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  1. Metabolic syndrome, periodontal infection, and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Timonen, P; Niskanen, M; Suominen-Taipale, L; Jula, A; Knuuttila, M; Ylöstalo, P

    2010-10-01

    Only a few studies have examined the association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal infection and dental caries. The aim in this study was to examine the association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal infection and dental caries using the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) definition and its separate components. This study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic individuals aged 30 to 64 years (N = 2050) who had never smoked. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with Poisson regression models. Metabolic syndrome was associated with teeth with deepened periodontal pockets 4 mm deep or deeper [adjusted RR 1.19 (95% CI 1.01-1.42)], with pockets 6 mm deep or deeper [adjusted RR 1.50 (95% CI 0.96-2.36)], and carious teeth [adjusted RR 1.25 (95% CI 0.93-1.70)]. The results suggest that metabolic syndrome or some of its components are associated weakly with periodontal infection.

  2. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  3. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  4. Xerostomy, dental caries and periodontal disease in HIV+ patients.

    PubMed

    Cavasin Filho, Julio César; Giovani, Elcio Magdalena

    2009-02-01

    We studied xerostomy and its correlation with periodontal and dental cavity diseases in HIV patients, through measurement of salivary flow and through variables such as saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, periodontal index, MDF index, dental carie risk and risk of periodontal disease. One hundred patients were analyzed. They were distributed into two groups: Group I (test) - 50 patients evidently HIV+, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases, levels of T-CD4 lymphocytes, viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); and Group II - (control) 50 HIV- patients, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases. In both groups, measurement of salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity was made. Group I presented high MDF, bacteria plaque and bleeding, with a greater susceptibility to the risks of oral cavities and periodontal disease. The salivary flow and the buffering capacity of the saliva were low, indicating a high level of xerostomy. Two important modifying factors influence these pathologies in an incisive way: one is immunossuppression and the other is HAART therapy. The control exhibited results that are closer to normality; it had better oral-health conditions.

  5. Periodontal effects and dental caries associated with smokeless tobacco use.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, J A; Burt, B A

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has been increasing in the United States with concomitant social, medical, legal, and regulatory ramifications. This paper examines the association between the use of smokeless tobacco and the occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries. Existing literature consists primarily of case reports and cross-sectional studies among teenagers. The limited evidence suggests an association between smokeless tobacco use and gingival recession. There is insufficient evidence to support any associations between smokeless tobacco use and gingivitis, periodontitis, or dental caries. Methods to improve future epidemiologic research to examine possible associations between smokeless tobacco use and periodontal effects or dental caries are discussed. PMID:3101120

  6. Dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sano, T; Matsuura, T; Ozaki, K; Narama, I

    2011-03-01

    Diabetic patients are predisposed to periodontal disease as well as dental caries; however, there are contradictory reports about the possible association between dental caries and diabetes. Thus, the authors set out to determine whether diabetes affects onset of dental caries and periodontal disease and to clarify whether dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with each other in diabetic db/db mice. Oral tissue was examined from 68 male mice (diabetic db/db and nondiabetic db/+; aged 20, 30, 40, and 50 weeks) and 20 female mice (db/db and db/+; aged 50 weeks). Macroscopically, caries were seen developing in the diabetic mice by 20 weeks of age. The number of teeth with dental lesions increased with age in the db/db mice at a significantly higher incidence than that of db/+ mice. Histologically, dental caries were detected in 30 of 120 molars in 17 of 20 db/db mice at 50 weeks of age and in 4 of 108 molars in 4 of 18 db/+ mice of the same age. The severity of dental caries in db/db mice was significantly higher than it was in db/+ mice. Dental caries were a primary change that led to bacterial gingivitis and pulpitis. These lesions spread to the dental root and periodontal connective tissue through the apical foramen. Apical periodontitis was more frequent and severe when occurring in close association with dental caries. In conclusion, there is a strong relationship between diabetes and dental caries, but in this model, it is highly probable that the onset of periodontal disease was a secondary change resulting from dental caries.

  7. Chair-Side Quantitative Oral-Microflora Screening for Assessing Familial Correlation of Periodontal Status and Caries Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yung-Kai; Lee, Wei-Fang; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Chang, Yus-Han Sophie; Tchaou, Wen-Shiun; Chang, Wei-Jen; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to investigate the relationship between clinical status and the presence of carious or periodontal pathogens among parent-child familial pairs. Clinical practices of risk assessment with consideration of familial pathogen interaction might reduce the need for therapy, improve patient outcomes, and ultimately reduce oral disease burden. Materials and Methods: In this study, we enrolled 30 parent-child pairs, with the children exhibiting complete deciduous dentition or mixed dentition with only permanent first molars. Clinical statuses were evaluated using caries and periodontal disease indicators, including the sum of decay and the number of missing or filled teeth (DMFT) for adults, decay, extraction caused by dental disease, and filled teeth (deft), for children, probing depth, and plaque control record (PCR). Supra- and sub-gingival bacteria were determined based on semi-quantitative measurements of microbial infection by using data from the Dentocult® SM test (caries-related organisms) and the PerioCheck® test (periodontal disease-related organisms). Results: No statistically significant relationship was detected between the prevalence of periodontal pathogens and that of cariogenic pathogens in the oral cavity. However, the clinical status of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with the clinical status of periodontal disease (pocket depth) in parents who were infected with dominant periodontal pathogens (r = −0.59, p<0.01). Parents’ DMFT scores were positively correlated with children’s deft and PCR scores. PCR and deft scores of children appeared to decrease significantly with the parent’s pocket depth. Conclusion: The study showed that the quantity of caries pathogens were not significant related to periodontal pathogens, but the caries clinical outcome is negative related with periodontal clinical outcome between familial pairs. PMID:24498022

  8. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Marta; Podzimek, Stepan; Broukal, Zdenek; Lencova, Erika; Duskova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area.

  9. Passive immunization against dental caries and periodontal disease: development of recombinant and human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Y

    2000-01-01

    Indigenous micro-organisms in the oral cavity can cause two major diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases. There is neither agreement nor consensus as to the actual mechanisms of pathogenesis of the specific virulence factors of these micro-organisms. The complexity of the bacterial community in dental plaque has made it difficult for the single bacterial agent of dental caries to be determined. However, there is considerable evidence that Streptococcus mutans is implicated as the primary causative organism of dental caries, and the cell-surface protein antigen (SA I/II) as well as glucosyltransferases (GTFs) produced by S. mutans appear to be major colonization factors. Various forms of periodontal diseases are closely associated with specific subgingival bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an important etiological agent of adult periodontitis. Adherence of bacteria to host tissues is a prerequisite for colonization and one of the important steps in the disease process. Bacterial coaggregation factors and hemagglutinins likely play major roles in colonization in the subgingival area. Emerging evidence suggests that inhibition of these virulence factors may protect the host against caries and periodontal disease. Active and passive immunization approaches have been developed for immunotherapy of these diseases. Recent advances in mucosal immunology and the introduction of novel strategies for inducing mucosal immune responses now raise the possibility that effective and safe vaccines can be constructed. In this regard, some successful results have been reported in animal experimental models. Nevertheless, since the public at large might be skeptical about the seriousness of oral diseases, immunotherapy must be carried out with absolute safety. For this goal to be achieved, the development of safe antibodies for passive immunization is significant and important. In this review, salient advances in passive immunization against caries

  10. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of the viability, aggregation, and live and dead adherence of Streptococcus crista, Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human saliva in relation to indices of caries, dental plaque and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Rudney, J D; Staikov, R K

    2002-05-01

    Salivary proteins have multiple functions and many share similar functions, which may be why it has been difficult to relate variations in their concentrations to oral health and ecology. An alternative is to focus on variations in the major functions of saliva. An hydroxyapatite-coated microplate model has been developed that simultaneously measures saliva-promoted bacterial viability, bacterial aggregation, and live and dead bacterial adherence, while simulating oral temperature and shearing forces from swallowing. That model was applied to resting whole and stimulated parotid saliva from 149 individuals, using representative strains of Streptococcus crista, S. mutans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Two major factors were defined by multivariate analysis (this was successful only for whole-saliva). One factor was correlated with aggregation, live adherence and dead adherence for all three strains; the other was correlated with total viability of all three strains. Participants were grouped <25th percentile and >75th percentile for each factor. Those groups were compared for clinical indices of oral health. Caries scores were significantly lower in those with high scores for aggregation-adherence, regardless of whether total viability scores were low or high. Live bacteria always predominated on surfaces when live and dead adherence scores were expressed as ratios. However, participants with high scores for aggregation-adherence showed significantly more dead adherent bacteria than those with low scores (these ratios were uncorrelated with total viability). This finding may indicate that extreme differences in the ability to kill bacteria on surfaces can influence caries risk.

  12. The oral microbiome and the immunobiology of periodontal disease and caries.

    PubMed

    Costalonga, Massimo; Herzberg, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis.

  13. Pyrosequencing of Plaque Microflora In Twin Children with Discordant Caries Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yongxing; Xie, Lingzhi; Li, Yuhong; Jiang, Han; Du, Minquan

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent successes in the control of dental caries, the mechanism of caries development remains unclear. To investigate the causes of dental decay, especially in early childhood caries, the supragingival microflora composition of 20 twins with discordant caries phenotypes were analyzed using high-throughput pyrosequencing. In addition, the parents completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 228,789 sequencing reads revealed 10 phyla, 84 genera, and 155 species of microflora, the relative abundances of these strains varied dramatically among the children, Comparative analysis between groups revealed that Veillonella, Corynebacterium and Actinomyces were presumed to be caries-related genera, Fusobacterium, Kingella and Leptotrichia were presumed to be healthy-related genus, yet this six genera were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that the microbial composition of samples in the same group was often dissimilar but that the microbial composition observed in twins was usually similar. Although the genetic and environmental factors that strongly influence the microbial composition of dental caries remains unknown, we speculate that genetic factors primarily influence the individual's susceptibility to dental caries and that environmental factors primarily regulate the microbial composition of the dental plaque and the progression to caries. By using improved twins models and increased sample sizes, our study can be extended to analyze the specific genetic and environmental factors that affect the development of caries. PMID:26524687

  14. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Shashikiran, N D; Reddy, V V S; Raju, P Krishnam

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  15. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  16. Relationship between plaque pH and different caries-associated variables in a group of adolescents with varying caries prevalence.

    PubMed

    Aranibar Quiroz, E M; Alstad, T; Campus, G; Birkhed, D; Lingström, P

    2014-01-01

    The pH response of the dental biofilm after a sugar challenge can be considered to mirror the acidogenic potential and thereby the caries risk of an individual. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between plaque pH and different caries variables in adolescents with varying caries prevalence. One hundred individuals, aged 14-15 years, were examined regarding different caries-related variables: (i) caries score (DSm, DSi, DSm + i, DTm), (ii) salivary secretion rate and buffer capacity, (iii) oral microflora of plaque and saliva, (iv) plaque amount, (v) plaque pH and (vi) dietary intake, oral hygiene habits and fluoride use. Plaque pH was assessed using the microtouch method before and after a 1-min mouthrinse with 10 ml 10% sucrose. Depending on the minimum pH, the participants were divided into three groups: low pH (≤5.3), medium pH (>5.3-6.3) and high pH (>6.3). Statistically significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.01) were found for initial caries (DSi) and combined manifest and initial caries (DSm + i). A statistically significant difference was also found in the log values for salivary lactobacilli (p = 0.02) within the three groups, and for the total number of bacteria in plaque (p = 0.04); for both variables, the low-pH group had the highest values. The only covariate significantly associated was the Cariogram score in the medium-pH group (p < 0.01) and the number of meals per day in the high-pH group (p = 0.02). To conclude, plaque pH measured by the microtouch method is a method that can be used for discriminating between individuals with varying caries prevalence. PMID:24401692

  17. Diabetes, periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Taylor, George W; Manz, Michael C; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2004-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus, is a common chronic disease, and its prevalence in the United States, particularly type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Complications associated with diabetes impose a heavy burden on many people, especially among certain minority populations. Periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss also are common conditions in the United States, but their prevalence is generally decreasing. Nevertheless, among important subgroups of the population, particularly certain minority and economically disadvantaged groups, there is a disproportionately higher burden of periodontal diseases, dental caries, and tooth loss. This article reviews the post-1960 English-language literature on the relationship between diabetes and oral health, specifically focusing on periodontal disease, dental caries, and tooth loss. Substantial evidence exists to support the role of diabetes and poorer glycemic control as important risk factors for periodontal disease. Additionally, the evidence provides support for viewing the relationship between diabetes and periodontal diseases as bidirectional. However, additional research is necessary to firmly establish that treating periodontal infections can contribute to glycemic control management and possibly to the reduction of type 2 diabetes complications. The literature does not describe a consistent relationship between type 2 diabetes and dental caries. It reports increased, decreased, and similar caries experiences between those with and without diabetes. This review suggests that currently there is insufficient evidence to determine whether a relationship between diabetes and risk for coronal or root caries exists. Most of the reviewed studies reported greater tooth loss in people with diabetes. However, the differences were slight and not significant in several of the reports. Furthermore, this review of the association between diabetes and tooth loss reveals that valid population-based evidence generalizable to the US

  18. Microbiology of dental plaque biofilms and their role in oral health and caries.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Dental plaque is the biofilm found naturally on teeth. Dental plaque is also implicated in dental caries, which is associated with shifts in the microbial balance of the biofilm resulting in increased proportions of acid producing and acid tolerating bacteria, especially (but not exclusively) mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The regular intake of fermentable dietary sugars, or impaired saliva flow, produces persistent conditions of low pH within the biofilm, which selects for these cariogenic bacteria. Clinicians should prevent this disruption to the natural microbial balance of the biofilm (relevant approaches are described) rather than merely treating its consequences by restoring cavities.

  19. Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: a Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Doyle, Ronan; Mulewa, Simeon; Charlie, Davie; Maleta, Ken; Callard, Robin; Walker, A. Sarah; Balloux, Francois; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation (gingivitis) to the inflammation and loss of tooth-supporting tissues (periodontitis). Previous research has focused mainly on subgingival plaque, but supragingival plaque composition is also known to be associated with disease. Quantitative modeling of bacterial abundances across the natural range of periodontal severities can distinguish which features of disease are associated with particular changes in composition. We assessed a cross-sectional cohort of 962 Malawian women for periodontal disease and used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V5 to V7 region) to characterize the bacterial compositions of supragingival plaque samples. Associations between bacterial relative abundances and gingivitis/periodontitis were investigated by using negative binomial models, adjusting for epidemiological factors. We also examined bacterial cooccurrence networks to assess community structure. The main differences in supragingival plaque compositions were associated more with gingivitis than periodontitis, including higher bacterial diversity and a greater abundance of particular species. However, even after controlling for gingivitis, the presence of subgingival periodontitis was associated with an altered supragingival plaque. A small number of species were associated with periodontitis but not gingivitis, including members of Prevotella, Treponema, and Selenomonas, supporting a more complex disease model than a linear progression following gingivitis. Cooccurrence networks of periodontitis-associated taxa clustered according to periodontitis across all gingivitis severities. Species including Filifactor alocis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were central to this network, which supports their role in the coaggregation of periodontal biofilms during disease progression. Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis even when only considering supragingival plaque

  20. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  1. Increased frequencies of caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Ayumi; Kashihara, Kenichi

    2009-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate oral hygiene in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The incidence of periodontal disease and numbers of caries and remaining teeth were checked in 89 consecutive 60 to 79-year-old patients with PD and compared with two other patient groups: 68 patients with mild neurological disease, and 60 with acute ischemic stroke. Patients with PD had fewer remaining teeth, more caries and a higher incidence of deep periodontal pockets. The frequency of patients with PD with untreated caries was high at Hoehn and Yahr stage II and above, and frequency tended to increase in patients who had low compared to high mini-mental state examination scores. Careful attention should be paid to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, even in the early stages of the disease.

  2. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, Howard; Kinney, John H.; Otis, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces.

  3. Method for detection of dental caries and periodontal disease using optical imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nathel, H.; Kinney, J.H.; Otis, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of active and inactive caries in teeth and diagnosing periodontal disease uses non-ionizing radiation with techniques for reducing interference from scattered light. A beam of non-ionizing radiation is divided into sample and reference beams. The region to be examined is illuminated by the sample beam, and reflected or transmitted radiation from the sample is recombined with the reference beam to form an interference pattern on a detector. The length of the reference beam path is adjustable, allowing the operator to select the reflected or transmitted sample photons that recombine with the reference photons. Thus radiation scattered by the dental or periodontal tissue can be prevented from obscuring the interference pattern. A series of interference patterns may be generated and interpreted to locate dental caries and periodontal tissue interfaces. 7 figs.

  4. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2014-12-29

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information.

  5. Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Brazilian Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Andreia M. R.; Gomes, Lays N.; Silva, Clara Regina D.; de S. C. Soares, Renata; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique N. G.; Padilha, Wilton W. N.; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09–1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69–0.97), caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03–1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80–0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76–0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75–0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  6. Dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Andreia M R; Gomes, Lays N; Silva, Clara Regina D; Soares, Renata de S C; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G de; Padilha, Wilton W N; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver's educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09-1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69-0.97), caregiver's educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03-1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80-0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76-0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75-0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information. PMID:25551517

  7. Periodontal Health and Caries Prevalence Evaluation in Patients Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event. PMID:23320249

  8. Influence of moisture and plaque on the performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting caries lesions in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Daniela G; Gimenez, Thaís; Morais, Caroline C; De Benedetto, Monique S; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental plaque and moisture on performance of a laser fluorescence device in detecting occlusal and proximal caries lesions in primary teeth. Fifty-five occlusal and 58 proximal sites on primary molars were evaluated using a DIAGNOdent pen (LFpen) device. For the drying time study, the evaluations were performed in: (I) moist teeth; (II) teeth dried for 3 s, or (III) dried for 15 s. For the plaque study, the evaluations were done in sites: (I) without plaque; (II) with plaque, and (III) after cleaning. Evaluation of the teeth sections in stereomicroscope was the reference standard method. LF pen values, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared. The values obtained after 15 s of drying were higher than those obtained with moist teeth or dried for 3 s at both occlusal and proximal surfaces. However, there was no change in the performance in detecting caries lesions. With regard to the presence of plaque, there was no significant change in the readings of the device, but specificity was decreased in occlusal surfaces with plaque. At proximal surfaces, however, no significant differences were observed. In conclusion, the moisture conditions do not influence significantly the performance of the LFpen, but the presence of plaque can affect its performance in detecting occlusal caries lesions in primary teeth.

  9. Periodontitis and coronary artery disease: a questioned association between periodontal and vascular plaques

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Costas; Tsioufis, Costas; Soldatos, Nikos; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterially-induced, localized chronic inflammatory disease destroying both the connective tissue and the supporting bone of the teeth. In the general population, severe forms of the disease demonstrate a prevalence of almost 5%, whereas initial epidemiological evidence suggests an association between periodontitis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Both the infectious nature of periodontitis and the yet etiologically unconfirmed infectious hypothesis of CAD, question their potential association. Ephemeral bacteremia, systemic inflammation and immune-pathological reactions constitute a triad of mechanisms supporting a cross-talk between periodontal and vascular damage. To which extent each of these periodontitis-mediated components contribute to vascular damage still remains uncertain. More than twenty years from the initial epidemiological association, the positive weight of evidence remains still alive but rather debated, because of both the presence of many uncontrolled confounding factors and the different assessment of periodontal disease. From the clinical point of view, advising periodontal prevention or treatment targeting on the prevention of CAD it is unjustified. By contrast, oral hygiene including periodontal health might contribute to the overall well-being and healthy lifestyle and hence as might at least partially contribute to cardiovascular prevention. PMID:22254188

  10. Sickle cell disease does not predispose to caries or periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cristina Pinho; Santos, Poliana Ramos Braga; Aguiar, Márcio Cajazeira; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Toralles, Maria Betánia Pereira; da Silva, Maria Christina Bahiana Olympio; Nascimento, Roberto José Meyer; Campos, Maria Isabela Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal condition in a population with sickle cell disease (SCD), analyzing some associations with disease severity. The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were recorded for 99 individuals with SCD and 91 matched controls. Socio-demographic status, oral health behaviors, and history of clinical severity of SCD were assessed. Statistical comparisons were performed between the group with SCD and the control group, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses with DMFT index and CPI as the dependent variables. The mean number of decayed teeth was significantly higher in individuals with HbSS. Older age, female gender, and daily smoking were identified as risk factors for higher DMFT, while older age and absence of daily use of dental floss were risk factors for the development of periodontal disease. In conclusion, risk factors known to cause caries and periodontal disease had more influence on oral health than the direct impact of SCD.

  11. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  12. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. PMID:25979683

  13. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  14. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  15. The relationship between levels of income inequality and dental caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Fritzell, Johan; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between income inequality at a lagged time of 2 and 11 years with two short latency outcomes (untreated dental caries and gingivitis) and two long latency outcomes (edentulism and periodontal attachment loss > 8mm). We used data from the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 13,405 subjects aged 35-44 years. Different lagged Gini at municipal level were fitted using logistic and negative binomial multilevel analyses. Covariates included municipal per capita income, equivalized income, age, sex, time since last dental visit and place of residence (rural versus urban). Crude estimates showed that only untreated dental caries was associated with current and lagged Gini, but in adjusted models only current Gini remained significant with a ratio of 1.19 (95%CI: 1.09-1.30) for every ten-point increase in the Gini coefficient. We conclude that lagged Gini showed no association with oral health; and current income Gini was associated with current dental caries but not with periodontal disease.

  16. Caries prevalence and periodontal treatment needs in public and private school pupils in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Taani, D Q

    1997-04-01

    A total of 886 pupils aged 15-16 years selected from 20 public and 10 private schools in northern Jordan were investigated for frequency of toothbrushing and sweet consumption, dental caries and periodontal treatment needs. A questionnaire and clinical examination were used utilising decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) code and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), respectively. Results revealed that 35.5 per cent of public and 57.1 per cent of private school pupils reported to brush their teeth regularly while the majority of them frequently consumed sweets. There were slight differences in caries experience amongst public and private school pupils, as measured by DMFT (4.74: 4.95). While bleeding and calculus scores were prevalent in pupils of both types of schools, they were slightly higher in pupils of public schools than those in private schools. Both shallow and deep pathological pockets were found in fewer numbers (6.09 per cent) in pupils in public schools only. Oral hygiene instruction and scaling were the predominant periodontal treatment needs in both types of schools. However, the treatment needed by pupils in public schools was higher than those in private schools. Complex treatment was rarely needed by public school pupils only.

  17. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  18. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  19. Caries Experience and Periodontal Status during Pregnancy in a Group of Pregnant Women with HIV+ Infections from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    López, Lydia M; Guerra, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the caries rate and periodontal status in a sample of pregnant women with HIV+ infections from Puerto Rico. Methods A pilot study was conducted on a cross sectional convenience sample of 25 pregnant women with HIV+ infections from Puerto Rico who visit the CEMI clinic (Centro de Estudios Materno Infantil) at the University of Puerto Rico. The women subjects were evaluated for caries, DMFT (D: Decay tooth; M: Missing tooth due to caries; F: Filled tooth) index, oral lesions associated with HIV+/AIDS and periodontal disease parameters, with a Florida probe by a calibrated dentist on periodontal indexes such as as bleeding on probing, CEJ (cemento-enamel junction) and pocket depth. Periodontal disease was classified as having 4 sites with pocket depth greater than 4 mm and caries were identified following the Radike criteria. Data was statistically analyzed using the SSPS Program (Statistical Software Program for Social Sciences) and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Mean DT (decayed teeth), MT (missing teeth due to caries), FT (filled teeth) and DMFT (decay, missing and filled teeth) were 4.8, 1.86, 5.3 and 12, respectively; mean sites of bleeding on probing=12.06; mean sites with pocket depth>4 mm=6.95 and mean sites with loss of attachment greater than 4 mm=7.66. [Almost 50% of the patients had generalized chronic periodontitis. A 72% prevalence of periodontal disease was found. No oral lesions related to HIV+/AIDS were reported. CD4 and viral load was statistically associated with bleeding on probing and severe signs of periodontal disease. Conclusions High levels of dental disease were found in pregnant women with HIV+/AIDS infections from Puerto Rico, and these women were in need of substantial dental services.

  20. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Soroushian, Sheila; Ganguly, Rumpa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. Results There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, "With CCAP" and "Without CCAP", there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. Conclusion This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health. PMID:24380062

  1. Organized spirochetal behavior in human subgingival plaques - A virulence factor in periodontal infections?

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The organization and behavior of spirochetes in human subgingival plaques was studied with phase-contrast microscopy. Wet-mounts of non-dispersed subgingival microbial specimens from deep pockets of 10 persons with untreated adult periodontitis revealed “brush formations” with outer coatings of closely-massed spirochetes exhibiting synchronized motility. Monolayers of closely-packed spirochetes co-aggregated with “brush formation” monofilaments were obtained by using mineral oil as a mounting medium for wet-mount preparations. Spirochetes were observed to produce collectively coordinated metachronal wave patterns with their cell movements along the outer surfaces of the “brush formation” monofilaments, rather than flexing independently and at random. Organized spirochetal activity in subgingival plaques may serve as a virulence factor contributing to the periodontopathic potential of spirochetes and/or other microbial species. PMID:26336331

  2. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group. PMID:26681848

  3. Investigation of probiotic bacteria as dental caries and periodontal disease biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Tomaro-Duchesneau, C; Rodes, L; Malhotra, M; Tabrizian, M; Prakash, S

    2014-12-01

    Oral diseases, specifically dental caries and periodontal disease, are characterised by increases in pathogenic microorganisms, increased demineralisation and increased inflammation and levels of inflammatory markers. Despite the therapeutic strategies, oral diseases have elevated prevalence rates. Recent work has demonstrated that probiotic bio-therapeutics can decrease oral pathogen counts, including caries-causing Streptococcus mutans and oral inflammation. The aim of this work was to investigate putative probiotic bacteria, selected for S. mutans inhibition and for their oral health-promoting characteristics. The probiotic bacteria were screened for S. mutans inhibition, probiotic bacteriocin activity, salivary pH modulation, probiotic nutrient (sucrose) competition, probiotic co-aggregation with S. mutans, bacterial attachment to oral epithelial keratinocytes, bacterial nitric oxide production and bacterial antioxidant activity. The results indicate that Lactobacillus reuteri strains NCIMB 701359, NCIMB 701089, NCIMB 702655 and NCIMB 702656 inhibited S. mutans to non-detectable levels (<10 cfu/ml). L. reuteri strains also demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity of the tested strains (7.73-13.99 µM Trolox equivalents), suggesting their use as both caries and periodontal disease therapeutics. Although Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 inhibited S. mutans at lower levels, it significantly buffered the pH (4.18) of saliva containing S. mutans, co-aggregated with S. mutans (10.09%), demonstrated high levels of sucrose consumption (138.11 mM) and successfully attached to gingival epithelial cells (11%). This study identified four L. reuteri strains and one L. fermentum strain to be further investigated as oral disease biotherapeutics.

  4. Investigation of probiotic bacteria as dental caries and periodontal disease biotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Tomaro-Duchesneau, C; Rodes, L; Malhotra, M; Tabrizian, M; Prakash, S

    2014-12-01

    Oral diseases, specifically dental caries and periodontal disease, are characterised by increases in pathogenic microorganisms, increased demineralisation and increased inflammation and levels of inflammatory markers. Despite the therapeutic strategies, oral diseases have elevated prevalence rates. Recent work has demonstrated that probiotic bio-therapeutics can decrease oral pathogen counts, including caries-causing Streptococcus mutans and oral inflammation. The aim of this work was to investigate putative probiotic bacteria, selected for S. mutans inhibition and for their oral health-promoting characteristics. The probiotic bacteria were screened for S. mutans inhibition, probiotic bacteriocin activity, salivary pH modulation, probiotic nutrient (sucrose) competition, probiotic co-aggregation with S. mutans, bacterial attachment to oral epithelial keratinocytes, bacterial nitric oxide production and bacterial antioxidant activity. The results indicate that Lactobacillus reuteri strains NCIMB 701359, NCIMB 701089, NCIMB 702655 and NCIMB 702656 inhibited S. mutans to non-detectable levels (<10 cfu/ml). L. reuteri strains also demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity of the tested strains (7.73-13.99 µM Trolox equivalents), suggesting their use as both caries and periodontal disease therapeutics. Although Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 inhibited S. mutans at lower levels, it significantly buffered the pH (4.18) of saliva containing S. mutans, co-aggregated with S. mutans (10.09%), demonstrated high levels of sucrose consumption (138.11 mM) and successfully attached to gingival epithelial cells (11%). This study identified four L. reuteri strains and one L. fermentum strain to be further investigated as oral disease biotherapeutics. PMID:25006013

  5. Minimal intervention dentistry II: part 2. Management of caries and periodontal risks in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Lallam, C; Decup, F

    2014-02-01

    The long-term clinical management of caries and periodontal diseases requires a double approach, one that is concerned with both treatment and prevention. Dentists should recognise the risk factors and their likely triggers to be able to implement the right strategy as early as the diagnostic phase. This comprehensive assessment can easily be done in general practice. All it takes is to combine the patient's general information with the systemic and behavioural factors, and the clinical observations with the local factors. The resulting patient profile can thus effectively support treatment by providing the necessary explanations, advice or prescriptions in relation with the clinical procedures. The modifiable risk factors need to be monitored and the behaviours changed to stabilise or limit disease progression. The practitioner's active approach is meant to meet the patient's demand for preventive counselling.

  6. Chemical Plaque Control Strategies in the Prevention of Biofilm-associated Oral Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jafer, Mohammed; Patil, Shankargouda; Hosmani, Jagadish; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Chalisserry, Elna P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque is a biofilm that forms naturally on the surfaces of exposed teeth and other areas of the oral cavity. It is the primary etiological factor for the most frequently occurring oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specific, nonspecific, and ecologic plaque hypothesis explains the causation of dental and associated diseases. Adequate control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of prevention of periodontitis and dental caries. Mechanical plaque control is the mainstay for prevention of oral diseases, but it requires patient cooperation and motivation; therefore, chemical plaque control agents act as useful adjuvants for achieving the desired results. Hence, it is imperative for the clinicians to update their knowledge in chemical antiplaque agents and other developments for the effective management of plaque biofilm-associated diseases. This article explores the critical analysis of various chemical plaque control strategies and the current trends in the control and prevention of dental plaque biofilm. PMID:27340170

  7. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity.

  8. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Christian; Jensen, Lars J.; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity. PMID:27672500

  9. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  10. Influence of Different Intellectual Disability Levels on Caries and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Costa, Antônio Augusto Iponema; Della Bona, Álvaro; Trentin, Micheline Sandini

    2016-01-01

    Oral health care is fundamental to preserve the individual integrity and consequently influences the general health. This observational, cross-sectional and analytical study evaluated the oral condition of 129 intellectually disabled individuals from the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) in three southern Brazilian cities. Dental caries (DMFT and dmft indices) and periodontal disease (PSR index) were evaluated considering the intellectual disability level. A questionnaire on socioeconomic status (income and education level) and the last visit to a dentist was answered by the subjects' parents/guardians. The data were statistically evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α=0.05). The mean DMFT values were 2.27, 3.76 and 0.58 (p<0.05), and the mean dmft values were 1.48, 1.55 and 2.75, respectively for subjects with mild, moderate and severe disabilities. Regarding the PSR index, 43% of the subjects presented gingivitis without retention factor (no calculus or defective margins) with no significant differences among the three disability levels. Considering the population and the limitations of this study, the subjects presenting severe disabilities showed significantly lower mean DMFT values compared to other disability levels, probably because the caretakers are responsible for the oral hygiene of such subjects. PMID:27007346

  11. Clinical and microbiological benefits of strict supragingival plaque control as part of the active phase of periodontal therapy

    PubMed Central

    FERES, Magda; GURSKY, Lauren Christine; FAVERI, Marcelo; TSUZUKI, Claudia Ota; FIGUEIREDO, Luciene Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To compare the clinical and microbiological effects of scaling and root planing (SRP) alone or combined with mechanical (professional plaque control - PPC) or chemical (chlorhexidine rinsing - CHX) control of supragingival plaque in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Methods Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to receive SRP alone or combined with PPC (twice a week) or with CHX rinsing (twice a day). The adjunctive treatments began with SRP and continued for 42 days. Clinical and microbiological examinations were performed at baseline, 2 and 6 months post-therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for 38 bacterial species by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Results The two test treatments were more effective in improving probing depth and clinical attachment level (CAL) than SRP alone, even in intermediate and deep sites. CAL gain was better maintained in the CHX group. The most beneficial microbiological changes were observed in CHX-treated subjects, who showed a significant reduction in the proportions of red and orange complexes, as well as an increase in the proportions of the host-compatible bacterial species. Conclusion Strict plaque control performed during and after SRP improves periodontal treatment outcomes. The greatest microbiological and clinical benefits were observed with the use of CHX rinsing. PMID:19703236

  12. Assessment of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Status among Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes of Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Kumar, P Mahesh; Kadhiresan, R; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Suyog

    2015-01-01

    Background: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status of elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 599 elderly people residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India using cluster sampling methodology. The clinical findings were recorded using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) to assess periodontal status as per community periodontal index, loss of attachment, WHO dentition status, and treatment needs. Results: In the present study, the caries prevalence among dentate subjects was found among 41.9% of the dentate subjects and the mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth was found to be 8.28 ± 4.779 with the mean number of decayed being 1.51. In the dentate population, 0% had healthy periodontal tissue, 0.26% had bleeding, and 24.5% had calculus, 52.1% had shallow pockets and 23.1% had deep pockets as their highest score and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the current study, 37.9% inmates were completely edentulous. This study also showed that as age advanced the prevalence increased from 23.1% to 55.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of elderly people was found to be poor. Hence, it is concluded from this study that tooth loss is higher among the geriatric group residing in old age homes and is associated with many demographic and behavioral risk indicators. PMID:26464541

  13. Laser-induced dental caries and plaque diagnosis on patients by sensitive autofluorescence spectroscopy and time-gated video imaging: preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1994-09-01

    The laser-induced in vivo autofluorescence of human teeth was investigated by means of time- resolved/time-gated fluorescence techniques. The aim of these studies was non-contact caries and plaque detection. Carious lesions and dental plaque fluoresce in the red spectral region. This autofluorescence seems to be based on porphyrin-producing bacteria. We report on preliminary studies on patients using a novel method of autofluorescence imaging. A special device was constructed for time-gated video imaging. Nanosecond laser pulses for fluorescence excitation were provided by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Autofluorescence was detected in an appropriate nanosecond time window using a video camera with a time-gated image intensifier (minimal time gate: 5 ns). Laser-induced autofluorescence based on porphyrin-producing bacteria seems to be an appropriate tool for detecting dental lesions and for creating `caries-images' and `dental plaque' images.

  14. Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, R; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chelladurai, K; Padmavathy, S; Saravanan, M; Prakash, P; Ajmal Ali, M; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-11-01

    Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nano-biotechnology. In the present investigation, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing the leaf extract of Justicia glauca. Water-soluble organics present in the leaf extract are mainly responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to AgNPs. The AgNPs are 10-20nm in dimensions as determined by TEM images. The antimicrobial activities of green synthesized AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs have been evaluated against the dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs show a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of AgNPs determined against the selected dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms are noticeable between the range of 25-75μg/mL. PMID:26249603

  15. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease. PMID:24349448

  16. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  17. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans a major periodontal pathogen using polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kush, Anil; Thakur, Rachna; Patil, Sandya Devi S.; Paul, Santhosh T.; Kakanur, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the present scenario, we are made available with chemomechanical caries removal system containing a natural proteolytic enzyme for the ease in the excavation of infected dentine. The additive action for these agents is providing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: This study was undertaken for assessing the action of Carie Care™ and Papacarie Duo™ on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected for cultivation of the periodontal pathogen from the clinical periodontal pockets using sterile paper points. The samples cultured under suitable conditions were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting 16s r-DNA. The samples were divided into three groups namely, Group A: Control, Group B: With Papacarie Duo, Group C: With Carie Care. The pathogen inoculums plugs were inserted in the petri dishes containing chemically defined medium and the experimental gels at different concentrations and were incubated under optimal conditions. The inhibition of growth of the pathogen was studied visually. Results: There was visual inhibition of growth for Group B and C and also exhibited a dose-dependent effect also. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, Carie Care™ gel demonstrated better antimicrobial action against A. actinomycetemcomitans which is a major periodontal disease causing pathogen. PMID:26681861

  19. The prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease from the cradle to the grave: what is the best available evidence?

    PubMed

    Davies, Robin M

    2003-05-01

    Increasing weight is being given to applying an evidence-based approach to clinical practice. There is evidence to support a range of preventive measures which the profession and patients can apply to maximize the control of caries and periodontal disease. This paper examines the strength of evidence to support the advice and procedures that may be used by dental professionals to provide an effective preventive programme of advice and procedures for patients of all ages. A hierarchy of evidence is used ranging from Cochrane Reviews at the top, observational studies in the middle, and opinion at the bottom. Whilst the evidence to support preventive advice and procedures in children and adolescents is relatively strong, few studies have been conducted in adults and the elderly.

  20. [Social stratification in epidemiological studies of dental caries and periodontal diseases: a profile of the scientific literature in the 1990s].

    PubMed

    Boing, Antonio Fernando; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Kovaleski, Douglas Francisco; Zange, Sabrina Elisa; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have analyzed the association between oral health and social development. However, the use of different variables assessing socioeconomic status impairs the comparative analysis of their findings. The present study describes how recent dental studies have classified population segments according to categories of social stratification. We selected 86 papers on social determinants of dental caries or periodontal conditions, and published in MEDLINE-indexed journals from 1990 to 2001. The studies used different strategies to stratify populations, but occupation, schooling, and income were the most frequently assessed variables. Ethnic differentials, characteristics of households and schools, and access to material resources were also frequently appraised. We also observed a large portion of Brazilian studies focusing on socioeconomic differentials in the distribution of caries and periodontal disease. Knowledge of strategies for social stratification can improve the understanding of factors associated with dental diseases, fostering further studies and allowing the comparison of their results.

  1. Impact of the Daily Use of a Microcrystal Hydroxyapatite Dentifrice on De Novo Plaque Formation and Clinical/Microbiological Parameters of Periodontal Health. A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schlagenhauf, Ulrich; May, Theodor W.; Gravemeier, Martina; Prior, Karola; Petersilka, Gregor; Ehmke, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Aim This 12-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, two-center trial evaluated the impact of a microcrystalline zinc hydroxyapatite (mHA) dentifrice on plaque formation rate (PFR) in chronic periodontitis patients. We hypothesized that mHA precipitates cause delayed plaque development when compared to a fluoridated control (AmF/SnF2), and therefore would improve periodontal health. Material & Methods At baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks, PFR and other clinical and microbiological parameters were recorded. Seventy periodontitis patients received a mHA or AmF/SnF2 dentifrice as daily oral care without hygiene instructions. Four weeks after baseline, participants received full mouth debridement and continued using the dentifrices for another 8 weeks. Results Primary outcome PFR did not change statistically significantly from baseline to weeks 4 and 12, neither in mHA (n = 33; 51.7±17.2% vs. 48.5±16.65% vs. 48.4±19.9%) nor in AmF/SnF2-group (n = 34; 52.3±17.5% vs. 52.5±21.3% vs. 46.1±21.8%). Secondary clinical parameters such as plaque control record, gingival index, bleeding on probing, and pocket probing depth improved, but between-group differences were not statistically significant. Microbiological analyses showed similar slight decreases in colony-forming units in both groups. Conclusion In patients with mild-to-moderate periodontitis, periodontal therapy and use of a mHA-or AmF/SnF2 dentifrice without instructions induced comparable improvements in periodontal health but did not significantly reduce the PFR. Trial Registration ClincalTrials.gov NCT02697539 PMID:27467683

  2. Prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and their association with socio-demographic risk factors among older persons in Delhi, India: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Goswami, Anil; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne

    2013-05-01

    Dental health is often neglected in the older persons, and dental conditions associated with aging are complex, adversely affecting the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among older persons from Delhi, India, and to study their association with selected socio-behavioral risk factors. We conducted a community-based cross sectional study among persons aged > or = 60 years from Delhi during 2009-2010. A questionnaire was used to interview elderly regarding dental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form was used for examining the study participants. A total of 448 participants were examined and included in the study. Of the dentate, 47.1% had active dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score for the study population was 14.4. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets and loss of attachment was 96.6, 89.1, and 80.3%, respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was 47.9%. Age, frequency of teeth cleaning, and method used for teeth cleaning were statistically associated with the DMFT score. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was high in the study population, and warrants intervention.

  3. [Biologico-periodontal considerations in restoration of teeth partially destroyed by caries or traumatism].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Martínez, J J; Zermeño Ibarra, J A; Mercado Martínez, E G; Villanueva Neuman, Y; Castellanos Olmedo, R

    1990-01-01

    Since a great number of teeth could be rehabilitated and not extracted, in this paper we analyze the relation Perio-protesis by the point of the biology of marginal periodontal ligament, and the different options to establish this relations when are lost by decay or traumatism. We discuss the contraindications to avoid greater problems than benefits when intend to rehabilitate lost teeth.

  4. Slot immunoblot assay for detection and quantitation of periodontal disease-associated microorganisms in dental plaque.

