel transgenic plants expressing an Escherichia coli phosphoglucomutase (EcPGM) under the control of the 35S promoter. These lines were characterised by an accumulation of leaf sucrose, despite displaying no alterations in photosynthetic carbon partitioning, and a reduced tuber starch content. Determinations of the levels of a wide range of other metabolites revealed dramatic reductions in maltose and other sugars in leaves of the transformants, as well as a modification of the pattern of organic and amino acid content in tubers of these lines. Intriguingly, the transgenics also displayed a dramatically delayed rate of sprouting and significantly enhanced rate of respiration, however, it is important to note that the severity of these traits did not always correlate with the level of transgene expression. These results are discussed in the context of current understanding of the control of respiration and the breaking of tuber dormancy.

  15. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  16. Mapping and characterization of the interaction interface between two polypyrimidine-tract binding proteins and a nova-type protein of Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shweta; Butler, Nathaniel M; Hannapel, David J; Rao, A Gururaj

    2013-01-01

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) proteins are RNA-binding proteins that generally contain four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs). In potato, six cDNAs encoding full-length PTB proteins have been identified. In the present study Nova1-like protein, designated StNova1, was identified as a potential interacting partner of the StPTB proteins via yeast two-hybrid screening. Nova protein is a RNA-binding protein that contains three K-homology (KH) domains. In humans, these proteins are involved in regulation of neuronal RNA metabolism but the role of Nova-like proteins in plants is poorly understood. We have validated this interaction and mapped the protein binding region on StNova1 and StPTB1 and -6 using a novel domain interaction phage display (DIPP) technique. The interaction between the two RNA-binding proteins StPTB1/6 and StNova1 is mediated through linker regions that are distinctly separated from the RRMs. Furthermore, using a random 21-mer phage-peptide library, we have identified a number of peptides with the consensus sequence motif [S/G][V/I][L/V]G that recognize the StPTB proteins. One over-represented peptide that recognizes StPTB6 contains the GVLGPWP sequence that is similar to the GIGGRYP sequence in the glycine-rich linker region between the KH2 and KH3 domains of StNova1. We show, through site-specific mutations, the importance of glycine and proline residues in StNova1-StPTB interactions.

  17. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's) on medicinal plant Solanum viarum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hemashenpagam, N; Selvaraj, T

    2011-09-01

    A green house nursery study was conducted to assess the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus aggregatum and some plant growth promoting rhizomicrooganisms (PGPR's), Bacillus coagulans and Trichoderma harzianum, in soil and their consequent effect on growth, nutrition and content of secondary metabolities of Solanum viarum seedlings. Triple inoculation of G. aggregatum+B. coagulans+T. harzainum with Solanum viarum in a green house nursery study resulted in maximum plant biomass (plant height 105 cm and plant dry weight 12.17 g), P, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn and secondary metabolities [total phenols (129.6 microg g(-1) f.wt.), orthodihydroxy phenols (90.6 microg g(-1) f.wt.), flavonoids (3.94 microg g(-1) f.wt.), alkaloids (5.05 microg g(-1) f.wt.), saponins (5.05 microg g(-1) f.wt.) and tannins (0.324 microg g(-1) f.wt.)] of S. viarum seedlings. The mycorrhizal root colonization and spore numbers in the root zone soil of the inoculated plants increased. The enzyme activity namely acid phosphatase (53.44 microg PNP g(-1) soil), alkaline phosphatase (40.95 microg PNP g(-1) soil) and dehydrogenase (475.5 microg PNP g(-1) soil) and total population of B. coagulans (12.5x10(4) g(-1)) and T. harzianum (12.4 x 10(4) g(-1)), in the root zone soil was found high in the triple inoculation with G. aggregatum+B. coagulans+T. harzianum that proved to be the best microbial consortium.

  18. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) effect on the growth of Solanum lycopersicum cv. Roma plants.

    PubMed

    Daresta, Barbara Elisabetta; Italiano, Francesca; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Trotta, Massimo; Tutino, Maria; Veronico, Pasqua

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the direct effect of atmospheric particulate matter on plant growth. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants were grown for 18d directly on PM10 collected on quartz fiber filters. Organic and elemental carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were analyzed on all the tested filters. The toxicity indicators (i.e., seed germination, root elongation, shoot and/or fresh root weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids content) were quantified to study the negative and/or positive effects in the plants via root uptake. Substantial differences were found in the growth of the root apparatus with respect to that of the control plants. A 17-58% decrease of primary root elongation, a large amount of secondary roots and a decrease in shoot (32%) and root (53-70%) weights were found. Quantitative analysis of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated that an oxidative burst in response to abiotic stress occurred in roots directly grown on PM10, and this detrimental effect was also confirmed by the findings on the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll-to-carotenoid ratio.

  19. Host plant growth promotion and cadmium detoxification in Solanum nigrum, mediated by endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Waqas, Muhammad; Park, Gun-Seok; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hong, Sung-Jun; Ullah, Rehman; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Chang Eon; Ur-Rehman, Shafiq; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Current investigation conducted to evaluate the associated fungal endophyte interactions of a Cd hyper-accumulator Solanum nigrum Korean ecotype under varying concentrations of Cd. Two indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing fungal strains, RSF-4L and RSF-6L, isolated from the leaves of S. nigrum, were initially screened for Cd tolerance and accumulation potential. In terms of dry biomass production, the strain RSF-6L showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for Cd toxicity in comparison to RSF-4L. Therefore, RSF-6L was applied in vivo to S. nigrum and grown for six weeks under Cd concentrations of 0, 10, and 30mgKg(-1) of dry sand. The effect of fungal inoculation assessed by plant physiological responses, endogenous biochemical regulations, and Cd profile in different tissues. Significant increase were observed in plant growth attributes such as shoot length, root length, dry biomass, leaf area, and chlorophyll contents in inoculated RSF-6L plants in comparison to non-inoculated plants with or without Cd contamination. RSF-6L inoculation decreased uptake of Cd in roots and above ground parts, as evidenced by a low bio-concentration factor (BCF) and improved tolerance index (TI). However, Cd concentration in the leaves remained the same for inoculated and non-inoculated plants under Cd spiking. Fungal inoculation protected the host plants, as evidenced by low peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol peroxidase (PPO) activities and high catalase (CAT) activity. Application of appropriate fungal inoculation that can improve tolerance mechanisms of hyper-accumulators and reduce Cd uptake can be recommended for phyto-stabilisation/immobilisation of heavy metals in crop fields.

  20. Gibberellin-producing Promicromonospora sp. SE188 improves Solanum lycopersicum plant growth and influences endogenous plant hormones.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Joo, Gil-Jae; You, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-12-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) producing gibberellins (GAs) can be beneficial to plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated and screened a new strain of Promicromonospora sp., SE188, isolated from soil. Promicromonospora sp. SE188 secreted GAs into its growth medium and exhibited phosphate solubilization potential. The PGPR produced physiologically active (GA(1) and GA(4)) and inactive (GA(9), GA(12), GA(19), GA(20), GA(24), GA(34), and GA(53)) GAs in various quantities detected by GC/MS-SIM. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) plants inoculated with Promicromonospora sp. SE188 showed a significantly higher shoot length and biomass as compared to controls where PGPR-free nutrient broth (NB) and distilled water (DW) were applied to plants. The presence of Promicromonospora sp. SE188 significantly up-regulated the non C-13 hydroxylation GA biosynthesis pathway (GA(12)→GA(24)→GA(9)→GA(4)→ GA(34)) in the tomato plants as compared to the NB and DW control plants. Abscisic acid, a plant stress hormone, was significantly down-regulated in the presence of Promicromonospora sp. SE188. Contrarily, salicylic acid was significantly higher in the tomato plant after Promicromonospora sp. SE188 inoculation as compared to the controls. Promicromonospora sp. SE188 showed promising stimulation of tomato plant growth. From the results it appears that Promicromonospora sp. SE188 has potential as a bio-fertilizer and should be more broadly tested in field trials for higher crop production in eco-friendly farming systems.

  1. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

  2. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  3. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-23

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

  4. Life history parameters of the biocontrol agent Gratiana spadicea (Chrysomelidae), reared on the natural host plant Solanum sisymbriifolium and the non-target crop Solanum melongena (Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gratiana spadicea (Klug), a leaf-feeding tortoise beetle native to South America, was released in South Africa for the biological control of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (wild tomato), despite its ability to develop on cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) during laboratory host-specificity ...

  5. Taxonomy of wild potatoes and their relatives in southern South America (Solanum sect. Petota, sect. Etuberosum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota, which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, is distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile. Section Etuberosum, a closely related outgroup section, is distributed in Argentina and Chile. Our taxo...

  6. Wild and Cultivated Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Escaped and Persistent Outside of its Natural Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato (Solanum section Petota) contains about 110 species that are native to the Americas from the southwestern United States to central Chile and adjacent Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Landrace populations of the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum, are native to the Ame...

  7. New evidence of similarity between human and plant steroid metabolism: 5alpha-reductase activity in Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Fabiana; Danza, Giovanna; Guarna, Antonio; Cini, Nicoletta; Racchi, Milvia Luisa; Serio, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of steroid hormones in humans is well known, and the metabolic pathway and mechanisms of action are almost completely elucidated. The role of plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids, is less known, but an increasing amount of data on brassinosteroid biosynthesis is showing unexpected similarities between human and plant steroid metabolic pathways. Here we focus our attention on the enzyme 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) for which a plant ortholog of the mammalian system, DET2, was recently described in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that campestenone, the natural substrate of DET2, is reduced to 5alpha-campestanone by both human 5alphaR isozymes but with different affinities. Solanum malacoxylon, which is a calcinogenic plant very active in the biosynthesis of vitamin D-like molecules and sterols, was used to study 5alphaR activity. Leaves and calli were chosen as examples of differentiated and undifferentiated tissues, respectively. Two separate 5alphaR activities were found in calli and leaves of Solanum using campestenone as substrate. The use of progesterone allowed the detection of both activities in calli. Support for the existence of two 5alphaR isozymes in S. malacoxylon was provided by the differential actions of inhibitors of the human 5alphaR in calli and leaves. The evidence for the presence of two isozymes in different plant tissues extends the analogies between plant and mammalian steroid metabolic pathways.

  8. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    PubMed

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements.

  9. Reproductive ecology and genetic variability in natural populations of the wild potato, Solanum kurtzianum.

    PubMed

    Marfil, C F; Masuelli, R W

    2014-03-01

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) has more than 200 related wild species distributed along the Andes, adapted to a wide range of geographical and ecological areas. Since the last century, several collection expeditions were carried out to incorporate genetic variability into the potato germplasm around the world. However, little is known about the reproductive ecology and genetic population structure of natural potato population from field studies. The aim of this work is to study, in the field, the genetic variability and reproductive strategies of populations of one of the most widely distributed potato species in Argentina, Solanum kurtzianum, growing in Mendoza province. AFLP markers showed that the genetic variability is mainly present among plants within populations, indicating that in the sampled populations, sexual reproduction is more relevant than clonal multiplication (by tubers). Additional evidence was obtained evaluating the genetic diversity in populations with a distribution in patches, where several genotypes were always detected. From a field study performed in the Villavicencio Natural Reserve, we found that the average number of plump seeds per fruit was 94.3, identified and calculated the foraging distance of four insect pollinators, and demonstrated the seed dispersal by storm water channels. We argue that the breeding system, the two modes of reproduction and the ecological interaction described here may have a prominent role in determining the genetic structure of S. kurtzianum populations, and discuss the importance of field studies on population genetics, reproductive biology and ecology to design collections and conservation strategies.

  10. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  11. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  12. Studies on the medicinal properties of Solanum chrysotrichum in tissue culture: I. Callus formation and plant induction from axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, M L; Muñoz, J

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture method is described for micropropagation and callus formation from Solanum chrysotricum axillary bud explants in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium, supplemented with various growth regulators. Induction of rooted plants were initiated only when indol-3 acetic acid (IAA) was present as an auxin in combination with either of two cytokinins: kinetin (KN) or benzyladenine (BA); however, the combination of IAA (0.1 mg.lt.-1) + BA (0.2 mg.lt.-1) was found to be best suited for morphogenesis purposes. Alternatively, callus tissue formation was influenced in presence of naphthalene acetic acid; which in combination with kinetin (NAA 0.1 mg.lt.-1 + KN 0.2 mg.lt.-1) exhibit the best response studied. The plant material obtained by this procedure is proposed for pharmacological and chemical studies of this important antimycotic plant remedy.

  13. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A.; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M.; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure. PMID:27104554

  14. Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene affects photosynthesis and chlorophyll content in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Priscilla P; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Fani, Fabiola; Lazzara, Luigi; Cosi, Elena; Melani, Lorenzo; Mauro, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Insertion of Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene into plant genome affects plant development, hormone balance and defence. However, beside the current research, the overall transcriptional response and gene expression of rolB as a modulator in plant is unknown. Transformed rolB tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Tondino has been used to investigate the differential expression profile. Tomato is a well-known model organism both at the genetic and molecular level, and one of the most important commercial food crops in the world. Through the construction and characterization of a cDNA subtracted library, we have investigated the differential gene expression between transgenic clones of rolB and control tomato and have evaluated genes specifically transcribed in transgenic rolB plants. Among the selected genes, five genes encoding for chlorophyll a/b binding protein, carbonic anhydrase, cytochrome b6/f complex Fe-S subunit, potassium efflux antiporter 3, and chloroplast small heat-shock protein, all involved in chloroplast function, were identified. Measurement of photosynthesis efficiency by the level of three different photosynthetic parameters (Fv/Fm, rETR, NPQ) showed rolB significant increase in non-photochemical quenching and a, b chlorophyll content. Our results point to highlight the role of rolB on plant fitness by improving photosynthesis.

  15. Leaf Anatomy and Photochemical Behaviour of Solanum lycopersicum L. Plants from Seeds Irradiated with Low-LET Ionising Radiation

    PubMed Central

    De Micco, V.; Paradiso, R.; Aronne, G.; De Pascale, S.; Quarto, M.; Arena, C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can be exposed to ionising radiation not only in Space but also on Earth, due to specific technological applications or after nuclear disasters. The response of plants to ionising radiation depends on radiation quality/quantity and/or plant characteristics. In this paper, we analyse some growth traits, leaf anatomy, and ecophysiological features of plants of Solanum lycopersicum L. “Microtom” grown from seeds irradiated with increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 20, 50, and 100 Gy). Both juvenile and compound leaves from plants developed from irradiated and control seeds were analysed through light and epifluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis allowed quantifying anatomical parameters to detect the occurrence of signs of structural damage. Fluorescence parameters and total photosynthetic pigment content were analysed to evaluate the functioning of the photosynthetic machinery. Radiation did not affect percentage and rate of seed germination. Plants from irradiated seeds accomplished the crop cycle and showed a more compact habitus. Dose-depended tendencies of variations occurred in phenolic content, while other leaf anatomical parameters did not show distinct trends after irradiation. The sporadic perturbations of leaf structure, observed during the vegetative phase, after high levels of radiation were not so severe as to induce any significant alterations in photosynthetic efficiency. PMID:24883400

  16. Phytohormone profiling in relation to osmotic adjustment in NaCl-treated plants of the halophyte tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense comparatively to the cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Hichri, Imène; Dobrev, Petre I; Motyka, Václav; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley

    2017-05-01

    A holistic approach was used to investigate the hormonal profile in relation with osmotic adjustment under salinity in Solanum lycopersicum and its halophyte wild relative Solanum chilense. Plants were subjected to 125mM NaCl for 7days. Solanum chilense displayed a contrasting behaviour comparatively to S. lycopersicum, not only for mineral nutrition, but also regarding the modalities of osmotic adjustment and phytohormonal profiling. The extent of osmotic adjustment was higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Ions K(+) and Na(+) were the major contributors of osmotic adjustment in S. chilense, accounting respectively for 47 and 60% of osmotic potential. In contrast the contributions of proline and soluble sugars remained marginal for the two species although salt-induced accumulation of proline was higher in S. lycopersicum than in S. chilense. Both species also differed for their hormonal status under salinity and concentrations of most hormonal compounds were higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Interestingly, salicylic acid, ethylene and cytokinins were positively correlated with osmotic potential in S. chilense under salinity while these hormones were negatively correlated with osmotic adjustment in S. lycopersicum. Our results suggested that the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica may improve salt resistance in S.chilense and that phytohormones could be involved in this process.

  17. Response to nitrate/ammonium nutrition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants overexpressing a prokaryotic NH4(+)-dependent asparagine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen availability is an important limiting factor for plant growth. Although NH4(+) assimilation is energetically more favorable than NO3(-), it is usually toxic for plants. In order to study if an improved ammonium assimilatory metabolism could increase the plant tolerance to ammonium nutrition, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv P-73) plants were transformed with an NH4(+)-dependent asparagine synthetase (AS-A) gene from Escherichia coli (asnA) under the control of a PCpea promoter (pea isolated constitutive promotor). Homozygous (Hom), azygous (Az) asnA and wild type (WT) plants were grown hydroponically for 6 weeks with normal Hoagland nutrition (NO3(-)/NH4(+)=6/0.5) and high ammonium nutrition (NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3). Under Hoagland's conditions, Hom plants produced 40-50% less biomass than WT and Az plants. However, under NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3 the biomass of Hom was not affected while it was reduced by 40-70% in WT and Az plants compared to Hoagland, respectively. The Hom plants accumulated 1.5-4 times more asparagine, glycine, serine and soluble proteins and registered higher glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities in the light-adapted leaves than the other genotypes, but had similar NH4(+) and NO3(-) levels in all conditions. In the dark-adapted leaves, a protein catabolism occurred in the Hom plants with a concomitant 25-40% increase in organic acid concentration, while asparagine accumulation registered the highest values. The aforementioned processes might be responsible for a positive energetic balance as regards the futile cycle of the transgenic protein synthesis and catabolism. This explains growth penalty under standard nutrition and growth stability under NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3, respectively.

