Science.gov

Sample records for plants task 3-a

  1. Parametric study of potential early commercial power plants Task 3-A MHD cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development of costs for an MHD Power Plant and the comparison of these costs to a conventional coal fired power plant are reported. The program is divided into three activities: (1) code of accounts review; (2) MHD pulverized coal power plant cost comparison; (3) operating and maintenance cost estimates. The scope of each NASA code of account item was defined to assure that the recently completed Task 3 capital cost estimates are consistent with the code of account scope. Improvement confidence in MHD plant capital cost estimates by identifying comparability with conventional pulverized coal fired (PCF) power plant systems is undertaken. The basis for estimating the MHD plant operating and maintenance costs of electricity is verified.

  2. NESHAPs compliance tasks for the PUREX plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.

    1994-03-01

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant is in transition to shutdown, with decontamination and decommissioning to be completed in 1998. During this transition, implementation of some new regulations is continuing. Regulated stacks are required to be in compliance with the Clean Air Act National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). Recent tasks included certification of the PUREX main stack flow measurement system, stack radionuclide particulate sampler line loss studies, and radionuclide source term calculations.

  3. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today`s NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  4. TASK 3: PILOT PLANT GASIFIER TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. Design, fabrication and initial testing of the pilot plant compact gasifier was completed in 2011 by a development team led by AR. Findings from this initial test program, as well as subsequent gasifier design and pilot plant testing by AR, identified a number of technical aspects to address prior to advancing into a demonstration-scale gasifier design. Key among these were an evaluation of gasifier ability to handle thermal environments with highly reactive coals; ability to handle high ash content, high ash fusion temperature coals with reliable slag discharge; and to develop an understanding of residual properties pertaining to gasification kinetics as carbon conversion approaches 99%. The gasifier did demonstrate the ability to withstand the thermal environments of highly reactive Powder River Basin coal, while achieving high carbon conversion in < 0.15 seconds residence time. Continuous operation with the high ash fusion temperature Xinyuan coal was demonstrated in long duration testing, validating suitability of outlet design as well as downstream slag discharge systems. Surface area and porosity data were obtained for the Xinyuan and Xinjing coals for carbon conversion ranging from 85% to 97%, and showed a pronounced downward trend in surface area per unit mass carbon as conversion increased. Injector faceplate measurements showed no incremental loss of material over the course of these experiments, validating the commercially traceable design approach and supportive of long injector life goals. Hybrid testing of PRB and natural gas was successfully completed over a wide range of natural gas feed content, providing test data to anchor predictions

  5. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants. Task 3: Parameter variation of plant size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Plants with a nominal output of 200 and 500 MWe and conforming to the same design configuration as the Task II plant were investigated. This information is intended to permit an assessment of the competitiveness of first generation MHD/steam plants with conventional steam plants over the range of 200 to 1000 MWe. The results show that net plant efficiency of the MHD plant is significantly higher than a conventional steam plant of corresponding size. The cost of electricity is also less for the MHD plant over the entire plant size range. As expected, the cost differential is higher for the larger plant and decreases with plant size. Even at the 200 MWe capacity, however, the differential in COE between the MHD plant and the conventional plant is sufficient attractive to warrant serious consideration. Escalating fuel costs will enhance the competitive position of MHD plants because they can utilize the fuel more efficiently than conventional steam plants.

  6. Effects of an indoor plant on creative task performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji; Suzuki, Naoto

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of an indoor plant on task performance and on mood. Three room arrangements were used as independent variables: a room with (1) a plant, or (2) a magazine rack with magazines placed in front of the participants, or (3) a room with neither of these objects. Undergraduate students (M= 35, F= 55) performed a task of associating up to 30 words with each of 20 specified words in a room with one of the three room arrangements. Task performance scores showed that female participants performed better in view of the plant in comparison to the magazine rack (p < 0.05). Moreover, mood was better with the plant or the magazine rack in the room compared to the no object condition (p < 0.05). However, the difference in task performance was highly influenced by the evaluation about the plant or the magazine rack. It is suggested that the compatibility between task demand and the environment is an important factor in facilitating task performances.

  7. 77 FR 27814 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force... Consolidated Line Item Improvement Process AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... safety evaluation (SE) for plant-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TSs) Task Force...

  8. Deep Plant Phenomics: A Deep Learning Platform for Complex Plant Phenotyping Tasks.

    PubMed

    Ubbens, Jordan R; Stavness, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Plant phenomics has received increasing interest in recent years in an attempt to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap. There is a need for expanded high-throughput phenotyping capabilities to keep up with an increasing amount of data from high-dimensional imaging sensors and the desire to measure more complex phenotypic traits (Knecht et al., 2016). In this paper, we introduce an open-source deep learning tool called Deep Plant Phenomics. This tool provides pre-trained neural networks for several common plant phenotyping tasks, as well as an easy platform that can be used by plant scientists to train models for their own phenotyping applications. We report performance results on three plant phenotyping benchmarks from the literature, including state of the art performance on leaf counting, as well as the first published results for the mutant classification and age regression tasks for Arabidopsis thaliana.

  9. Deep Plant Phenomics: A Deep Learning Platform for Complex Plant Phenotyping Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ubbens, Jordan R.; Stavness, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Plant phenomics has received increasing interest in recent years in an attempt to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap. There is a need for expanded high-throughput phenotyping capabilities to keep up with an increasing amount of data from high-dimensional imaging sensors and the desire to measure more complex phenotypic traits (Knecht et al., 2016). In this paper, we introduce an open-source deep learning tool called Deep Plant Phenomics. This tool provides pre-trained neural networks for several common plant phenotyping tasks, as well as an easy platform that can be used by plant scientists to train models for their own phenotyping applications. We report performance results on three plant phenotyping benchmarks from the literature, including state of the art performance on leaf counting, as well as the first published results for the mutant classification and age regression tasks for Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:28736569

  10. 77 FR 15399 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TS) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-505, Revision 1... ADAMS under Accession No. ML12032A065. The model SE for plant-specific adoption of TSTF-505, Revision 1...

  11. MPD3: a useful medicinal plants database for drug designing.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Gulzar, Faisal; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Saari, Nazamid; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plants are the main natural pools for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the modern era of computer-aided drug designing (CADD), there is need of prompt efforts to design and construct useful database management system that allows proper data storage, retrieval and management with user-friendly interface. An inclusive database having information about classification, activity and ready-to-dock library of medicinal plant's phytochemicals is therefore required to assist the researchers in the field of CADD. The present work was designed to merge activities of phytochemicals from medicinal plants, their targets and literature references into a single comprehensive database named as Medicinal Plants Database for Drug Designing (MPD3). The newly designed online and downloadable MPD3 contains information about more than 5000 phytochemicals from around 1000 medicinal plants with 80 different activities, more than 900 literature references and 200 plus targets. The designed database is deemed to be very useful for the researchers who are engaged in medicinal plants research, CADD and drug discovery/development with ease of operation and increased efficiency. The designed MPD3 is a comprehensive database which provides most of the information related to the medicinal plants at a single platform. MPD3 is freely available at: http://bioinform.info .

  12. Commercial second-generation PFBC plant transient model: Task 15

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Getty, R.T.; Torpey, M.R.

    1995-04-01

    The advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustor (APFBC) power plant combines an efficient gas-fired combined cycle, a low-emission PFB combustor, and a coal pyrolysis unit (carbonizer) that converts coal, America`s most plentiful fuel, into the gas turbine fuel. From an operation standpoint, the APFBC plant is similar to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, except that the PFBC and fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE) allow a considerable fraction of coal energy to be shunted around the gas turbine and sent directly to the steam turbine. By contrast, the fuel energy in IGCC plants and most other combined cycles is primarily delivered to the gas turbine and then to the steam turbine. Another characteristic of the APFBC plant is the interaction among three large thermal inertias--carbonizer, PFBC, and FBHE--that presents unique operational challenges for modeling and operation of this type of plant. This report describes the operating characteristics and dynamic responses of the APFBC plant and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several alternative control strategies for the plant. In particular, interactions between PFBC, FBHE, and steam bottoming cycle are analyzed and the effect of their interactions on plant operation is discussed. The technical approach used in the study is described in Section 2. The dynamic model is introduced in Section 3 and described is detail in the appendices. Steady-state calibration and transient simulations are presented in Sections 4 and 5. The development of the operating philosophy is discussed in Section 6. Potential design changes to the dynamic model and trial control schemes are listed in Sections 7 and 8. Conclusions derived from the study are presented in Section 9.

  13. Coprophagous features in carnivorous Nepenthes plants: a task for ureases.

    PubMed

    Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Zhu, Anting; Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Bartram, Stefan; Witte, Claus-Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Hasabe, Mitsuyasu; Schöner, Caroline R; Schöner, Michael G; Kerth, Gerald; Carlini, Célia R; Mithöfer, Axel

    2017-09-14

    Most terrestrial carnivorous plants are specialized on insect prey digestion to obtain additional nutrients. Few species of the genus Nepenthes developed mutualistic relationships with mammals for nitrogen supplementation. Whether dietary changes require certain enzymatic composition to utilize new sources of nutrients has rarely been tested. Here, we investigated the role of urease for Nepenthes hemsleyana that gains nitrogen from the bat Kerivoula hardwickii while it roosts inside the pitchers. We hypothesized that N. hemsleyana is able to use urea from the bats' excrements. In fact, we demonstrate that (15)N-enriched urea provided to Nepenthes pitchers is metabolized and its nitrogen is distributed within the plant. As ureases are necessary to degrade urea, these hydrolytic enzymes should be involved. We proved the presence and enzymatic activity of a urease for Nepenthes plant tissues. The corresponding urease cDNA from N. hemsleyana was isolated and functionally expressed. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for eukaryotic ureases, including Nepenthes and five other carnivorous plants' taxa, identified them as canonical ureases and reflects the plant phylogeny. Hence, this study reveals ureases as an emblematic example for an efficient, low-cost but high adaptive plasticity in plants while developing a further specialized lifestyle from carnivory to coprophagy.

  14. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  15. Selection of an industrial natural-gas-fired advanced turbine system - Task 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    TASK OBJECTIVES: Identify a gas-fueled turbine and steam system which will meet the program goals for efficiency - and emissions. TECHNICAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS: Goals for the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) where outlined in the statement of work for five basic categories: Cycle Efficiency - System heat rate to have a 15% improvement over 1991 vintage systems being offered to the market. Environmental No post-combustion devices while meeting the following parameter targets: (1) Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions to equal 8 parts per million dry (ppmd) with 15% oxygen. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions to equal 20 parts per million(ppmd) each. Cost of electricity to be 10 percent less when compared to similar 1991 systems. Fuel Flexibility Have to ability to burn coal or coal derived fuels without extensive redesign. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Reliability, availability and maintainability must be comparable to modern advanced power generation systems. For all cycle and system studies, analyses were done for the following engine system ambient conditions: Temperature - 59F; Altitude - Sea Level; Humidity - 60%. For the 1991 reference system, GE Aircraft Engines used its LM6OOO engine product offering for comparison of the Industrial System parameters developed under this program.

  16. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics. Task 3A, Progress report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-12-31

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer`s importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA`s CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  17. Cree antidiabetic plant extracts display mechanism-based inactivation of CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa W; Liu, Rui; Arnason, John T; Krantis, Anthony; Staines, William A; Haddad, Pierre S; Foster, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen Cree antidiabetic medicinal plants were studied to determine their potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) through mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). The ethanolic extracts of the medicinal plants were studied for their inhibition of CYP3A4 using the substrates testosterone and dibenzylfluorescein (DBF) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microtiter fluorometric assays, respectively. Using testosterone as a substrate, extracts of Alnus incana, Sarracenia purpurea, and Lycopodium clavatum were identified as potent CYP3A4 MBIs, while those from Abies balsamea, Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, Rhododendron tomentosum, Kalmia angustifolia, and Picea glauca were identified as less potent inactivators. Not unexpectedly, the other substrate, DBF, showed a different profile of inhibition. Only A. balsamea was identified as a CYP3A4 MBI using DBF. Abies balsamea displayed both NADPH- and time-dependence of CYP3A4 inhibition using both substrates. Overall, several of the medicinal plants may markedly deplete CYP3A4 through MBI and, consequently, decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates including numerous medications used by diabetics.

  18. 76 FR 69296 - Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF.... ML111751792) for plant-specific adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-500...), mistakenly stated that the TSTF-500 was available for adoption under the Consolidated Line Item Improvement...

  19. Divergent evolution of the M3A family of metallopeptidases in plants.

    PubMed

    Kmiec, Beata; Teixeira, Pedro F; Murcha, Monika W; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2016-07-01

    Plants, as stationary organisms, have developed mechanisms allowing them efficient resource reallocation and a response to changing environmental conditions. One of these mechanisms is proteome remodeling via a broad peptidase network present in various cellular compartments including mitochondria and chloroplasts. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes as many as 616 putative peptidase-coding genes organized in 55 peptidase families. In this study, we describe the M3A family of peptidases, which comprises four members: mitochondrial and chloroplastic oligopeptidase (OOP), cytosolic oligopeptidase (CyOP), mitochondrial octapeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 (Oct1) and plant-specific protein of M3 family (PSPM3) of unknown function. We have analyzed the evolutionary conservation of M3A peptidases across plant species and the functional specialization of the three distinct subfamilies. We found that the subfamily-containing OOP and CyOP-like peptidases, responsible for oligopeptide degradation in the endosymbiotic organelles (OOP) or in the cytosol (CyOP), are highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. The Oct1-like peptidase subfamily involved in pre-protein maturation in mitochondria is conserved in all eukaryotes, whereas the PSPM3-like protein subfamily is strictly conserved in higher plants only and is of unknown function. Specific characteristics within PSPM3 sequences, i.e. occurrence of a N-terminal transmembrane domain and amino acid changes in distal substrate-binding motif, distinguish PSPM3 proteins from other members of M3A family. We performed peptidase activity measurements to analyze the role of substrate-binding residues in the different Arabidopsis M3A paralogs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. A generic task approach to a real time nuclear power plant fault diagnosis and advisory system

    SciTech Connect

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.; Bhatnagar, R.; Stasenko, J.E.; Punch, W.F. III; Yamada, N.

    1988-01-01

    A generic task toolkit developed at The Ohio State University Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR) has been used in the development of an aid for operators of nuclear power plants. The toolkit consists of high level programming tools that enable knowledge to be used in accordance with its need. That is, if diagnosis is the need, a framework for performing diagnosis is provided. The operator aid provides for monitoring the conditions in the plant, detecting abnormal events, and providing the operator with guidance and advice through procedures on what path should be followed to mitigate the consequences. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene confer resistance to Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxiao; Ji, Xiangzhuo; Yang, Jiangwei; Liang, Lina; Si, Huaijun; Wu, Jiahe; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a fatal pest, which is a quarantine pest in China. The CPB has now invaded the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and is constantly spreading eastward in China. In this study, we developed transgenic potato plants expressing cry3A gene. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the cry3A gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of the transgenic plants under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, while they expressed only in leaves and stems under the control of potato leaf and stem-specific promoter ST-LS1. The mortality of the larvae was higher (28% and 36%) on the transgenic plant line 35S1 on the 3rd and 4th days, and on ST3 (48%) on the 5th day after inoculation with instar larvae. Insect biomass accumulation on the foliage of the transgenic plant lines 35S1, 35S2 and ST3 was significantly lower (0.42%, 0.43% and 0.42%). Foliage consumption was lowest on transgenic lines 35S8 and ST2 among all plant foliage (7.47 mg/larvae/day and 12.46 mg/larvae/day). The different transgenic plant foliages had varied inhibition to larval growth. The survivors on the transgenic lines obviously were smaller than their original size and extremely weak. The transgenic potato plants with CPB resistance could be used to develop germplasms or varieties for controlling CPB damage and halting its spread in China. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of task and location on solvent exposures in a printing plant.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D J; Whitehead, L W

    1988-05-01

    A work measurement technique was used to monitor the activities of seven printing press operators. Repeated observations were made to learn workers' tasks and workers' locations in the plant, and a photoionization detector was used to measure the instantaneous solvent concentration in each worker's breathing zone. Location data, analyzed using a computer aided design system, did not show any indication that there were high or low exposure areas. Regression, however, showed that a significant amount of variability in a worker's exposures was accounted for by the number of times the worker performed a certain "hazardous task" (r2 = 0.57). The results indicate that it may be possible to simplify industrial hygiene sampling strategies by using work measurement data, such as time study or work sampling, to identify maximum risk employees.

  3. PLANT - An experimental task for the study of human problem solving in process control. [Production Levels and Network Troubleshooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Fath, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental tool for the investigation of human problem-solving behavior is introduced. Production Levels and Network Troubleshooting (PLANT) is a computer-based process-control task which may be used to provide opportunities for subjects to control a dynamic system and diagnose, repair, and compensate for system failures. The task is described in detail, and experiments which have been conducted using PLANT are briefly discussed.

  4. PLANT - An experimental task for the study of human problem solving in process control. [Production Levels and Network Troubleshooting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Fath, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental tool for the investigation of human problem-solving behavior is introduced. Production Levels and Network Troubleshooting (PLANT) is a computer-based process-control task which may be used to provide opportunities for subjects to control a dynamic system and diagnose, repair, and compensate for system failures. The task is described in detail, and experiments which have been conducted using PLANT are briefly discussed.

  5. 78 FR 13100 - Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-535...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Address Advanced Fuel Designs,'' for plant-specific adoption using the Consolidated Line Item Improvement... COMMISSION Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-535, Revision 0, ``Revise Shutdown Margin Definition To Address Advanced Fuel Designs,'' Using the...

  6. 77 FR 58421 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Plants,'' NUREG-1432 `` Combustion Engineering Plants,'' NUREG-1433 `` General Electric BWR/4 Plants,'' NUREG-1434, `` General Electric BWR/6 Plants.'' ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2012-0071 when...

  7. 75 FR 26294 - Notice of Availability of the Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Force Traveler TSTF-493, Revision 4, ``Clarify Application of Setpoint Methodology for LSSS Functions... Specifications Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF- 493, Revision 4, ``Clarify Application of Setpoint Methodology... revised setpoints as documentation of the plant-specific instrument setpoint methodology for Option...

  8. Foot motions in manual material handling transfer tasks: a taxonomy and data from an automotive assembly plant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David W; Kirschweng, Rebecca L; Reed, Matthew P

    2009-03-01

    Ergonomic job analysis commonly applies static postural and biomechanical analysis tools to particular postures observed during manual material handling (MMH) tasks, usually focusing on the most extreme postures or those involving the highest loads. When these analyses are conducted prospectively using digital human models, accurate prediction of the foot placements is critical to realistic postural analyses. In automotive assembly jobs, workers frequently take several steps between task elements, for example, picking up a part at one location and moving to another location to place it on the vehicle. A detailed understanding of the influence of task type and task sequence on the stepping pattern is necessary to accurately predict the foot placements associated with MMH tasks. The current study examined the patterns of foot motions observed during automotive assembly tasks. Video data for 529 pickup and delivery tasks from 32 automotive assembly jobs were analysed. A minimum of five cycles was analysed for each task. The approach angle, departure angle, hand(s) used, manipulation height and patterns of footsteps were coded from the video. Object mass was identified from the job information sheet provided by the assembly plant. Three independent raters coded each video and demonstrated an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.54 for identification of the configuration of the lower extremities during terminal stance. Based on an analysis of the distribution of stepping behaviours during object transitions (pickups or deliveries), a transition classification system (TRACS) was developed. TRACS uses a compact notation to quantify the sequence of steps associated with a MMH transition. Five TRACS behaviour groups accounted for over 90% of the transition stepping behaviours observed in the assembly plant. Approximately two-thirds (68.4%) of the object transfers observed were performed with only one foot in contact with the ground during the terminal posture. The

  9. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  10. Evaluation of H3A for determination of plant available P vs. FeAIO strips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth but in excess is a source of environmental pollution. Fertilizer additions of P are recommended based on soil tests; however, the commonly applied P extractants are often applied outside of their design criteria (specifically soil pH). As a resu...

  11. Nexant Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant Systems Analysis; Task 1: Preferred Plant Size, 20 January 2005 - 31 December 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Rankine cycles for commercial parabolic trough solar projects range in capacity from 13.5 MWe at the Solar Electric Generating Station I (SEGS I) plant, to a maximum of 89 MWe at the SEGS VIII/IX plants. The series of SEGS projects showed a consistent reduction in the levelized energy cost due to a combination of improvements in collector field technology and economies of scale in both the Rankine cycle and the operation and maintenance costs. Nonetheless, the question of the optimum Rankine cycle capacity remains an open issue. The capacities of the SEGS VIII/IX plants were limited by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act requirements to a maximum net output of 80 MWe. Further improvements in the Rankine cycle efficiency, and economies of scale in both the capital and the operating cost, should be available at larger plant sizes. An analysis was conducted to determine the effect of Rankine cycle capacities greater than 80 MWe on the levelized energy cost. The study was conducted through the following steps: (1) Three gross cycle capacities of 88 MWe, 165 MWe, and 220 MWe were selected. (2) Three Rankine cycle models were developed using the GateCycle program. The models were based on single reheat turbine cycles, with main steam conditions of 1,450 lb{sub f}/in{sup 2} and 703 F, and reheat steam conditions of 239 lb{sub f}/in{sup 2} and 703 F. The feedwater heater system consisted of 5 closed heaters and 1 open deaerating heater. The design condenser pressure was 2.5 in. HgA. (3) The optimization function within Excelergy was used to determine the preferred solar multiple for each plant. Two cases were considered for each plant: (a) a solar-only project without thermal storage, and (b) a solar-fossil hybrid project, with 3 hours of thermal storage and a heat transport fluid heater fired by natural gas. (4) For each of the 6 cases, collector field geometries, heat transport fluid pressure losses, and heat transport pump

  12. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  13. Quantitative expression analysis of GH3, a gene induced by plant growth regulator herbicides in soybean.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kevin B; Lambert, Kris N; Hager, Aaron G; Riechers, Dean E

    2004-02-11

    Symptoms resembling off-target plant growth regulator (PGR) herbicide injury are frequently found in soybean fields, but the causal agent is often difficult to identify. The expression of GH3, an auxin-regulated soybean gene, was quantified from soybean leaves injured by PGR herbicides using real-time RT-PCR. Expression of GH3 was analyzed to ascertain its suitability for use in a diagnostic assay to determine whether PGR herbicides are the cause of injury. GH3 was highly induced by dicamba within 3 days after treatment (DAT) and remained high at 7 DAT, but induction was much lower at 17 DAT. GH3 was also highly induced at 7 DAT by dicamba + diflufenzopyr, and to a lesser extent by the other PGR herbicides clopyralid and 2,4-D. The non-PGR herbicides glyphosate, imazethapyr, and fomesafen did not significantly induce GH3 expression above a low constitutive level. These results indicate that a diagnostic assay for PGR herbicide injury based on overexpression of auxin-responsive genes is feasible, and that GH3 is a potential candidate from which a diagnostic assay could be developed. However, time course analysis of GH3 expression indicates the assay would be effective for a limited time after exposure to the herbicide.

  14. Technological Change in an Auto Assembly Plant: The Impact on Workers' Tasks and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkman, Ruth; Pullman, Cydney

    1991-01-01

    Worker surveys and interviews with workers, managers, and unions explored the impact of technological change and reorganization at General Motors' plant in Linden, New Jersey. Skilled trades workers experienced skill upgrading and increased responsibility, whereas production workers underwent deskilling and were increasingly subordinated to the…

  15. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  16. ASPEN PLUS modeling of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Task 19: modeling support activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-28

    The APCI version of ASPEN PLUS was maintained and enhanced in order to support the requirements of the simulation effort described in the earlier tasks. The support effort is conveniently divided into systems support and technical support in the areas of flowsheeting and thermophysical properties. Systems support required installation of the fourth release of ASPEN PLUS, installation of AspenTech's updates to correct program errors, and several general maintenance tasks unique to the APCI version of ASPEN PLUS. Technical support in the area of flowsheeting consisted of the organization of training courses, consultation in solving simulation problems, and identifying and resolving problems resulting from bugs in ASPEN PLUS. Thermodynamic technical support consisted of developing a few new models, implementing the coal-fluid thermophysical models into ASPEN PLUS, providing convenient access to the physical properties through INSERTs, and consultation to resolve simulation problems resulting from the nonideality of the properties. All software enhancements to ASPEN PLUS have been described and delivered so that APCI's version of the program may be duplicated and maintained at other sites. 16 references.