    PubMed Central

    van Poperin, N; Lopatin, D E

    1991-01-01

    A rapid method for qualitative and quantitative detection of specific oral microorganisms from subgingival dental plaque is described. Plaque samples were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline containing protease inhibitors and 0.5% formaldehyde, briefly sonicated to disperse bacterial aggregates, and applied to nitrocellulose membranes in a slot blot manifold. Subsequent incubations with species-specific rabbit antibody and anti-rabbit antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and development with BCIP-NBT substrate resulted in an easily discernible, permanent stain being deposited at the sample application site. Comparison with known concentrations of pure, cultured microorganisms applied to the same membranes permitted qualitative or semiquantitative plaque characterization by visual inspection. Analysis of the blots with a computer-linked flatbed scanner provided quantitative data on microbial content. The reproducibility of the results (standard error of the mean, less than 10%) obtained with slot immunoblotting greatly exceeded that of the results obtained with immunofluorescence analysis (standard error of the mean, greater than 57%). Because it is versatile, rapid, sensitive, reproducible, permanent, and relatively inexpensive, slot immunoblotting lends itself to use in large-scale investigations for the detection and quantitation of specific microbial species. PMID:1663511

  5. [Biologico-periodontal considerations in restoration of teeth partially destroyed by caries or traumatism].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Martínez, J J; Zermeño Ibarra, J A; Mercado Martínez, E G; Villanueva Neuman, Y; Castellanos Olmedo, R

    1990-01-01

    Since a great number of teeth could be rehabilitated and not extracted, in this paper we analyze the relation Perio-protesis by the point of the biology of marginal periodontal ligament, and the different options to establish this relations when are lost by decay or traumatism. We discuss the contraindications to avoid greater problems than benefits when intend to rehabilitate lost teeth. PMID:1975497

  6. Bacteria and bacterial DNA in atherosclerotic plaque and aneurysmal wall biopsies from patients with and without periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Armingohar, Zahra; Jørgensen, Jørgen J.; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Abesha-Belay, Emnet; Olsen, Ingar

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported an association between chronic periodontitis (CP) and cardiovascular diseases. Detection of periodontopathogens, including red complex bacteria (RCB), in vascular lesions has suggested these bacteria to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Objective In this study, we investigate bacteria and their DNA in vascular biopsies from patients with vascular diseases (VD; i.e. abdominal aortic aneurysms, atherosclerotic carotid, and common femoral arteries), with and without CP. Methods DNA was extracted from vascular biopsies selected from 40 VD patients: 30 with CP and 10 without CP. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rDNA (V3-V5) was polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, and the amplicons were cloned into Escherichia coli, sequenced, and classified (GenBank and the Human Oral Microbiome database). Species-specific primers were used for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In addition, 10 randomly selected vascular biopsies from the CP group were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for visualization of bacteria. Checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization was performed to assess the presence of RCB in 10 randomly selected subgingival plaque samples from CP patients. Results A higher load and mean diversity of bacteria were detected in vascular biopsies from VD patients with CP compared to those without CP. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently detected in vascular biopsies together with cultivable, commensal oral, and not-yet-cultured bacterial species. While 70% of the subgingival plaque samples from CP patients showed presence of RCB, only P. gingivalis was detected in one vascular biopsy. Bacterial cells were seen in all 10 vascular biopsies examined by SEM. Conclusions A higher bacterial load and more diverse colonization were detected in VD lesions of CP patients as compared to patients without CP. This indicated that a multitude of bacterial species both from the gut and the

  7. Subgingival Plaque in Periodontal Health Antagonizes at Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Inhibits E-Selectin Expression on Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gümüş, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the subgingival microbial community to induce an inappropriate inflammatory response ultimately results in the destruction of bone and gingival tissue. In this study, subgingival plaque samples from both healthy and diseased sites in the same individual were obtained from adults with chronic periodontitis and screened for their ability to either activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4 and to antagonize TLR4-specific activation by agonist, Fusobacterium nucleatum LPS. Subgingival plaque from diseased sites strongly activated TLR4, whereas matched plaque samples obtained from healthy sites were significantly more variable, with some samples displaying strong TLR4 antagonism, while others were strong TLR4 agonists when combined with F. nucleatum LPS. Similar results were observed when TLR4 dependent E-selectin expression by endothelial cells was determined. These results are the first to demonstrate TLR4 antagonism from human plaque samples and demonstrate that healthy but not diseased sites display a wide variation in TLR4 agonist and antagonist behavior. The results have identified a novel characteristic of clinically healthy sites and warrant further study on the contribution of TLR4 antagonism in the progression of a healthy periodontal site to a diseased one. PMID:26483407

  8. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    Pyorrhea - gum disease; Inflammation of gums - involving bone ... Periodontitis occurs when inflammation or infection of the gums ( gingivitis ) occurs and is not treated. Infection and inflammation spreads from the gums (gingiva) ...

  9. Detection and measurement of oral malodor in chronic periodontitis patients and its correlation with levels of select oral anaerobes in subgingival plaque

    PubMed Central

    Grover, H. S.; Blaggana, Anshu; Jain, Yashika; Saini, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral malodor is generally ascribable to oral microbial putrefaction generating malodorous volatile sulfur compounds. The aim of the present study is to correlate organoleptic recordings with a small handheld portable volatile sulfide monitor and periodontal clinical parameters and correlate the levels of halitosis causing bacteria in plaque between baseline, 1-week, and 1-month. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 systemically healthy subjects with self-reported halitosis were subjected to organoleptic examination and FitScan®. Subgingival plaque samples for anaerobic culturing were harvested followed by an assessment of plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and pocket probing depth. Data derived were subjected to statistical analysis using Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman's rank test (P < 0.05). Results: No correlation was seen between organoleptic measurements and portable volatile sulfide monitor at any time interval. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) correlation between the scores of PI, gingival index, GBI, and myeloproliferative disease with organoleptic readings at all-time intervals. Anaerobic culture has shown to identify Fusobacterium species, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia. However, no correlation could be established in between total microbial load with organoleptic and FitScan® reading at any time interval (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Significant correlation could be established between organoleptic readings and periodontal parameters. PMID:26604572

  10. [Influence of tooth crowding on the prevalence of dental caries. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of the mineralized tissues of teeth. It usually has a chronic course and is caused by external factors which can be modified. Current opinions about the contribution of malocclusions to the etiology of dental caries are conflicting. Some researchers believe that malocclusions like crowded teeth cause improper contacts between neighboring teeth and make effective oral hygiene more difficult. The difficulty in cleaning crowded teeth is believed to increase plaque accumulation and consequently predisposes the tooth to the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Others claim that malocclusion has a minimal influence on the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Ideal oral hygiene is of basic importance for plaque elimination which is the harmful factor in caries and in this way is decisive for the health of mineral and soft tissues to a much greater extent than lack of malocclusion. However, if a person with malocclusion is more susceptible to dental caries, oral hygiene cannot be the decisive factor.

  11. Distribution of 3-hydroxy iC17:0 in subgingival plaque and gingival tissue samples: relationship to adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Nichols, F C

    1994-09-01

    Gram-negative organisms incorporate hydroxy fatty acids into the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in the case of some members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, hydroxy fatty acids are incorporated exclusively into lipid A. However, a limited number of Bacteroides species have been shown to incorporate several classes of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, particularly 3-hydroxy iC17:0, into constitutive lipids as well as LPS. The present study examined the distribution of hydroxy fatty acids in two periodontal pathogens, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis, by employing a phospholipid extraction procedure (E. G. Bligh and W. J. Dyer, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37:911-917, 1959) which partitioned constitutive lipids into the organic solvent phase and LPS into the aqueous phase. The distribution of hydroxy fatty acids within organic solvent and aqueous extracts of these bacterial species was then compared with the distribution in subgingival plaque samples isolated from either gingivitis or severe periodontitis sites as well as the distribution in gingival tissue samples. The organic solvent and aqueous extracts were hydrolyzed under strong alkaline conditions, and the free fatty acids were treated to form pentafluorobenzyl-ester, trimethylsilyl-ether derivatives. Hydroxy fatty acid levels were quantified by using gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. By using this approach, the mean values of the 3-hydroxy iC17:0 recovered within organic solvent extracts of P. gingivalis strains ranged from 56 to 63% of total 3-hydroxy iC17:0. Substantially less 3-hydroxy iC17:0 (< 5%) was recovered in organic solvent extracts of P. intermedia. By comparison, 75% of the 3-hydroxy iC17:0 in periodontitis subgingival plaque samples was recovered in organic solvent extracts, while only 43% of the 3-hydroxy iC17:0 in gingivitis plaque samples from the same patients was recovered in organic solvent extracts. However, 3-hydroxy iC17:0 was

  12. Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development. A review of current methods and implications for novel pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kalesinskas, Povilas; Kačergius, Tomas; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Pečiulienė, Vytautė; Ericson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is an oral disease, which has a high worldwide prevalence despite the availability of various prophylactic means, including the daily use of fluoride toothpastes, water fluoridation, dental sealants, oral health educational programs and various antiseptic mouth-rinses. One important reason for this is uncontrolled increase in consumption of foods containing considerable sucrose concentration, especially among children. Sucrose is easily metabolized by oral bacteria (mostly streptococci) to acids and, subsequently, causing tooth decay or dental caries. In the oral ecosystem, streptococci principally reside on tooth surfaces forming biofilm. Important structural and binding materials of biofilm are glucan polymers synthesized by several isoforms of glucosyltransferase enzyme present in certain species of oral bacteria, including mutans group streptococci - Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which preferably colonize humans. Thus, there is a constant need to develop the methods and chemotherapeutics for improving oral health care and decreasing teeth decay through the suppression of cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper was to review literature related to the pathogenesis of dental caries as well as currently existing and experimental pharmaceutical substances used for prevention of this process. PMID:25209226

  13. Prevalence of dental caries among 5-13-year-old children of Mangalore city.

    PubMed

    Sudha, P; Bhasin, S; Anegundi, R T

    2005-06-01

    A study of prevalence of dental caries was undertaken in 5-13-year-old children from Mangalore city. A total of 524 children were examined. The sample consisted of 193, 160, and 171 children in the 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years of age group, respectively. Dental caries was examined visually and observations were recorded. Silness and L phie plaque index, L phie and Silness gingival index were used to record the periodontal status. The prevalence of dental caries was highest in 5-7-year-age group compared to 8-10 years and 11-13 years age groups. The increasing prevalence of dental caries needs dental health programmes, which target the specific segments of the population.

  14. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  15. Dental plaque biofilm in oral health and disease.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Zhang, Cheng Fei; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2011-01-01

    Dental plaque is an archetypical biofilm composed of a complex microbial community. It is the aetiological agent for major dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The clinical picture of these dental diseases is a net result of the cross-talk between the pathogenic dental plaque biofilm and the host tissue response. In the healthy state, both plaque biofilm and adjacent tissues maintain a delicate balance, establishing a harmonious relationship between the two. However, changes occur during the disease process that transform this 'healthy' dental plaque into a 'pathogenic' biofilm. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have improved the understanding of dental plaque biofilm and produced numerous clinical benefits. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians keep abreast with these new developments in the field of dentistry. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind dental diseases will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to establish a 'healthy dental plaque biofilm' by modulating both host and microbial factors. In this review, the present authors aim to summarise the current knowledge on dental plaque as a microbial biofilm and its properties in oral health and disease.

  16. [Oral findings in severely handicapped patients participating in the periodic dental check-up system for five years--dental caries, gingival recessions and hyperplasias, periodontal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, T; Kasahara, H; Hosaka, K; Itou, A; Nohara, S; Hiraide, Y; Kawashima, S; Watanabe, T

    1990-01-01

    In March 1987, we investigated the quality of oral hygiene, and the incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases in 140 severely handicapped patients who had been hospitalized in two national sanatorium. All of the patients had participated under the Matsumoto Dental College Hospital Periodic Dental Check-up System for five years. The results were as follows: 1. The teeth of all the subjects had been brushed by the sanatorium nursing staff twice per day. The prevailing brushing technique was the horizontal method. 2. 37.5% of the subjects showed complete adaptability to the tooth brushing by the nursing staff. However, 2.1% showed no adaptability whatsoever. 3. The mean value of the OHI-S was 1.53. The labial surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth showed the lowest OHI-S value, while the mandibular left posterior teeth showed the highest. 4. The DMF-T was estimated to be 12.51 (DMFT ratio = 48.2%). The average D-T was 2.07 +/- 4.03, and the average F-T was 8.43 +/- 7.22. 5. 19.3% of the patients were diagnosed with gingival hyperplasia, and 10.7% had local gingival recessions. 1) Of the patients who had taken Phenytoin daily, 35.5% were diagnosed with hyperplasia. 2) Most local gingival recessions were found on the labial gingiva of the mandibular anterior teeth. A relationship was determined to exist the local recession and the horizontal brushing method. 6. 89.2% of the patients suffered from periodontal diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Survival of Human Dental Plaque Flora in Various Transport Media

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.

    1972-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from (i) subjects with no apparent oral disease, (ii) mentally retarded subjects with periodontal disease, and (iii) subjects with active caries were collected in three transport media viz. a dithiothreitol poised balanced mineral salt solution designated as reduced transport fluid (RTF), VMG II, and modified Stuart medium (SBL). The samples were dispersed by sonic treatment, diluted in the respective medium in which they were collected, and cultured on MM10 sucrose agar. The efficiency of the transport media in the survival of dental plaque flora was determined by comparing the quantitative recovery (expressed as percentage of the initial viable count) from the specimens stored for various lengths of time. The data showed a great variation in the recovery of the oral bacterial flora from the plaque samples. VMG II and SBL served better than RTF as storage media for non-disease-associated dental plaque cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Recoveries of bacteria from periodontal plaque specimens stored in RTF were higher than SBL and VMG II under identical conditions. The organisms present in the carious plaque samples appeared to survive much better in RTF and VMG II than in SBL as determined by conventional anaerobic culturing technique. However, VMG II showed a higher recovery of organisms from these specimens with an increase in the storage period, suggesting multiplication of the plaque flora. RTF did not allow the growth of oral bacterial flora under all experimental conditions. On the basis of the relative performance of these media it is suggested that RTF is a satisfactory medium for the transport of oral bacteria present in the samples. PMID:4628799

  18. Association of dental and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A retrospective case controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the association of oral hygiene, dental caries, and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods A retrospective case-control study on 81 patients treated for neoplasms with bone metastases. Twenty-nine patients with bone necrosis and 52 controls treated with bisphosphonates were compared using the Oral Hygiene Index, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, and Residual Periodontal Bone. The null hypothesis stated that there was no difference in parameters of oral health between patients with and without bone necrosis. Differences of means of above-mentioned variables were compared between the groups with Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test and χ2 test. Value of p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results Poorer oral hygiene (OHIs 1.94 vs. 1.32; p = 0.065), more advanced dental caries (DMFT 26.85 vs. 22.87; p = 0.05), and more advanced periodontal disease (CPITN: = 0: 21.05% vs. 42.51%; = 1 13.16% vs. 7.29%; = 2: 0% vs. 15.38%; = 3: 65.79% vs. 28.34%; = 4: 0% vs. 6.48%, Residual periodontal bone 73.1% vs. 80.51%; p = 0,001) were characteristic of patients with bisphosphonate related jaw necrosis when compared with control group. An advanced dental caries or periodontal disease required surgical intervention which directly contributed to the development of the bone necrosis. Conclusions Dental and periodontal disease can lead to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oncologic patients treated with bisphosphonates should be offered preventive care to reduce dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, and periodontal disease. PMID:24701224

  19. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  20. [An in vitro study of the action of kola nitida on bacterial strains implicated in dental caries and periodontal diseases].

    PubMed

    Kamagate, A; Attoli, L; Kone, D; Ly, Bakayoko; Brou, E; Sixou, M

    2002-06-01

    The Nitida Kola is a substance extracted from the kolanut. In West Africa its use by chewing is widespread among the Manding people. It's said to have tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac characteristics and even recent studies have shown that it has antibacterial characteristics. The aim of this study is to make an estimation of the Nitida Kola's effects on different bacterial species involved in the two main oral and dental pathologies (teeth decays and periodontal illnesses). The obtained results indicate that the kola extract is not effectual against the tried-out bacteria at regular dose used by chewing.

  1. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  2. The effect of a combination of chlorhexidine diacetate, sodium fluoride and xylitol on plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores in military academy cadets refraining from mechanical tooth cleaning for 7-day experimental periods.

    PubMed

    Nuuja, T; Meurman, J H; Murtomaa, H; Kortelainen, S; Metteri, J

    1992-02-01

    45 subjects participated in a double-blind cross-over mouthwash study where a new tablet-form combination of chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol (XYLIHEX) was studied together with solutions of chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium fluoride (NaF). The preparation XYLIHEX was developed as a dental chemotherapeutic that could easily be added to the soldiers' kit to be used under circumstances where practising normal oral hygiene habits is restricted. For comparative purposes, XYLIHEX was prediluted in this study to make a solution. Before starting, professional prophylaxis was given to the subjects to bring their gingivitis index scores as close to 0 as possible. The subjects refrained from mechanical tooth cleaning for three 7-day test periods. Plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores were recorded before and after the test periods. The results showed that the preparations XYLIHEX and CHX did not statistically differ from each other in reducing plaque wet weight values and the recorded periodontal index scores. Both these preparations were statistically highly significantly more effective antiplaque agents than NaF, as expected.

  3. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  4. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  5. [Treatment of periodontitis associated with cyclosporin-induced severe gingival hyperplasia with regular mechanical plaque removal in a patient with renal transplantation (Case report)].

    PubMed

    Keglevich, Tibor; Windisch, Péter; Gera, István

    2002-02-01

    A clinical case of a middle-aged kidney transplanted woman is presented. The woman has been taking Cyclosporin-A for over 13 years and has had advanced periodontitis and severe gingival swellings and gingival inflammation. The kidney transplant patient was treated and followed up for approx. four years. The treatment protocol included very thorough mechanical scaling and root planing, oral hygienic instructions and the regular professional maintenance program resulted in complete remission of the gingival overgrowth and stabilization of the periodontal condition. The gingival and periodontal conditions showed a continuing improvement over the time despite of the continuous CSA administration.

  6. Periodontal status in snow leopards.

    PubMed

    Cook, R A; Stoller, N H

    1986-11-01

    Periodontal examinations were performed on ten 1- to 22-year-old snow leopards (6 males and 4 females), using dentistry methods for determining the plaque and gingival indices. All tooth surfaces were probed, and alveolar bone attachment loss was determined. After subgingival plaque removal, plaque specimens were examined for differential bacterial morphotypes. The small number of leopards evaluated precluded definitive statistical analysis. However, the progression from gingival health to gingivitis to periodontitis was similar to that seen in man. Therefore, the use of plaque index, gingival index, alveolar bone attachment loss, and differential bacterial morphotypes can be used to determine the dental health of snow leopards. PMID:3505932

  7. Sugars and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, Riva; van Loveren, Cor

    2003-10-01

    A dynamic relation exists between sugars and oral health. Diet affects the integrity of the teeth; quantity, pH, and composition of the saliva; and plaque pH. Sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates, after being hydrolyzed by salivary amylase, provide substrate for the actions of oral bacteria, which in turn lower plaque and salivary pH. The resultant action is the beginning of tooth demineralization. Consumed sugars are naturally occurring or are added. Many factors in addition to sugars affect the caries process, including the form of food or fluid, the duration of exposure, nutrient composition, sequence of eating, salivary flow, presence of buffers, and oral hygiene. Studies have confirmed the direct relation between intake of dietary sugars and dental caries across the life span. Since the introduction of fluoride, the incidence of caries worldwide has decreased, despite increases in sugars consumption. Other dietary factors (eg, the presence of buffers in dairy products; the use of sugarless chewing gum, particularly gum containing xylitol; and the consumption of sugars as part of meals rather than between meals) may reduce the risk of caries. The primary public health measures for reducing caries risk, from a nutrition perspective, are the consumption of a balanced diet and adherence to dietary guidelines and the dietary reference intakes; from a dental perspective, the primary public health measures are the use of topical fluorides and consumption of fluoridated water.

  8. Clinical Implications of Power Toothbrushing on Fluoride Delivery: Effects on Biofilm Plaque Metabolism and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Aspiras, M.; Stoodley, P.; Nistico, L.; Longwell, M.; de Jager, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dental biofilms are implicated in the formation of caries and periodontal disease. A major constituent of the supragingival biofilm is Streptococcus mutans, which produces lactic acid from sucrose fermentation, enhancing enamel demineralization and eventual caries development. Caries prevention through F inhibits enamel demineralization and promotes remineralization. Fluoride also exerts effects on metabolic activities in the supragingival biofilm such as aerobic respiration, acid fermentation and dentrification. In experimental S. mutans biofilms, adding 1000 ppm F to an acidogenic biofilm resulting from 10% sucrose addition increased pH to pre-sucrose levels, suggesting inhibition of acid fermentation. F effects on metabolic activity and sucrose utilization in interproximal plaque biofilms were also recorded. Addition of 10% sucrose reduced pH from neutral to 4.2, but subsequent addition of 1000 ppm F increased pH by 1 unit, inhibiting acid fermentation. 10% Sucrose addition also stimulated denitrification, increasing production of nitrous oxide (N2O). Addition of 1000 ppm F suppressed denitrification, indicating an additional mechanism by which F exerts effects in the active interproximal biofilm. Finally, fluid dynamic activity by power tooth brushing enhanced F delivery and retention in an experimental S. mutans biofilm, suggesting a potential novel benefit for this intervention beyond mechanical plaque removal. PMID:20414341

  9. Food components and caries.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    1994-07-01

    For many decades, sugars have been the dietary constituents receiving the most attention in relation to their effects on dental caries. Frequently, however, there is little relationship between the amount of sugar in a food and its ability to induce caries. Therefore, it is clear that constituents in the diet can influence the ability of plaque to lower the pH of sugar solutions. For instance, replacing sugar in foods with xylitol, sorbitol, saccharin, or aspartame may lead to a reduction in the incidence of dental caries. All these sugar substitutes are non-cariogenic, and some may possess cariostatic properties. The presence of arginine-rich proteins in the diet may provide a ready source of this amino acid, which is the substrate for the arginine deiminase pathway which can result in a rapid elevation of plaque pH values. Proline can act as an acceptor for protons from lactate in the Stickland reaction. This is a major but much-neglected metabolic pathway in dental plaque. The presence of fat in experimental diets has been shown to affect their cariogenicity. The effects have been ascribed to enhanced clearance of sugars from the mouth. It is also conceivable that several fatty acids express a potent antibacterial effect. The presence of calcium and phosphorus has been shown to influence the cariogenicity of foods; the effect, however, is restricted to the food containing the minerals. Evidence suggests that pyridoxine (vitamin B6) may exert a cariostatic effect by enhancing decarboxylation activity in dental plaque. It is clear that sugar alone is not the sole determinant of whether food is cariogenic. Furthermore, myriad substances may hinder or enhance the caries-promoting properties of sugars in the diet.

  10. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the

  11. Effect of an enzymatic rinse on salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in periodontally treated patients.

    PubMed

    Lehane, R J; Murray, P A; Deasy, M J

    1997-01-01

    Root surface caries is prevalent in patients with both treated and untreated periodontal disease. The major etiologic factor has been identified as microbial plaque. In periodontally treated patients, significantly higher root caries prevalence and incidence have been found in patients with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli in saliva. Reducing the levels of S. mutans and Lactobacilli in saliva may lower the risk of root caries development. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of an oral enzymatic rinse on the salivary counts of S. mutans and Lactobacilli in periodontally treated patients. Fifteen adult subjects participated in a double-blind, cross-over designed clinical trial. Each subject had previously undergone comprehensive periodontal therapy and had been maintained on a regular program of supportive periodontal therapy. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant. Each subject was then randomly given either the enzymatic rinse product or a control rinse and instructed to rinse with one tablespoonful twice a day for 2 weeks, after which saliva samples were taken. After a washout period, salivary samples were again taken, and the subjects received the alternate rinse product. Two weeks later, final salivary samples were taken. The salivary samples were serially diluted and incubated aerobically on selective culture media. S. mutans and Lactobacilli were counted on the basis of colonial morphology. Pretreatment and posttreatment salivary counts of S. mutans and Lactobacilli were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test at the 5% level of significance. Analysis of data revealed that neither the test nor the control rinse significantly lowered salivary counts of either species in the sample population.

  12. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  13. In vitro efficacy of cefovecin against anaerobic bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque of dogs and cats with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Bird, Philip S; Owens, Jane; Wilson, Gary; Meyer, James N; Trott, Darren J

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal disease is a common disease of dogs and cats often requiring antimicrobial treatment as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. However, correct compliance with oral antimicrobial therapy in companion animals is often difficult. Cefovecin is a recently introduced veterinary cephalosporin that has demonstrated prolonged concentrations in extracellular fluid, allowing for dosing intervals of up to 14 days. Subgingival samples were collected from the oral cavity of 29 dogs and eight cats exhibiting grade 2 or grade 3 periodontal disease. Samples were cultivated on Wilkin Chalgrens agar and incubated in an anaerobic chamber for seven days. Selected anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for cefovecin and six additional antimicrobials using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The 65 clinical isolates were identified as Porphyromonas gulae (n = 45), Porphyromonas crevioricanis (n = 12), Porphyromonas macacae (n = 1), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (n = 1) Fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 2), Fusobacterium russii (n = 1) and Solobacterium moorei (n = 3). This is the first report of S. moorei being isolated from companion animals with periodontal disease. All isolates were highly susceptible to cefovecin, with a MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml. Conversely, different resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin between isolates were detected. Cefovecin is thus shown to be effective in vitro against anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with periodontal disease. PMID:24930431

  14. Periodontitis and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Straka, Michal; Straka-Trapezanlidis, Michaela; Deglovic, Juraj; Varga, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Today's knowledge and studies show a firm correlation between osteoporosis and periodontitis, particularly in postmenopausal women. This review study deals with epidemiological and etiopathogenetic association between chronic periodontitis and an osteoporosis. A special emphasis is put on explanation of possible relations between a premature tooth loss and decrease of length and density of jaw bones, particularly their alveolar prolongations. The second part of the paper deals with principles of treatment in patients suffering of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis reduces density of jaw bones and decreases a number of teeth in jaws, but it does not affect other clinical signs and markers of periodontitis such as inflammation, bleeding and the depth of periodontal pockets and microbial plaque.

  15. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Haidar; Al-Jawad, Abdulfatah; Al-Shayeb, Mahdi; Al-Ali, Ali; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Objective This is a pilot case-control study conducted to investigate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease and examine the possible association between oral health deterioration and SCD severity in a sample of Saudi SCD patients residing in the city of Al-Qatif, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods Dental examination to determine the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and plaque index system were recorded for 33 SCD patients and 33 age and sex-matched controls in the Al-Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Self-administered surveys used to assess socio-economic status; oral health behaviors for both SCD patients and controls were recorded. In addition, the disease severity index was established for all patients with SCD. SPSS data analysis software package version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Numerical variables were described as mean with a standard deviation. Results Decayed teeth were significantly more in individuals with ages ranging from 18 to 38 years with SCD compared to the control group (p = 0.036) due to oral hygiene negligence. The mean number of filled teeth was significantly lower in individuals with SCD when compared to the control group (p = 0.015) due to the lack of appropriate and timely treatment reflected in the survey responses of SCD patients as 15.2% only taking oral care during hospitalization. There were differences between the cases and controls in the known caries risk factors such as income level, flossing, and brushing habit. The DMFT, CPI, and plaque index systems did not differ significantly between the SCD patients and the control group. Conclusion Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD. PMID:25544813

  16. Association between Dental Prosthesis and Periodontal Disease among Patients Visiting a Tertiary Dental Care Centre in Eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, M; Shrestha, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries and Periodontal diseases are the most prevalent oral health problems present globally. The distribution and severity of such oral health problems varies in different parts of the world and even in different regions of the same country. Nepal is one of the country with higher prevalence rate of these problems. These problems arise in association with multiple factors. Objective This study was carried out to describe the periodontal status and to analyse the association of periodontal disease with the wearing of fixed or removable partial dentures in a Nepalese population reporting to the College of Dental Surgery, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Method This study comprised of a sample of 200 adult individuals. All data were collected by performing clinical examinations in accordance with the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods Criteria. It included the Community Periodontal Index and dental prosthesis examination. Result A descriptive analysis was performed and odds ratio (1.048) and 95% confidence interval (1.001; 1.096) was found out. The mean age of the population participated in the study was 41.82 ± 14.80 years. A total of 93 (46.5%) males and 107 (53.5%) females participated in the study. Among these subjects, 100% presented some periodontal problems. The statistical analysis indicated that the probability of periodontal disease with regards to wearing partial dentures was not significant as suggested by the odds ratio (1.048). Conclusion There is no association of the wearing of dental prosthesis (RPD and/or FPD) with the periodontal disease and suggests a need for populations based oral health education programs, plaque control programs to reduce the incidence of periodontal disease. PMID:27180363

  17. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to control microbial periodontal infection by removing bacterial biofilm, calculus, and toxins from periodontally involved root surfaces. A review of the scientific literature indicates that mechanical nonsurgical periodontal treatment predictably reduces the levels of inflammation and probing pocket depths, increases the clinical attachment level and results in an apical shift of the gingival margin. Another parameter to be considered, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence, is the reduction in the degree of tooth mobility, as clinically experienced. It is important to point out that nonsurgical periodontal treatment presents limitations such as the long-term maintainability of deep periodontal pockets, the risk of disease recurrence, and the skill of the operator. A high number of posttreatment residual pockets exhibiting bleeding on probing and > 5 mm deep are related to lower clinical stability. The successful treatment of plaque-induced periodontitis will restore periodontal health, but with reduced periodontium. In such cases, anatomical damage from previous periodontal disease will persist and inverse architecture of soft tissue may impair home plaque removal. The clinician can select one of the following therapeutic options according to the individual patient's needs: - Quadrant/sextant wise instrumentation (conventional staged debridement, CSD). - Instrumentation of all pockets within a 24-hour period with (full mouth disinfection [FMD]) or without (full mouth scaling and root planing [FMSRP]) local antiseptics. Both procedures can be associated with systemic antimicrobials. -CSD or FMD in combination with laser or photodynamic therapy. Patients with aggressive periodontitis constitute a challenge to the clinician. To date there are no established protocols for controlling the disease. However, data from the literature on the application of the FMD protocol combined with amoxicillin

  18. Novel anti-microbial therapies for dental plaque-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Allaker, Robert P; Douglas, C W Ian

    2009-01-01

    Control of dental plaque-related diseases has traditionally relied on non-specific removal of plaque by mechanical means. As our knowledge of oral disease mechanisms increases, future treatment is likely to be more targeted, for example at small groups of organisms, single species or at key virulence factors they produce. The aim of this review is to consider the current status as regards novel treatment approaches. Maintenance of oral hygiene often includes use of chemical agents; however, increasing problems of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have encouraged the search for alternative natural products. Plants are the source of more than 25% of prescription and over-the-counter preparations, and the potential of natural agents for oral prophylaxis will therefore be considered. Targeted approaches may be directed at the black-pigmented anaerobes associated with periodontitis. Such pigments provide an opportunity for targeted phototherapy with high-intensity monochromatic light. Studies to date have demonstrated selective killing of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in biofilms. Functional inhibition approaches, including the use of protease inhibitors, are also being explored to control periodontitis. Replacement therapy by which a resident pathogen is replaced with a non-pathogenic bacteriocin-producing variant is currently under development with respect to Streptococcus mutans and dental caries.

  19. Chemical agents for the control of plaque and plaque microflora: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N

    1997-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the technologies available for the chemical control of plaque. It is generally accepted that the formation of dental plaque at the interfaces of tooth/gingiva is one of the major causes of gingival inflammation and dental caries. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to control dental plaque and supragingival infections. These include fluoride preparations such as stannous fluoride, oxygenating agents, anti-attachment agents, and cationic and non-cationic antibacterial agents. Among the fluoride preparations, stable stannous fluoride pastes and gels have been shown to reduce supragingival plaque, gingivitis, hypersensitivity and caries. The effect of the oxygenating agents on the supragingival plaque has been equivocal, but recent data indicate that a stable agent which provides sustained active oxygen release is effective in controlling plaque. A polymer, PVPA, which reduced attachment of bacteria to teeth was shown to significantly reduce plaque formation in humans. A new generation of antibacterials includes non-ionics such as triclosan, which in combination with a special polymer delivery system, has been shown to reduce plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and dental caries in long-term studies conducted around the world. Unlike the first generation of agents, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride system is effective in long-term clinicals and does not cause staining of teeth, increase in calculus, or disturbance in the oral microbial ecology. PMID:9395116

  20. Chemical agents for the control of plaque and plaque microflora: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N

    1997-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the technologies available for the chemical control of plaque. It is generally accepted that the formation of dental plaque at the interfaces of tooth/gingiva is one of the major causes of gingival inflammation and dental caries. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to control dental plaque and supragingival infections. These include fluoride preparations such as stannous fluoride, oxygenating agents, anti-attachment agents, and cationic and non-cationic antibacterial agents. Among the fluoride preparations, stable stannous fluoride pastes and gels have been shown to reduce supragingival plaque, gingivitis, hypersensitivity and caries. The effect of the oxygenating agents on the supragingival plaque has been equivocal, but recent data indicate that a stable agent which provides sustained active oxygen release is effective in controlling plaque. A polymer, PVPA, which reduced attachment of bacteria to teeth was shown to significantly reduce plaque formation in humans. A new generation of antibacterials includes non-ionics such as triclosan, which in combination with a special polymer delivery system, has been shown to reduce plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and dental caries in long-term studies conducted around the world. Unlike the first generation of agents, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride system is effective in long-term clinicals and does not cause staining of teeth, increase in calculus, or disturbance in the oral microbial ecology.

  1. Rampant Caries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  2. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    PubMed

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. PMID:20720422

  3. Diabetes and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Rajkumar; Gokulanathan, Subramanium; Shanmugasundaram, Natarajan; Lakshmigandhan, Mahalingam; Kavin, Thangavelu

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and abnormalities of lipid metabolism due to absence or decreased level of insulin. It affects all the body organs and their functions either directly or indirectly. Every dentist should have a basic understanding of the etiopathogenesis, oral and systemic manifestations of this disease. The periodontal diseases are a consequence of extension of the gingival inflammation into the underlying supporting structures of the periodontium, initiated by the presence of plaque and its products on the surfaces of the teeth and the adjoining structures. The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by variety of factors like microorganisms, host response, systemic background, and genetic makeup of the host. Amongst them, diabetes mellitus tops the list. Diabetes and periodontitis influence the clinical outcome of each other and control of both influences the clinical improvement of each. PMID:23066270

  4. Periodontal effects associated with the use of smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Robertson, P B; Walsh, M; Greene, J; Ernster, V; Grady, D; Hauck, W

    1990-07-01

    This report describes periodontal findings from a comprehensive study of smokeless tobacco use in professional baseball players. Subjects consisted of 1,094 players, coaches, and training staff of seven major league and their associated minor league teams. Before being examined, subjects completed questionnaires on patterns of smokeless tobacco use (validated by blood chemistry studies), rinsed their mouths under supervision, and were cautioned not to discuss their use of tobacco with the dental examiners. They then received a complete oral examination that included recording of all mucosal abnormalities, missing teeth, caries, extrinsic stain, attrition, Plaque Index, Gingival Index, pocket depth, attachment loss, and gingival recession. More than 50% of team members reported using smokeless tobacco, and 39% reported use during the current week. Among current week users, 46% had oral mucosal lesions, located primarily in the mandible at sites where the smokeless tobacco quid was placed. The use of smokeless tobacco was not necessarily associated with severe forms of periodontal disease, and the presence of poor oral hygiene and gingivitis in these users was not related to the development of oral lesions. However, sites adjacent to mucosal lesions in smokeless tobacco users showed significantly greater recession and attachment loss than in sites not adjacent to lesions in users or comparable sites in non-users.

  5. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602391

  6. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  7. Vulnerable Plaque

    MedlinePlus

    ... all vulnerable plaque ruptures, and researchers at the Texas Heart Institute are looking at ways to determine ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  8. Periodontal implications of orthodontic treatment in adults with reduced or normal periodontal tissues versus those of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P J; Quinn, R S; Eakle, W S; Chambers, D

    1989-09-01

    This longitudinal study monitored periodontal status in 20 adults and 20 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Ten adults had generalized periodontitis and received periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, before orthodontic treatment. They also received periodontal maintenance at 3-month intervals during orthodontic treatment. The other 10 adults had normal periodontal tissues. Neither these latter adults nor the adolescents received periodontal maintenance during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal status was determined (1) at six standard sites before fixed appliances were placed (baseline), (2) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after appliances had been placed, and (3) 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after appliances had been removed. At each of these visits, these sites were assessed for plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, and pocket depth. Loss of attachment between baseline and 3 months after appliances were removed and tooth loss were also determined. Complete data were obtained for 15 adolescents and 14 adults. During orthodontic treatment the adolescent group showed significantly more (p less than 0.05) periodontal inflammation and supragingival plaque than the adults; after appliances were removed, this pattern was no longer statistically significant. For loss of attachment, there were no significant differences among adolescents, adults with normal periodontal tissues, or adults with reduced but healthy periodontal tissues who had undergone treatment for periodontal disease. For tooth loss, three nonstudy site teeth with pockets deeper than 6 mm and/or furcation involvements were lost because of periodontal abscesses in the adult group treated for periodontal disease. PMID:2773862

  9. Health promotion and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  10. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  11. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  12. Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M M; Liu, Y; Kalra, R; Perry, S; Adewumi, A; Xu, X; Primosch, R E; Burne, R A

    2013-07-01

    Arginine metabolism by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the local pH, which can neutralize the effects of acidification from sugar metabolism and reduce the cariogenicity of oral biofilms. To explore the relationship between oral arginine metabolism and dental caries experience in children, we measured ADS activity in oral samples from 100 children and correlated it with their caries status and type of dentition. Supragingival dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces that were caries-lesion-free (PF) and from dentinal (PD) and enamel (PE) caries lesions. Regardless of children's caries status or type of dentition, PF (378.6) had significantly higher ADS activity compared with PD (208.4; p < .001) and PE (194.8; p = .005). There was no significant difference in the salivary arginolytic activity among children with different caries status. Mixed-model analysis showed that plaque caries status is significantly associated with ADS activity despite children's age, caries status, and dentition (p < .001), with healthy plaque predicting higher ADS activity compared with diseased plaque. Plaque arginine metabolism varies greatly among children and tooth sites, which may affect their susceptibility to caries.

  13. Oral microbiome of deep and shallow dental pockets in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiuchun; Rodriguez, Rafael; Trinh, My; Gunsolley, John; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    We examined the subgingival bacterial biodiversity in untreated chronic periodontitis patients by sequencing 16S rRNA genes. The primary purpose of the study was to compare the oral microbiome in deep (diseased) and shallow (healthy) sites. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the influences of smoking, race and dental caries on this relationship. A total of 88 subjects from two clinics were recruited. Paired subgingival plaque samples were taken from each subject, one from a probing site depth >5 mm (deep site) and the other from a probing site depth ≤3mm (shallow site). A universal primer set was designed to amplify the V4-V6 region for oral microbial 16S rRNA sequences. Differences in genera and species attributable to deep and shallow sites were determined by statistical analysis using a two-part model and false discovery rate. Fifty-one of 170 genera and 200 of 746 species were found significantly different in abundances between shallow and deep sites. Besides previously identified periodontal disease-associated bacterial species, additional species were found markedly changed in diseased sites. Cluster analysis revealed that the microbiome difference between deep and shallow sites was influenced by patient-level effects such as clinic location, race and smoking. The differences between clinic locations may be influenced by racial distribution, in that all of the African Americans subjects were seen at the same clinic. Our results suggested that there were influences from the microbiome for caries and periodontal disease and these influences are independent. PMID:23762384

  14. Fishbowl Plaques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    1998-01-01

    Presents an elementary art activity that successfully teaches the process of slabbing by having students create fishbowl plaques. Explains the process step-by-step beginning with a demonstration to the students along with showing previous examples. Endorses a type of clay that fires white because the glaze colors are much more vibrant. (CMK)

  15. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis.

  16. Lactotransferrin Gene Polymorphism Associated with Caries Experience.

    PubMed

    Doetzer, Andrea D; Brancher, João A; Pecharki, Giovana D; Schlipf, Nina; Werneck, Renata; Mira, Marcelo T; Riess, Olaf; Bauer, Peter; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common multifactorial disease, resulting from the interaction of biofilm, cariogenic diet and host response over time. Lactotransferrin (LTF) is a main salivary glycoprotein, which modulates the host immune-inflammatory and antibacterial response. Although a genetic component for caries outcome has been identified, little is known over the genetic aspects underlying its susceptibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between LTF polymorphisms and caries susceptibility. Six hundred seventy seven 12-year-old students were selected: 346 with (DMFT ≥ 1) and 331 without caries experience (DMFT = 0). Also, individuals concentrating higher levels of disease (polarization group, DMFT ≥ 2, n = 253) were tested against those with DMFT ≤ 1 (n = 424). Along with clinical parameters, three representative LTF tag SNPs (rs6441989, rs2073495, rs11716497) were genotyped and the results were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Allele A for tag SNP rs6441989 was found to be significantly less frequent in the polarization group, conferring a protective effect against caries experience [AA + AG × GG (OR: 0.710, 95% CI: 0.514-0.980, p = 0.045)], and remained significantly associated with caries protection in the presence of gingivitis (p = 0.020) and plaque (p = 0.035). These results might contribute to the understanding of the genetic control of caries susceptibility in humans. PMID:25998152

  17. Urease and Dental Plaque Microbial Profiles in Children

    PubMed Central

    Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Rodriguez, Selena; Bello, Angel S.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Urease enzymes produced by oral bacteria generate ammonia, which can have a significant impact on the oral ecology and, consequently, on oral health. To evaluate the relationship of urease with dental plaque microbial profiles in children as it relates to dental caries, and to identify the main contributors to this activity. Methods 82 supragingival plaque samples were collected from 44 children at baseline and one year later, as part of a longitudinal study on urease and caries in children. DNA was extracted; the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Urease activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with Qiime. Results Plaque urease activity was significantly associated with the composition of the microbial communities of the dental plaque (Baseline P = 0.027, One Year P = 0.012). The bacterial taxa whose proportion in dental plaque exhibited significant variation by plaque urease levels in both visits were the family Pasteurellaceae (Baseline P<0.001; One Year P = 0.0148), especially Haemophilus parainfluenzae. No association was observed between these bacteria and dental caries. Bacteria in the genus Leptotrichia were negatively associated with urease and positively associated with dental caries (Bonferroni P<0.001). Conclusions Alkali production by urease enzymes primarily from species in the family Pasteurellaceae can be an important ecological determinant in children’s dental plaque. Further studies are needed to establish the role of urease-associated bacteria in the acid/base homeostasis of the dental plaque, and in the development and prediction of dental caries in children. PMID:26418220

  18. Lactobacillus-mediated interference of mutans streptococci in caries-free vs. caries-active subjects.

    PubMed

    Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte; Emilson, Claes-Göran; Håkansson, Eva Grahn; Jacobsson, Catharina; Roos, Kristian; Holm, Stig

    2007-08-01

    In order to assess whether naturally occurring oral lactobacilli have probiotic properties, lactobacilli were isolated from saliva and plaque from children and adolescents, with or without caries lesions. The interference capacities of these lactobacilli were investigated against a panel of 13 clinical isolates and reference strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, as well as against the subject's autologous mutans streptococci, using the agar-overlay technique. Lactobacillus-mediated inhibition differed significantly between the three subject groups (no caries, arrested caries, or active caries), demonstrating increased inhibition in subjects without present or previous caries experience compared to subjects with arrested caries or subjects presenting with frank lesions. Lactobacilli from subjects lacking S. mutans inhibited the growth of the test panel of mutans streptococci significantly better than lactobacilli from subjects who were colonized. Furthermore, subjects without caries experience harbored lactobacilli that more effectively repressed the growth of their autologous mutans streptococci. Twenty-three Lactobacillus spp. completely inhibited the growth of all mutans streptococci tested. Species with maximum interference capacity against mutans streptococci included Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Naturally occurring oral lactobacilli significantly inhibited the growth of both test strains of mutans streptococci and the subject's autologous mutans streptococci in vitro, and this effect was more pronounced in caries-free subjects.