  18. Size of tuber propagule influences injury of 'Kennebec' potato plants by constant light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, K. E.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorosis and necrotic spotting develop on the foliage of particular cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) when grown under constant light. 'Kennebec', a cultivar severely injured by constant light when propagated from tissue-cultured plantlets, also was injured when plants were propagated from small tuber pieces (approximately 1 g). However, plants did not develop injury when propagated from large tuber pieces (approximately 100 g). Plants from large tuber pieces grew more rapidly than plants from small tuber pieces. The role of plant vigor and carbohydrate translocation in controlling injury development is discussed.

  19. Physiological impacts of soil pollution and arsenic uptake in three plant species: Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Austruy, A; Wanat, N; Moussard, C; Vernay, P; Joussein, E; Ledoigt, G; Hitmi, A

    2013-04-01

    In order to revegetate an industrial soil polluted by trace metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb), the impact of pollution on three plant species, Solanum nigrum and Agrostis capillaris, both native species in an industrial site, and Vicia faba, a plant model species, is studied. Following the study of soil pollution from the industrial wasteland of Auzon, it appears that the As is the principal pollutant. Particular attention is given to this metalloid, both in its content and its speciation in the soil that the level of its accumulation in plants. In V. faba and A. capillaris, the trace metals and metalloids inhibit the biomass production and involve a lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Furthermore, these pollutants cause a photosynthesis perturbation by stomatal limitations and a dysfunction of photosystem II. Whatever the plant, the As content is less than 0.1 percent of dry matter, the majority of As absorbed is stored in the roots which play the role of trap organ. In parallel, the culture of S. nigrum decreases significantly the exchangeable and weakly adsorbed fraction of As in rhizospheric soil. This study has highlighted the ability of tolerance to trace metals of S. nigrum and to a lesser extent A. capillaris. Our data indicate that V. faba is not tolerant to soil pollution and is not a metallophyte species.

  20. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  1. The type III secreted effector DspE is required early in Solanum tuberosum leaf infection by Pectobacterium carotovorum to elicit cell death, and requires Wx(3-6)D/E motifs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogens that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Unlike hemi-biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (P. carotovorum) appears to secrete only one effect...

  2. Development of tolerance of egg plant (Solanum melangena L.) to field application of dimethoate.

    PubMed

    Khillar, R; Acharya, S; Mohapatra, P K

    2010-07-01

    Dimethoate, at field concentration (1.419 mg g(-1) fr wt), caused inhibition of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of Solanum melangena L. on first treatment but subsequent treatments caused adaptation and recovery of these parameters. The variable fluorescence (F(v)), dissipation (DI(0)/RC), 2 ms relative variable fluorescence (V(j)), net rate of PS II closure (M(0)), and maximum trapping rate of active PS II (TR(0)/RC) increased initially but reduced to the control value with repetition of treatment. However, fluorescence yield (TR(0)/Abs), electron transport probability (ET(0)/TR(0)) and activity of RC (ET(0)/RC) increased with each treatment. With each subsequent treatment there was enhancement of activities of esterases and decrease of insecticide content of leaves.

  3. Influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of potato and wild Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Rakosy-Tican, Lenuta; Aurori, C M; Morariu, V V

    2005-10-01

    The influence of near null magnetic field on in vitro growth of different cultures of potato and related Solanum species was investigated for various exposure times and dates. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) in vitro cultures of shoot tips or nodal segments were used. Three different exposure periods revealed either stimulation or inhibition of root, stem, or leaf in vitro growth after 14 or 28 days of exposure. In one experiment the significant stimulation of leaf growth was also demonstrated at biochemical level, the quantity of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids increasing more than two-fold. For the wild species Solanum chacoense, S. microdontum, and S. verrucosum, standardized in vitro cultures of nodal stem segments were used. Root and stem growth was either stimulated or slightly inhibited after 9 days exposure to near null magnetic field. Callus cultures obtained from potato dihaploid line 120/19 were maintained in near null magnetic field in 2 different months. For these experiments as well as for Solanum verrucosum, callus cultures recorded either slight inhibition or no effect on fresh weight. For all experiments significant growth variation was brought about only when geomagnetic activity (AP index) showed variations at the beginning of in vitro growth and when the explant had at least one meristematic tissue. Moreover longer maintenance in near null magnetic field, 28 days as compared to 14 days or the controls, can also make a difference in plant growth in response to geomagnetic field variations when static component was reduced to zero value. These results of in vitro plant growth stimulation by variable component of geomagnetic field also sustain the so-called seasonal "window" effect.

  4. The characterization of SaPIN2b, a plant trichome-localized proteinase inhibitor from Solanum americanum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Bo-Lun; Yang, Xiao-Bei; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2012-11-16

    Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b), which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

  5. Inoculation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) with growth-promoting Bacillus subtilis retards whitefly Bemisia tabaci development.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Soto, José Humberto; Estrada-Hernández, María Gloria; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Root inoculation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with a Bacillus subtilis strain BEB-DN (BsDN) isolated from the rhizosphere of cultivated potato plants was able to promote growth and to generate an induced systemic resistance (ISR) response against virus-free Bemisia tabaci. Growth promotion was evident 3 weeks after inoculation. No changes in oviposition density, preference and nymphal number in the early stages of B. tabaci development were observed between BsDN-treated plants and control plants inoculated with a non-growth promoting Bs strain (PY-79), growth medium or water. However, a long-term ISR response was manifested by a significantly reduced number of B. tabaci pupae developing into adults in BsDN-treated plants. The observed resistance response appeared to be a combination of jasmonic acid (JA) dependent and JA-independent responses, since the BsDN-related retardation effect on B. tabaci development was still effective in the highly susceptible spr2 tomato mutants with an impaired capacity for JA biosynthesis. A screening of 244 genes, 169 of which were previously obtained from subtractive-suppressive-hybridization libraries generated from B. tabaci-infested plants suggested that the BsDN JA-dependent ISR depended on an anti-nutritive effect produced by the simultaneous expression of genes coding principally for proteases and proteinase inhibitors, whereas the JA-independent ISR observed in the spr2 background curiously involved the up-regulation of several photosynthetic genes, key components of the phenyl-propanoid and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways and of the Hsp90 chaperonin, which probably mediated pest resistance response(s), in addition to the down-regulation of pathogenesis and hypersensitive response genes.

  6. Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction Approach for Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Quantification in Solanum lycopersicum Plants Subjected to Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Catola, Stefano; Kaidala Ganesha, Srikanta Dani; Calamai, Luca; Loreto, Francesco; Ranieri, Annamaria; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) are compounds found mainly in marine phytoplankton and in some halophytic plants. DMS is a globally important biogenic volatile in regulating of global sulfur cycle and planetary albedo, whereas DMSP is involved in the maintenance of plant-environment homeostasis. Plants emit minute amounts of DMS compared to marine phytoplankton and there is a need for hypersensitive analytic techniques to enable its quantification in plants. Solid Phase Micro Extraction from Head Space (HS-SPME) is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and cost-effective extraction mode, which can be easily hyphenated with GC-MS for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants subjected to water stress as a model system, we standardized a sensitive and accurate protocol for detecting and quantifying DMSP pool sizes, and potential DMS emissions, in cryoextracted leaves. The method relies on the determination of DMS free and from DMSP pools before and after the alkaline hydrolysis via Headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). We found a significant (2.5 time) increase of DMSP content in water-stressed leaves reflecting clear stress to the photosynthetic apparatus. We hypothesize that increased DMSP, and in turn DMS, in water-stressed leaves are produced by carbon sources other than direct photosynthesis, and function to protect plants either osmotically or as antioxidants. Finally, our results suggest that SPME is a powerful and suitable technique for the detection and quantification of biogenic gasses in trace amounts. PMID:27602039

  7. Hormonal changes in relation to biomass partitioning and shoot growth impairment in salinized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Albacete, Alfonso; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Martínez, Vicente; Lutts, Stanley; Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Following exposure to salinity, the root/shoot ratio is increased (an important adaptive response) due to the rapid inhibition of shoot growth (which limits plant productivity) while root growth is maintained. Both processes may be regulated by changes in plant hormone concentrations. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated hydroponically for 3 weeks under high salinity (100 mM NaCl) and five major plant hormones (abscisic acid, ABA; the cytokinins zeatin, Z, and zeatin-riboside, ZR; the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, IAA; and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC) were determined weekly in roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Salinity reduced shoot biomass by 50-60% and photosynthetic area by 20-25% both by decreasing leaf expansion and delaying leaf appearance, while root growth was less affected, thus increasing the root/shoot ratio. ABA and ACC concentrations strongly increased in roots, xylem sap, and leaves after 1 d (ABA) and 15 d (ACC) of salinization. By contrast, cytokinins and IAA were differentially affected in roots and shoots. Salinity dramatically decreased the Z+ZR content of the plant, and induced the conversion of ZR into Z, especially in the roots, which accounted for the relative increase of cytokinins in the roots compared to the leaf. IAA concentration was also strongly decreased in the leaves while it accumulated in the roots. Decreased cytokinin content and its transport from the root to the shoot were probably induced by the basipetal transport of auxin from the shoot to the root. The auxin/cytokinin ratio in the leaves and roots may explain both the salinity-induced decrease in shoot vigour (leaf growth and leaf number) and the shift in biomass allocation to the roots, in agreement with changes in the activity of the sink-related enzyme cell wall invertase.

  8. Hormonal changes in relation to biomass partitioning and shoot growth impairment in salinized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    Albacete, Alfonso; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Martínez, Vicente; Lutts, Stanley; Dodd, Ian C.; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Following exposure to salinity, the root/shoot ratio is increased (an important adaptive response) due to the rapid inhibition of shoot growth (which limits plant productivity) while root growth is maintained. Both processes may be regulated by changes in plant hormone concentrations. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated hydroponically for 3 weeks under high salinity (100 mM NaCl) and five major plant hormones (abscisic acid, ABA; the cytokinins zeatin, Z, and zeatin-riboside, ZR; the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, IAA; and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC) were determined weekly in roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Salinity reduced shoot biomass by 50–60% and photosynthetic area by 20–25% both by decreasing leaf expansion and delaying leaf appearance, while root growth was less affected, thus increasing the root/shoot ratio. ABA and ACC concentrations strongly increased in roots, xylem sap, and leaves after 1 d (ABA) and 15 d (ACC) of salinization. By contrast, cytokinins and IAA were differentially affected in roots and shoots. Salinity dramatically decreased the Z+ZR content of the plant, and induced the conversion of ZR into Z, especially in the roots, which accounted for the relative increase of cytokinins in the roots compared to the leaf. IAA concentration was also strongly decreased in the leaves while it accumulated in the roots. Decreased cytokinin content and its transport from the root to the shoot were probably induced by the basipetal transport of auxin from the shoot to the root. The auxin/cytokinin ratio in the leaves and roots may explain both the salinity-induced decrease in shoot vigour (leaf growth and leaf number) and the shift in biomass allocation to the roots, in agreement with changes in the activity of the sink-related enzyme cell wall invertase. PMID:19036841

  9. Does secondary plant metabolism provide a mechanism for plant defenses in the tropical soda apple Solanum viarum (Solanales: Solanaceae) against the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua and southern armyworm S. eridania?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua and southern armyworm S. eridania with tropical soda apple Solanum viarum a relative of tomato. In addition, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme assays were conducted to determine if secondary plant defense compounds are being produce...

  10. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Dougnon, Tamègnon Victorien; Bankolé, Honoré Sourou; Klotoé, Jean Robert; Sènou, Maximin; Fah, Lauris; Koudokpon, Hornel; Akpovi, Casimir; Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Addo, Phyllis; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted. PMID:25050314

  11. Enhancement of antidandruff activity of shampoo by biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Solanum trilobatum plant leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Gaurav; Nayak, Nitesh; Gyana Prasuna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes simple and effective method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles via green route. Solanum trilobatum Linn extract were prepared by both conventional and homogenization method. We optimized the production of silver nanoparticles under sunlight, microwave and room temperature. The best results were obtained with sunlight irradiation, exhibiting 15-20 nm silver nanoparticles having cubic and hexagonal shape. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were highly toxic to various bacterial strains tested. In this study we report antibacterial activity against various Gram negative ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi) and Gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus) bacterial strains. Screening was also performed for any antifungal properties of the nanoparticles against human pathogenic fungal strains ( Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis). We also demonstrated that these nanoparticles when mixed with shampoo enhance the anti-dandruff effect against dandruff causing fungal pathogens ( Pityrosporum ovale and Pityrosporum folliculitis). The present study showed a simple, rapid and economical route to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their applications hence has a great potential in biomedical field.

  12. Diel changes in nitrogen and carbon resource status and use for growth in young plants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Huanosto Magaña, Ruth; Adamowicz, Stéphane; Pagès, Loïc

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Modellers often define growth as the development of plant structures from endogenous resources, thus making a distinction between structural (WS) and total (W) dry biomass, the latter being the sum of WS and the weight of storage compounds. In this study, short-term C and N reserves were characterized experimentally (forms, organ distribution, time changes) in relation to light and nutrition signals, and organ structural growth in response to reserve levels was evaluated. Methods Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) were grown hydroponically in a growth room with a 12-h photoperiod and an adequate supply of NO3− (3 mol m−3). Three experiments were carried out 18 d after sowing: [NO3−] was either maintained at 3 mol m−3, changed to 0·02 mol m−3 or to 0 mol m−3. Plants were sampled periodically throughout the light/dark cycles over 24–48 h. Organ WS was calculated from W together with the amount of different compounds that act as C and N resources, i.e. non-structural carbohydrates and carboxylates, nitrate and free amino acids. Key Results With adequate nutrition, carbohydrates accumulated in leaves during light periods, when photosynthesis exceeded growth needs, but decreased at night when these sugars are the main source of C for growth. At the end of the night, carbohydrates were still high enough to fuel full-rate growth, as WS increased at a near constant rate throughout the light/dark cycle. When nitrate levels were restricted, C reserves increased, but [NO3−] decreased progressively in stems, which contain most of the plant N reserves, and rapidly in leaves and roots. This resulted in a rapid restriction of structural growth. Conclusions Periodic darkness did not restrict growth because sufficient carbohydrate reserves accumulated during the light period. Structural growth, however, was very responsive to NO3− nutrition, because N reserves were mostly located in stems, which have limited nitrate reduction capacity. PMID

  13. [Meiosis passing age dependence in Solanum linnaeum L. x solanum incanum L. F1 interspecific hybrid].

    PubMed

    Montvid, P Iu

    2011-01-01

    Meiosis passing in the first- and second-year-plants of F1 interspecific hybrid Solanum linnaeum L. x Solanum incanum L. has been carried out. Fruit with seeds were formed during a second year of vegetation. The quantities of uni- and tetravalents and main disorders frequency lowered with plant age. Meiosis in parental forms was normal. The conclusion was drawn about F1 Solanum linnaeum L. x Solanum incanum L. meiosis regularity connection with heterozygous genotype, influence of environmental factors and plant age.

  14. Endogenous pararetroviral sequences in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and related species

    PubMed Central

    Staginnus, Christina; Gregor, Wolfgang; Mette, M Florian; Teo, Chee How; Borroto-Fernández, Eduviges Glenda; Machado, Margit Laimer da Câmara; Matzke, Marjori; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Background Endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs) are a recently discovered class of repetitive sequences that is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. The potential contribution of EPRVs to plant pathogenicity or, conversely, to virus resistance is just beginning to be explored. Some members of the family Solanaceae are particularly rich in EPRVs. In previous work, EPRVs have been characterized molecularly in various species of Nicotiana including N.tabacum (tobacco) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). Here we describe a family of EPRVs in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and a wild relative (S.habrochaites). Results Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that tomato EPRVs (named LycEPRVs) are most closely related to those in tobacco. The sequence similarity of LycEPRVs in S.lycopersicum and S.habrochaites indicates they are potentially derived from the same pararetrovirus. DNA blot analysis revealed a similar genomic organization in the two species, but also some independent excision or insertion events after species separation, or flanking sequence divergence. LycEPRVs share with the tobacco elements a disrupted genomic structure and frequent association with retrotransposons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that copies of LycEPRV are dispersed on all chromosomes in predominantly heterochromatic regions. Methylation of LycEPRVs was detected in CHG and asymmetric CHH nucleotide groups. Although normally quiescent EPRVs can be reactivated and produce symptoms of infection in some Nicotiana interspecific hybrids, a similar pathogenicity of LycEPRVs could not be demonstrated in Solanum L. section Lycopersicon [Mill.] hybrids. Even in healthy plants, however, transcripts derived from multiple LycEPRV loci and short RNAs complementary to LycEPRVs were detected and were elevated upon infection with heterologous viruses encoding suppressors of PTGS. Conclusion The analysis of LycEPRVs provides further evidence for the extensive

  15. Characterization of the expression and inheritance of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and potato virus Y (PVY) resistance in three generations of germplasm derived from Solanum etuberosum.