  17. Pilot plant study - Phase I, Task 5. Topical report, September 1994--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. This report describes the solvents and decontamination of process equipment (uranium removal).

  18. Detailed design of the 2MW Demonstration Plant. Topical report, Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-16

    This document provides a summary of the design of the 2MW carbonate fuel cell power plant which will be built and tested under DOE cooperative agreement DE-FC2l-92MC29237. The report is divided into sections which describe the process and stack module design, and Appendices which provide additional design detail. Section 2.0 provides an overview of the program, including the project objectives, site location, and schedule. A description of the overall process is presented in Section 3.0. The design of the fuel cell stack Modules is described in Section 5.0, which discusses the design of the fuel cell stacks, multi-stack enclosures, and Stack Modules. Additional detail is provided in a report Appendix, the Final Design Criteria Summary. This is an abstract of the design criteria used in the design of the Submodules and Modules.

  19. JV Task 122 - Assessment of Mercury Control Options for the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Lentz; Brandon Pavlish; John Kay; Michael Jones

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, testing has been under way at electric coal-fired power plants to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending regulations. San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) engaged the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) through a request for proposal (RFP) to perform research tests to evaluate sorbent-based technologies at its coal-fired San Miguel Generating Station to identify possible technology options that could be used by SMEC to meet the mercury reduction requirements of future U.S. federal standards. The goal of the testing was to target a mercury removal of {ge}90%. The EERC has successfully field-tested several sorbent-based technologies in previous projects that offer promise and potential to achieve a target removal of {ge}90%. Based on these field test results, yet recognizing that fuel type and plant operating conditions affect mercury capture significantly, the EERC proposed research tests to evaluate potential sorbent-based technologies provided by Norit Americas and the EERC that could potentially meet SMEC's mercury control objectives. Over the period of May through mid-June 2008, the EERC tested injection of both treated and nontreated activated carbon (AC) provided by Norit Americas and sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) provided by the EERC. Tests were performed at San Miguel Unit 1 (450 MW) and included injection at the inlet of the air heater (AH) (temperature of 720 F). The test coal was a Texas lignite fuel with an average moisture content of 31.19%, an ash content of 26.6%, a heating value of 5,094 Btu/lb, a sulfur content of 2.7%, and a mercury concentration of 0.182 ppm, all reported on an as-received basis. Pilot-scale testing results identified DARCO{reg_sign} Hg-LH, SEA2 + DARCO{reg_sign} Hg, and the ChemMod sorbents as technologies with the potential to achieve the target mercury removal of {ge}90% at the full-scale test. Mercury concentrations were tracked with continuous mercury

  20. Conceptual design of a lunar base solar power plant. Lunar base systems study task 3. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    The best available concepts for a 100 kW Solar Lunar Power Plant based on static and dynamic conversion concepts have been examined. The two concepts which emerged for direct comparison yielded a difference in delivered mass of 35 MT, the mass equivalent of 1.4 lander payloads, in favor of the static concept. The technologies considered for the various elements are either state-of-the-art or near-term. Two photovoltaic cell concepts should receive high priority for development: i.e., amorphous silicon and indium phosphide cells. The amorphous silicon, because it can be made so light weight and rugged; and the indium phosphide, because it shows very high efficiency potential and is reportedly not degraded by radiation. Also the amorphous silicon cells may be mounted on flexible backing that may roll up much like a carpet for compact storage, delivery, and ease of deployment at the base. The fuel cell and electrolysis cell technology is quite well along for lunar base applications, and because both the Shuttle and the forthcoming Space Station incorporate these devices, the status quo will be maintained. Early development of emerging improvements should be implemented so that essential life verification test programs may commence.

  1. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Dairy Plant Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the dairy plant worker is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  2. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Bulk Fertilizer Plant Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the bulk fertilizer plant worker is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  3. Phytophthora infestans effector AVR3a is essential for virulence and manipulates plant immunity by stabilizing host E3 ligase CMPG1.

    PubMed

    Bos, Jorunn I B; Armstrong, Miles R; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Boevink, Petra C; Hein, Ingo; Taylor, Rosalind M; Zhendong, Tian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Harrower, Brian; Dixelius, Christina; Bryan, Glenn; Sadanandom, Ari; Whisson, Stephen C; Kamoun, Sophien; Birch, Paul R J

    2010-05-25

    Fungal and oomycete plant pathogens translocate effector proteins into host cells to establish infection. However, virulence targets and modes of action of their effectors are unknown. Effector AVR3a from potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans is translocated into host cells and occurs in two forms: AVR3a(KI), which is detected by potato resistance protein R3a, strongly suppresses infestin 1 (INF1)-triggered cell death (ICD), whereas AVR3a(EM), which evades recognition by R3a, weakly suppresses host ICD. Here we show that AVR3a interacts with and stabilizes host U-box E3 ligase CMPG1, which is required for ICD. In contrast, AVR3a(KI/Y147del), a mutant with a deleted C-terminal tyrosine residue that fails to suppress ICD, cannot interact with or stabilize CMPG1. CMPG1 is stabilized by the inhibitors MG132 and epoxomicin, indicating that it is degraded by the 26S proteasome. CMPG1 is degraded during ICD. However, it is stabilized by mutations in the U-box that prevent its E3 ligase activity. In stabilizing CMPG1, AVR3a thus modifies its normal activity. Remarkably, given the potential for hundreds of effector genes in the P. infestans genome, silencing Avr3a compromises P. infestans pathogenicity, suggesting that AVR3a is essential for virulence. Interestingly, Avr3a silencing can be complemented by in planta expression of Avr3a(KI) or Avr3a(EM) but not the Avr3a(KI/Y147del) mutant. Our data provide genetic evidence that AVR3a is an essential virulence factor that targets and stabilizes the plant E3 ligase CMPG1, potentially to prevent host cell death during the biotrophic phase of infection.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Aquitalea magnusonii Strain H3, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Hidehiro; Kuroda, Masashi; Ike, Michihiko

    2017-08-17

    Aquitalea magnusonii strain H3 is a promising plant growth-promoting bacterium for duckweed. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain H3 comprising 4,750,601 bp in 73 contigs. Several genes associated with plant root colonization were identified. Copyright © 2017 Ishizawa et al.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Aquitalea magnusonii Strain H3, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Hidehiro; Kuroda, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aquitalea magnusonii strain H3 is a promising plant growth-promoting bacterium for duckweed. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain H3 comprising 4,750,601 bp in 73 contigs. Several genes associated with plant root colonization were identified. PMID:28818906

  6. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways.

  7. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  8. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Dysosma

  9. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. Objective: The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. Materials and Methods: The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Results: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. SUMMARY In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis

  10. Installation Restoration Program Environmental Technology Development. Task Order 3. Use of Activated Carbon for Treatment of Explosives-Contaminated Ground Water at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    PROGRAM ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Task Order - 3 Use of Activated Carbon for Treatment of Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater at the...CARBON FOR TREATMENT OF EXPLOSIVES-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE BADGER ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT (BAAP) Final Report Distribution Unlimited August 1989... Treatment of Explosj~ves Contaminated Groundwater. 121 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Walter J. Wuicik: William L. Lowe; Peter 3. Marks- 13.. TYPE OF REPORT 113b

  11. Amblyopic-related frontal changes in an orientation discrimination task: a research of P3a event-related potentials in anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J; Yang, XB; Wang, JL; Wang, SJ; Gong, R; Zheng, Z; Liu, LQ

    2016-01-01

    Background: Amblyopic deficits in the primary and secondary visual cortex have been demonstrated broadly. However, the cognitive process at late stage originating in higher brain area in amblyopes hasn’t been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the late cognitive process at the frontal lobe in anisometropic amblyopes of a distinct degree, using visual event-related potential (ERP) techniques. Methods: Thirteen severe anisometropic amblyopes, 14 mild-to-moderate anisometropic amblyopes, and 13 control subjects participated in this study. Oddball paradigm (three stimuli: target, novel, and non-target stimuli) of low spatial frequency (1 cycle per degree, CPD) was used to elicit brain ERP waves. Reaction time, accuracy, latency, and amplitude of P3a waves evoked by novel stimuli at Fz electrode (the central electrode at frontal lobe), were analyzed statistically. Results: Neither accuracy nor reaction time showed significant difference among the three groups. The latency of N200 wave showed no significant difference. The latency of P3a wave was delayed in the amblyopes compared with healthy controls, but there was no significant difference between severe and mild-to-moderate amblyopes. P3a amplitude in mild-to-moderate amblyopes was significantly higher than in controls and severe amblyopes. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the cognitive process in anisometropic amblyopes was impaired, and the compensative effect of P3a amplitude was shown in mild-to-moderate amblyopes. P3a visual ERP could become a useful tool to investigate cognitive processing in amblyopes. Hippokratia 2016, 20(1): 60-66 PMID:27895445

  12. Dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria exposure as determined by work task, season, and type of plant in a flower greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Thilsing, Trine; Madsen, Anne Mette; Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Tendal, Kira; Bælum, Jesper

    2015-03-01

    Greenhouse workers are exposed to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria potentially causing airway inflammation as well as systemic symptoms. Knowledge about determinants of exposure is a prerequisite for efficient prevention through knowledge-based reduction in exposure. The objective of this study was to assess the occupational exposure in a flower greenhouse and to investigate the impact of work tasks on the intensity and variability in exposure. Seventy-six personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 38 employees in a Danish flower greenhouse producing Campanula, Lavandula, Rhipsalideae, and Helleborus. The samples were gravimetrically analysed for inhalable dust. Endotoxin was assessed by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and culture-based quantification of bacteria and fungi was performed. Information on the performed tasks during sampling was extracted from the greenhouse electronic task logging system. Associations between log-transformed exposure outcomes, season, and work tasks were examined in linear mixed-effects regression with worker identity as random effect. Measured concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 2.41mg m(-3) for inhalable dust and between 0.84 and 1097 EU m(-3) for endotoxin exposure, with the highest mean levels measured during Lavandula and Campanula handling, respectively. Personal exposure to fungi ranged between 1.8×10(2) and 3.4×10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3) and to bacteria between 1.6×10(1) and 4.2×10(5) CFU m(-3). Exposure to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria differed between seasons. Packing Lavandula, sticking, potting, and grading Rhipsalideae, and all examined tasks related to Campanula production except sticking increased dust exposure. Endotoxin exposure was increased during sticking Campanula and pinching or packing Rhipsalideae, and fungi exposure was elevated by subtasks performed in the research and development area for Campanula, and by potting, packing/dumping Campanula. Sticking and

  13. 76 FR 66763 - Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-510...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ..., Revision 2, ``Revision to Steam Generator Program Inspection Frequencies and Tube Sample Selection'' AGENCY...) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-510, Revision 2, ``Revision to Steam Generator Program Inspection..., and -1432, Specification 5.5.9, ``Steam Generator (SG) Program,'' Specification 5.6.7, ``Steam...

  14. 78 FR 3921 - Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ..., Revision 5, is applicable to all Combustion Engineering- designed nuclear power plants. The proposed change... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...'' AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of opportunity for public comment. SUMMARY: The...

  15. ABO3, a WRKY transcription factor, mediates plant responses to abscisic acid and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaozhi; Chen, Zhizhong; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Min; Liu, Qian; Hong, Xuhui; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2010-08-01

    The biological functions of WRKY transcription factors in plants have been widely studied, but their roles in abiotic stress are still not well understood. We isolated an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo3, which is disrupted by a T-DNA insertion in At1g66600 encoding a WRKY transcription factor AtWRKY63. The mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in both seedling establishment and seedling growth. However, stomatal closure was less sensitive to ABA, and the abo3 mutant was less drought tolerant than the wild type. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression of the ABA-responsive transcription factor ABF2/AREB1 was markedly lower in the abo3 mutant than in the wild type. The abo3 mutation also reduced the expression of stress-inducible genes RD29A and COR47, especially early during ABA treatment. ABO3 is able to bind the W-box in the promoter of ABF2in vitro. These results uncover an important role for a WRKY transcription factor in plant responses to ABA and drought stress. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. ABO3, a WRKY transcription factor, mediates plant responses to abscisic acid and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaozhi; Chen, Zhizhong; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Min; Liu, Qian; Hong, Xuhui; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The biological functions of WRKY transcription factors in plants have been widely studied, but their roles in abiotic stress are still not well understood. We isolated an ABA overly sensitive mutant, abo3, which is disrupted by a T-DNA insertion in At1g66600 encoding a WRKY transcription factor AtWRKY63. The mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in both seedling establishment and seedling growth. However, stomatal closure was less sensitive to ABA, and the abo3 mutant was less drought tolerant than the wild type. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression of the ABA-responsive transcription factor ABF2/AREB1 was markedly lower in the abo3 mutant than in the wild type. The abo3 mutation also reduced the expression of stress-inducible genes RD29A and COR47, especially early during ABA treatment. ABO3 is able to bind the W-box in the promoter of ABF2 in vitro. These results uncover an important role for a WRKY transcription factor in plant responses to ABA and drought stress. PMID:20487379

  17. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  18. Task toward a Realization of Commercial Tokamak Fusion Plants in 2050 -The Role of ITER and the Succeeding Developments- 3.Fusion Plasma Research toward Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Yutaka; Shimada, Michiya; Miura, Yukitoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    This section discusses fusion plasma research that needs to be carried out to develop fusion power plants. Burning plasma, in which self-heating by energetic alph aparticles plays an essential role, should be recognized as autonomous system. This is quite different from present plasma experiments, suggesting a possibility to yield some qualitative changes in fusion plasma research. Research with ITER is strongly expected to contribute to this burning plasma physics. In addition, plasma performance in steady-state and at high beta is very important in fusion power plants from the engineering and economical viewpoints. Plasma parameters expected for fusion power plants are discussed, and present status of experimental research is reviewed. Research in devices other than ITER with unique features would be instrumental for exploring high performance plasmas. A necessity of research complementary to ITER plasma is discussed.

  19. Fugitive emission testing at the Kosovo coal gasification plant. Final task report Apr 79-Sep 81. [Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Honerkamp, R.L.; Dalrymple, D.A.

    1983-06-01

    The report summarizes results of a test program to characterize fugitive emissions from the Kosovo coal gasification plant in Yugoslavia, a test program implemented by the EPA in response to a need for representative data on the potential environmental impacts of Lurgi coal gasification technology. Major objectives of the fugitive emissions assessment were to: (1) determine the frequency of leak occurrence, (2) measure leak rates from leak sources, (3) estimate total fugitive emissions from leakage, and (4) compare the results to other fugitive emission test data. Study results show similarities to results of fugitive emission testing in U.S. oil refineries and organic chemical plants.

  20. The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators’ Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

  1. The influence of individual and team cognitive ability on operators' task and safety performance: a multilevel field study in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators' performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators' GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a "big-fish-little-pond" effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers' extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed.

  2. 75 FR 29588 - Notice of Availability of the Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ..., ``Relocate Stored Fuel Oil and Lube Oil Volume Values to Licensee Control'' AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... significant hazards consideration determination) and model safety evaluation (SE) for the plant-specific... Fuel Oil and Lube Oil Volume Values to Licensee Control.'' TSTF-501, Revision 1, is available in...

  3. 78 FR 32476 - Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF-426...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Engineering-designed nuclear power plants. The change revises various TSs to add a Condition for loss of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... the Consolidated Line Item Improvement Process AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

  4. Task 21 - Field Demonstration of Ex-Situ Biological Treatability of Contaminated Groundwater at the Strachan Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), formerly the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA), and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities.

  5. Parametric study of prospective early commercial MHD power plants (PSPEC). General Electric Company, task 1: Parametric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Alyea, F. N.; Bender, D. J.; Davis, L. K.; Dellinger, T. C.; Hnat, J. G.; Komito, E. H.; Peterson, C. A.; Rogers, D. A.; Roman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of moderate technology coal-fired open cycle MHD/steam power plant designs which can be expected to require a shorter development time and have a lower development cost than previously considered mature OCMHD/steam plants were determined. Three base cases were considered: an indirectly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) subsystem delivering air at 2700 F, fired by a state of the art atmospheric pressure gasifier, and the HTAH subsystem was deleted and oxygen enrichment was used to obtain requisite MHD combustion temperature. Coal pile to bus bar efficiencies in ease case 1 ranged from 41.4% to 42.9%, and cost of electricity (COE) was highest of the three base cases. For base case 2 the efficiency range was 42.0% to 45.6%, and COE was lowest. For base case 3 the efficiency range was 42.9% to 44.4%, and COE was intermediate. The best parametric cases in bases cases 2 and 3 are recommended for conceptual design. Eventual choice between these approaches is dependent on further evaluation of the tradeoffs among HTAH development risk, O2 plant integration, and further refinements of comparative costs.

  6. Parametric study of prospective early Commercial MHD power plants (PSPEC). General Electric Company, task 1: Parametric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, C. H.; Alyea, F. N.; Bender, D. J.; Davis, L. K.; Dellinger, T. C.; Hnat, J. G.; Komito, E. H.; Peterson, C. A.; Rogers, D. A.; Roman, A. J.

    1980-02-01

    The performance and cost of moderate technology coal-fired open cycle MHD/steam power plant designs which can be expected to require a shorter development time and have a lower development cost than previously considered mature OCMHD/steam plants were determined. Three base cases were considered: an indirectly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) subsystem delivering air at 2700 F, fired by a state of the art atmospheric pressure gasifier, and the HTAH subsystem was deleted and oxygen enrichment was used to obtain requisite MHD combustion temperature. Coal pile to bus bar efficiencies in ease case 1 ranged from 41.4% to 42.9%, and cost of electricity (COE) was highest of the three base cases. For base case 2 the efficiency range was 42.0% to 45.6%, and COE was lowest. For base case 3 the efficiency range was 42.9% to 44.4%, and COE was intermediate. The best parametric cases in bases cases 2 and 3 are recommended for conceptual design. Eventual choice between these approaches is dependent on further evaluation of the tradeoffs among HTAH development risk, O2 plant integration, and further refinements of comparative costs.

  7. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  8. Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; Horazak, D.A.; White, J.S.

    1994-12-01

    The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.

  9. Engineering analyses for evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task C

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, J.R.; Vidt, E.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report satisfies the Task C requirement for DOE contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to provide engineering analyses of power systems utilizing coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The process information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by Federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The computer model used by Westinghouse, designated AHEAD, is proprietary and so is not provided in this report. The engineering analyses provide relative power system efficiency data for ten gasifier/gas cleanup fuel supply systems, including air- and oxygen-blown gasification, hot and cold desulfurization, and a range of MCFC operating pressure from 345 kPaa (50 psia) to 2069 kPaa (300 psia).

  10. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task B interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement for DOE Contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by Federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The configurations include entrained, fluidized-bed, gravitating-bed, and molten salt gasifiers, both air and oxygen blown. Desulfurization systems utilizing wet scrubbing processes, such as Selexol and Rectisol II, and dry sorbents, such as iron oxide and dolomite, were chosen for evaluation.

  11. NRC Job Code V6060: Extended in-situ and real time monitoring. Task 4: Detection and monitoring of leaks at nuclear power plants external to structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S. H.

    2012-08-01

    In support of Task 4 of the NRC study on compliance with 10 CFR part 20.1406, minimization of contamination, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a one-year scoping study, in concert with a parallel study performed by NRC/NRR staff, on monitoring for leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) external to structures. The objective of this task-4 study is to identify and assess those sensors and monitoring techniques for early detection of abnormal radioactive releases from the engineered facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) to the surrounding underground environment in existing NPPs and planned new reactors. As such, methods of interest include: (1) detection of anomalous water content of soils surrounding SSCs, (2) radionuclides contained in the leaking water, and (3) secondary signals such as temperature. ANL work scope includes mainly to (1) identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, the sensors and techniques that have most promise to detect radionuclides and/or associated chemical releases from SSCs of existing NPPs and (2) review and provide comments on the results of the NRC/NRR staff scoping study to identify candidate technologies. This report constitutes the ANL deliverable of the task-4 study. It covers a survey of sensor technologies and leak detection methods currently applied to leak monitoring at NPPs. The survey also provides a technology evaluation that identifies their strength and deficiency based on their detection speed, sensitivity, range and reliability. Emerging advanced technologies that are potentially capable of locating releases, identifying the radionuclides, and estimating their concentrations and distributions are also included in the report along with suggestions of required further research and development.

  12. JMA's regional atmospheric transport model calculations for the WMO technical task team on meteorological analyses for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuo; Shimbori, Toshiki; Draxler, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) convened a small technical task team of experts to produce a set of meteorological analyses to drive atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition models (ATDMs) for the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation's assessment of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (DNPP) accident. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) collaborated with the WMO task team as the regional specialized meteorological center of the country where the accident occurred, and provided its operational 5-km resolution mesoscale (MESO) analysis and its 1-km resolution radar/rain gauge-analyzed precipitation (RAP) data. The JMA's mesoscale tracer transport model was modified to a regional ATDM for radionuclides (RATM), which included newly implemented algorithms for dry deposition, wet scavenging, and gravitational settling of radionuclide aerosol particles. Preliminary and revised calculations of the JMA-RATM were conducted according to the task team's protocol. Verification against Cesium 137 ((137)Cs) deposition measurements and observed air concentration time series showed that the performance of RATM with MESO data was significantly improved by the revisions to the model. The use of RAP data improved the (137)Cs deposition pattern but not the time series of air concentrations at Tokai-mura compared with calculations just using the MESO data. Sensitivity tests of some of the more uncertain parameters were conducted to determine their impacts on ATDM calculations, and the dispersion and deposition of radionuclides on 15 March 2011, the period of some of the largest emissions and deposition to the land areas of Japan. The area with high deposition in the northwest of Fukushima DNPP and the hotspot in the central part of Fukushima prefecture were primarily formed by wet scavenging influenced by the orographic effect of the mountainous area in the west of the Fukushima prefecture. Copyright © 2014 The Authors

  13. Task selection cost asymmetry without task switching.

    PubMed

    Bryck, Richard L; Mayr, Ulrch

    2008-02-01

    The switch cost asymmetry (i.e., larger costs when switching from a nondominant into a dominant task than vice versa) has been explained in terms of the trial-to-trial carryover of activation levels required for the dominant versus the nondominant task. However, there is an open question about whether an actual switch in task is in fact necessary to obtain a "selection" cost asymmetry. In Experiments 1 and 2, we modified an alternating-runs paradigm to include either long or short response-to-stimulus intervals (RSIs) after each pair of trials (i.e., AA-AA-BB-BB), thereby inducing selection costs not only at the point of a task switch (i.e., AA-BB), but also between same-task pairs (i.e., AA-AA). Using spatially compatible versus incompatible response rules (Experiment 1) and Stroop word versus color naming (Experiment 2), we found asymmetric effects not only at task-change transitions, but also at task-repeat transitions when the RSI was long (presumably inducing frequent losses of set). In Experiments 3A and 3B, a cost asymmetry for long RSIs was obtained even when competing tasks were separated into alternating single task blocks, but not when the tasks were compared in a between-subjects design. This general pattern cannot be explained by activation carryover models, but is consistent with the idea that the asymmetry arises as a result of interference from long-term memory traces.

  14. JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

  15. Conceptual design of a lunar base solar power plant lunar base systems study task 3.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The best available concepts for a 100 kW Solar Lunar Power Plant based on static and dynamic conversion concepts have been examined. The two concepts which emerged for direct comparison yielded a difference in delivered mass of 35 MT, the mass equivalent of 1.4 lander payloads, in favor of the static concept. The technologies considered for the various elements are either state-of-the-art or near-term. Two photovoltaic cell concepts should receive high priority for development: i.e., amorphous silicon and indium phosphide cells. The amorphous silicon, because it can be made so light weight and rugged; and the indium phosphide, because it shows very high efficiency potential and is reportedly not degraded by radiation. Also the amorphous silicon cells may be mounted on flexible backing that may roll up much like a carpet for compact storage, delivery, and ease of deployment at the base. The fuel cell and electrolysis cell technology is quite well along for lunar base applications, and because both the Shuttle and the forthcoming Space Station incorporate these devices, the status quo will be maintained. Early development of emerging improvements should be implemented so that essential life verification test programs may commence.