  19. Clonal Analysis of the Microbiota of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kanasi, E.; Dewhirst, F.E.; Chalmers, N.I.; Kent, R.; Moore, A.; Hughes, C.V.; Pradhan, N.; Loo, C.Y.; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Severe early childhood caries is a microbial infection that severely compromises the dentition of young children. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of severe early childhood caries. Methods Dental plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing, and by specific PCR amplification for Streptococcus mutans and Bifidobacteriaceae species. Results Children with severe caries (n = 39) had more dental plaque and gingival inflammation than caries-free children (n = 41). Analysis of phylotypes from operational taxonomic unit analysis of 16S rRNA clonal metalibraries from severe caries and caries-free children indicated that while libraries differed significantly (p < 0.0001), there was increased diversity than detected in this clonal analysis. Using the Human Oral Microbiome Database, 139 different taxa were identified. Within the limits of this study, caries-associated taxa included Granulicatella elegans (p < 0.01) and Veillonella sp. HOT-780 (p < 0.01). The species associated with caries-free children included Capnocytophaga gingivalis (p < 0.01), Abiotrophia defectiva (p < 0.01), Lachnospiraceae sp. HOT-100 (p < 0.05), Streptococcus sanguinis (p < 0.05) and Streptococcus cristatus (p < 0.05). By specific PCR, S. mutans (p < 0.005) and Bifidobacteriaceae spp. (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with severe caries. Conclusion Clonal analysis of 80 children identified a diverse microbiota that differed between severe caries and caries-free children, but the association of S. mutans with caries was from specific PCR analysis, not from clonal analysis, of samples. PMID:20861633

  20. Surface topography of composite restorative materials following ultrasonic scaling and its Impact on bacterial plaque accumulation. An in-vitro SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Hossam, A. Eid; Rafi, A. Togoo; Ahmed, A Saleh; Sumanth, Phani CR

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is an in vitro study to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling on the surface roughness and quantitative bacterial count on four different types of commonly used composite restorative materials for class V cavities. Materials & Methods: Nanofilled, hybrid, silorane and flowable composites were tested. Forty extracted teeth served as specimen and were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens, with each group receiving a different treatment and were examined by a Field emission scanning electron microscope. Bacterial suspension was then added to the pellicle-coated specimens, and then bacterial adhesion was analyzed by using image analyzing program. Results: Flowable and silorane-based composites showed considerably smoother surfaces and lesser bacterial count in comparison to other types, proving that bacterial adhesion is directly proportional to surface roughness. Conclusion: The use of ultrasonic scalers affects the surfaces of composite restorative materials. Routine periodontal scaling should be carried out very carefully, and polishing of the scaled surfaces may overcome the alterations in roughness, thus preventing secondary caries, surface staining, plaque accumulation and subsequent periodontal inflammation. How to cite this article: Eid H A, Togoo R A, Saleh A A, Sumanth C R. Surface Topography of Composite Restorative Materials following Ultrasonic Scaling and its Impact on Bacterial Plaque Accumulation. An In-Vitro SEM Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):13-19. PMID:24155597

  1. Supportive periodontal therapy and periodontal biotype as prognostic factors in implants placed in patients with a history of periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Aisa, Francisco J.; Estefanía-Fresco, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate bone loss around implants placed in patients with a history of treated chronic periodontitis and who did or did not attend supportive periodontal therapy, after one year in function. Furthermore, the influence of periodontal biotype and level of plaque was also evaluated. Material and Methods: Forty-nine patients participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects had a history of chronic periodontitis, which had been previously treated. After the active treatment, 27 patients attended supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) and the rest did not (No SPT). The O’Leary plaque index and periodontal biotype were recorded for each subject and 246 Astra Tech® OsseospeedTM implants were radiographically analysed (123 placed in SPT patients and 123 in No SPT patients) at the time of loading and one year later, measuring marginal bone loss with the program Dental Studio NX 6.0®. The statistical analysis was performed with Windows SPSS, applying Pearson’s correlation index and the Kruskal-Wallis and U-Mann Whitney non-parametric tests. Results: Six patients were found to have periimplantitis and sixteen mucositis. The survival rate was 99.59% (100% SPT and 99.18% No SPT). Mean bone loss was 0.39 mm (range [-0.71 - 8.05]). Among SPT patients, 95% of the implants had losses less than or equal to the mean (mean bone loss of 0.16 mm) compared to 53.7% for the No SPT group (mean bone loss of 0.62 mm). A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between bone loss around the implant and the patient’s periodontal biotype and plaque index. Conclusions: The marginal bone loss around implants in patients with treated chronic periodontitis is minimal if they are in a controlled SPT programme and there is individual control of plaque index. Moreover, the presence of a thin periodontal biotype represents a risk factor for additional bone loss. Key words:Peri-implantitis, chronic periodontitis, bacterial plaque, periodontal biotype. PMID:23722147

  2. Acceleration of purine degradation by periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Barnes, V M; Teles, R; Trivedi, H M; Devizio, W; Xu, T; Mitchell, M W; Milburn, M V; Guo, L

    2009-09-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are characterized by bacterial plaque accumulation around the gingival crevice and the subsequent inflammation and destruction of host tissues. To test the hypothesis that cellular metabolism is altered as a result of host-bacteria interaction, we performed an unbiased metabolomic profiling of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites in humans, by liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The purine degradation pathway, a major biochemical source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was significantly accelerated at the disease sites. This suggests that periodontal-disease-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are mediated through this pathway. The complex host-bacterial interaction was further highlighted by depletion of anti-oxidants, degradation of host cellular components, and accumulation of bacterial products in GCF. These findings provide new mechanistic insights and a panel of comprehensive biomarkers for periodontal disease progression. PMID:19767584

  3. Automated system for periodontal disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalat, Salvador E.; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos

    1997-04-01

    Evolution of periodontal disease is one of the most important data for the clinicians in order to achieve correct planning and treatment. Clinical measure of the periodontal sulcus depth is the most important datum to know the exact state of periodontal disease. These measures must be done periodically study bone resorption evolution around teeth. Time factor of resorption indicates aggressiveness of periodontitis. Manual probes are commonly used with direct reading. Mechanical probes give automatic signal but this method uses complicated and heavy probes that are only limited for University researchers. Probe position must be the same to have right diagnosis. Digital image analysis of periodontal probing provides practical, accurate and easy tool. Gum and plaque index could also be digitally measured with this method.

  4. Acceleration of purine degradation by periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Barnes, V M; Teles, R; Trivedi, H M; Devizio, W; Xu, T; Mitchell, M W; Milburn, M V; Guo, L

    2009-09-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are characterized by bacterial plaque accumulation around the gingival crevice and the subsequent inflammation and destruction of host tissues. To test the hypothesis that cellular metabolism is altered as a result of host-bacteria interaction, we performed an unbiased metabolomic profiling of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites in humans, by liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The purine degradation pathway, a major biochemical source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was significantly accelerated at the disease sites. This suggests that periodontal-disease-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are mediated through this pathway. The complex host-bacterial interaction was further highlighted by depletion of anti-oxidants, degradation of host cellular components, and accumulation of bacterial products in GCF. These findings provide new mechanistic insights and a panel of comprehensive biomarkers for periodontal disease progression.

  5. Scope of photodynamic therapy in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Sinha, Jolly; Verma, Neelu; Nayan, Kamal; Saimbi, C S; Tripathi, Amitandra K

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease results from inflammation of the supporting structure of the teeth and in response to chronic infection caused by various periodontopathic bacteria. The mechanical removal of this biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants and antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy. However, the removal of plaque and the reduction in the number of infectious organisms can be impaired in sites with difficult access. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a powerful laser-initiated photochemical reaction, involving the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. Application of PDT in periodontics such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, and aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis. PMID:26481895

  6. The implications of the new paradigm of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina

    2011-12-01

    The caries process is the ubiquitous, natural metabolism in the biofilm that causes numerous fluctuations in pH. The interaction of this biofilm with the dental tissues may result in a caries lesion. However, lesion formation and progression can be controlled, particularly by disturbing plaque regularly with a fluoride containing toothpaste. This paradigm implies that everyone with teeth is at risk to lesion development. Treatment of caries is principally non-operative, involving plaque control, fluoride and a sensible diet. Operative dentistry repairs un-cleansable cavities and is part of plaque control. A diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. The relevant diagnostic features with respect to caries are lesion activity (active lesions require active management) and un-cleansable cavities. When teaching undergraduates, it is important that they are credited for the non-operative treatment of caries as well as for operative dentistry. This is equally important in dental practice where an appropriate skills mix of the dental team is required to deliver dental health cost-effectively. Training more dentists may be an expensive mistake as far as disease control is concerned. It is ironic that dentists make most money from operative care and specialist treatment when disease control could be delivered relatively cheaply. The key to dental health is regular and effective plaque control with a fluoride containing toothpaste, from cradle to grave.

  7. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  8. The aetiology of dental caries--an outline of current thought.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    1977-12-01

    Nearly 90 years after being put forward by W.D. Miller, the acidogenic theory of dental caries aetiology is supported by a wealth of experimental evidence. However, while explaining the basic mechanism of caries, it does not indicate how the effect of the mechanism is modified to give the observable pattern of caries attack. This explanation is attempted on the basis of the interaction of two groups of variable factors. Firstly, those which affect the tooth's resistance to caries attack, which include the chemical, microstructural and morphological nature of the enamel surface. Secondly the factors which determine the cariogenicity of the tooth's environment. These include the nature of the diet, plaque and saliva. Finally the caries initiation is considered at an atomic level in terms of the dynamic ionic exchange between enamel and plaque. This brief review highlights the need for considerably more research to shed more light on the nature of the variable aetiological factors of caries.

  9. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822

  10. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention.

    PubMed

    Preshaw, Philip M

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822

  11. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  12. The antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 is associated with caries.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, A; Famili, P; Vieira, A R

    2010-06-01

    Genetics is an important component in the determination of individual susceptibility to caries and periodontal diseases. Since beta defensin 1 (DEFB1) localizes in the oral cavity, we tested if variation in DEFB1 is associated with caries and periodontitis. We analyzed 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DEFB1 in DNA samples from unrelated individuals. Carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs11362 (G-20A) increased the DMFT and DMFS scores more than five-fold. Also, carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs179946 (G-52A) correlated with low DMFT scores. We found a high-caries-experience haplotype (GCA), which increased DMFT scores two-fold, and a low- caries-experience haplotype (ACG), which decreased DMFT scores two-fold, in the DEFB1 promoter. No association between DEFB1 genetic markers and periodontal disease was found. Our results suggest that functional polymorphisms of DEFB1 are potential markers for caries.

  13. Association between Periodontopathogens and CRP Levels in Patients with Periodontitis in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Pejcic, Ana; Kesic, Ljiljana; Milasin, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Recent epidemiological studies have shown that individuals with periodontitis have a significantly higher risk of developing coronary heart disease, which might be attributed to the complex microbiota in the dental plaque. Periodontopathogens have been reported as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated association of chronic periodontitis and periodontopathogens with CRP in systemically healthy Serbian adults. Materials and methods Serum C-reactive protein levels were measured in 24 patients with moderate periodontitis, 26 patients with severe periodontitis, and 25 periodontally healthy subjects. Periodontal health indicators included gingival bleeding on probing and periodontal disease status. Patients with moderate periodontitis had low attachment loss and pocket depths of <4 mm. Patients with severe periodontitis had high AL and pocket depth of >5 mm. The control group with healthy gingiva had gingival sulcus of <2 mm and no attachment loss. Presence of periodontopathogens in subgingival plaque samples was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Results The periodontal parameters and CRP levels were significantly higher in the patients with periodontitis. Patients who had both severe and moderate periodontitis had higher mean CRP levels. The percentage of subjects with elevated CRP leves of >5 mol/L was greater in the higher clinical AL group compared to the group with less attachment loss. Presence of periodontopathogens was also associated with elevated CRP levels and poor periodontal status. Conclusion PD and subgingival periodontopathogens are associated with increased CRP levels. These findings suggest that periodontal infection may contribute to systemic inflammatory burden in otherwise healthy individuals. PMID:23019501

  14. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A. )

    1990-06-01

    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended.

  15. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  16. Periodontal and space maintenance considerations for primary teeth presenting with aggressive periodontitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Zigdon, Hadar; Einy, Shmuel; Aizenbud, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is diagnosed mainly by clinical and radiographic examination. Diagnosis in the primary dentition indicates a choice between conservative and radical treatment that involves extractions, depending on the severity of the case. The purpose of this report was to present a case of aggressive periodontitis in a systemically healthy child and to discuss the periodontal and orthodontic aspects. A 7-year-old girl presented with bleeding on probing of approximately half of the dentition, deep periodontal pockets around all primary molars, and increased tooth mobility. An individual oral hygiene program was initiated. The primary maxillary right molar and all primary mandibular molars were extracted, and clear vacuum-formed removable retainers were fabricated and used as space maintainers. The patient was followed longitudinally for 2 years, and no space loss was recorded. Clear vacuum-formed removable retainers mainly involve occlusal crown attachment and, therefore, decrease the risk of plaque accumulation, gingival irritation, and aggressive periodontitis in the permanent dentition.

  17. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  18. Adjunct Antimicrobial Therapy and Periodontal Surgery to Treat Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Irokawa, Daisuke; Makino-Oi, Asako; Fujita, Takahisa; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a case of generalized aggressive periodontitis treated with periodontal therapy including adjunct antimicrobial therapy and periodontal surgery. The patient was a 22-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession. Baseline examination revealed generalized plaque deposition and gingival inflammation. Thirty-nine percent of the sites had a probing depth (PD) of 4-6 mm and 2% a PD of ≥7 mm; 63% exhibited bleeding on probing (BOP). Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone loss in the molars and horizontal bone loss in other teeth. Microbiological examination of subgingival plaque revealed the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythia. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed as a measure of patient-reported outcome. Based on a clinical diagnosis of generalized aggressive periodontitis, initial periodontal therapy and adjunct antimicrobial therapy were implemented. After reducing inflammation and subgingival bacteria, open flap debridement was performed for teeth with a PD of ≥4 mm. Reevaluation showed no sites with a PD of ≥5 mm, a minimal level of BOP, and a marked reduction in the level of the targeted periodontal pathogens. The patient's oral health-related quality of life was slightly worsened during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Implementation of adjunct antimicrobial therapy targeting periodontal pathogens and subsequent periodontal surgery resulted in improvement in periodontal and microbiological parameters. This improvement has been adequately maintained over a 2-year period. However, additional care is necessary to further improve the patient's oral health-related quality of life during SPT. PMID:27320300

  19. A tissue-dependent hypothesis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, A; Belda-Ferre, P; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Alcaraz, L D; Mira, A

    2013-01-01

    Current understanding of dental caries considers this disease a demineralization of the tooth tissues due to the acid produced by sugar-fermenting microorganisms. Thus, caries is considered a diet- and pH-dependent process. We present here the first metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities present at different stages of caries development, with the aim of determining whether the bacterial composition and biochemical profile are specific to the tissue affected. The data show that microbial composition at the initial, enamel-affecting stage of caries is significantly different from that found at subsequent stages, as well as from dental plaque of sound tooth surfaces. Although the relative proportion of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.12% in dental plaque to 0.72% in enamel caries, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis were the dominant streptococci in these lesions. The functional profile of caries-associated bacterial communities indicates that genes involved in acid stress tolerance and dietary sugar fermentation are overrepresented only at the initial stage (enamel caries), whereas other genes coding for osmotic stress tolerance as well as collagenases and other proteases enabling dentin degradation are significantly overrepresented in dentin cavities. The results support a scenario in which pH and diet are determinants of the disease during the degradation of enamel, but in dentin caries lesions not only acidogenic but also proteolytic bacteria are involved. We propose that caries disease is a process of varying etiology, in which acid-producing bacteria are the vehicle to penetrate enamel and allow dentin degrading microorganisms to expand the cavity.

  20. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice. PMID:25729021

  1. Contribution of Nanotechnology to Improved Treatment of Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Spela; Kocbek, Petra; Baumgartner, Sasa; Kristl, Julijana

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is chronic inflammation of periodontal tissues resulting in formation of periodontal pockets, periodontal attachment loss and progressive destruction of the ligament and alveolar bone. This review gives an update on periodontal disease pathogenesis, which is important for the development of novel methods and delivery systems for its treatment. The available treatment approaches, including removal of dental plaque, modulation of the host inflammatory response, and regeneration of periodontal tissue, are reviewed and their drawbacks discussed. Furthermore the latest achievements involving development of nanomedicines, which represent a new approach to better treatment of periodontal disease, are highlighted. They enable local drug delivery to particular tissues, cells, or subcellular compartments in periodontal pockets, either to biofilm pathogens or host cells, as well as control the release of incorporated drugs, usually antibiotic or anti-inflammatory. Specific examples of the nanocarriers or nanomaterials such as liposomes, lipid and polymeric nanoparticles, nanocrystals, dendrimers, and nanofibers under development for the treatment of periodontal disease are also clearly reviewed. Nanofibers are of special interest as nanodelivery systems and scaffolds for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Finally, the future outlook of novel therapeutic approaches involving nanodelivery systems in the treatment of periodontal disease is provided. PMID:26027560

  2. Contribution of Nanotechnology to Improved Treatment of Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Spela; Kocbek, Petra; Baumgartner, Sasa; Kristl, Julijana

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is chronic inflammation of periodontal tissues resulting in formation of periodontal pockets, periodontal attachment loss and progressive destruction of the ligament and alveolar bone. This review gives an update on periodontal disease pathogenesis, which is important for the development of novel methods and delivery systems for its treatment. The available treatment approaches, including removal of dental plaque, modulation of the host inflammatory response, and regeneration of periodontal tissue, are reviewed and their drawbacks discussed. Furthermore the latest achievements involving development of nanomedicines, which represent a new approach to better treatment of periodontal disease, are highlighted. They enable local drug delivery to particular tissues, cells, or subcellular compartments in periodontal pockets, either to biofilm pathogens or host cells, as well as control the release of incorporated drugs, usually antibiotic or anti-inflammatory. Specific examples of the nanocarriers or nanomaterials such as liposomes, lipid and polymeric nanoparticles, nanocrystals, dendrimers, and nanofibers under development for the treatment of periodontal disease are also clearly reviewed. Nanofibers are of special interest as nanodelivery systems and scaffolds for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Finally, the future outlook of novel therapeutic approaches involving nanodelivery systems in the treatment of periodontal disease is provided.

  3. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  4. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on transferrin serum levels in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirmohamadi, Adileh; Chitsazi, Mohamad Taghi; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Salari, Ashkan; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Pashazadeh, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transferrin is a negative acute phase protein, which decreases during inflammation and infection. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate changes in the transferrin serum levels subsequent to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontal disease. Methods. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 systemically healthy subjects without periodontal disease, who had referred to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, were selected. Transferrin serum levels and clinical periodontal parameters (pocket depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, bleeding index and plaque index) were measured at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods (means ± standard deviations). Independent samples t-test was used to compare transferrin serum levels and clinical variables between the test and control groups. Paired samples t-test was used in the test group for comparisons before and after treatment. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. The mean transferrin serum level in patients with chronic periodontitis (213.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL) was significantly less than that in periodontally healthy subjects (307.8 ± 11.7 mg/dL). Three months after periodontal treatment, the transferrin serum level increased significantly (298.3 ± 7.6 mg/dL) and approached the levels in periodontally healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The decrease and increase in transferrin serum levels with periodontal disease and periodontal treatment, respectively, indicated an inverse relationship between transferrin serum levels and chronic periodontitis. PMID:27651883

  5. Intraclass correlations of periodontal measurements.

    PubMed

    Haffajee, A D; Socransky, S S; Goodson, J M; Lindhe, J

    1985-03-01

    Components of variance and intraclass correlation coefficients were computed for changes in attachment level, pocket depth, gingival and plaque index scores for 5 groups of treated periodontal disease patients and 1 group of untreated subjects with periodontal disease. The intraclass correlation coefficients for attachment level change ranged from 0.011 to 0.165 (median 0.067), while intraclass correlation coefficients for pocket depth changes ranged from -0.009 to 0.178 (median 0.071). These intraclass correlation coefficients were much lower than those computed for changes in measurements of plaque which ranged from 0.086 to 0.568 (median 0.268) or gingival inflammation which ranged from 0.119 to 0.522 (median 0.264). Intraclass correlation coefficients at baseline for pocket depths ranged from 0.000 to 0.199 (median 0.053), for plaque accumulation from 0.121 to 0.531 (median 0.222) and for gingival inflammation from 0.229 to 0.596 (median 0.391). The differences in the intraclass correlation coefficients between pocket depth and attachment level on the one hand and plaque accumulation or gingival inflammation on the other could not be explained on the basis of differences in the measurement scale employed, since collapsing measurement scales had little effect on the intraclass correlation coefficients. The observed larger intraclass correlation coefficients for changes in plaque and gingival indices suggest a larger rôle for host contribution to these measurements. In contrast, the data suggest that the major but by no means the sole factor determining the variability of attachment level or pocket depth changes is the nature of the local factors.

  6. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    PubMed

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-10-13

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  7. [The relationship of periodontitis and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kasaj, Adrian; Gortan-Kasaj, Aristea; Willerhausen, Brita; Hoffmann, Oliver; Angelov, Nikola; Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George

    2007-09-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic, dental-plaque induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, resulting in a gradual loss of connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone. The interrelationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis has been studied for many years. At,present, there is strong evidence to suggest that the incidence and severity of periodontitis is influenced by the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus as well as by the degree of diabetes control by patients. Elevated blood glucose levels in poorly controlled diabetics result in an increase of protein glycosylation leading to amplified formation of so-called Advanced Glycation End products (AGE). AGEs are glucose products that have the ability to attract and stimulate inflammatory cells to produce inflammatory cytokines, elevating the risk of periodontal attachment and/or alveolar bone loss. Gram-negative periodontal infection significantly decreases glucose tolerance and can lead, like other types of inflammation, to an increase in the severity of diabetes. Thus, diabetes and periodontal disease form a system in which periodontitis is aggravated and metabolic control of blood glucose levels becomes more difficult. This in turn leads to mutual aggravation that results in a self-enforcing catabolic process, a vicious circle of inflammation, tissue destruction and insulin resistance. PMID:18044471

  8. Longitudinal effects of clinical therapy and the edentulous state on the transformation of lymphocytes from patients with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J J; Wright, W E; Chan, S P; Oppenheim, J J

    1978-01-01

    Twenty dentulous subjects undergoing clinical therapy for severe periodontitis were used to determine the longitudinal effects of bacterial plaque reduction in vitro lymphocyte transformation. The therapy consisted of either complete extractions or partial extractions and periodontal surgery combined with rigorous oral hygiene. Prior to therapy lymphocytes from these subjects responded significantly to Streptolysin O (SLO) but were not transformed significantly by solubilized dental plaque. However, after therapy lymphocytes from these same subjects responded significantly to both solubilized dental plaque and SLO. This indicates that the severe periodontitis patients were specifically unresponsive to solubilized dental plaque prior to therapy. The mechanism of the unresponsiveness is not clear, but probably does not involve serum factors because supplementation of the lymphocyte cultures with pooled homologous plasma from individuals with gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (instead of the patient's autologous plasma) did not significantly change the mean lymphocyte responses to solubilized dental plaque. In addition, lymphocytes from eleven long-term (5--18 yr) edentulous subjects, who were free of oral inflammation, were significantly transformed by solubilized dental plaque. The latter lymphocyte responses and those of the treated periodontitis patients could be due either to the presence of low levels of oral bacteria in the edentulous mouth or to the lymphocyte transformation assay being a measure of previous antigen sensitization rather than current disease status. In either case, lymphocyte transformation to solubilized dental plaque is not a useful diagnostic tool in periodontitis, but should continue to be a valuable research tool for investigating pathological mechanisms in periodontitis. PMID:737903

  9. Periodontal and prosthetic treatment of a cleft lip and palate patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Santi, E; Weinberg, M A; Abitbol, T E

    1995-07-01

    Although cleft lip and palate patients are usually treated by a multidisciplinary team involving physicians and dentists, their periodontal condition may be over-looked. Crowded or malpositioned teeth, hypertrophic gingiva, orthodontic appliances, and prosthetic replacements can impede proper plaque removal and thus perpetuate periodontal disease. It is important to incorporate periodontal treatment into the comprehensive treatment as early as possible. This case report discusses the periodontal surgical procedures involved in eliminating a residual ridge defect and the fitting of the final prosthetic reconstruction. Also, the importance of the identification and management of periodontal conditions characteristic of cleft lip and palate patients before and after surgical, orthodontic, and prosthetic rehabilitation will be emphasized.

  10. Periodontal conditions of Colombian university students aged 16 to 35.

    PubMed

    Marulanda, Ana María; Coral, Diana; Sabogal, Diego; Serrano, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data on the periodontal health and oral hygiene practices of young individuals in Latin America are limited. This study was conducted in a sample of 355 first-year students randomly selected from 3,251 new students entering the largest university in Colombia. Participants received a periodontal examination and were interviewed about oral hygiene practices. Specifically, this study assessed the relationship between oral hygiene practices (including smoking tobacco) and plaque accumulation and/or periodontal bleeding on probing (BOP). Participants had extensive plaque accumulation and BOP, with a mean O´Leary plaque index of 56% and mean BOP of 37%. Both measures were higher for proximal surfaces. Plaque indices of at least 50% were not associated with any oral hygiene factors; however, plaque index and use of dental floss were associated with a BOP of at least 50%. Frequency of tooth brushing was higher in female than in male participants. Only 5% of participants reported smoking tobacco. On average, participants had 2.7±4.6 pockets of at least 4 mm (18% of participants had ≥5 and 9% of participants had ≥10 pockets of this depth, respectively). On average, participants had 2.1±4.4 sites with clinical attachment loss of at least 2 mm (15% and 6% of participants had ≥5 and ≥10 sites with this level of loss). Only 8% of participants were diagnosed with moderate periodontitis, and no participants were diagnosed with severe periodontitis. In conclusion, although participants had high levels of plaque and BOP, signs of advanced destructive periodontal disease were minimal.

  11. Diet and Caries-associated Bacteria in Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, C.A.; Kent, R.; Loo, C.Y.; Hughes, C.V.; Stutius, E.; Pradhan, N.; Dahlan, M.; Kanasi, E.; Arevalo Vasquez, S.S.; Tanner, A.C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of cariogenic foods and bacterial infection are risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). This study hypothesized that a short diet survey focused on frequency of foods, categorized by putative cariogenicity, would differentiate severe ECC (S-ECC) from caries-free children. Children’s diets were obtained by survey and plaque bacteria detected by PCR from 72 S-ECC and 38 caries-free children. S-ECC children had higher scores for between-meal juice (p < 0.01), solid-retentive foods (p < 0.001), eating frequency (p < 0.005), and estimated food cariogenicity (p < 0.0001) than caries-free children. S-ECC children with lesion recurrence ate fewer putative caries-protective foods than children without new lesions. Streptococcus mutans (p < 0.005), Streptococcus sobrinus (p < 0.005), and Bifidobacteria (p < 0.0001) were associated with S-ECC, and S. mutans with S. sobrinus was associated with lesion recurrence (p < 0.05). S. mutans-positive children had higher food cariogenicity scores. Food frequency, putative cariogenicity, and S. mutans were associated with S-ECC individually and in combination. PMID:20858780

  12. Dental caries in rats associated with Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Klinke, T; Guggenheim, B; Klimm, W; Thurnheer, T

    2011-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast's potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the modified cariogenic diet 2000a, containing 40% various sugars. Subsequently, maxillary molars were scored for plaque extent. After dissection, the mandibular molars were evaluated for smooth surface and fissure caries. Test animals exposed to C. albicans displayed considerably more advanced fissure lesions (p < 0.001) than non-exposed controls. While S. mutans yielded similar results, a combined association of C. albicans and S. mutans had no effect on occlusal caries incidence. Substituting dietary sucrose by glucose did not modify caries induction by C. albicans. However, animals fed a diet containing 20% of both sugars showed no differences to non-infected controls. Smooth surface caries was not generated by the yeast. This study provides experimental evidence that C. albicans is capable of causing occlusal caries in rats at a high rate.

  13. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Erhan; Akaln, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  15. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalın, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women. Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status

  16. Aciduric microbial taxa including Scardovia wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium spp. in caries and caries free subjects.

    PubMed

    Henne, Karsten; Rheinberg, Anke; Melzer-Krick, Beate; Conrads, Georg

    2015-10-01

    Actinobacteria came into focus of being potential caries-associated pathogens and could, together with the established Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli thus function as caries indicator species. Here we analyzed the role and diagnostic predictive value of the acidogenic-aciduric species Scardovia wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium dentium together with S. mutans, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in biofilm of non-cavitated (n = 20) and cavitated (n = 6) caries lesions versus controls (n = 30). For the genus Bifidobacterium and for B. dentium new sets of primers were designed. Based on real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing we found a higher prevalence (61.5%) of S. wiggsiae in caries lesions than in controls (40%). However, among the controls we found three individuals with both the highest absolute and relative S. wiggsiae numbers. Testing for S. mutans revealed the same prevalence as S. wiggsiae in caries lesions (61.5%) but in controls its prevalence was only 10%. B. dentium was never found in healthy plaque but in 30.8% of clinical cases, with the highest numbers in cavitated lesions. The Bifidobacterium-genus specific PCR had less discriminative power as more control samples were positive. We calculated the relative abundances and applied receiver operating characteristic analyses. The top results of specificity (93% and 87%) and sensitivity (100% and 88%) were found when the constraint set was "Lactobacillus relative abundance ≥0.02%" and "two aciduric species with a relative abundance of each ≥0.007%". Combinatory measurement of several aciduric taxa may be useful to reveal caries activity or even to predict caries progression. PMID:25933689

  17. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  18. Prevalence of fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis and other periodontal bacteria in a Spanish population with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Silla, Miriam; Dasí-Fernánde, Francisco; Montiel-Company, José-María

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the different fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in adult Spanish patients with chronic periodontitis, patients with gingivitis and periodontally healthy subjects, and the relationship between these genotypes and other periodontopathogenic bacteria. Study design: Samples of subgingival plaque were taken from 86 patients (33 with chronic periodontitis, 16 with gingivitis, and 37 periodontally healthy) in the course of a full periodontal examination. PCR was employed to determine the presence of the 6 fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis (I-V and Ib) and of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib were present in significantly higher percentages in periodontal patients (39.4% and 12.1% respectively) than in healthy or gingivitis subjects. The prevalence of Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV was significantly higher in the group that presented bleeding greater than 30%. A positive correlation was found between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV and Treponema denticola. Conclusions: A strong association between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib and chronic periodontitis exists in the Spanish population. The most prevalent genotype in periodontal patients is II. Key words:Periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA genotype, periodontal bacteria, polymerase chain reaction. PMID:22549664

  19. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. PMID:26343264

  20. Genetic variants of dental plaque Methanobrevibacter oralis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, H T T; Nkamga, V D; Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G

    2015-06-01

    Methanobrevibacter oralis is the major methanogenic archaea found in the oral cavity. It has been implicated in periodontitis, including the severe form. It is unknown whether certain M. oralis genetic variants are associated with severe periodontitis. Here, we developed multispacer sequence typing (MST) as a sequencing-based genotyping method for the assessment of M. oralis. The sequencing of four intergenic spacers from a collection of 17 dental plaque M. oralis isolates obtained from seven individuals revealed 482 genetic polymorphisms, including 401 single nucleotide polymorphisms (83.2 %), 55 deletions (11.4 %) and 26 insertions (5.4 %). Concatenation of the four spacers yielded nine genotypes, which were clustered into six groups with an index of discrimination of 0.919. One periodontitis patient may have harboured up to three genetic variants of M. oralis, revealing the previously unknown diversity of this archaea. MST will allow for the study of the dynamics of M. oralis populations, including inter-individual transmission and any correlations with the severity of periodontitis. PMID:25633825

  1. Streptococcus salivarius urease: genetic and biochemical characterization and expression in a dental plaque streptococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y Y; Clancy, K A; Burne, R A

    1996-01-01

    The hydrolysis of urea by urease enzyme of oral bacteria is believed to have a major impact on oral microbial ecology and to be intimately involved in oral health and diseases. To begin to understand the biochemistry and genetics of oral ureolysis, a study of the urease of Streptococcus salivarius, a highly ureolytic organism which is present in large numbers on the soft tissues of the oral cavity, has been initiated. By using as a probe a 0.6-kpb internal fragment of the S. salivarius 57.I ureC gene, two clones from subgenomic libraries of S. salivarius 57.I in an Escherichia coli plasmid vector were identified. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of one partial and six complete open reading frames which were most homologous to ureIAB-CEFGD of other ureolytic bacteria. Plasmid clones were generated to construct a complete gene cluster and used to transform E. coli and Streptococcus gordonii DL1, a nonureolytic, dental plaque microorganism. The recombinant organisms expressed high levels of urease activity when the growth medium was supplemented with NiCl2. The urease enzyme was purified from E. coli, and its biochemical properties were compared with those of the urease produced by S. salivarius and those of the urease produced by S. gordonii carrying the plasmid-borne ure genes. In all cases, the enzyme had a Km of 3.5 to 4.1 mM, a pH optimum near 7.0, and a temperature optimum near 60 degrees C. S. gordonii carrying the urease genes was then demonstrated to have a significant capacity to temper glycolytic acidification in vitro in the presence of concentrations of urea commonly found in the oral cavity. The ability to genetically engineer plaque bacteria that can modulate environmental pH through ureolysis will open the way to using recombinant ureolytic organisms to test hypotheses regarding the role of oral ureolysis in dental caries, calculus formation, and periodontal diseases. Such recombinant organisms may eventually prove useful for

  2. The prevalence of dental caries in Missouri and its relation to systemic disease: opportunities for Missouri to improve the health of its citizens.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Joshua; Wyatt, Christopher; Wiles, R Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that poor oral health conditions, especially periodontitis, have been a contributing factor to several systemic diseases. Evidence shows that Missouri should be concerned about the current state of caries and its prevention. The prevalence of caries and lack of preventative care in Missouri warrants an examination of the current efforts in place to reduce caries and the creation of novel approaches that bridge the gap between oral and medical care. This paper discusses this problem in depth.

  3. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  4. Diagnosis of secondary caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, E A

    2001-10-01

    A systematic review of the diagnosis of dental caries was produced before the conference. It did not include the diagnosis of secondary or recurrent caries. This was a wise decision because what little literature exists on the subject potentially clouds the issue. Diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. A vital part of caries diagnosis is to decide whether a lesion is active and rapidly progressing or already arrested. This information is essential to plan logical management. However, lesion activity should be judged in the patient. Thus, research on the diagnosis of secondary caries must be carried out in vivo and this usually precludes histological validation. Even if such validation is possible, it has its own problems, particularly in distinguishing recurrent from residual caries. The diagnosis of secondary caries is very important since so many restorations are replaced because dentists think there is a new decay. It will be important to establish valid criteria for the diagnosis of active secondary caries, which will be facilitated by the suggestion that secondary caries is no different from primary caries except that it occurs next to a filling. This implies that it can be seen clinically and on a radiograph, next to a restoration.

  5. Diagnosis of secondary caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, E A

    2001-10-01

    A systematic review of the diagnosis of dental caries was produced before the conference. It did not include the diagnosis of secondary or recurrent caries. This was a wise decision because what little literature exists on the subject potentially clouds the issue. Diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. A vital part of caries diagnosis is to decide whether a lesion is active and rapidly progressing or already arrested. This information is essential to plan logical management. However, lesion activity should be judged in the patient. Thus, research on the diagnosis of secondary caries must be carried out in vivo and this usually precludes histological validation. Even if such validation is possible, it has its own problems, particularly in distinguishing recurrent from residual caries. The diagnosis of secondary caries is very important since so many restorations are replaced because dentists think there is a new decay. It will be important to establish valid criteria for the diagnosis of active secondary caries, which will be facilitated by the suggestion that secondary caries is no different from primary caries except that it occurs next to a filling. This implies that it can be seen clinically and on a radiograph, next to a restoration. PMID:11700003

  6. Periodontal disease in an Amish population.

    PubMed

    Bagramian, R A; Farghaly, M M; Lopatin, D; Sowers, M; Syed, S A; Pomerville, J L

    1993-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of periodontal disease have attempted to focus on defined groups in which the variables thought to be responsible for disease could be controlled or more easily identified. This study documents periodontal disease parameters in a unique population of Amish farmers. A total of 371 Amish were contacted and 282 were examined in their homes giving a participation rate of 76%. Ages ranged from 18 to 79 years. Overall means for periodontal conditions were 1.54 mm for attachment loss, 2.63 mm for pocket depth, 0.17 for calculus, 0.63 for plaque and 0.61 for gingivitis. One dental examiner conducted all examinations. Prevalence of periodontal disease tended to be higher among males and increased with age. The majority of Amish examined had little evidence of destructive periodontal disease; about 3.4% of teeth examined had attachment loss of 6 mm or more. These findings indicate a modest level of periodontal disease among the Amish. It is of interest that this population does not generally seek routine dental care. Preliminary analyses of health behavior data collected indicate a lack of regular oral hygiene practices. It appears that the Amish may have protective factors which affect their level of disease. PMID:8473537

  7. [True place of simple sugars in the cause of caries].

    PubMed

    Julien, M G

    1991-02-01

    A recent leaflet published for dental patients by the Canadian Association of Confectioners promotes the consumption of sweets, considering them on an equal basis, in regard to caries, as any other foods containing simple sugars, such as: fruits, vegetables, bread or pasta. This article intends to demistify such inference. While it is true that most foods containing simple sugars can lower plaque pH when considered alone, in the context of a total diet, the relationship between simple sugars and caries is much more complex. Also, in regard to total health, one can not equate all simple sugars since they differ considerably in terms of nutritional value. PMID:1869698

  8. Does Treatment of Periodontal Disease Influence Systemic Disease?

    PubMed

    Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2015-10-01

    Periodontal diseases are the most common human diseases globally, with gingivitis affecting up to 90% and periodontitis affecting 50% of adults. Tooth enamel is the only nonshedding tissue in the human body. In the absence of proper oral hygiene measures, microbial biofilm (dental plaque) develops on the teeth to include more than 700 different bacterial species, along with viruses, fungi, archea, and parasites. With time, ecological imbalances promote the growth of selected commensal species that induce host inflammatory pathways resulting in tissue destruction, including ulceration of the periodontal epithelium. PMID:26427573

  9. Dental and periodontal status of 12-year-old Bulang children in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bulang is an ethnic minority group living in Yunnan in the southwestern part of China. There is little information pertaining to the oral health of Bulang children. This study aims to examine the dental caries and periodontal status of 12-year-old Bulang children in China and the factors affecting their oral-health status. Methods 12-year-old Bulang school children in Yunnan, China, were recruited through a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Following the recommendation of the World Health Organization, caries experiences were recorded using the DMFT index and periodontal status with the CPI index. A self-completed questionnaire was used to collect information on the background and oral health-related behaviours of the children. Results A total of 900 children in primary schools were invited, and 873 (97%) joined the survey. Their caries prevalence was 35%. Their caries experience in mean DMFT (±SD) score was 0.6 ± 1.1, and 94% of the carious teeth had no treatment. Most children (71%) had bleeding gums, and 58% of them had calculus. Girls and those who had visited a dentist in the previous year had higher caries risk. Conclusions Dental caries was common among the 12-year-old Bulang children in China. Most of the carious teeth were left untreated. Caries prevalence was associated with gender and dental attendance. Their periodontal condition was poor, and more than half of them had calculus. PMID:24708768

  10. Butyrate and propionate: important components of toxic dental plaque extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, R E; Buckner, B A

    1981-01-01

    Extracts of in vitro-cultured human dental plaque contain factors toxic to mammalian cells. Previous studies demonstrated that those toxic factors most readily released from cultured plaque had very low molecular weights and were heat stable. Studies reported here demonstrate that metabolic end products including short-chain fatty acids were present in fractions containing the low-molecular-weight, heat-stable factors. The salts of two of these acids, butyrate and propionate, inhibited proliferation of both mouse L929 cells and human gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, when tested at concentrations present in plaque extracts, the inhibitory effects of butyrate and propionate accounted for essentially all the inhibitory potential of the extracts. These findings, taken together with those of other groups, suggest that butyrate and propionate, end products of dental plaque metabolism, may have an etiological role in periodontal disease. PMID:7251132

  11. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    PubMed

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables. PMID:27277362

  12. Newly Identified Pathogens Associated with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Chaparro, P.J.; Gonçalves, C.; Figueiredo, L.C.; Faveri, M.; Lobão, E.; Tamashiro, N.; Duarte, P.; Feres, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the role of certain oral bacteria species in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Nevertheless, results of independent-culture diagnostic methods introduced about a decade ago have pointed to the existence of new periodontal pathogens. However, the data of these studies have not been evaluated together, which may generate some misunderstanding on the actual role of these microorganisms in the etiology of periodontitis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the current weight of evidence for newly identified periodontal pathogens based on the results of “association” studies. This review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2013 for studies (1) comparing microbial data of subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health and (2) evaluating at least 1 microorganism other than the already-known periodontal pathogens. From 1,450 papers identified, 41 studies were eligible. The data were extracted and registered in predefined piloted forms. The results suggested that there is moderate evidence in the literature to support the association of 17 species or phylotypes from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes. The phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria and the Archaea domain also seem to have an association with disease. These data point out the importance of previously unidentified species in the etiology of periodontitis and might guide future investigations on the actual role of these suspected new pathogens in the onset and progression of this infection. PMID:25074492

  13. Periodontal considerations of the removable partial overdenture.

    PubMed

    Gomes, B C; Renner, R P

    1990-10-01

    1. An overdenture, whether complete or partial, is an excellent mode of treatment in the mutilated dentition for the preservation of the residual ridge. 2. Selection of patients for an overdenture should be based on past history of dental neglect, the status of the teeth and their periodontium, including present oral hygiene status, and patient motivation. The patients with a history of dental neglect, poor oral hygiene, and lack of motivation in having the teeth and the periodontium restored to health as well as strict compliance to a home-care regimen and recall schedule are not good candidates for treatment with an overdenture. 3. The choice of teeth or roots to serve as overdenture abutments must include their periodontal evaluation, which should consist of a detailed periodontal examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment when this is indicated, including chemical protection (fluoride gel) and an oral hygiene regimen tailored to individual needs. 4. The knowledge and expertise in the selection and implementation of appropriate periodontal treatment modalities is of paramount importance in restoring optimum periodontal health to the overdenture abutments before overdenture fabrication. 5. The maintenance phase of the overdenture abutments as well as of the existing natural teeth is of critical importance in the preservation of health of these abutments and teeth. This maintenance phase should consist of periodic recalls based on individual needs; a detailed periodontal evaluation, including patient's motivation and status of oral hygiene and denture hygiene; and detection of caries. If necessary, appropriate periodontal and/or restorative therapy should be performed, and oral hygiene measures reinforced. This will ensure longevity of both abutment teeth or roots and of the existing natural teeth resulting in a long-term success of an overdenture. 6. Because there is evidence of high incidence of periodontal disease and dental caries in overdenture wearers

  14. Assessment of dental caries with optical coherence tomography: effect of ambient factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Higham, Susan M.; Jackson, David A.