    PubMed

    Novy, R G; Gillen, A M; Whitworth, J L

    2007-05-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are two of the most important viral pathogens of potato. Infection of potato by these viruses results in losses of yield and quality in commercial production and in the rejection of seed in certification programs. Host plant resistance to these two viruses was identified in the backcross progeny of a Solanum etuberosum Lindl. somatic hybrid. Multiple years of field evaluations with high-virus inoculum and aphid populations have shown the PVY and PLRV resistances of S. etuberosum to be stably expressed in two generations of progeny. However, while PLRV resistance was transmitted and expressed in the third generation of backcrossing to cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum), PVY resistance was lost. PLRV resistance appears to be monogenic based on the inheritance of resistance in a BC(3) population. Data from a previous evaluation of the BC(2 )progeny used in this study provides evidence that PLRV resistance was partly conferred by reduced PLRV accumulation in foliage. The field and grafting data presented in this study suggests that resistance to the systemic spread of PLRV from infected foliage to tubers also contributes to the observed resistance from S. etuberosum. The PLRV resistance contributed by S. etuberosum is stably transmitted and expressed through sexual generations and therefore would be useful to potato breeders for the development of PLRV resistant potato cultivars.

  16. Within plant distribution of Potato Virus Y in hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides): an inoculum source affecting PVY aphid transmission.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Felix A; Alvarez, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is vectored by several potato-colonizing and non-colonizing aphid species in a non-persistent manner and has a wide host range. It occurs naturally in several plant families. Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae are the most efficient potato-colonizing aphid vectors of PVY. Rhopalosiphum padi, a cereal aphid that migrates in large numbers through potato fields during the middle of the growing season, does not colonize potato plants but can transmit PVY. Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, a prevalent annual solanaceous weed in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, is an alternative host for PVY and a preferred host for M. persicae and M. euphorbiae. Hence, hairy nightshade plants might play an important role as an inoculum source in the epidemiology of PVY. We looked at titre accumulation and distribution of PVY(O), PVY(N:O) and PVY(NTN) in S. sarrachoides and potato after aphid inoculation with M. persicae and studied the transmission of PVY(O) and PVY(NTN), by M. persicae, M. euphorbiae and R. padi from hairy nightshade to potato plants. Virus titre at different positions on the plant was similar in S. sarrachoides and potato plants with strains PVY(O) and PVY(N:O). Titres of PVY(NTN) were similar in S. sarrachoides and potato but differences in titre were observed at different positions within the plant depending on the plant phenology. Percentage transmission of PVY(NTN) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was twice as high (46 and 34%, respectively) from hairy nightshade to potato than from potato to potato (20 and 14%). Percentage transmission of PVY(O) by M. persicae and M. euphorbiae was not affected by the inoculum source. No effect of the inoculum source was observed in the transmission of either PVY strain by R. padi. These results show that hairy nightshade may be an equal or better virus reservoir than potato and thus, important in the epidemiology of PVY.

  17. [Characteristics of extracellular invertase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Heterologous expression of the suc2 gene in Solarium Tuberosum plants].

    PubMed

    Deriabin, A N; Berdichevets, I N; Burakhanova, E A; Trunova, T I

    2014-01-01

    Some properties and activity of extracellular invertase in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts encoded by the suc2 gene in heterologous expression were described. It was shown that the target suc2 gene is actively expressed in the genome of the transformed potato plants and S. cerevisiae invertase synthesized by this gene is transported into the apoplast due to the signal peptide of the proteinase II inhibitor. This enzyme is present in the apoplast in a soluble form and absorbed into the cell wall.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) fruit to identify putative allergens and their epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Kumar Ramagoni; Hemalatha, R; Vijayendra, Chary Anchoju; Arshi, Uz Zaman Syed; Dushyant, Singh Baghel; Dinesh, Kumar Bharadwaj

    2016-01-15

    Eggplant is the third most important Solanaceae crop after tomato and potato, particularly in India and China. A transcriptome analysis of eggplant's fruit was performed to study genes involved in medicinal importance and allergies. Illumina HiSeq 2000 system generated 89,763,638 raw reads (~18 Gb) from eggplant. High quality reads (59,039,694) obtained after trimming process, were assembled into a total of 149,224 non redundant set of transcripts. Out of 80,482 annotated sequences of eggplant fruit (BLASTx results against nr-green plant database), 40,752 transcripts showed significant similarity with predicted proteins of Solanum tuberosum (51%) followed by Solanum lycopersicum (34%) and other sequenced plant genomes. With BLASTx top hit analysis against existing allergens, a total of 1986 homologous allergen sequences were found, which had >37% similarity with 48 different allergens existing in the database. From the 48 putative allergens, 526 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. Transcript sequences generated from this study can be used to map epitopes of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera from patients. With the support of this whole transcriptome catalogue of eggplant fruit, complete list of genes can be predicted based on which secondary structures of proteins may be modeled.

  19. New source of bacterial soft rot resistance in wild potato (Solanum chacoense) tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species can cause major losses to the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) industry, mostly due to tuber rot in storage. There are few germplasm resources for soft rot resistance breeding. Here, we introduce a resistant diploid wild potato relative, M...

  20. Solanum tuberosum StCDPK1 is regulated by miR390 at the posttranscriptional level and phosphorylates the auxin efflux carrier StPIN4 in vitro, a potential downstream target in potato development.

    PubMed

    Santin, Franco; Bhogale, Sneha; Fantino, Elisa; Grandellis, Carolina; Banerjee, Anjan K; Ulloa, Rita M

    2017-02-01

    Among many factors that regulate potato tuberization, calcium and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play an important role. CDPK activity increases at the onset of tuber formation with StCDPK1 expression being strongly induced in swollen stolons. However, not much is known about the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of StCDPK1 or its downstream targets in potato development. To elucidate further, we analyzed its expression in different tissues and stages of the life cycle. Histochemical analysis of StCDPK1::GUS (β-glucuronidase) plants demonstrated that StCDPK1 is strongly associated with the vascular system in stems, roots, during stolon to tuber transition, and in tuber sprouts. In agreement with the observed GUS profile, we found specific cis-acting elements in StCDPK1 promoter. In silico analysis predicted miR390 to be a putative posttranscriptional regulator of StCDPK1. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed ubiquitous expression of StCDPK1 in different tissues which correlated well with Western blot data except in leaves. On the contrary, miR390 expression exhibited an inverse pattern in leaves and tuber eyes suggesting a possible regulation of StCDPK1 by miR390. This was further confirmed by Agrobacterium co-infiltration assays. In addition, in vitro assays showed that recombinant StCDPK1-6xHis was able to phosphorylate the hydrophilic loop of the auxin efflux carrier StPIN4. Altogether, these results indicate that StCDPK1 expression is varied in a tissue-specific manner having significant expression in vasculature and in tuber eyes; is regulated by miR390 at posttranscriptional level and suggest that StPIN4 could be one of its downstream targets revealing the overall role of this kinase in potato development.

  1. Sensory evaluation of pigmented flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appear- ance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greate...

  2. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Plant Hormone-Related Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Genes in a Sunlight-Type Plant Factory

    PubMed Central

    Tanigaki, Yusuke; Higashi, Takanobu; Takayama, Kotaro; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Honjo, Mie N.; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In plant factories, measurements of plant conditions are necessary at an early stage of growth to predict harvest times of high value-added crops. Moreover, harvest qualities depend largely on environmental stresses that elicit plant hormone responses. However, the complexities of plant hormone networks have not been characterized under nonstress conditions. In the present study, we determined temporal expression profiles of all genes and then focused on plant hormone pathways using RNA-Seq analyses of gene expression in tomato leaves every 2 h for 48 h. In these experiments, temporally expressed genes were found in the hormone synthesis pathways for salicylic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, and jasmonic acid. The timing of CAB expression 1 (TOC1) and abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABA1) and open stomata 1 (OST1) control gating stomata. In this study, compare with tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana, expression patterns of TOC1 have similarity. In contrast, expression patterns of tomato ABI1 and OST1 had expression peak at different time. These findings suggest that the regulation of gating stomata does not depend predominantly on TOC1 and significantly reflects the extracellular environment. The present data provide new insights into relationships between temporally expressed plant hormone-related genes and clock genes under normal sunlight conditions. PMID:26624004

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Plant Hormone-Related Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Genes in a Sunlight-Type Plant Factory.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Yusuke; Higashi, Takanobu; Takayama, Kotaro; Nagano, Atsushi J; Honjo, Mie N; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    In plant factories, measurements of plant conditions are necessary at an early stage of growth to predict harvest times of high value-added crops. Moreover, harvest qualities depend largely on environmental stresses that elicit plant hormone responses. However, the complexities of plant hormone networks have not been characterized under nonstress conditions. In the present study, we determined temporal expression profiles of all genes and then focused on plant hormone pathways using RNA-Seq analyses of gene expression in tomato leaves every 2 h for 48 h. In these experiments, temporally expressed genes were found in the hormone synthesis pathways for salicylic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, and jasmonic acid. The timing of CAB expression 1 (TOC1) and abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABA1) and open stomata 1 (OST1) control gating stomata. In this study, compare with tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana, expression patterns of TOC1 have similarity. In contrast, expression patterns of tomato ABI1 and OST1 had expression peak at different time. These findings suggest that the regulation of gating stomata does not depend predominantly on TOC1 and significantly reflects the extracellular environment. The present data provide new insights into relationships between temporally expressed plant hormone-related genes and clock genes under normal sunlight conditions.

  5. [Trends of plant toxin food poisonings during the past 50 years in Japan].

    PubMed

    Toda, Miou; Uneyama, Chikako; Kasuga, Fumiko

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we reviewed food poisoning data published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan from 1961 to 2010 in Japan to analyze the trends of plant toxin food poisonings (PTFPs). The annual number of incidents of PTFPs has gradually increased since 1995. PTFPs were predominantly caused by Datura spp., Veratrum spp. and Aconitum spp. Although PTFPs frequently occurred in April and May, poisonings caused by some plants occurred in all seasons, e.g. Datura spp. The major location of PTFPs was "at home", and most of the patients had accidentally harvested poisonous plants. During the past decade, the numbers of incidents of PTFPs caused by Veratrum spp., Narcissus spp., Solanum tuberosum and Alocasia odora were especially increased. Consumer advice to prevent PTFPs associated with certain plants that are cultivated in gardens and contain toxic substances is needed, because PTFPs caused by such plants are increasing. In addition, education of elementary school teachers and children about the potential risks of natural toxins in plants, particularly Solanum tuberosum, is desirable.

  6. Reclassification of landrace populations of cultivated potatoes (Solanum sect. Petota).

    PubMed

    Huamán, Zósimo; Spooner, David M

    2002-06-01

    Cultivated potatoes have been classified as species under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and as cultivar-groups under the International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (ICNCP); both classifications are still widely used. This study examines morphological support for the classification of landrace populations of cultivated potatoes, using representatives of all seven species and most subspecies as outlined in the latest taxonomic treatment. These taxa are S. ajanhuiri, S. chaucha, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii, S. phureja subsp. phureja, S. stenotomum subsp. stenotomum, S. stenotomum subsp. goniocalyx, S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum, and S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum. The results show some phenetic support for S. ajanhuiri, S. chaucha, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii, and S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum, but little support for the other taxa. Most morphological support is by using a suite of characters, all of which are shared with other taxa (polythetic support). These results, combined with their likely hybrid origins, multiple origins, evolutionary dynamics of continuing hybridization, and our classification philosophy, leads us to recognize all landrace populations of cultivated potatoes as a single species, S. tuberosum, with the eight cultivar-groups: Ajanhuiri Group, Andigenum Group, Chaucha Group, Chilotanum Group, Curtilobum Group, Juzepczukii Group, Phureja Group, and Stenotomum Group. We defer classification of modern cultivars, traditionally classified in Tuberosum Group, to a later study.

  7. Roles of YUCCAs in auxin biosynthesis and drought stress responses in plants

    PubMed Central

    Cheol Park, Hyeong; Cha, Joon-Yung; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Auxin, a plant hormone, plays crucial roles in diverse aspects of plant growth and development reacting to and integrating environmental stimuli. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major plant auxin that is synthesized by members of the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases that catalyse a rate-limiting step. Although the paths to IAA biosynthesis are characterized in Arabidopsis, little is known about the corresponding components in potato. Recently, we isolated eight putative StYUC (Solanum tuberosum YUCCA) genes and five putative tryptophan aminotransferase genes in comparison to those found in Arabidopsis.1 The specific domains of YUC proteins were well conserved in all StYUC amino acid sequences. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Jowon) overexpressing AtYUC6 showed high-auxin and enhanced drought tolerance phenotypes. The transgenic potatoes also exhibited reduced levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) compared to control plants. We therefore propose that YUCCA and TAA families in potato would function in the auxin biosynthesis. The overexpression of AtYUC6 in potato establishes enhanced drought tolerance through regulated ROS homeostasis. PMID:23603963

  8. Roles of YUCCAs in auxin biosynthesis and drought stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Cheol Park, Hyeong; Cha, Joon-Yung; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2013-06-01

    Auxin, a plant hormone, plays crucial roles in diverse aspects of plant growth and development reacting to and integrating environmental stimuli. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major plant auxin that is synthesized by members of the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases that catalyse a rate-limiting step. Although the paths to IAA biosynthesis are characterized in Arabidopsis, little is known about the corresponding components in potato. Recently, we isolated eight putative StYUC (Solanum tuberosum YUCCA) genes and five putative tryptophan aminotransferase genes in comparison to those found in Arabidopsis. (1) The specific domains of YUC proteins were well conserved in all StYUC amino acid sequences. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Jowon) overexpressing AtYUC6 showed high-auxin and enhanced drought tolerance phenotypes. The transgenic potatoes also exhibited reduced levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) compared to control plants. We therefore propose that YUCCA and TAA families in potato would function in the auxin biosynthesis. The overexpression of AtYUC6 in potato establishes enhanced drought tolerance through regulated ROS homeostasis.

  9. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency.

  10. Function of phytochrome A in potato plants as revealed through the study of transgenic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Heyer, A G; Mozley, D; Landschütze, V; Thomas, B; Gatz, C

    1995-01-01

    We have generated transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) containing the potato phytochrome protein encoded by the PHYA gene cDNA (phyA) in sense or antisense orientation under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Plants with increased and decreased phyA levels were analyzed. When grown under white light, development and growth of sprouts and plants were barely distinguishable from wild type. Under continuous far-red light, stem extension, leaf expansion, and hook opening of sprouts were accelerated in phyA overexpressors and delayed in antisense plants. Sprouts with reduced phyA levels were less sensitive to red light with regard to stem extension and expression of the small subunit genes for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Under low red light:far-red light ratios, increased phyA levels reduced the stem extension component of the shade-avoidance response, whereas decreased levels led to an increase in the response. PMID:7480332

  11. Ectopic Overexpression of SsCBF1, a CRT/DRE-Binding Factor from the Nightshade Plant Solanum lycopersicoides, Confers Freezing and Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhenjun; Li, Jingfu; Wang, Aoxue

    2013-01-01

    The C-repeat (CRT)/dehydration-responsive element (DRE) binding factor (CBF/DREB1) transcription factors play a key role in cold response. However, the detailed roles of many plant CBFs are far from fully understood. A CBF gene (SsCBF1) was isolated from the cold-hardy plant Solanum lycopersicoides. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that SsCBF1 is localized in the nucleus. We delimited the SsCBF1 transcriptional activation domain to the C-terminal segment comprising amino acid residues 193–228 (SsCBF1193–228). The expression of SsCBF1 could be dramatically induced by cold, drought and high salinity. Transactivation assays in tobacco leaves revealed that SsCBF1 could specifically bind to the CRT cis-elements in vivo to activate the expression of downstream reporter genes. The ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1 conferred increased freezing and high-salinity tolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis. RNA-sequencing data exhibited that a set of cold and salt stress responsive genes were up-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that SsCBF1 behaves as a typical CBF to contribute to plant freezing tolerance. Increased resistance to high-salinity and late flowering phenotype derived from SsCBF1 OE lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant CBFs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions. PMID:23755095

  12. Overexpression of GlyI and GlyII genes in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) plants confers salt tolerance by decreasing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Viveros, María Fernanda; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Timmermann, Tania; González, Máximo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2013-04-01

    The glyoxalase system plays an important role in various physiological processes in plants, including salt stress tolerance. We report the effects of overexpressing glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II genes in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) cv. Ailsa Craig. Stable expression of both transgenes was detected in the transformed tomato plants under salt stress. The transgenic lines overexpressing GlyI and GlyII under a high NaCl concentration (800 mM) showed reduced lipid peroxidation and the production of H2O2 in leaf tissues. A greater decrease in the chlorophyll a+b content in wild-type (WT) compared with transgenic lines was also observed. These results suggest that the over expression of two genes, GlyI and GlyII, may enhance salt stress tolerance by decreasing oxidative stress in transformed tomato plants. This work will help our understanding of the putative role of the glyoxalase system in the tolerance to abiotic stress in tomato plants.