  16. Conceptual design of a lunar base solar power plant lunar base systems study task 3.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-08-01

    The best available concepts for a 100 kW Solar Lunar Power Plant based on static and dynamic conversion concepts have been examined. The two concepts which emerged for direct comparison yielded a difference in delivered mass of 35 MT, the mass equivalent of 1.4 lander payloads, in favor of the static concept. The technologies considered for the various elements are either state-of-the-art or near-term. Two photovoltaic cell concepts should receive high priority for development: i.e., amorphous silicon and indium phosphide cells. The amorphous silicon, because it can be made so light weight and rugged; and the indium phosphide, because it shows very high efficiency potential and is reportedly not degraded by radiation. Also the amorphous silicon cells may be mounted on flexible backing that may roll up much like a carpet for compact storage, delivery, and ease of deployment at the base. The fuel cell and electrolysis cell technology is quite well along for lunar base applications, and because both the Shuttle and the forthcoming Space Station incorporate these devices, the status quo will be maintained. Early development of emerging improvements should be implemented so that essential life verification test programs may commence.

  17. HOP3 a new regulator of the ER stress response in Arabidopsis with possible implications in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bautista, Nuria; Fernández-Calvino, Lourdes; Muñoz, Alfonso; Castellano, M Mar

    2017-05-04

    HOPs (heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) organizing proteins) are a highly conserved family of cytosolic cochaperones. In a recent study we showed that HOP3, a member of the HOP family in Arabidopsis, plays an essential role during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in plants. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that AtHOP3 interacts with binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), a major ER-resident chaperone. All these data suggest that HOP3 could assist BiP in protein folding in the ER. These findings open the exciting possibility that HOP3, through its role in the alleviation of ER stress, could play an important function during different developmental processes and in response to different biotic and abiotic stresses.

  18. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  19. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  20. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  1. Effects of Mode of Target Task Selection on Learning about Plants in a Mobile Learning Environment: Effortful Manual Selection versus Effortless QR-Code Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of effortless selection of target plants using quick respond (QR) code technology to effortful manual search and selection of target plants on learning about plants in a mobile device supported learning environment. In addition, it was investigated whether the effectiveness of the 2 selection methods was…

  2. Installation Restoration Program. Environmental Technology Development Task Order - 8. Field Demonstration - Composting of Explosives - Contaminated Sediments at the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    acids were added, a 10 mg/L initial TNT concentration was reduced to 0.1 mg/L in 5 days. Naumora et al. (1979) isolated a Pseudomonas denitrificans...removed from Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HAAP) Area B wastes in pilot-plant studies using an activated sludge reactor dominated by Pseudomonas and... Alcaligens species (Green, 1972). Stillwell (1977) presented data indicating that RDX and fIl JX could be biologically removed from pilot-plant units

  3. MhNCED3, a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Malus hupehensis Rehd., enhances plant tolerance to Cl- stress by reducing Cl- accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Yang, Hong-qiang; You, Shu-zhen; Fan, Shu-lei; Ran, Kun

    2015-04-01

    High Cl(-) concentrations in tissues can be toxic to crop plants and may lead to reduced growth rates and yields. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an important regulator of plant adaptive responses to stress. Here, the expression of MhNCED3 in Malus hupehensis Rehd. and the effects of MhNCED3 on plant tolerance to Cl(-) stress were explored. The results showed that MhNCED3 expression and ABA biosynthesis in M. hupehensis Rehd. were induced by Cl(-) stress. Ectopic expression of MhNCED3 in Arabidopsis complemented the phenotypic defects of the 129B08/nced3 mutant and enhanced WT tolerance to Cl(-) stress. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed improved growth and developmental status, increased ABA contents, and reduced transpiration rates and relative water content. Furthermore, ectopic expression of MhNCED3 decreased Cl(-) accumulation and oxidative damage, and up-regulated the expression levels of AtCLCc (chloride channel protein) and AtSLAH3 (slow anion channel 1 homolog 3) genes in Arabidopsis. These observations suggest that MhNCED3 has critical role in enhancing plant tolerance to Cl(-) stress by reducing Cl(-) accumulation.

  4. Enterobacter sp. I-3, a bio-herbicide inhibits gibberellins biosynthetic pathway and regulates abscisic acid and amino acids synthesis to control plant growth.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Park, Jae-Man; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Very few bacterial species were identified as bio-herbicides for weed control. The present research was focused to elucidate the plant growth retardant properties of Enterobacter sp. I-3 during their interaction by determining the changes in endogenous photosynthetic pigments, plant hormones and amino acids. The two bacterial isolates I-4-5 and I-3 were used to select the superior bacterium for controlling weed seeds (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) germination. The post-inoculation of I-3 (Enterobacter sp. I-3) significantly inhibited the weeds seed germination than their controls. The mechanism of bacterium induced plant growth reduction was identified in lettuce treated with I-3 bacterium and compared their effects with known chemical herbicide, trinexapac-ethyl (TE). The treatment of I-3 and TE showed a significant inhibitory effect on shoot length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, shoot weight, root weight and chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings. The endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) analysis showed that Enterobacter sp. I-3 treated plants had lower levels of GAs (GA12, GA19, GA20 and GA8) and GAs/ABA ratio and then, the higher level of ABA when compared to their controls. Indeed, the individual amino acids ie., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, threonine, alanine, serine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine were declined in TE and I-3 exposed plants. Our results suggest that the utilization of Enterobacter sp. I-3 inhibits the GAs pathway and amino acids synthesis in weeds to control their growth can be an alternative to chemical herbicides.

  5. Nursery Task Force update

    Treesearch

    Russ Pohl

    2007-01-01

    The Nursery Task Force was set up at the behest of the Southern Group of State Foresters in the late winter/spring of 2005. Its mission was to assess the condition of state nurseries across the South and to make recommendations to improve their viability. At the time, tree planting cost-share money was diminished; pulpwood prices were low; much of the Southeast had...

  6. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant. Task title: Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Program Review, Final report, August 1, 1991--October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-03-31

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis.

  7. Is P3 a strategic or a tactical component? Relationships of P3 sub-components to response times in oddball tasks with go, no-go and choice responses.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Grauhan, Nils; Śmigasiewicz, Kamila

    2016-12-01

    P3 (viz. P300) is a most prominent component of event-related EEG potentials recorded during task performance. There has been long-standing debate about whether the process reflected by P3 is tactical or strategic, i.e., required for making the present response or constituting some overarching process. Here, we used residue iteration decomposition (RIDE) to delineate P3 subcomponents time-locked to responses and tested for the temporal relations between P3 components and response times (RTs). Data were obtained in oddball tasks (i.e., tasks presenting two stimuli, one rarely and one frequently) with rare and frequent go, no-go, or choice responses (CRs). As usual, rare-go P3s were large at Pz and rare no-go P3s at FCz. Notably, P3s evoked with rare CRs were large at either site, probably comprising both go and no-go P3. Throughout, with frequent and rare responses, P3 latencies coincided with RTs. RIDE decomposed P3 complexes into a large CPz-focused C-P3 and an earlier Pz-focused response-locked R-P3. R-P3 had an additional large fronto-central focus with rare CRs, modeling the no-go-P3 part, suggesting that the process reflected by no-go P3 is tightly time-locked to making the alternative response. R-P3 coincided with the fast RTs to frequent stimuli and C-P3 coincided with the slower RTs to rare stimuli. Thus, the process reflected by C-P3 might be required for responding to rare events, but not to frequent ones. We argue that these results are nevertheless compatible with a tactical role of P3 because responses may not be contingent on stimulus analysis with frequent stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic characterization of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3, a key hydrolytic bacterium in a thermophilic biogas plant and its abundance as determined by metagenome fragment recruitment.

    PubMed

    Maus, Irena; Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Bremges, Andreas; Stolze, Yvonne; Wibberg, Daniel; Tomazetto, Geizecler; Blom, Jochen; Sczyrba, Alexander; König, Helmut; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    The genome sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 originating from a thermophilic biogas-production plant was established and recently published as Genome Announcement by our group. The circular chromosome of D. tunisiensis L3 has a size of 2,053,097bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. To analyze the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence in more detail, a phylogenetic analysis of completely sequenced Thermotogae strains based on shared core genes was performed. It appeared that Petrotoga mobilis DSM 10674(T), originally isolated from a North Sea oil-production well, is the closest relative of D. tunisiensis L3. Comparative genome analyses of P. mobilis DSM 10674(T) and D. tunisiensis L3 showed moderate similarities regarding occurrence of orthologous genes. Both genomes share a common set of 1351 core genes. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways important for the biogas production process revealed that the D. tunisiensis L3 genome encodes a large set of genes predicted to facilitate utilization of a variety of complex polysaccharides including cellulose, chitin and xylan. Ethanol, acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were found as possible end-products of the fermentation process. The latter three metabolites are considered to represent substrates for methanogenic Archaea, the key organisms in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness between D. tunisiensis L3 and dominant biogas community members within the thermophilic biogas-production plant, metagenome sequences obtained from the corresponding microbial community were mapped onto the L3 genome sequence. This fragment recruitment revealed that the D. tunisiensis L3 genome is almost completely covered with metagenome sequences featuring high matching accuracy. This result indicates that strains highly related or even identical to the reference strain D. tunisiensis L3 play a dominant role within the community of the thermophilic biogas-production plant

  9. Constituents of Indonesian medicinal plant Averrhoa bilimbi and their cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2D6 inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Auw, Lidyawati; Subehan; Sukrasno; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    As constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves we identified three new compounds (1-3) together with 12 known ones (4-15); their inhibitory activities on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and 2D6 (CYP2D6) were examined. Among the isolated compounds, the mixture of 1 and 2, and compounds 4 and 9 showed strong inhibition on CYP3A4, but mild or no inhibition on CYP2D6. These compounds revealed the characteristics of 1) time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, 2) requirement of NADPH for the inhibition, 3) no protection by nucleophiles, and 4) suppression of the inhibition by competitive inhibitor. Thus, they are suggested to be mechanism-based inactivators of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The kinetic parameters for the inactivation (k(inact) and K(I)) were 0.19 min(-1) and 36.7 μM for the mixture of 1 and 2, 0.126 min(-1) and 10.5 μM for 4, and 0.29 min(-1) and 23.4 μM for 9.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis VSD3, a Diesel Fuel-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Hedera helix Leaves.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Vincent; Thijs, Sofie; McAmmond, Breanne; Langill, Tori; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2017-02-23

    We report here the 6.55-Mb draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis VSD3, a Gram-positive bacterium of the Nocardiaceae family, isolated from leaves of Hedera helix growing at a high-traffic city center in Belgium. The exploration of its genome will contribute to the assessment of its application as an inoculant in phylloremediation approaches.

  11. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Booras, George; Powers, J.; Riley, C.; Hendrix, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis VSD3, a Diesel Fuel-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Hedera helix Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Vincent; Thijs, Sofie; McAmmond, Breanne; Langill, Tori; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the 6.55-Mb draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis VSD3, a Gram-positive bacterium of the Nocardiaceae family, isolated from leaves of Hedera helix growing at a high-traffic city center in Belgium. The exploration of its genome will contribute to the assessment of its application as an inoculant in phylloremediation approaches. PMID:28232452

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis 3A-25B, a Strain with Biocontrol Activity against Fungal and Oomycete Root Plant Phytopathogens, Isolated from Grassland Soil.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Raudales, Inés; De La Cruz-Rodríguez, Yumiko; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Alvarado-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Fraire-Mayorga, Atzin; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Balderas-Hernández, Victor; Gómez-Soto, José Manuel; Fraire-Velázquez, Saúl

    2017-09-28

    Here, we present the draft genome of Bacillus velezensis 3A-25B, which totaled 4.01 Mb with 36 contigs, 3,948 genes, and a GC content of 46.34%. This strain, which demonstrates biocontrol activity against root rot causal phytopathogens in horticultural crops and friendly interactions in roots of pepper plantlets, was obtained from grassland soil in Zacatecas Province, Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Martínez-Raudales et al.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis 3A-25B, a Strain with Biocontrol Activity against Fungal and Oomycete Root Plant Phytopathogens, Isolated from Grassland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Raudales, Inés; De La Cruz-Rodríguez, Yumiko; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Alvarado-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Fraire-Mayorga, Atzin; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Balderas-Hernández, Victor; Gómez-Soto, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the draft genome of Bacillus velezensis 3A-25B, which totaled 4.01 Mb with 36 contigs, 3,948 genes, and a GC content of 46.34%. This strain, which demonstrates biocontrol activity against root rot causal phytopathogens in horticultural crops and friendly interactions in roots of pepper plantlets, was obtained from grassland soil in Zacatecas Province, Mexico. PMID:28963212

  15. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  16. A user's manual for DELSOL3: A computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kistler, B.L.

    1986-11-01

    DELSOL3 is a revised and updated version of the DELSOL2 computer program (SAND81-8237) for calculating collector field performance and layout and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design based on energy cost. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. DELSOL3 maintains the advantages of speed and accuracy which are characteristics of DELSOL2.

  17. Study of Pu consumption in light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants, compilation of Phase 1C task reports

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-15

    This report summarizes the evaluations conducted during Phase 1C of the Pu Disposition Study have provided further results which reinforce the conclusions reached during Phase 1A & 1B: These conclusions clearly establish the benefits of the fission option and the use of the ABWR as a reliable, proven, well-defined and cost-effective means available to disposition the weapons Pu. This project could be implemented in the near-term at a cost and on a schedule being validated by reactor plants currently under construction in Japan and by cost and schedule history and validated plans for MOX plants in Europe. Evaluations conducted during this phase have established that (1) the MOX fuel is licensable based on existing criteria for new fuel with limited lead fuel rod testing, (2) that the applicable requirements for transport, handling and repository storage can be met, and (3) that all the applicable safeguards criteria can be met.

  18. Process-information definition for evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task A topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vidt, E.J.

    1981-11-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to list coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The process information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The listings included data on the state of development, operating characteristics, effluents, and effectiveness of the gasifiers and coal gas cleanup systems, to the extent that such information is available in the public domain. Information available in the public domain on the effects of contaminants on MCFC performance and on the design constraints on heat recovery equipment used to adjust coal gas temperatures to levels appropriate for available cleanup systems was also provided. Cleanup systems not chosen by DOE's MCFC contractors, General Electric and United Technologies, Inc., for their MCFC power plant work, by virtue of the resource requirements of those systems for commercial development, were extensively characterized. Such characterization is included in Appendix B, principally for the hot gas cleanup processes listed therein. One of those processes, using zinc ferrite for coal gas desulfurization, is now under active development by METC and has the potential for effective use in MCFC power plants.

  19. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit. Task 5: Evaluation of bench-scale test results and equipment selection for in-plant pilot tests

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-14

    The overall objective of this research effort is to improve the efficiency of fine coal flotation in preparation plants above that of currently used conventional cells. In addition to evaluating single-stage operation of four selected advanced flotation devices, the project will also evaluate them in two-stage configurations. The project is being implemented in two phases. Phase 1 comprises bench-scale testing of the flotation units, and Phase 2 comprises in-plant, proof-of-concept (POC), pilot-scale testing of selected configurations at the Cyprus Emerald preparation plant. The Task 5 report presents the findings of the Phase 1 bench-scale test results and provides the basis for equipment selection for Phase 2. Four advanced flotation technologies selected for bench-scale testing are: Jameson cell; Outokumpu HG tank cell; packed column; and open column. In addition to testing all four of the cells in single-stage operation, the Jameson and Outokumpu cells were tested as candidate first-stage cells because of their propensity for rapid attachment of coal particles with air bubbles and low capital and operating costs. The column cells were selected as candidate second-stage cells because of their high-efficiency separation of low-ash products from high-ash feed coals. 32 figs., 72 tabs.

  20. Task toward a Realization of Commercial Tokamak Fusion Plants in 2050 -The Role of ITER and the Succeeding Developments- 4.Technology and Material Research in Fusion Power Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, Masato; Matsui, Hideki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Konishi, Satoshi

    Technical issues regarding the fusion power plant that are required to be developed in the period of ITER construction and operation, both with ITER and with other facilities that complement ITER are described in this section. Three major fields are considered to be important in fusion technology. Section 4.1 summarizes blanket study, and ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) development that focuses its effort on the first generation power blanket to be installed in DEMO. ITER will be equipped with 6 TBMs which are developed under each party's fusion program. In Japan, the solid breeder using water as a coolant is the primary candidate, and He-cooled pebble bed is the alternative. Other liquid options such as LiPb, Li or molten salt are developed by other parties' initiatives. The Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) is coordinating these efforts. Japanese universities are investigating advanced concepts and fundamental crosscutting technologies. Section 4.2 introduces material development and particularly, the international irradiation facility, IFMIF. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are identified as promising candidates for the structural material of the first generation fusion blanket, while and vanadium alloy and SiC/SiC composite are pursued as advanced options. The IFMIF is currently planning the next phase of joint activity, EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) that encompasses construction. Material studies together with the ITER TBM will provide essential technical information for development of the fusion power plant. Other technical issues to be addressed regarding the first generation fusion power plant are summarized in section 4.3. Development of components for ITER made remarkable progress for the major essential technology also necessary for future fusion plants, however many still need further improvements toward power plant. Such areas includes; the divertor, plasma heating/current drive, magnets, tritium, and

  1. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  2. In vitro translocation experiments with RxLR-reporter fusion proteins of Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae and AVR3a from Phytophthora infestans fail to demonstrate specific autonomous uptake in plant and animal cells.

    PubMed

    Wawra, Stephan; Djamei, Armin; Albert, Isabell; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Kahmann, Regine; van West, Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Plant-pathogenic oomycetes have a large set of secreted effectors that can be translocated into their host cells during infection. One group of these effectors are the RxLR effectors for which it has been shown, in a few cases, that the RxLR motif is important for their translocation. It has been suggested that the RxLR-leader sequences alone are enough to translocate the respective effectors into eukaryotic cells through binding to surface-exposed phosphoinositol-3-phosphate. These conclusions were primary based on translocation experiments conducted with recombinant fusion proteins whereby the RxLR leader of RxLR effectors (i.e., Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae) were fused to the green fluorescent protein reporter-protein. However, we failed to observe specific cellular uptake for a comparable fusion protein where the RxLR leader of the P. infestans AVR3a was fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein. Therefore, we reexamined the ability of the reported P. sojae AVR1b RxLR leader to enter eukaryotic cells. Different relevant experiments were performed in three independent laboratories, using fluorescent reporter fusion constructs of AVR3a and Avr1b proteins in a side-by-side comparative study on plant tissue and human and animal cells. We report that we were unable to obtain conclusive evidence for specific RxLR-mediated translocation.

  3. A novel oxidative method for the absorption of Hg(0) from flue gas of coal fired power plants using task specific ionic liquid scrubber.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Zach; Sachs, Tatyana; Chidambaram, Mandan; Sasson, Yoel

    2013-01-15

    A simple continuous process is described for the removal of mercury from gas streams (such as flue gas of a coal fired power stations) using imidazolium based Task Specific Ionic Liquids [TSILs] with the general structure ([RMIM][XI(2)(-)]) where X=Cl, Br or I. The latter are formed by blending dialkylimidazolium halide salts with iodine. When applied in a gas/liquid scrubber, these salts were shown to absorb >99% of elemental mercury originally present in a gas stream in concentration of 75-400 ppb. The mercury abatement is attained by oxidating the mercury to HgI(2) which is bound as a stable IL complex ([RMIM(+)][XHgI(2)(-)]. The novel absorption system exhibits a remarkable mercury concentration factor of seven orders of magnitude. The final solution obtained contains up to 50% (w/w) mercury in the IL. Upon exposure to sodium formate, directly added to the saturated IL at 45 °C, reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. The free IL could be fully recycled.

  4. ENRO Task Analysis. Worker Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, Chicago, IL.

    This task analysis for positions at the ENRO shirt and tie manufacturing plant in Louisville, Kentucky, was developed to help teach English as a second language in order to improve communication in the workplace and prepare all employees for a total quality management model. The task analysis includes information about workers in the Raw…

  5. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  6. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  7. Task 3(a)R, Requirements Planning Session Outline.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-12

    outline is presented in a manner that can be readily applied to any topic area; however, it is assumed that the topic area will be Maintenance Production ... Management which will build on the results of one of the two topic areas from the Needs Planning Session in July. It is expected that this outline may

  8. P3a from white noise.

    PubMed

    Frank, David W; Yee, Ryan B; Polich, John

    2012-08-01

    P3a and P3b event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited with an auditory three-stimulus (target, distracter, and standard) discrimination task in which subjects responded only to the target. Distracter stimuli consisted of white noise or novel sounds with stimulus characteristics perceptually matched. Target/standard discrimination difficulty was manipulated by varying target/standard pitch differences to produce relatively easy, medium, and hard tasks. Error rate and response time increased with increases in task difficulty. P3a was larger for the white noise compared to novel sounds, maximum over the central/parietal recording sites, and did not differ in size across difficulty levels. P3b was unaffected by distracter type, decreased as task difficulty increased, and maximum over the parietal recording sites. The findings indicate that P3a from white noise is robust and should be useful for applied studies as it removes stimulus novelty variability. Theoretical perspectives are discussed.

  9. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  10. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  11. Bush mint (Hyptis suaveolens) and spreading hogweed (Boerhavia diffusa) medicinal plant extracts differentially affect activities of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ekow Thomford, Nicholas; Dzobo, Kevin; Adu, Faustina; Chirikure, Shadreck; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet

    2017-09-20

    Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit and Boerhavia diffusa Linn are medicinal herbal plants commonly found in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are used to treat various conditions among them boils, dyslipidaemia, eczema, malaria, jaundice and gonorrhoea. Thus, the herbal medicinal extracts are now found as part of some commercial herbal formulations. There has not been adequate characterisation of these medicinal herbs on their effects on drug metabolising enzymes. To investigate the effects of extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (HS) and Boerhavia diffusa (BD) on activity of drug metabolizing enzymes, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, as well predict their potential for herb-drug interaction. A secondary aim was to identify constituent compounds such as polyphenolics, in the crude extract preparations of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa and measure them for activity. CYP450 inhibition assays using recombinant CYP450 (rCYP) and fluorescence screening employing individual isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) were used to determine reversible- and time-dependent inhibition (TDI) profiles of extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa. Inhibition kinetic parameters, Ki and Kinact were also estimated. UPLC-MS employing a Synapt G2 (ESI negative) coupled to a PDA detector was used to identify polyphenolic compounds in crude extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa. The inhibitory potency of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa extracts varied among the different enzymes, with CYP1A2 (3.68 ± 0.10µg/mL) being the least inhibited by HS compared to CYP2D6 (1.39 ± 0.01µg/mL) and CYP3A4 (2.36 ± 0.57µg/mL). BD was most potent on CYP3A4 (7.36 ± 0.94µg/mL) compared to both CYP2D6 (17.79 ± 1.02µg/mL) and CYP1A2 (9.48 ± 0.78µg/mL). Extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Boerhavia diffusa exhibited TDIs on all CYPs. The most prominent phenolic candidates identified in both medicinal herbs using UPLC-MS analysis included caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin, citric acid

  12. "Task" as Research Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  13. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  14. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  15. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  16. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  17. Task Time Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, G.

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  18. Behavioral Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    depicting hierarchical behavioral task relationships as well. An extensive list of such tools is given in Wikipedia articles at http...Hierarchical task analysis . In D. Diaper & N. A. Stanton (Eds .), The handbook of task analysis for human-computer interaction (pp. 67-82). Mahwah, NJ

  19. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    PAPER TAPES 63. NOTIFY CUSTOMER ENGINEERS (CE) OR TECHNICAL REPRESENTATIVES OF EQUIPMENT FAILURE 64. NOTIFY PRCGRAMMERS OR ANALYSIS CF PROCESSING...A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS . (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...QUANTICO, VIRGINIA, 22134 "Ji (o t , - ’ i " DSYS)879 UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS TASK ANALYSIS PROGRAM QUESTICNNAIRE BOCKLET INTROCUCT ION YUU HAVE BEEN

  20. Task 8 -- Design and test of critical components

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, T.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report covers tasks 8.1, 8.1.1, and 8.2. The primary objective of Task 8.1, Particulates Flow Deposition, is to characterize the particulate generated in an operating gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) power plant whose configuration approximates that proposed for an ATS power plant. In addition, the task is to evaluate the use of full-flow filtering to reduce the steam particulate loads. Before the start of this task, GE had already negotiated an agreement with the candidate power plant, piping and a filter unit had already been installed at the power plant site, and major elements of the data acquisition system had been purchased. The objective of Task 8.1.1, Coolant Purity, is to expose typical ATS gas turbine airfoil cooling channel geometries to real steam flow to determine whether there are any unexpected deposit formations. The task is a static analog of the centrifugal deposition rig trials of Task 8.2, in which a bucket channel return bend is exposed to steam flow. Two cooling channel geometries are of primary interest in this static exposure. The primary objective of Task 8.2, Particle Centrifugal Sedimentation, is to determine the settling characteristics of particles in a cooling stream from an operating gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) power plant when that stream is ducted through a passage experiencing the G-loads expected in a simulated bucket channel specimen representative of designs proposed for an ATS gas turbine.