    2002-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to produce longitudinal images of dental tissues. We investigated the influence on OCT system, of factors that could limit detection and quantitative monitoring of incipient caries. The effect of such factors as saliva, dental plaque, lesion staining, ambient lighting, and Dacron gauze (used to encourage plaque growth in in situ caries studies) on OCT imaging and analysis were determined during demineralization to produce early caries. The system can collect A-scans, B- scans (longitudinal images) and C-scans (en-face images). Caries lesions were shown as volumes of reduced reflectivity. A-scan, which showed the levels of reflectivity versus the depth of penetration into the tooth tissue, was used for the quantitative analysis of the reflectivity loss. The reflectivity of the tooth tissue decreased with demineralization. The percentage change in reflectivity of the tissue was quantified as a measure of the change in mineral status of the tissue following demineralization. Neither the presence of saliva, plaque, Dacron gauze, plaque/Dacron gauze, nor lesion staining nor the level of ambient lighting significantly affected OCT detection and analysis of an incipient caries.

  15. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  16. Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries: Pilot Study Examining Mutans Streptococci Genotypic Strains After Full-Mouth Caries Restorative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Nielsen, Truman; Peirano, Patricia; Nguyen, Anna T.; Vo, Alex; Nguyen, Aivan; Jackson, Stephen; Finlayson, Tyler; Sauerwein, Rebecca; Marsh, Katie; Edwards, Issac; Wilmot, Beth; Engle, John; Peterson, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Genotypic strains of mutans streptococci (MS) may vary in important virulence properties, and may be differentially affected by specific components of full-mouth caries restorative therapy. The purpose of this pilot study was to identify MS strains that predominate following caries restorative therapy. Methods Plaque from seven children with severe early childhood caries was collected before and following therapy. MS isolates (N=828) were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) for assignment within MS strains. Determining the longitudinal changes in MS strain distribution over time within each patient required the isolation of larger numbers of isolates per patient, but from fewer patients. Results Up to 39 genotypic strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, and seven genotypic strains of non-MS streptococci were identified by AP-PCR and 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. The number of MS strains isolated from each patient were 3–7 prior to treatment, diminishing to 1–2 dominant MS strains in most patients 6 months post-therapy. Conclusions Caries restorative therapy resulted in shifts of specific MS and non-MS streptococci strains. The implications are that caries restorative therapy affects the distribution of MS strains, and that well-accepted practices for caries prevention should be more closely examined for efficacy. PMID:22583870

  17. Concomitant caries and calculus formation from in situ dentin caries model

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Frederico B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the possibility of the concomitant formation of calculus deposits and caries from in situ dentin caries model for short time periods. Six volunteers wore palatal removal appliances with four polished dentin specimens protected from intra-oral mechanical forces for up to 14 days. Each volunteer applied a 50% sucrose solution (four times a day) on the specimens and performed a daily mouthwash with 0.05% NaF. Samples were removed after 2, 5, 9 and 14 days in situ. Demineralization was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and SEM (secondary electrons and backscattered electrons modes) and calculus was analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Seventeen samples, at least one sample from each volunteer, presented dental calculus on both carious and non-carious ones, detected in all time intervals. Ca/P ratios of dental calculus ranged from 1.1 to 1.7. Some large calculus deposits on carious surfaces were confirmed by fluorescence. In conclusion, concomitant caries and calculus formation can be found in dentin caries formed in situ. This has important repercussions on the study of surface phenomena on the interface between hard dental tissues and dental plaque. PMID:24358849

  18. Possibilities and potential roles of the functional peptides based on enamel matrix proteins in promoting the remineralization of initial enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Ji Yao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral diseases, and it gives a serious threat to oral and general health. Fluoride, a classic anti-caries agent, has a profound effect on caries prevention and treatment. However, fluorosis and fluoride-resistant strains limit the further application of fluoride treatment. Therefore, it is still of significant benefit to seek alternatives, bringing more effective anti-caries agents. The potential role of enamel matrix proteins(EMPs) in promoting the regeneration of periodontal tissue and inducing bone have been proved. EMPs have been successfully applied in the field of periodontal disease and dental implants in recent years. Previous researches revealed that enamel matrix proteins had an important role in the synthesis of hydroxyapatite in vitro. Some experiments about the degeneration or removal of EMP suggest that enamel matrix proteins are related to the occurrence and development of caries. Based on evidences illustrated by these experiments, this paper hypothesizes that functional peptides based on the function and structure of EMPs could promote remineralization of enamel caries, which could perform as a suitable treatment to enamel caries. The hypothesis may lead a new direction in the study on the prevention and treatment of enamel caries, and further study of the anti-caries mechanisms of EMP will enable researchers to find out the most effective anti-caries peptides, which could be developed into a bionics anti-cariogenic agent.

  19. The residual caries dilemma.

    PubMed

    Weerheijm, K L; Groen, H J

    1999-12-01

    Restorative dentistry is based on the assumption that bacterial infection of demineralized dentine should prompt operative intervention. One of the concepts of practical dentistry is to create a favourable environment for caries arrest with minimal operative intervention. The progress of remaining primary caries is key to any discussion of this concept. This discussion is important for the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach, since the removal of all carious dentine is sometimes difficult using hand instruments only. In this paper the results of possible measures to guard against the effects of residual carious and its consequences are reviewed, in order to obtain an impression of the justification for (in)complete excavation of occlusal dentinal caries. Three types of measure are considered: isolating the caries process from the oral environment, excavating the carious dentine, and using a cariostatic filling material. Each of these measures contributes to the arrest of the caries process. However, none of these measures can arrest this process by itself. A combination of all three seems necessary. It is concluded that although residual caries does not seem to be the criterion for rerestoration, one has to strive for as complete caries removal as possible. If this cannot be fulfilled the sealing capacities of the filling material seem to be more important than its cariostatic properties. PMID:10600078

  20. Which is a stronger indicator of dental caries: oral hygiene, food, or beverage? A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Poonam; Gary, Julie J

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with various risk factors. Oral hygiene and dietary factors--specifically, the consumption of snacks and beverages with added sugars--have been shown to be risk indicators for this disease. It is critical for dental professionals to understand the relative roles of each of these food categories in the dental caries process. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 76 people living in a Southern Illinois fluoridated community. The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, snack food consumption, plaque index, and age showed statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable--dental caries (P < 0.05). The results indicated that dietary factors and oral hygiene both contribute equally to dental caries in young adults living in a fluoridated community. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was a much stronger indicator of dental caries than snack food consumption in our study population.

  1. Caries correlates strongly to salivary levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8.

    PubMed

    Hedenbjörk-Lager, Anders; Bjørndal, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders; Sorsa, Timo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Åkerman, Sigvard; Ericson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The caries process in dentin involves the degradation of both mineral and organic matrix. The demineralization has been demonstrated to be caused by bacterial acids. However, the collagen degradation is considered to be initiated by endogenous proteolytic enzymes, mainly collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This paper aims to relate salivary MMP-8 (or salivary collagenase-2) and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1) levels to manifest caries in a large number of subjects. A random sample of 451 adults (aged 18-87 years) living in the south of Sweden was included in this study. Standard clinical examinations were performed, and stimulated saliva was collected and analyzed for concentrations of MMP-8, TIMP-1 and total protein, using an immunofluorometric assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the Bradford assay, respectively. Salivary numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were determined using a chair-side kit. Subjects with manifest caries lesions presented with elevated levels of MMP-8 (p < 0.001) as well as total protein, MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio, bleeding on probing and plaque index (p = 0.05) compared with subjects without manifest caries. Multiple linear regression analysis with caries as the dependent variable revealed MMP-8 as the only significant explanatory variable (p < 0.001). TIMP-1 was not significant in any case. Using MMP-8 as the dependent variable revealed total protein concentration, caries lesions (p ≤ 0.001) and salivary secretion rate (p = 0.05) as explanatory variables. In conclusion, our data reveal that subjects with manifest caries lesions have elevated levels of salivary MMP-8 relative to subjects with no caries lesions.

  2. Oxidative Stress Parameters in Saliva and Its Association with Periodontal Disease and Types of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Almerich-Silla, Jose Manuel; Montiel-Company, Jose María; Pastor, Sara; Serrano, Felipe; Puig-Silla, Miriam; Dasí, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between oxidative stress parameters with periodontal disease, bleeding, and the presence of different periodontal bacteria. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a sample of eighty-six patients, divided into three groups depending on their periodontal status. Thirty-three with chronic periodontitis, sixteen with gingivitis, and thirty-seven with periodontal healthy as control. Oxidative stress biomarkers (8-OHdG and MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and the activity of two antioxidant enzymes (GPx and SOD) were determined in saliva. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from the deepest periodontal pocket and PCR was used to determine the presence of the 6 fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. Results. Periodontal disease was found to be associated with increased oxidative stress parameter levels. These levels rose according to the number and type of different periodontal bacteria found in the periodontal pockets. The presence of different types of periodontal bacteria is predictive independent variables in linear regresion models of oxidative stress parameters as dependent variable, above all 8-OHdG. Conclusions. Oxidative stress parameter levels are correlated with the presence of different types of bacteria. Determination of these levels and periodontal bacteria could be a potent tool for controlling periodontal disease development. PMID:26494938

  3. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3 < 7 mm) and 35% had severe periodontal breakdown (CAL > 7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. PMID:25280920

  5. Inflammation and plaque vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, G. K.; Libby, P.; Tabas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a maladaptive, nonresolving chronic inflammatory disease that occurs at sites of blood flow disturbance. The disease usually remains silent until a breakdown of integrity at the arterial surface triggers the formation of a thrombus. By occluding the lumen, the thrombus or emboli detaching from it elicits ischaemic symptoms that may be life-threatening. Two types of surface damage can cause atherothrombosis: plaque rupture and endothelial erosion. Plaque rupture is thought to be caused by loss of mechanical stability, often due to reduced tensile strength of the collagen cap surrounding the plaque. Therefore, plaques with reduced collagen content are thought to be more vulnerable than those with a thick collagen cap. Endothelial erosion, on the other hand, may occur after injurious insults to the endothelium instigated by metabolic disturbance or immune insults. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms involved in plaque vulnerability and the development of atherothrombosis. PMID:26260307

  6. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  7. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  8. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study

    PubMed Central

    Margvelashvili, Vladimer; Bilder, Leon; Kalandadze, Manana; Tsintsadze, Nino; Machtei, Eli E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45%) and 157 males (39.55%). Of the total participants 196 (49.37%) were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63%) were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26%) of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions. PMID:24109543

  9. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study.

    PubMed

    Levin, Liran; Margvelashvili, Vladimer; Bilder, Leon; Kalandadze, Manana; Tsintsadze, Nino; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45%) and 157 males (39.55%). Of the total participants 196 (49.37%) were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63%) were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26%) of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.

  10. Periodontal plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Zucchelli, Giovanni; Mounssif, Ilham

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present article is to summarize current knowledge in terms of the etiology, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment of gingival recession. Whilst the main etiological factors (i.e. toothbrushing trauma and bacterial plaque) are well established, challenges still remain to be solved in the diagnostic, prognostic and classification processes of gingival recession, especially when the main reference parameter - the cemento-enamel junction - is no longer detectable on the affected tooth or when there is a slight loss of periodontal interdental attachment. Root coverage in single type gingival recession defects is a very predictable outcome following the use of various surgical techniques. The coronally advanced flap, with or without connective tissue grafting, is the technique of choice. The adjunctive use of connective tissue grafts improves the probability of achieving complete root coverage. Surgical coverage of multiple gingival recessions is also predictable with the coronally advanced flap and the coronally advanced flap plus the connective tissue graft, but no data are available indicating which, and how many, gingival recessions should be treated adjunctively with connective tissue grafting in order to limit patient morbidity and improve the esthetic outcome. None of the allograft materials currently available can be considered as a full substitute for the connective tissue graft, even if some recent results are encouraging. The need for future studies with patient-based outcomes (i.e. esthetics and morbidity) as primary objectives is emphasized in this review. PMID:25867992

  11. Caries management by risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B

    2013-02-01

    Caries disease is multifactorial. Whether caries disease will be expressed and damage dental hard tissue is dependent on the patient's own unique make-up of pathogenic risk factors and protective factors. Objectives This manuscript will review the science of managing caries disease based on assessing caries risk. Methods The caries balance/imbalance model and a practical caries risk assessment procedure for patients aged 6 years through adult will illustrate how treatment options can be based on caries risk. Results Neither the forms nor the clinical protocols are meant to imply there is currently only one correct way this can be achieved, rather are used in this manuscript as examples only. Conclusions It is important to have the forms and protocols simple and easy to understand when implementing caries management by risk assessment into clinical practice. The science of CAMBRA based on the caries balance/imbalance model was reviewed and an example protocol was presented.

  12. Chromogranin A: Novel biomarker between periodontal disease and psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Reshma, Arunima Padmakumar; Arunachalam, Rajeev; Pillai, Jayakumar Kochu; Kurra, Sarath Babu; Varkey, Vini K.; Prince, Mohanraj J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The psychosocial stress has long been regarded as a significant pre-disposing factor for periodontal disease. The association between the periodontal disease and the neuroendocrine hormones has been observed. Chromogranin A (CgA) is supposed to link the activity of the neuroendocrine system to local and systemic immune functions and to be related to periodontitis. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the CgA levels in saliva and plasma in periodontal health and disease and to assess their potential relationship to periodontitis. Settings and Designs: In this case-control study, the association between periodontal disease and stress marker has been assessed. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects were chosen for this study: With case group comprising of 30 subjects with chronic periodontitis and control group comprising of 30 healthy subjects. Salivary and plasma CgA levels were determined by ELISA technique. Clinical parameters included were plaque index, papillary bleeding index and clinical attachment loss and probing depth. Correlation analysis was calculated by independent sample t-test. Results: Significantly higher CgA levels were found in saliva and plasma of patients with chronic periodontitis compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). No significant difference were observed between salivary and plasma CgA levels. Conclusions: The elevated level CgA in the plasma and saliva of subjects with stress induced chronic periodontitis has yielded insights into biological plausible association between the psychosocial stress and chronic periodontitis. Thus, our results suggest that CgA is a useful biomarker for evaluating at least in part the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. PMID:23869129

  13. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R

    2011-10-01

    A sex difference in oral health has been widely documented through time and across cultures. Women's oral health declines more rapidly than men's with the onset of agriculture and the associated rise in fertility. The magnitude of this disparity in oral health by sex increases during ontogeny: from childhood, to adolescence, and through the reproductive years. Representative studies of sex differences in caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease are critically reviewed. Surveys conducted in Hungary, India, and in an isolated traditional Brazilian sample provide additional support for a significant sex bias in dental caries, especially in mature adults. Compounding hormonal and reproductive factors, the sex difference in oral health in India appears to involve social and religious causes such as son preference, ritual fasting, and dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Like the sex difference in caries, tooth loss in women is greater than in men and has been linked to caries and parity. Results of genome wide association studies have found caries susceptible and caries protective loci that influence variation in taste, saliva, and enamel proteins, affecting the oral environment and the micro-structure of enamel. Genetic variation, some of which is X-linked, may partly explain how sex differences in oral health originate. A primary, but neglected, factor in explaining the sex differential in oral health is the complex and synergistic changes associated with female sex hormones, pregnancy, and women's reproductive life history. Caries etiology is complex and impacts understanding of the sex difference in oral health. Both biological (genetics, hormones, and reproductive history) and anthropological (behavioral) factors such culture-based division of labor and gender-based dietary preferences play a role.

  14. A comparative study of combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and clear aligners in patients with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose With the increasing prevalence of orthodontic treatment in adults, clear aligner treatments are becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal tissue and to compare orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (FA) to clear aligner treatment (CAT) in periodontitis patients. Methods A total of 35 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Department of Periodontology were included in this study. After periodontal treatment with meticulous oral hygiene education, patients underwent treatment with FA or CAT, and this study analyzed patient outcomes depending on the treatment strategy. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after orthodontic treatment, and the duration of treatment was compared between these two groups. Results The overall plaque index, the gingival index, and probing depth improved after orthodontic treatment (P<0.01). The overall bone level also improved (P=0.045). However, the bone level changes in the FA and CAT groups were not significantly different. Significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups in probing depth, change in probing depth, and duration of treatment (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups regarding the plaque index, changes in the plaque index, the gingival index, changes in the gingival index, or changes in the alveolar bone level. The percentage of females in the CAT group (88%) was significantly greater than in the FA group (37%) (P<0.01). Conclusions After orthodontic treatment, clinical parameters were improved in the FA and CAT groups with meticulous oral hygiene education and plaque control. Regarding plaque index and gingival index, no significant differences were found between these two groups. We suggest that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment can improve patients’ periodontal health irrespective of orthodontic techniques. PMID:26734489

  15. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  16. A Filifactor alocis-centered co-occurrence group associates with periodontitis across different oral habitats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Menghui; Wang, Guoyang; Qi, Zhengnan; Bridgewater, Laura; Zhao, Liping; Tang, Zisheng; Pang, Xiaoyan

    2015-03-12

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent polymicrobial disease worldwide, yet the synergistic pattern of the multiple oral pathogens involved is still poorly characterized. Here, saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque samples from periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy volunteers were collected and profiled with 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Different oral habitats harbored significantly different microbiota, and segregation of microbiota composition between periodontitis and health was observed as well. Two-step redundancy analysis identified twenty-one OTUs, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Filifactor alocis, as potential pathogens that were significantly associated with periodontitis and with two periodontitis diagnostic parameters (pocket depth and attachment loss) in both saliva and supragingival plaque habitats. Interestingly, pairwise correlation analysis among the 21 OTUs revealed that Filifactor alocis was positively correlated with seven other putative pathogens (R > 0.6, P < 0.05), forming a co-occurrence group that was remarkably enriched in all three habitats of periodontitis patients. This bacterial cluster showed a higher diagnostic value for periodontitis than did any individual potential pathogens, especially in saliva. Thus, our study identified a potential synergistic ecological pattern involving eight co-infecting pathogens across various oral habitats, providing a new framework for understanding the etiology of periodontitis and developing new diagnoses and therapies.

  17. Effectiveness of a diode laser in addition to non-surgical periodontal therapy: study of intervention

    PubMed Central

    Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele Mario; Iovane, Claudio; Del Giudice, Teresa; Lomanno, Simona; Pacifico, Delfina; Fortunato, Leonzio; Del Giudice, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Chronic periodontitis affects 47% of adult population over the age of 30. The first phase of periodontal treatment is always represented by scaling and root planning (SRP), that is a causal, non-surgical therapy that recognizes as primary aims the control of bacterial infection and the reduction of periodontal plaque-associated inflammation. Yet, another innovative causal therapy is represented by the irradiation of periodontal pockets with laser. Aim To evaluate the effect of a 940-nm diode laser as an adjunct to SRP in patients affected by periodontitis. Materials and methods Sixty-eight adult patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis were sequentially enrolled and undergone to periodontal examination (V1) in order to detect gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing depth (PD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups: the first (n=34) received SRP treatment alone, the control group (n=34) received SRP and 940-nm diode laser therapy. Results Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, with two tails; for all clinical parameters, both groups reported statistically significant differences compared to basal values (p<0.0001). Both procedures were effective in improving GI, PI and PD, but the use of diode laser was associated with more evident results. Conclusions Considered the better clinical outcomes, diode laser can be routinely associated with SRP in the treatment of periodontal pockets of patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis. PMID:26161248

  18. Cannabis and caries--does regular cannabis use increase the risk of caries in cigarette smokers?

    PubMed

    Schulz-Katterbach, Michèle; Imfeld, Thomas; Imfeld, Carola

    2009-01-01

    The use of cannabis by adolescents in Switzerland has almost doubled in the past decade. Empirical observations in private dental practices indicate that cannabis users have more carious lesions than those who do not use cannabis. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that regular cannabis use increases the risk of caries because of hyposalivation or lifestyle. Forty-three regular cannabis users were enrolled in the test group and 42 tobacco smokers were used as a negative control group. All subjects were 18-25 years old. Data were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and a clinical examination. There was no significant difference between groups in decayed and filled surfaces (DFS), saliva flow rate and plaque and gingival indices. The cannabis group had, however, significantly higher DS (decayed surface) values (p = 0.0001) and significantly lower frequencies of daily tooth brushing and dental control visits (p < 0.0001) than the control group. Additionally, the cannabis group reported a significantly higher consumption of sugar-containing beverages than the control group (p = 0.0078). To obtain more objective data relations, the DS values of male cannabis users were also compared with those of Swiss military recruits found in another study. The cannabis users had more caries on smooth surfaces than the military recruits. Although comparison with epidemiological data suggested that the prevalence of caries on smooth surfaces is elevated in cannabis users, DFS data indicated that cannabis users do not have an increased risk of caries. Lifestyle combined with short-term hyposalivation after delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol consumption is the most probable cause of the high prevalence of caries on smooth surfaces in cannabis users. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of cannabis use on oral health.

  19. Development of a multifunctional adhesive system for prevention of root caries and secondary caries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Melo, Mary A. S.; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jason; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel adhesive for prevention of tooth root caries and secondary caries by possessing a combination of protein-repellent, antibacterial, and remineralization capabilities for the first time; and (2) investigate the effects of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on dentine bond strength, protein-repellent properties, and dental plaque microcosm biofilm response. Methods MPC, DMAHDM and NACP were added into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose primer and adhesive. Dentine shear bond strengths were measured. Adhesive coating thickness, surface texture and dentine-adhesive interfacial structure were examined. Protein adsorption onto adhesive resin surface was determined by the micro bicinchoninic acid method. A human saliva microcosm biofilm model was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production. Results The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP did not adversely affect dentine shear bond strength (p > 0.1). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP produced a coating on root dentine with a thickness of approximately 70 μm and completely sealed all the dentinal tubules. The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP had 95% reduction in protein adsorption, compared to SBMP control (p < 0.05). The resin with 7.5% MPC + 5% DMAHDM + 30% NACP was strongly antibacterial, with biofilm CFU being four orders of magnitude lower than that of SBMP control. Significance The novel multifunctional adhesive with strong protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization properties is promising to coat tooth roots to prevent root caries and secondary caries. The combined use of MPC, DMAHDM and NACP may have wide applicability to bonding agents, cements, sealants and composites to inhibit caries. PMID:26187532

  20. Investigation of hemorheological parameters in periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Seringec, Nurten; Guncu, Guliz; Arihan, Okan; Avcu, Nihal; Dikmenoglu, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are frequently associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). On the other hand, occurrence of CVD has also been related with increased blood viscosity. This study was planned to investigate four main hemorheological parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - and also some biochemical parameters (hs-CRP, fibrinogen, globulin etc.) in patients with periodontal disease. We hypothesized that poor periodontal health would be associated with deterioration of hemorheological properties. According to periodontal health status, subjects were divided into three groups as control (healthy), with plaque induced gingivitis and with chronic periodontitis. All groups included 15 males who had not received periodontal therapy in the last six months before the study, were non-smokers, had no systemic diseases and were not on any medication. Erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation were measured with laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer (LORCA). Plasma viscosity was measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U Test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient. Plasma viscosity (1.36 ± 0.01 mPa.s in the control group and 1.43 ± 0.02 mPa.s in the chronic periodontitis group, P <  0.01), erythrocyte aggregation tendency (aggregation index, amplitude and t½ were 58.82 ± 1.78% , 20.22 ± 0.40 au, 2.80 ± 0.25 s respectively in the control group, and 67.05 ± 1.47% , 22.19 ± 0.50 au, 1.84 ± 0.15 s in the chronic periodontitis group, P <  0.01), hs-CRP, fibrinogen and globulin levels were significantly higher, whereas HDL level was significantly lower in the chronic periodontitis group (P <  0.05) compared to the control group. All of these conditions may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in people with periodontal disease, via increasing blood viscosity. PMID:25261434

  1. Administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in early childhood: a post-trial effect on caries occurrence at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Taipale, T; Pienihäkkinen, K; Alanen, P; Jokela, J; Söderling, E

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bifidobacteria are widely used in the prevention of childhood diseases. These bacteria are also associated with caries occurrence. The present secondary analysis in a low-caries population evaluated the effect of early administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on caries occurrence and identified markers of dental decay in early childhood. In the original randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT00638677, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), infants (n = 106) received BB-12, xylitol or sorbitol tablets from the age of 1-2 months to 2 years with a slow-release pacifier or a spoon (daily dose of BB-12 10(10) colony-forming units, polyol 200-600 mg). The present data were collected using clinical examinations and questionnaires at the age of 4 years. The occurrence of dental caries was assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Oral hygiene status and mutans streptococci (MS) levels were also determined. No differences were detected between the study groups in the occurrence of enamel caries (p = 0.268) or obvious dentinal caries (p = 0.201). The occurrence of caries was associated with daily consumption of sweet drinks (p = 0.028), visible plaque observed (p = 0.002) and MS detected in the dental plaque (p = 0.002). Administration of BB-12 in infancy does not seem to increase or decrease the occurrence of caries by 4 years of age in a low-caries population. PMID:23571819

  2. Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. IV. In vitro release of lysosomal constituents from polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to supragingival and subgingival bacterial plaque.

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, N S; Tsai, C C; Baehni, P C; Stoller, N; McArthur, W P

    1977-01-01

    The deposition of bacterial plaques on tooth surfaces appears to be responsible for the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. In this study, human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) actively released lysosomal constituents upon in vitro exposure to either viable or irradiated, supragingival or subgingival dental plaque. Plaques were obtained from the PMN donors (autologous plaque) or from pooled samples (homologous plaque) secured from patients with periodontal lesions. Fresh sera from PMN donors amplified the release reactions to supragingival and subgingival plaques. Heated (56 degrees C, 30 min) sera also enhanced release reactions, but not as consistently as fresh serum. It was postulated that modulation of PMN release by serum is mediated by complement components and/or antibodies to plaque bacteria. Electron microscopic observations indicated that degranulation and discharge of PMN lysosomal enzymes may be associated with phagocytosis of gram-positive and gram-negative plaque bacteria and with reverse endocytosis of lysosomes from cells contacting relatively large masses of aggregated plaque bacteria. These data suggest that PMN lysosome release in response to plaque may serve as a potential mechanism of tissue injury in the pathogenesis of gingival and periodontal inflammation. Images PMID:197005

  3. Restorative and periodontal challenges in adults with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Puliyel, Divya; Chiu, Ching Hsiu Ketty; Habibian, Mina

    2014-05-01

    Oral manifestations of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) include blistering of the oral mucosa, scarring, limited mouth opening, decreased mobility of the tongue, restrictions in oral functions and a high incidence of caries. Adult oral health management is challenging and requires unique strategies, which have not been well described in the published literature. We present a case of DEB focusing on the obstacles encountered during restorative and periodontal care and recommendations for appropriate treatment. PMID:25087349

  4. Antibacterial Peptides: Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed. PMID:26781572

  5. Corneal mucus plaques.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, F T; Wright, P; Tripathi, R C

    1977-02-01

    Corneal mucus plaques adhered to the anterior corneal surface in 17 of 67 advanced cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The plaques were translucent to opaque and varied in size and shape, from multiple isolated islands to bizarre patterns involving more than half the corneal surface. Ultrastructurally, they consisted of mucus mixed with desquamated degenerating epithelial cells and proteinaceous and lipoidal material. The condition may be symptomatic but can be controlled and prevented in most cases by topical ocular application of 10% acetylcysteine.

  6. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  7. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ...

  8. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and ...

  9. Fluoride toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine and insoluble calcium as a new standard of care in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Cummins, D

    2013-01-01

    In spite of obvious achievements in prevention, caries remains a prevalent disease. Fluorides are effective by inhibiting enamel and dentin demineralization and enhancing remineralization, but have little or no influence on bacterial processes in dental plaque. Dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, early lesions to irreversible, pre-cavitated lesions and, ultimately, to cavities. Prevention should focus on strengthening protective and reducing pathological factors, and careful monitoring of the disease state. While fluoride and the mineral aspects of caries have been in focus for decades, new insights into the etiology of caries have generated novel concepts and approaches to its prevention and treatment. The observation that some plaque bacteria can produce alkali metabolites and, thus, raise pH or neutralize acid formed in plaque has long been known. Such pH rise factors are related to caries susceptibility. Nourishing the plaque with substrates that encourage alkali-producing reactions is a protective factor in the caries continuum. This article reviews the results of clinical studies with a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride which have demonstrated superior remineralization of white spot enamel lesions and rehardening of root surface lesions, favorable effects on the de-/remineralization balance, as well as superior cavity prevention efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. Studies have also confirmed formation of ammonia and elevated pH levels in subjects using the arginine-containing toothpaste. This novel toothpaste effectively combines the established effects of fluoride on de- and remineralization with reduction of caries-inducing pathological factors resulting from plaque metabolism. PMID:24660269

  10. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Salivary Interleukin-12 Levels in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, B.P.; Naagtilak, S; Singh, Ganesh; Bano, Tanveer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is considered a central regulator of host resistance against a variety of pathogens. The influence of scaling and root planing was evaluated on amount of IL-12 in salivary fluid of patients with chronic generalized severe periodontitis, in relation to clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were enrolled, of which 25 had chronic generalized severe periodontitis, and 25 periodontally healthy as control. The clinical parameters included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), pocket probing depth (PPD) bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment loss (CAL). The level of IL-12 in salivary fluid was measured by ELISA kit at baseline and at four week following scaling and root planing. Results: Mean IL-12 levels in patients with periodontitis at baseline (9.79 ± 5.70 pg/ml) were higher than in controls (9.18±4.94 pg/ml; p=0.54.) Scaling and root planing resulted in significant increase in IL-12 levels (mean: 15.93±12.09 pg/ml; p =0.001) (control vs postoperative p <0.001). No significant correlations were found between IL-12 levels and any of the above clinical parameters. Conclusion: Short-term nonsurgical therapy resulted in a significant improvement in periodontal indices and a marked increase in IL-12 levels. PMID:25478457

  11. Chronic Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Oxidative Stress as a Common Factor in Periodontal Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijayetha P.; Gokhale, Neeraja; Acharya, Anirudh; Kangokar, Praveenchandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of periodontitis is significantly higher among people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Majority of tissue destruction in periodontitis is considered to be the result of an aberrant inflammatory/immune response to microbial plaque and involve prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is increased evidence for compromised antioxidant capacity in periodontal tissues and fluids which may be an added factor for tissue damage in periodontitis. Aim To study the possible role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant status in blood among chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods The study comprised of total 100 subjects among which 25 were normal healthy controls, 25 were gingivitis patients, 25 were chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and 25 were having chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes (CP with DM). ROS levels were determined as MDA (Malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status as plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. Results There was significant increase in MDA levels in all the patient groups compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). The decrease in TAC, Vitamin C and SOD levels among CP with DM patients as compared to controls was highly significant (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the probing pocket depth and MDA levels among periodontitis patients with diabetes (r=0.566, p=0.003). Conclusion There is increased oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes indicating a common factor involvement in tissue damage. More severe tissue destruction in periodontitis is associated with excessive ROS generation which is positively correlated in type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:27190790

  12. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; CERRONI, L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease. Aim Purpose of this study was to determine in vivo the retention of plaque on three different elastic ligatures, in comparison with stainless steel ligature, to determine a possible association between type of ligatures and accumulation of microorganisms. Material and Methods three elastic ligation systems were analyzed for plaque retention: ring-shape, clear, latex ligatures (Leone® Spa), ring-shape, grey, polyurethane ligatures (Micerium® Spa) and grey, polyurethane, Slide low-friction ligatures (Leone® Spa), compared with stainless steel ligatures (Leone® Spa) used as control. Forthy orthodontic patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy were selected. A sample for each type of ligature were applied inside the oral cavity of each subject. Samples were kept in the oral cavity for 28 days, ligating 0.16 X 0.22 stainless steel archwire to stainless steel orthodontic premolars brackets. The presence of bacterical slime was quantified by spectrophotometric method (crystal violet-Bouin’s fixative) and morphological observations was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results From analysis of bacterical slime emerges that all the elastics showed a low plaque retention, especially if compared to the group of steinless steel ligatures, that presented a greater plaque adhesion, statistically significant compared to the Slide group (r<0.0002) and the two elastic groups (r<0.0001). This study reported no significant difference between the Slide ligatures and the traditional elastic ligatures as regards the retention of plaque. SEM images showed presence of cocci, rods and few filamentous organisms and an interbacterial matrix in all observed samples. Conclusion Elastomeric ligatures showed a significant lower susceptibility

  13. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque) creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:27019855

  14. Association between Chronic Periodontitis and Oral/Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Costa de; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case control study was to assess the association between the extent and severity of chronic periodontitis and oral cavity and/or oropharyngeal cancer. The case group comprised 35 patients (mean age 56.1±8.4), diagnosed for oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer. The control group comprised 40 individuals (mean age 55.4±9.4) without diagnostic of cancer. All individuals were subjected to a periodontal examination, including bleeding on probing, plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and decayed, extracted and filled teeth index (DMFT). The case group had significantly more sites with plaque. GI and BOP had similar values in both groups. The median PPD and CAL values were significantly higher for the case group. Chronic generalized periodontitis was predominant in 80% of patients with oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer. Eighty nine percent of the patients in the case group presented severe chronic periodontitis. There was no significant difference between groups for median values of DMFT. The extent and severity of chronic periodontitis remained as risk indicators for oral cavity and/or oropharyngeal cancer even after the adjustments for traditional confound factors, i.e. smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:27224557

  15. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation.

  16. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation. PMID:26324012

  17. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  18. Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Sugai, Jim V.; Giannobile, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). Materials and Methods 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and categorized into 4 groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters, and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Sub-gingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6-months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6-12 months. GCF samples were analyzed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, OPG, CRP and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p=0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Results Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61,86). Conclusions Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). PMID:24303954

  19. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hienz, Stefan A.; Paliwal, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways. PMID:26065002

  20. Periodontal parameters following orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis: A before-after clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Paknejad, Mojgan; Yaghobee, Siamak; Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza Rasouli; Bashizadefakhar, Hourieh; Khatami, Masoomeh; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The success of combined periodontal and orthodontic approach in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis patients with the pathologic extruded anterior teeth is a main concern and stability of the treatment results is an important factor to evaluate the treatment. The present study investigated the periodontal parameters at the end of the orthodontic treatment in patients with the aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with an aggressive periodontal disease, extruded maxillary incisors, infrabony defects and probing depth of ≥5 mm were enrolled in this clinical trial (before, after). After periodontal therapy, orthodontic treatment was carried out for intrusion and alignment of teeth. Plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla, root length (RL), and defect dimensions (depth and width) were examined at the end of treatment and three as well as 6 months afterward. The data were subjected to repeated measure ANOVA test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was statistically significant decrease in PPD, PI, and depth of the defects during T0, T3 and T6 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the RL and distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla (P = 0.95). Furthermore, width of the defects demonstrated significant decrease up to T3 (P = 0.042) while no significant changes from 3 months to 6 months were noted (P = 0.59). Conclusion: The results showed that combined periodontal and orthodontic approach would be a successful treatment with acceptable stability in the case of regular follow-up visits and controlled oral hygiene habits. PMID:24379862

  1. Body mass index as a predictive factor of periodontal therapy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Suvan, J; Petrie, A; Moles, D R; Nibali, L; Patel, K; Darbar, U; Donos, N; Tonetti, M; D'Aiuto, F

    2014-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and obesity are associated with the prevalence, extent, and severity of periodontitis. This study investigated the predictive role of overweight/obesity on clinical response following non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with severe periodontitis. Two hundred sixty adults received an intensive course of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal status at baseline and 2 months was based upon probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment levels (CAL), and whole-mouth gingival bleeding (FMBS) as assessed by two calibrated examiners. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to estimate the impact of BMI and overweight/obesity on periodontal treatment response while controlling for baseline status, age, smoking status (smoker or non-smoker), and full-mouth dental plaque score. BMI (continuous variable) and obesity (vs. normal weight) were associated with worse mean PPD (p < .005), percentage of PPD > 4 mm (p = .01), but not with FMBS (p > .05) or CAL (p > .05) at 2 months, independent of age, smoking status, or dental plaque levels. The magnitude of this association was similar to that of smoking, which was also linked to a worse clinical periodontal outcome (p < .01). BMI and obesity appear to be independent predictors of poor response following non-surgical periodontal therapy. PMID:24165943

  2. Body Mass Index as a Predictive Factor of Periodontal Therapy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Suvan, J.; Petrie, A.; Moles, D.R.; Nibali, L.; Patel, K.; Darbar, U.; Donos, N.; Tonetti, M.; D’Aiuto, F.

    2014-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and obesity are associated with the prevalence, extent, and severity of periodontitis. This study investigated the predictive role of overweight/obesity on clinical response following non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with severe periodontitis. Two hundred sixty adults received an intensive course of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal status at baseline and 2 months was based upon probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment levels (CAL), and whole-mouth gingival bleeding (FMBS) as assessed by two calibrated examiners. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to estimate the impact of BMI and overweight/obesity on periodontal treatment response while controlling for baseline status, age, smoking status (smoker or non-smoker), and full-mouth dental plaque score. BMI (continuous variable) and obesity (vs. normal weight) were associated with worse mean PPD (p < .005), percentage of PPD > 4 mm (p = .01), but not with FMBS (p > .05) or CAL (p > .05) at 2 months, independent of age, smoking status, or dental plaque levels. The magnitude of this association was similar to that of smoking, which was also linked to a worse clinical periodontal outcome (p < .01). BMI and obesity appear to be independent predictors of poor response following non-surgical periodontal therapy. PMID:24165943

  3. Periodontal Disease as a Specific, albeit Chronic, Infection: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, Walter J.; Grossman, Natalie S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodontal disease is perhaps the most common chronic infection in adults. Evidence has been accumulating for the past 30 years which indicates that almost all forms of periodontal disease are chronic but specific bacterial infections due to the overgrowth in the dental plaque of a finite number of mostly anaerobic species such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola. The success of traditional debridement procedures and/or antimicrobial agents in improving periodontal health can be associated with the reduction in levels of these anaerobes in the dental plaque. These findings suggest that patients and clinicians have a choice in the treatment of this overgrowth, either a debridement and surgery approach or a debridement and antimicrobial treatment approach. However, the antimicrobial approach, while supported by a wealth of scientific evidence, goes contrary to centuries of dental teaching that states that periodontal disease results from a “dirty mouth.” If periodontal disease is demonstrated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, it will be a modifiable risk factor since periodontal disease can be prevented and treated. Since the antimicrobial approach may be as effective as a surgical approach in the restoration and maintenance of a periodontally healthy dentition, this would give a cardiac or stroke patient and his or her physician a choice in the implementation of treatment seeking to improve the patient's periodontal condition so as to reduce and/or delay future cardiovascular events. PMID:11585783

  4. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-06-01

    An individual variation in the gingival inflammatory response to the dental biofilm has been demonstrated. This variability can be observed between individuals with neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in plaque accumulation. The reported significant differences in gingival inflammatory response under quantitatively and/or qualitatively almost identical bacterial challenge suggest that the gingival response to plaque accumulation may be an individual trait, possibly genetic in origin. The most recent classification of periodontal diseases acknowledges that the clinical expression of plaque-induced gingival inflammation can be substantially modified by systemic factors, either inherent to the host or related to environmental influences. The aim of the present literature review is to describe (i) the factors influencing the development of plaque-induced gingivitis as well as (ii) those metabolic, environmental and systemic factors which have a direct impact on the etiopathogenetic pathway of plaque-induced gingivitis, thus altering the nature or course of the gingival inflammatory response to dental biofilm.