  13. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27–33, 34–57, 58–85, 86–99, and 27–99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34–57 DAS) and enlargement (58–85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment. PMID:26630675

  14. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a central role in the response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to short and long-term drought.

    PubMed

    Landi, Simone; Nurcato, Roberta; De Lillo, Alessia; Lentini, Marco; Grillo, Stefania; Esposito, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression, occurrence and activity of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH - EC 1.1.1.49), the key-enzyme of the Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway (OPPP), in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Red Setter) exposed to short- and long-term drought stress. For the first time, drought effects have been evaluated in plants under different growth conditions: in hydroponic laboratory system, and in greenhouse pots under controlled conditions; and in open field, in order to evaluate drought response in a representative agricultural environment. Interestingly, changes observed appear strictly associated to the induction of well known stress response mechanisms, such as the increase of proline synthesis, accumulation of chaperone Hsp70, and ascorbate peroxidase. Results show significant increase in total activity of G6PDH, and specifically in expression and occurrence of cytosolic isoform (cy-G6PDH) in plants grown in any cultivation system upon drought. Intriguingly, the results clearly suggest that abscissic acid (ABA) pathway and signaling cascade (protein phosphatase 2C PP2C) could be strictly related to increased G6PDH expression, occurrence and activities. We hypothesized for G6PDH a specific role as one of the main reductants' suppliers to counteract the effects of drought stress, in the light of converging evidences given by young and adult tomato plants under stress of different duration and intensity.

  16. Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 μg L(-1)-2000 μg L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (<3 μg kg(-1)), indicating minimal toxicity and transfer risk. Fertilisation was required to significantly increase plant biomass above the control after biochar addition whilst plants transplanted to biochar only were heavily stunted and chlorotic. Given that increasing the amount of biochar added to nutrient solution in-vitro reduced seed germination by up to 40%, a lack of balanced nutrient provision from biochar could be concluded. In summary, solubility and mobility of As were increased by biochar addition to this soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils.

  17. Late blight and early blight resistance from Solanum hougasii introgressed into Solanum tuberosum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, and early blight, incited by Alternaria solani,are the two most widely occurring foliar diseases of potato in the U.S. Resistance to both diseases is necessary if growers are to reduce fungicide applications. Field resistance to late blight has previous...

  18. Serine Protease Inhibitors Specifically Defend Solanum nigrum against Generalist Herbivores but Do Not Influence Plant Growth and Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Markus; Giri, Ashok P.; Kaur, Harleen; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2010-01-01

    Solanaceaeous taxa produce diverse peptide serine proteinase inhibitors (SPIs), known antidigestive defenses that might also control endogenous plant proteases. If and how a plant coordinates and combines its different SPIs for the defense against herbivores and if these SPIs simultaneously serve developmental functions is unknown. We examine Solanum nigrum’s SPI profile, comprising four different active inhibitors, of which the most abundant proved to be novel, to understand their functional specialization in an ecological context. Transcript and activity characterization revealed tissue-specific and insect-elicited accumulation patterns. Stable and transient gene silencing of all four SPIs revealed different specificities for target proteinases: the novel SPI2c displayed high specificity for trypsin and chymotrypsin, while two other SPI2 homologs were highly active against subtilisin. In field and lab experiments, we found all four SPIs to display herbivore- and gene-specific defensive properties, with dissimilar effects on closely related species. However, we did not observe any clear developmental phenotype in SPI-silenced plants, suggesting that SPIs do not play a major role in regulating endogenous proteases under the conditions studied. In summary, specific single SPIs or their combinations defend S. nigrum against generalist herbivores, while the defense against herbivores specialized on SPI-rich diets requires other unknown defense mechanisms. PMID:21177479

  19. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region.

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  20. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum) are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes Solanum atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter, Solanum physalifolium Rusby, Solanum sarrachoides Sendtn. and Solanum tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated Solanum anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa. PMID:28127235

  1. Sub-high Temperature and High Light Intensity Induced Irreversible Inhibition on Photosynthesis System of Tomato Plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tao; Meng, Zhaojuan; Zhang, Guoxian; Qi, Mingfang; Sun, Zhouping; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Tianlai

    2017-01-01

    High temperature and high light intensity is a common environment posing a great risk to organisms. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of sub-high temperature and high light intensity stress (HH, 35°C, 1000 μmol⋅m-2⋅s-1) and recovery on the photosynthetic mechanism, photoinhibiton of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), and reactive oxygen (ROS) metabolism of tomato seedlings. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco activity, maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm), efficient quantum yield and electron transport of PSII [Y(II) and ETR(II)] and PSI [Y(I) and ETR(I)] decreased significantly whereas yield of non-regulated and regulated energy dissipation of PSII [Y(NO) and Y(NPQ)] increased sharply. The donor side limitation of PSI [Y(ND)] increased but the acceptor side limitation of PSI [Y(NA)] decreased. Content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were increased while activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were significantly inhibited compared with control. HH exposure affected photosynthetic carbon assimilation, multiple sites in PSII and PSI, ROS accumulation and elimination of Solanum lycopersicum L. PMID:28360922

  2. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  3. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization analysis provides new insights into the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) response to the plant probiotic microorganism Trichoderma longibrachiatum MK1.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Monica; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Proietti, Silvia; Bertini, Laura; Lorito, Matteo; Ruocco, Michelina; Caruso, Carla; Chiusano, Maria L; Tucci, Marina

    2016-01-15

    Trichoderma species include widespread rhizosphere-colonising fungi that may establish an opportunistic interaction with the plant, resulting in growth promotion and/or increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. For this reason, Trichoderma-based formulations are largely used in agriculture to improve yield while reducing the application of agro-chemicals. By using the Suppression Subtractive Hybridization method, we identified molecular mechanisms activated during the in vitro interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and the selected strain MK1 of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, and which may participate in the stimulation of plant growth and systemic resistance. Screening and sequence analysis of the subtractive library resulted in forty unique transcripts. Their annotation in functional categories revealed enrichment in cell defence/stress and primary metabolism categories, while secondary metabolism and transport were less represented. Increased transcription of genes involved in defence, cell wall reinforcement and signalling of reactive oxygen species suggests that improved plant pathogen resistance induced by T. longibrachiatum MK1 in tomato may occur through stimulation of the above mechanisms. The array of activated defence-related genes indicates that different signalling pathways, beside the jasmonate/ethylene-dependent one, collaborate to fine-tune the plant response. Our results also suggest that the growth stimulation effect of MK1 on tomato may involve a set of genes controlling protein synthesis and turnover as well as energy metabolism and photosynthesis. Transcriptional profiling of several defence-related genes at different time points of the tomato-Trichoderma interaction, and after subsequent inoculation with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea, provided novel information on genes that may specifically modulate the tomato response to T. longibrachiatum, B. cinerea or both.

  4. Solanum Tuber-bearing Species Resistance Behavior Against Nacobbus aberrans

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Eliseo J.; Clausen, Andrea. M.; Franco, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Naccobus aberrans is a major pest of the potato crop in the Andean regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Perú. It is endemic in northwest Argentina and is also found in lowlands. The resistance of eleven Andean potato landraces and three accessions of the wild tuber-bearing species Solanum acaule, S. infundibuliforme, and S. megistacrolobum were evaluated against a population of N. aberrans from Coctaca, Jujuy province, while Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum ‘Spunta’, ‘Kennebec’, and ‘Frital INTA’ were evaluated against a population from the southeast of Buenos Aires province. The presence, the number of galls, and the number of individuals were recorded. In addition, a reproduction factor was calculated and races were determined. Results showed that the N. aberrans population from Coctaca corresponded to race 2 and the population from the lowlands belonged to the sugar beet group. Landrace Azul, one genotype of S. megistacrolobum, and two genotypes of S. acaule showed resistance towards the race from Coctaca while no infection was recorded in potato cultivars with the Naccobus race from the lowland area. PMID:22661771

  5. A Deluge of Complex Repeats: The Solanum Genome

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Mrigaya; Gangwar, Indu; Shankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive elements have lately emerged as key components of genome, performing varieties of roles. It has now become necessary to have an account of repeats for every genome to understand its dynamics and state. Recently, genomes of two major Solanaceae species, Solanum tuberosum and Solanum lycopersicum, were sequenced. These species are important crops having high commercial significance as well as value as model species. However, there is a reasonable gap in information about repetitive elements and their possible roles in genome regulation for these species. The present study was aimed at detailed identification and characterization of complex repetitive elements in these genomes, along with study of their possible functional associations as well as to assess possible transcriptionally active repetitive elements. In this study, it was found that ~50–60% of genomes of S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum were composed of repetitive elements. It was also found that complex repetitive elements were associated with >95% of genes in both species. These two genomes are mostly composed of LTR retrotransposons. Two novel repeat families very similar to LTR/ERV1 and LINE/RTE-BovB have been reported for the first time. Active existence of complex repeats was estimated by measuring their transcriptional abundance using Next Generation Sequencing read data and Microarray platforms. A reasonable amount of regulatory components like transcription factor binding sites and miRNAs appear to be under the influence of these complex repetitive elements in these species, while several genes appeared to possess exonized repeats. PMID:26241045

  6. Modification of primary and secondary metabolism of potato plants by nitrogen application differentially affects resistance to Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani.

    PubMed

    Mittelstrass, K; Treutter, D; Plessl, M; Heller, W; Elstner, E F; Heiser, I

    2006-09-01

    Potato plants ( SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. cv. Indira) were grown at two levels of N supply in the greenhouse. Plants supplied with 0.8 g N per plant (high N variant) showed significantly increased biomass as compared to plants without additional N fertilisation (low N variant). C/N ratio was lower and protein content was higher in leaves of the high N variant. The concentration of chlorogenic acids and flavonols was significantly lower in leaves from the high N variant. Whereas resistance to ALTERNARIA SOLANI increased when plants were supplied with additional nitrogen, these plants were more susceptible to PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS. After infection with both pathogens, we found a strong induction of p-coumaroylnoradrenaline and p-coumaroyloctopamine, which are identified for the first time in potato leaves and are discussed as resistance factors of other solanaceous plants.

  7. Detection of biosynthetic gene and phytohormone production by endophytic actinobacteria associated with Solanum lycopersicum and their plant-growth-promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Chandra, Preeti; Zothanpuia; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, fifteen endophytic actinobacterial isolates recovered from Solanum lycopersicum were studied for their antagonistic potential and plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Among them, eight isolates showed significant antagonistic and PGP traits, identified by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Isolate number DBT204, identified as Streptomyces sp., showed multiple PGP traits tested in planta and improved a range of growth parameters in seedlings of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (S. lycopersicum L.). Further, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (acdS) were successively amplified from five strains. Six antibiotics (trimethoprim, fluconazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, rifampicin and streptomycin) and two phytohormones [indole acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KI)] were detected and quantified in Streptomyces sp. strain DBT204 using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The study indicates the potential of these PGP strains for production of phytohormones and shows the presence of biosynthetic genes responsible for production of secondary metabolites. It is the first report showing production of phytohormones (IAA and KI) by endophytic actinobacteria having PGP and biosynthetic potential. We propose Streptomyces sp. strain DBT204 for inoculums production and development of biofertilizers for enhancing growth of chili and tomato seedlings.

  8. Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade/ (Solanum elaeagnifolium /Cav.), an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The geographical origin of an invasive in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav, (Solanaceae) should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Bef...

  9. Haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, on the wild host plant, Solanum dulcamara, in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a bacterium that infects solanaceous crops and causes plant decline and yield losses, especially in potato and tomato. Lso is transmitted to these hosts by the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc.) vector. B. cockerelli host plants are not li...

  10. Comparative functional genomic analysis of Solanum glandular trichome types.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Eric T; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors.

  11. Root-synthesized cytokinins improve shoot growth and fruit yield in salinized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Smigocki, Ann C; Frébort, Ivo; Pospísilová, Hana; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Lutts, Stanley; Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Salinity limits crop productivity, in part by decreasing shoot concentrations of the growth-promoting and senescence-delaying hormones cytokinins. Since constitutive cytokinin overproduction may have pleiotropic effects on plant development, two approaches assessed whether specific root-localized transgenic IPT (a key enzyme for cytokinin biosynthesis) gene expression could substantially improve tomato plant growth and yield under salinity: transient root IPT induction (HSP70::IPT) and grafting wild-type (WT) shoots onto a constitutive IPT-expressing rootstock (WT/35S::IPT). Transient root IPT induction increased root, xylem sap, and leaf bioactive cytokinin concentrations 2- to 3-fold without shoot IPT gene expression. Although IPT induction reduced root biomass (by 15%) in control (non-salinized) plants, in salinized plants (100 mM NaCl for 22 d), increased cytokinin concentrations delayed stomatal closure and leaf senescence and almost doubled shoot growth (compared with WT plants), with concomitant increases in the essential nutrient K(+) (20%) and decreases in the toxic ion Na(+) (by 30%) and abscisic acid (by 20-40%) concentrations in transpiring mature leaves. Similarly, WT/35S::IPT plants (scion/rootstock) grown with 75 mM NaCl for 90 d had higher fruit trans-zeatin concentrations (1.5- to 2-fold) and yielded 30% more than WT/non-transformed plants. Enhancing root cytokinin synthesis modified both shoot hormonal and ionic status, thus ameliorating salinity-induced decreases in growth and yield.

  12. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern. PMID:25009438

  13. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João R

    2014-01-01

    Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern.

  14. Proteomic Analysis Provides New Insights in Phosphorus Homeostasis Subjected to Pi (Inorganic Phosphate) Starvation in Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is a major nutrient acquired by plants via high-affinity inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters. To determine the adaptation and homeostasis strategy to Pi starvation, we compared the proteome analysis of tomato leaves that were treated with and without Pi (as KH2PO4) for 10 days. Among 600 reproducible proteins on 2-DE gels 46 of them were differentially expressed. These proteins were involved in major metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, transcriptional/translational regulations, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, protein synthesis, defense response, and other secondary metabolism. The results also showed that the reduction in photosynthetic pigments lowered P content under –Pi treatments. Furthermore, high-affinity Pi transporters (lePT1 and lePT2) expressed in higher amounts under –Pi treatments. Also, the accumulation of Pi transporters was observed highly in the epidermis and palisade parenchyma under +Pi treatments compared to –Pi treatments. Our data suggested that tomato plants developed reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging mechanisms to cope with low Pi content, including the up-regulation of proteins mostly involved in important metabolic pathways. Moreover, Pi-starved tomato plants increased their internal Pi utilization efficiency by increasing the Pi transporter genes and their rational localization. These results thus provide imperative information about how tomato plants respond to Pi starvation and its homeostasis. PMID:26222137

  15. Central diabetes insipidus following digestion Solanum indicum L. concentrated solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Fang, Ji-Tseng

    2008-04-01

    In Taiwan, Solanum indicum L. has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, ascites, edema, and wound infection. The plant is rich in solanine, an alkaloidal glycoside. We report a 43-year-old man who developed polyuria and polydipsia after taking seven doses of concentrated solution of Solanum indicum L. over two weeks. A water deprivation test and a low serum antidiuretic hormone level helped to confirm a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. We suggest that excessive doses of Solanum indicum L. may cause central diabetes insipidus.

  16. Characterization of the multiple resistance traits of somatic hybrids between Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. and two commercial potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Nachtigall, Marion; Schubert, Jörg; Hammann, Thilo; Antonova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool.

  17. Transient gene expression in electroporated Solanum protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Jones, H; Ooms, G; Jones, M G

    1989-11-01

    Electroporation was used to evaluate parameters important in transient gene expression in potato protoplasts. The protoplasts were from leaves of wild potato Solanum brevidens, and from leaves, tubers and suspension cells of cultivated Solanum tuberosum cv. Désirée. Reporter enzyme activity, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, depended on the field strength and the pulse duration used for electroporation. Using field pulses of 85 ms duration, the optimum field strengths for maximum CAT activity were: S. brevidens mesophyll protoplasts--250 V/cm; Désirée mesophyll protoplasts--225 V/cm; Désirée suspension culture protoplasts--225 V/cm; and Désirée tuber protoplasts--150 V/cm. The optimum field strengths correlated inversely with the size of the protoplasts electroporated; this is consistent with biophysical theory. In time courses, maximum CAT activity (in Désirée mesophyll protoplasts) occurred 36-48 h after electroporation. Examination at optimised conditions of a chimaeric gene consisting of a class II patatin promoter linked to the beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene, showed expression (at DNA concentrations between 0-10 pmol/ml) comparable to the CaMV 35S promoter in both tuber and mesophyll protoplasts. At higher DNA concentrations (20-30 pmol/ml) the patatin promoter directed 4-5 times higher levels of gus expression. Implications and potential contributions towards studying gene expression, in particular of homologous genes in potato, are discussed.