  1. Constitutive expression of CaXTH3, a hot pepper xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses without phenotypic defects in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2011-05-01

    The hot pepper xyloglucan endo-trans-gluco-sylase/hydrolase (CaXTH3) gene that was inducible by a broad spectrum of abiotic stresses in hot pepper has been reported to enhance tolerance to drought and high salinity in transgenic Arabidopsis. To assess whether CaXTH3 is a practically useful target gene for improving the stress tolerance of crop plants, we ectopically over-expressed the full-length CaXTH3 cDNA in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang) and found that the 35S:CaXTH3 transgenic tomato plants exhibited a markedly increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Transgenic tomato plants exposed to a salt stress of 100 mM NaCl retained the chlorophyll in their leaves and showed normal root elongation. They also remained green and unwithered following exposure to 2 weeks of dehydration. A high proportion of stomatal closures in 35S:CaXTH3 was likely to be conferred by increased cell-wall remodeling activity of CaXTH3 in guard cell, which may reduce transpirational water loss in response to dehydration stress. Despite this increased stress tolerance, the transgenic tomato plants showed no detectable phenotype defects, such as abnormal morphology and growth retardation, under normal growth conditions. These results raise the possibility that CaXTH3 gene is appropriate for application in genetic engineering strategies aimed at improving abiotic stress tolerance in agriculturally and economically valuable crop plants.

  2. Semaphorin 3A

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a protein identified originally as a diffusible axonal chemorepellent. Sema3A has multifunctional roles in embryonic development, immune regulation, vascularization, and oncogenesis. Bone remodeling consists of two phases: the removal of mineralized bone by osteoclasts and the formation of new bone by osteoblasts, and plays an essential role in skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis. Recent studies have shown that Sema3A is implicated in the regulation of osteoblastgenesis and osteoclastgenesis. Moreover, low bone mass in mice with specific knockout of Sema3A in the neurons indicates that Sema3A regulates bone remodeling indirectly. This review highlights recent advances on our understanding of the role of sema3A as a new player in the regulation of bone remodeling and proposes the potential of sema3A in the diagnosis and therapy of bone diseases. PMID:24589620

  3. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport.

  4. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  5. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  6. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  7. Many specialized robots perform nuclear-powerplant tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This article describes various specialized robots and the tasks for which they were designed in nuclear power plants. These tasks include steam generator sludge removal and inspection, spent fuel pool cleaning, data gathering, maintenance, disassembling reactor internals, opening and closing PWR and BWR vessels, autonomous monitoring of various environmental parameters within a running reactor, canopy-seal weld inspection and repair, reactor vessel inspection, and plant decommissioning.

  8. Learning one task by interleaving practice with another task

    PubMed Central

    Szpiro, Sarit; Wright, Beverly A.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a sustainable improvement in performance on a perceptual task following training. A hallmark of perceptual learning is task specificity – after participants have trained on and learned a particular task, learning rarely transfers to another task, even with identical stimuli. Accordingly, it is assumed that performing a task throughout training is a requirement for learning to occur on that specific task. Thus, interleaving training trials of a target task, with those of another task, should not improve performance on the target task. However, recent findings in audition show that interleaving two tasks during training can facilitate perceptual learning, even when the training on neither task yields learning on its own. Here we examined the role of cross-task training in the visual domain by training 4 groups of human observers for 3 consecutive days on an orientation comparison task (target task) and/or spatial-frequency comparison task (interleaving task). Interleaving small amounts of training on each task, which were ineffective alone, not only enabled learning on the target orientation task, as in audition, but also surpassed the learning attained by training on that task alone for the same total number of trials. This study illustrates that cross-task training in visual perceptual learning can be more effective than single-task training. The results reveal a comparable learning principle across modalities and demonstrate how to optimize training regimens to maximize perceptual learning. PMID:24959653

  9. Initial development of an automated task analysis profiling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A program for automated task analysis is described. Called TAPS (task analysis profiling system), the program accepts normal English prose and outputs skills, knowledges, attitudes, and abilities (SKAAs) along with specific guidance and recommended ability measurement tests for nuclear power plant operators. A new method for defining SKAAs is presented along with a sample program output.

  10. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  11. Job and Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Morris, Johnnye M.

    1972-01-01

    Job and task analyses for bus boy, short order cook, and child care aide; also contains a career ladder for a child care center and proposed course of study and job analysis form for child care aide. (SB)

  12. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  13. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  14. 21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3, a Novel Triterpenoid Saponin from the Seeds of Tea Plants, Inhibits Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in a NF-κB-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Woo Seok; Ko, Jaeyoung; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Shin, Song Seok

    2014-01-01

    21-O-Angeloyltheasapogenol E3 (ATS-E3) is a triterpenoid saponin recently isolated from the seeds of the tea tree Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. ATS-E3 has several beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, and anticancer effects. Unlike other phenolic compounds isolated from tea plants, there are no studies reporting the pharmacological action of ATS-E3. In this study, we therefore aimed to explore the cellular and molecular inhibitory activities of ATS-E3 in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. ATS-E3 remarkably diminished cellular responses of macrophages such as FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake, sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced radical generation, and LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Analysis of its molecular activity showed that this compound significantly suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) κB subunits (p50 and p65), phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK), and the enzyme activity of AKT1. Taken together, the novel triterpenoid saponin compound ATS-E3 contributes to the beneficial effects of tea plants by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities in an AKT/IKK/NF-κB-dependent manner. PMID:25477714

  15. Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 3A. Gasification test at Sasolburg, overview. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; Sasolburg test of Illinois Basin coals in Lurgi Mark IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The SASOL test was conducted in order to confirm the operability of the Lurgi process with Western Kentucky coal and determine the preliminary design basis for the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The test plan was structured to optimize design parameters of both the gasification and associated plants and their component units by: demonstrating the need for additional gasifiers over the 36 estimated in the feasibility study; determining the steam requirement, which was about 6% higher than for the feasibility study; confirming the oxygen requirement estimated for the feasibility study; confirming design and performance of the distributor/stirrer to be satisfactory for Illinois Basin type coal; confirming that moderately swelling and strongly caking Illinois Basin coals can be gasified in a Mark IV gasifier fitted with a distributor/stirrer when using a non-caking coal for start-up; determining coal handling and preparation should provide a proper size and minimize fines generation and reject rock material to provide a constant specific gravity coal to gasifier. Confirming that dusty tar injection is feasible up to certain limits and that all the tar injected is gasified; determining that no oil is produced directly from the gasifier; determining that no shift unit is required to adjust the hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide ratio to that required for the input to the Fischer-Tropsch Synthol Units; determining a required increase in frequency of monitoring and quality control measures; and determining that direct use of stripped gas liquor for plant cooling purposes is not practical nor economical due to the excessively high chloride levels.

  16. Goal orientation, perceived task outcome and task demands in mathematics tasks: effects on students' attitude in actual task settings.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Gerard; van Putten, Cornelis M; de Brabander, Cornelis J

    2002-09-01

    In earlier studies, it has been found that students' domain-specific cognitions and personal learning goals (goal orientation) influence task-specific appraisals of actual learning tasks. The relations between domain-specific and task-specific variables have been specified in the model of adaptive learning. In this study, additional influences, i.e., perceived task outcome on a former occasion and variations in task demands, were investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify personality and situational variables that mediate students' attitude when confronted with a mathematics task. Students worked on a mathematics task in two subsequent sessions. Effects of perceived task outcome at the first session on students' attitude at the second session were investigated. In addition, we investigated how differences in task demands influenced students' attitude. Variations in task demands were provoked by different conditions in task-instruction. In one condition, students were told that the result on the test would add to their mark on mathematics. This outcome orienting condition was contrasted with a task-orienting condition where students were told that the results on the test would not be used to give individual grades. Participants were sixth grade students (N = 345; aged 11-12 years) from 14 primary schools. Multivariate and univariate analyses of (co)variance were applied to the data. Independent variables were goal orientation, task demands, and perceived task outcome, with task-specific variables (estimated competence for the task, task attraction, task relevance, and willingness to invest effort) as the dependent variables. The results showed that previous perceived task outcome had a substantial impact on students' attitude. Additional but smaller effects were found for variation in task demands. Furthermore, effects of previous perceived task outcome and task demands were related to goal orientation. The resulting pattern confirmed that, in general

  17. Task-Based Learning: The Interaction between Tasks and Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between tasks and learners in task-based learning. Findings suggest that manipulation of task characteristics and conditions may not achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes, and that new ways are needed to focus learners' attention of form without sacrificing the meaning-driven principles of task-based learning.…

  18. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  19. Realistic Sensor Tasking Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, C.; Fiedler, H.; Herzog, J.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sensor tasking is a crucial step in building up and maintaining a catalog of space objects at the highest possible orbit quality. Sensor resources are limited; sensor location and setup (hardware and processing software) influence the quality of observations for initial orbit determination or orbit improvement that can be obtained. Furthermore, improved sensing capabilities are expected to lead to an increase of objects that are sought to be maintained in a catalog, easily reaching over 100'000 objects. Sensor tasking methods hence need to be computationally efficient in order to be successfully applied to operational systems, and need to take realistic constraints, such as limited visibility of objects, time-varying probability of detection and the specific capabilities in software and hardware for the specific sensors into account. This paper shows a method to formulate sensor tasking as an optimization problem and introduces a new method to provide fast and computationally efficient real time, near optimal sensor tasking solutions. Simulations are preformed using the USSTRATCOM TLE catalog of all geosynchronous objects. The results are compared to state of the art observation strategies.

  20. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  1. Chizu Task Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Chizu is a tool for Mapping MPI processes or tasks to physical processors or nodes for optimizing communication performance. It takes the communication graph of a High Performance Computing (HPC) application and the interconnection topology of a supercomputer as input. It outputs a new MPI rand to processor mapping, which can be used when launching the HPC application.

  2. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  3. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  4. BIA Reorganization Task Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on three hearings held this spring by the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization Task Force, this article presents highlights from the testimony of Forrest Gerard, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs and discusses the matrix system of organization currently under consideration by the BIA. (JC)

  5. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  6. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  7. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  8. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  9. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  10. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  11. Can tasks be inherently boring?

    PubMed

    Charney, Evan

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban et al. argue that the experiences of "effort," "boredom," and "fatigue" are indications that the costs of a task outweigh its benefits. Reducing the costs of tasks to "opportunity costs" has the effect of rendering tasks costless and of denying that they can be inherently boring or tedious, something that "vigilance tasks" were intentionally designed to be.

  12. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in Elementary Cognitive Tasks Reflect Task Difficulty and Task Threshold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caryl, P. G.; Harper, Alison

    1996-01-01

    Effects on the event-related potential (ERP) waveform of differences in stimuli (task difficulty) and threshold were studied with 35 undergraduates performing a visual inspection time task and 30 performing a pitch discrimination task. In both tasks, ERP differences related to threshold were temporally localized differences in waveform shape. (SLD)

  13. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit.

    PubMed

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-05-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  14. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  15. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  16. Management Agenda Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Report FY04-4 • Recommendations related to business management priorities for the Secretary of Defense February...Business Board (DBB) formed this Task Group to assess and make recommendations to the Department of Defense on management priorities for the next four...This list should be drawn from the four primary areas of DBB focus over the past three years: human resources, financial management, acquisition

  17. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  18. The task force process

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-31

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several {open_quotes}big picture{close_quotes} issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald.

  19. Generic cognitive adaptations to task interference in task switching.

    PubMed

    Poljac, Edita; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing only the first trials of each run. Response times (RTs) and error rates were measured for task switching and task repetition conditions. Task interference was varied as a function of response-cue interval (RCI of 300 and 900ms), that is, the interval between the task runs. Keeping the response-stimulus interval within the task runs constant at 300ms allowed the disentangling of the direct effects of RCI manipulation on performance (first trials) from the general effects on performance (both trials in the run). The data showed similar performance improvement due to RCI increase on both trials in the task run. Furthermore, increasing RCI improved both switch and repetition performance to a similar extent. Together, our findings provide further evidence for accounts stressing generic effects of proactive task interference in task switching.

  20. Investigation on the improvement and transfer of dual-task coordination skills.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter A; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubert, Torsten

    2012-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that dual-task performance in situations with two simultaneously presented tasks can be substantially improved with extensive practice. This improvement was related to the acquisition of task coordination skills. Earlier studies provided evidence that these skills result from hybrid practice, including dual and single tasks, but not from single-task practice. It is an open question, however, whether task coordination skills are independent from the specific practice situation and are transferable to new situations or whether they are non-transferable and task-specific. The present study, therefore, tested skill transfer in (1) a dual-task situation with identical tasks in practice and transfer, (2) a dual-task situation with two tasks changed from practice to transfer, and (3) a task switching situation with two sequentially presented tasks. Our findings are largely consistent with the assumption that task coordination skills are non-transferable and task-specific. We cannot, however, definitively reject the assumption of transferable skills when measuring error rates in the dual-task situation with two changed tasks after practice. In the task switching situation, single-task and hybrid practice both led to a transfer effect on mixing costs.

  1. Technical Letter Report - Analysis of Ultrasonic Data on Piping Cracks at Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Before and After Applying a Mechanical Stress Improvement Process, JCN-N6319, Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.

    2008-02-26

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in piping systems previously analyzed for leak-before-break (LBB). Part of this work involves determining whether inspections alone are sufficient or if inspections plus mitigation techniques are needed. The work described in this report addresses the reliability of ultrasonic phased-array (PA) examinations for inspection of cracks that have been subjected to the mitigation method of mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). It is believed that stresses imparted during MSIP may make ultrasonic crack responses in piping welds more difficult to detect and accurately characterize. To explore this issue, data were acquired, both before and after applying MSIP, and analyzed from cracked areas in piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. This work was performed under NRC Project JCN-N6319, PWSCC in Leak-Before-Break Systems.

  2. Addressing case specific biogas plant tasks: industry oriented methane yields derived from 5L Automatic Methane Potential Test Systems in batch or semi-continuous tests using realistic inocula, substrate particle sizes and organic loading.

    PubMed

    Kolbl, Sabina; Paloczi, Attila; Panjan, Jože; Stres, Blaž

    2014-02-01

    The primary aim of the study was to develop and validate an in-house upscale of Automatic Methane Potential Test System II for studying real-time inocula and real-scale substrates in batch, codigestion and enzyme enhanced hydrolysis experiments, in addition to semi-continuous operation of the developed equipment and experiments testing inoculum functional quality. The successful upscale to 5L enabled comparison of different process configurations in shorter preparation times with acceptable accuracy and high-through put intended for industrial decision making. The adoption of the same scales, equipment and methodologies in batch and semi-continuous tests mirroring those at full scale biogas plants resulted in matching methane yields between the two laboratory tests and full-scale, confirming thus the increased decision making value of the approach for industrial operations.

  3. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  4. The In-Plant Printer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Frank A.

    This text is an attempt to cover all areas in preparing deaf students to function in an in-plant printing office. Specific practice tasks are provided in all areas. The titles of the eight units are Introduction to In-Plant Printing and Cold Composition (four lessons), Paper (five lessons), Cold Composition Devices and Machines (fourteen lessons),…

  5. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  6. Pre-Task Syntactic Priming and Focused Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Focused tasks engage learners in using language for communication and in addition have a specific predetermined linguistic focus in mind. The difficulty in designing focused tasks is that many meanings can be articulated using more than one language form, making it difficult to design tasks which induce learner use of a specific target form. This…

  7. Learner Mining of Pre-Task and Task Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy Scott

    2008-01-01

    The findings reported in this article suggest that learners inevitably "mine" wordings contained in pre-task and task materials when performing tasks, even when the teacher did not explicitly draw learner attention to these features. However, this was found to be true only with written materials, and learners did not appear to mine specific…

  8. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  9. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  10. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  11. Silicon material task review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Silicon Material Task are to evaluate technologies, new and old; to develop the most promising technologies; to establish practicality of the processes to meet production, energy use, and economic criteria; and to develop an information base on impurities in polysilicon and to determine their effects on solar cell performance. The approach involves determining process feasibility, setting milestones for the forced selection of the processes, and establishing the technical readiness of the integrated process.

  12. Task-Level Robot Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Number) We are investigating how to program robots so that they learn from experience. Our goal is to develop principled methods of learning that can...juggling. We have developed one method of learning, task-level learning, that successfully improves a robot’s performance of both a ball-throwing and a...dramatically improves. Task-level learning is a general method of improving a robot’s performance of complex dynamic tasks. Task-level learning serves

  13. Optimization of Nonlinear Transport-Production Task of Medical Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlowicz, Edward

    2012-09-01

    The paper reflects on optimization of transportation - production tasks for the processing of medical waste. For the existing network of collection points and processing plants, according to its algorithm, the optimal allocation of tasks to the cost of transport to the respective plants has to be determined. It was assumed that the functions determining the processing costs are polynomials of the second degree. To solve the problem, a program written in MatLab environment equalization algorithm based on a marginal cost JCC was used.

  14. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  15. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  16. Reverse-Engineering Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamber, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to planning sequences of communication tasks that require learners to become personally involved in their learning. By drawing on their own ideas and experiences, as a product of earlier tasks in a given sequence, learners generate the content and resource material on which subsequent tasks operate. The article…

  17. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  18. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  19. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  20. Task-Based Information Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the relationship between task performance and information searching by end-users, focusing on information searching in electronic environments and information retrieval systems. Topics include task analysis; task characteristics; search goals; modeling information searching; modeling search goals; information seeking behavior;…

  1. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  2. A review of the silicon material task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Silicon Material Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project was assigned the objective of developing the technology for low-cost processes for producing polysilicon suitable for terrestrial solar-cell applications. The Task program comprised sections for process developments for semiconductor-grade and solar-cell-grade products. To provide information for deciding upon process designs, extensive investigations of the effects of impurities on material properties and the performance of cells were conducted. The silane process of the Union Carbide Corporation was carried through several stages of technical and engineering development; a pilot plant was the culmination of this effort. The work to establish silane fluidized-bed technology for a low-cost process is continuing. The advantages of the use of dichlorosilane is a siemens-type were shown by Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation. The development of other processes is described.

  3. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  4. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  5. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  6. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  7. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  8. Task Prioritization in Dual-Tasking: Instructions versus Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Reinier J.; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib

    2016-01-01

    The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants’ retrospective accounts on preferences. These preferences were reformulated as priority instructions in Experiments 2 and 3. The results showed that people differ in their preferences regarding task prioritization in an experimental setting, which can be overruled by priority instructions, but only after increased dual-task exposure. Additional measures of mental effort showed that performance tradeoffs had an impact on mental effort. The interpretation of these findings was used to explore an extension of Threaded Cognition Theory with Hockey’s Compensatory Control Model. PMID:27391779

  9. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, R.; Imbriale, W.; Liewer, P.; Lyons, J.; Manshadi, F.; Patterson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Hypercube Matrix Computation (Year 1986-1987) task investigated the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Two existing electromagnetic scattering codes were selected for conversion to the Mark III Hypercube concurrent computing environment. They were selected so that the underlying numerical algorithms utilized would be different thereby providing a more thorough evaluation of the appropriateness of the parallel environment for these types of problems. The first code was a frequency domain method of moments solution, NEC-2, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second code was a time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations to solve for the scattered fields. Once the codes were implemented on the hypercube and verified to obtain correct solutions by comparing the results with those from sequential runs, several measures were used to evaluate the performance of the two codes. First, a comparison was provided of the problem size possible on the hypercube with 128 megabytes of memory for a 32-node configuration with that available in a typical sequential user environment of 4 to 8 megabytes. Then, the performance of the codes was anlyzed for the computational speedup attained by the parallel architecture.

  10. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).

  11. Scheduling Tasks In Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Camille C.; Salama, Moktar A.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms sought to minimize time and cost of computation. Report describes research on scheduling of computations tasks in system of multiple identical data processors operating in parallel. Computational intractability requires use of suboptimal heuristic algorithms. First algorithm called "list heuristic", variation of classical list scheduling. Second algorithm called "cluster heuristic" applied to tightly coupled tasks and consists of four phases. Third algorithm called "exchange heuristic", iterative-improvement algorithm beginning with initial feasible assignment of tasks to processors and periods of time. Fourth algorithm is iterative one for optimal assignment of tasks and based on concept called "simulated annealing" because of mathematical resemblance to aspects of physical annealing processes.

  12. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  13. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  14. Escape Behavior in Task Situations: Task versus Social Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jill C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four students (ages 4-6) with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to high intensity and low intensity social interaction in a play situation and a task situation. Interaction intensity made no difference in students' behavior. Two students exhibited task avoidance and two exhibited…

  15. Independent vs. Integrated Writing Tasks: A Comparison of Task Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2010-01-01

    As the field of second language writing embraces the authenticity and meaningfulness of connecting writing with other skills, language teachers and testers require greater understanding of how writers respond to as well as compose for integrated tasks. Research on integrated tasks is critical in highlighting how integration impacts students and…

  16. Escape behavior in task situations: task versus social antecedents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Ekdahl, M M; Romanczyk, R G; Miller, M L

    1994-06-01

    We designed an investigation to differentiate two types of challenging behaviors occurring in teaching situations: those evoked by task stimuli (i.e., task avoidance), and those evoked by social stimuli present in teaching situations (i.e., social avoidance). Four students with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to social interaction in a play situation and task demands in a teaching situation. Results indicated that the students exhibited two distinct behavior patterns. Two of the students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with task avoidance and the other two students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with social avoidance. Implications concerning task versus social avoidance and the need for more fine-grained analyses of the stimuli associated with escape behavior are discussed.

  17. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  18. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  19. Selective role for DNMT3a in learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J; Adachi, Megumi; Na, Elisa S; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine nucleotides is governed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that establish de novo DNA methylation patterns in early embryonic development (e.g., DNMT3a and DNMT3b) or maintain those patterns on hemimethylated DNA in dividing cells (e.g., DNMT1). DNMTs continue to be expressed at high levels in mature neurons, however their impact on neuronal function and behavior are unclear. To address this issue we examined DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression following associative learning. We also generated forebrain specific conditional Dnmt1 or Dnmt3a knockout mice and characterized them in learning and memory paradigms as well as for alterations in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that experience in an associative learning task impacts expression of Dnmt3a, but not Dnmt1, in brain areas that mediate learning of this task. We also found that Dnmt3a knockout mice, and not Dnmt1 knockouts have synaptic alterations as well as learning deficits on several associative and episodic memory tasks. These findings indicate that the de novo DNA methylating enzyme DNMT3a in postmitotic neurons is necessary for normal memory formation and its function cannot be substituted by the maintenance DNA methylating enzyme DNMT1. PMID:24937014

  20. Putting Mathematical Tasks into Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney R.; Styers, Jodie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although many factors affect students' mathematical activity during a lesson, the teacher's selection and implementation of tasks is arguably the most influential in determining the level of student engagement. Mathematical tasks are intended to focus students' attention on a particular mathematical concept and it is the careful developing and…

  1. Students' Engagement in Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers insight into what makes literacy tasks engaging or disengaging based on observations of and interviews with students. In a yearlong study of a sixth-grade classroom in a Title I school, students engaged in integrated literacy-social studies instruction. Researchers studied the degree of task openness and the degree to which…

  2. TASK: Anarchy in the Artroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Cynthia; Van Patten, Kelda

    2012-01-01

    Most teenagers do not really like to be told what to do. For that matter, most adults don't either. This article discusses contemporary artist Oliver Herring's TASK, which is an opportunity for participants to bend or define the rules on their own terms. It is about choice, and, for many, it is a dream come true. TASK is controlled chaos that can…

  3. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  4. Procedural Error and Task Interruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-30

    performance, and pilot data suggest that the task can distinguish between cognitive processes that are impaired by sleep deprivation and those that are...TERMS procedural error, task interruption, individual differences, fluid intelligence, sleep deprivation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...0247 Background Accomplishments Validation studies Modeling Other publications Table of Contents Pilot study: Effects of sleep deprivation

  5. Typist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the typist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in developing the…

  6. Drafting Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in drafting. The tasks required to perform the duties of seven types of drafters (i.e., general, architectural, electronic, civil, structural, mechanical, and process pipe drafters) and technical illustrators are outlined. The following are among the duties…

  7. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  8. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  9. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  10. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  11. Analysing and Training Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, J.; Gregov, A.; Halliday, P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes two exploratory studies of undergraduate and postgraduate students concerning the difficulties of learning to perform HTA (hierarchical task analysis) and how those difficulties might be overcome through proper training. Errors occurred with respect to all HTA criteria, suggesting that carrying out HTR itself is a complex cognitive task.…

  12. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  13. Science 102: This Month's Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  14. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  15. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  16. Printing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 10 occupations in the printing series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  17. Task Group for Orthodontics Report.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, K W; Brown, D V; Edler, R J; Kirschen, R H; Macadam, T S; Stephens, C D

    1998-08-01

    The UK Specialist Review Group of the General Dental Council's Education Committee has been charged with taking forward the recommendations in the Chief Dental Officer's report 'UK Specialist Dental Training'. The Specialist Review Group has, in turn, established a number of specialty task groups. This report is from the Task Group for Orthodontics. It was submitted in May 1996.