  5. The Role of Osteoimmunology in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Rayyan A.

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a pathological condition that involves inflammation of the tooth supporting structures. It occurs in response to the presence of bacterial plaque on the tooth structure. The host defense system, including innate and adaptive immunity, is responsible for combating the pathologic bacteria invading the periodontal tissue. Failure to eradicate the invading pathogens will result in a continuous state of inflammation where inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, PMNs, and macrophages will continue to produce inflammatory mediators in an effort to destroy the invaders. Unfortunately, these inflammatory mediators have a deleterious effect on the host tissue as well as foreign microbes. One of the effects of these mediators on the host is the induction of matrix degradation and bone resorption through activation of proteases and other inflammatory mediators that activate osteoclasts. PMID:24151615

  6. The effects of selected dietary bioflavonoid supplementation on dental caries in young rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that certain bioflavonoids reduce dental caries and cariogenic bacteria incidence. The present study evaluates two separate, but related, dietary trials -- trial 1, 0.09%, 0.18%, 0.36%, and 0.72% dietary naringenin (NAR) supplementation; and trial 2, 0.57% dietary rutin (R), quercetin (Q), and naringin (N) supplementation-on dental caries formation in 40 different male albino rats, at the expense of dextrose, for periods of 42 days. All rats were fed 40% sucrose. In dietary trial 1, rats were evaluated for dental caries, dental plaque accumulation, and saliva flow rates using oneway analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlations. In dietary trial 2, rats were evaluated for occlusal dental caries only using a Kruskal-Wallis H test and analysis of variance. A 5% level of statistical significance was adopted throughout. In dietary trial 1, NAR showed a statistically significant effect on dental caries, plaque, and saliva flow rate reduction compared with the control group (P < .05-.01). An inverse dose-dependent relationship was established among the NAR experimental groups and control group. Dietary NAR supplementation significantly reduced dental caries formation, possibly because of reduced dental plaque accumulation. In dietary trial 2, statistically significant reductions in occlusal caries were observed for R, Q, and N in the maxillary molars and for Q and N in the mandibular molars compared with the control group (P < .05). Significant associations were observed among the experimental groups and maxillary (P < .05) and mandibular (P < .01) occlusal dental caries. Hence, selected bioflavonoids may show promise as an alternative means of reducing dental caries.

  7. Synchrotron radiation analysis of possible correlations between metal status in human cementum and periodontal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Edwards, M.; Mithoowani, H.; Stakiw, J.

    2010-03-16

    Periodontitis is a serious disease that affects up to 50% of an adult population. It is a chronic condition involving inflammation of the periodontal ligament and associated tissues leading to eventual tooth loss. Some evidence suggests that trace metals, especially zinc and copper, may be involved in the onset and severity of periodontitis. Thus we have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging on cross sections of diseased and healthy teeth using a microbeam to explore the distribution of trace metals in cementum and adhering plaque. The comparison between diseased and healthy teeth indicates that there are elevated levels of zinc, copper and nickel in diseased teeth as opposed to healthy teeth. This preliminary correlation between elevated levels of trace metals in the cementum and plaque of diseased teeth suggests that metals may play a role in the progress of periodontitis.

  8. Canine stage 1 periodontal disease: a latent pathology.

    PubMed

    Whyte, A; Bonastre, C; Monteagudo, L V; Les, F; Obon, J; Whyte, J; Tejedor, M T

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the potential health issues associated with periodontal disease (PD) in dogs, 1004 teeth from 25 dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly selected, aged 2-14 years, and had at least 95% of their teeth at the first PD stage. Significant positive correlations between plaque grade (PG) and gum inflammation, gingival regression, periodontal pocket, age and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were identified. In contrast, PG was negatively correlated to total platelet count. Altogether, these findings suggest that prevention and therapy at the first PD stages can have an important impact on the general health condition of dogs. PMID:24878263

  9. Management of diabolical diabetes mellitus and periodontitis nexus: Are we doing enough?

    PubMed

    Gurav, Abhijit N

    2016-02-25

    Periodontitis is the commonest oral disease affecting population worldwide. This disease is notorious for the devastation of tooth supporting structures, ensuing in the loss of dentition. The etiology for this disease is bacterial biofilm, which accumulates on the teeth as dental plaque. In addition to the biofilm microorganisms, other factors such as environmental, systemic and genetic are also responsible in progression of periodontitis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorder which has an impact on the global health. DM plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Periodontitis is declared as the "sixth" major complication of DM. Evidence based literature has depicted an enhanced incidence and severity of periodontitis in subjects with DM. A "two way" relationship has been purported between periodontitis and DM. Mutual management of both conditions is necessary. Periodontal therapy (PT) may assist to diminish the progression of DM and improve glycemic control. Various advanced technological facilities may be utilized for the purpose of patient education and disease management. The present paper clarifies the etio-pathogenesis of periodontitis, establishing it as a complication of DM and elaborating the various mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. The role of PT in amelioration of DM and application of digital communication will be discussed. Overall, it is judicious to create an increased patient cognizance of the periodontitis-DM relationship. Conjunctive efforts must be undertaken by the medical and oral health care professionals for the management of periodontitis affected DM patients. PMID:26962409

  10. Serum leveis of inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    LONGO, Priscila Larcher; ARTESE, Hilana Paula Carillo; RABELO, Marianade Sousa; KAWAMOTO, Dione; FOZ, Adriana Moura; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; DIB, Sérgio Atala; MAYER, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes has been associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms through which periodontal diseases affect the metabolic control remain unclear. Objective This study aimed to evaluate serum leveis of inflammatory markers, IL-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in type 2 diabetic patients in the presence of chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods Forty two individuals were enrolled in this study and assigned to one of five groups: diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMI+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus with adequate glycemic control and periodontitis (DMA+P, n = 10), diabetes mellitus without periodontitis (DM, n = 10), periodontitis without diabetes (P, n=6), and neither diabetes nor periodontitis (H, n = 6). Periodontal clinical examination included visible plaque index (PL), gingival bleeding index (GB), probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL) and bleeding on probing (BP). Glycemic control was evaluated by serum concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Inflammatory serum markers IL-8, IL-6 and (MCP-1) were measured by ELISA. Results DMI+P and DMA+P groups presented higher PD (p=0.025) and AL (p=0.003) values when compared to the P group. There were no significant differences among groups for IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 serum levels. Conclusions Although periodontitis was more severe in diabetic patients, the serum levels of the investigated inflammatory markers did not differ among the groups. PMID:24676580

  11. Management of diabolical diabetes mellitus and periodontitis nexus: Are we doing enough?

    PubMed Central

    Gurav, Abhijit N

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is the commonest oral disease affecting population worldwide. This disease is notorious for the devastation of tooth supporting structures, ensuing in the loss of dentition. The etiology for this disease is bacterial biofilm, which accumulates on the teeth as dental plaque. In addition to the biofilm microorganisms, other factors such as environmental, systemic and genetic are also responsible in progression of periodontitis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorder which has an impact on the global health. DM plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Periodontitis is declared as the “sixth” major complication of DM. Evidence based literature has depicted an enhanced incidence and severity of periodontitis in subjects with DM. A “two way” relationship has been purported between periodontitis and DM. Mutual management of both conditions is necessary. Periodontal therapy (PT) may assist to diminish the progression of DM and improve glycemic control. Various advanced technological facilities may be utilized for the purpose of patient education and disease management. The present paper clarifies the etio-pathogenesis of periodontitis, establishing it as a complication of DM and elaborating the various mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. The role of PT in amelioration of DM and application of digital communication will be discussed. Overall, it is judicious to create an increased patient cognizance of the periodontitis-DM relationship. Conjunctive efforts must be undertaken by the medical and oral health care professionals for the management of periodontitis affected DM patients. PMID:26962409

  12. Management of diabolical diabetes mellitus and periodontitis nexus: Are we doing enough?

    PubMed

    Gurav, Abhijit N

    2016-02-25

    Periodontitis is the commonest oral disease affecting population worldwide. This disease is notorious for the devastation of tooth supporting structures, ensuing in the loss of dentition. The etiology for this disease is bacterial biofilm, which accumulates on the teeth as dental plaque. In addition to the biofilm microorganisms, other factors such as environmental, systemic and genetic are also responsible in progression of periodontitis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorder which has an impact on the global health. DM plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Periodontitis is declared as the "sixth" major complication of DM. Evidence based literature has depicted an enhanced incidence and severity of periodontitis in subjects with DM. A "two way" relationship has been purported between periodontitis and DM. Mutual management of both conditions is necessary. Periodontal therapy (PT) may assist to diminish the progression of DM and improve glycemic control. Various advanced technological facilities may be utilized for the purpose of patient education and disease management. The present paper clarifies the etio-pathogenesis of periodontitis, establishing it as a complication of DM and elaborating the various mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. The role of PT in amelioration of DM and application of digital communication will be discussed. Overall, it is judicious to create an increased patient cognizance of the periodontitis-DM relationship. Conjunctive efforts must be undertaken by the medical and oral health care professionals for the management of periodontitis affected DM patients.

  13. [Caries preventive effectiveness of Fluor Protector and fluoride lacquer, Duraphat under very cariogenic conditions].

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, H; Buskes, H

    1988-06-01

    Fluoride varnishes Durpahat and Fluor Protector are commonly used and have proven to be effective as caries preventive agents. In the first part of this paper the features of fluoride varnishes in terms of fluoride uptake, caries prevention and toxicological safety are discussed. The effect of both varnishes under high cariogenic conditions is discussed in the second part. In the presented study, 8 patients carried 3 enamel specimens (Fluor Protector, Duraphat, Control) intra-orally during 4 months. They kept plaque accumulation intact on the specimen and avoided fluoride administration from other sources. After 4 months of substantial cariogenic challenge, the enamel was analysed by microradiography and the degree of caries protection obtained for each varnish type was calculated. The results show that under high-risk caries conditions enamel treated with Fluor Protector was significantly better protected (65%) than enamel treated with Duraphat (3%).

  14. Can anti-erosion dentifrices also provide effective plaque control?

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, PG; Prendergast, M; Strand, R; Yu, Z; Day, TN; Barker, ML; Mussett, AJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: While gingivitis and caries continue to be prevalent issues, there is growing concern about dental erosion induced by dietary acids. An oral hygiene product that protects against all these conditions would be beneficial. This study investigated the potential of two anti-erosion dentifrices to inhibit plaque. Methods: This was a randomized, three-period, two-treatment, double-blind, crossover study evaluating a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride dentifrice (SnCl2/NaF, blend-a-med® Pro Expert) and a popular anti-erosion dentifrice (NaF, Sensodyne® ProNamel™). During Period 3, subjects were randomized to repeat one treatment to evaluate any product carryover effects. Each treatment period was 17 days. Test dentifrices were used with a standard manual toothbrush. Digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) was employed at the end of each period to evaluate plaque levels (i) overnight (am prebrush); (ii) post-brushing with the test product (am post-brush); and (iii) mid-afternoon (pm). Analysis was conducted via an objective computer algorithm, which calculated total area of visible plaque. Results: Twenty-seven subjects completed the study. At all time points, subjects had statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) lower plaque levels after using the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice than the NaF dentifrice. The antiplaque benefit for the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice versus the NaF dentifrice was: am prebrush = 26.0%; am post-brushing = 27.9%; pm = 25.7%. Conclusions: The SnCl2/NaF dentifrice provided significantly greater daytime and overnight plaque inhibition than the NaF toothpaste. When recommending dentifrice to patients susceptible to dental erosion, clinicians can consider one that also inhibits plaque. PMID:21356021

  15. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs.

  16. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs. PMID:26605793

  17. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O’Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs. PMID:26605793

  18. Lactobacillus spp. associated with early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Svec, P; Sedlácek, I; Zácková, L; Nováková, D; Kukletová, M

    2009-01-01

    A group of 69 lactobacilli was isolated from caries lesions and root canals of early childhood caries (ECC) affected children treated in the Department of Pedodontics (Children's Teaching Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic). Biochemical and physiological properties of all strains were characterized by API 50 CH kit and conventional tube tests. The rep-PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)(5) primer was used for genotypic grouping of the isolates. The (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting grouped all analyzed strains into a few clusters in nearly full agreement with phenotype identification results and clarified the taxonomic position of 13 biochemically unidentified strains. In total, 20 strains of Lactobacillus fermentum, 17 L. rhamnosus, 14 L. casei/paracasei, 7 L. gasseri, 7 L. salivarius and 4 L. plantarum were identified. Mixtures of two or even three Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from a few root canal content samples. Results obtained by biotyping and (GTG)(5)-PCR were generally comparable except for L. gasseri strains that were not biochemically identified. The (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting was shown to be quicker, easier to perform and more reliable than biotyping. Our results imply this molecular method as a good tool for screening and identification of Lactobacillus spp. inhabiting dental plaque.

  19. [Early childhood caries].

    PubMed

    Nissan, S; Khoury-Absawi, M

    2009-07-01

    ECC was defined by the American Academy of pediatric dentistry at 2003 as the presence of 1 or more decayed (noncavitated or cavitated lesions), missing (due to caries), or filled tooth surfaces in any primary tooth in a child 71 months of age or younger. This is a virulent type of dental caries that start soon after the tooth erupts and progress rapidly. The prevalence is 1-12% in developed countries and 70% in developing countries, and changes in different cultures, communities, socioeconomic status, etc. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial like in any dental caries. The risk factors include high levels of SM and LB, enamel defects, oral habits, complication at pregnancy and birth, social and demographic factors and the child's age. The disease implications are: high risk of new caries defects in both permanent and deciduous dentitions, insufficient physical development, hospitalization and emergency room visits, loss of school days and increased days with restricted activity, increased treatment costs and time, diminished ability to learn, and diminished oral health-related quality of life. Due to the aggressive pattern of the disease, treatment should be specific for each individual patient, and should be given by an expert dentist with experience who could manage the young child and the process of the disease. Treatment options are: 1. Conservative approach which includes recalls and topical fluoride, 2. Aggressive restorative approach. In both we should first stop the carious habit and encourage prevention. Before choosing the type of treatment, we should consider the severity of the lesions, child's age, caries risk, child's behavior, and parents' cooperation. Prevention at home includes: 1. decreasing the mother's/primary caregiver's mutans streptococci levels, 2. avoid sharing the same utensils in the family, 3. implementing oral hygiene measures as the first primary tooth erupts, 4. dental home, 5. avoid inappropriate feeding practices of

  20. Risk factors that may modify the innate and adaptive immune responses in periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Knight, Ellie T; Liu, Jenny; Seymour, Gregory J; Faggion, Clovis M; Cullinan, Mary P

    2016-06-01

    Plaque-induced periodontal diseases occur in response to the accumulation of dental plaque. Disease manifestation and progression is determined by the nature of the immune response to the bacterial complexes in plaque. In general, predisposing factors for these periodontal diseases can be defined as those factors which retain or hinder the removal of plaque and, depending upon the nature of the immune response to this plaque, the disease will either remain stable and not progress or it may progress and result in chronic periodontitis. In contrast, modifying factors can be defined as those factors that alter the nature or course of the inflammatory lesion. These factors do not cause the disease but rather modify the chronic inflammatory response, which, in turn, is determined by the nature of the innate and adaptive immune responses and the local cytokine and inflammatory mediator networks. Chronic inflammation is characterized by vascular, cellular and repair responses within the tissues. This paper will focus on how common modifying factors, such as smoking, stress, hormonal changes, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and HIV/AIDS, influence each of these responses, together with treatment implications. As treatment planning in periodontics requires an understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, it is important for all modifying factors to be taken into account. For some of these, such as smoking, stress and diabetic control, supportive health behavior advice within the dental setting should be an integral component for overall patient management. PMID:27045429

  1. Association of Synergistetes and Cyclodipeptides with Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, J T; Morelli, T; Moss, K; Barros, S P; Ward, M; Jenkins, W; Aspiras, M B; Offenbacher, S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial community (MC) composition as it relates to salivary metabolites and periodontal clinical parameters in a 21-d biofilm-overgrowth model. Subjects (N = 168) were enrolled equally into 5 categories of periodontal status per the biofilm-gingival interface classification. Microbial species within subgingival plaque samples were identified by human microbiome identification microarray. Whole saliva was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for metabolite identification. Phylum was grouped into MCs according to principal component analysis. Generalized linear and regression models were used to examine the association among MC, species, periodontal clinical parameters, and salivary metabolome. Multiple comparisons were adjusted with the false discovery rate. The study population was distributed into 8 distinct MC profiles, designated MC-1 to MC-8. MC-2 explained 14% of the variance and was dominated by Synergistetes and Spirochaetes. It was the only community structure significantly associated with high probing depth (P = 0.02) and high bleeding on probing (P = 0.008). MC-2 was correlated with traditional periodontal pathogens and several newly identified putative periodontal pathogens: Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Fretibacterium sp. OT360/OT362, Filifactor alocis, Treponema lecithinolyticum, Eubacterium saphenum, Desulfobulbus sp./OT041, and Mogibacterium timidum. Synergistetes phylum was strongly associated with 2 novel metabolites-cyclo (-leu-pro) and cyclo (-phe-pro)-at 21 d of biofilm overgrowth (P = 0.02). In subjects with severe periodontitis (P2 and P3), cyclo (-leu-pro) and cyclo (-phe-pro) were significantly associated with increased changes in probing depth at 21 d of biofilm overgrowth (P ≤ 0.05). The analysis identified a MC dominated by Synergistetes, with classic and putative newly identified pathogens/pathobionts associated with clinical disease

  2. The Use of Probiotic Strains in Caries Prevention: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Mastroberardino, Stefano; Milia, Egle; Cocco, Fabio; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a systematic review of the caries-prevention effect of probiotics in human. The hypothesis was that the administration of probiotic strains might play a role in caries lesion prevention and in the control of caries-related risk factors. The main relevant databases (Medline, Embase) were searched. Quality of the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) was classified using the “Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials” (CONSORT) checklist and the Impact Factor (IF) value of each journal was recorded. Sixty-six papers were identified, and 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only three studies had caries lesion development as outcome, all the others reported caries risk factors as interim evaluation. Using the CONSORT Score, the papers were coded as 4 excellent, 9 good and 10 poor. The mean IF value recorded was 1.438. Probiotics may play a role as antagonistic agent on mutans streptococci (MS), acidogenic/aciduric bacteria that contributes to the caries process. In two-thirds of the selected papers, probiotics have demonstrated the capacity to reduce MS counts in saliva and/or plaque in short-term. The effect of probiotics on the development of caries lesion seems encouraging, but to date, RCTs on this topic are insufficient to provide scientific clinical evidence. PMID:23857225

  3. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A; Wiener, Howard W; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S; Ruby, John D; Cutter, Gary R; Childers, Noel K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5- and 6-yr-old children, considered as being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs (primary teeth)/DMFS (secondary teeth)) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity), and 13 genotypes were shared by at least two children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and this was negatively associated with the p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high-caries-risk community, which suggests that fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and higher stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  4. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A.; Wiener, Howard W.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S.; Ruby, John D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Childers, Noel K.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5 and 6 yr-old children, considered being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping with repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs/DMFS) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity) and 13 genotypes were shared by at least 2 children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and was negatively associated with p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high caries risk community, which suggest fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  5. Aetiology of pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Rous, V.; Studeny, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pleural plaques were found in 644 (6·6%) of 9,760 photofluorograms taken in 1965 in a region of Pelhřimov district; the incidence was highest in the age group 66-70 years. The advanced age of those affected may be explained by the greater frequency of the causative agent in the past. The disorder was known in Pelhřimov district as early as 1930; it was then thought to be posttuberculous. The past history of the cases was uninformative; as a rule, the only common previous disease was pleurisy with effusion, occurring in 9·7%. The general condition of those affected was excellent; only 8% were aware of the fact that pleural lesions were present. The disorder was found mainly in farmers, familial incidence was common, and if two generations of one family suffered from the condition, the older generation was affected in 100%. Pleural plaques consist morphologically of limited areas of hyalinized collagenous connective tissue with calcium salt deposits. Tubercle bacilli could not be cultivated from the lesions. Mineralological analysis showed no evidence of silicates in the pleural plaques and a normal content in the lungs. The aetiological factor responsible for the development of pleural plaques in Pelhřimov district is not known, but asbestos cannot be implicated. The unknown noxious agent is carried to the pleura by the lymph and blood stream. Pleural plaques are an endemic disorder. The traditional view that lesions are post-tuberculous appears, in the region submitted to this study, to be a possible explanation. Images PMID:5465601

  6. Relationship between Cariogenic Bacteria and pH of Dental Plaque at Margin of Fixed Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junko; Mukai, Norio; Tanaka, Muto; Tanaka, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether teeth that have undergone prosthetic restoration are under conditions that promote caries recurrence. Methods. The subjects were 20 dentate adults with both a healthy tooth and an affected tooth entirely covered with a complete cast crown in the molar regions of the same arch. The pH was measured in plaque adhering to the margin of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown and adhering to the cervicobuccal area of the natural tooth. In addition, the numbers of cariogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli) were measured employing the saliva test. The relationships between the number of cariogenic bacteria and plaque pH of the natural tooth and between the number of cariogenic bacteria and plaque pH of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown were investigated. Results. The plaque pH of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown decreased as the numbers of SM and LB increased. The natural tooth were also influenced by the number of SM. Conclusion. Secondary caries are likely to develop from the marginal region of the crown in the oral cavity with a high caries risk unless a preventive program is prepared and the oral environment is improved following the program. PMID:22287964

  7. Histologic evaluation of probe penetration during clinical assessment of periodontal attachment levels. An investigation of experimentally induced periodontal lesions in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; Pilot, T; Corba, N

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically the extent and characteristics of the penetration of a periodontal probe during clinical assessment of loss of periodontal attachment in three different situations: (1) experimental mild gingivitis, (2) experimental severe periodontal inflammation and (3) experimental moderate periodontal inflammation. Mild gingivitis was obtained by merely allowing plaque to accumulate on the teeth. Severe periodontal inflammation was created using copper bands for a period of 3 weeks followed by placement of cotton ligatures for another 11 weeks. Moderate periodontal inflammation group was obtained by allowing the experimental defects to recover for a period of 3 to 31 weeks. At different times gutta percha imitations of a thin periodontal probe were inserted into the pockets using a gentle but unknown force. Histologic observation in 30 specimens showed that epithelium was always present around the probe tip, in most instances forming a continuous layer of epithelial cells. Histometrical analysis showed that in mild gingivitis the probe tip failed to reach the apical termination of the junctional epithelium (mean = -0.84 mm). In severe periodontal inflammation the tip of the probe went past this point (mean = +0.50 mm), while in moderate periodontal inflammation the probe tip came closest to the apical termination of the junctional epithelium (mean = -0.05 mm). It is concluded that the epithelial lining of a pocket stays intact, even in severe periodontal inflammation where the probe tip is situated apical to the apical termination of the junctional epithelium, indicating that during clinical probing the periodontal tissues are compressed and displaced but not perforated. It is also concluded that in beagle dogs the extent of probe penetration in experimentally inflamed periodontal tissues is dependent upon the degree of inflammation.

  8. Interactions between chronic renal disease and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Craig, R G

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing and patients receiving renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or renal transplantation will comprise an enlarging segment of the dental patient population. Renal replacement therapy can affect periodontal tissues including gingival hyperplasia in immune suppressed renal transplantation patients and increased levels of plaque, calculus and gingival inflammation and possible increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal diseases in ESRD patients on dialysis maintenance therapy. Also, the presence of undiagnosed periodontitis may have significant effects on the medical management of the ESRD patient. Periodontitis has been found to contribute to systemic inflammatory burden including the elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the general population. Atherosclerotic complications including myocardial infarction and stroke are the primary causes of mortality in the ESRD population and, in contrast to that of the general population, the best predictor of all cause and cardiac death in this population is CRP. Consequently, periodontitis may be a covert but treatable source of systemic inflammation in the ESRD population. The objective of this review was to explore the interaction between chronic renal disease, renal replacement therapy and periodontal diseases based upon the results of studies published within the last decade.

  9. Successful nonsurgical management of post-orthodontic gingival enlargement with intensive cause-related periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeHyun; Kim, David M; Levin, Liran

    2015-03-01

    Successful nonsurgical management of severe postorthodontic gingival enlargement and erythema in a 24-year-old male is presented. The patient received an intensive cause-related periodontal therapy, consisting of oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing, and weekly recall visits. At week five, complete resolution of the lesions was achieved. By targeting the primary etiologic factor, i.e., plaque, periodontal health was restored without needing surgical intervention. Reducing the bacterial load will give the biologic natural healing capacity of the body the opportunity to stabilize the periodontal condition and, thus, should be considered as the first line of intervention before a surgical approach is taken. PMID:25928969

  10. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05) and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001). Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05) and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05) in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites. PMID:27563201

  11. Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children.

    PubMed

    Näse, L; Hatakka, K; Savilahti, E; Saxelin, M; Pönkä, A; Poussa, T; Korpela, R; Meurman, J H

    2001-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC (LGG), has shown antagonism to many bacteria including mutans streptococci. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was designed to examine whether milk containing LGG has an effect on caries and the risk of caries in children when compared with normal milk. 594 children, 1-6 years old, from 18 municipal day-care centres were included. The children received the milk with meals from coded containers 5 days a week in the day-care centres for 7 months. The children's oral health was recorded at baseline and at the end, using WHO criteria. The caries risk was calculated based on clinical and microbiological data, comprising mutans streptococcus levels from dental plaque and saliva. The risk was classified as high if the child had a dmft/DMFT or initial caries score >0, and a mutans streptococcus count > or = 10(5) CFU/ml. The results showed less dental caries in the LGG group and lower mutans streptococcus counts at the end of the study. LGG was found to reduce the risk of caries significantly (OR = 0.56, p = 0.01; controlled for age and gender, OR = 0.51, p = 0.004). The effect was particularly clear in the 3- to 4-year-olds. Thus, milk containing the probiotic LGG bacteria may have beneficial effects on children's dental health.

  12. Ozone therapy in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-01-01

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. PMID:22574088

  13. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  14. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility. PMID:7844299

  15. Correlation of mast cells in different stages of human periodontal diseases: Pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Raina; Gupta, Jagriti; Gupta, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate the relationship between mast cells counts and different stages of human periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 50 patients, which were divided into three groups, consisting of 10 cases of clinically healthy gingival tissues (control group) 20 cases of dental plaque-induced gingivitis with no attachment loss and 20 cases of localized chronic periodontitis (LCP) characterized by the loss of periodontal support. The samples for control group were obtained during tooth extractions for orthodontic reasons. The specimens were immediately fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Conclusion: In this study, LCP cases had higher mast cell counts compared to gingivitis sites or healthy tissues. Increased mast cell counts in the progressing sites of periodontal diseases may indicate the importance of these cells in the progression of chronic periodontitis. PMID:27194868

  16. Correlation of age with distribution of periodontitis-related bacteria in Japanese dogs.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Norihiko; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Kato, Yukio; Murakami, Masaru; Nomura, Ryota; Yamasaki, Yoshie; Takahashi, Soraaki; Kondo, Chihiro; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Asai, Fumitoshi

    2013-07-31

    We analyzed the distribution of 11 periodontitis-related bacterial species in dental plaque collected from 176 Japanese dogs divided into young (less than 2 years of age), middle-aged (2-7 years of age) and elderly (more than 8 years of age) groups using a polymerase chain reaction method. Clinical examination revealed that no dogs in the young group were affected by periodontitis, whereas the rates for gingivitis and periodontitis were high in the middle-aged and elderly groups. In addition, the total numbers of bacterial species in the middle-aged and elderly groups were significantly greater than in the young group. Our findings suggest that age is an important factor associated with the distribution of periodontitis-related bacteria and periodontal conditions in dogs.

  17. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. in dogs with and without periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Nakano, Viviane; Liu, Chengxu; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2012-08-01

    The occurrence of Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas macacae, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium canifelinum in subgingival plaque from dogs with and without periodontitis as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated. From 50 dogs with periodontitis were identified 38 P. gulae, 8 P. macacae, 26 F. nucleatum and 15 F. canifelinum, and from 50 dogs without periodontitis were identified 15 P. gulae, 12 F. nucleatum and 11 F. canifelinum. All strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, however, different resistance rates to clarithromycin, erythromycin and metronidazole among strains were observed. The role of P. gulae, P. macacae, F. nucleatum and F. canifelinum in periodontal disease of household pets needs to be defined to a better prevention and treatment of the canine periodontitis.

  18. Relationship of Clinical and Microbiological Variables in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sakalauskiene, Jurgina; Kubilius, Ricardas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Ivanauskiene, Egle; Šaferis, Viktoras

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyze how metabolic control of type 1 diabetes is related to clinical and microbiological periodontal parameters. Material/Methods The study involved 56 subjects aged from 19 to 50 years divided into 2 groups: healthy subjects (the H group), and diabetic (type 1 diabetes) patients with chronic untreated generalized periodontitis (the DM group). The glycosylated hemoglobin value (HbA1c) was determined using the UniCel DxC 800 SYNCHRON System (Beckman Coulter, USA), and the concentration in blood was measured by the turbidimetric immunoinhibition method. A molecular genetic assay (Micro-IDent plus, Germany) was used to detect periodontopathogenic bacteria in plaque samples. Periodontitis was confirmed by clinical and radiological examination. Results Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga species, and Eikenella corrodens were the most frequently found bacteria in dental plaque samples (77.8%, 66.7%, and 33.4%, respectively), whereas Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was identified 40.7% less frequently in the DM group than in the H group. The strongest relationship was observed between the presence of 2 periodontal pathogens – F. nucleatum and Capnocytophaga spp. – and poorer metabolic control in type 1 diabetes patients (HbA1c) and all clinical parameters of periodontal pathology. Conclusions Periodontal disease was more evident in type 1 diabetic patients, and the prevalence of periodontitis was greatly increased in subjects with poorer metabolic control. PMID:25294115

  19. Herpesviruses 6, 7 and 8 in HIV- and non-HIV-associated periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mardirossian, A; Contreras, A; Navazesh, M; Nowzari, H; Slots, J

    2000-10-01

    Human herpesviruses, especially cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus type-1, occur with higher frequency in subgingival specimens from periodontitis lesions than from healthy/gingivitis sites. Little or no information is available on the relationship between herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and periodontal disease. This study determined the periodontal occurrence of HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8 in 21 HIV-seropositive and 14 HIV-negative adults affected by periodontitis. Gingival biopsy specimens and paper-point samples of subgingival plaque were collected from sites showing 5 mm or more in probing depth. Nested polymerase chain reaction methodology was employed in herpesvirus identification. In the HIV-seropositive periodontitis group, 90% of gingival biopsies and 62% of subgingival plaque samples revealed at least one of the test viruses. HHV-6 occurred in 71%, HHV-7 in 67% and HHV-8 in 24% of gingival biopsies. In the HIV-negative adult periodontitis group, 43% of gingival biopsies showed at least 1 of the test viruses, with HHV-6 present in 21% and H HV-7 in 29% of gingival biopsies and with no detection of HHV-8. The combined occurrence of the 3 test herpesviruses was significantly higher in HIV-seropositive than in HIV-negative adult periodontitis patients (p = 0.008). The human periodontium might constitute a site of infection or reservoir for HHV-6, -7, -8.

  20. Periodontal considerations for children.

    PubMed

    Song, H Jung

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews periodontal disease and gingival disease and also explores issues relating to mucogingival defects such as gingival hyperplasia, gingival recession, and exposure of impacted canines.

  1. Correlation of alkaline phosphatase activity to clinical parameters of inflammation in smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Vishakha; Malhotra, Ranjan; Kapoor, Anoop; Bither, Rupika; Sachdeva, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Context: Current clinical periodontal diagnostic techniques emphasize the assessment of clinical and radiographic signs of periodontal diseases which can provide a measure of history of disease. Hence, new methodologies for early identification and determination of periodontal disease activity need to be explored which will eventually result in expedited treatment. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to clinical parameters of periodontal inflammation in smokers with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Study population included 15 smoker male patients in the age group of 35–55 years suffering from moderate generalized chronic periodontitis with history of smoking present. Following parameters were evaluated at baseline, 1 month and 3 months after scaling and root planing: plaque index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL), and GCF ALP activity. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent variables for measurements over time were analyzed by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: A statistically significant reduction in all the clinical parameters and GCF ALP activity was observed from baseline to 1 month and 3 months. A correlation was observed between change in GCF ALP activity and PD reduction as well as gain in RAL at 3 months. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes that total ALP activity could be used as a marker for periodontal disease activity in smokers. Estimation of changes in the levels of this enzyme has a potential to aid in the detection of progression of periodontal disease and monitoring the response to periodontal therapy. PMID:27563197

  2. A longitudinal assessment of changes in bacterial community composition associated with the development of periodontal disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Corrin; Marshall, Mark; Colyer, Alison; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Harris, Stephen

    2015-12-31

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs. Whilst the involvement of bacteria in the aetiology of periodontitis is well established the role of individual species and their complex interactions with the host is not well understood. The objective of this research was therefore to perform a longitudinal study in dogs to identify the changes that occur in subgingival bacterial communities during the transition from mild gingivitis to the early stages of periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). Subgingival plaque samples were collected from individual teeth of 52 miniature schnauzer dogs every six weeks for up to 60 weeks. The microbial composition of plaque samples was determined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA. A group of aerobic Gram negative species, including Bergeyella zoohelcum COT-186, Moraxella sp. COT-017, Pasteurellaceae sp. COT-080, and Neisseria shayeganii COT-090 decreased in proportion as teeth progressed to mild periodontitis. In contrast, there was less evidence that increases in the proportion of individual species were associated with the onset of periodontitis, although a number of species (particularly members of the Firmicutes) became more abundant as gingivitis severity increased. There were small increases in Shannon diversity, suggesting that plaque community membership remains relatively stable but that bacterial proportions change during progression into periodontitis. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal dynamics of the canine oral microbiota; it showed that periodontitis results from a microbial succession predominantly characterised by a reduction of previously abundant, health associated taxa. PMID:26507828

  3. Periodontal profile and presence of periodontal pathogens in young African-Americans from Salvador, Ba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Ligia Valéria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, José Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species. PMID:24031206

  4. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  5. Decreased bone mineral density and periodontal management.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Michael S; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    The definition of osteoporosis has evolved beyond low bone mineral density to include impaired bone morphology and matrix properties. As such, the subsequent bone density insufficiencies extend beyond the skeletal risks of fracture and have implications for oral health management patients. As our population ages there is a worldwide increase in the risk of decreased bone mineral density and its subsequent morbidity. This makes age an independent risk factor for fracture and decreased bone mineral density. Multiple examinations and diagnostic tests are currently used in combination to develop an algorithm to assess osteoporotic risk. Oral health care professionals should follow these principles and caution should be used in applying a single independent assessment to determine a patient's osteoporotic or bone metabolism risk. Therapeutic approaches for osteoporosis are often divided into nonpharmacological interventions and pharmacological therapies. The periodontist and other oral health care professionals should have a full understanding of the therapeutic options, benefits and implementation of preventive therapies. Bone turnover is a coupled event of bone formation and bone resorption and it is the imbalance of this homeostasis that results in osteoporosis. Based on this uncoupling of bone resorption and formation, osteoporosis or decreased bone mineral density and osteopenia, may be a risk factor for alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. The role of prevention and maintenance with a history of periodontitis and oesteopenia extends beyond biofilm control and should include management of bone mineral density. The chronic periodontal infection in a patient with osteopenia may place the patient at greatly increased risk for alveolar bone loss, gingival recession and root caries. A key component in the management is the oral health professional's knowledge of the interrelationship between skeletal health and periodontal health.

  6. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist’s armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  7. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  8. Effect of calcium in model plaque on the anticaries activity of fluoride in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blake-Haskins, J C; Mellberg, J R; Snyder, C

    1992-08-01

    The uptake of calcium by a polysaccharide (agarose) gel used as a model for plaque from a two-step treatment (consisting of a calcium rinse followed by a fluoride treatment) and the effect of the deposited calcium in model plaque on caries lesion formation in enamel were determined. Calcium uptake was measured by treatment of the model plaques with [45Ca]-CaCl2 solutions with or without NaF. A two-step treatment consisting of calcium followed by fluoride produced a 100% increase in calcium content of model plaque, presumably due to the formation of CaF2, compared with a treatment with artificial saliva followed by calcium alone. The effects of these increased plaque minerals on caries lesion formation were studied by subjecting model-plaque-covered enamel blocks to a cyclic demineralization-remineralization treatment. Artificial-plaque-covered enamel blocks were treated daily with 180 ppm calcium for ten min, then 100 ppm fluoride for ten min, followed by demineralization for 16 h, and finally, remineralization for seven h and 40 min. After five days, the blocks were sectioned, and lesion formation was determined by microradiography-microdensitometry. Artificial plaque treated with a calcium rinse followed by a fluoride rinse reduced lesion size by 90%, compared with a 68% reduction by a fluoride rinse alone. When the experiment was repeated with a simulated pre-brush calcium rinse (180 ppm calcium) followed by a fluoride dentifrice suspension (110 ppm fluoride), lesion size was reduced by 46%, compared with a 32% reduction by the fluoride dentifrice suspension alone.

  9. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hasaan Gassim; Idris, Shaza Bushra; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah Osman

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (P > 0.05). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG. PMID:26989414

  10. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hasaan Gassim; Idris, Shaza Bushra; Mustafa, Manal; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah Osman

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP), 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP), and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM). Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%), followed by the DM + CP (59.3%) and DM (55.0%) groups (P > 0.05). Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG. PMID:26989414

  11. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  12. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  13. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  14. Defining periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised. I'm not sick but I'm not well, and it's a sin to live so well. Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger PMID:26390888

  15. Triphala in prevention of dental caries and as an antimicrobial in oral cavity- a review.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Vagish K L

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.

  16. Comparisons of Subgingival Microbial Profiles of Refractory Periodontitis, Severe Periodontitis and Periodontal Health using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM)

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Ana Paula V.; Boches, Susan K.; Cotton, Sean L.; Goodson, J. Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GR) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Methods At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 periodontitis and 20 PH individuals, and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The periodontitis subjects were classified as RP (n=17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after SRP, surgery and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n=30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among groups were sought using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results More species were detected in diseased patients (GR or RP) than those without disease (PH). RP subjects were distinguished from GR and PH by a significantly high frequency of putative periodontal pathogens such as, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Eikenella corrodens, as well as “unusual” species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon (OT) 346/356, Bacteroidetes spp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium tidmidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) [p<0.05]. Species that were more prevalent in PH than in periodontitis patients included Actinomyces sp. OT 170, Actinomyces spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa

  17. Role of salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in chronic periodontitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Namita; Gupta, N D; Gupta, Akash; Khan, Saif; Bansal, Neha

    2015-03-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the periodontium. Any imbalance between the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by neutrophils and tissue inhibitors initiates the destruction of collagen in gum tissue, leading to chronic periodontitis. This study aimed to correlate salivary levels of MMP-8 and periodontal parameters of chronic periodontitis to establish MMP-8 as a noninvasive marker for the early diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. The study involved 40 subjects visiting the periodontic OPD of Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Dental College and Hospital, located in Aligarh, U.P., India, from 2011 to 2012. The subjects were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 20 periodontally healthy subjects (controls) while group II consisted of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis was assessed on the basis of several periodontal parameters, including pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI). Around 3ml of unstimulated and whole expectorated saliva was collected for MMP-8 estimation by ELISA using Quantikine human total MMP-8 immunoassay kits. Data were analyzed using STATISTICA (Windows version 6) software. Salivary MMP-8 levels of groups I and II were 190.91 ± 143.89 ng/ml and 348.26 ± 202.1 ng/ml, respectively. The MMP-8 levels and periodontal status (PPD, CAL, GI, and PI) of groups I and II showed positive and significant correlations (for PPD, r = 0.63, P < 0.001; for CAL, r = 0.54, P < 0.001; for GI, r = 0.49, P < 0.001; and for PI, r = 0.63, P < 0.001). The results of this study demonstrate elevated concentrations of MMP-8 in individuals with chronic periodontitis.

  18. Chronic stress accelerates ligature-induced periodontitis by suppressing glucocorticoid receptor-α signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan; Zhao, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease. Recent studies have shown that chronic stress (CS) might modulate periodontal disease, but there are few models of CS-induced periodontitis, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study established a rat model of periodontitis associated with CS induced by nylon thread ligatures. The severity of periodontitis was evaluated in this model by radiographic and pathological examination. The inflammatory reaction indicated by the elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) expressions were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Open-field tests and serum corticosterone were used to evaluate CS. The results showed that CS induced behavioral changes and increased corticosterone levels of the animals with periodontitis. CS stimulation markedly increased alveolar bone loss, periodontal pocket depth and the number of plaques. It also enhanced the inflammatory reaction. These results suggest that CS accelerated the ligature-induced pathological changes associated with periodontitis. Further analysis of the mechanisms involved showed that GR-α expression was significantly downregulated in periodontal tissues of the animals undergoing CS. Blocking GR-α signaling in lipopolysaccharide and corticosteroid-treated human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells in vitro significantly upregulated the expression of p-Akt (protein kinase B) and TLR4, promoted nuclear factor-κB activity and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. This research suggests that CS might accelerate the pathological progression of periodontitis by a GR-α signaling-mediated inflammatory response and that this may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in patients with CS. PMID:27012709

  19. Subgingival microbial profile and production of proinflammatory cytokines in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Dosseva-Panova, Velichka T; Popova, Christina L; Panov, Vladimir E

    2014-01-01

    This review examines literature data concerning the bacterial findings in chronic periodontitis depending on pocket depth, and presents the latest published information on the presence of proinflammatory factors in periodontal environment. It has been found that chronic periodontitis affects as much as 80% of the middle-aged population; by comparison, the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis reaches up to 1-1.5%. It is accepted that this social disease is multifactorial in etiology, but the evidence in the literature suggests that the levels of specific Gram-negative organisms in subgingival plaque biofilm play a major role in the initiation and progression of the disease. Of the many bacterial species inhabiting the periodontal environment, three types--Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Treponema denticola (TD), Tannerella forsythia (TF)--are strongly associated with the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Microbiological studies suggest that Porphyromonas gingivalis should be considered a major etiologic agent. Currently, Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. On the other hand, the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemeomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis may be related to the severity of the disease and thus modify the therapeutic plan. The increased amount of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival area can activate a cascade of defense mechanisms of the body associated with the production of factors causing inflammation and destruction, which suggests a correlation between the bacterial findings and the body response implemented by enhancing the local cytokine expression. Studies in the literature show that the presence of certain micro-organisms in the periodontal environment is associated to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the gingival fluid and gingival tissue. These levels have been associated with destructive tissues response. There is little evidence in the

  20. Chronic stress accelerates ligature-induced periodontitis by suppressing glucocorticoid receptor-α signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan; Zhao, Lisheng

    2016-03-25

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease. Recent studies have shown that chronic stress (CS) might modulate periodontal disease, but there are few models of CS-induced periodontitis, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study established a rat model of periodontitis associated with CS induced by nylon thread ligatures. The severity of periodontitis was evaluated in this model by radiographic and pathological examination. The inflammatory reaction indicated by the elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) expressions were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Open-field tests and serum corticosterone were used to evaluate CS. The results showed that CS induced behavioral changes and increased corticosterone levels of the animals with periodontitis. CS stimulation markedly increased alveolar bone loss, periodontal pocket depth and the number of plaques. It also enhanced the inflammatory reaction. These results suggest that CS accelerated the ligature-induced pathological changes associated with periodontitis. Further analysis of the mechanisms involved showed that GR-α expression was significantly downregulated in periodontal tissues of the animals undergoing CS. Blocking GR-α signaling in lipopolysaccharide and corticosteroid-treated human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells in vitro significantly upregulated the expression of p-Akt (protein kinase B) and TLR4, promoted nuclear factor-κB activity and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. This research suggests that CS might accelerate the pathological progression of periodontitis by a GR-α signaling-mediated inflammatory response and that this may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in patients with CS.