  18. Glycine betaine protects tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants at low temperature by inducing fatty acid desaturase7 and lipoxygenase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Karabudak, T; Bor, M; Özdemir, F; Türkan, İ

    2014-03-01

    Cold stress is among the environmental stressors limiting productivity, yield and quality of agricultural plants. Tolerance to cold stress is associated with the increased unsaturated fatty acids ratio in the plant membranes which are also known to be substrates of octadecanoid pathway for jasmonate and other oxylipins biosynthesis. Accumulation of osmoprotectant, glycine betaine (GB) is well known to be effective in the protecting membranes and mitigating cold stress effects but, the mode of action is poorly understood. We studied the role of GB in cold stress responses of two tomato cultivated varieties; Gerry (cold stress sensitive) and T47657 (moderately cold stress tolerant) and compared the differences in lypoxygenase-13 (TomLOXF) and fatty acid desaturase 7 (FAD7) gene expression profiles and physiological parameters including relative growth rates, relative water content, osmotic potential, photosynthetic efficiency, membrane leakage, lipid peroxidation levels. Our results indicated that GB might have a role in inducing FAD7 and LOX expressions for providing protection against cold stress in tomato plants which could be related to the desaturation process of lipids leading to increased membrane stability and/or induction of other genes related to stress defense mechanisms via octadecanoid pathway or lipid peroxidation products.

  19. Antitranspirant-induced increases in leaf water potential increase tuber calcium and decrease tuber necrosis in water-stressed potato plants.

    PubMed

    Win, K; Berkowitz, G A; Henninger, M

    1991-05-01

    Experiments were undertaken with field-grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to test the hypothesis that altering leaf:tuber water potential gradients within a plant subjected to low soil moisture will allow greater Ca accumulation in tubers and reverse Ca deficiency-related tuber necrosis. Antitranspirant formulations containing a wax emulsion and a spreader/sticker surfactant increased leaf water potential during a drought episode, significantly reducing the potential gradient that develops between leaf and tuber during a period of stress. Increased leaf water potential in treated plants was associated with decreased leaf Ca and increased tuber Ca. Tuber necrosis was found to be reduced in treated plants, thus increasing tuber quality.

  20. [Functions of plant apyrases].

    PubMed

    Wujak, Magdalena; Komoszyński, Michał

    2011-01-01

    This publication presents results of the recent studies on plant NTPDases (apyrases). The structure and major physicochemical properties of this enzymes are reviewed. The attention has been paid to metabolic functions of apyrases from Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Apyrases constitute a family of proteins hydrolyzing phosphoanhydride bonds of nucleoside tri- and di-phosphates. They share common features like a similar structure, broad nucleotide substrate specificity and divalent cation requirement for their catalytic activity. The presence of plant NTPDases was detected in various cellular compartments. They are soluble or membrane-bound proteins. In hydrolytic processes catalyzed by activity of apoplastic apyrases and other ectoenzymes, adenine, ribose and orthophosphate are produced. These compounds are transported to the cell. Apyrases have been speculated to be involved in the regulation of starch synthesis and signal transmission. Their activity is necessary for development and growth of tubers and roots. Enzymes from leguminous plants activate the symbiosis with root nodule bacteria. Considering the fact, that NTPDases change the nucleotide concentration in cells and tissues, most of described functions may be related to the regulation of the energy charge of cell.

  1. Solanum section Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota includes the cultivated potato and its approximately 110 wild species relatives. This monographic treatment covers the 18 wild potato species that occur in Argentina. It includes keys to these 18 species, full synonymies with lectotypifications when necessary, descriptions, st...

  2. Constitutive expression of CaXTH3, a hot pepper xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses without phenotypic defects in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2011-05-01

    The hot pepper xyloglucan endo-trans-gluco-sylase/hydrolase (CaXTH3) gene that was inducible by a broad spectrum of abiotic stresses in hot pepper has been reported to enhance tolerance to drought and high salinity in transgenic Arabidopsis. To assess whether CaXTH3 is a practically useful target gene for improving the stress tolerance of crop plants, we ectopically over-expressed the full-length CaXTH3 cDNA in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang) and found that the 35S:CaXTH3 transgenic tomato plants exhibited a markedly increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Transgenic tomato plants exposed to a salt stress of 100 mM NaCl retained the chlorophyll in their leaves and showed normal root elongation. They also remained green and unwithered following exposure to 2 weeks of dehydration. A high proportion of stomatal closures in 35S:CaXTH3 was likely to be conferred by increased cell-wall remodeling activity of CaXTH3 in guard cell, which may reduce transpirational water loss in response to dehydration stress. Despite this increased stress tolerance, the transgenic tomato plants showed no detectable phenotype defects, such as abnormal morphology and growth retardation, under normal growth conditions. These results raise the possibility that CaXTH3 gene is appropriate for application in genetic engineering strategies aimed at improving abiotic stress tolerance in agriculturally and economically valuable crop plants.

  3. Plant Omics Data Center: An Integrated Web Repository for Interspecies Gene Expression Networks with NLP-Based Curation

    PubMed Central

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Takano, Tomoyuki; Terashima, Shin; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kanno, Maasa; Morimoto, Kyoko; Kanegae, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yohei; Saito, Misa; Asano, Satomi; Ozaki, Soichi; Kudo, Toru; Yokoyama, Koji; Aya, Koichiro; Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go; Aoki, Koh; Kubo, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yano, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive integration of large-scale omics resources such as genomes, transcriptomes and metabolomes will provide deeper insights into broader aspects of molecular biology. For better understanding of plant biology, we aim to construct a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-derived gene expression network (GEN) repository for a broad range of plant species. So far we have incorporated information about 745 high-quality mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) samples from eight plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Sorghum bicolor, Vitis vinifera, Solanum tuberosum, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max) from the public short read archive, digitally profiled the entire set of gene expression profiles, and drawn GENs by using correspondence analysis (CA) to take advantage of gene expression similarities. In order to understand the evolutionary significance of the GENs from multiple species, they were linked according to the orthology of each node (gene) among species. In addition to other gene expression information, functional annotation of the genes will facilitate biological comprehension. Currently we are improving the given gene annotations with natural language processing (NLP) techniques and manual curation. Here we introduce the current status of our analyses and the web database, PODC (Plant Omics Data Center; http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/podc/), now open to the public, providing GENs, functional annotations and additional comprehensive omics resources. PMID:25505034

  4. Stress-induced expression of choline oxidase in potato plant chloroplasts confers enhanced tolerance to oxidative, salt, and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Raza; Kim, Myoung Duck; Back, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hee-Sik; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Murata, Norio; Chung, Won-Il; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2008-04-01

    Transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Superior) with the ability to synthesize glycinebetaine (GB) in chloroplasts (referred to as SC plants) were developed via the introduction of the bacterial choline oxidase (codA) gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter. SC1 and SC2 plants were selected via the evaluation of methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress tolerance, using leaf discs for further characterization. The GB contents in the leaves of SC1 and SC2 plants following MV treatment were found to be 0.9 and 1.43 micromol/g fresh weight by HPLC analysis, respectively. In addition to reduced membrane damage after oxidative stress, the SC plants evidenced enhanced tolerance to NaCl and drought stress on the whole plant level. When the SC plants were subjected to two weeks of 150 mM NaCl stress, the photosynthetic activity of the SC1 and SC2 plants was attenuated by 38 and 27%, respectively, whereas that of non-transgenic (NT) plants was decreased by 58%. Under drought stress conditions, the SC plants maintained higher water contents and accumulated higher levels of vegetative biomass than was observed in the NT plants. These results indicate that stress-induced GB production in the chloroplasts of GB non-accumulating plants may prove useful in the development of industrial transgenic plants with increased tolerance to a variety of environmental stresses for sustainable agriculture applications.

  5. The plant growth-promoting fungus Aspergillus ustus promotes growth and induces resistance against different lifestyle pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Salas-Marina, Miguel Angel; Silva-Flores, Miguel Angel; Cervantes-Badillo, Mayte Guadalupe; Rosales-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Islas-Osuna, Maria Auxiliadora; Casas-Flores, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    To deal with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms including constitutive and induced defense mechanisms. Phytohormones play important roles in plant growth and development, as well as in the systemic response induced by beneficial and pathogen microorganisms. In this work, we identified an Aspergillus ustus isolate that promotes growth and induces developmental changes in Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana. A. ustus inoculation on A. thaliana and S. tuberosum roots induced an increase in shoot and root growth, and lateral root and root hair numbers. Assays performed on Arabidopsis lines to measure reporter gene expression of auxin-induced/ repressed or cell cycle controlled genes (DR5 and CycB1, respectively) showed enhanced GUS activity, when compared with mock-inoculated seedlings. To determine the contribution of phytohormone signaling pathways in the effect elicited by A. ustus, we evaluated the response of a collection of hormone mutants of Arabidopsis defective in auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, or abscisic acid signaling to the inoculation with this fungus. All mutant lines inoculated with A. ustus showed increased biomass production, suggesting that these genes are not required to respond to this fungus. Moreover, we demonstrated that A. ustus synthesizes auxins and gibberellins in liquid cultures. In addition, A. ustus induced systemic resistance against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, probably through the induction of the expression of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid/ethylene, and camalexin defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.

  6. Crop Improvement through Modification of the Plant's Own Genome

    PubMed Central

    Rommens, Caius M.; Humara, Jaime M.; Ye, Jingsong; Yan, Hua; Richael, Craig; Zhang, Lynda; Perry, Rachel; Swords, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has, until now, relied on the incorporation of foreign DNA into plant genomes. Public concern about the extent to which transgenic crops differ from their traditionally bred counterparts has resulted in molecular strategies and gene choices that limit, but not eliminate, the introduction of foreign DNA. Here, we demonstrate that a plant-derived (P-) DNA fragment can be used to replace the universally employed Agrobacterium transfer (T-) DNA. Marker-free P-DNAs are transferred to plant cell nuclei together with conventional T-DNAs carrying a selectable marker gene. By subsequently linking a positive selection for temporary marker gene expression to a negative selection against marker gene integration, 29% of derived regeneration events contain P-DNA insertions but lack any copies of the T-DNA. Further refinements are accomplished by employing Ω-mutated virD2 and isopentenyl transferase cytokinin genes to impair T-DNA integration and select against backbone integration, respectively. The presented methods are used to produce hundreds of marker-free and backbone-free potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants displaying reduced expression of a tuber-specific polyphenol oxidase gene in potato. The modified plants represent the first example of genetically engineered plants that only contain native DNA. PMID:15133156

  7. Effect of Sorghum-Sudangrass and Velvetbean Cover Crops on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Potato Production in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.; McSorley, R.

    2001-01-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus. PMID:19265888

  8. Solanum Section Petota for the Flora of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota) occurring in North Ameri...

  9. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  10. Hybrid incompatibility "snowballs" between Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya

    2010-09-17

    Among the reproductive barriers that can isolate species, hybrid sterility is frequently due to dysfunctional interactions between loci that accumulate between differentiating lineages. Theory describing the evolution of these incompatibilities has generated the prediction, still empirically untested, that loci underlying hybrid incompatibility should accumulate faster than linearly with time--the "snowball effect." We evaluated the accumulation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) between species in the plant group Solanum and found evidence for a faster-than-linear accumulation of hybrid seed sterility QTL, thus empirically evaluating and confirming this theoretical prediction. In comparison, loci underlying traits unrelated to hybrid sterility show no evidence for an accelerating rate of accumulation between species.

  11. Overexpression of polyphenol oxidase in transgenic tomato plants results in enhanced bacterial disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Steffens, John C

    2002-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs; EC 1.10.3.2 or EC 1.14.18.1) catalyzing the oxygen-dependent oxidation of phenols to quinones are ubiquitous among angiosperms and assumed to be involved in plant defense against pests and pathogens. In order to investigate the role of PPO in plant disease resistance, we made transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Money Maker) plants that overexpressed a potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) PPO cDNA under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The transgenic plants expressed up to 30-fold increases in PPO transcripts and 5- to 10-fold increases in PPO activity and immunodetectable PPO. As expected, these PPO-overexpressing transgenic plants oxidized the endogenous phenolic substrate pool at a higher rate than control plants. Three independent transgenic lines were selected to assess their interaction with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The PPO-overexpressing tomato plants exhibited a great increase in resistance to P. syringae. Compared with control plants, these transgenic lines showed less severity of disease symptoms, with over 15-fold fewer lesions, and strong inhibition of bacterial growth, with over 100-fold reduction of bacterial population in the infected leaves. These results demonstrate the importance of PPO-mediated phenolic oxidation in restricting plant disease development.

  12. Toxicity and DNA damage in tobacco and potato plants growing on soil polluted with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gichner, Tomás; Patková, Zdenka; Száková, Jirina; Demnerová, Katerina

    2006-11-01

    Heterezygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. xanthi) and potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Korela) plants were cultivated on soil from the site Strimice which is highly polluted with heavy metals and on nonpolluted soil from the recreational site Jezerí, both in North Bohemia, Czech Republic. The total content, the content of bioavailable, easily mobile, and potentially mobile components of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the tested soils, and the accumulation of these metals in the above-ground biomass and roots of tested plants were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry or flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. The average tobacco leaf area and potato plant height were significantly reduced in plants growing on the polluted soil. We have measured the DNA damage in nuclei of leaves of both plant species using the Comet assay. A small but significant increase in DNA damage was noted in plants growing on the polluted soil versus controls. As the tobacco and potato plants with increased DNA damage were severely injured (inhibited growth, distorted leaves), this increase may be associated with necrotic or apoptotic DNA fragmentation. No increase in the frequency of somatic mutation was detected in tobacco plants growing on the polluted soil. Thus, the polluted soil probably induced toxic but not genotoxic effects on tobacco and potato plants.

  13. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Joyce; Snyder, Ada

    2006-01-01

    Eggplant is an economically important vegetable crop in Asia and Africa, and although it is grown in Europe and the United States, it does not account for a significant percentage of agricultural production. It is susceptible to a number of pathogens and insects, with bacterial and fungal wilts being the most devastating. Attempts to improve resistance through introgression of traits from wild relatives have had limited success owing to sexual incompatibilities. Therefore, a crop improvement approach that combines both conventional breeding and biotechnological techniques would be beneficial. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for eggplant based on inoculation of seedling explants (cotyledons and hypocotyls) and leaves. We have used this protocol to recover transformants from two different types of eggplant, a Solanum melongena L. breeding line, and S. melongena L. var. Black Eggplant. The selectable marker gene used was neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and the selection agent was kanamycin. In vitro grown transformants acclimated readily to greenhouse conditions.

  14. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  15. Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-12-15

    This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted three-phase partitioning of polyphenol oxidase from potato peel (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Niphadkar, Sonali S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    Conventional three phase partitioning (TPP) and ultrasound assisted three phase partitioning (UATPP) were optimized for achieving the maximum extraction and purification of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from waste potato peels. Different process parameters such as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 concentration, crude extract to t-butanol ratio, time, temperature and pH were studied for conventional TPP. Except agitation speed, the similar parameters were also optimized for UATPP. Further additional parameters were also studied for UATPP viz. irradiation time at different frequencies, duty cycle and, rated power in order to obtain the maximum purification factor and recovery of PPO. The optimized conditions for conventional TPP were (NH4)2SO4 0-40% (w/v), extract to t-butanol ratio 1:1 (v/v), time 40 min and pH 7 at 30°C. These conditions provided 6.3 purification factor and 70% recovery of PPO from bottom phase. On the other hand, UATPP gives maximum purification fold of 19.7 with 98.3% recovery under optimized parameters which includes (NH4)2SO4 0-40% (w/v), crude extract to t-butanol ratio 1: 1 (v/v) pH 7, irradiation time 5 min with 25 kHz, duty cycle 40% and rated power 150W at 30°C. UATPP delivers higher purification factor and % recovery of PPO along with reduced operation time from 40 min to 5 min when compared with TPP. SDS PAGE showed partial purification of PPO enzyme with UATPP with molecular weight in the range of 26-36 kDa. Results reveal that UATPP would be an attractive option for the isolation and purification of PPO without need of multiple steps.

  17. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.

  18. Knockdown of Polyphenol Oxidase Gene Expression in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with Artificial MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ming; Bhagwat, Basdeo; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    It is of great importance and interest to develop crop varieties with low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity for the food industry because PPO-mediated oxidative browning is a main cause of post-harvest deterioration and quality loss of fresh produce and processed foods. We recently demonstrated that potato tubers with reduced browning phenotypes can be produced by inhibition of the expression of several PPO gene isoforms using artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology. The approach introduces a single type of 21-nucleotide RNA population to guide silencing of the PPO gene transcripts in potato tissues. Some advantages of the technology are: small RNA molecules are genetically transformed, off-target gene silencing can be avoided or minimized at the stage of amiRNA designs, and accuracy and efficiency of the processes can be detected at every step using molecular biological techniques. Here we describe the methods for transformation and regeneration of potatoes with amiRNA vectors, detection of the expression of amiRNAs, identification of the cleaved product of the target gene transcripts, and assay of the expression level of PPO gene isoforms in potatoes.

  19. Erwinia endophytica sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) stems.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Salazar, Sergio; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, Jose Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Alvaro

    2015-12-04

    We analysed through a polyphasic taxonomy approach two bacterial strains coded BSTT30T and BSTT40, isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was identical in both strains and had 98.4% identity with respect to the closest relatives Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99T and E. rhapontici ATCC29283T and the following closest related species with 98.2 % similarity were E. billingiae E63T and E. toletana A37T, for which the strains were classified within genus Erwinia. The analysis of housekeeping genes gpd, gyrB and rpoD confirmed their phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 90% in all cases with respect to the mentioned closest relatives. The respiratory quinone is Q8. The major fatty acids are C16:0, C16:1 7c/ 16:1 6c in summed feature 3 and C18:1 7c/ 18:2 6,9c in summed feature 8. Oxidase negative and catalase positive. Glucose is fermented without gas production. Arginine dihydrolase, urease and indole production are negative. It can grow at 35ºC and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 50.1 mol %. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 29% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four closest related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strains BSTT30T and BSTT40 into a novel species of Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT30T (=LMG 28457T, CECT 8692T).