  18. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  19. Receptionist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of a series of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the receptionist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in…

  20. Science 102: This Month's Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  1. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  2. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  3. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  4. Service Excellence Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Univ. Libraries.

    A task force was appointed to measure user satisfaction with library services, establish a university libraries' service excellence philosophy and policy, bring the service excellence concept to the attention of every library employee, and recommend approaches for recognizing outstanding staff service. The members of the task force--two library…

  5. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  6. Task Attention Facilitates Learning of Task-Irrelevant Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Watanabe, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Attention plays a fundamental role in visual learning and memory. One highly established principle of visual attention is that the harder a central task is, the more attentional resources are used to perform the task and the smaller amount of attention is allocated to peripheral processing because of limited attention capacity. Here we show that this principle holds true in a dual-task setting but not in a paradigm of task-irrelevant perceptual learning. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim number targets at the screen center and to remember concurrently presented scene backgrounds. Their recognition performances for scenes paired with dim/hard targets were worse than those for scenes paired with bright/easy targets. In Experiment 2, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim letter targets at the screen center while a task-irrelevant coherent motion was concurrently presented in the background. After five days of training on letter identification, participants improved their motion sensitivity to the direction paired with hard/dim targets improved but not to the direction paired with easy/bright targets. Taken together, these results suggest that task-irrelevant stimuli are not subject to the attentional control mechanisms that task-relevant stimuli abide. PMID:22563424

  7. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  8. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  9. Commitment strategies in hierarchical task network planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuneto, R.; Hendler, J.; Nau, D.; Erol, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper compares three commitment strategies for HTN planning: (1) a strategy that delays variable bindings as much as possible; (2) a strategy in which no non-primitive task is expanded until all variable constraints are committed; and (3) a strategy that chooses between expansion and variable instantiation based on the number of branches that will be created in the search tree. Our results show that while there exist planning domains in which the first two strategies do well, the third does well over a broader range of planning domains.

  10. [Poisonous plants].

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Mustonen, Harriet; Pohjalainen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Approximately ten species of dangerously poisonous plants are found in Finland. Severe plant poisonings are very rare. Edible plants eaten raw or wrongly processed may cause severe symptoms. As first aid, activated charcoal should be given to the person who has eaten a plant causing a risk of significant poisoning. In case of exposure to topically irritating plant fluids, the exposed person's eyes must be irrigated and mouth or skin washed with copious amounts of water. In combination with solar UV radiation, light-sensitizing plants cause local burns. The diagnosis of plant poisoning is usually based on incidental information; the plant should be identified in order to make the correct treatment decisions.

  11. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  12. Task Dependent Differences and Individual Differences in Dual Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    conversation with the flight instructor, with the skilled pilot who can easily excercise flight control, and converse in par- allel. A difference...The subjects tested were 35 twelve-year olds , who performed tasks singly first then two dual task pairs and then each singly again. McQueen’s results...conducted by Sverko (1977) on adults in an effort to find evidence for a general factor of time-sharing skill. This study was conducted in order to

  13. Graph Theory of Tower Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Andreas M.

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate mathematical model for the problem space of tower transformation tasks is the state graph representing positions of discs or balls and their moves. Graph theoretical quantities like distance, eccentricities or degrees of vertices and symmetries of graphs support the choice of problems, the selection of tasks and the analysis of performance of subjects whose solution paths can be projected onto the graph. The mathematical model is also at the base of a computerized test tool to administer various types of tower tasks. PMID:22207419

  14. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  15. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  16. Automated hydrotreating pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, S.J.; Graham, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    One of the major tasks facing catalyst supplies involved in hydrotreating/hydrogenation catalyst development work is proper catalyst evaluation. There are dozens of hydrotreating catalysts available to refiners, and selecting the optimum catalyst for a particular application is a challenging task. For fixed bed applications, the choice is especially difficult because, in addition to activity and selectivity, both catalyst life and pressure drop buildup are important considerations. Unfortunately, data on these latter effects are seldom available for new catalyst formulations. While pilot-plant data have been proven to be reliable indicators of the ultimate catalyst life achieved commercially, long-term catalyst aging data are expensive to gather, and proper pilot-plant design is mandatory to duplicate commercial results. Because the proper catalyst choice can earn millions of dollars per year for refiners in terms of enhanced downstream product values, it is justified to install top-quality pilot-plant facilities to demonstrate these benefits. This article describes an automated, minimum-attention set of five state-of-the-art hydrotreating pilot plants that are being completed for the Filtrol Catalyst Division of the Harshaw/Filtrol Partnership.

  17. Resolving Task Rule Incongruence during Task Switching by Competitor Rule Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an…

  18. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  19. Plants Consumption and Liver Health.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function.

  20. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    PubMed Central

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  1. Quantum tasks in Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    The fundamental properties of quantum information and its applications to computing and cryptography have been greatly illuminated by considering information-theoretic tasks that are provably possible or impossible within non-relativistic quantum mechanics. I describe here a general framework for defining tasks within (special) relativistic quantum theory and illustrate it with examples from relativistic quantum cryptography and relativistic distributed quantum computation. The framework gives a unified description of all tasks previously considered and also defines a large class of new questions about the properties of quantum information in relation to Minkowski causality. It offers a way of exploring interesting new fundamental tasks and applications, and also highlights the scope for a more systematic understanding of the fundamental information-theoretic properties of relativistic quantum theory.

  2. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  3. Effects of a no-go Task 2 on Task 1 performance in dual - tasking: From benefits to costs.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    When two tasks are combined in a dual-task experiment, characteristics of Task 2 can influence Task 1 performance, a phenomenon termed the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). Besides instances depending on the (spatial) compatibility of both responses, a particularly interesting example was introduced by Miller (2006): If Task 2 was a no-go task (i.e., one not requiring any action at all), responses were slowed in Task 1. Subsequent work, however, also reported the opposite result-that is, faster Task 1 responses in cases of no-go Task 2 trials. We report three experiments aiming to more precisely identify the conditions under which a no-go Task 2 facilitates or impedes Task 1 performance. The results suggest that an adverse no-go BCE is only observed when the Task 2 response(s) are sufficiently prepared in advance, yielding strong inhibitory control demands for Task 2 that eventually hamper Task 1 processing as well (i.e., inhibitory costs). If this is not the case, encountering a no-go Task 2 trial facilitates Task 1 performance, suggesting that the underlying task representation is reduced to a single - task. These results are discussed in the context of other recent work on BCEs and of recently suggested accounts of the no-go BCE.

  4. DOE enrichment plant hums ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    The Department of Energy's $10-billion gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant, after three years of construction, is rising on schedule near Piketon, Ohio. A detailed conceptual design, smart management, liberal design fees, hungry contractors and cooperative unions are combining to get the job done. One reason for completing the task is that this will be a far more efficient process - 135 MW will be required to operate the centrifuge plant vs more than 2100 MW to produce the same amount of fuel at the mile-square diffusion plant near Portsmouth, Ohio. (DP)

  5. PLANT NAMES – SANSKRIT AND LATIN

    PubMed Central

    Sensarma, P.

    1992-01-01

    Ascertaining the botanical identities of many of the plants described in Sanskrit literature is a difficult task. However, the problem can be solved by basing the studies on an authentic and ancient Sanskrit work. Thus the Garuda Purana was studied and the botanical identities of the numerous plants listed in chapter 202 of the Purvabhaga were ascertained. PMID:22556589

  6. Flexible automation of cell culture and tissue engineering tasks.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Alois; Scherer, Torsten; Poggendorf, Iris; Lütkemeyer, Dirk; Lehmann, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Until now, the predominant use cases of industrial robots have been routine handling tasks in the automotive industry. In biotechnology and tissue engineering, in contrast, only very few tasks have been automated with robots. New developments in robot platform and robot sensor technology, however, make it possible to automate plants that largely depend on human interaction with the production process, e.g., for material and cell culture fluid handling, transportation, operation of equipment, and maintenance. In this paper we present a robot system that lends itself to automating routine tasks in biotechnology but also has the potential to automate other production facilities that are similar in process structure. After motivating the design goals, we describe the system and its operation, illustrate sample runs, and give an assessment of the advantages. We conclude this paper by giving an outlook on possible further developments.

  7. 29 CFR 541.707 - Occasional tasks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.707 Occasional tasks. Occasional, infrequently recurring tasks...

  8. Parametric analysis of closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, W.; Berg, R.; Murthy, R.; Patten, J.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric analysis of closed cycle MHD power plants was performed which studied the technical feasibility, associated capital cost, and cost of electricity for the direct combustion of coal or coal derived fuel. Three reference plants, differing primarily in the method of coal conversion utilized, were defined. Reference Plant 1 used direct coal fired combustion while Reference Plants 2 and 3 employed on site integrated gasifiers. Reference Plant 2 used a pressurized gasifier while Reference Plant 3 used a ""state of the art' atmospheric gasifier. Thirty plant configurations were considered by using parametric variations from the Reference Plants. Parametric variations include the type of coal (Montana Rosebud or Illinois No. 6), clean up systems (hot or cold gas clean up), on or two stage atmospheric or pressurized direct fired coal combustors, and six different gasifier systems. Plant sizes ranged from 100 to 1000 MWe. Overall plant performance was calculated using two methodologies. In one task, the channel performance was assumed and the MHD topping cycle efficiencies were based on the assumed values. A second task involved rigorous calculations of channel performance (enthalpy extraction, isentropic efficiency and generator output) that verified the original (task one) assumptions. Closed cycle MHD capital costs were estimated for the task one plants; task two cost estimates were made for the channel and magnet only.

  9. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies. Graphical Programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia most advanced Graphical Programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Sancho, developed to rapidly apply Graphical Programming on a diverse set of robot systems, uses a general set of tools to implement task and operational behavior. Sancho can be rapidly reconfigured for new tasks and operations without modifying the supervisory code. Other innovations include task-based interfaces, event-based sequencing, and sophisticated GUI design. These innovations have resulted in robot control programs and approaches that are easier and safer to use than teleoperation, off-line programming, or full automation.

  10. Development and experimentation of an eye/brain/task testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Nora; Villarreal, James

    1987-01-01

    The principal objective is to develop a laboratory testbed that will provide a unique capability to elicit, control, record, and analyze the relationship of operator task loading, operator eye movement, and operator brain wave data in a computer system environment. The ramifications of an integrated eye/brain monitor to the man machine interface are staggering. The success of such a system would benefit users of space and defense, paraplegics, and the monitoring of boring screens (nuclear power plants, air defense, etc.)

  11. Compare harvest systems. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.F.; Hietala, J.S.

    1997-10-30

    Our primary objectives for this task were to determine field performance and harvest losses for several types of cutting and baling equipment and to compare these values with those found in the literature. Originally, we had planned to study use of preservatives and their effect on harvest and storage losses, but since the MNVAP processing plant is not currently buying hay treated with preservatives, we did minimal work with preservatives during this phase of the project.

  12. IEA Wind Task 36 Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut; Shaw, Will; Pinson, Pierre; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Kariniotakis, Georges; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Wind Power Forecasting tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, UK MetOffice, …) and operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets for verification. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts aiming at industry and forecasters alike. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions, especially probabilistic ones. The Operating Agent is Gregor Giebel of DTU, Co-Operating Agent is Joel Cline of the US Department of Energy. Collaboration in the task is solicited from everyone interested in the forecasting business. We will collaborate with IEA Task 31 Wakebench, which developed the Windbench benchmarking platform, which this task will use for forecasting benchmarks. The task runs for three years, 2016-2018. Main deliverables are an up-to-date list of current projects and main project results, including datasets which can be used by researchers around the world to improve their own models, an IEA Recommended Practice on performance evaluation of probabilistic forecasts, a position paper regarding the use of probabilistic forecasts

  13. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  14. B Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-23

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  15. T Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-27

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  16. Subjective Estimation of Task Time and Task Difficulty of Simple Movement Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that the same neural structures are used for both imagined and real movements. To provide a strong test of the similarity of imagined and actual movement times, 4 simple movement tasks were used to determine the relationship between estimated task time and actual movement time. The tasks were single-component visually controlled movements, 2-component visually controlled, low index of difficulty (ID) moves and pin-to-hole transfer movements. For each task there was good correspondence between the mean estimated times and actual movement times. In all cases, the same factors determined the actual and estimated movement times: the amplitudes of movement and the IDs of the component movements, however the contribution of each of these variables differed for the imagined and real tasks. Generally, the standard deviations of the estimated times were linearly related to the estimated time values. Overall, the data provide strong evidence for the same neural structures being used for both imagined and actual movements.

  17. The Dissipating Task-Repetition Benefit in Cued Task Switching: Task-Set Decay or Temporal Distinctiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horoufchin, Himeh; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2011-01-01

    Decay of task-set activation, as commonly assumed in models of task switching, has been thought to be indexed by manipulating the response-to-cue interval (RCI) in a task-cuing paradigm. We propose an alternative account for RCI effects suggesting that episodic task retrieval is modulated by temporal distinctiveness, which we define as the ratio…

  18. Task analysis for the single-shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes a task analysis for the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System. A task analysis is a formal method of examining work that must be done by the operators of human-machine systems. The starting point for a task analysis is the mission that a human-machine system must perform, and the ending point is a list of requirements for human actions and the displays and controls that must be provided to support them. The task analysis approach started with a top-down definition of the steps in a tank retrieval campaign. It started by dividing a waste retrieval campaign for one single-shell tank into the largest logical components (mission phases), then subdivided these into secondary components (sub functions), and then further subdivided the secondary components into tertiary units (tasks). Finally, the tertiary units were divided into potentially observable operator behaviors (task elements). In the next stage of the task analysis, the task elements were evaluated by completing an electronic task analysis form patterned after one developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for task analysis of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the final stage, the task analysis data base was used in a bottom-up approach to develop clusters of controls and displays called panel groups and to prioritize these groups for each subfunction. Panel groups are clusters of functionally related controls and displays. Actual control panels will be designed from panel groups, and panel groups will be organized within workstations to promote efficient operations during retrieval campaigns.

  19. Nature plants.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We welcome our new sister journal Nature Plants and the increased commitment to the plant science community that it represents. This is an opportunity for Nature Genetics to emphasize the use of genetic and genomic tools and resources in discovering new plant biology and solving major agricultural challenges.

  20. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  1. Hardwood planting

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood planting used to be most common on private land. Now more and more hardwoods are being planted on public land. Not much hardwood planting research is going on but recent summaries of earlier trials allow us to give you the following guidelines.

  2. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  3. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  4. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  5. Fighting Terrorism: An Enduring Task,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news service, was first published in 17. Messaggero. Subsequently it appeared in several European newspapers...ENDURING TASK Brian Michael Jenkins The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California February 1981 The following interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news

  6. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

  7. Task-Based Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of task-based writing instruction, a communicative language-teaching method, on second language acquisition and differentiation of instruction for English language learners during the independent work time instructional component of the Open Court Reading program. Through student-teacher…

  8. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  9. American Indian Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, John E., Ed.

    Assuming that the client is central to any service program, the American Indian Task Force examined a national sample of "grass roots" social service organizations and/or individuals and schools of social work to determine the capability of providing relevant social work education to American Indians. Accordingly, the highest priorities…

  10. Incidental Learning and Task Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Michael; Wagschal, Tana T.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    For skill learning processes to be effective, they must encode associations that are inherent to the current task and avoid those that are spurious or particular to training conditions so that learning can transfer to novel situations. Some everyday contexts even require grouped responding to simultaneously presented stimuli. Here we test whether…

  11. Incidental Learning and Task Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Michael; Wagschal, Tana T.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    For skill learning processes to be effective, they must encode associations that are inherent to the current task and avoid those that are spurious or particular to training conditions so that learning can transfer to novel situations. Some everyday contexts even require grouped responding to simultaneously presented stimuli. Here we test whether…

  12. Physiological assessment of task underload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.

  13. Inhibition in Prolonged Work Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ven, A. H. G. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A new model is presented that explains reaction time fluctuations in prolonged work tasks. The model extends the so-called Poisson-Erlang model and accounts for long-term trend effects in the reaction time curve. The model is consistent with Spearman's hypothesis that inhibition increases during work and decreases during rest. (TJH)

  14. Task-driven dictionary learning.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Julien; Bach, Francis; Ponce, Jean

    2012-04-01

    Modeling data with linear combinations of a few elements from a learned dictionary has been the focus of much recent research in machine learning, neuroscience, and signal processing. For signals such as natural images that admit such sparse representations, it is now well established that these models are well suited to restoration tasks. In this context, learning the dictionary amounts to solving a large-scale matrix factorization problem, which can be done efficiently with classical optimization tools. The same approach has also been used for learning features from data for other purposes, e.g., image classification, but tuning the dictionary in a supervised way for these tasks has proven to be more difficult. In this paper, we present a general formulation for supervised dictionary learning adapted to a wide variety of tasks, and present an efficient algorithm for solving the corresponding optimization problem. Experiments on handwritten digit classification, digital art identification, nonlinear inverse image problems, and compressed sensing demonstrate that our approach is effective in large-scale settings, and is well suited to supervised and semi-supervised classification, as well as regression tasks for data that admit sparse representations.

  15. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  16. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  17. Conducting the Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for project directors, coordinators, and other professional staff involved in developing and delivering workplace education programs, explains the process of conducting a job task analysis to create customized curricula to meet the workplace education students' needs. After a brief discussion of the rationale for…

  18. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  19. 29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. Autoluminescent Plants

    PubMed Central

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Meyers, Benjamin; Vainstein, Alexander; Maliga, Pal; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye. PMID:21103397

  1. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  2. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  3. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  4. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  5. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  6. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  7. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  8. Tasks for Easily Modifiable Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swier, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of learner interaction in virtual worlds have tended to select basic tasks involving open-ended communication. There is evidence that such tasks are supportive of language acquisition, however it may also be beneficial to consider more complex tasks. Research in task-based learning has identified features such as non-linguistic…

  9. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  10. 78 FR 47010 - Proposed Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler... requesting public comment on the proposed model safety evaluation (SE) for plant- specific adoption of... ADAMS Accession Number ML13053A075. The proposed model SE for plant-specific adoption of TSTF-523...

  11. Evaluative Priming in the Pronunciation Task.

    PubMed

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Becker, Manuel; Spruyt, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    We replicated and extended a study by Spruyt and Hermans (2008) in which picture primes engendered an evaluative-priming effect on the pronunciation of target words. As preliminary steps, we assessed data reproducibility of the original study, conducted Pilot Study I to identify highly semantically related prime-target pairs, reanalyzed the original data excluding such pairs, conducted Pilot Study II to demonstrate that we can replicate traditional associative priming effects in the pronunciation task, and conducted Pilot Study III to generate relatively unrelated sets of prime pictures and target words. The main study comprised three between-participants conditions: (1) a close replication of the original study, (2) the same condition excluding highly related prime-target pairs, and (3) a condition based on the relatively unrelated sets of prime pictures and target words developed in Pilot Study III. There was little evidence for an evaluative priming effect independent of semantic relatedness.

  12. Plant nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Herth, Simone

    2011-11-01

    The anthropogenic release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment poses a potential hazard to human health and life. The interplay between NPs and biological processes is receiving increasing attention. Plants expose huge interfaces to the air and soil environment. Thus, NPs are adsorbed to the plant surfaces, taken up through nano- or micrometer-scale openings of plants and are translocated within the plant body. Persistent NPs associated with plants enter the human food chain. In this Opinion, we document the occurrence and character of NPs in the environment and evaluate the need for future research on toxicological effects. Plant nanotoxicology is introduced as a discipline that explores the effects and toxicity mechanisms of NPs in plants, including transport, surface interactions and material-specific responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Task Analysis and the Ability Requirements of Tasks: Collected Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    abilities required for jobs. Identification of ability require- ments is a first step in the process of assembling performance tests that are related...rtiteal contact cues outside the cockpit or flight instru- ci t ntnts pertaining to a particular work station; ment cues within the cockpit. A task...defined as individually distinct move- tors assigned to primary training. On the basis ments or mediating responses elicited by environ- of their

  14. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  15. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  16. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  17. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  18. Novel Peritonsillar Abscess Task Simulator.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven R; Chang, C W David

    2014-07-01

    The management of peritonsillar abscesses is a skill developed early in residency training. Although drainage is not technically complicated, the procedure is intimidating to the neophyte. Task simulators have become increasingly common to provide training opportunities in a controlled environment. The authors designed a peritonsillar abscess simulator using a latex moulage of the oral cavity and other common materials. Twelve medical professionals of various levels of experience were instructed to expose, anesthetize, aspirate, and drain the simulated abscess. After completion, a questionnaire was completed by each volunteer. Initial impressions were positive that the model adequately replicated the tasks requisite for abscess drainage and was suitable as an instructional device. The initial construct cost was approximately 10 dollars, with disposables costing roughly 25 cents. Further research is under way to formally assess the simulator for face, content, and construct validity. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  19. Serpentine Robots for Inspection Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Choset, Howie

    2003-09-11

    Serpentine robots are snake like devices that can use their internal degrees of freedom to thread through tightly packed volumes accessing locations that people or conventional machinery cannot. These devices are ideally suited for minimally invasive inspection tasks where the surrounding areas do not have to be disturbed. Applications for these devices are therefore inspection of underground tanks and other storage facilities for classification purposes. This work deals with the design, construction, and control of a serpentine robot. The challenges lie in developing a device that can lift itself in three dimensions, which is necessary for the inspection tasks. The other challenge in control deals with coordinating all of the internal degrees of freedom to exact purposeful motion.

  20. Plants disarm soil: engineering plants for the phytoremediation of explosives.

    PubMed

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2009-02-01

    Explosives are toxic, recalcitrant to degradation and contaminate large areas of land and ground water. Remediation of these synthetic compounds is difficult and an enormous logistical task. Phytoremediation is a technique that offers an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to current remediation techniques; however, this approach is hindered by the low inherent metabolic abilities of plants towards these xenobiotic compounds and the phytotoxicity of these compounds. As a result of recent advances in our knowledge of the biochemistry underlying endogenous plant detoxification systems and the use of genetic engineering to combine bacterial explosives-detoxifying genes with the phytoremediatory benefits of plants, this technology is now poised for testing in the field and in a wider range of plants, such as poplar and perennial grasses.