  1. Dentifrices, mouthwashes, and remineralization/caries arrestment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zero, Domenick T

    2006-01-01

    While our knowledge of the dental caries process and its prevention has greatly advanced over the past fifty years, it is fair to state that the management of this disease at the level of the individual patient remains largely empirical. Recommendations for fluoride use by patients at different levels of caries risk are mainly based on the adage that more is better. There is a general understanding that the fluoride compound, concentration, frequency of use, duration of exposure, and method of delivery can influence fluoride efficacy. Two important factors are (1) the initial interaction of relatively high concentrations of fluoride with the tooth surface and plaque during application and (2) the retention of fluoride in oral fluids after application. Fluoride dentifrices remain the most widely used method of delivering topical fluoride. The efficacy of this approach in preventing dental caries is beyond dispute. However, the vast majority of currently marketed dentifrice products have not been clinically tested and have met only the minimal requirements of the FDA monograph using mainly laboratory testing and animal caries testing. Daily use of fluoride dental rinses as an adjunct to fluoride dentifrice has been shown to be clinically effective as has biweekly use of higher concentration fluoride rinses. The use of remineralizing agents (other than fluoride), directed at reversing or arresting non-cavitated lesions, remains a promising yet largely unproven strategy. High fluoride concentration compounds, e.g., AgF, Ag(NH3)2F, to arrest more advanced carious lesions with and without prior removal of carious tissue are being used in several countries as part of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. Most of the recent innovations in oral care products have been directed toward making cosmetic marketing claims. There continues to be a need for innovation and collaboration with other scientific disciplines to fully understand and prevent dental caries

  2. Changing patterns of dental caries: a survey of 20 countries.

    PubMed

    Renson, C E

    1986-07-01

    Data on oral health, sugar consumption, fluoride availability and other preventive programmes from twenty selected developed and developing countries were reviewed to identify the changes in oral health in children and causes associated with these changes during the past 20 years. Nine developed (industrialized) countries showed apparent substantial reduction (30-50 per cent) in the prevalence of dental caries in 5 and 12 year old children during the past decade. The countries are: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom and the USA. Caries in Thailand and Nigeria and other developing countries appear to have increased considerably. The most probable reasons for the decrease in dental caries in children in the developed countries were considered to be associated with: the widespread exposure to fluoridated water, fluoride supplements, especially the regular use of fluoridated toothpaste; the provision of preventive oral health services; the increased dental awareness through organised health education programmes; the ready availability of dental resources. The factor common to all countries with a substantial reduction in caries was fluoride, either as fluoridated water or toothpaste. Countries with decreased caries but no fluoridated water supplies all had experienced a rapid increase in the availability and the use of fluoridated toothpaste during the past 10 years. The contribution of improved dental health programmes, other than those involving fluoride, could not be adequately assessed. These changes, which appear to be continuing, have relevance also to similar countries which might just be entering the reduction phase, or for which that phase may already have begun, though it is as yet unnoticed and unreported. They also have relevance to developing countries in indicating how caries and perhaps periodontal disease have been controlled and prevented. It is inevitable that in developed countries with reducing

  3. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  4. Nicotine and periodontal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ranjan; Kapoor, Anoop; Grover, Vishakha; Kaushal, Sumit

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients’ oral and general health. PMID:20922084

  5. A clinical study on the effectiveness of implant supported dental restoration in patients with chronic periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B Q; Lan, J; Huang, H Y; Liang, J; Ma, X N; Huo, L D; Xu, X

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of implant supported dental restorations in patients with chronic periodontal diseases at various stages within 2 years of completing treatment. 30 patients with periodontal diseases and 30 patients without periodontal diseases were studied. Total counts of 276 implant bodies were divided into group A (patients with periodontal diseases; a total of 149 implants) and group B (patients with healthy periodontium; a total of 127 implants). In group A subjects, periodontitis was treated prior to implant placement. The study focused on patients' modified sulcus bleeding index, modified plaque index, implant mobility index, periodontal probing depth and implant success rate 12 and 24 months after the completion of the treatment. The result show: there were no significant differences in implant success rate between groups A and B; modified sulcus bleeding index scores showed differences between the groups 24 months after treatment; there were no significant differences in other clinical indexes during the study between the groups; there were no significant differences in periodontal probing depth between the groups; modified plaque index and modified sulcus bleeding index were positively correlated in implant supported dental restoration patients with chronic periodontal diseases.

  6. Development of an Introductory Course in Periodontics with a Strong Behavioral Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baab, David; Weinstein, Philip

    1983-01-01

    Development of a course designed to help dental students integrate interpersonal and clinical skills to help periodontal patients accept and adhere to long-term self-care regimens is described. An algorithm illustrates to students the process of plaque control and the patient's role. (MSE)

  7. Maintenance of pulpal vitality in a tooth with deep caries: a case report.

    PubMed

    Massara, Maria Lourdes de Andrade; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Deep caries can induce severe inflammatory reactions. However, inflamed pulp can heal if the demineralization process is interrupted and inactivated sufficiently early. The aim of this case report is to describe the use of stepwise excavation to treat a mature permanent tooth that exhibited deep caries and apical periodontitis. A 12-year-old girl was experiencing lingering pain lasting for a few minutes in the mandibular left second molar when drinking cold water. Clinical and radiographic examinations suggested that a conservative therapeutic approach could be successful. The tooth was anesthetized and isolated, and the unsupported enamel was removed. The remaining affected dentin was left on the pulpal floor, which was protected by a thin layer of calcium hydroxide cement. The tooth was sealed with temporary cement. Three months later, pulpal sensitivity was reduced. The pulp was found to be healthy at a 9-month follow-up examination. The cavity was definitively restored with glass ionomer cement and composite resin applied with the sandwich technique. At the 4-year follow-up, the tooth remained functional, presenting standard color and satisfactory restoration. The periodontal tissues were healthy, and radiographic images indicated that the width of the periodontal ligament space was normal. This case demonstrates that clinical diagnosis should prevail over radiographic findings, even in cases where a radiographic widening of the periodontal ligament space suggests irreversible pulpal damage. PMID:27367630

  8. Maintenance of pulpal vitality in a tooth with deep caries: a case report.

    PubMed

    Massara, Maria Lourdes de Andrade; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Deep caries can induce severe inflammatory reactions. However, inflamed pulp can heal if the demineralization process is interrupted and inactivated sufficiently early. The aim of this case report is to describe the use of stepwise excavation to treat a mature permanent tooth that exhibited deep caries and apical periodontitis. A 12-year-old girl was experiencing lingering pain lasting for a few minutes in the mandibular left second molar when drinking cold water. Clinical and radiographic examinations suggested that a conservative therapeutic approach could be successful. The tooth was anesthetized and isolated, and the unsupported enamel was removed. The remaining affected dentin was left on the pulpal floor, which was protected by a thin layer of calcium hydroxide cement. The tooth was sealed with temporary cement. Three months later, pulpal sensitivity was reduced. The pulp was found to be healthy at a 9-month follow-up examination. The cavity was definitively restored with glass ionomer cement and composite resin applied with the sandwich technique. At the 4-year follow-up, the tooth remained functional, presenting standard color and satisfactory restoration. The periodontal tissues were healthy, and radiographic images indicated that the width of the periodontal ligament space was normal. This case demonstrates that clinical diagnosis should prevail over radiographic findings, even in cases where a radiographic widening of the periodontal ligament space suggests irreversible pulpal damage.

  9. Is there any relation of nanobacteria with periodontal diseases?

    PubMed

    Demir, Turgut

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis, have been described as inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The main cause of periodontal disease is dental plaque. If dental plaque is not eliminated of dental surface, mineralized dental plaque (calculus) occur. The mineralization process of calculus is similar to that of other ectopic calcifications, such as kidney stones and gallstones. The presence of a certain type of microorganism discovered during the last decade in various pathogenic calcification such as renal stones, atherosclerotic plaques. This microorganism is nanobacterium that has unique characteristics in different regards. Nanobacteria appear as self-propagating calcifying macro-molecular complexes found in bovine and human blood and blood products. The fact that nanobacteria is present in various pathogenic calcification incidences in the body and that it is responsible for the formation of calcification may remind us the hypothesis that it may be present in dental calculus which has a similar mineralization formation process and that it may play an efficient role in the calcification of dental calculus. Thus, nanobacteria may be considered to be a risk factor for the periodontal diseases providing that it has effect on the formation of dental calculus. The nucleating role of the microorganisms in the formation of dental calculus show similarities to that of nanobacteria in calcification. What is more significant is that the presence of an alkali environment is essential for nanobacteria to cause calcification as is the case for dental calculus to occur. These significant conditions support the idea that nanobacteria may be present in the formation and in the contents of dental calculus. Unfortunately, there are only few studies on nanobacteria conducted in the field of dentistry. It is not known whether or not dental plaque is associated with nanobacteria. A study may reveal the fact whether nanobactera are really a

  10. Nutrition and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake. PMID:12699234

  11. Accuracy of Visible Plaque Identification by Pediatric Clinicians During Well-Child Care

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, S. Amanda; Weaver, Katelynn E.; Park, Seo Young; Polk, Deborah E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Bogen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Assess pediatric providers’ ability to identify visible plaque on children's teeth. Methods Pediatric providers (residents, nurse practitioners, and attendings) conducting well-child care on 15-month to 5-year-olds in an academic practice examined children's maxillary incisors for visible plaque (recorded yes/no). A dental hygienist then examined the children and recorded the degree of visible plaque present. Results The children's mean age was 34 months (±15 months), and 50% had visible plaque. Providers (n = 28) identified visible plaque on 39% of children (n = 118), with 55% sensitivity and 80% specificity, and agreement with hygienist measured as a κ score was 0.34. Subgroup analyses (based on provider training level, exam experience, child age, and plaque scores) did not appreciably improve sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or κ scores. Conclusions Visible plaque exams performed during well-child care may not be accurate. To comply with caries-risk assessment guidelines, providers require further education in oral exams. PMID:23572449

  12. Periodontal manifestations and treatment of Sturge-Weber syndrome--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Huang, J S; Chen, C C; Wu, Y M; Ho, K Y; Wang, C C; Ho, Y P; Liu, C S; Wang, Y P

    1997-02-01

    Encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis (Sturge-Weber syndrome) is a rather uncommon congenital condition characterized by the combination of venous angioma of the leptomeninges over the cerebral cortex with ipsilateral angiomatous lesions of the face and sometimes, the skull, jaws and oral soft tissues. Two patients came to the Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital's dental clinic with complaints of localized gingival enlargement or tumor-like swelling. Based on the presence of facial nevus flammeus, examinations of angiography, radiological evidence of calcific densities, and ipsilaterally intraoral vascular hyperplasia in the lip, cheek and gingiva, encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis was diagnosed. Dental management included plaque control instructions, scaling, root planing and periodontal surgery. Recurrence of gingival enlargement in both cases was noted, so periodontal surgery was performed a second time. Close follow up and complete plaque control have kept the periodontal condition fairly well under control in these two cases. We introduce the oral manifestations and the experience of treatments in these two cases.

  13. Baseline Caries Risk Assessment as a Predictor of Caries Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated clinical outcomes following caries risk assessment in large datasets that reflect risk assessments performed during routine practice. OBJECTIVE From clinical records, compare 18-month caries incidence according to baseline caries risk designation. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from electronic records of non-edentulous adult patients who completed an oral examination and caries risk assessment (CRA) at a university instructional clinic from 2007 to 2012 (N=18,004 baseline patients). The primary outcome was the number of new decayed/restored teeth from the initial CRA to the ensuing oral examination, through June 30, 2013 (N=4468 patients with follow-up). We obtained doubly-robust estimates for 18-month caries increment by baseline CRA category (low, moderate, high, extreme), adjusted for patient characteristics (age, sex, payer type, race/ethnicity, number of teeth), provider type, and calendar year. RESULTS Adjusted mean decayed, restored tooth (DFT) increment from baseline to follow-up was greater with each rising category of baseline caries risk, from low (0.94), moderate (1.26), high (1.79), to extreme (3.26). The percentage of patients with any newly affected teeth (DFT increment >0) was similar among low-risk and moderate-risk patients (cumulative incidence ratio, RR: 1.01; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.83, 1.23), but was increased relative to low-risk patients among high-risk (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.52), and extreme-risk patients (RR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.87). CONCLUSIONS These results lend evidence that baseline caries risk predicts future caries in this setting, supporting the use of caries risk assessment to identify candidate patients for more intensive preventive therapy. PMID:25731155

  14. Is There an Association between Periodontitis and Hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Paizan, Mara Lúcia Macedo; Vilela-Martin, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths. Also, cardiovascular risk factors start the atherosclerotic process, which leads to cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, periodontal disease can also be considered another cardiovascular risk factor. It involves inflammatory, immunological and humoral activities, which induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the destruction of the epithelium. This allows the entry of endotoxins and exotoxins in the bloodstream, which may contribute to atherogenesis and thromboembolic events. There is also direct invasion of the vessel wall by oral pathogens, triggering an inflammatory response that produces endothelial dysfunction. In hypertension, changes in microcirculation can cause ischemia in the periodontium, which favors periodontal disease. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction promotes the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and the development of lesions in target organs. Periodontitis has also been associated with insulin resistance and a higher risk for the metabolic syndrome, which is characterized by oxidative stress. This seems to act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of the metabolic syndrome (including hypertension) and periodontitis. This article will discuss clinical and experimental evidence, as well as possible pathophysiologic mechanisms and links involved in the relationship among periodontal disease, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24739001

  15. Survival of Bacteria from Human Dental Plaque Under Various Transport Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Charles I.; Newbrun, Ernest

    1977-01-01

    The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (−196 and −40°C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20°C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however, anaerobic storage enhanced survival of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Since these organisms are specifically associated with dental caries, anaerobic techniques are preferred for caries activity testing of plaque. PMID:332708

  16. Survival of bacteria from human dental plaque under various transport conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E

    1977-09-01

    The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (-196 and -40 degrees C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20 degrees C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however, anaerobic storage enhanced survival of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Since these organisms are specifically associated with dental caries, anaerobic techniques are preferred for caries activity testing of plaque.

  17. Comparison of erythritol and xylitol saliva stimulants in the control of dental plaque and mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K; Isotupa, K P; Kivilompolo, T; Mäkinen, P L; Toivanen, J; Söderling, E

    2001-01-01

    The effect of 2-month usage of saliva-stimulating pastils containing either erythritol or xylitol was studied in a cohort of 30 subjects assigned to the respective polyol groups (n = 15). The daily consumption level of both polyols was 5.2 g, used in 5 daily chewing episodes. The mean weight of total plaque mass (collectable during a standard period of 3 min from all available tooth surfaces) was reduced significantly in the xylitol-group, while no such effect was observed in the erythritol-group. This reduction in plaque mass was accompanied by a significant reduction in the turbidity readings (A(660)) of aqueous plaque suspensions; no such effect was observed in the erythritol-group. However, plaque protein levels did not differ between baseline and endpoint in either polyol group. The plaque and salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and plaque levels of total streptococci were reduced significantly in the xylitol-group, while no such effect was detected in the erythritol-group. However, either polyol regimen had no effect on plaque levels of S. sobrinus. The results suggest that systematic use of xylitol-containing saliva stimulants may be more effective in controlling some oral-hygiene-related and caries-associated parameters than similar use of erythritol-containing products. The results also speak for a special relationship between xylitol and S. mutans. However, owing to the great potential of erythritol as a caries-reducing agent -- based on the tetritol nature of erythritol -- the present laboratory results should be considered preliminary and subject to verifying clinical studies.

  18. An Evaluation of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Torres, Caio V.G; Neto, José S; Souza, Marcio A; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto O; Brandt, William C; Diniz, Ricardo E.A.S

    2015-01-01

    aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of periodontal scaling and oral hygiene instruction for patients with mild chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis through clinical periodontal parameters and laboratory tests for CRP (C- reactive protein) and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Twelve individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and 12 healthy individuals were evaluated, with a mean age of 45.38 and 46.75 respectively, all female and with mild, chronic periodontitis. The participants were evaluated clinically and periapical radiographs were taken (T1), after which periodontal treatment was instituted. After ninety days (T2), new clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Probing depth, bleeding index, and plaque indexes were observed in both groups, and the results demonstrated reductions but no statistical differences. Laboratory tests for CRP and ESR produced higher values for the rheumatoid arthritis group with T1- T2 reductions on the average, but the values were still higher than in the health group. We conclude that periodontal therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and mild chronic periodontitis showed a improvement in the periodontal clinical parameters and laboratory tests that were evaluated. PMID:26140059

  19. PERIODONTAL DISEASE AND BONE PATHOGENESIS: THE CROSSTALK BETWEEN CYTOKINES AND PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS.

    PubMed

    Ballini, A; Cantore, S; Farronato, D; Cirulli, N; Inchingolo, F; Papa, F; Malcangi, G; Inchingolo, A D; Dipalma, G; Sardaro, N; Lippolis, R; Santacroce, L; Coscia, M F; Pettini, F; De Vito, D; Scacco, S

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most frequent cause of tooth loss among adults. It is defined as a plaque-induced inflammation of the periodontal tissues that results in a loss of support of the affected teeth. This process is characterized by destruction of the periodontal attachment apparatus, increased bone resorption with loss of crestal alveolar bone, apical migration of the epithelial attachment, and formation of periodontal pockets. Although the presence of periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis is a prerequisite, the progression of periodontal disease is dependent on the host response to pathogenic bacteria that colonize the tooth surface. Nowadays, a growing body of literature has accumulated to investigate the association between bone diseases, periodontal pathogens and periodontal diseases. The integration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns from microorganisms with their surface receptors in the immune cells, induces the production of several cytokines and chemokines that present either a pro- and/or anti-inflammatory role and the activation of mechanisms of controlling this and the related disease, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review focuses on the evidence and significance of bone host cell invasion by Porphyromonas gingivalis in the pathogenesis of bone disorders, as well as the different lines of evidence supporting the role of cytokines in bone diseases. PMID:26122214

  20. Effect of Exposure to Portland Cement Dust on the Periodontal Status and on the Outcome of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cement dust contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead and chromium, pollutants hazardous to the biotic environment, with adverse impact for vegetation, human and animal health and ecosystems. Objective To investigate if long term exposure to cement dust can affect the periodontal health and affect the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Methods A total of sixty subjects were included in this study. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis were grouped into; Group I comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis working in the Portland Cement Company and Group II comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis who does not work in cement factories nor live near any of them. Twenty healthy subjects were included in this study as healthy control group (Group III). Clinical parameters including gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CLA) were scored for all patients before and after periodontal therapy. All patients received non-surgical periodontal therapy together with strict oral hygiene program for one month. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from both groups at baseline and one month after periodontal therapy. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the GCF samples for detection and assessment of the levels of IL-1β and TNFα. Results The two studied groups responded well to non-surgical periodontal treatment and there was no significant difference between GI and GII (P>0.05). The levels of TNFα was higher in GI than in GII before and after periodontal therapy (P<0.05). The levels of IL-1β did not show any significant difference between the two groups at base line (P>0.05), but represented with a highly significant difference between G1 and GII after periodontal therapy (P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the levels of both IL-1β and TNFα and all the clinical parameters in GI before and after periodontal therapy and in GII

  1. Effect of Exposure to Portland Cement Dust on the Periodontal Status and on the Outcome of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cement dust contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead and chromium, pollutants hazardous to the biotic environment, with adverse impact for vegetation, human and animal health and ecosystems. Objective To investigate if long term exposure to cement dust can affect the periodontal health and affect the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Methods A total of sixty subjects were included in this study. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis were grouped into; Group I comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis working in the Portland Cement Company and Group II comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis who does not work in cement factories nor live near any of them. Twenty healthy subjects were included in this study as healthy control group (Group III). Clinical parameters including gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CLA) were scored for all patients before and after periodontal therapy. All patients received non-surgical periodontal therapy together with strict oral hygiene program for one month. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from both groups at baseline and one month after periodontal therapy. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the GCF samples for detection and assessment of the levels of IL-1β and TNFα. Results The two studied groups responded well to non-surgical periodontal treatment and there was no significant difference between GI and GII (P>0.05). The levels of TNFα was higher in GI than in GII before and after periodontal therapy (P<0.05). The levels of IL-1β did not show any significant difference between the two groups at base line (P>0.05), but represented with a highly significant difference between G1 and GII after periodontal therapy (P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the levels of both IL-1β and TNFα and all the clinical parameters in GI before and after periodontal therapy and in GII

  2. A comparison of proximal plaque removal using floss and interdental brushes.

    PubMed

    Kiger, R D; Nylund, K; Feller, R P

    1991-10-01

    The removal of interproximal plaque was compared using a standard toothbrush alone, a toothbrush with unwaxed dental floss and a toothbrush with an interdental brush. 30 previously treated periodontal patients were given the cleaning aids in a three-way crossover study design. After each 1 month trial period, scores for gingivitis, buccal/lingual plaque and proximal plaque were recorded. Mean GI scores for subjects were 0.37 using the toothbrush only, 0.36 using the toothbrush with floss and 0.32 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Mean buccal/lingual plaque scores were 0.64 using the toothbrush only, 0.62 using the toothbrush with floss and 0.51 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Mean plaque scores were 2.32 with the toothbrush only, 1.71 using the toothbrush with floss and 1.22 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Statistically significant differences were seen in proximal plaque scores between the 3 treatment groups. The results indicate that the interdental brush used in combination with a toothbrush is more effective in the removal of plaque from proximal tooth surfaces than a toothbrush used alone or in combination with dental floss.

  3. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  4. Plaque assay for murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B; Bragazzi Cunha, Juliana; Wobus, Christiane E

    2012-01-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is the only member of the Norovirus genus that efficiently grows in tissue culture. Cell lysis and cytopathic effect (CPE) are observed during MNV-1 infection of murine dendritic cells or macrophages. This property of MNV-1 can be used to quantify the number of infectious particles in a given sample by performing a plaque assay. The plaque assay relies on the ability of MNV-1 to lyse cells and to form holes in a confluent cell monolayer, which are called plaques. Multiple techniques can be used to detect viral infections in tissue culture, harvested tissue, clinical, and environmental samples, but not all measure the number of infectious particles (e.g. qRT-PCR). One way to quantify infectious viral particles is to perform a plaque assay, which will be described in detail below. A variation on the MNV plaque assay is the fluorescent focus assay, where MNV antigen is immunostained in cell monolayers. This assay can be faster, since viral antigen expression precedes plaque formation. It is also useful for titrating viruses unable to form plaques. However, the fluorescent focus assay requires additional resources beyond those of the plaque assay, such as antibodies and a microscope to count focus-forming units. Infectious MNV can also be quantified by determining the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50). This assay measures the amount of virus required to produce CPE in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells by endpoint titration. However, its limit of detection is higher compared to a plaque assay. In this article, we describe a plaque assay protocol that can be used to effectively determine the number of infectious MNV particles present in biological or environmental samples. This method is based on the preparation of 10-fold serial dilutions of MNV-containing samples, which are used to inoculate a monolayer of permissive cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells). Virus is allowed to attach to the cell monolayer for a given period of

  5. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  6. Treatment of periodontal disease in diabetics reduces glycated hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Grossi, S G; Skrepcinski, F B; DeCaro, T; Robertson, D C; Ho, A W; Dunford, R G; Genco, R J

    1997-08-01

    Periodontal disease is a common infection-induced inflammatory disease among individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of treatment of periodontal disease on the level of metabolic control of diabetes. A total of 113 Native Americans (81 females and 32 males) suffering from periodontal disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were randomized into 5 treatment groups. Periodontal treatment included ultrasonic scaling and curettage combined with one of the following antimicrobial regimens: 1) topical water and systemic doxycycline, 100 mg for 2 weeks; 2) topical 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and systemic doxycycline, 100 mg for 2 weeks; 3) topical povidone-iodine and systemic doxycycline, 100 mg for 2 weeks; 4) topical 0.12% CHX and placebo; and 5) topical water and placebo (control group). Assessments were performed prior to and at 3 and 6 months after treatment and included probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque and determination of serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). After treatment all study groups showed clinical and microbial improvement. The doxycycline-treated groups showed the greatest reduction in probing depth and subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the control group. In addition, all 3 groups receiving systemic doxycycline showed, at 3 months, significant reductions (P < or = 0.04) in mean HbA1c reaching nearly 10% from the pretreatment value. Effective treatment of periodontal infection and reduction of periodontal inflammation is associated with a reduction in level of glycated hemoglobin. Control of periodontal infections should thus be an important part of the overall management of diabetes mellitus patients.

  7. Effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum lipids and C-reactive protein among hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Tawfig, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on plasma lipid levels in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis in the age group of 30–70 years, undergoing treatment in Ahmed Gasim Cardiac and Renal transplant Centre in north Sudan were recruited for the study. Patients were randomly assigned to the study and control groups. The study group received non-surgical periodontal therapy – oral hygiene instructions, scaling and root planing. The control group participants received only oral hygiene instructions. Lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG)], C-reactive protein (CRP), and periodontal parameters [Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PD), and attachment loss (ATL)] were measured and compared at baseline and after 3 months of the respective intervention. Between-groups analysis was done using independent “t” test and within-group analysis was done using dependent “t” test. Results: At baseline, groups were comparable based on lipid profile and periodontal parameters. After 3 months, the control group showed significant decrease in the PI and GI scores while there was no significant change in the other parameters. However, the study group showed significant decrease in the LDL and CRP levels along with a significant decrease in PD, ATL, PI, and GI scores, compared to the baseline values. Conclusion: Local non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in improved periodontal health, with significant decrease in the LDL and CRP levels in hyperlipidemic patients with chronic periodontitis. Hence, local non-surgical periodontal therapy may be considered as an adjunct in the control of hyperlipidemia, along with standard care. PMID:25984468

  8. Antibacterial Efficacy of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, C.J.; Sergesketter, A.R.; Offenbacher, S.; Schoenfisch, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Current treatments for periodontitis (e.g., scaling/root planing and chlorhexidine) have limited efficacy since they fail to suppress microbial biofilms satisfactorily over time, and the use of adjunctive antimicrobials can promote the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Herein, we report the novel application of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing scaffolds (i.e., dendrimers and silica particles) as anti-periodontopathogenic agents. The effectiveness of macromolecular NO release was demonstrated by a 3-log reduction in periodontopathogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis viability. In contrast, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis, caries-associated organisms, were substantially less sensitive to NO treatment. Both dendrimer- and silica-based NO release exhibited substantially less toxicity to human gingival fibroblasts at concentrations necessary to eradicate periodontopathogens than did clinical concentrations of chlorhexidine. These results suggest the potential utility of macromolecular NO-release scaffolds as a novel platform for the development of periodontal disease therapeutics. PMID:25139363

  9. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    PubMed

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age.

  10. Thermal detection of vulnerable plaque.

    PubMed

    Madjid, Mohammad; Naghavi, Morteza; Malik, Basit A; Litovsky, Silvio; Willerson, James T; Casscells, Ward

    2002-11-21

    In 1996, we showed that inflamed atherosclerotic plaques give off more heat and that vulnerable plaques may be detected by measuring their temperature. Plaque temperature is correlated directly with inflammatory cell density and inversely with the distance of the cell clusters from the luminal surface. It is inversely related to the density of the smooth muscle cells. We found no significant association between temperature heterogeneity and presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in plaque or the gross color of human atherosclerotic carotid plaques. We also found pH heterogeneity in plaques from human carotid artery and aortas of Watanabe atherosclerotic rabbits and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Areas with lower pH had higher temperature, and areas with a large lipid core showed lower pH with higher temperature, whereas calcified regions had lower temperature and higher pH. We also developed a thermography basket catheter and showed in vivo temperature heterogeneity in atherosclerotic lesions of atherosclerotic dogs and Watanabe rabbits. Thermal heterogeneity was later documented in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Temperature difference between atherosclerotic plaque and healthy vessel wall is related to clinical instability. It is correlated with systemic markers of inflammation and is a strong predictor of adverse cardiac events after percutaneous interventions. Thermography is the first in a series of novel "functional" imaging methods and is moving to clinical trials. It may be useful for a variety of clinical and research purposes, such as detection of vulnerable plaques and risk stratification of vulnerable patients.

  11. Indicators of periodontal disease activity: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fine, D H; Mandel, I D

    1986-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the traditional clinical criteria are inadequate for: determining active disease sites in periodontitis, monitoring quantitatively the response to therapy or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future breakdown. In an attempt to develop objective measures, a wide variety of studies have been undertaken using saliva, blood, plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as the specimen source. Examination has included: specific bacteria and their products; host cells and their products (enzymatic and antibacterial, both immunologic and non-immunologic); products of tissue injury derived from local epithelial and connective tissues and bone. Although most of the work to date has failed to provide reliable aids to the clinician, refinements in techniques for sampling and the availability of more sophisticated analytic techniques give cause for optimism. Methods proposed for detection of disease-associated bacteria in subgingival plaque vary in their sensitivity and specificity. Dark field microscopy shows some correlation with existing disease; however, the limited specificity of this method imposes severe restrictions on its usefulness. Highly specific polyclonal and monoclonal antisera to suspected pathogens Bacteroides gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans have been developed and improved methods of identification of these microbes in plaque by ELISA immunofluorescence and flow cytometry are under development. With respect to the host response, a strong correlation between antibody patterns to specific bacteria and periodontal disease categories appears to be emerging. Although most studies have focused on serum antibody derived from peripheral blood, a shift to detection of local antibody response appears to be likely. Techniques of measurement that are exquisitely sensitive have been developed for detection of major immune recognition proteins such as antibody and complement in crevicular fluid. Research

  12. Caries and its risk factors in young children in five different countries.

    PubMed

    Skrīvele, Simona; Care, Rūta; Bērziņa, Sandra; Kneist, Susanne; de Moura-Sieber, Vanessa; de Moura, Ronaldo; Borutta, Annerose; Maslak, Elena; Tserekhava, Tamara; Shakovets, Natalia; Wagner, Maik

    2013-01-01

    The state of oral health plays an essential role in human comprehensive health. Nevertheless, although considerable improvement in oral health caries has been noted in both developed and newly developing countries, caries is still widespread among children. Although it can be monitored, caries cannot be properly eliminated. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This investigation, performed in cooperation with Jena Hospital in Germany, was conducted in five countries from 2002-2008. The cities Riga (Latvia), Ouro Preto (Brazil), Erfurt (Germany), Volgograd (Russia) and Minsk (Belorus) were engaged in this investigation. Children at the age of 26-34 months were surveyed. Consistent with the research design, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the children's health, and an examination of the children's oral health was performed. The statistics program SPSS 15.0 was used to analyze the obtained data, and the correlations between changing findings were expressed by the Spearmen rank correlation coefficient (r). RESULTS. In this study, 472 children were observed: 179 from Riga, 152 from Erfurt, 62 from Ouru Preto, 116 from Minsk and 84 from Volgograd. A direct correlation existed between the country and plaque (r=0.16) and caries (dmft) (r=-0.11). The direct correlation between dmft and Streptococcus mutans (r=-0.36) was characteristic of children from Erfurt. The lowest dmft index (0.62) was present in children from Erfurt, and the highest (1.57) in children from Ouro Preto. CONCLUSIONS. The frequency and prevalence of caries in young children in Riga is high; it was the lowest in Erfurt and the highest - in Brazil. Plaque and dt were one of the indices with a direct relationship in Riga, Brazil and Minsk. Poor oral hygiene, irregular tooth brushing and the consumption of cariogenic foods and drinks are the most important caries risk factors among children at the age of 2-3 years. The mother's knowledge and attitude affect the child's oral health.

  13. Caries and its risk factors in young children in five different countries.

    PubMed

    Skrīvele, Simona; Care, Rūta; Bērziņa, Sandra; Kneist, Susanne; de Moura-Sieber, Vanessa; de Moura, Ronaldo; Borutta, Annerose; Maslak, Elena; Tserekhava, Tamara; Shakovets, Natalia; Wagner, Maik

    2013-01-01

    The state of oral health plays an essential role in human comprehensive health. Nevertheless, although considerable improvement in oral health caries has been noted in both developed and newly developing countries, caries is still widespread among children. Although it can be monitored, caries cannot be properly eliminated. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This investigation, performed in cooperation with Jena Hospital in Germany, was conducted in five countries from 2002-2008. The cities Riga (Latvia), Ouro Preto (Brazil), Erfurt (Germany), Volgograd (Russia) and Minsk (Belorus) were engaged in this investigation. Children at the age of 26-34 months were surveyed. Consistent with the research design, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the children's health, and an examination of the children's oral health was performed. The statistics program SPSS 15.0 was used to analyze the obtained data, and the correlations between changing findings were expressed by the Spearmen rank correlation coefficient (r). RESULTS. In this study, 472 children were observed: 179 from Riga, 152 from Erfurt, 62 from Ouru Preto, 116 from Minsk and 84 from Volgograd. A direct correlation existed between the country and plaque (r=0.16) and caries (dmft) (r=-0.11). The direct correlation between dmft and Streptococcus mutans (r=-0.36) was characteristic of children from Erfurt. The lowest dmft index (0.62) was present in children from Erfurt, and the highest (1.57) in children from Ouro Preto. CONCLUSIONS. The frequency and prevalence of caries in young children in Riga is high; it was the lowest in Erfurt and the highest - in Brazil. Plaque and dt were one of the indices with a direct relationship in Riga, Brazil and Minsk. Poor oral hygiene, irregular tooth brushing and the consumption of cariogenic foods and drinks are the most important caries risk factors among children at the age of 2-3 years. The mother's knowledge and attitude affect the child's oral health. PMID:24037301

  14. Pioneer F Plaque Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (Hopefully, any aliens reading the plaque will not use this knowledge to immediately invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  15. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  16. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  17. Biomaterials for periodontal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect. PMID:23507891

  18. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Backgound and Aim Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Conclusion Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy. PMID:26501001

  19. Effect of phenoxyethanol, chlorhexidine and their combination on subgingival plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M; Stanley, A; Bansal, G; Newman, H N

    1990-06-01

    The effects of phenoxyethanol, chlorhexidine and a mixture of both on subgingival plaque samples from 44 patients with chronic periodontitis were investigated in vitro. At a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, chlorhexidine inhibited the growth of all cultivable bacteria in all 44 samples while a comparable effect was achieved with phenoxyethanol only at a concentration of 20 mg/ml. All cultivable bacteria in the samples were inhibited by a mixture of the two agents containing 5 mg/ml of phenoxyethanol and 0.125 mg/ml of chlorhexidine i.e. considerably lower concentrations than when the agents were used separately. Kill times for 99.9% of bacteria in 19 of the plaque samples were less than 15 min using a chlorhexidine concentration of 0.125 mg/ml, but were from 24 to greater than 240 min with 10 mg/ml phenoxyethanol. A mixture of the two agents at these concentrations was more effective than either agent alone with 99.9% kill times of less than 10 min. This investigation has shown that the addition of phenoxyethanol to chlorhexidine results in a mixture which is effective against bacteria found in subgingival plaque samples from patients with chronic periodontitis. It also implies that formulations with lower concentrations of chlorhexidine than those currently in use may be effective as adjuncts in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  20. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    PubMed

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  1. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute.

  2. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  3. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  4. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    PubMed

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  5. [Clinical and microbiological study of adult periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Nogueira Moreira, A; Fernández Canigia, L; Furman, C; Chiappe, V; Marcantoni, M; Bianchini, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a microbiological evaluation of sites with and without clinical evidence of moderate and severe periodontitis and their correlation with clinical parameters. A total of 52 disease sites and 10 healthy sites were selected according to clinical criteria. The following clinical indexes were measured for all the sites: plaque index, gingival index, blood on probing, depth on probing and insertion level. Samples of subgingival plaque were collected for culture and for differential counts of microbial morphotypes. In disease sites the most frequently isolated were: Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (65%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (23%), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (23%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (10%) and Peptostreptococcus sp. (31%). The aerobic gram-positive microflora was predominant in healthy sites. Significant differences were observed in microbial morphotypes between healthy and disease sites: cocci 18.71% and 78.90%, motile rods 46.12% and 16.70%, total spirochetes 26.48% and 2.80%, respectively. The presence of motile rods, spirochetes and P. intermedia/nigrescens were the parameters with most sensitivity to suspect periodontal disease. There were significant differences in the subgingival microflora between healthy and disease sites in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis. PMID:11594003

  6. [Clinical and microbiological study of adult periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Nogueira Moreira, A; Fernández Canigia, L; Furman, C; Chiappe, V; Marcantoni, M; Bianchini, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a microbiological evaluation of sites with and without clinical evidence of moderate and severe periodontitis and their correlation with clinical parameters. A total of 52 disease sites and 10 healthy sites were selected according to clinical criteria. The following clinical indexes were measured for all the sites: plaque index, gingival index, blood on probing, depth on probing and insertion level. Samples of subgingival plaque were collected for culture and for differential counts of microbial morphotypes. In disease sites the most frequently isolated were: Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (65%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (23%), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (23%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (10%) and Peptostreptococcus sp. (31%). The aerobic gram-positive microflora was predominant in healthy sites. Significant differences were observed in microbial morphotypes between healthy and disease sites: cocci 18.71% and 78.90%, motile rods 46.12% and 16.70%, total spirochetes 26.48% and 2.80%, respectively. The presence of motile rods, spirochetes and P. intermedia/nigrescens were the parameters with most sensitivity to suspect periodontal disease. There were significant differences in the subgingival microflora between healthy and disease sites in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis.

  7. Effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical response, microbiological profile, and glycemic control in Malaysian subjects with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Buzinin, Samira Mukhtar; Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Tan, Alexander Tong Boon; Vincent-Chong, Vui King; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-01-01

    The association between diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease has long been established. Most of the researches linking these two very common chronic diseases were based on type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease. However, this study was conducted to investigate the association between type 1 diabetes and chronic periodontal disease in Malaysian subjects. Forty-one Malaysian subjects, of which 20 subjects were type 1 diabetics and with chronic periodontal disease (test group) and 21 subjects with only chronic periodontal disease (control group), were included in the study. Periodontal parameters and plaque samples for microbiological evaluation were done at baseline, 2 and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Blood samples were taken from only the test group and evaluated for HbA1c at baseline and 3 months after periodontal therapy. There were no statistically significant difference in periodontal parameters between groups (P>0.05) and no significant improvement in the level of HbA1c in the test group. Microbiological studies indicated that there were significant reductions in the levels of the tested pathogens in both groups. The results of our study were similar to the findings of several other studies that had been done previously.

  8. Oxidative Stress and IgG Antibody Modify Periodontitis-CRP Association.

    PubMed

    Singer, R E; Moss, K; Kim, S J; Beck, J D; Offenbacher, S

    2015-12-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated the inverse association of high serum 8-isoprostane levels, a marker for oxidative stress, with decreased serum IgG antibodies to oral bacteria. The association between increased serum IgG with increased plaque and periodontitis (increased probing depths) was attenuated by high systemic oxidative stress. Other investigations have reported a role for systemic oxidative stress as a stimulus of hepatic C-reactive protein (CRP) response. These observations led us to hypothesize that the reported relationship of periodontitis to elevated serum CRP, a systemic inflammatory marker, may be modified by oxidative stress and that the levels of serum antibodies to oral bacteria might be an intermediary explanatory variable linking the association of systemic oxidative stress, periodontal disease, and levels of CRP. This hypothesis was explored as a secondary analysis of the Dental ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study using serum levels of CRP, serum IgG levels to 16 oral organisms, serum levels of 8-isoprostane, and periodontal status. The findings indicate periodontitis is associated with high CRP in the presence of elevated oxidative stress that serves to suppress the IgG response. Only within the highest 8-isoprostane quartile was periodontitis (pocket depth) associated with increased serum CRP levels (P = 0.0003). Increased serum IgG antibody levels to oral bacteria were associated with lowered serum CRP levels. Thus, systemic oxidative stress, which has been demonstrated to be associated with increased levels of CRP in other studies, appears to be associated with the suppression of bacterial-specific IgG levels, which in the presence of periodontal disease can result in an enhanced systemic CRP response. Conversely, individuals with increased serum IgG antibodies to plaque bacteria exhibit lowered serum CRP levels. These 2 factors, oxidative stress and the serum IgG response, appear to function in opposing directions to

  9. Making a Lightweight Battery Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Post, R. E.; Soltis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Plaque formed in porous plastic by electroless plating. Lightweight plaque prepared by electroless plating of porous plastic contains embedded wire or expanded metal grid. Plastic may or may not be filled with soluble pore former. If it contains soluble pore former, treated to remove soluble pore former and increase porosity. Porous plastic then clamped into rig that allows plating solutions to flow through plastic. Lightweight nickel plaque used as electrode substrate for alkaline batteries, chiefly Ni and Cd electrodes, and for use as electrolyte-reservoir plates for fuel cells.