  20. Composition and structure of tuber cell walls affect in vitro digestibility of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Frost, Jovyn K T; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Brummell, David A; O'Donoghue, Erin M; Mishra, Suman; Gidley, Michael J; Monro, John A

    2016-10-12

    The digestibility of starchy foods, such as potatoes, can be characterized by the proportion of starch that is rapidly digestible by in vitro hydrolysis (rapidly digestible starch, RDS). This study evaluated the RDS content in a potato germplasm collection consisting of 98 genotypes and identified three advanced lines, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, where cooked potato RDS content was significantly lower than that of their respective isolated starches (P < 0.05). In Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85, the properties of their isolated starch did not differ significantly from that of five control lines with higher RDS contents. Cell wall analyses revealed that, compared with other lines tested, Crop39, Crop71 and Crop85 had at least four times the amount of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) galactan side-chains that were very firmly attached to the wall and requiring 4 M KOH for extraction. Pectin solubilization during cooking was also remarkably low (2-4%) in these three lines compared with other lines tested (7-19%). The findings suggest that possession of higher amounts of RG-I galactan that interact strongly with cellulose may provide a sturdier wall that better resists solubilization during cooking, and effectively impedes access of digestive enzymes for starch hydrolysis in an in vitro model.

  1. Genotype by environment interaction effects on starch content and digestibility in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Bach, Stephanie; Yada, Rickey Y; Bizimungu, Benoit; Fan, Ming; Sullivan, J Alan

    2013-04-24

    Biochemically, starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin but can also be defined by its digestibility rates within the human intestinal tract, i.e., rapidly digested (RDS), slowly digested (SDS), or resistant (RS). The relative ratio of these starch components is the main contributor to differences in the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate sources. This study evaluated the digestible starch profile of 12 potato genotypes comprising elite breeding lines and commercial varieties in six environments, with the optimal profile defined as low RDS and high SDS. Genotype by environment interaction (GEI) analysis found significant (p = 0.05) genotypic and environmental effects for all digestibility rate components; however, interaction effects were only significant for SDS. Optimal starch profiles were identified for two genotypes, CV96044-3 and Goldrush. The desirable starch profile in these potato cultivars can be exploited in breeding programs for the improvement of starch profile and other important characteristics such as high yields and disease resistance.

  2. Interaction of polyphenol oxidase of Solanum tuberosum with β-cyclodextrin: Process details and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra; Jadhav, Swati B; Singhal, Rekha S

    2015-09-01

    Polysaccharides differing in structure and chemical nature were screened for their ability to bind non-covalently with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from potato (as a model) and their effect on enzyme activity. All the polysaccharides selected inhibited the PPO but β-cyclodextrin showed maximum inhibition under optimum conditions. Process details for the inhibition of PPO were studied with respect to concentration of β-cyclodextrin, temperature, pH, and time. Higher inhibition constant and lower half life was obtained at 40 °C than at 30 °C in the presence of inhibitor. β-Cyclodextrin showed mixed type of inhibition of PPO. β-Cyclodextrin was further exploited as anti-browning agent in selected fruit juices. It not only showed a significant anti-browning effect on freshly prepared potato juice but was also effective in other fruit juices. Better effect was seen in pineapple, apple and pear as compared to banana, sugarcane and guava fruit juices.

  3. Partial Resistance to Potato Black Dot, Caused by Colletotrichum coccodes in Solanum tuberosum Group Andigena

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black dot is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) S.J. Hughes. The disease is prevalent in potato fields and can be of economic concern by itself, or as a part of the potato early dying syndrome. Little is known about resistance to this disease. In the present study resistance to po...

  4. FLS2 from Solanum tuberosum have interaction with FlaLas from Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a Gram-negative and phloem-limited alphaproteobacterium. Las attacks all citrus species and citrus hybrids in the genus of Citrus and other relatives, and causes a systemic disease. Currently, control of this devastating disease is extremely difficult sinc...

  5. [Quality evaluation of a dehydrated product based on potato (Solanum tuberosum), lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and eggs].

    PubMed

    Glorio Paulet, P; Reynoso Zárate, Z

    1993-03-01

    After a mathematical evaluation of 20 mixtures containing different proportions of potato (P), lupin (L) and whole egg (E) on dry basis and kept the latter component in a constant amount of 6 per cent, a mixture of 60:34:6 (P:L:E) was chosen for a further experimental work at a lab level because of his better nutritional value for the pre-school children feeding. When an eighteen percent suspension of the mixture mentioned above was dehydrated in a drum drier an adecuate yield of flakes was obtained with an appropriate water absorption. The sensory evaluation test of the dehydrated product as a sauce indicated a higher acceptance than purées. On the other hand, during a 90 days period storage test of the product as flakes, it did not show microbiological problems, although after 45 days rancidity appeared in the dehydrated product.

  6. Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov., isolated from stem tissue of Solanum tuberosum L. in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    A bacterial strain named BSTT44(T) was isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.7% identity with respect to that of its closest relative, Pseudomonas psychrophila E-3T, and the next most closely related type strains were those of Pseudomonas fragi, with 99.6% similarity, Pseudomonas deceptionensis, with 99.2% similarity, and Pseudomonas lundensis, with 99.0% similarity; these results indicate that BSTT44(T) should be classified within the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 92% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Cells of the strain bore one polar-subpolar flagellum. The respiratory quinone was Q-9.The major fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive and the arginine dihydrolase system was present, but tests for nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. It could grow at 35 °C and at pH 5-9.The DNA G+C content was 60.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed less than 48% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain BSTT44 into a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT44(T) ( = LMG 28456(T) = CECT 8691(T)).

  7. Bioinformatic Identification and Analysis of Extensins in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wolfe, Richard; Welch, Lonnie R.; Domozych, David S.; Popper, Zoë A.; Showalter, Allan M.

    2016-01-01

    Extensins (EXTs) are a family of plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that are implicated to play important roles in plant growth, development, and defense. Structurally, EXTs are characterized by the repeated occurrence of serine (Ser) followed by three to five prolines (Pro) residues, which are hydroxylated as hydroxyproline (Hyp) and glycosylated. Some EXTs have Tyrosine (Tyr)-X-Tyr (where X can be any amino acid) motifs that are responsible for intramolecular or intermolecular cross-linkings. EXTs can be divided into several classes: classical EXTs, short EXTs, leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs), proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases (PERKs), formin-homolog EXTs (FH EXTs), chimeric EXTs, and long chimeric EXTs. To guide future research on the EXTs and understand evolutionary history of EXTs in the plant kingdom, a bioinformatics study was conducted to identify and classify EXTs from 16 fully sequenced plant genomes, including Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Physcomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Pinus taeda, Picea abies, Brachypodium distachyon, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Brassica rapa, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum, to supplement data previously obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. A total of 758 EXTs were newly identified, including 87 classical EXTs, 97 short EXTs, 61 LRXs, 75 PERKs, 54 FH EXTs, 38 long chimeric EXTs, and 346 other chimeric EXTs. Several notable findings were made: (1) classical EXTs were likely derived after the terrestrialization of plants; (2) LRXs, PERKs, and FHs were derived earlier than classical EXTs; (3) monocots have few classical EXTs; (4) Eudicots have the greatest number of classical EXTs and Tyr-X-Tyr cross-linking motifs are predominantly in classical EXTs; (5) green algae have no classical EXTs but have a number of long chimeric EXTs that are absent in

  8. Activation of Host Defense Mechanisms by Elevated Production of H2O2 in Transgenic Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G.; Shortt, B. J.; Lawrence, E. B.; Leon, J.; Fitzsimmons, K. C.; Levine, E. B.; Raskin, I.; Shah, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Active oxygen species have been postulated to perform multiple functions in plant defense, but their exact role in plant resistance to diseases is not fully understood. We have recently demonstrated H2O2-mediated disease resistance in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing a foreign gene encoding glucose oxidase. In this study we provide further evidence that the H2O2-mediated disease resistance in potato is effective against a broad range of plant pathogens. We have investigated mechanisms underlying the H2O2-mediated disease resistance in transgenic potato plants. The constitutively elevated levels of H2O2 induced the accumulation of total salicylic acid severalfold in the leaf tissue of transgenic plants, although no significant change was detected in the level of free salicylic acid. The mRNAs of two defense-related genes encoding the anionic peroxidase and acidic chitinase were also induced. In addition, an increased accumulation of several isoforms of extracellular peroxidase, including a newly induced one, was observed. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the lignin content of stem and root tissues of the transgenic plants. The results suggest that constitutively elevated sublethal levels of H2O2 are sufficient to activate an array of host defense mechanisms, and these defense mechanisms may be a major contributing factor to the H2O2-mediated disease resistance in transgenic plants. PMID:12223817

  9. Physiological responses in potato plants under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    The physiological responses of four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to continuous irradiation were determined in a controlled environment. Under a constant 18C and a constant photoperiod of 470 micromoles s-1 m-2 of photosynthetic photon flux, 'Denali' and 'Haig' grew well and produced large plant and tuber dry weights when harvested 56 days after transplanting. 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were severely stunted, producing only 10% of the plant dry matter produced by 'Denali' and 'Haig'. The differences in leaf chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance were not consistent between these two groups of cultivars. The leaf net CO2 assimilation rates in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were lower, and intercellular CO2 partial pressures were higher than in 'Denali' and 'Haig'. These results indicate that inhibition of net CO2 assimilation in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' was not due to a limiting amount of chlorophyll or to CO2 in the leaf tissues. Concentrations of starch in leaflets of 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were only 10% of those in 'Denali' and 'Haig' plants, although soluble sugar concentrations were similar in the four cultivars. Therefore, the lower net CO2 assimilation rates in stunted 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were not associated with an excess carbohydrate accumulation in the leaves.

  10. Overexpression of snakin-1 gene enhances resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and Erwinia carotovora in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Almasia, Natalia I; Bazzini, Ariel A; Hopp, H Esteban; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

    2008-05-01

    Snakin-1 (SN1), a cysteine-rich peptide with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro, was evaluated for its ability to confer resistance to pathogens in transgenic potatoes. Genetic variants of this gene were cloned from wild and cultivated Solanum species. Nucleotide sequences revealed highly evolutionary conservation with 91-98% identity values. Potato plants (S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum cv. Kennebec) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a construct encoding the S. chacoense SN1 gene under the regulation of the ubiquitous CaMV 35S promoter. Transgenic lines were molecularly characterized and challenged with either Rhizoctonia solani or Erwinia carotovora to analyse whether constitutive in vivo overexpression of the SN1 gene may lead to disease resistance. Only transgenic lines that accumulated high levels of SN1 mRNA exhibited significant symptom reductions of R. solani infection such as stem cankers and damping-off. Furthermore, these overexpressing lines showed significantly higher survival rates throughout the fungal resistance bioassays. In addition, the same lines showed significant protection against E. carotovora measured as: a reduction of lesion areas (from 46.5 to 88.1% with respect to the wild-type), number of fallen leaves and thickened or necrotic stems. Enhanced resistance to these two important potato pathogens suggests in vivo antifungal and antibacterial activity of SN1 and thus its possible biotechnological application.

  11. Specificity in ecological interactions: attack from the same lepidopteran herbivore results in species-specific transcriptional responses in two solanaceous host plants.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dominik D; Voelckel, Claudia; Hartl, Markus; Schmidt, Silvia; Baldwin, Ian T

    2005-07-01

    Model systems have proven enormously useful in elucidating the biochemical function of plant genes. However their ecological function, having been sculpted by evolutionary forces specific to a species, may be less conserved across taxa. Responses to wounding and herbivore attack differ among plant families and are known to be mediated by oxylipin, ethylene, and systemin-signaling networks. We analyzed transcriptional responses of two native Solanaceous species to the attack of an herbivore whose elicitors are known not to be influenced by diet. With The Institute for Genomic Research 10k-cDNA potato (Solanum tuberosum) microarray, we compared the transcriptional responses of Nicotiana attenuata with those of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) when both were attacked by the Solanaceous generalist herbivore, Manduca sexta. Based on an NADH dehydrogenase subunit F phylogeny, S. nigrum is more closely related to potato than N. attenuata but responded significantly less to M. sexta attack. Apart from transcriptional differences anticipated from their differences in secondary metabolism, both species showed distinct transcriptional patterns (with only 10% overlap in significantly regulated genes), which point to fundamental differences in the signaling cascades and downstream genes mediating herbivore resistance. The lackluster transcriptional response of S. nigrum could not be attributed to its inability to respond to elicitation, because methyl jasmonate elicitation of S. nigrum resulted in a strong transcriptional response. Given that attack from the same herbivore elicits profoundly different responses in two Solanaceaous taxa, we conclude that blueprints for commonly regulated responses to plant-herbivore interactions appear unlikely.

  12. In silico identification and characterization of microRNAs and their putative target genes in Solanaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Woo; Choi, Doil; Hur, Cheol-Goo

    2011-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, single-stranded, noncoding RNAs ranging from 19 to 25 nucleotides. The miRNA control various cellular functions by negatively regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The miRNA regulation over their target genes has a central role in regulating plant growth and development; however, only a few reports have been published on the function of miRNAs in the family Solanaceae. We identified Solanaceae miRNAs and their target genes by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) data from five different Solanaceae species. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of EST data of Solanaceae species revealed the presence of at least 11 miRNAs and 54 target genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), 22 miRNAs and 221 target genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), 12 miRNAs and 417 target genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), 46 miRNAs and 60 target genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), and 7 miRNAs and 28 target genes in Nicotiana benthamiana. The identified Solanaceae miRNAs and their target genes were deposited in the SolmiRNA database, which is freely available for academic research only at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/SolmiRNA. Our data indicate that the Solanaceae family has both conserved and specific miRNAs and that their target genes may play important roles in growth and development of Solanaceae plants.

  13. Genome Sequence of the Pectobacterium atrosepticum Strain CFBP6276, Causing Blackleg and Soft Rot Diseases on Potato Plants and Tubers.

    PubMed

    Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Faure, Denis

    2013-06-20

    Pectobacterium atrosepticum strain CFBP6276 is a pectinolytic enterobacterium causing blackleg and soft rot of the stem and tuber of Solanum tuberosum. Its virulence is under the control of quorum sensing, with N-acylhomoserine lactones as communication signals. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. atrosepticum strain CFBP6276.

  14. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M.; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes. PMID:25873387

  15. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy

    PubMed Central

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog. PMID:26663926

  16. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy.

    PubMed

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-12-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog.

  17. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants.

  18. Plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Verma, S S; Bansal, K C

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a method for plastid transformation in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), a solanaceous plant species. Plastid transformation in eggplant was achieved by bombardment of green stem segments with pPRV111A plastid expression vector carrying the aadA gene encoding aminoglycoside 3''-adenylyltransferase. Biolistic delivery of the pPRV111A plasmid yielded transplastomic plants at a frequency of two per 21 bombarded plates containing 25 stem explants each. Integration of the aadA gene in the plastome was verified by PCR analysis and also by Southern blotting using 16S rDNA (targeting sequence) and the aadA gene as a probe. Transplastomic expression of the aadA gene was verified by RT-PCR. The development of transplastomic technology in eggplant may open up exciting possibilities for novel gene introduction and expression in the engineered plastome for agronomic or pharmaceutical traits.

  19. Targeted Proteomics Approach for Precision Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Chawade, Aakash; Alexandersson, Erik; Bengtsson, Therese; Andreasson, Erik; Levander, Fredrik

    2016-02-05

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted mass spectrometry technique that enables precise quantitation of hundreds of peptides in a single run. This technique provides new opportunities for multiplexed protein biomarker measurements. For precision plant breeding, DNA-based markers have been used extensively, but the potential of protein biomarkers has not been exploited. In this work, we developed an SRM marker panel with assays for 104 potato (Solanum tuberosum) peptides selected using univariate and multivariate statistics. Thereafter, using random forest classification, the prediction markers were identified for Phytopthora infestans resistance in leaves, P. infestans resistance in tubers, and plant yield in potato leaf secretome samples. The results suggest that the marker panel has the predictive potential for three traits, two of which have no commercial DNA markers so far. Furthermore, the marker panel was also tested and found to be applicable to potato clones not used during the marker development. The proposed workflow is thus a proof-of-concept for targeted proteomics as an efficient readout in accelerated breeding for complex and agronomically important traits.

  20. Metabolomic profiling from leaves and roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium-deficient condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are essential macronutrients that are required in large quantities by growing plants. Deficiency of N, P or K can strongly affect metabolites in plant tissues. However, specific metabolic network responses to nutrient deficiencies are not well-defined. ...

  1. Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however one report in the literature describes the presence of viroi...