  1. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  2. Task Organizing for Urban Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    Force D was created under the ccaand of BG Jat A. Via Fleet, Aasistant Division Cawsanl-r of the 2nd Infantry Mivian. Task Force •• ncluded the original...a s to attack Uini# Ro•ack am" to r- c•toiter the high prund to the north. bear th t AdwW1a4 V11 - lages was Singling. It am a mal lla& of nfity bRI

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  4. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies through the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development (DOE OTD) Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP). Graphical programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. Graphical programming uses simulation such as TELEGRIP `on-line` to program and control robots. Characterized by its model-based control architecture, integrated simulation, `point-and-click` graphical user interfaces, task and path planning software, and network communications, Sandia`s Graphical Programming systems allow operators to focus on high-level robotic tasks rather than the low-level details. Use of scripted tasks, rather than customized programs minimizes the necessity of recompiling supervisory control systems and enhances flexibility. Rapid world-modelling technologies allow Graphical Programming to be used in dynamic and unpredictable environments including digging and pipe-cutting. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia`s most advanced graphical programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Graphical programming uses 3-D graphics models as intuitive operator interfaces to program and control complex robotic systems. The goal of the paper is to help the reader understand how Sandia implements graphical programming systems and which key features in Sancho have proven to be most effective.

  5. Electronic plants

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  6. Learner-Learner Interaction during Collaborative Pragmatic Tasks: The Role of Cognitive and Pragmatic Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YouJin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Previous task complexity studies have suggested that learners produce more negotiation of meaning opportunities during complex tasks than simple tasks (Robinson, 2011). The present study builds on the existing task complexity literature by examining the impact of task complexity and pragmatic situational demands on the number of learning…

  7. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  8. Learner-Learner Interaction during Collaborative Pragmatic Tasks: The Role of Cognitive and Pragmatic Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YouJin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Previous task complexity studies have suggested that learners produce more negotiation of meaning opportunities during complex tasks than simple tasks (Robinson, 2011). The present study builds on the existing task complexity literature by examining the impact of task complexity and pragmatic situational demands on the number of learning…

  9. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  10. Updating Sensory "versus" Task Representations during Task-Switching: Insights from Cognitive Brain Potentials in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perianez, Jose A.; Barcelo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Task-cueing studies suggest that the updating of sensory and task representations both contribute to behavioral task-switch costs [Forstmann, B. U., Brass, M., & Koch, I. (2007). "Methodological and empirical issues when dissociating cue-related from task-related processes in the explicit task-cuing procedure." "Psychological Research, 71"(4),…

  11. The Shielding Function of Task Sets and Its Relaxation during Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the presented experiments was to investigate the dynamic interplay of task shielding and its relaxation during task switching. Task shielding refers to the finding that single task sets in terms of 2-choice categorization rules help shielding against distraction from irrelevant stimulus attributes. During task switching, this shielding…

  12. Experimental measurements of motion cue effects on STOL approach tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Stapleford, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental program to investigate the effects of motion cues on STOL approach is presented. The simulator used was the Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Motion Simulator (S.01) at Ames Research Center of NASA which has ?2.7 m travel longitudinally and laterally and ?2.5 m travel vertically. Three major experiments, characterized as tracking tasks, were conducted under fixed and moving base conditions: (1) A simulated IFR approach of the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), (2) a simulated VFR task with the same aircraft, and (3) a single-axis task having only linear acceleration as the motion cue. Tracking performance was measured in terms of the variances of several motion variables, pilot vehicle describing functions, and pilot commentary.

  13. Persistence motives in irrational decisions to complete a boring task.

    PubMed

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Rise, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    We explored a novel task paradigm where participants from the online work marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk were given the choice to quit or continue an unfinished boring task for identical economic rewards. In Studies 1a and 1b, about half the participants chose to continue (corresponding to an average of 55 and 35 cents in foregone earnings). Participants' self-reported reasons for continuing involved various types of persistence motives, reflecting a desire to persist or complete per se. Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c ruled out the possibility that people continued because they enjoyed the task or believed there were additional rewards for continuing. Study 4 showed that the choice to quit/continue was associated with the manner in which the choice was presented (persistence test vs. decision-making test) and individual differences in dispositional persistence motives. The present data indicate that motivational forces independent of the focal reward may affect intertemporal decisions.

  14. Attention in a multi-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Heers, Susan T.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments used a low fidelity multi-task simulation to investigate the effects of cue specificity on task preparation and performance. Subjects performed a continuous compensatory tracking task and were periodically prompted to perform one of several concurrent secondary tasks. The results provide strong evidence that subjects enacted a strategy to actively divert resources towards secondary task preparation only when they had specific information about an upcoming task to be performed. However, this strategy was not as much affected by the type of task cued (Experiment 1) or its difficulty level (Experiment 2). Overall, subjects seemed aware of both the costs (degraded primary task tracking) and benefits (improved secondary task performance) of cue information. Implications of the present results for computational human performance/workload models are discussed.

  15. Attention in a multi-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Heers, Susan T.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments used a low fidelity multi-task simulation to investigate the effects of cue specificity on task preparation and performance. Subjects performed a continuous compensatory tracking task and were periodically prompted to perform one of several concurrent secondary tasks. The results provide strong evidence that subjects enacted a strategy to actively divert resources towards secondary task preparation only when they had specific information about an upcoming task to be performed. However, this strategy was not as much affected by the type of task cued (Experiment 1) or its difficulty level (Experiment 2). Overall, subjects seemed aware of both the costs (degraded primary task tracking) and benefits (improved secondary task performance) of cue information. Implications of the present results for computational human performance/workload models are discussed.

  16. The effects of stimulus modality and task integrality: Predicting dual-task performance and workload from single-task levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. G.; Shively, R. J.; Vidulich, M. A.; Miller, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of stimulus modality and task difficulty on workload and performance was investigated. The goal was to quantify the cost (in terms of response time and experienced workload) incurred when essentially serial task components shared common elements (e.g., the response to one initiated the other) which could be accomplished in parallel. The experimental tasks were based on the Fittsberg paradigm; the solution to a SternBERG-type memory task determines which of two identical FITTS targets are acquired. Previous research suggested that such functionally integrated dual tasks are performed with substantially less workload and faster response times than would be predicted by suming single-task components when both are presented in the same stimulus modality (visual). The physical integration of task elements was varied (although their functional relationship remained the same) to determine whether dual-task facilitation would persist if task components were presented in different sensory modalities. Again, it was found that the cost of performing the two-stage task was considerably less than the sum of component single-task levels when both were presented visually. Less facilitation was found when task elements were presented in different sensory modalities. These results suggest the importance of distinguishing between concurrent tasks that complete for limited resources from those that beneficially share common resources when selecting the stimulus modalities for information displays.

  17. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  18. Plant Minders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Indoor plants are automatically watered by the Aqua Trends watering system. System draws water from building outlets or from pump/reservoir module and distributes it to the plants via a network of tubes and adjustable nozzles. Key element of system is electronic controller programmed to dispense water according to the needs of various plants in an installation. Adjustable nozzle meters out exactly right amount of water at proper time to the plant it's serving. More than 100 Aqua/Trends systems are in service in the USA, from a simple residential system to a large Mirage III system integrated to water all greenery in a large office or apartment building.

  19. Contamination Assessment Report Chemical Sewers - North Plants and South Plants Version 3.2, Task 10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Phosphorous Detector GCNPD Gas Chromatography/Photoionization Detector CCPID High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC Inductive Coupled Argon Plasm...DAAKI1 84 0 0017 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND .DDRESSiES) j 8. PERFO.RMING ORGANIZATION E8ASCO SERVICES, INC. REPORT NUMBER 88286R08 9...Wells 25034 and 25036 to 48.5 ft in Well 25023 (not shown on plates) located approximately 1,700 ft west of Well 25021. A bedrock high covered by less

  20. Task analysis of Air Force pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, A; Sawyer, W T; Coats, L

    1995-01-15

    The frequency with which United States Air Force pharmacists perform specific professional tasks and the pharmacists' views as to the importance of those tasks were studied. A questionnaire was prepared that asked recipients to rate each of 36 tasks selected as representing the spectrum of practice activities. There were four categories of tasks: managerial tasks, dispensing tasks, drug information tasks, and patient care tasks. Recipients rated the tasks with respect to frequency of performance and importance on separate 6-point scales. The questionnaire was mailed in May 1991 to the 225 pharmacists then serving in the Air Force worldwide. Of the 225 questionnaires, 150 usable questionnaires were returned (response rate, 67%). All the tasks in the survey were performed by at least one Air Force pharmacy officer, although the frequency of task performance varied. In particular, the frequency of many patient care tasks was low. All the tasks were perceived to have some importance, but drug information tasks were rated as being significantly more important than tasks in the other categories; patient care tasks were rated lowest in importance. The results varied with the respondents' demographic characteristics. Pharmacy officers with more years of service, more senior positions, higher rank, or an advanced degree in a field other than pharmacy tended to give responses that diverged from those of the population. A 1991 survey showed an awareness among Air Force pharmacists of the need to orient practice around patient care; however, they were not spending substantial time on patient care and tended to view it as less important than more traditional pharmacy tasks.

  1. Computer control improves ethylene plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, B.D.; Parnis, M.

    1987-11-01

    ICIA Australia ordered a turnkey 250,000-tpy ethylene plant to be built at the Botany site, Sydney, Australia. Following a feasibility study, an additional order was placed for a process computer system for advanced process control and optimization. This article gives a broad outline of the process computer tasks, how the tasks were implemented, what problems were met, what lessons were learned and what results were achieved.

  2. Age differences in voluntary task switching.

    PubMed

    Butler, Karin M; Weywadt, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Task choice processes in older (60+ years) and younger (18-30 years) adults were compared using a voluntary task switching procedure (Arrington & Logan, 2004). To assess age-related differences in task representation maintenance, preparation times were varied across a large range of response-to-stimulus intervals (100, 500, 1,000, and 5,000 ms) and the environmental influence on task selection was varied by repeating or changing stimuli from trial to trial. Older adults switched less frequently than younger adults and this effect was the same at each RSI. Younger adults were more likely to switch tasks when the stimulus changed than when it repeated suggesting that they used a different process to determine task choices, either endogenous task selection or environmentally supported task repetitions. Older adults' task selection was unaffected by stimulus repetitions indicating that they were less flexible with the processing they used to guide task selection. These findings are consistent with previous observations of age-related increases in goal shielding, but not with age-related deficits in task goal maintenance. Robust age differences in switch costs were observed across RSIs suggesting that task reconfiguration processes are different following endogenous than exogenous task selection. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  4. Plant Immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants are faced with defending themselves against a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, etc. Immunity is multi-layered and complex. Plants can induce defenses when they recognize small peptides, proteins or double-stranded RNA associated with pathogens. Recognitio...

  5. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  6. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  7. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  8. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  9. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  10. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  11. The BOLD Response during Stroop Task-Like Inhibition Paradigms: Effects of Task Difficulty and Task-Relevant Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rachel L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…

  12. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor and utility scale power plants. Quarterly progress report No. 14, January--March, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report summarized progress on Task 3, Power Plant Studies, and Task 4, Technical Management and Reporting. Task 3 this quarter involved sampling of flue gas from Units 6 and 7 of the host power plant. The operating parameters during the sampling period are given. Laboratory analyses are in progress. Under Task 4, internal and external QA/QC audits were conducted. A data base management system was prepared. An appendix contains a data compilation of plant operating data.

  13. Plant minichromosomes.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A; Graham, Nathaniel D; Swyers, Nathan C; Cody, Jon P; McCaw, Morgan E

    2016-02-01

    Plant minichromosomes have the potential for stacking multiple traits on a separate entity from the remainder of the genome. Transgenes carried on an independent chromosome would facilitate conferring many new properties to plants and using minichromosomes as genetic tools. The favored method for producing plant minichromosomes is telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation because the epigenetic nature of centromere function prevents using centromere sequences to confer the ability to organize a kinetochore when reintroduced into plant cells. Because haploid induction procedures are not always complete in eliminating one parental genome, chromosomes from the inducer lines are often present in plants that are otherwise haploid. This fact suggests that minichromosomes could be combined with doubled haploid breeding to transfer stacked traits more easily to multiple lines and to use minichromosomes for massive scale genome editing.

  14. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  15. Antenna pattern study, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Two electromagnetic scattering codes, NEC-BSC and ESP3, were delivered and installed on a NASA VAX computer for use by Marshall Space Flight Center antenna design personnel. The existing codes and certain supplementary software were updated, the codes installed on a computer that will be delivered to the customer, to provide capability for graphic display of the data to be computed by the use of the codes and to assist the customer in the solution of specific problems that demonstrate the use of the codes. With the exception of one code revision, all of these tasks were performed.

  16. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets.

    PubMed

    Reeck, Crystal; Egner, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features.

  17. A design space of visualization tasks.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Nocke, Thomas; Heitzler, Magnus; Schumann, Heidrun

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about visualization tasks plays an important role in choosing or building suitable visual representations to pursue them. Yet, tasks are a multi-faceted concept and it is thus not surprising that the many existing task taxonomies and models all describe different aspects of tasks, depending on what these task descriptions aim to capture. This results in a clear need to bring these different aspects together under the common hood of a general design space of visualization tasks, which we propose in this paper. Our design space consists of five design dimensions that characterize the main aspects of tasks and that have so far been distributed across different task descriptions. We exemplify its concrete use by applying our design space in the domain of climate impact research. To this end, we propose interfaces to our design space for different user roles (developers, authors, and end users) that allow users of different levels of expertise to work with it.

  18. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  19. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  20. Physical Abilities and Military Task Performance: A Replication and Extension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-09

    handgrip ; right and left knee Table 2. Strength Measurement Models from Exploratory Factor Analysis Number of Factors in Solution 1 2 3 A A...findings using a strength test battery with some new strength measures , a different set of military tasks, and a different military population. Structural...equation models were constructed to represent strength as a single construct, a two-dimensional construct based on measurement modality, and a seven

  1. Workshift and Antihistamine Effects on Task Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    chlorpheniramine maleate), and time on task accompanying three successive drug doses spaced every four hours. Five performance tasks, two work sample tasks, and...four subjective scales were included in the study. In summary, chlorpheniramine maleate alone had a strong negative influence on a wide range of task...Day Shift tended to get better and during the Mid shift tended to get worse. No evidence was found that chlorpheniramine maleate and work shift combine to produce a multiplicative effect.

  2. Managing Multiple Tasks in Complex, Dynamic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Sketchy planners are designed to achieve goals in realistically complex, time-pressured, and uncertain task environments. However, the ability to manage multiple, potentially interacting tasks in such environments requires extensions to the functionality these systems typically provide. This paper identifies a number of factors affecting how interacting tasks should be prioritized, interrupted, and resumed, and then describes a sketchy planner called APEX that takes account of these factors when managing multiple tasks.

  3. An overview of task order 10

    SciTech Connect

    Rousculp, Christopher L

    2011-01-12

    Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).

  4. Part 3: A community divided.

    PubMed

    Botnick, M R

    2000-01-01

    The task of those who seek to encourage and offer social support has become more difficult as the majority of social institutions, and the state have established, over time, stronger and more pervasive modes of communication. The intricacies of gay identity have been articulated largely by forces outside of the gay movement, with the inevitable result that GSOs and ASOs have occupied less space in the consciousness of gay men. Additionally, I hypothesize that men who are HIV-positive are engaging in fewer sexual contacts than men who are HIV-negative, and consequently lessening their attendance at venues where cruising is the main event. Financially and structurally, I shall demonstrate the disparity between GSOs and ASOs, and suggest that there is a natural intersection wherein the two SMOs could, and ought to cooperate, especially in the areas of fund-raising, joint program development, recruitment and political lobbying. However, their ideological bases appear to be sufficiently different to preclude such affiliations. These disparate ideologies are amplified by the mass media, and are consequently internalized by the members of the gay community. In the longer term, the divisiveness that manifests itself in the proliferation of numerous collectivities within the gay movement will contribute to the further isolation of gays from each other, and thwart any future attempts at coalition building, which could obviate the continued existence of a gay movement. Some writers suggest that the gay movement is going through a phase in an inevitable process of paradigm shifting, and in the end, the community will come back together-stronger and more unified than it was previously. However, if this is a phase it is clear that the gay movement is in the 'dark before the dawn' initial phase of this paradigmatic shift, and subsequent phases are by no means guaranteed. As AIDS spreads beyond marginalized groups, and infiltrates the social majority, it is possible that much of

  5. What Makes a Mathematical Task Interesting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Rimma

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the question of what makes a mathematical task interesting to the 9th year students. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 students of purposive selection of the 9th year. The students were asked to recall a task they found interesting and engaging during the past three years. An analysis of the tasks was made…

  6. The Factor Structure of Some Piagetian Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Nordland, Floyd H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigated was the hypothesis that conservation tasks are unifactor by administering eight different conservation tasks to 96 seventh-grade science students and performing a principal component analysis on the data. Results indicated that conservation tasks may measure up to three different components of cognitive thought. (SL)

  7. Human Performance on the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopec, Charles D.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    The perception and processing of temporal information are tasks the brain must continuously perform. These include measuring the duration of stimuli, storing duration information in memory, recalling such memories, and comparing two durations. How the brain accomplishes these tasks, however, is still open for debate. The temporal bisection task,…

  8. Task Proficiency and L1 Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Minako

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing volume of research on task-based language use; however, the nature of "task proficiency" has not yet been clearly defined. In order to gain new insights, this study examines the relationship between the process of communication in an L2 and a task outcome by analysing lexical density, as obtained from the pattern of a…

  9. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  10. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  11. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  12. Tasks That Make Connections through Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Joe; Trinter, Christine P.

    2012-01-01

    By working through well-designed tasks, students can expand their thinking about mathematical ideas and their approaches to solving mathematical problems. They can come to see the value of looking at tasks from different perspectives and of using different representations. This article discusses four tasks that encourage high school students and…

  13. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  14. Learning Opportunities: Adding Learning Value to Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, David

    2007-01-01

    Tasks provide a framework for communicative performance. Underlying each task is a set of learning opportunities--potential activities for learning. Not all of these opportunities are exploited for learning by teachers or learners. It is proposed that, when using tasks, the range of such learning opportunities needs to be identified and modelled…

  15. Emergency Medical Technician Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 12 duties in the occupation of emergency medical technician. Each duty is divided into a number of tasks. A separate page for each duty lists the task with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for comments. The 12 duties…

  16. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  17. Task Analysis: A Top-Down Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul

    1983-01-01

    This approach to task analysis includes descriptions of (1) inputs, outputs, and jobs; (2) flow of materials and decisions between jobs; (3) inputs, major tasks, and outputs of each job; (4) sequence of steps for major tasks; (5) heuristics/algorithms for each sequence step; and (6) information needed to use heuristics algorithms. (EAO)

  18. Task Switching Effects in Anticipation Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    To understand how task switching affects human performance, there is a need to investigate how it influences the performance of tasks other than those involving bivalent stimulus categorization. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of task switching on anticipation timing performance, which typically requires…

  19. A Task Is a Task Is a Task Is a Task... Or Is It? Researching Telecollaborative Teacher Competence Development--The Need for More Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller-Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The concept of task has become central not only to an understanding of language learning per se, but also to the design and research of Online Intercultural Exchanges (OIEs). While research on the design of tasks in OIEs has been very productive, we still lack insights into how teachers develop competences in task design on the micro-level.…

  20. Task Switching Effects in Anticipation Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    To understand how task switching affects human performance, there is a need to investigate how it influences the performance of tasks other than those involving bivalent stimulus categorization. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of task switching on anticipation timing performance, which typically requires…

  1. Economics of simulation task force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Steven C.

    2001-09-01

    It is both logical and appropriate for decision-makers to ask for ways to judge the value of simulation. Often, the request is even more pointed than just wanting a report on the value of simulation, and specifics on the economics of simulation are requested. Clearly, undertaking to answer questions about the economics of simulation will be critical to building an understanding of how to spend future marginal National Defense dollars. As an example, one can evaluate the economics of simulation where it supports our ability to develop, build, and test new weapon systems. Here, historically derived returns on investment, cost avoidance, cycle time reductions, and lifecycle cost savings have been documented and warrant further investigation. However, there is a larger area of use for simulation where judging its value must go beyond economics. Simulation, in most uses, has a value (or benefit or impact) beyond cost savings, and most efforts to understand the economics of simulation really intend to include the more general topic of the value of simulation. The broader question of the value of simulation will be tackled because simulation must prove its worth. If it is adequately funded and intelligently used, simulation will save valuable national resources and improve readiness. A task force of volunteers is now looking at the economics (benefits, value, impact) of simulation, and this paper seeks to provide an overview of the state of understanding of this topic and solicit volunteers to join this task force effort.

  2. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Kevin; Anasti, William; Fang, Yichuan; Subramanyan, Karthik; Leininger, Tom; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  3. Resolving task rule incongruence during task switching by competitor rule suppression.

    PubMed

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment involving 2 object classification tasks and 2 location classification tasks, the authors show that irrelevant task rules that generate response conflicts are inhibited. This competitor rule suppression (CRS) is seen in response slowing in subsequent trials, when the competing rules become relevant. CRS is shown to operate on specific rules without affecting similar rules. CRS and backward inhibition, which is another inhibitory phenomenon, produced additive effects on reaction time, suggesting their mutual independence. Implications for current formal theories of task switching as well as for conflict monitoring theories are discussed.

  4. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage.

  5. TASK-1 and TASK-3 may form heterodimers in human atrial cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K; Schlichthörl, Günter; Dittmann, Sven; Netter, Michael F; Limberg, Sven H; Silbernagel, Nicole; Zuzarte, Marylou; Moosdorf, Rainer; Wulf, Hinnerk; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Rolfes, Caroline; Decher, Niels

    2015-04-01

    TASK-1 channels have emerged as promising drug targets against atrial fibrillation, the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. While TASK-3, the closest relative of TASK-1, was previously not described in cardiac tissue, we found a very prominent expression of TASK-3 in right human auricles. Immunocytochemistry experiments of human right auricular cardiomyocytes showed that TASK-3 is primarily localized at the plasma membrane. Single-channel recordings of right human auricles in the cell-attached mode, using divalent-cation-free solutions, revealed a TASK-1-like channel with a single-channel conductance of about 30pS. While homomeric TASK-3 channels were not found, we observed an intermediate single-channel conductance of about 55pS, possibly reflecting the heteromeric channel formed by TASK-1 and TASK-3. Subsequent experiments with TASK-1/TASK-3 tandem channels or with co-expressed TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels in HEK293 cells or Xenopus oocytes, supported that the 55pS channels observed in right auricles have electrophysiological characteristics of TASK-1/TASK-3 heteromers. In addition, co-expression experiments and single-channel recordings suggest that heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channels have a predominant surface expression and a reduced affinity for TASK-1 blockers. In summary, the evidence for heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channel complexes together with an altered pharmacologic response to TASK-1 blockers in vitro is likely to have further impact for studies isolating ITASK-1 from cardiomyocytes and for the development of drugs specifically targeting TASK-1 in atrial fibrillation treatment.

  6. Testing Task Schedulers on Linux System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenković, Leonardo; Groš, Stjepan; Jakobović, Domagoj

    Testing task schedulers on Linux operating system proves to be a challenging task. There are two main problems. The first one is to identify which properties of the scheduler to test. The second problem is how to perform it, e.g., which API to use that is sufficiently precise and in the same time supported on most platforms. This paper discusses the problems in realizing test framework for testing task schedulers and presents one potential solution. Observed behavior of the scheduler is the one used for “normal” task scheduling (SCHED_OTHER), unlike one used for real-time tasks (SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR).

  7. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  8. Plant secretomics

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Tehreem; Shaheen, Kanwal; Parveen, Sajida; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2014-01-01

    Plant secretomes are the proteins secreted by the plant cells and are involved in the maintenance of cell wall structure, relationship between host and pathogen, communication between different cells in the plant, etc. Amalgamation of methodologies like bioinformatics, biochemical, and proteomics are used to separate, classify, and outline secretomes by means of harmonizing in planta systems and in vitro suspension cultured cell system (SSCs). We summed up and explained the meaning of secretome, methods used for the identification and isolation of secreted proteins from extracellular space and methods for the assessment of purity of secretome proteins in this review. Two D PAGE method and HPLC based methods for the analysis together with different bioinformatics tools used for the prediction of secretome proteins are also discussed. Biological significance of secretome proteins under different environmental stresses, i.e., salt stress, drought stress, oxidative stress, etc., defense responses and plant interactions with environment are also explained in detail. PMID:25763623

  9. Factors affecting task management in aviation.

    PubMed

    Iani, Cristina; Wickens, Christopher D

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the influence of ongoing task display "compellingness" on attention allocation patterns and assessed its interaction with interrupting task salience and importance. There are some concerns that the compellingness of flight deck tunnel displays renders the task they support more resistant to interruptions, thus preventing the pilot from noticing cues signaling the need to divert attention to other tasks. Forty pilots flew three curved approaches in a high-fidelity simulation using a synthetic vision system (SVS) display. In addition to the primary task of flying, during the last approach they were required to select the approach path on the basis of environmental information concerning weather. The display layout supporting the primary flight task (tunnel vs. baseline display), the nature of the cue signaling the need to divert attention to the path selection task (visual vs. auditory-visual cue), and the cost of not performing the secondary task were manipulated to investigate their influence on task prioritization. The modality and priority of the cue affected the frequency of the switch to the secondary task. Furthermore, pilots flying with a tunnel display were more likely to detect the change in the weather and were easily interrupted by the secondary task when priority was high. Our results suggest that some of the concerns regarding the negative consequences of the compelling nature of the tunnel display may not be as pronounced as thought. This study highlights the utility of the tunnel display in improving flight safety.