  10. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Lucy J; Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Deusch, Oliver; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops. PMID:25463050

  11. Improving periodontal outcomes: merging clinical and behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Rebecca S; Bray, Kimberly S

    2016-06-01

    New data indicate that periodontal diseases are much more prevalent than previously thought, which means that there are large numbers of patients who will need to be diagnosed and treated for periodontal disease in a general dental practice. Oral hygiene procedures performed by patients between office visits are important for gingival health. No particular type of toothbrush has consistently been shown to have superior plaque-removal ability over another. Although studies on powered brushes have shown evidence for efficacy of biofilm removal and increased patient compliance, they are of short duration, making evaluation of long-term effects difficult to achieve. Interdental cleaning with dental floss can be effective but it is technique-sensitive. Interdental brushes have been shown to be superior to floss in plaque index scores, but not in gingival inflammation reduction. A systematic review of oral irrigation reported a beneficial adjunctive effect on bleeding and gingival indices and pocket depth. Antimicrobials in mouthrinses and toothpastes have shown significant reductions in plaque and gingivitis when used correctly. Even though it is considered essential for patients to utilize biofilm-removal techniques on a frequent basis, studies on adherence show that approximately 30-60% of health information is forgotten within 1 h, and 50% of health recommendations are not followed. Incorporating psychosocial aspects of behavioral change, including well-established counseling strategies, such as motivational interviewing, may elicit improved patient outcomes. PMID:27045431

  12. Prevention and Periodontal Treatment in Down Syndrome Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; de Resende, Maria Lúcia Rubo; Sant’Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Damante, Carla Andreotti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate which type of periodontal preventive and therapeutic approaches presents superior outcomes in patients with Down syndrome (DS). Studies reporting different methods of periodontal care from DS patients were considered eligible. Included clinical studies should indicate at least two periodontal parameters in different periods of assessment. Screening of the articles, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. Electronic search according to the PICO search, with both Key-words and MESH terms were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases until March 2016. Manual search was conducted in four journals, namely Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and Special Care in Dentistry and their electronic databases were searched. Electronic and manual search resulted in 763 papers, and of them 744 were excluded after title/abstract assessment. The full text of 19 potentially eligible publications was screened and 9 studies met inclusion criteria. The results demonstrated the importance to introduce youngest DS patients in preventive programs, as well as participation of parents, caregivers or institutional attendants in supervising/performing oral hygiene. In studies with higher frequency of attendance, all age groups presented superior preventive and therapeutic results, irrespective of the therapeutic approach used (surgical/nonsurgical/periodontal care program). The important factors for reducing periodontal parameters were the frequency of the appointments and association with chlorhexidine/plaque disclosing agents as adjuvant treatment. This systematic review demonstrated that early introduction in periodontal care, participation of parents/caregivers/institutional attendants, frequency of attendance and association with chemical adjuvants (independently of the periodontal treatment adopted) seems to

  13. Association of Herpes Viruses with Mild, Moderate and Severe Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Renu; Bhat, Kishore; Happy, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is a multi-factorial and multi-etiological infectious disease process. Recent evidences shows that human herpes viruses could be putative pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Herpes viruses especially Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods A total of 75 patients with periodontitis were included in the study (25 each with mild, moderate and severe periodontitis) with ethical approval and informed consent. Sub gingival plaque sample was collected and subjected to extraction of DNA and further analysis with multiplex Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of herpes viral DNA. The collected data was entered in the excel sheet format. It was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software. The Chi-Square statistical tests was applied and p-value<0.05 was taken as significant. Results The overall association of HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28%, 32%, 30.66% and 37.33% respectively in the present study from the cases of chronic periodontitis. Conclusion Epstein Barr viruses were detected from all types of cases of chronic periodontitis in the present study. Though, EBV was not significantly associated with periodontitis; they were significantly increased in severe periodontitis. Herpes viruses were significantly associated with periodontal disease, more so with severe periodontal disease. They could thus be playing a role in increasing the severity of the disease. Therapeutic and prophylactic intervention planned against these viruses could decrease the tooth loss associated with this disease. PMID:26393126

  14. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  15. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  16. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    PubMed Central

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  17. Molecular detection and corelation of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, T Sreenivasa; Reddy, M Sesha; Dhanapal, Raghu; Raj Kumar, N Govind; Neeladri Raju, PV; Saraswathi, TR

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic organism, which colonizes in the gastric mucosa. Its role in etiology and development of acute and chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer diseases is scientifically proved. Oral cavity especially supragingival, subgingival plaque and so forth simulate the same microaerophilic environment favorable for the growth of this bacterium. Aim: Detection of H. pylori simultaneously in the oral cavity and gastric mucosa of patients suffering from gastric pathologies. Objectives: To detect H. pylori in the oral cavity and gastric mucosa using endoscopy, urease test and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (urease A gene). Determining its association and corelation with patient demographics, oral hygiene maintenance and periodontal disease status. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic examination, oral findings oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and community periodontal index and treatment needs (CPITN) indices were recorded. Antral biopsies and supragingival plaque samples were taken from 56 dyspeptic adult patients. The collected samples were subjected to histological examination, urease broth test and urease A gene amplification using real-time PCR. Result: H. pylori was detected in the supragingival plaque of individuals with H. pylori-induced gastric diseases using rapid urease test and real-time PCR analysis. Occurrence of same strain of H. pylori simultaneously in plaque and gastric mucosa was observed. Positive correlation was obtained between the collected indices and quantity of H. pylori colonization. PMID:24959032

  18. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  19. P. gingivalis in Periodontal Disease and Atherosclerosis – Scenes of Action for Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehak; Stover, Cordula M.; Dupont, Aline

    2015-01-01

    According to the NHS, it is estimated that over 50% of the adult population are, to some extent, affected by gum disease and approximately 15% of UK population have been diagnosed with severe periodontitis. Periodontitis, a chronic polymicrobial disease of the gums, causes inflammation in its milder form, whereas in its severe form affects the surrounding tissues and can result in tooth loss. During periodontitis, plaque accumulates and sits between the junctional epithelium and the tooth itself, resulting in inflammation and the formation of a periodontal pocket. An interface is formed directly between the subgingival bacteria and the junctional epithelial cells. Bacterial pathogens commonly associated with periodontal disease are, among others, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, together known as the “red complex.” This review will mostly concentrate on the role of P. gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium and one of the major and most studied contributors of this disease. Because periodontal disease is associated with the development of atherosclerosis, it is important to understand the local immune response to P. gingivalis. Innate immune players, in particular, complement and antimicrobial peptides and their effects with regard to P. gingivalis during periodontitis and in the development of atherosclerosis will be presented. PMID:25713575

  20. Awareness and assessment of periodontal problems among dentists and the public.

    PubMed

    Gift, H C

    1988-09-01

    Awareness of periodontal problems by the public and their assessment by the practising dentist affect the levels of periodontal health. Many people do not recognize the symptoms of periodontal disease nor do they associate existing symptoms with the disease. Thus they do not perceive a need for professional or self-care. Most people in industrialized nations clean their teeth daily and visit the dentist at least once every 2 years. Yet, evidence suggests that levels of plaque and the incidence of bleeding gums are higher than expected either because people have not received individual instruction or they are not complying with appropriate regimens. Further, evidence suggests that many general dentists have low interest in the aetiology, prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. It appears that such dentists have not retained their skills in the early recognition and diagnosis of periodontal diseases, nor in oral hygiene education or skill transfer. Likewise, only a small proportion of the general dentist's time is spent on prevention and periodontal care. To improve periodontal health, recommendations for the dental profession to pursue at the community, professional and individual levels are offered.

  1. Effect of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized control clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Indurkar, Maya Sanjeev; Verma, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to prevent gingivitis and its progression into periodontitis. In this present study, the efficacy of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel was assessed and compared on plaque induced gingivitis. Aim: To evaluate the effect of ozonated oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects, aged from 18 to 65 years, with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Aurangabad, for this study. They were divided randomly into the test or ozonated oil group (Group I) and the control or chlorhexidine gel group (Group II) with 10 subjects in each group. Subjects were randomly assigned to massage their gingiva thrice a day for 3 weeks with ozonated oil (test), and chlorhexidine gel (control). Plaque index and gingival index scores were recorded for the 20 subjects at baseline and after 3 weeks. Results: Ozonated oil (Group I) and chlorhexidine gel (Group II) groups showed statistically significant differences with respect to plaque index and gingival index, from the baseline to 3 weeks (P < 0.001 in both). But the difference between Group I and Group II, at the end of the study period, was not statistically significant with respect to the plaque index and gingival index. Conclusions: The ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel, both can be used as an effective agent in maintaining and improving gingival health. PMID:27041835

  2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the growth of dental plaque on the surfaces of removable orthodontic aligners after the use of different cleaning methods

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Novara, Francesca; Margherini, Silvia; Tenconi, Camilla; Raspanti, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in orthodontics are leading to the use of minimally invasive technologies, such as transparent removable aligners, and are able to meet high demands in terms of performance and esthetics. However, the most correct method of cleaning these appliances, in order to minimize the effects of microbial colonization, remains to be determined. Purpose The aim of the present study was to identify the most effective method of cleaning removable orthodontic aligners, analyzing the growth of dental plaque as observed under scanning electron microscopy. Methods Twelve subjects were selected for the study. All were free from caries and periodontal disease and were candidates for orthodontic therapy with invisible orthodontic aligners. The trial had a duration of 6 weeks, divided into three 2-week stages, during which three sets of aligners were used. In each stage, the subjects were asked to use a different method of cleaning their aligners: 1) running water (control condition); 2) effervescent tablets containing sodium carbonate and sulfate crystals followed by brushing with a toothbrush; and 3) brushing alone (with a toothbrush and toothpaste). At the end of each 2-week stage, the surfaces of the aligners were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. Results The best results were obtained with brushing combined with the use of sodium carbonate and sulfate crystals; brushing alone gave slightly inferior results. Conclusion On the basis of previous literature results relating to devices in resin, studies evaluating the reliability of domestic ultrasonic baths for domestic use should be encouraged. At present, pending the availability of experimental evidence, it can be suggested that dental hygienists should strongly advise patients wearing orthodontic aligners to clean them using a combination of brushing and commercially available tablets for cleaning oral appliances. PMID:26719726

  3. Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients associated with diabetes mellitus using real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Padmalatha, GV; Bavle, Radhika M; Satyakiran, Gadavalli Vera Venkata; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Makarla, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontal diseases, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss and affect at least one tooth in 80% of adults worldwide, with the main cause being a bacterial plaque. Among subgingival plaque bacterial species, Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major etiological agent causing tooth loss. Diabetics and smokers are two patient groups at high risk for periodontal disease. The increase in the number of this organism with the coexistence of other pathogenic microbes leads to rapid destruction of the periodontium, premature loss of teeth and also because of its virulence has implications in systemic pathology. Our aim was to observe the involvement of P. gingivalis in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients associated with periodontitis with and without tobacco-associated habits and to compare them with periodontitis patients having no other systemic pathologies. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples from a total of seventy subjects were included in the study. DNA was isolated from the collected sample and was quantified using spectrophotometer for standardizing the polymerase chain reaction. The quantity of the isolated DNA was checked in a ultraviolet-visible spectrophotomer. Statistics: One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures were carried out. Results: The maximum score of P. gingivalis was seen in periodontitis patients having DM, whereas the least score was seen in periodontitis patients having DM with tobacco smoking habit compared to the other groups. Conclusion: P. gingivalis count is significantly reduced in periodontitis patients having DM with smoking habit; it is concluded that P. gingivalis might not be a key causative organism responsible for the periodontal destruction in case of smokers despite the DM condition. The decrease in counts may be attributed to change in the local environment like chemical (tobacco nitrosamines) and physical changes preventing the growth of P. gingivalis. PMID:27721606

  4. Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age-related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, J; Sherriff, A; Lappin, D F; Ramage, G; Conway, D I; Macpherson, L M D; Culshaw, S

    2014-12-01

    Secretion of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and salivary antibodies can modify biofilm formation at host body surfaces. In adolescents, associations have been reported between dental caries and salivary AMPs. AMPs demonstrate direct antimicrobial effects at high concentrations, and at lower more physiological concentrations they mediate changes in host cell defenses, which may alter the local environment and indirectly shape local biofilm formation. The expression of salivary AMPs in preschool children, at an age when the oral bacteria are known to change, has not been investigated. We sought to investigate salivary AMP expression in the context of previously well-documented changes in the oral cavities of this age group including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), oral bacteria and dental caries. Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at 3 years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, human neutrophil peptides 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans. Over time, concentrations of AMPs, S. mutans and bacteria-specific salivary IgA increased. Caries experience was also recorded when children were 3 years old. Concentrations of AMPs were highest in the saliva of 3-year-old children with the greatest burden of S. mutans. These data suggest that salivary AMPs are variable over time and between individuals, and are linked with bacterial colonization. At follow up, the majority of children remained caries free. Larger longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether salivary AMP levels are predictive of caries and whether their modulation offers therapeutic benefit.

  5. Advances in patents related to intrapocket technology for the management of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sarita K; Khan, Gayasuddin; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2015-01-01

    Increased prevalence of oral diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis and dental caries has become major health issue worldwide. Such growing incidence of periodontitis has directly affected the development of drug delivery systems and growth of the market. Since the infections are limited to periodontal pockets or oral cavity, localized intrapocket drug delivery will be more beneficial than conventional systemic administration. Advances in intrapocket technology and innovations in the field of periodontal drug delivery led to increased patent applications. Newer trends like use of mucoadhesive polymers, in situ forming gels, viscosity modifiers, plasticizers etc which can enhance intrapocket retention of drugs have gained considerable attention among researchers and industrialists. Current market is flooded with products such as Periostat, Periochip(®), Atridox(®), Arestin(®), Actisite(®), Dentomycin(®), and Elyzol(®) and generics such as metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, doxycyline and minocycline for intrapocket delivery. There is a need of novel drugs and delivery systems with better efficacy profiles than the existing compounds. Inclusion of novel technologies like films, fibers, in situ forming implants, microparticles, nanoparticles, and liposomes as intrapocket drug delivery has great potential. Development of antibiotic free drug delivery such as antiseptics, host modulators, biofilms inhibitors and antibodies has promising role in the improvement of pathogenesis of periodontitis. Further, this review deals with various innovations in drug delivery and patents related to localized intrapocket administration of medicaments in the implications of periodontitis. PMID:25760639

  6. The prevalence of periodontal disease in a Romano-British population c. 200-400 AD

    PubMed Central

    Raitapuro-Murray, T.; Molleson, T. I.; Hughes, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis in an ancient British cohort c. 200-400 AD. Design Observational study to assess periodontal and other oral disease parameters. Setting Natural History Museum, London. Subjects and methods 303 skulls from a Romano-British burial site in Poundbury, Dorset were examined for evidence of dental disease. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was presence of moderate to severe periodontitis. Secondary outcomes included: amount of horizontal bone loss; prevalence of ante-mortem tooth loss; and presence of other dental pathologies. Results The overall prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis was just greater than 5%. The prevalence rate remained nearly constant between ages 20 to 60, after which it rose to around 10%. The number of affected teeth increased with age. Horizontal bone loss was generally minor. Caries was seen in around 50% of the cohort, and evidence of pulpal and apical pathology was seen in around 25%. Conclusions The prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis was markedly decreased when compared to the prevalence in modern populations, underlining the potential importance of risk factors such as smoking and diabetes in determining susceptibility to progressive periodontitis in modern populations. PMID:25342357

  7. Advances in patents related to intrapocket technology for the management of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sarita K; Khan, Gayasuddin; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2015-01-01

    Increased prevalence of oral diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis and dental caries has become major health issue worldwide. Such growing incidence of periodontitis has directly affected the development of drug delivery systems and growth of the market. Since the infections are limited to periodontal pockets or oral cavity, localized intrapocket drug delivery will be more beneficial than conventional systemic administration. Advances in intrapocket technology and innovations in the field of periodontal drug delivery led to increased patent applications. Newer trends like use of mucoadhesive polymers, in situ forming gels, viscosity modifiers, plasticizers etc which can enhance intrapocket retention of drugs have gained considerable attention among researchers and industrialists. Current market is flooded with products such as Periostat, Periochip(®), Atridox(®), Arestin(®), Actisite(®), Dentomycin(®), and Elyzol(®) and generics such as metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, doxycyline and minocycline for intrapocket delivery. There is a need of novel drugs and delivery systems with better efficacy profiles than the existing compounds. Inclusion of novel technologies like films, fibers, in situ forming implants, microparticles, nanoparticles, and liposomes as intrapocket drug delivery has great potential. Development of antibiotic free drug delivery such as antiseptics, host modulators, biofilms inhibitors and antibodies has promising role in the improvement of pathogenesis of periodontitis. Further, this review deals with various innovations in drug delivery and patents related to localized intrapocket administration of medicaments in the implications of periodontitis.

  8. Salivary Biomarkers for Caries Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lihong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2013-01-01

    Saliva contains various microbes and host biological components that could be used for caries risk assessment. This review focuses on the research topics that connect dental caries with saliva, including both the microbial and host components within saliva. PMID:23505756

  9. Dental plaque development on a hydroxyapatite disk in young adults observed by using a barcoded pyrosequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Shibata, Yukie; Furuta, Michiko; Saeki, Yoji; Eshima, Nobuoki; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Dental plaque is a dynamic microbial biofilm ecosystem that comprises hundreds of species including difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. We observed the assembly of a plaque bacterial community through 16S rRNA gene analysis. Plaque samples that accumulated on a hydroxyapatite disk for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days with saliva on day 0 were collected from 19 young adults using a removable resin splint. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the total bacterial amount gradually increased and reached a plateau on day 4. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the microbial richness and diversity particularly increased between days 5 and 7. A principal coordinate analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac showed the community assembly in a time-related manner, which became increasingly similar to the salivary microbiota. Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Streptococcus, Neisseria, Abiotrophia, Gemella, and Rothia were predominant in the plaque bacterial community in the earlier days, whereas obligate anaerobes, such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga showed increased dominance on later days. UniFrac analysis also demonstrated that dental caries experience had a significant effect on the assembly process. Our results reveal the development pattern of the plaque bacterial community as well as the inter-individual differences associated with dental caries experience. PMID:25633431

  10. Subgingival temperature: relation to gingival crevicular fluid enzymes, cytokines, and subgingival plaque micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Wolff, L F; Koller, N J; Smith, Q T; Mathur, A; Aeppli, D

    1997-12-01

    There have been no reports on the relationship of subgingival temperature to specific gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) components. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether there was any relationship between subgingival temperature and GCF levels of neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), beta-glucuronidase (BG), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1), and interferon alpha (IFN). Furthermore, another objective was to confirm an association of subgingival temperature with clinical parameters and specific subgingival plaque micro-organisms as has been reported earlier. 27 human subjects each having healthy (n = 50), gingivitis (n = 59) and periodontitis (n = 53) sites were evaluated. The plaque index (PI), subgingival temperature, probing depth, attachment loss, bleeding index and gingival index were measured. GCF was sampled following the measurement of the PI and removal of the supragingival plaque. GCF samples were assayed for the enzymes NE, BG, MPO and the cytokines IFN-alpha and IL-1 alpha. A sterile Gracey curette was utilized at each sampled site to collect subgingival plaque. The plaque samples were evaluated using an immunoassay. Subgingival temperature was found to directly correlate with all clinical parameters (p < 0.001). Significant, albeit not large, correlations were found between subgingival temperature and NE (r = 0.35, p < 0.001), MPO (r = 0.26, p < 0.001) and BG (r = 0.23, p < 0.01). Temperature was found to correlate positively with E. corrodens (r = 0.33, p < 0.02) and F. nucleatum (r = 0.25, p < 0.05) but not with P. intermedia (r = 0.02, p = 0.9), P. gingivalis (r = 0.20, p = 0.1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (r = 0.01, p > 0.9). In conclusion, subgingival temperature is correlated with the GCF enzymes, NE, MPO and BG as well as the clinical parameters and specific plaque micro-organisms associated with periodontal disease.

  11. Novel Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Periodontitis by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Madhu; Pentyala, Kishore Babu; Urolagin, Sarvesh Basavaraj; K B, Menaka; Bhoi, Shreedevi

    2014-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of locally delivered 1% curcumin gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 25 patients, belonging to both sex, aged between 21-45 years. All patients diagnosed as chronic periodontitis with periodontal pockets of depth >5mm bilaterally were randomly selected. A split mouth design was followed and the patients received a complete prophylaxis including scaling and root planing. Examination of plaque index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were measured for each patient. The test group received 1% curcumin gel along with scaling and root planing whereas the control group received scaling and root planing alone followed by microbiological samples taken at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months interval. Results: The 1% curcumin gel appeared to provide significant improvements in clinical parameters. Microbiological counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and capnocytophaga showed significant reduction in periopathogens at the test sites after six months when compared with that of control sites. Conclusion: Locally delivered 1% curcumin gel was more effective in inhibiting the growth of oral bacteria when used as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. PMID:25654035

  12. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-01-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- like receptors (TLR) that are expressed on the surface of Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes which are in abundance in periodontal inflammation. The complex formed due to interaction of Endotoxins and TLR activates the Signal transduction pathway in both innate and adaptive immunity resulting in production of Cytokines that co- ordinate the local and systemic inflammatory response. The pro inflammatory cytokines originating at the diseased site activates the liver cells to produce acute phase proteins as a part of non specific response. The production of Acute phase proteins is regulated to a great extent by Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and to a lesser extent by Glucocorticoid hormones. These proteins bind to bacteria leading to activation of complement proteins that destroys pathogenic organisms. Studies have shown that levels of acute phase proteins are increased in otherwise healthy adults with poor periodontal status. This article highlights about the synthesis, structure, types and function of acute phase proteins and the associated relation of acute phase proteins in Periodontitis. PMID:26674303

  13. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Polepalle, Tejaswin; Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-11-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- like receptors (TLR) that are expressed on the surface of Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes which are in abundance in periodontal inflammation. The complex formed due to interaction of Endotoxins and TLR activates the Signal transduction pathway in both innate and adaptive immunity resulting in production of Cytokines that co- ordinate the local and systemic inflammatory response. The pro inflammatory cytokines originating at the diseased site activates the liver cells to produce acute phase proteins as a part of non specific response. The production of Acute phase proteins is regulated to a great extent by Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and to a lesser extent by Glucocorticoid hormones. These proteins bind to bacteria leading to activation of complement proteins that destroys pathogenic organisms. Studies have shown that levels of acute phase proteins are increased in otherwise healthy adults with poor periodontal status. This article highlights about the synthesis, structure, types and function of acute phase proteins and the associated relation of acute phase proteins in Periodontitis.

  14. Changes of microbic associations qualitative contents in caries and its complications with the use of low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.

    1996-01-01

    Favorable clinical data at the absence of positive dynamics microbiological research findings in the treatment of caries and their complications give a reason to consider the treatment insufficiently effective and it is necessary to reduce the terms of an additional prophylactic observation and an antirelapse treatment of the disease. That is why researchers all over the world search for new effective methods of influence on the microflora of carious foci. Using the experience of the treatment of 40 patients with caries, 40 patients with chronic pulpitis, and 40 with chronic periodontitis high bactericidal properties of low intensive laser radiation are shown. If after the traditional treatment of foci microflora was inoculated in 62.3% of the cases, after the laser therapy session -- in 26.3% of the cases. The efficiency, ease of handling, and low expenditure of time allow us to recommend this method for a massive use in the treatment of caries and their complications.

  15. Evaluation of anti-plaque microbial activity of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) in vitro: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Abinaya, P.; Elanchezhiyan, S.; Thangakumaran; Vennila, K.; Naziya, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Probably microbial plaque is the main etiology for periodontal tissue inflammation. Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity. However, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) against plaque formation is considered to be vital, with lesser side effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and prove the antimicrobial activity of neem using plaque samples. Materials and Methods: Culture was prepared using brain heart infusion broth reagent. Dental plaque samples were used for that. Kirby–Bauer antimicrobial susceptibility test procedure was carried away with the sample. Neem oil was kept in the agar plate with culture and the diameter of inhibition zones was calculated. Results: Results showed inhibition zones on the agar plate around neem oil. Conclusion: Study shows definite antiplaque activity of neem oil. PMID:23066297

  16. A Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Peri-Bracket Salivary Flow Influencing the Microbial and Periodontal Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping; Lin, Han; Han, Yi; Lin, Yi; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fixed vestibular appliances decrease the “self-cleansing” action of saliva and promote aggregation of dental plaque by disturbing the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces, leading to a higher prevalence of enamel demineralization and periodontal diseases. In the current study, we investigated the salivary dynamic characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. By reconstructing lower central incisors and orthodontic appliances, we simulated saliva flow on the tooth surface and then characterized and quantified the salivary flow pattern surrounding the bracket and archwire. In parallel, we tested the total peri-bracket bacterial counts and periodontal status to assess interrelations. Our results demonstrate that orthodontic appliances disturb the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces and can lead to a decrease in salivary velocity and an increase in bacterial numbers. Local vortexes forming in the areas gingival to the bracket, together with the narrow space limitation, contributed to the periodontal inflammatory response. This study confirms that changes in salivary flow are an obvious predisposing factor for bacterial accumulation, and advances the ability to replicate, in vitro, the salivary characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. PMID:23620815

  17. A computational fluid dynamic analysis of peri-bracket salivary flow influencing the microbial and periodontal parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Lin, Han; Han, Yi; Lin, Yi; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fixed vestibular appliances decrease the "self-cleansing" action of saliva and promote aggregation of dental plaque by disturbing the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces, leading to a higher prevalence of enamel demineralization and periodontal diseases. In the current study, we investigated the salivary dynamic characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. By reconstructing lower central incisors and orthodontic appliances, we simulated saliva flow on the tooth surface and then characterized and quantified the salivary flow pattern surrounding the bracket and archwire. In parallel, we tested the total peri-bracket bacterial counts and periodontal status to assess interrelations. Our results demonstrate that orthodontic appliances disturb the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces and can lead to a decrease in salivary velocity and an increase in bacterial numbers. Local vortexes forming in the areas gingival to the bracket, together with the narrow space limitation, contributed to the periodontal inflammatory response. This study confirms that changes in salivary flow are an obvious predisposing factor for bacterial accumulation, and advances the ability to replicate, in vitro, the salivary characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. PMID:23620815

  18. Studies on plaque fluoride after use of F-containing dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, R M; Jones, Y; Nicholson, J; Jacobson, A P; Chestnutt, I G

    1994-07-01

    Increased fluoride levels in plaque and saliva have been associated with improved protection against dental caries for dentifrices which contained sodium monofluorophosphate (Duckworth et al., 1992). The main aim of the present work was to test whether oral fluoride retention depended on F source after use of dentifrices containing either NaF or Na2FPO3. In study 1, plaque samples were collected from 474 subjects who had been using one of six test dentifrices for two years, and analyzed by F extraction with water. The dentifrices contained 1000 or 1500 micrograms F/g as either NaF or Na2FPO3. Significantly more fluoride was found in plaque from subjects who were using the NaF dentifrices than in plaque from subjects who were using Na2FPO3 dentifrices of the same F content. Subsets of plaque samples were large enough to divide into two parts for extraction by both acid and water. No significant difference was found between mean fluoride contents, indicating that the majority of fluoride retained in plaque from these conventional dentifrices appears to be relatively labile. The results of two small-scale human enamel studies showed that NaF dentifrices gave elevated F concentrations in plaque and saliva, respectively, compared with Na2FPO3 dentifrices of equivalent F content, consistent with the main plaque study 1. These findings demonstrate that oral F retention from dentifrices is dependent on the source of ionic fluoride and support the view that NaF dentifrices may be more clinically effective than dentifrices which contain the same amount of F as Na2FPO3.

  19. On the initial propagation of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fabregas, Rene; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    A multi-dimensional model for dental caries is applied to study the shape of caries lesions in a realistic tooth geometry and to examine the rate of progress of caries. An upgraded model, taking into account the outer prismless enamel layer, is derived and solved. The model demonstrates the importance of this layer in delaying the onset of caries. The conclusions are discussed in light of experimental results. PMID:25232054

  20. Periodontal self-care: evidence-based support.

    PubMed

    Drisko, Connie L

    2013-06-01

    The focus of this review on periodontal self-care will be based primarily on the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Based on the evidence gleaned from systematic reviews, it is notable that most authors of these reviews commented on the relatively small number of trials that could pass the quality-assessment inclusion in the systematic review. Interproximal devices, namely interproximal brushes, are more effective for reducing interproximal plaque and gingivitis than are flossing or brushing alone. Some added benefit may be attributed to the use of rotational oscillation powered toothbrushes over manual toothbrushes. Recommendations by the dentist and dental hygienist to add one or more chemotherapeutic agents to the typical oral hygiene regimen has been shown, in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to reduce the level of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients. Oral irrigation does not seem to reduce visible plaque but does tend to reduce inflammation, determined by the presence of bleeding on probing, the gingival index score and probing depth measurements. To date, high-quality evidence is either lacking or weak in some areas regarding the efficacy of self-care and periodontal disease. Low educational attainment, smoking and socio-economic status are related to adverse periodontal health outcomes. Variation in self-esteem, self-confidence and perfectionism are associated with oral health status and oral health behaviors. Better understanding of the psychological factors associated with oral hygiene would be of benefit in further developing strategies to help patients improve their oral hygiene in addition to helping professionals design better programs on prevention and education.

  1. Establishment of a convenient sandwich-ELISA for direct quantification of glucosyltransferase-I: application for dual diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Hashizume-Takizawa, Tomomi; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Tomita, Naoya; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we established a convenient enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system targeting glucosyltransferase (GTF)-B derived from Streptococcus mutans for diagnosing caries risk. However, it has been reported that S. sobrinus possesses high cariogenicity and is more frequently detected in highly caries-susceptible patients than S. mutans is. S. sobrinus can secrete GTF-I, an important cariogenic factor for dental plaque formation, as well as S. mutans GTF-B. Therefore, in this study, we developed another feasible ELISA system targeting S. sobrinus GTF-I that would ensure caries risk determination by combined GTF-I and GTF-B levels. A readily measurable sandwich-ELISA system was devised, which consisted of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against GTF-I. The developed sandwich-ELISA system quantified the purified GTF-I with sensitivity and specificity, and a positive correlation was observed between the amount of GTF-I extracted from clinical plaque samples and S. sobrinus levels. Furthermore, high levels of GTF-I and GTF-B were detected using the sandwich-ELISA system in caries-susceptible subjects. These results indicate that the sandwich-ELISA system against GTF-I developed in this study is useful, and that the dual detection of the caries risk factors GTF-I and GTF-B is helpful for predicting caries risk.

  2. Lasers in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-08-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20(th) century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics.

  3. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  4. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.

  5. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  6. Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Treatment Response in Primary and Permanent Dentitions

    PubMed Central

    MERCHANT, SHERIN. N.; VOVK, ANDREA.; KALASH, DANNY.; HOVENCAMP, NICOLE; AUKHIL, IKRAMUDDIN.; HARRISON, PETER; ZAPERT, EDWARD; BIDWELL, JOHN; VARNADO, PHYLLIS; SHADDOX, LUCIANA. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The comparative treatment response of children and young adults with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) affecting primary and permanent dentition is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of non-surgical periodontal therapy with adjunctive systemic antibiotics on the clinical outcome of children/young adults with primary versus permanent dentition affected by LAP. Methods A cohort of 97 African-American participants between the ages of 5–21 (30M; 66F; 22 primary and 75 permanent dentition affected), diagnosed with LAP were included. Patients presented with no significant medical history. All patients underwent periodontal therapy, which consisted of full mouth mechanical debridement at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 month appointments. Additionally, all patients were prescribed a one-week regimen of systemic antibiotics at the initial appointment. Clinical parameters were analyzed, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment levels (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and percentage of visible plaque. Results Overall, periodontal therapy was found to be effective in improving the clinical outcomes of both primary and permanent dentitions. Although baseline CAL were similar between the groups, the reductions in mean CAL at 3, 6 and 12 months as well as reduction in % Plaque at 3 months were significantly greater in primary dentition as compared to permanent dentition. Conclusions Non-surgical therapy with systemic antibiotics is effective for LAP in both primary and permanent dentitions. A greater reduction in CAL in LAP of primary dentition may suggest that younger children may carry a greater propensity for positive treatment outcomes and healing potential as compared to children/young adults with permanent dentition. PMID:25186780

  7. Periodontal disease and systemic complications.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Weidlich, Patricia; Musskopf, Marta Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal diseases comprise a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions brought about by the interaction between supragingival and subgingival biofilms and the host inflammatory response. Periodontal diseases should be considered systemic conditions. This means that they are both modulated by the body's systems and play a role as a risk factor for systemic derangements. The current evidence supports some of these interactions, such as smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as both influenced by and influencing inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissue. Other potential associations are still being researched, such as obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. These, and others, still require further investigation before the repercussions of periodontal disease can be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, at the present time, the treatment of periodontal diseases-and, most importantly, their prevention-enables adequate intervention as a means of ensuring periodontal health. PMID:23318743

  8. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  9. Can coffee prevent caries?

    PubMed Central

    Anila Namboodiripad, PC; Kori, Sumathi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients' histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodicity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS) scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives. PMID:20379435

  10. A novel caries risk test.

    PubMed

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Galligan, Joyce; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2007-03-01

    A diagnostic test is particularly beneficial if it reveals the level of susceptibility prior to onset of a disease process. In the case of childhood caries, such a diagnostic test affords the opportunity for preventive measures to be implemented before caries begins. Salivary glycoproteins contain a wealth of individually specific oligosaccharide motifs. Depending on microbial compatibilities and individual genotypes, the glycoproteins that form the pellicle coating of teeth may provide attachment sites that foster colonization leading to cariogenesis. Alternatively, certain oligosaccharides, when present in nonpellicle glycoproteins, can interact with planktonic bacteria and lower their ability to interact with the tooth surface. We have found that in young adults the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides present in resting saliva exhibits a strong correlation with caries history (DFT: number of decayed and filled teeth). Oligosaccharide moieties associated with the test are quantitated in dried spots of whole saliva on nitrocellulose using commercially available biotinylated lectins with a variety of reporters. A combination of multiple linear regression and neural net analyses were used to develop the algorithms that describe the relationship between oligosaccharide patterns and DFT. During test development several different groups of adults and children have been studied. The correlation algorithms routinely exceed an R(2) (coefficient of determination) of 0.96. When the test is applied to the saliva of children, it yields a projection of their future caries history. Modifying the test result metric to reflect the groups of teeth with caries in young adults, the test identifies those teeth at risk for future caries in children. This test outcome can then be accompanied with suggested specific preventive measures for each tooth group-based risk level.

  11. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  12. Determination of clinical biologic width in chronic generalized periodontitis and healthy periodontium: A clinico-radiographical study

    PubMed Central

    Gaddale, Reetika; Mudda, Jayashree; Karthikeyan, Ilangovan; Desai, Shrikar; Shinde, Harshada Hemchandra; Tapashetti, Roopali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The dimensions of dentogingival junction have been evaluated from autopsy jaw specimens. Previous studies demonstrated variability in histologic biologic width (BW) in periodontal health and mild periodontitis. Few studies have been done on the measurement of clinical BW in periodontitis. BW variation provides implications for selection of surgical or nonsurgical approaches. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical BW in periodontal health and chronic generalized periodontitis and to compare it with histologic dimensions of BW. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects with chronic generalized periodontitis and 20 subjects with healthy periodontium were included in the present study. Plaque index and community periodontal index of treatment needs were scored; moreover, probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level were measured. Full mouth intraoral periapical radiographs were taken, and digitalized images were obtained to measure the crestal bone level using computerized software. Results: Clinical BW was significantly greater in both healthy and periodontitis groups than previously reported histologic BW of 2.04 mm (P < 0.001). The mean clinical BW was 3.98 mm. Conclusion: Mean clinical BW in both groups was significantly greater than histologic BW and sites with shallow PDs demonstrated greatest BW, suggesting that these sites may be at increased risk for losing significant attachment during surgical procedures. PMID:26015671

  13. Detection and comparison of Selenomonas sputigena in subgingival biofilms in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Disha; Prakash, Shobha; Bhat, Kishore Gajanan; Singh, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the advent of DNA-based culture-independent techniques, a constantly growing number of Selenomonas phylotypes have been detected in patients with destructive periodontal diseases. However, the prevalence levels that have been determined in different studies vary considerably. Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect and compare the presence of Selenomonas sputigena in the subgingival plaque samples from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), chronic generalized periodontitis, and periodontally healthy patients using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were categorized as periodontally healthy individuals (Group I, n = 30), chronic generalized periodontitis (Group II, n = 30), and GAP (Group III, n = 30). The clinical parameters were recorded and subgingival plaque samples were collected. These were then subjected to conventional PCR analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Mann–Whitney U-test for pairwise comparison. Results: On comparison between three groups, all the clinical parameters were found to be statistically highly significant. Comparing Groups I-II and I-III, the difference in detection was found to be statistically highly significant whereas in Groups II-III, it was statistically nonsignificant. On comparison of S. sputigena detected and undetected patients to clinical parameters in various study groups, the difference was found to be nonsignificant. Conclusion: S. sputigena was found to be significantly associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Although the difference in its detection frequency in both groups was statistically nonsignificant when compared clinically, S. sputigena was more closely associated with the GAP. PMID:27563202

  14. The effect of a periodontal intervention on cardiovascular risk markers in Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease: the PerioCardio study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth) is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i) to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii) to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm). Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness). Primary outcome measures are pulse wave

  15. Polymicrobial Oral Infection with Four Periodontal Bacteria Orchestrates a Distinct Inflammatory Response and Atherosclerosis in ApoEnull Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S.; Velsko, Irina M.; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F.; Zheng, Donghang; Lucas, Alexandra R.; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) develops from a synergy of complex subgingival oral microbiome, and is linked to systemic inflammatory atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD). To investigate how a polybacterial microbiome infection influences atherosclerotic plaque progression, we infected the oral cavity of ApoEnull mice with a polybacterial consortium of 4 well-characterized periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerealla forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum, that have been identified in human atherosclerotic plaque by DNA screening. We assessed periodontal disease characteristics, hematogenous dissemination of bacteria, peripheral T cell response, serum inflammatory cytokines, atherosclerosis risk factors, atherosclerotic plaque development, and alteration of aortic gene expression. Polybacterial infections have established gingival colonization in ApoEnull hyperlipidemic mice and displayed invasive characteristics with hematogenous dissemination into cardiovascular tissues such as the heart and aorta. Polybacterial infection induced significantly higher levels of serum risk factors oxidized LDL (p < 0.05), nitric oxide (p < 0.01), altered lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglycerides, Chylomicrons, VLDL) (p < 0.05) as well as accelerated aortic plaque formation in ApoEnull mice (p < 0.05). Periodontal microbiome infection is associated with significant decreases in Apoa1, Apob, Birc3, Fga, FgB genes that are associated with atherosclerosis. Periodontal infection for 12 weeks had modified levels of inflammatory molecules, with decreased Fas ligand, IL-13, SDF-1 and increased chemokine RANTES. In contrast, 24 weeks of infection induced new changes in other inflammatory molecules with reduced KC, MCSF, enhancing GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-13, IL-4, IL-13, lymphotactin, RANTES, and also an increase in select inflammatory molecules. This study demonstrates unique differences in the host immune response to a polybacterial periodontal infection

  16. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    SANT’ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; de CAMPOS, Marinele R.; PASSANEZI, Selma Campos; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; PASSANEZI, Euloir

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG – "no intervention" (n=17) or IG- "intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), late abortion (14-24 weeks) or abortion (<14 weeks). The results obtained were statistically evaluated according to OR, unpaired t test and paired t test at 5% significance level. Results No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline examination. Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001), except for PI. Significant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001). The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Conclusions Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21552714

  17. Novel amelogenin-releasing hydrogel for remineralization of enamel artificial caries

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuwei; Wen, Zezhang T; Liao, Sumei; Lallier, Thomas; Hagan, Joseph L; Twomley, Jefferson T; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Sun, Zhi; Xu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of recombinant full-length amelogenin protein in combination with fluoride has shown promising results in the formation of densely packed enamel-like structures. In this study, amelogenin (rP172)-releasing hydrogels containing calcium, phosphate, and fluoride were investigated for remineralization efficacy using in vitro early enamel caries models. The hydrogels were applied to artificial caries lesions on extracted human third molars, and the remineralization efficacy was tested in different models: static gel remineralization in the presence of artificial saliva, pH cyclic treatment at pH 5.4 acetic buffer and pH 7.3 gel remineralization, and treatment with multispecies oral biofilms grown in a continuous flowing constant-depth film fermenter. The surface microhardness of remineralized enamel increased significantly when amelogenin was released from hydrogel. No cytotoxicity was observed when periodontal ligament cells were cultured with the mineralized hydrogels. PMID:23338820

  18. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents. PMID:286720

  19. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents.