  2. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Glandular Trichomes of Solanum berthaultii.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, S P; Eannetta, N T; Hirzel, A T; Steffens, J C

    1992-10-01

    Type A glandular trichomes of the wild potato (Solanum berthaultii Hawkes) entrap insects by rapidly polymerizing the trichome contents after breakage by insect contact. Polymerization of trichome exudate appears to be driven by a soluble polyphenol oxidase (PPO). PPO constitutes up to 70% of the protein in individually collected trichomes and reaches a concentration approaching 200 mum in these organs. Trichome PPO has been purified and shown to be a monomeric copper metalloprotein with an isoelectric point of 5.5, possessing only o-diphenol oxygen oxido-reductase activity, and is larger than most other reported PPOs, with relative molecular weight of 59,000. Chlorogenic and caffeic acid were the most readily oxidized of 14 phenolic substrates tested. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the relative molecular weight 59,000 S. berthaultii trichome PPO were used to show that S. tuberosum L. trichomes express low levels of a cross-reactive protein that lacks detectable PPO activity.

  3. In vitro propagation and genetic fidelity study of plant regenerated from inverted hypocotyl explants of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cv. Arka Shirish.

    PubMed

    Padma Mallaya, N; Ravishankar, G A

    2013-02-01

    Genetic variation due to somaclonal variation in micropropagated plants is a beneficial phenomenon for crop improvement. Genetic integrity of the plants derived through micropropagation becomes crucial if genetic transformation studies have to be carried out. Somaclonal variation in tissue culture is a common phenomenon which makes it mandatory to check for genetic stability of plants. Hypocotyl explants of Solanummelongena L. cv. Arka Shirish inoculated with inverted polarity in MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ) gave maximum number of shoot buds. Elongation of the shoot buds was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) 2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 0.1 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid (GA3). The elongated shoots were rooted in MS with 1 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and the rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse. Morphological characteristics were similar in both seed-propagated and micropropagated plants. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis carried out with 10 primers for genetic stability studies of the regenerated plants generated 96 scorable bands with a total of 1,056 bands for the primers. Comparison of the bands with the mother plant revealed the monomorphic nature and true-to-type clones. The above regeneration protocol will be useful for micropropagation and genetic transformation studies of S.melongena L. cv. Arka Shirish.

  4. Methylobacterium-induced endophyte community changes correspond with protection of plants against pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host.

  5. Stacking of antimicrobial genes in potato transgenic plants confers increased resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Mercedes; Furman, Nicolás; Mencacci, Nicolás; Picca, Pablo; Toum, Laila; Lentz, Ezequiel; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Mentaberry, Alejandro

    2012-01-20

    Solanum tuberosum plants were transformed with three genetic constructions expressing the Nicotiana tabacum AP24 osmotine, Phyllomedusa sauvagii dermaseptin and Gallus gallus lysozyme, and with a double-transgene construction expressing the AP24 and lysozyme sequences. Re-transformation of dermaseptin-transformed plants with the AP24/lysozyme construction allowed selection of plants simultaneously expressing the three transgenes. Potato lines expressing individual transgenes or double- and triple-transgene combinations were assayed for resistance to Erwinia carotovora using whole-plant and tuber infection assays. Resistance levels for both infection tests compared consistently for most potato lines and allowed selection of highly resistant phenotypes. Higher resistance levels were found in lines carrying the dermaseptin and lysozyme sequences, indicating that theses proteins are the major contributors to antibacterial activity. Similar results were obtained in tuber infection tests conducted with Streptomyces scabies. Plant lines showing the higher resistance to bacterial infections were challenged with Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. Considerable levels of resistance to each of these pathogens were evidenced employing semi-quantitative tests based in detached-leaf inoculation, fungal growth inhibition and in vitro plant inoculation. On the basis of these results, we propose that stacking of these transgenes is a promising approach to achieve resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens.

  6. Biostimulation of PAH degradation with plants containing high concentrations of linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haakrho; Crowley, David E

    2007-06-15

    Many plant species enhance the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which this occurs. This research identified phytochemicals that stimulate pyrene degradation using crushed roottissues from 43 plants that were screened in soil spiked with 100 ppm pyrene. Among the plants tested, root tissues from Apium graveolens (celery), Raphanus sativus (radish), Solanum tuberosum (potato), and Daucus carota (carrot) were most effective for promoting disappearance of pyrene within 40 days. Experiments with A. graveolens showed that plant culture in soil contaminated with pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene was as effective as addition of crushed root tissues. Comparison of the chemical compositions of the effective plants suggested that linoleic acid was the major substance that stimulated PAH degradation. This hypothesis was supported in experiments examining degradation of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soil amended with linoleate, whereas linolenic and palmitic acids did not stimulate degradation within a 20 day period. Antibiotic inhibitor studies implicated gram positive bacteria as a predominant group responding to linoleic acid. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which plants enhance degradation of PAHs, and have practical application for remediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  7. Antisense Inhibition of Threonine Synthase Leads to High Methionine Content in Transgenic Potato Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Zeh, Michaela; Casazza, Anna Paola; Kreft, Oliver; Roessner, Ute; Bieberich, Katrin; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hoefgen, Rainer; Hesse, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Methionine (Met) and threonine (Thr) are members of the aspartate family of amino acids. In plants, their biosynthetic pathways diverge at the level of O-phosphohomo-serine (Ser). The enzymes cystathionine gamma-synthase and Thr synthase (TS) compete for the common substrate O-phosphohomo-Ser with the notable feature that plant TS is activated through S-adenosyl-Met, a metabolite derived from Met. To investigate the regulation of this branch point, we engineered TS antisense potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Désirée) plants using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. In leaf tissues, these transgenics exhibit a reduction of TS activity down to 6% of wild-type levels. Thr levels are reduced to 45% wild-type controls, whereas Met levels increase up to 239-fold depending on the transgenic line and environmental conditions. Increased levels of homo-Ser and homo-cysteine indicate increased carbon allocation into the aspartate pathway. In contrast to findings in Arabidopsis, increased Met content has no detectable effect on mRNA or protein levels or on the enzymatic activity of cystathionine gamma-synthase in potato. Tubers of TS antisense potato plants contain a Met level increased by a factor of 30 and no reduction in Thr. These plants offer a major biotechnological advance toward the development of crop plants with improved nutritional quality. PMID:11706163

  8. Revision of the Solanum medians complex (Solanum section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum medians is a widely distributed wild potato species growing along the coast and along the western slopes of the Andes from central Peru and northern Chile, from along the coastal lomas near sea level to 3800 m. Fertile diploid and triploid cytotypes are common, are believed to associated wit...

  9. Effects of genetically modified starch metabolism in potato plants on photosynthate fluxes into the rhizosphere and on microbial degraders of root exudates.

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Reichmann, Michael; Müller, Martin; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2011-06-01

    A high percentage of photosynthetically assimilated carbon is released into soil via root exudates, which are acknowledged as the most important factor for the development of microbial rhizosphere communities. As quality and quantity of root exudates are dependent on plant genotype, the genetic engineering of plants might also influence carbon partitioning within the plant and thus microbial rhizosphere community structure. In this study, the carbon allocation patterns within the plant-rhizosphere system of a genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) were linked to microbial degraders of root exudates under greenhouse conditions, using (13)C-CO(2) pulse-chase labelling in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. In addition, GM plants were compared with the parental cultivar as well as a second potato cultivar obtained by classical breeding. Rhizosphere samples were obtained during young leaf developmental and flowering stages. (13)C allocation in aboveground plant biomass, water-extractable organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and PLFA as well as the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere varied significantly between the natural potato cultivars. However, no differences between the GM line and its parental cultivar were observed. Besides the considerable impact of plant cultivar, the plant developmental stage affected carbon partitioning via the plant into the rhizosphere and, subsequently, microbial communities involved in the transformation of root exudates.

  10. Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Aman

    2015-09-01

    Persistence of delltamethrin, endosulfan, and triazophos in egg plant and tomato was studied following application of two ready mix formulations of insecticides viz. deltametrhin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000; 0.75% deltamethrin + 29.5% endosulfan) and deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus; 1% deltamethrin + 35% triazophos) at recommended (1.0 L/ha and double dose 2.0 L/ha). The residues of deltamethrin persisted till 7 and 5 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively, in the ready mix formulation of Cobra 5000 whereas endosulfan persisted till 15 and 10 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively. Dissipation of the insecticides followed first-order kinetics with half-life values of deltamethrin and endosulfan ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 and 1.4 to 1.7 days, respectively, for both the vegetables. In case of combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus), deltamethrin persisted beyond 5 days in both tomato and egg plant fruits, while triazophos persisted till 10 days in both the vegetables. Residues of deltamethrin and triazophos dissipated with half-life of 2.6-4.2 and 1.7-4.1 days, respectively, on tomato and egg plant fruits. Based on the Codex MRL limits, a safe waiting period of 5 and 3 days is suggested for tomato and egg plant, respectively, for the ready mix formulation of deltamethrin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000), and 5-day waiting period is suggested for tomato and egg plant for the combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos.

  11. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  12. Accumulation and Translocation of Essential and Nonessential Elements by Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum) Cultivated in Open-Air Plots under Organic or Conventional Farming Techniques.

    PubMed

    Liñero, Olaia; Cidad, Maite; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Nguyen, Christophe; de Diego, Alberto

    2015-11-04

    A 5-month experiment was performed to study the accumulation of several inorganic elements in tomato plants cultivated using organic or synthetic fertilizer. Plants were harvested in triplicate at six sampling dates during their life cycle. Statistical and chemometric analysis of data indicated the sequestration of toxic elements and of Na, Zn, Fe, and Co in roots, while the rest of the elements, including Cd, were mainly translocated to aboveground organs. A general decreasing trend in element concentrations with time was observed for most of them. A negative correlation between some element concentrations and ripening stage of fruits was identified. Conventionally grown plants seemed to accumulate more Cd and Tl in their tissues, while organic ones were richer in some nutrients. However, there was no clear effect of the fertilizer used (organic vs synthetic) on the elemental composition of fruits.

  13. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  14. Effects of Rotenoids on Isolated Plant Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Ravanel, Patrick; Tissut, Michel; Douce, Roland

    1984-01-01

    The effects of several rotenoids have been studied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber and etiolated mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyls mitochondria. The selective inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is characterized by several tests: (a) no effect can be observed on exogenous NADH or succinate oxidation; (b) malate oxidation is inhibited at pH 7.5; (c) one-third decrease of ADP/O ratio appears during malate oxidation at pH 6.5 or during α-ketoglutarate, citrate, or pyruvate oxidation at a pH about 7; (d) during malate oxidation at pH 6.5, a transient inhibition appears which can be maintained by addition of exogenous oxaloacetate; (e) in potato mitochondria, the inhibition of malate oxidation disappears at pH 6.5 when NAD+ is added. Then, a one-third decrease of the ADP/O ratio can be measured. Such a selective inhibition of complex I is obtained with deguelin, tephrosin, elliptone, OH-12 rotenone, and almost all the rotenoids extracted from Derris roots. The presence of the rings A, B, C, D, E seems to be necessary for the selective inhibition. Opening of the E ring and hydroxylation of the 9 position (rot-2′-enoic acid) give a rotenoid derivative with multisite inhibitory activities on flavoproteins, which are quite comparable to those of common flavonoids such as kaempferol (Ravanel et al. 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 375-378). PMID:16663636

  15. An ancient R gene from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans in cultivated potato and tomato.

    PubMed

    van der Vossen, Edwin; Sikkema, Anne; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Gros, Jack; Stevens, Patricia; Muskens, Marielle; Wouters, Doret; Pereira, Andy; Stiekema, Willem; Allefs, Sjefke

    2003-12-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease for potato cultivation. Here, we describe the positional cloning of the Rpi-blb1 gene from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum known for its high levels of resistance to late blight. The Rpi-blb1 locus, which confers full resistance to complex isolates of P. infestans and for which race specificity has not yet been demonstrated, was mapped in an intraspecific S. bulbocastanum population on chromosome 8, 0.3 cM from marker CT88. Molecular analysis of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone spanning the Rpi-blb1 locus identified a cluster of four candidate resistance gene analogues of the coiled coil, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) genes. One of these candidate genes, designated the Rpi-blb1 gene, was able to complement the susceptible phenotype in a S. tuberosum and tomato background, demonstrating the potential of interspecific transfer of broad-spectrum late blight resistance to cultivated Solanaceae from sexually incompatible host species. Paired comparisons of synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions between different regions of Rpi-blb1 paralogues revealed high levels of synonymous divergence, also in the LRR region. Although amino acid diversity between Rpi-blb1 homologues is centred on the putative solvent exposed residues of the LRRs, the majority of nucleotide differences in this region have not resulted in an amino acid change, suggesting conservation of function. These data suggest that Rpi-blb1 is relatively old and may be subject to balancing selection.

  16. Influence of incorporated wild Solanum genomes on potato properties in terms of starch nanostructure and glycoalkaloid content.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Tiina; Ikonen, Teemu; Rokka, Veli-Matti; Kuronen, Pirjo; Serimaa, Ritva; Ollilainen, Velimatti

    2005-06-29

    Interspecific somatic hybrids produced by protoplast fusion between two wild Solanum species (S. acaule, acl; S. brevidens, brd) and cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum (tbr) were analyzed in terms of the starch nanometer-range structure and glycoalkaloid (GA) contents. The crystallinity of starch granules, the average size of starch crystallites, and the lamellar distances were obtained from tuber samples using wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering methods. These measurements showed that incorporation of wild genomes from either nontuberous (brd) or tuberous (acl) Solanum species caused no significant modifications of the nanostructure of potato starch. In contrast, the GA profiles of the hybrids, which were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS in both tuber and foliage samples, differed considerably from those of cultivated potato. Regardless of the low total tuber GA concentrations (approximately 9 mg/100 g of fresh weight), the somatic hybrids contained GAs not detected in the parental species. A high proportion of spirotype GAs consisting of 5,6-dihydrogenated aglycons, for example, alpha-tomatine and tomatidine bound with solatriose, and chacotriose were found in the hybrids. In conclusion, the foliage of interspecific hybrids contained a higher variation in the structures of GAs than did the tubers.

  17. Characterization and mapping of RPi-ber, a novel potato late blight resistance gene from Solanum berthaultii.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, G M; Smart, C D; Simko, I; Bonierbale, M; Mayton, H; Greenland, A; Fry, W E

    2006-02-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, threatens potato production worldwide. An important tool in the management of the disease is the use of resistant varieties. Eleven major resistance genes have been identified and introgressed from Solanum demissum. However, new sources of resistance are continually sought. Here, we report the characterization and refined genetic localization of a resistance gene previously identified as Rber in a backcross progeny of Solanum tuberosum and Solanum berthaultii. In order to further characterize Rber, we developed a set of P. infestans isolates capable of identifying each of the 11 R-genes known to confer resistance to late blight in potato. Our results indicate that Rber is a new resistance gene, different from those recognized in S. demissum, and therefore, it has been named RPi-ber according to the current system of nomenclature. In order to add new molecular markers around RPi-ber, we used a PCR-based mapping technique, named MASP-map, which located RPi-ber in a 3.9 cM interval between markers CT240 and TG63 on potato chromosome X. The location of RPi-ber coincides with an area involved in resistance to different pathogens of potato and tomato.

  18. A spontaneous eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) color mutant conditions anthocyanin-free fruit pigmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced or spontaneously occuring color mutants in plants provide valuable tools for elucidating the genetic and developmental regulation of genes that influence pigmentation. We identified a single plant of the eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivar Black Beauty bearing green fruit. Black Beauty no...

  19. Possibility of the use of Solanum brevides based soft rot resistance in potato breeding.

    PubMed

    Kallai, M; Csitari, G; Polgar, Z

    2006-01-01

    In our experiments we dealt with the bacterial soft rot of potato caused by Erwinia species. In the experiments back cross progenies (BC1, BC2, BC3 and BC4) of Solanum brevidens + Solanum tuberosum somatic hybrids produced by the Potato Research Centre, Keszthely were tested to the infection of E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Eca) and E. chrysanthemi (Echr). All together 29 BC genotypes pre selected from several hundred breeding lines based on their preferred agronomical appearance and virus resistance characters as well as 2 varieties (White lady and Hópehely) as controls were involved into the experiments. Tuber slices from each genotype were artificially infected after 2 and 5 months of harvest with bacteria suspension (Eca strain D3, and Echr strain CHR 1492) and incubated at 27 degrees C with 100% relative air humidity for 48 h before evaluation. Dry matter and starch content of tubers were determined right before the tests. Volume of rotted tuber tissue was determined in mm3 and used for comparison of the level of resistance or susceptibility of the genotypes. Relationship between the reaction to the bacteria strains and dry matter/starch content was examined also.

  20. Development and characterization of potato-Solanum brevidens chromosomal addition/substitution lines.

    PubMed

    Dong, F; Tek, A L; Frasca, A B L; McGrath, J M; Wielgus, S M; Helgeson, J P; Jiang, J

    2005-01-01

    Solanum brevidens is a wild diploid potato species possessing high levels of resistances to several major potato diseases. We previously developed fertile somatic hybrids between S. brevidens and the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) in order to introgress disease resistances from this wild species into potato. A series of backcross progenies was developed from a hexaploid somatic hybrid A206. Using a combination of S. brevidens-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, we identified all 12 S. brevidens chromosomes in the backcross progenies. Seven potato-S. brevidens monosomic chromosome addition lines (chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10) and one monosomic substitution line (chromosome 6) were identified, and the remaining four S. brevidens chromosomes (2, 7, 11, and 12) were included in two other lines. These chromosomal addition/substitution stocks provide valuable tools for potato cytogenetic research, and can be used to introgress disease resistances from S. brevidens into potato.