  10. Task parallelism and high-performance languages

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1996-03-01

    The definition of High Performance Fortran (HPF) is a significant event in the maturation of parallel computing: it represents the first parallel language that has gained widespread support from vendors and users. The subject of this paper is to incorporate support for task parallelism. The term task parallelism refers to the explicit creation of multiple threads of control, or tasks, which synchronize and communicate under programmer control. Task and data parallelism are complementary rather than competing programming models. While task parallelism is more general and can be used to implement algorithms that are not amenable to data-parallel solutions, many problems can benefit from a mixed approach, with for example a task-parallel coordination layer integrating multiple data-parallel computations. Other problems admit to both data- and task-parallel solutions, with the better solution depending on machine characteristics, compiler performance, or personal taste. For these reasons, we believe that a general-purpose high-performance language should integrate both task- and data-parallel constructs. The challenge is to do so in a way that provides the expressivity needed for applications, while preserving the flexibility and portability of a high-level language. In this paper, we examine and illustrate the considerations that motivate the use of task parallelism. We also describe one particular approach to task parallelism in Fortran, namely the Fortran M extensions. Finally, we contrast Fortran M with other proposed approaches and discuss the implications of this work for task parallelism and high-performance languages.

  11. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching.

    PubMed

    Tieges, Zoë; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G; Lorist, Monicque M; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2006-08-01

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials (e.g. AB) compared to task-repeat trials (e.g. BB); mixing costs refer to longer RTs in task-repeat trials compared to single-task trials. In a double-blind, within-subjects experiment, two caffeine doses (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) and a placebo were administered to 18 coffee drinkers. Both caffeine doses reduced switch costs compared to placebo. Event-related brain potentials revealed a negative deflection developing within the preparatory interval, which was larger for switch than for repeat trials. Caffeine increased this switch-related difference. These results suggest that coffee consumption improves task-switching performance by enhancing anticipatory processing such as task set updating, presumably through the neurochemical effects of caffeine on the dopamine system.

  12. Components of competitor priming in task switching.

    PubMed

    Teskey, Morgan L; Masson, Michael E J

    2017-07-17

    Executing an action in response to a stimulus is thought to result in the creation of an event code that integrates stimulus and action features (Allport, 1987; Hommel in Visual Cognition 5: 183-216, 1998). When switching between tasks, competitor priming occurs if a distractor stimulus cues the retrieval of a previously established event code in which that distractor is bound to a competing task, creating a source of interference with the current task whereby the observer is encouraged to apply the competing task to the distractor. We propose a second aspect of competitor priming: the misapplication of the retrieved competing task to the target stimulus. We report two task-switching experiments in which tasks applied to picture-word compound stimuli were manipulated to create conditions in which this second aspect of competitor priming could be revealed and distinguished from other sources of task- and stimulus-based priming. A substantial increase in competitor priming was observed when subjects switched between tasks that required very different processing operations and the competing task was highly relevant to the target stimulus. These results are consistent with our claim that competitor priming can result from applying the competing task either to the distractor that cued it or to the target stimulus.

  13. CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barch, Deanna M.; Berman, Marc G.; Engle, Randy; Jones, Jessica Hurdelbrink; Jonides, John; MacDonald, Angus; Nee, Derek Evan; Redick, Thomas S.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The third meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) was focused on selecting promising measures for each of the cognitive constructs selected in the first CNTRICS meeting. In the domain of working memory, the 2 constructs of interest were goal maintenance and interference control. CNTRICS received 3 task nominations for each of these constructs, and the breakout group for working memory evaluated the degree to which each of these tasks met prespecified criteria. For goal maintenance, the breakout group for working memory recommended the AX-Continuous Performance Task/Dot Pattern Expectancy task for translation for use in clinical trial contexts in schizophrenia research. For interference control, the breakout group recommended the recent probes and operation/symmetry span tasks for translation for use in clinical trials. This article describes the ways in which each of these tasks met the criteria used by the breakout group to recommend tasks for further development. PMID:18990711

  14. How to Correct a Task Error: Task-Switch Effects Following Different Types of Error Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauser, Marco

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that switch costs in task switching reflect the strengthening of task-related associations and that strengthening is triggered by response execution. The present study tested the hypothesis that only task-related responses are able to trigger strengthening. Effects of task strengthening caused by error corrections were…

  15. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  16. National Task Bank. Tasks in Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Services, Administration, Money Payments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upjohn (W.E.) Inst. for Employment Research, Washington, DC.

    The National Task Bank of 547 tasks in the public welfare field was developed from tasks written by eight states and by the Social and Rehabilitation Service. This document describes the background and development of the bank and outlines the procedures used. The task bank illustrates 13 functional cagegories of data, people, and things for…

  17. Is Performance in Task-Cuing Experiments Mediated by Task Set Selection or Associative Compound Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…

  18. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  19. Cue-Independent Task-Specific Representations in Task Switching: Evidence from Backward Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Erik M.

    2007-01-01

    The compound-cue model of cognitive control in task switching explains switch cost in terms of a switch of task cues rather than of a switch of tasks. The present study asked whether the model generalizes to Lag 2 repetition cost (also known as backward inhibition), a related effect in which the switch from B to A in ABA task sequences is costlier…

  20. 78 FR 27969 - Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health... Prevention (CDC) announces the next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force)....

  1. The Effect of a Workload-Preview on Task-Prioritization and Task-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minotra, Dev

    2012-01-01

    With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…

  2. Stimulus-Based Priming of Task Choice during Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Catherine M.; Weaver, Starla M.; Pauker, Rachel L.

    2010-01-01

    Two voluntary task-switching experiments probed the influence of previous exposures to stimuli and categorizations of these stimuli on task choice during subsequent exposures to the same stimuli. Subjects performed origin and size judgments under standard voluntary task-switching instructions to perform the tasks equally often in a random order.…

  3. Is Performance in Task-Cuing Experiments Mediated by Task Set Selection or Associative Compound Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…

  4. The Effect of a Workload-Preview on Task-Prioritization and Task-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minotra, Dev

    2012-01-01

    With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…

  5. Development of calibration training and procedures using job-task analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.

    1993-12-01

    Efforts to handle an increased workload with dwindling manpower in the Physical and Electrical Standards Laboratory (Standards Lab) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are described. Empowerment of workers via Total Quality Management (TQM) is the basis for their efforts. A survey and follow-up team work was the course of action. The job-task analysis received honors by their peers at the Y-12 Plant.

  6. Design of components for growing higher plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to design unique systems and components for growing higher plants in microgravity during long-term space missions (Mars and beyond). Specific design tasks were chosen to contribute to and supplement NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project. Selected tasks were automated seeding of plants, plant health sensing, and food processing. Prototype systems for planting both germinated and nongerminated seeds were fabricated and tested. Water and air pressure differences and electrostatic fields were used to trap seeds for separation and transport for planting. An absorption spectrometer was developed to measure chlorophyll levels in plants as an early warning of plant health problems. In the area of food processing, a milling system was created using high-speed rotating blades which were aerodynamically configured to produce circulation and retractable to prevent leakage. The project produced significant results having substantial benefit to NASA. It also provided an outstanding learning experience for the students involved.

  7. Design of components for growing higher plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to design unique systems and components for growing higher plants in microgravity during long-term space missions (Mars and beyond). Specific design tasks were chosen to contribute to and supplement NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project. Selected tasks were automated seeding of plants, plant health sensing, and food processing. Prototype systems for planting both germinated and nongerminated seeds were fabricated and tested. Water and air pressure differences and electrostatic fields were used to trap seeds for separation and transport for planting. An absorption spectrometer was developed to measure chlorophyll levels in plants as an early warning of plant health problems. In the area of food processing, a milling system was created using high-speed rotating blades which were aerodynamically configured to produce circulation and retractable to prevent leakage. The project produced significant results having substantial benefit to NASA. It also provided an outstanding learning experience for the students involved.

  8. Robust Multi-Task Feature Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Pinghua; Ye, Jieping; Zhang, Changshui

    2013-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve the performance of multiple related tasks by exploiting the intrinsic relationships among them. Recently, multi-task feature learning algorithms have received increasing attention and they have been successfully applied to many applications involving high-dimensional data. However, they assume that all tasks share a common set of features, which is too restrictive and may not hold in real-world applications, since outlier tasks often exist. In this paper, we propose a Robust MultiTask Feature Learning algorithm (rMTFL) which simultaneously captures a common set of features among relevant tasks and identifies outlier tasks. Specifically, we decompose the weight (model) matrix for all tasks into two components. We impose the well-known group Lasso penalty on row groups of the first component for capturing the shared features among relevant tasks. To simultaneously identify the outlier tasks, we impose the same group Lasso penalty but on column groups of the second component. We propose to employ the accelerated gradient descent to efficiently solve the optimization problem in rMTFL, and show that the proposed algorithm is scalable to large-size problems. In addition, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the proposed rMTFL formulation. Specifically, we present a theoretical bound to measure how well our proposed rMTFL approximates the true evaluation, and provide bounds to measure the error between the estimated weights of rMTFL and the underlying true weights. Moreover, by assuming that the underlying true weights are above the noise level, we present a sound theoretical result to show how to obtain the underlying true shared features and outlier tasks (sparsity patterns). Empirical studies on both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that our proposed rMTFL is capable of simultaneously capturing shared features among tasks and identifying outlier tasks. PMID:24078896

  9. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  10. Assessing the Cost of Task Switching with a Three-Task Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    To study task switching when subjects need not inhibit inappropriate responses, we examine tasks with non-overlapping stimulus sets (e.g. color patches and uncolored letters). A new three-task paradigm permits the dissociation of several otherwise confounded variables. We find that performance declines monotonically with increasing time since last performance of a task. Adjusting for the effects of this factor permits a fresh assessment of the relationship between task expectancy and recency (Ruthruff, Remington & Johnston, 1996).

  11. Assessing the Cost of Task Switching with a Three-Task Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W.; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    To study task switching when subjects need not inhibit inappropriate responses, we examine tasks with non-overlapping stimulus sets (e.g. color patches and uncolored letters). A new three-task paradigm permits the dissociation of several otherwise confounded variables. We find that performance declines monotonically with increasing time since last performance of a task. Adjusting for the effects of this factor permits a fresh assessment of the relationship between task expectancy and recency (Ruthruff, Remington & Johnston, 1996).

  12. Effects of Single-Task Interference on Dual-Task Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James C.; Ruthruff, Eric; VanSelst, Mark; Remington, Roger W.

    1998-01-01

    Van Sergi, Ruthruff and Johnston found that dual-task practice can markedly reduce interference in the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm. Their results are consistent with a bottleneck model in which practice serves primarily to reduce stage durations. This model predicts that single-task practice on Task 1 alone should produce marked reductions in interference, whereas single-task practice on Task 2 should not. New experiments test these predictions. Alternative theoretical accounts are also considered.

  13. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  14. Tool and Task Analysis Guide for Vocational Welding (150 Tasks). Performance Based Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John H. Hinds Area Vocational School, Elwood, IN.

    This book contains a task inventory, a task analysis of 150 tasks from that inventory, and a tool list for performance-based welding courses in the state of Indiana. The task inventory and tool list reflect 28 job titles found in Indiana. In the first part of the guide, tasks are listed by these domains: carbon-arc, electron beam, G.M.A.W., gas…

  15. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  16. Tool and Task Analysis Guide for Vocational Welding (150 Tasks). Performance Based Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John H. Hinds Area Vocational School, Elwood, IN.

    This book contains a task inventory, a task analysis of 150 tasks from that inventory, and a tool list for performance-based welding courses in the state of Indiana. The task inventory and tool list reflect 28 job titles found in Indiana. In the first part of the guide, tasks are listed by these domains: carbon-arc, electron beam, G.M.A.W., gas…

  17. Pipeline gas demonstration plant, Phase I. Quarterly technical progress report for September 1980-November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    Work was performed in the following tasks in Phase I of the Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Site Evaluation and Selection; Demonstration Plant Environmental Analysis; Feedstock Plans, Licenses, Permits and Easements; Demonstration Plant Definitive Design; Construction Planning; Economic Reassessment; Technical Support; Long Lead Procurement List; and Project Management. The Preliminary Construction Schedule was delivered to the Government on October 3, 1980, constituting an early delivery of the construction schedule called for in the scope of work for Task VI. The major work activity continues to be the effort in Task VI, Demonstration Plant Definitive Design, with two 30% Design Review meetings being held with the Government. Work in Task VII, Construction Planning, was initiated. Work has progressed satisfactorily in the other tasks in support of the Demonstration Plant Program. A Cost Change Proposal was submitted because of an increase in the scope of work and an extension of the schedule for Phase I to 47 months.

  18. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  19. Evaluation of 2 cognitive abilities tests in a dual-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Most real world operators are required to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. In some cases, such as flying a high performance aircraft or trouble shooting a failing nuclear power plant, the operator's ability to time share or process in parallel" can be driven to extremes. This has created interest in selection tests of cognitive abilities. Two tests that have been suggested are the Dichotic Listening Task and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Correlations between these test results and time sharing performance were obtained and the validity of these tests were examined. The primary task was a tracking task with dynamically varying bandwidth. This was performed either alone or concurrently with either another tracking task or a spatial transformation task. The results were: (1) An unexpected negative correlation was detected between the two tests; (2) The lack of correlation between either test and task performance made the predictive utility of the tests scores appear questionable; (3) Pilots made more errors on the Dichotic Listening Task than college students.

  20. Task switching: the effect of task recency with dual- and single-affordance stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Petroc; Ahmed, Lubna

    2006-07-01

    When we switch to a new task, performance is transiently relatively poor, but improves dramatically after one trial. Such a "switch cost" may result from the preceding task being highly primed while the new task is not yet primed. This predicts that it should become more difficult to switch back to Task A when more trials of Task B have intervened. Such a lag effect has been found in some but not in most previous experiments, and to resolve this discrepancy we examined the effects of task lag with different stimuli. We found that when stimuli uniquely and clearly cued the task--minimizing the need for control--switch reaction time increased with task lag. However, when the need for control was increased by using similar or identical stimuli in the two tasks, this lag effect was abolished or reversed. Thus only when control processes are minimized can priming explain the difficulty of switching back from Task B to Task A. Second, we asked how the impact of control is mediated in conditions where it is not minimized. If it is mediated through altering the relative activation states of competing tasks, then as it becomes easier to do one task--the relative task-set activation state is tipped in that task's favour--it should always become harder to do the other task. On the other hand, if control bias affects switch performance directly, this relationship need not hold. We found that as it becomes easier to perform one task it can become easier, not harder, to switch to the competing task. Thus control bias must act directly on switch performance, rather than only through its influence on relative task-set activation.

  1. Response selection in dual task paradigms: observations from random generation tasks.

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, Georg; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2010-03-01

    Performance of attention-demanding tasks is worse if two tasks are carried out simultaneously than if each of the tasks is performed alone. Our aim was to determine whether these 'dual task costs' can be attributed to mechanisms on a supra-trial level such as switching of limited resources between trials or concurrent breakdown of supervisory functions, or to mechanisms effective within each trial such as demands of response selection. Twenty healthy volunteers performed verbal random number generation (RNG) and random movement generation (RMG) at three different rates. For each rate, both tasks were examined once in a single task condition and once in a dual task condition. Results showed that performance (quality of randomness) in each random generation task (RNG/RMG) was reduced at faster rates and impaired by concurrent performance of a secondary random generation task. In the dual task condition, transient increase or decrease of bias in one random generation task during any short interval was not associated with concurrent increase or decrease of bias in the other task. In conclusion, the fact that during dual task performance transient bias in one task was not associated with concurrent improvement of performance in the other task indicates that alternation of supervisory control or attentional resources from one to the other task does not mediate the observed dual task costs. Resources of the central executive are not re-allocated or 'switched' from one to the other task. Dual task costs may result from mechanisms effective within each trial such as the demands of response selection.

  2. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  3. Plant intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  4. Optimal stimulus encoders for natural tasks

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Wilson S.; Najemnik, Jiri; Ing, Almon D.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the features of natural stimuli that are most useful for specific natural tasks is critical for understanding perceptual systems. A new approach is described that involves finding the optimal encoder for the natural task of interest, given a relatively small population of noisy “neurons” between the encoder and decoder. The optimal encoder, which necessarily specifies the most useful features, is found by maximizing accuracy in the natural task, where the decoder is the Bayesian ideal observer operating on the population responses. The approach is illustrated for a patch identification task, where the goal is to identify patches of natural image, and for a foreground identification task, where the goal is to identify which side of a natural surface boundary belongs to the foreground object. The optimal features (receptive fields) are intuitive and perform well in the two tasks. The approach also provides insight into general principles of neural encoding and decoding. PMID:20055550

  5. Cognate effects in bilingual language comprehension tasks.

    PubMed

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa

    2010-05-12

    We examined cognate effects when late fluent Spanish/English bilingual speakers undergoing event-related potential recordings performed two tasks on word pairs. In an association decision task, participants decided whether or not pairs of Spanish words were related in meaning. In a translation decision task, they reported whether English target words were correct translations of Spanish primes. In both the tasks, word primes were either cognates or noncognates. In the translation decision task, faster and more accurate responses were associated with reduced N400 amplitudes in word pairs featuring a cognate. However, cognates did not modulate performance or event-related potentials in the association decision task. The results suggest that language coactivation in bilingual speakers is modulated by cognitive context.

  6. Task-level control for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid

    1994-01-01

    Task-level control refers to the integration and coordination of planning, perception, and real-time control to achieve given high-level goals. Autonomous mobile robots need task-level control to effectively achieve complex tasks in uncertain, dynamic environments. This paper describes the Task Control Architecture (TCA), an implemented system that provides commonly needed constructs for task-level control. Facilities provided by TCA include distributed communication, task decomposition and sequencing, resource management, monitoring and exception handling. TCA supports a design methodology in which robot systems are developed incrementally, starting first with deliberative plans that work in nominal situations, and then layering them with reactive behaviors that monitor plan execution and handle exceptions. To further support this approach, design and analysis tools are under development to provide ways of graphically viewing the system and validating its behavior.

  7. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  11. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  12. Computerizing Financial Management for a Physical Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neland, William C.

    1984-01-01

    The Physical Plant Department at Portland State University (OR) performs accounting, inventory control, and purchasing tasks with a local online system. Using in-house software, this system has replaced and improved upon services formerly provided by the State System of Higher Education. (MCG)

  13. Computerizing Financial Management for a Physical Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neland, William C.

    1984-01-01

    The Physical Plant Department at Portland State University (OR) performs accounting, inventory control, and purchasing tasks with a local online system. Using in-house software, this system has replaced and improved upon services formerly provided by the State System of Higher Education. (MCG)

  14. [Task force for falsified medicines].

    PubMed

    Weber, Gabriele

    2017-09-13

    In 2014, a large number of falsified medicines of Italian origin had come to light. Because of the extent of the falsification, the situation that most of these falsified medicines had been traced back to thefts in Italy by criminal networks, and the necessity of actions by national and local authorities, an intensified exchange of information was essential, in addition to a process of coordination. A task force for falsified medicines was established to optimize the flow of information among all parties involved and to coordinate the necessary measures.One result was the implementation of a procedure for optimizing the exchange of information and for harmonisation of required measures on falsified medicines. In particular, this procedure covers situations in which there is no clear legal responsibility, and is now considered as part of the work of the authorities. In addition, a database has been established in which all pharmaceutical wholesalers located in Germany with a valid wholesale license are publicly accessible. As a preventive measure, information about known thefts will be forwarded to parallel traders and their associations. This is to avoid these products coming onto the market in Germany.

  15. Task 7: ADPAC User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.; Topp, D. A.; Delaney, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a 3-D numerical analysis for compressor casing treatment flowfields. The current version of the computer code resulting from this study is referred to as ADPAC (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Version 7). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC code developed under Tasks 6 and 7 of the NASA Contract. The ADPAC program is based on a flexible multiple- block grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. An iterative implicit algorithm is available for rapid time-dependent flow calculations, and an advanced two equation turbulence model is incorporated to predict complex turbulent flows. The consolidated code generated during this study is capable of executing in either a serial or parallel computing mode from a single source code. Numerous examples are given in the form of test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modem turbomachinery configurations.

  16. The Workforce Task Force Report

    PubMed Central

    Vatz, Kenneth A.; Griggs, Robert C.; Pedley, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Neurology Workforce Task Force (WFTF) report predicts a future shortfall of neurologists in the United States. The WFTF data also suggest that for most states, the current demand for neurologist services already exceeds the supply, and by 2025 the demand for neurologists will be even higher. This future demand is fueled by the aging of the US population, the higher health care utilization rates of neurologic services, and by a greater number of patients gaining access to the health care system due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Uncertainties in health care delivery and patient access exist due to looming concerns about further Medicare reimbursement cuts. This uncertainty is set against a backdrop of Congressional volatility on a variety of issues, including the repeal of the sustainable growth rate for physician reimbursement. The impact of these US health care changes on the neurology workforce, future increasing demands, reimbursement, and alternative health care delivery models including accountable care organizations, nonphysician providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants, and teleneurology for both stroke and general neurology are discussed. The data lead to the conclusion that neurologists will need to play an even larger role in caring for the aging US population by 2025. We propose solutions to increase the availability of neurologic services in the future and provide other ways of meeting the anticipated increased demand for neurologic care. PMID:23783750

  17. The harder the task, the more inconsistent the performance: a PPT analysis on task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Rice, Stephen; Geels, Kasha; Hackett, Holly Raye; Trafimow, David; McCarley, Jason S; Schwark, Jeremy; Hunt, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that as task difficulty increases, task performance subsequently decreases. These decrements in task performance as difficulty increases have been attributed to the processes individuals use to complete tasks. Over a series of three experiments, Potential Performance Theory (PPT; Trafimow & Rice, 2008 ; 2009), was used to test the hypothesis that decreases in task performance are, in part, due to inconsistency rather than only systematic factors. Task difficulty was manipulated in three visual search tasks by increasing set size (Experiment 1), decreasing contrast (Experiment 2), and increasing background distracters (Experiment 3). Findings over the three studies indicated that decreases in observed task performance as task difficulty increases are primarily due to a decrease of consistency rather than systematic factors. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Technical task plan for testing filter box sorbent-paint filter test

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) asked Interim Waste Technology (IWT) to choose and test a sorbent to add to the ITP filter box that meets the EPA requirement for land disposal of containerized liquid hazardous wastes per Paint Filter Liquids (PFL) test method 9095. This report outlines the process to be used in accomplishing this task.

  19. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Anderson; William K. Davis; Thomas W. Sloop

    2001-03-21

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Gasification Technologies and Transportation Fuels and Chemicals programs, DOE and Texaco are partners through Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40658 to determine the feasibility of developing, constructing and operating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP). The overall objective of the project is the three-phase development of an EECP that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The specific work requirements of Phase I included: Prepare an EECP Preliminary Concept Report covering Tasks 2-8 specified in the Cooperative Agreement; Develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan as specified in Task 9 of the Cooperative Agreement for implementation in Phase II; and Develop a Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the EECP Project as specified in Task 10 of the Cooperative Agreement. This document is the Preliminary Project Financing Plan for the design, construction, and operation of the EECP at the Motiva Port Arthur Refinery.

  20. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  1. A task control architecture for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Mitchell, Tom

    1990-01-01

    An architecture is presented for controlling robots that have multiple tasks, operate in dynamic domains, and require a fair degree of autonomy. The architecture is built on several layers of functionality, including a distributed communication layer, a behavior layer for querying sensors, expanding goals, and executing commands, and a task level for managing the temporal aspects of planning and achieving goals, coordinating tasks, allocating resources, monitoring, and recovering from errors. Application to a legged planetary rover and an indoor mobile manipulator is described.

  2. Predictive performance models and multiple task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.

  3. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    PubMed

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm.

  4. Bilateral synergies in foot force production tasks.

    PubMed

    Sarabon, Nejc; Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    We analysed the effects of task symmetry during bilateral accurate force production tasks performed by the two feet. In particular, we tested a hypothesis that bilateral deficit would lead to higher indices of synergies defined as co-varied adjustments in the two forces across trials that reduced total force variability. The subjects produced steady-state force followed by a quick force pulse into the target. The two feet could be acting both into plantar flexion and into dorsiflexion (symmetrical tasks), or in opposite directions (asymmetrical task). We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to quantify two variance components, one of which did not change total force (V UCM), while the other did (V ORT). Synergy indices during the asymmetrical task were higher than in either symmetrical task. The difference was due to higher V UCM (compared to the symmetrical plantar flexion task) or lower V ORT (compared to the symmetrical dorsiflexion task). The synergy index showed a drop (anticipatory synergy adjustment, ASA) starting 100-150 ms prior to the force pulse initiation. The ASA tended to be shorter and of a smaller magnitude for the asymmetrical task. This is the first demonstration of bilateral synergies during accurate force production by the legs. We conclude that bilateral deficit has no or weak effects on two-leg synergies. The results fit the earlier introduced scheme with two groups of neural variables defining average performance of a redundant system and patterns of co-variation among its elemental variables, respectively.

  5. Ada task scheduling: A focused Ada investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    The types of control that are important for real time task scheduling are discussed. Some closely related real time issues are mentioned and major committee and research activities in this area are delineated. Although there are some problems with Ada and its real time task scheduling, Ada presents fewer than any known alternative. Ada was designed for the domain of real time embedded systems, but Ada compilers may not contain a level of task scheduling support that is adequate for all real time applications. The question addressed is which implementations of Ada's task scheduling are adequate for effective real time systems for NASA applications.

  6. Guessing versus Choosing an Upcoming Task

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of guessing vs. choosing an upcoming task. In a task-switching paradigm with four tasks, two groups of participants were asked to either guess or choose which task will be presented next under otherwise identical conditions. The upcoming task corresponded to participants’ guesses or choices in 75 % of the trials. However, only participants in the Choosing condition were correctly informed about this, whereas participants in the Guessing condition were told that tasks were determined at random. In the Guessing condition, we replicated previous findings of a pronounced reduction of switch costs in case of incorrect guesses. This switch cost reduction was considerably less pronounced with denied choices in the Choosing condition. We suggest that in the Choosing condition, the signaling of prediction errors associated with denied choices is attenuated because a certain proportion of denied choices is consistent with the overall representation of the situation as conveyed by task instructions. In the Guessing condition, in contrast, the mismatch of guessed and actual task is resolved solely on the level of individual trials by strengthening the representation of the actual task. PMID:27047423

  7. The utilization of coking plant surface runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Evzel'man, I.B.; Kagasov, V.M.; Maiskii, S.V.; Pimenov, I.V.; Ushakov, E.B.; Rod'kin, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Surface runoff from the industrial sites of coking plants in the East and Central USSR is usually diverted into a storm system in a mixture with the conditionally pure water. General data on the contamination of this mixture (industrial stormwater) and the snow cover at a number of coking plants in this region are presented. With the present coking industry technology it is practically impossible to completely exclude contamination of the surface runoff from the plant. Thus the principal task is a maximum possible decrease in the volume of water entering the storm sewer. Several methods are outlined.

  8. Designing and upgrading plants to blend coal

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, R.H.

    2006-10-15

    Fuel flexibility isn't free. Whether you are equipping a new power plant to burn more than one type of coal or retrofitting an existing plant to handle coal blends, you will have to spend time and money to ensure that all three functions performed by its coal-handling system, unloading, stockout, and reclaim, are up to the task. The first half of this article lays out the available options for configuring each subsystem to support blending. The second half describes, in words and pictures, how 12 power plants in the USA, both new and old, address the issue. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Overview and history of the Beach Vitex Task Force: an interagency partnership in action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Brabson, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia L. f.), a woody vine from Korea, was introduced into the United States as a dune stabilization plant in the mid-1980s. By the mid- to late-1990s, Beach vitex was observed spreading from landscape plantings along the South Carolina coast, crowding out native dune species. In 2003, in response to concerns about possible impacts of the plant on native dune species, as well as loggerhead sea turtle nesting habitat, the South Carolina Beach Vitex Task Force was organized to address the problem. Since that time, the effort to control Beach vitex has expanded to include North Carolina, and more recently, Virginia.

  10. Anxiety Interaction with Task Difficulty Levels, Memory Support, and Estimated Task Competency in a Concept Identification Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutwell, Richard C.

    The intent of this study was to determine the relationship of the independent variables of task difficulty and memory support for high and low anxious subjects on certain dependent variables: correct task performances, measured anxiety level, and self-estimated competency rating. A further purpose was to investigate the relationship of obtained…

  11. Dual-Task Processing When Task 1 Is Hard and Task 2 Is Easy: Reversed Central Processing Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhard, Tanja; Fernandez, Susana Ruiz; Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Five psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted with an especially time-consuming first task (Experiments 1, 3, and 5: mental rotation; Experiments 2 and 4: memory scanning) and with equal emphasis on the first task and on the second (left-right tone judgment). The standard design with varying stimulus onset asynchronies…

  12. Dual-Task Processing When Task 1 Is Hard and Task 2 Is Easy: Reversed Central Processing Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonhard, Tanja; Fernandez, Susana Ruiz; Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Five psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted with an especially time-consuming first task (Experiments 1, 3, and 5: mental rotation; Experiments 2 and 4: memory scanning) and with equal emphasis on the first task and on the second (left-right tone judgment). The standard design with varying stimulus onset asynchronies…

  13. Toxic plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproductive performance is the single most important economic animal trait to the livestock industry and is reported to be 5 and 10 times more significant than carcass quality and growth traits respectively. Poisonous plants impact livestock reproductive function in a major way and have been shown...

  14. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  15. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  16. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  17. I. Plants

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson; Steve Sutherland; Jack Butler; Jane Smith; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Exotic plants dramatically impact natural communities and disrupt ecosystem services (Mack and others 2000). Although the bulk of current impacts are caused by relatively few exotic species, many additional exotics that are currently established at low levels are increasing in density and distribution and present substantial imminent threats. Additionally, new exotic...

  18. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  19. Effects of Experience and Task Difficulty on Event-Related Potentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-13

    MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND BETHESDA, MARYLAND EFFECTS OF EXPERIENCE AN TASK DIFICILTY * ~ON EVENT-RELATM POTERMALS David A. Kobus Keren B...by the Naval Medical Research and Development : omand , Department of the Navy, under work unit MR.001-6037. The views expressed in this article are...Effects of experience and task difficulty on event-related potentials 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kobus, David A. & Stashower, Keren 3a. TYPE OF REPORT

  20. Materials processing in space tasks. WBS task 5.4: Generic tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This task encompassed a wide range of activities related to materials processing in space. For example, all aspects of the space station's flight and ground based systems design were assessed for the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) Space Processing Division Office. Activities for that organization also included the consolidation of space processing payload requirements for the space station and the development of an OACT payload operations plan. Similar duties were performed for the MSFC Payload Project Office. The SPACECOM database was used to conduct preliminary design studies for microgravity payload carriers and to conduct assessments of materials processing technology. Concepts for the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth Facility (APCGF) were developed. Materials processing vent products were analyzed and a furnace facility filter concept was developed using those studies. A preliminary design for a space station aluminum payload rack was developed. Analysis was conducted to characterize the acceleration environment onboard the space shuttle. Equipment for two fluid experiment apparatus was designed and manufactured for the Space Science Laboratory. The Fluids and Materials Experiments (FAME) data base was expanded. Also, Mir payload integration, technology transfer, and spacelab-to-space station transition studies were conducted.

  1. The shielding function of task rules in the context of task switching.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Renate; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that task rules help shield the response against distractor interference. Here, the authors investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying this assumed shielding function of task rules and how it is adjusted to changing task demands. In two experiments, participants switched between a noun categorization and an adjective categorization task. Target words were superimposed on distractor pictures. These pictures were always irrelevant and depicted either objects also used as target words in the noun task (noun distractors) or objects that were not part of the noun target-set but could be categorized according to the noun task (noun-related distractors). Results show that (a) on task repetitions shielding prevents interference from any distractors associated with a competing task; this is indicated by the lack of interference on adjective task repetitions; and (b) shielding is reduced on task switches. In the noun task, this reduction resulted in attenuated interference by noun-related distractors. In the adjective task, spatial distractors did not interfere despite the reduction. This result suggests that shielding is supported by a processing advantage for task-related information and not by distractor suppression.

  2. Different Neuroplasticity for Task Targets and Distractors

    PubMed Central

    Spingath, Elsie Y.; Kang, Hyun Sug; Plummer, Thane; Blake, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from nonselective

  3. SOCIAL MEDIA MINING SHARED TASK WORKSHOP.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Abeed; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Social media has evolved into a crucial resource for obtaining large volumes of real-time information. The promise of social media has been realized by the public health domain, and recent research has addressed some important challenges in that domain by utilizing social media data. Tasks such as monitoring flu trends, viral disease outbreaks, medication abuse, and adverse drug reactions are some examples of studies where data from social media have been exploited. The focus of this workshop is to explore solutions to three important natural language processing challenges for domain-specific social media text: (i) text classification, (ii) information extraction, and (iii) concept normalization. To explore different approaches to solving these problems on social media data, we designed a shared task which was open to participants globally. We designed three tasks using our in-house annotated Twitter data on adverse drug reactions. Task 1 involved automatic classification of adverse drug reaction assertive user posts; Task 2 focused on extracting specific adverse drug reaction mentions from user posts; and Task 3, which was slightly ill-defined due to the complex nature of the problem, involved normalizing user mentions of adverse drug reactions to standardized concept IDs. A total of 11 teams participated, and a total of 24 (18 for Task 1, and 6 for Task 2) system runs were submitted. Following the evaluation of the systems, and an assessment of their innovation/novelty, we accepted 7 descriptive manuscripts for publication--5 for Task 1 and 2 for Task 2. We provide descriptions of the tasks, data, and participating systems in this paper.

  4. Different neuroplasticity for task targets and distractors.

    PubMed

    Spingath, Elsie Y; Kang, Hyun Sug; Plummer, Thane; Blake, David T

    2011-01-31

    Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from nonselective

  5. Control and Interference in Task Switching--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesel, Andrea; Steinhauser, Marco; Wendt, Mike; Falkenstein, Michael; Jost, Kerstin; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    The task-switching paradigm offers enormous possibilities to study cognitive control as well as task interference. The current review provides an overview of recent research on both topics. First, we review different experimental approaches to task switching, such as comparing mixed-task blocks with single-task blocks, predictable task-switching…

  6. Survey of noise in coal preparation plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vipperman, J.S.; Bauer, E.R.; Babich, D.R.

    2007-01-15

    In response to the continuing problem of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) among mine workers, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted numerous noise surveys in coal preparation plants. The research, consisting of worker dose monitoring, task observations, and equipment noise profiling, was completed in eight separate preparation plants. Worker dose monitoring was conducted for three shifts in most cases. Workers experiencing higher than allowable doses were task-observed for one full shift to correlate dose to noise source(s). Finally, noise levels on all floors, and in lunch rooms and control rooms, were characterized. Results indicate that only workers who routinely spend a significant portion of their shift in the plants (away from the control rooms) are susceptible to overexposure from noise. Certain pieces of equipment (screens, centrifuges, sieve bends) are the loudest primary noise sources responsible for the worker noise exposures.

  7. P3a of event-related potential in chronic methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Iwanami, A; Kuroki, N; Iritani, S; Isono, H; Okajima, Y; Kamijima, K

    1998-12-01

    To investigate the psychophysiological features of methamphetamine (MAP) dependence, we recorded auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in 15 patients with MAP dependence and in 15 age-matched normal controls. ERPs were recorded during a standard oddball task and a read task similar to those employed by Squires et al. (Squires NK, Squires KC, Hillyard SA [1975] Two varieties of long-latency positive waves evoked by unpredictable auditory stimuli in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 38:387-401). The patients with MAP dependence showed reduced P3a amplitude and area in the read task and delayed P3b latency with normal P3b amplitude and area in the oddball task. These results suggest that central noradrenergic dysregulation may persist after the remission of acute psychotic symptoms in MAP psychosis and that chronic MAP dependence would produce impairment of the frontal cortex.

  8. Task decision difficulty: effects on ERPs in a same-different letter classification task.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B; Nasman, V T; Wilson, G F

    1994-10-01

    A "same-different" letter pair choice reaction time task was used to compare reaction time, performance accuracy, and P3 amplitude and latency at three levels of task difficulty. Stimulus set was held constant across tasks, and task difficulty was manipulated by instructions to the subject. Subjects delivered a button-press response to designate whether members of each letter pair matched or mismatched on the basis of their physical identity (low difficulty), name identity (medium difficulty), or category identity (vowels/consonants, high difficulty). Task decision difficulty was confirmed by slower reaction times and reduced response accuracy. P3 amplitude was inversely related to task decision difficulty; relatively larger P3s were associated with matched (vs. mismatched) letter pairs. These findings evidence direct effects of task difficulty on P3 amplitude, possibly as the result of "equivocation" related to more difficult task judgments.

  9. Modeling of autonomous problem solving process by dynamic construction of task models in multiple tasks environment.

    PubMed

    Ohigashi, Yu; Omori, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    Traditional reinforcement learning (RL) supposes a complex but single task to be solved. When a RL agent faces a task similar to a learned one, the agent must re-learn the task from the beginning because it doesn't reuse the past learned results. This is the problem of quick action learning, which is the foundation of decision making in the real world. In this paper, we suppose agents that can solve a set of tasks similar to each other in a multiple tasks environment, where we encounter various problems one after another, and propose a technique of action learning that can quickly solve similar tasks by reusing previously learned knowledge. In our method, a model-based RL uses a task model constructed by combining primitive local predictors for predicting task and environmental dynamics. To evaluate the proposed method, we performed a computer simulation using a simple ping-pong game with variations.

  10. Perceived Difficulty of a Visual Search Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Gunnar; And Others

    An experiment was carried out on perceived difficulty of a simple attention task. Seven complex stimulus matrices were used, consisting of different numbers of pairs of consonants. The subjects' task was to search for targets determined by the experimenter one by one. Search time was measured as performance criterion. Perceived difficulty of the…

  11. Teachers as Designers of Effective Numeracy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Vince

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary research into an effective approach to numeracy task design is described and analysed using a conceptual framework based on two dimensions--one related to the nature of numeracy and the other concerned with the characteristics of effective mathematical tasks. A case that documents one teacher's attempt to create a…

  12. Instructional Objectives: Selecting and Devising Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mileff, Milo

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper and the discussion that follows, the author presents aspects of test construction and a careful description of instructional objectives. Constructing tests involves several stages such as describing language objectives, selecting appropriate test task, devising and assembling test tasks, and devising a scoring system for…

  13. What Writing Tasks Do TESOL Professors Require?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies about writing assignments in higher education have explained that the library research paper, report on experiment, summary, and article/book review were the most common writing assignment tasks assigned across disciplines. No previous studies have explored writing tasks in the TESOL discipline at a national level. In this study…

  14. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  15. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  16. 18 CFR 701.58 - Task forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58 Section 701.58 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION... establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the...

  17. Tailoring Tasks to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Just as ready-made clothes may not provide a perfect fit for all bodies, math lessons may not be a perfect fit for all students. Published instructional tasks, including problems in mathematics textbooks, often need to be tailored to be meaningful, relevant, or accessible to each student. Ways are possible to take high-level reasoning tasks and…

  18. Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

  19. What Writing Tasks Do TESOL Professors Require?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies about writing assignments in higher education have explained that the library research paper, report on experiment, summary, and article/book review were the most common writing assignment tasks assigned across disciplines. No previous studies have explored writing tasks in the TESOL discipline at a national level. In this study…

  20. Interpretative Tasks Applied to Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Felicity

    1986-01-01

    The use of "interpretative tasks" is advocated in the teaching of short stories. Such tasks encourage learners to explore stories beyond the level of pure narrative and also encourage development of a "feel" for creative uses of English in literature. (Author/CB)

  1. Effective Task Design for the TBL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Bill; Franchini, Billie

    2014-01-01

    Group and team tasks are the culminating outputs of student learning in team and collaborative learning environments. How they are conceived and designed, therefore, can directly determine the success of the pedagogical strategy. A key design issue for creating effective tasks is how best to focus student knowledge, observation, and analysis…

  2. Task Force IV: Environment and Natural Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizing the Task Force Issues Paper presented at the Appalachian Conference on Balanced Growth and Economic Development (1977), this article presents Task Force recommendations on: the price of growth; relaxation of environmental regulations; mitigation of regional impact costs; policy regarding the use of public lands; growth management…

  3. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  4. Students' Views of Example Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sinead; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here on students' views of example generation tasks assigned to them in two first year undergraduate Calculus courses. The design and use of such tasks was undertaken as part of a project which aimed to afford students opportunities to develop their thinking skills and their conceptual understanding. In interviews with 10 students, we…

  5. Posing Cognitively Demanding Tasks to All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Rachel; Stylianou, Despina A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitively demanding tasks (CDT) (Stein et al. 2000) are necessary for the development of students' mathematical reasoning skills. Research is unequivocal on the importance of giving students opportunities to engage in such tasks. Although current reform efforts call for mathematics learning for "all" students, learners who…

  6. What Is Task-Centered Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francom, Gregory M.; Gardner, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Many recent models of learning and instruction center learning on real-world tasks and problems to support knowledge application and transfer. Of the many different approaches to centering learning on real-world tasks and problems, one main area in recent literature attempts to balance the efficiency of adequate learner support with the…

  7. Students' Performance on a Symmetry Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Siew Yin; Logan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Singapore and Australian Grade 6 students' (n=1,187) performance on a symmetry task in a recently developed Mathematics Processing Instrument (MPI). The MPI comprised tasks sourced from Australia and Singapore's national assessments, NAPLAN and PSLE. Only half of the cohort solved the item successfully. It is possible that…

  8. Tailoring Tasks to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Just as ready-made clothes may not provide a perfect fit for all bodies, math lessons may not be a perfect fit for all students. Published instructional tasks, including problems in mathematics textbooks, often need to be tailored to be meaningful, relevant, or accessible to each student. Ways are possible to take high-level reasoning tasks and…

  9. Preschoolers Learn Cognitive Tasks in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahoon, Owen W.

    The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of certain cognitive training tasks on children in group settings under natural preschool conditions. Thirty-five children, aged 47-63 months, were divided into six experimental groups and received various cognitive tasks. Results indicated that most children experienced at least moderate…

  10. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  11. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  12. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    This book provides teachers with a practical introduction to the design and development of communicative language learning tasks. The ideas presented are relevant to teachers working in or preparing for a range of situations with a variety of learner types. First, some basic issues concerning communicative learning tasks are discussed, and the…

  13. A Bilingual Advantage in Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that lifelong bilingualism may lead to enhanced efficiency in the ability to shift between mental sets. We compared the performance of monolingual and fluent bilingual college students in a task-switching paradigm. Bilinguals incurred reduced switching costs in the task-switching paradigm when compared with…

  14. Auto Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the auto mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  15. Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

  16. Ecology and Task Structures in Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Many of the characteristics of effective physical education lessons have been discovered by sport pedagogy researchers by employing what has become known as the ecological or task structures perspective. The purpose of this study was to describe the task structures and ecology that existed in two consecutive 7-day summer adventure camps run by an…

  17. Researchers as Evaluators: Tasks, Tensions and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfeldt, Liv; Kyvik, Svein

    2011-01-01

    Researchers undertake a number of different research evaluation tasks, taking up a substantial part of their research time--estimated to about one work month per year for a professor. This paper addresses the various evaluator roles and tasks researchers take on, and the tensions they involve. How the research evaluator role may conflict with the…

  18. Report of the Transfer Articulation Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This report to the Arizona State Legislature describes a model transfer system developed by the Transfer Articulation Task Force, a cooperative effort among the state's universities and community colleges to improve articulation and transfer. Following an introduction to the Task Force, elements of the proposed transfer model are reviewed,…

  19. Concurrent Cognitive Task Modulates Coordination Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellecchia, Geraldine L.; Shockley, Kevin; Turvey, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Does a concurrent cognitive task affect the dynamics of bimanual rhythmic coordination? In-phase coordination was performed under manipulations of phase detuning and movement frequency and either singly or in combination with an arithmetic task. Predicted direction-specific shifts in stable relative phase from 0 degrees due to detuning and…

  20. Paternal Effectiveness in a Selected Cognitive Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acuff, Nancy Hamblen

    The immediate effectiveness of paternal instruction in a selected cognitive task was investigated. The sub-problems were (1) to compare paternal and maternal instruction, and (2) to analyze paternal instructional effectiveness with the son or the daughter. The cognitive task selected was the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test. Subjects were 42…

  1. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  2. Parallel processing considerations for image recognition tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simske, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Many image recognition tasks are well-suited to parallel processing. The most obvious example is that many imaging tasks require the analysis of multiple images. From this standpoint, then, parallel processing need be no more complicated than assigning individual images to individual processors. However, there are three less trivial categories of parallel processing that will be considered in this paper: parallel processing (1) by task; (2) by image region; and (3) by meta-algorithm. Parallel processing by task allows the assignment of multiple workflows-as diverse as optical character recognition [OCR], document classification and barcode reading-to parallel pipelines. This can substantially decrease time to completion for the document tasks. For this approach, each parallel pipeline is generally performing a different task. Parallel processing by image region allows a larger imaging task to be sub-divided into a set of parallel pipelines, each performing the same task but on a different data set. This type of image analysis is readily addressed by a map-reduce approach. Examples include document skew detection and multiple face detection and tracking. Finally, parallel processing by meta-algorithm allows different algorithms to be deployed on the same image simultaneously. This approach may result in improved accuracy.

  3. Auto Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the auto mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  4. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    This book provides teachers with a practical introduction to the design and development of communicative language learning tasks. The ideas presented are relevant to teachers working in or preparing for a range of situations with a variety of learner types. First, some basic issues concerning communicative learning tasks are discussed, and the…

  5. Students' Views of Example Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Sinead; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here on students' views of example generation tasks assigned to them in two first year undergraduate Calculus courses. The design and use of such tasks was undertaken as part of a project which aimed to afford students opportunities to develop their thinking skills and their conceptual understanding. In interviews with 10 students, we…

  6. Industrial Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…

  7. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  8. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  9. Data Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the data processing series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  10. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  11. Business & Office Secretarial Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the business and office secretarial series. Each occupation is divided into three to seven duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught…

  12. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  13. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  14. Using ADA Tasks to Simulate Operating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAcetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A method of simulating equipment using ADA tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.

  15. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  16. The Instructor as Manager: Time and Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; Nijhuis, Gerard Gervedink

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of information and communication technologies at the University of Twente (Netherlands) and considers the management tasks, defined as all tasks outside of content-specific aspects, related to online learning via the World Wide Web that instructors must address. Focuses on handling assignments and feedback. (LRW)

  17. Task Analysis - Its Relation to Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.

    Task analysis is a procedure having the purpose of identifying different kinds of performances which are outcomes of learning, in order to make possible the specification of optimal instructional conditions for each kind of outcome. Task analysis may be related to content analysis in two different ways: (1) it may be used to identify the probably…

  18. Using Perceptrons to Explore the Reorientation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Michael R. W.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Spetch, Marcia L.; Dupuis, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The reorientation task is a paradigm that has been used extensively to study the types of information used by humans and animals to navigate in their environment. In this task, subjects are reinforced for going to a particular location in an arena that is typically rectangular in shape. The subject then has to find that location again after being…

  19. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sarosh; Sobh, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters) of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified. PMID:26257946

  20. Mathematically Rich, Investigative Tasks for Teaching Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for teachers is to incorporate the Standards for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010) throughout their teaching of mathematics so that the Common Core Standards do not revert back to a purely content-driven curriculum. One way to achieve this is through the use of mathematically rich, investigative tasks. These tasks encourage students…