  1. Accumulation, functional annotation, and comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), the third pole of the genus Solanum species after tomato and potato.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Miyatake, Koji; Ohyama, Akio

    2010-01-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a widely grown vegetable crop that belongs to the genus Solanum, which is comprised of more than 1000 species of wide genetic and phenotypic variation. Unlike tomato and potato, Solanum crops that belong to subgenus Potatoe and have been targets for comprehensive genomic studies, eggplant is endemic to the Old World and belongs to a different subgenus, Leptostemonum, and therefore, would be a unique member for comparative molecular biology in Solanum. In this study, more than 60,000 eggplant cDNA clones from various tissues and treatments were sequenced from both the 5'- and 3'-ends, and a unigene set consisting of 16,245 unique sequences was constructed. Functional annotations based on sequence similarity to known plant reference datasets revealed a distribution of functional categories almost similar to that of tomato, while 1316 unigenes were suggested to be eggplant-specific. Sequence-based comparative analysis using putative orthologous gene groups setup by reciprocal sequence comparison among six solanaceous species suggested that eggplant and its wild ally Solanum torvum were clustered separately from subgenus Potatoe species, and then, all Solanum species were clustered separately from the genus Capsicum. Microsatellite motif distribution was different among species and likely to be coincident with the phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, the eggplant unigene dataset exhibited its utility in transcriptome analysis by the SAGE strategy where a considerable number of short tag sequences of interest were successfully assigned to unigenes and their functional annotations. The eggplant ESTs and 16k unigene set developed in this study would be a useful resource not only for molecular genetics and breeding in eggplant itself, but for expanding the scope of comparative biology in Solanum species.

  2. Ozone stress induces the expression of ACC synthase in potato plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schlagnhaufer, C.D.; Arteca, R.N.; Pell, E.J. )

    1993-05-01

    When potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland) are subjected to oxone stress ethylene is emitted. Increases in ethylene production are often the result of increased expression of the enzyme ACC synthase. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clone a cDNA encoding an ozone-induced ACC synthase. After treating potato plants with 300 ppb ozone for 4 h, RNA was extracted using a guanidinium isothiocyanate method. Using degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to several conserved regions of ACC synthase sequences reported from different plant tissues as primers, we were able to reverse transcribe the RNA and amplify a cDNA for ACC synthase. The clone is 1098 bp in length encoding for 386 amino acids comprising [approximately]80% of the protein. Computer analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that our clone is 50-70% homologous with ACC synthase genes cloned from other plant tissues. Using the cDNA as a probe in northern analysis we found that there is little or no expression in control tissue: however there is a large increase in the expression of the ACC synthase message in response to ozone treatment.

  3. Expression of sea anemone equistatin in potato. Effects of plant proteases on heterologous protein production.

    PubMed

    Outchkourov, Nikolay S; Rogelj, Boris; Strukelj, Borut; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2003-09-01

    Plants are increasingly used as production platforms of various heterologous proteins, but rapid protein turnover can seriously limit the steady-state expression level. Little is known about specific plant proteases involved in this process. In an attempt to obtain potato (Solanum tuberosum cv Desirée) plants resistant to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) larvae, the protease inhibitor equistatin was expressed under the control of strong, light-inducible and constitutive promoters and was targeted to the secretory pathway with and without endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. All constructs yielded similar stepwise protein degradation patterns, which considerably reduced the amount of active inhibitor in planta and resulted in insufficient levels for resistance against Colorado potato beetle larvae. Affinity purification of the degradation products and N-terminal sequencing allowed the identification of the amino acid P(1)-positions (asparagine [Asn]-13, lysine-56, Asn-82, and arginine-151) that were cleaved in planta. The proteases involved in the equistatin degradation were characterized with synthetic substrates and inhibitors. Kininogen domain 3 completely inhibited equistatin degradation in vitro. The results indicate that arginine/lysine-specific and legumain-type Asn-specific cysteine proteases seriously impede the functional accumulation of recombinant equistatin in planta. General strategies to improve the resistance to proteases of heterologous proteins in plants are proposed.

  4. Transcriptome Profiling of the Endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Indicates Sensing of the Plant Environment and Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Rattei, Thomas; Sessitsch, Angela; Trognitz, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is widely accepted that bacterial endophytes actively colonize plants, interact with their host, and frequently show beneficial effects on plant growth and health. However, the mechanisms of plant-endophyte communication and bacterial adaption to the plant environment are still poorly understood. Here, whole-transcriptome sequencing of B. phytofirmans PsJN colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants was used to analyze in planta gene activity and the response of strain PsJN to plant stress. The transcriptome of PsJN colonizing in vitro potato plants showed a broad array of functionalities encoded in the genome of strain PsJN. Transcripts upregulated in response to plant drought stress were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular homeostasis, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, indicating an oxidative stress response in PsJN. Genes with modulated expression included genes for extracytoplasmatic function (ECF) group IV sigma factors. These cell surface signaling elements allow bacteria to sense changing environmental conditions and to adjust their metabolism accordingly. TaqMan quantitative PCR (TaqMan-qPCR) was performed to identify ECF sigma factors in PsJN that were activated in response to plant stress. Six ECF sigma factor genes were expressed in PsJN colonizing potato plants. The expression of one ECF sigma factor was upregulated whereas that of another one was downregulated in a plant genotype-specific manner when the plants were stressed. Collectively, our study results indicate that endophytic B. phytofirmans PsJN cells are active inside plants. Moreover, the activity of strain PsJN is affected by plant drought stress; it senses plant stress signals and adjusts its gene expression accordingly. PMID:26350963

  5. Synthesis of Hydroxylated Sterols in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Alters Growth and Steroid Metabolism1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Beste, Lisa; Nahar, Nurun; Dalman, Kerstin; Fujioka, Shozo; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Dutta, Paresh C.; Sitbon, Folke

    2011-01-01

    To explore mechanisms in plant sterol homeostasis, we have here increased the turnover of sterols in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants by overexpressing four mouse cDNA encoding cholesterol hydroxylases (CHs), hydroxylating cholesterol at the C-7, C-24, C-25, or C-27 positions. Compared to the wild type, the four types of Arabidopsis transformant showed varying degrees of phenotypic alteration, the strongest one being in CH25 lines, which were dark-green dwarfs resembling brassinosteroid-related mutants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of extracts from wild-type Arabidopsis plants revealed trace levels of α and β forms of 7-hydroxycholesterol, 7-hydroxycampesterol, and 7-hydroxysitosterol. The expected hydroxycholesterol metabolites in CH7-, CH24-, and CH25 transformants were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additional hydroxysterol forms were also observed, particularly in CH25 plants. In CH24 and CH25 lines, but not in CH7 ones, the presence of hydroxysterols was correlated with a considerable alteration of the sterol profile and an increased sterol methyltransferase activity in microsomes. Moreover, CH25 lines contained clearly reduced levels of brassinosteroids, and displayed an enhanced drought tolerance. Equivalent transformations of potato plants with the CH25 construct increased hydroxysterol levels, but without the concomitant alteration of growth and sterol profiles observed in Arabidopsis. The results suggest that an increased hydroxylation of cholesterol and/or other sterols in Arabidopsis triggers compensatory processes, acting to maintain sterols at adequate levels. PMID:21746809

  6. Increasing enemy biodiversity strengthens herbivore suppression on two plant species.

    PubMed

    Straub, Cory S; Snyder, William E

    2008-06-01

    Concern over biodiversity loss, especially at higher trophic levels, has led to a surge in studies investigating how changes in natural enemy diversity affect community and ecosystem functioning. These studies have found that increasing enemy diversity can strengthen, weaken, and not affect prey suppression, demonstrating that multi-enemy effects on prey are context-dependent. Here we ask how one factor, plant species identity, influences multi-enemy effects on prey. We focused on two plant species of agricultural importance, potato (Solanum tuberosum), and collards (Brassica oleracea L.). These species share a common herbivorous pest, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), but vary in structural and chemical traits that affect aphid reproductive rates and which may also influence inter-enemy interactions. In a large-scale field experiment, overall prey exploitation varied dramatically among the plant species, with enemies reducing aphid populations by approximately 94% on potatoes and approximately 62% on collards. Increasing enemy diversity similarly strengthened aphid suppression on both plants, however, and there was no evidence that plant species identity significantly altered the relationship between enemy diversity and prey suppression. Microcosm experiments suggested that, on both collards and potatoes, intraspecific competition among natural enemies exceeded interspecific competition. Enemy species showed consistent and significant differences in where they foraged on the plants, and enemies in the low-diversity treatment tended to spend less time foraging than enemies in the high-diversity treatment. These data suggest that increasing enemy diversity may strengthen aphid suppression because interspecific differences in where enemies forage on the plant allow for greater resource partitioning. Further, these functional benefits of diversity appear to be robust to changes in plant species identity.

  7. Plant Responses to Brief Touching: A Mechanism for Early Neighbour Detection?

    PubMed

    Markovic, Dimitrije; Nikolic, Neda; Glinwood, Robert; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2016-01-01

    In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope. Volatile compounds were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Treated plants changed their pattern of biomass distribution; they had lower stem mass fraction and higher branch and leaf mass fraction than untouched plants. Size, weight and number of tubers were not significantly affected. Touching did not cause trichome damage nor change their total number on touched terminal leaves. However, on primary leaves the number of glandular trichomes and pavement cells was significantly increased. Touching altered the volatile emission of treated plants; they released higher quantities of the sesquiterpenes (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D-4-ol and (E)-nerolidol, and lower quantities of the terpenes (E)-ocimene and linalool, indicating a systemic effect of the treatment. The odour of touched plants was significantly less preferred by the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae compared to odour of untouched plants. The results suggest that light contact may have a potential role in the detection of neighbouring plants and may affect plant-insect interactions.

  8. Plant Responses to Brief Touching: A Mechanism for Early Neighbour Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Dimitrije; Nikolic, Neda; Glinwood, Robert; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2016-01-01

    In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope. Volatile compounds were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Treated plants changed their pattern of biomass distribution; they had lower stem mass fraction and higher branch and leaf mass fraction than untouched plants. Size, weight and number of tubers were not significantly affected. Touching did not cause trichome damage nor change their total number on touched terminal leaves. However, on primary leaves the number of glandular trichomes and pavement cells was significantly increased. Touching altered the volatile emission of treated plants; they released higher quantities of the sesquiterpenes (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D-4-ol and (E)-nerolidol, and lower quantities of the terpenes (E)-ocimene and linalool, indicating a systemic effect of the treatment. The odour of touched plants was significantly less preferred by the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae compared to odour of untouched plants. The results suggest that light contact may have a potential role in the detection of neighbouring plants and may affect plant-insect interactions. PMID:27828995

  9. Thigmomorphogenesis in Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, Issam; Demont-Caulet, Nathalie; Thévenin, Johanne; Lapierre, Catherine; Bouzid, Sadok; Jouanin, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The activation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants by environmental stimuli is one of the most universal biochemical stress responses known. In tomato plant, rubbing applied to a young internode inhibit elongation of the rubbed internode and his neighboring one. These morphological changes were correlated with an increase in lignification enzyme activities, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidases (POD), 24 hours after rubbing of the forth internode. Furthermore, a decrease in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content was detected in the rubbed internode and the upper one. Taken together, our results suggest that decrease in rubbed internode length is a consequence of IAA oxidation, increases in enzyme activities (PAL, CAD and POD), and cell wall rigidification associated with induction of lignification process. PMID:20009518

  10. Molecular characterisation of resistance against potato wart races 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid population of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Groth, Jennifer; Song, Yesu; Kellermann, Adolf; Schwarzfischer, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Potato wart is caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Synchytrium endobioticum, which is subject to quarantine regulations due to the production of long persisting spores in the soil and the lack of effective fungicides. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against potato wart races (R) 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid potato population developed by crossing cv. Saturna (resistant to R1) with cv. Panda (resistant to R1, R2, R6, R18). A total of 92 progenies were used for phenotyping and genotyping. Resistance tests were performed for races 1 and 18 in 2 years and for races 2 and 6 in 1 year on 10 to 20 eyepieces per genotype. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, linkage maps were established for the female and male parent, respectively. Single marker analysis followed by a multiple regression analysis revealed initial marker-trait associations. The interval mapping routine of TetraploidMap was applied for QTL analysis. A major QTL for resistance against race 1 explaining between 46 % and 56 % of the phenotypic variation was identified near Sen1, a known resistance locus for potato wart race 1 on chromosome XI. Other resistance QTL were detected on chromosomes I (to R2), II (to R6, 18), VI (to R1, 2, 6, 18), VII (to R2, 6, 18), VIII (to R1, 2, 6, 18), X (to R2, 6, 18), XI (to R2, 6, 18) and on an unknown linkage group (to R18) explaining minor to moderate effects of the phenotypic variation. Resistance QTL against different potato wart races often overlapped, particularly concerning races 2, 6 and 18. Overall, this study gives a valuable insight into the complex inheritance of resistance against potato wart.

  11. Resistance gene enrichment sequencing (RenSeq) enables reannotation of the NB-LRR gene family from sequenced plant genomes and rapid mapping of resistance loci in segregating populations.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Florian; Witek, Kamil; Verweij, Walter; Sliwka, Jadwiga; Pritchard, Leighton; Etherington, Graham J; Maclean, Dan; Cock, Peter J; Leggett, Richard M; Bryan, Glenn J; Cardle, Linda; Hein, Ingo; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2013-11-01

    RenSeq is a NB-LRR (nucleotide binding-site leucine-rich repeat) gene-targeted, Resistance gene enrichment and sequencing method that enables discovery and annotation of pathogen resistance gene family members in plant genome sequences. We successfully applied RenSeq to the sequenced potato Solanum tuberosum clone DM, and increased the number of identified NB-LRRs from 438 to 755. The majority of these identified R gene loci reside in poorly or previously unannotated regions of the genome. Sequence and positional details on the 12 chromosomes have been established for 704 NB-LRRs and can be accessed through a genome browser that we provide. We compared these NB-LRR genes and the corresponding oligonucleotide baits with the highest sequence similarity and demonstrated that ~80% sequence identity is sufficient for enrichment. Analysis of the sequenced tomato S. lycopersicum 'Heinz 1706' extended the NB-LRR complement to 394 loci. We further describe a methodology that applies RenSeq to rapidly identify molecular markers that co-segregate with a pathogen resistance trait of interest. In two independent segregating populations involving the wild Solanum species S. berthaultii (Rpi-ber2) and S. ruiz-ceballosii (Rpi-rzc1), we were able to apply RenSeq successfully to identify markers that co-segregate with resistance towards the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. These SNP identification workflows were designed as easy-to-adapt Galaxy pipelines.

  12. Simultaneous boosting of source and sink capacities doubles tuber starch yield of potato plants.

    PubMed

    Jonik, Claudia; Sonnewald, Uwe; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Ludewig, Frank

    2012-12-01

    An important goal in biotechnological research is to improve the yield of crop plants. Here, we genetically modified simultaneously source and sink capacities in potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée) plants to improve starch yield. Source capacity was increased by mesophyll-specific overexpression of a pyrophosphatase or, alternatively, by antisense expression of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in leaves. Both approaches make use of re-routing photoassimilates to sink organs at the expense of leaf starch accumulation. Simultaneous increase in sink capacity was accomplished by overexpression of two plastidic metabolite translocators, that is, a glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator and an adenylate translocator in tubers. Employing such a 'pull' approach, we have previously shown that potato starch content and yield can be increased when sink strength is elevated. In the current biotechnological approach, we successfully enhanced source and sink capacities by a combination of 'pull' and 'push' approaches using two different attempts. A doubling in tuber starch yield was achieved. This successful approach might be transferable to other crop plants in the future.

  13. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  14. Acetylesterase-mediated deacetylation of pectin impairs cell elongation, pollen germination, and plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  15. Synthesis of inositol phosphate ligands of plant hormone-receptor complexes: pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover.

    PubMed

    Hanke, David E; Parmar, Paroo N; Caddick, Samuel E K; Green, Porntip; Brearley, Charles A

    2012-06-15

    Reduction of phytate is a major goal of plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional quality of crops. Remarkably, except for the storage organs of crops such as barley, maize and soybean, we know little of the stereoisomeric composition of inositol phosphates in plant tissues. To investigate the metabolic origins of higher inositol phosphates in photosynthetic tissues, we have radiolabelled leaf tissue of Solanum tuberosum with myo-[2-3H]inositol, undertaken a detailed analysis of inositol phosphate stereoisomerism and permeabilized mesophyll protoplasts in media containing inositol phosphates. We describe the inositol phosphate composition of leaf tissue and identify pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism that we reveal to be common to other kingdoms. Our results identify the metabolic origins of a number of higher inositol phosphates including ones that are precursors of cofactors, or cofactors of plant hormone-receptor complexes. The present study affords alternative explanations of the effects of disruption of inositol phosphate metabolism reported in other species, and identifies different inositol phosphates from that described in photosynthetic tissue of the monocot Spirodela polyrhiza. We define the pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover and shed light on the occurrence of a number of