  20. Prescribing for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Blair, Fiona M; Chapple, Iain L C

    2014-11-01

    With concerns about the ever-increasing development of antimicrobial resistance, it is imperative that antimicrobials are prescribed responsibly and used appropriately. This article provides an overview and simple guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing in the management of periodontal diseases. PMID:25668374

  1. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  2. Efficacy of Carisolv-assisted caries excavation.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, A; Lindskog, S; Blomlöf, J

    1999-10-01

    As a possible alternative to conventional techniques for excavating caries chemomechanical methods have been developed. Caridex has so far been the dominating product. However, a new system, Carisolv, was recently introduced. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the caries-dissolving efficacy of Carisolv in vitro. After excavation with Carisolv all dentin surfaces were caries free. However, 6 of the 10 cavities showed residual caries in the dentinoenamel junction. The dentin and enamel surfaces were covered by smear and debris. Since there may be a risk of leaving caries in the dentinoenamel junction proper case selection appears to be of importance to ensure a successful result. PMID:10709512

  3. Association of susceptible genotypes to periodontal disease with the clinical outcome and tooth survival after non-surgical periodontal therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet; Kalogirou, Fotini

    2016-01-01

    Background The real clinical utility of genetic testing is the prognostic value of genetic factors in the clinical outcome of periodontal treatment and the tooth survival. A meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis on the clinical outcomes of non-surgical periodontal therapy and the tooth survival. Material and Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE-Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Scopus was performed. Additionally, a hand search was done in three journals. No specific language restriction was applied. Two reviewers screened independently titles and abstracts or full text copies. Quality assessment of all the included studies was held. Results Initial screening of electronic databases resulted in 283 articles. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of them examined the clinical outcome, while the other one investigated the tooth survival in susceptible individuals after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Eight of included studies were selected for the meta-analysis. IL-1 positive genotypes increase the risk of tooth loss, while no association found between the bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and plaque index (PI) with the genotype status. Probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction in the first three months and in long-term results found to have a significant association with the genotype. Conclusions There is no difference in the clinical measurements after non-surgical periodontal treatment, apart from PPD. More publications are needed to identify a cause-effect relationship. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, periodontal therapy, clinical outcome, tooth loss, susceptibility, polymorphism, genotype, meta-analysis, systematic review. PMID:26595831

  4. [DYNAMICS OF DENTAL CARIES' INDEXES IN CHILDREN WITH DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES].

    PubMed

    Kaskova, L F; Marchenko, K V; Berezhnaja, E E; Amosova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dentition anomalies in children and adolescents according to different authors, ranging from rising 50.8 to 81%. Anomalies of dental systems lead to aesthetic and functional disturbances affecting the child's psyche, and often lead to the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases. So, the purpose of our study was to investigate the dynamics of dental caries' indexes in children with dentoalveolar anomalies under the influence of preventive measures. We observed 50 children aged 12, who were divided into four groups. The most effective prophylactic complex in terms of reduction of growth of caries (59.4%) was the one that involved the use of "Tooth Mousse" (applying to the surface of the teeth 5 minutes after eating one time a day, in the morning after brushing teeth), "Osteovit" (one tablet three times a day), "Pektodent--dentifrice? (dental cleaning powder twice a day--in the morning and evening). This complex creates conditions for increasing the resistance of hard dental tissues, resulting in low levels of intensity of caries in children.

  5. Salivary TNF-alpha: A potential marker of periodontal destruction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pritma; Gupta, Narender Dev; Bey, Afshan; Khan, Saif

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: (1) To evaluate the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on salivary TNF-α level in chronic periodontitis. (2) To evaluate the effect of smoking on salivary TNF-α level in chronic periodontitis. (3) To compare and correlate TNF-α level with the healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Subjects aged 30-35 years were included for the study and divided into four groups as a group of 20 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals (group I), a group of 20 subjects with pocket probing depth (PPD) ≥5 mm and clinical attachment loss (CAL) of ≥2 mm (group II), a group of 20 diabetic subjects (of more than 5 years) with periodontal parameters as of group II as (group III) and a group of 20 subjects smoking (≥10 cigarettes a day) with periodontal parameters of group II as (group IV). Periodontal parameters of PPD, CAL, gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were measured using standard indices and criteria. Three milliliter of unstimulated saliva was taken and salivary TNF-α determined by using ELISA technique (Quantikine Human total TNF-A immunoassay kit). Results: Data revealed highest mean TNF-α in group III followed by group IV, group II, and group I. Mean TNF-α of both group III (76.1%) and group IV (48.8%) was significantly higher as compared to group I (P < 0.001). Mean TNF-α of group III was also found to be significantly different and higher (68.1%) as compared to group II (P < 0.001). Although higher mean TNF-α (31.5%) was found in group IV in comparison to group II, the difference was not statistically significant. Besides above, TNF-α also showed a direct positive correlation with PPD in group II (r = 0.30, P > 0.05) and a significant negative correlation was observed between CAL and TNF-α in group IV. Conclusion: Our study clearly underlines a profound impact of diabetes and smoking on salivary TNF-α in chronic periodontitis subjects in comparison to healthy subjects. Moreover, diabetes status increased TNF

  6. Imaging Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Glover, David K.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Johnson, Lynne L.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying patients at high risk for an acute cardiovascular event such as myocardial infarction or stroke and assessing the total atherosclerotic burden are clinically important. Currently available imaging modalities can delineate vascular wall anatomy and, with novel probes, target biologic processes important in plaque evolution and plaque stability. Expansion of the vessel wall involving remodeling of the extracellular matrix can be imaged, as can angiogenesis of the vasa vasorum, plaque inflammation, and fibrin deposits on early nonocclusive vascular thrombosis. Several imaging platforms are available for targeted vascular imaging to acquire information on both anatomy and pathobiology in the same imaging session using either hybrid technology (nuclear combined with CT) or MRI combined with novel probes targeting processes identified by molecular biology to be of importance. This article will discuss the current state of the art of these modalities and challenges to clinical translation. PMID:20395341

  7. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  8. The comparative effect of propolis in two different vehicles; mouthwash and chewing-gum on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Nuray; Erdemir, Ebru Olgun; Ozkan, Serdar Yucel; Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In general, chemical plaque agents have been used in mouthwashes, gels, and dentifrices. In some situations, application of mouthwashes and dentifrices can be difficult. Therefore, different approaches for oral health-care have been needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis chewing-gum compared to propolis-containing mouthwash on gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation on patients that refrained from daily oral hygiene procedures for 5 days. Materials and Methods: 10 college students with systemically healthy and very good oral hygiene and gingival health were included in this randomized, single-blind, crossover 5-day plaque regrowth with a 3-day washout period clinical study. After plaque scores were reduced to zero, participants were asked to refrain from oral hygiene procedures and allocated to either propolis mouthwash or chewing-gum group. Chewing-gum was performed after meals 3 times a day for 20 min mouthwash group was instructed to rinse mouthwash 2 times a day for 1 min. On day 5, the clinical periodontal measurements containing plaque and gingival indexes were taken from the participants. Results: The both plaque and gingival indexes of propolis mouthwash group were significantly lower than that of the propolis chewing-gum group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the propolis mouthwash was more effective than the propolis chewing gum on the plaque inhibition and the gingival inflammation. PMID:26038663

  9. Cary Potter on Independent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Cary

    1978-01-01

    Cary Potter was President of the National Association of Independent Schools from 1964-1978. As he leaves NAIS he gives his views on education, on independence, on the independent school, on public responsibility, on choice in a free society, on educational change, and on the need for collective action by independent schools. (Author/RK)

  10. Two Perspectives on Cary Potter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, Willis; La Grange, Gerald N.

    1978-01-01

    The chairman of the Board of Directors of the National Association of Independent Schools from 1973-1976 along with the chairman of NAIS from 1966-1970 both give informative and positive evaluations of the contribution made to NAIS by the retiring president of NAIS, Cary Potter. (RK)

  11. Molecular Imaging of Plaque Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Sina; Vashist, Aseem; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade significant progress has been made in the development of novel imaging strategies focusing on the biology of the vessel wall for identification of vulnerable plaques. While the majority of these studies are still in the preclinical stage, few techniques (e.g., 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET imaging) have already been evaluated in clinical studies with promising results. Here, we will briefly review the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and discuss molecular imaging strategies that have been developed to target these events, with an emphasis on mechanisms that are associated with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. PMID:25124827

  12. Evaluation of OSSIFI® as Alloplastic Bone Graft Material in Treatment of Periodontal Infrabony Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Sumit; Kapoor, Anoop; Singh, Preetinder; Kochhar, Gulsheen; Khuller, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The shift in therapeutic concepts from resection to regeneration has significantly impacted the practice of periodontology. Human studies have revealed that hydroxyapatite bone cement holds great promise as a grafting alloplastic material. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of OSSIFI® (combined beta tricalcium phosphate plus hydroxyapatite) in the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Ten study subjects were selected and divided into two groups. Group I (PD>7mm) and Group II (PD≤ 7mm). Both Groups I and II were treated by regenerative periodontal surgery using OSSIFI® as graft material. Plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, clinical attachment levels were recorded clinically and bone fill, radiographically, at baseline, three months and six months. Results and Conclusion: Statistically significant reduction in pocket depth, plaque index, gingival index was seen after six months. There was significant bone fill seen from 3-6months with significant gain in clinical attachment levels. PMID:25478450

  13. Comparing semilunar coronally positioned flap to standard coronally positioned flap using periodontal clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Carlos Augusto; da Silva, Wilson Aparecido Dias; Tonet, Karine; Secundes, Mayron Barros; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of 2 surgical root coverage techniques--semilunar coronally positioned flap and coronally advanced flap--using the clinical parameters of periodontal tissues from patients with Miller Class I gingival recession. Twenty patients (20-50 years of age) were selected. Basic periodontal treatment was performed, and plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and height of the attached gingiva were determined. Each patient was placed into 1 of 2 groups: Group 1 patients underwent the semilunar coronally positioned flap technique, and Group 2 patients underwent the coronally advanced flap technique. Patients were assessed for 180 days. Both groups showed significant reduction of plaque and gingival indices and an improvement in clinical attachment levels and probing depth. However, results showed the standard coronally positioned flap technique was deemed more effective due to significant clinical attachment level gains. PMID:24598495

  14. Periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell-transferred amnion.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kengo; Komaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuichi; Taki, Atsuko; Honda, Izumi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Akazawa, Keiko; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-02-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Regeneration of periodontal tissues using ex vivo expanded cells has been introduced and studied, although appropriate methodology has not yet been established. We developed a novel cell transplant method for periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC)-transferred amniotic membrane (PDLSC-amnion). The aim of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of PDLSC-amnion in a rat periodontal defect model. Cultured PDLSCs were transferred onto amniotic membranes using a glass substrate treated with polyethylene glycol and photolithography. The properties of PDLSCs were investigated by flow cytometry and in vitro differentiation. PDLSC-amnion was transplanted into surgically created periodontal defects in rat maxillary molars. Periodontal regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics such as cell surface marker expression (CD90, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and STRO-1) and trilineage differentiation ability (i.e., into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). PDLSC-amnion exhibited a single layer of PDLSCs on the amniotic membrane and stability of the sheet even with movement and deformation caused by surgical instruments. We observed that the PDLSC-amnion enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration as determined by micro-CT and histology by 4 weeks after transplantation. These data suggest that PDLSC-amnion has therapeutic potential as a novel cell-based regenerative periodontal therapy. PMID:24032400

  15. Periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell-transferred amnion.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kengo; Komaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuichi; Taki, Atsuko; Honda, Izumi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Akazawa, Keiko; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-02-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Regeneration of periodontal tissues using ex vivo expanded cells has been introduced and studied, although appropriate methodology has not yet been established. We developed a novel cell transplant method for periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC)-transferred amniotic membrane (PDLSC-amnion). The aim of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of PDLSC-amnion in a rat periodontal defect model. Cultured PDLSCs were transferred onto amniotic membranes using a glass substrate treated with polyethylene glycol and photolithography. The properties of PDLSCs were investigated by flow cytometry and in vitro differentiation. PDLSC-amnion was transplanted into surgically created periodontal defects in rat maxillary molars. Periodontal regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics such as cell surface marker expression (CD90, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and STRO-1) and trilineage differentiation ability (i.e., into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). PDLSC-amnion exhibited a single layer of PDLSCs on the amniotic membrane and stability of the sheet even with movement and deformation caused by surgical instruments. We observed that the PDLSC-amnion enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration as determined by micro-CT and histology by 4 weeks after transplantation. These data suggest that PDLSC-amnion has therapeutic potential as a novel cell-based regenerative periodontal therapy.

  16. Caries prevention through the fluoridation of milk. A review.

    PubMed

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 50 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization from the early 1980s onwards. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in milk, and increased concentrations of fluoride in saliva, dental plaque, dental enamel and dentine, and urine, after consumption of fluoridated milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s--some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programs. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. At present, milk fluoridation programs are running continuously in about ten countries of the world. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk program. The program should aim to provide fluoridated milk for at least 200 days per year and should commence before the children are 4 years of age. PMID:18078140

  17. Identification of Microbial Pathogens in Periodontal disease and Diabetic patients of South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chiranjeevi, Tikka; Prasad, Osuru Hari; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Kumar, Avula Kishor; Chakravarthi, Veeraraghavulu Praveen; Rao, Paramala Balaji; Sarma, Potuguchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna; Reddy, Nagi reddy Raveendra; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis have been referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes found in high prevalence among diabetic patients than among healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal disease status among collected dental plaque samples. Chromosomal DNA was isolated and amplified by universal primers. The DNA was sequenced for bacterial confirmation and phylogenetic analysis performed for the evolutionary relationship with other known pathogens. No amplification products were observed in groups labeled non periodontal and non Diabetes (NP&ND) and non Periodontal and Diabetes (NP&D). But in the case of Periodontal and non Diabetes (P&ND) groups 22 amplified products were observed. In case of Periodontal and Diabetes (P&D), 32 amplified products were positive for microbes. Among the four microbial groups, Treponemadenticola, and Tannerella forsythia were found to be prevalent in P&D. The phylogenetic analysis of 16s rRNA of Treponemadenticola showed the relationship with other Treponema oral pathogen species and with the Spirochaetazuelaera. Tannerella forsythia shows its evolutionary relationship only with four oral pathogens (Macellibacteroidesfermentans, Porphyromadaceae bacterium, Parabacteroidesmeredae and Bacillus fosythus). Prevotellaintermedia also showed its evolutionary relationship only with Prevotella Spcs while Fusobacterium revealed close evolutionary relationship only with Porpiromonasgingivalis. PMID:24966528

  18. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Periodontitis: A Web of Intrigue.

    PubMed

    White, P C; Chicca, I J; Cooper, P R; Milward, M R; Chapple, I L C

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represent a novel paradigm in neutrophil-mediated immunity. NETs are believed to constitute a highly conserved antimicrobial strategy comprising decondensed nuclear DNA and associated histones that are extruded into the extracellular space. Associated with the web-like strands of DNA is an array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which facilitate the extracellular destruction of microorganisms that become entrapped within the NETs. NETs can be released by cells that remain viable or following a unique form of programmed cell death known as NETosis, which is dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decondensing of the nuclear DNA catalyzed by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4. NETs are produced in response to a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, as well as host-derived mediators. NET release is, however, not without cost, as the concomitant release of cytotoxic molecules can also cause host tissue damage. This is evidenced by a number of immune-mediated diseases, in which excess or dysfunctional NET production, bacterial NET evasion, and decreased NET removal are associated with disease pathogenesis. Periodontitis is the most prevalent infectious-inflammatory disease of humans, characterized by a dysregulated neutrophilic response to specific bacterial species within the subgingival plaque biofilm. Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cell involved in periodontitis and have previously been found to exhibit hyperactivity and hyperreactivity in terms of ROS production in chronic periodontitis patients. However, the contribution of ROS-dependent NET formation to periodontal health or disease remains unclear. In this focused review, we discuss the mechanisms, stimuli, and requirements for NET production; the ability of NET-DNA and NET-associated AMPs to entrap and kill pathogens; and the potential immunogenicity of NETs in disease. We also speculate on the potential

  19. Dental caries status of Dai preschool children in Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status. Methods An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the “dmft” index, and severe caries was assessed using the “pa” index, which is modified from the “pufa” index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children’s socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children’s parents. Results A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year. Conclusions The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status. PMID:24279504

  20. Nanocatalysts promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm matrix degradation and enhance bacterial killing to suppress dental caries in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lizeng; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Li, Yong; Hwang, Geelsu; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P; Koo, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Dental biofilms (known as plaque) are notoriously difficult to remove or treat because the bacteria can be enmeshed in a protective extracellular matrix. It can also create highly acidic microenvironments that cause acid-dissolution of enamel-apatite on teeth, leading to the onset of dental caries. Current antimicrobial agents are incapable of disrupting the matrix and thereby fail to efficiently kill the microbes within plaque-biofilms. Here, we report a novel strategy to control plaque-biofilms using catalytic nanoparticles (CAT-NP) with peroxidase-like activity that trigger extracellular matrix degradation and cause bacterial death within acidic niches of caries-causing biofilm. CAT-NP containing biocompatible Fe3O4 were developed to catalyze H2O2 to generate free-radicals in situ that simultaneously degrade the biofilm matrix and rapidly kill the embedded bacteria with exceptional efficacy (>5-log reduction of cell-viability). Moreover, it displays an additional property of reducing apatite demineralization in acidic conditions. Using 1-min topical daily treatments akin to a clinical situation, we demonstrate that CAT-NP in combination with H2O2 effectively suppress the onset and severity of dental caries while sparing normal tissues in vivo. Our results reveal the potential to exploit nanocatalysts with enzyme-like activity as a potent alternative approach for treatment of a prevalent biofilm-associated oral disease. PMID:27294544

  1. Relationship between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis and the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Márcia de Noronha; Oliveira, Renê Donizeti Ribeiro; Novaes, Arthur Belém; Voltarelli, Júlio César

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed the association of periodontal disease (PD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy-five 35-60-year-old patients were assigned to 5 groups according to the presence (+) or not (-) of PD and RA and the treatment received (TR+) or not (TR-) for PD. Group 3 uses total prosthesis (TP). Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed at baseline, 3 and 6 months of follow-up by probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing and plaque index for PD, HAQ, DAS28, SF-36 and laboratory: AAG, ESR, CRP for RA. Statistically significant differences for PD after 3 (p=0.0055) and after 6 months (p=0.0066) were obtained in Group 1 (RA+PD+TR+) and 2(RA+PD+TR-); significant reduction in the % of BOP after 6 months (p=0.0128) and significant reduction in the % of Pl after 3 (p=0.0128) and 6 months (p=0.0002) in Group 1. Statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 3 (RA+TP) for DAS28 at baseline and after 3 months were observed, but not after 6 months. No other parameters for RA were significantly affected. The relationship between RA and PD disease activities is not clear, but the importance of periodontal treatment in the control of inflammation to avoid tooth extraction is evident. PMID:20126902

  2. Bacteraemia caused by periodontal probing.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; Mitchell, D; Grossberg, D; Highfield, J; Stewart, D

    1997-04-01

    Bacteraemia of oral origin may result in infective endocarditis in susceptible individuals. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the occurrence of bacteraemia due to periodontal probing. Thirty patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age 42.7 years) with untreated periodontitis were investigated. All were free of significant medical disorders and none had taken antibiotics in the previous month. Prior to and immediately following periodontal probing, 20 mL of venous blood were obtained from each patient and inoculated into aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and incubated. Negative bottles were monitored continuously for three weeks before being discarded. Periodontal probing consisted of measuring pockets at six points around each tooth and recording the presence or absence of bleeding. A positive bacteraemia was recorded for three of the patients prior to probing. One patient exhibited Prevotella species whilst two exhibited skin commensals. Following probing, 13 patients (43 per cent) exhibited bacteraemia of oral origin. Viridans streptococci were the most common isolates (45 per cent). No significant correlations were found between bacteraemia and the severity of periodontitis or extent of bleeding on probing. The results indicate that periodontal probing can cause bacteraemia in patients with periodontitis. It would be advisable for patients considered at risk of developing infective endocarditis to receive antibiotic prophylaxis for periodontal probing if they have radiographic evidence of periodontitis.

  3. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  4. Residual caries detection using visible fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lennon, A M; Buchalla, W; Switalski, L; Stookey, G K

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a new fluorescence method to detect residual caries in vitro. Gross caries was removed from 40 teeth with D2 caries. Samples were excited with violet-blue light and viewed through a 530-nm high-pass filter. Residual caries (orange-red fluorescing dentin) was detected in all samples. Further tooth substance was removed from half of the samples until no residual caries was detectable using the new method. Half of the samples remained untreated. A blinded examiner checked all samples for residual caries using DIAGNOdent, a visual tactile examination, and Caries Detector dye. Presence or absence of residual caries in each sample was determined using a fluorescent nucleic acid stain in conjunction with confocal microscopy. The new method, Visible Fluorescence, had the greatest sensitivity, specificity, percent correct score and predictive values of any of the methods tested. The new method had significantly higher percent correct score than any of the other methods and significantly higher specificity than visual tactile and Caries Detector. It was concluded that Visible Fluorescence is an improvement on the currently available aids for residual caries detection.

  5. Multiphoton microscopy of atheroslcerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilledahl, Magnus B.; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2007-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a techniques that fascilitates three dimensional imaging of intact, unstained tissue. Especially connective tissue has a relatively strong nonlinear optical response and can easily be imaged. Atherosclerosis is a disease where lipids accumulate in the vessel wall and there is a thickening of the intima by growth of a cap of connective tissue. The mechanical strength of this fibrous cap is of clinically importance. If the cap ruptures a thrombosis forms which can block a coronary vessel and therby causing myocardial infarction. Multiphoton microscopy can be used to image the fibrous cap and thereby determine the thickness of the cap and the structure of the connective fibres. This could possibly be developed into a diagnostic and clincal tool to monitor the vulnerability of a plaque and also to better understand the development of a plaque and effects of treatment. We have collected multiphoton microscopy images from atherosclerotic plaque in human aorta, both two photon excited fluorescens and second harmonic generated signal. The feasability of using this technique to determine the state of the plaque is explored.

  6. Understanding Motivation of Plaque Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical model for understanding motivation of plaque control is presented. The belief in this model is that, if people can be convinced of their ability to control a health threat, they would be encouraged to take responsibility for their health. (CJ)

  7. OCT of early dental caries: a comparative study with histology and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael G.

    2005-03-01

    Early dental caries result from destruction of the tooth's outer mineral matrix by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaques. Early caries begin as surface disruptions where minerals are leached from the teeth resulting in regions of decreased mineral matrix integrity. Visually, these early carious regions appear as white spots due to the higher backscattering of incident light. With age these areas may become stained by organic compounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of human teeth demonstrates a difference in penetration depth of the OCT signal into the carious region in comparison with sound enamel. However, while OCT demonstrates a structural difference in the enamel in the region of the caries, this technique provides little insight into the source of this difference. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical measures derived from hydroxyapatite within the enamel as well as information on the crystallinity of the enamel matrix. The differences in the biochemical and morphological features of early caries and intact sound enamel are compared. Histological thin sections confirm the observations by OCT morphological imaging while Raman spectroscopy allows for biochemical identification of carious regions by a non-destructive method. Visual examination and conventional radiographic imaging of the intact tooth are used in clinical assessment prior to optical measurements. The combination of OCT, Raman spectroscopy and thin section histology aid in determining the changes that give rise to the visual white spot lesions.

  8. Secondary caries detection with a novel fluorescence-based camera system in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, Olivier; Wilde, Claudia; Krause, Felix; Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of a fluorescence based optical system to detect secondary caries. The optical detecting system (VistaProof) illuminates the tooth surfaces with blue light emitted by high power GaN-LEDs at 405 nm. Employing this almost monochromatic excitation, fluorescence is analyzed using a RGB camera chip and encoded in color graduations (blue - red - orange - yellow) by a software (DBSWIN), indicating the degree of caries destruction. 31 freshly extracted teeth with existing fillings and secondary caries were cleaned, excavated and refilled with the same kind of restorative material. 19 of them were refilled with amalgam, 12 were refilled with a composite resin. Each step was analyzed with the respective software and analyzed statistically. Differences were considered as statistically significant at p<0.05. There was no difference between measurements at baseline and after cleaning (Mann Whitney, p>0.05). There was a significant difference between baseline measurements of the teeth primarily filled with composite resins and the refilled situation (p=0.014). There was also a significant difference between the non-excavated and the excavated group (Composite p=0.006, Amalgam p=0.018). The in vitro study showed, that the fluorescence based system allows detecting secondary caries next to composite resin fillings but not next to amalgam restorations. Cleaning of the teeth is not necessary, if there is no visible plaque. Further studies have to show, whether the system shows the same promising results in vivo.

  9. Periodontal Status and Some Variables among Pregnant Women in a Nigeria Tertiary Institution

    PubMed Central

    Onigbinde, OO; Sorunke, ME; Braimoh, MO; Adeniyi, AO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gingival changes during pregnancy have been well-documented. The prevalence of gingivitis in pregnant women has reportedly ranged from 30% to 100%. Increase in both the rate of estrogen metabolism and synthesis of prostaglandins by the gingiva contributed to the gingival changes observed during pregnancy. In effect increased prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and tooth mobility may be encountered in pregnancy. Aim: The purpose of the study was to determine the association of some variables and the periodontal status in a sample of pregnant women attending the Ante Natal Clinic (ANC) of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos. Subjects and Methods: Women at various stages of pregnancy, attending the ANC of LASUTH, constituted the target population. The questionnaire was administered on each patient followed by dental examinations. Periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index (CPI) of treatment needs. Oral hygiene status was evaluated according to Green and Vermilion simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Results: The association between the CPI scores; OHI-S scores and variables such as trimester and dental visits were statistically significant. Conclusion: This study indicated that the gestational age of pregnancy and dental visits have a definite impact on the periodontal status. Oral health education should be included as an integral part of antenatal care to increase the women awareness. This would improve the mothers’ dental care-seeking behavior. PMID:25506475

  10. Common Perceptions of Periodontal Health and Illness among Adults: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, M.; Pakdaman, A.; Virtanen, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Our aim was to explore perceptions of periodontal health and illness and to examine attitudes and beliefs regarding prevention of gum diseases among Iranian adults. Methods. Our qualitative approach included focus-group discussions among adults aged 18 and above based on convenient and purposive sampling in Tehran. Transcripts of the four focus-group discussions were analyzed by two independent reviewers using a content analysis method. Results. Two major themes in the analyses emerged: the common perception of periodontal health and illness and the attitude towards prevention. The study demonstrated the subjects' good understanding of prevention of periodontal disease, but their lack of knowledge of the aetiology of the diseases, and an inability to differentiate aetiology, symptoms, and prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease. Conclusion. This study revealed a need for oral health education among Iranian adults to improve their knowledge and change their attitudes to achieve deeper understanding of the aetiology and prevention of periodontal disease. Health promotion programs should address misconceptions about prevention of gum disease. PMID:23029620

  11. The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels and periodontal parameters: A study in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Namita; Gupta, Narinder Dev; Gupta, Akash; Goyal, Lata; Garg, Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although many studies reported more severe periodontal disease and the existing proinflammatory conditions in patients with diabetes but only few have examined the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) level and other periodontal parameters. This study aims to evaluate the effect of type 2 DM on salivary MMP-8 levels and periodontal parameters, which might be useful in monitoring periodontal disease in diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects were selected for the study and were divided into three groups: Group I included 30 healthy subjects; Group II included 30 subjects without type 2 DM but with chronic periodontitis, and Group III included 30 subjects with type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis. Periodontal parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), pocket probing depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were taken. The salivary MMP-8 level was estimated by Quantikine Human total MMP-8 immunoassay kit using ELISA method. Results: The mean value of the salivary MMP-8 of Group III was highest followed by Group II and Group I, the least. The other periodontal parameters PI, GI, PPD, CAL, was comparatively highest for Group III. Conclusion: This study suggests that diabetes is associated with an increased prevalence, extent, and severity of periodontitis. Furthermore, the increased levels of MMP-8 indicate the influence of diabetes on their salivary concentration. PMID:26430357

  12. Lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in obese and non-obese subjects undergoing non-surgical periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Zuza, Elizangela P; Barroso, Eliane M; Fabricio, Mariana; Carrareto, Ana Luiza V; Toledo, Benedicto E C; R Pires, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal treatment may improve the metabolic control of dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese and non-obese patients undergoing periodontal therapy. Patients with generalized chronic periodontitis were divided into obese (n = 28) and non-obese groups (n = 26). The periodontal parameters (visible plaque index, gingival bleeding index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing), anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat), and serum analyses (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and hs-CRP) were measured at baseline and 90 days after periodontal treatment. The results showed that the obese subjects presented alterations in triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and hs-CRP at baseline when compared with non-obese patients (P < 0.05). Periodontal treatment could improve the periodontal parameters in both groups similarly (P > 0.05). Obese subjects showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and hs-CRP post-therapy (P < 0.05), while non-obese patients showed improvement only in hs-CRP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, periodontal treatment could improve the periodontal parameters and circulating hs-CRP in obese and non-obese subjects. Lipid profile was modified only in obese patients post-therapy. (J Oral Sci 58, 423-430, 2016). PMID:27665983

  13. Lasers in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-01-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics. PMID:23066266

  14. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  15. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique

  16. The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, Goguladinne Naga Deepthi; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Jyothi, Velagapudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The hormonal fingerprint is the ratio between 2nd and 4th digit lengths. It was evidenced in the medical scenario that it can be used as an indirect marker in many diseases like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and metabolic syndromes. As far as dentistry is concerned very few studies in the literature have been done to evaluate the influence of hormonal fingerprint on oral health, thus provoking us to formulate new method for predicting dental caries and malocclusion and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI). Aim The purpose of this retrospective study was to highlight the role of new biological marker–Hormonal fingerprints in the early detection of malocclusion, caries, the influence of BMI on malocclusion and caries. We also attempted to study the correlation of BMI with hormonal fingerprints. Materials and Methods A total of 300 children were randomly selected from both sexes of age group 10-15 years. The hormonal fingerprint was made by measuring the length ratio of the index and ring finger with the help of digital Vernier caliper. Anthropometric measures (weight in kilograms and height in metres) for the calculation of BMI were recorded. Caries assessment was done using standard mouth mirrors and Community Periodontal Index probes. DMFT index was followed for assessment of caries according to the WHO assessment form, 1997. Occlusal characteristics of the children evaluated were molar relation, anterior and posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, lower anterior crowding. All the factors were recorded by two investigators. Results The results of the study showed that majority of the children among study population were having 2D:4D <1. The rate of occurrence of malocclusion was increasing with increase in the value of 2D:4D ratio with a statistically significant p-value of <0.001. Higher BMI values were associated with normal occlusal conditions (p= 0.041) and lower 2D:4D ratio (p= 0.037). High caries experience was noticed in children with

  17. Quantification of Selenomonas sputigena in Chronic Periodontitis in Smokers Using 16S rDNA Based PCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Suresh Vasant; Jain, Pinal Mahendra; Mali, Pradnya; Medikeri, Manjushri Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Selenomonas species have been associated with chronic periodontitis and have been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Scanty literature is available in Indian population. Hence, the objective of the study was to detect the prevalence of Selenomonas sputigena in healthy and chronic periodontitis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Indian population and to check whether smoking affects the subgingival microflora of this organism in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods A total of 60 subjects with severe chronic periodontitis with or without smoking and periodontal healthy subjects underwent clinical and microbiological assessment. A deep subgingival plaque sample was collected and genomic DNA was extracted from each sample and analysed for detection of Selnomonas sputigena using PCR. The frequency and quantification of bacteria were also estimated. Results All groups differed statistically significant in the frequency of detection of Selenomonas sputigena. On comparison of patients with chronic periodontitis in smokers and non-smokers, there was no statistically significant difference. When the results were quantified, statistically non-significant results were seen among all groups. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were statistically non-significant in chronic periodontitis with smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of Selenomonas sputigena showed significant differences with respect to the frequency of detection when comparing the disease group to the healthy population. But no significant difference was seen when the results were quantified. Smoking has no influence on number of Selenomonas sputigena. This study highlights presence as well as quantity of the organism is very important in elucidating its role in causation and progression of the disease. PMID:26023635

  18. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p<0.01) and caries severity (p<0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x104 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x104 cfu/ml (~3-log higher vs. caries

  19. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  20. OCCURRENCE OF ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS, HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND CHILDREN WITH GINGIVITIS IN TWO CITIES OF THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Elerson Gaetti; Bosco, Joseane Maria Dias; Lopes, Angélica Marquezim; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti; Carneiro, Sílvia Rosana Soares

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in 100 patients with chronic periodontitis, 14 patients with aggressive periodontitis, 142 pre-school children with gingivitis and 134 periodontally healthy subjects. Samples of subgingival plaque were taken using sterilized paper points introduced into periodontal pockets or gingival crevice for 60 seconds and inoculated on TSBV agar, which was incubated under anaerobiosis at 37°C, for 4 days. Microbial identification was performed through biochemical methods and morphocellular and morphocolonial analysis. Aa was detected in 40.3% of healthy subjects, 68% of patients with chronic periodontitis, 92.86% of patients with aggressive periodontitis and 40.14% of children with gingivitis. The rate of recovery of Aa in the tested human groups proved to be higher than previously reported and in agreement with participation of this facultative anaerobe as a member of native microbiota of the periodontium and its relation with aggressive and chronic periodontitis in Brazil. PMID:19089064

  1. Cytological analysis of the periodontal pocket in patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Cecilia, E. Castro; Myriam, A. Koss; María, E. López

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral exfoliative cytology includes the study and interpretation of the features cells exfoliated from the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to analyze cytological changes in the periodontal pocket of patients with different clinical stages of aggressive periodontitis (AP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Materials and Methods: Patients aged 24–54 years, of whom 41 were diagnosed with AP, 40 with CP, sub-classified as mild, moderate and severe periodontitis, and 40 healthy individuals who were the control group. Samples of the epithelium of the periodontal pocket were taken for the cytological study. Results: Superficial and intermediate cell values were significantly greater in patients with AP than in patients with CP or the control group. Histiocyte number was higher in patients with CP than in those with AP, and differed significantly in both types of periodontitis compared to the control group. There were significant differences in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes when both types of periodontitis were compared to the control group. Microbial flora was statistically higher in patients with CP, and there were differences between patients with periodontitis and the control group. Conclusions: The cytological study demonstrated that patients with AP had greater tissue damage, shown by the increase in intermediate and superficial cells of the epithelium of the periodontal pocket compared to the group of healthy subjects and to a lesser extent, to patients with CP. Only superficial cells made it possible to differentiate the sub-stages of the disease. PMID:25395766

  2. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on salivary myeloperoxidase levels: A biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Dagar, Mona; Deepa, Dhruv Kumar; Molly, Madan; Sharma, Anamika; Khattak, Braham Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO), the most abundant protein in neutrophils, is the focus of inflammatory pathologies. MPO could participate in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with healthy gingiva, gingivitis, periodontitis between age group of 20–55 years were selected. Group I - 20 Patients with healthy gingiva, Group II - 20 Patients with generalized gingivitis, Group III - 20 Patients with generalized chronic periodontitis, Group IV - 20 Patients of Group III after 1-month of scaling and root planning. The following parameters were recorded: Gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, salivary MPO levels. All the parameters were then statistically analyzed. Results: The mean MPO levels in Group I recorded was - 0.320 + 0.06, Group II was - 0.183 + 0.04, Group III was - 0.814 + 0.08 and Group IV was - 0.386 + 0.08 respectively. All these values were statistically significant when compared between the four groups (P < 0.05). A significantly elevated salivary MPO levels were found in subjects with chronic periodontitis as compared to the gingivitis group and the healthy group (P < 0.05). However, moderate but statistically significant increase in the MPO levels were observed in the gingivitis group as compared to the healthy group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, significant reduction in MPO levels were observed in Group IV after 1-month of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Conclusion: The activities of MPO enzyme were significantly increased in the saliva of patients with periodontal disease in comparison to healthy individuals. Furthermore, nonsurgical periodontal therapy was found to be effective in improving clinical parameters and in reducing MPO levels. Salivary enzymes like MPO could be considered as a biochemical marker of periodontal disease activity. PMID:26644720

  3. Salivary thiol levels and periodontal parameters assessed with a chromogenic strip.

    PubMed

    Khocht, Ahmed; Seyedain, Merriam; Hardan, Samia; Gaughan, John; Suzuki, Jon B

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis tends to be associated with bacteria that use sulfate as an energy source and produce thiol compounds that contain sulfhydryl (-SH) groups. This study used a chromogenic thiol-detecting strip to investigate whole saliva -SH concentration (SS) in subjects with and without periodontal disease. Ninety-six subjects were enrolled; all underwent periodontal evaluations, including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth measurements (PD), and attachment levels (AL). Subjects were divided into 3 groups: those who were periodontally healthy (n = 17), those with gingivitis (n = 54), and those with periodontitis (n = 25). Of the 96 subjects, 33% (n = 32) were cigarette smokers. A chromogenic strip was used to collect a whole saliva sample from the mouth. Color reaction was scored based on a color chart. Good-to-moderate correlations were found between SS scores and PI (r = 0.47, P = 0.0001), GI (r = 0.45, P = 0.0001), PD (r = 0.42, P = 0.0001), and AL (r = 0.30, P = 0.002). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in SS scores among the 3 study groups (P = 0.0001); post-hoc analysis showed higher SS scores in subjects with periodontitis than in those without (P = 0.05). Logistic regression, adjusting for smoking, showed the odds ratio of periodontitis increased by a factor of 12.76 for each increase of one unit of measure of SS. These results indicate that assessing whole saliva thiol levels with a chromogenic strip could be used as a screening test for periodontal diseases. PMID:23928440

  4. Low-Level Lasers as an Adjunct in Periodontal Therapy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kesić, Ljiljana; Mihailović, Dragan; Jovanović, Goran; Antić, Slobodan; Brkić, Zlata

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of periodontitis, and severe periodontitis often coexists with severe DM. The proposed dual pathway of tissue destruction suggests that control of chronic periodontal infection and gingival inflammation is essential for achieving long-term control of DM. The purpose this study is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by exfoliative cytology in patients with DM and gingival inflammation. Subjects and Methods Three hundred patients were divided in three equal groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with periodontitis and type 1 DM, Group 2 of patients with periodontitis and type 2 DM, and Group 3 of patients with periodontitis (control group). After oral examination, smears were taken from gingival tissue, and afterward all of the patients received oral hygiene instructions, removal of dental plaque, and full-mouth scaling and root planing. A split-mouth design was applied; on the right side of jaws GaAlAs LLLT (670 nm, 5 mW, 14 min/day) (model Mils 94; Optica Laser, Sofia, Bulgaria) was applied for five consecutive days. After the therapy was completed, smears from both sides of jaws were taken. The morphometric analysis was done using the National Institutes of Health Image software program and a model NU2 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Results Investigated parameters were significantly lower after therapy compared with values before therapy. After therapy on the side subjected to LLLT, there was no significantly difference between patients with DM and the control group. Conclusions It can be concluded that LLLT as an adjunct in periodontal therapy reduces gingival inflammation in patients with DM and periodontitis. PMID:22928615

  5. Parity & untreated dental caries in US women.

    PubMed

    Russell, S L; Ickovics, J R; Yaffee, R A

    2010-10-01

    While parity (number of children) reportedly is related to tooth loss, the relationship between parity and dental caries has not been extensively investigated. We used path analysis to test a theoretical model that specified that parity influences dental caries levels through dental care, psycho- social factors, and dental health damaging behaviors in 2635 women selected from the NHANES III dataset. We found that while increased parity was not associated with a greater level of total caries (DFS), parity was related to untreated dental caries (DS). The mechanisms by which parity is related to caries, however, remain undefined. Further investigation is warranted to determine if disparities in dental caries among women are due to differences in parity and the likely changes that parallel these reproductive choices.

  6. Relationship between menopause and periodontal disease: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese population

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ricardo C; Félix, Sérgio A; Rodriguez-Archilla, Alberto; Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; dos Santos, José Martins

    2015-01-01

    Background: Menopause is associated with important systemic and oral changes. Many researchers have tried to evaluate the influence of hormonal changes associated with menopause in the periodontium, however results are contradictory. Objective: Evaluate the possible effects of menopause on the severity of periodontal disease and tooth loss, by considering several general, oral and periodontal parameters. Methods: 102 women with chronic periodontitis, and at least six teeth, were divided into two groups: a study group (SG) consisting of 68 menopausal women and a control group (CG) consisting of 34 premenopausal women. The participants had extensive anamnesis, made by a single senior periodontologist, which collected demographic data, medical and gynaecological history and habits. Additionally, oral and periodontal parameters including: number of teeth, plaque index, presence of calculi, probing depth, bleeding on probing, gingival recession and attachment loss were recorded. The following statistical tests were used: Chi-square, Fisher’s t-test for independent samples, non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, and linear multiple regression. Results: The number of teeth was significantly lower in postmenopausal women (SG 10.8 ± 5.9, CG 6.8 ± 4.6), however, after adjusting for age, smoking and plaque index, the difference was no longer statistically significant (P=0.169). The attachment loss was slightly higher in the study group, although the difference is not significant (SG 4.31 ± 1.08, CG 4.05 ± 1.28). Conclusions: Menopause does not appear to significantly influence the severity of periodontal disease and tooth loss. Other factors may exert a greater influence on the progression of periodontal disease rather than menopause itself. PMID:26379957

  7. Effect of Supragingival Irrigation with Aerosolized 0.5% Hydrogen Peroxide on Clinical Periodontal Parameters, Markers of Systemic Inflammation, and Morphology of Gingival Tissues in Patients with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Žekonis, Gediminas; Žekonis, Jonas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Noreikienė, Viktorija; Balnytė, Ingrida; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Narbutaitė, Julija

    2016-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that non-surgical periodontal treatment is correlated with reduction in clinical parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term weekly supragingival irrigations with aerosolized 0.5% hydrogen peroxide as maintenance therapy followed by non-surgical periodontal treatment on clinical parameters, plasma levels of inflammatory markers, and morphological changes in gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods In total, 43 patients with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to long-term maintenance therapy. The patients’ periodontal status was assessed using clinical parameters of approximal plaque index, modified gingival index, bleeding index, pocket probing depth, and plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and white blood cell count) at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years. The morphological status of gingival tissues (immediately after supragingival irrigation) was assessed microscopically. Results Complete data were obtained on 34 patients. A highly statistically significant and consistent reduction was observed in all long-term clinical parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory markers. Morphological data showed abundant spherical bubbles in gingival tissues. Conclusions 1. The present study showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment with long-term weekly supragingival irrigations with aerosolized 0.5% hydrogen peroxide improved clinical periodontal status and plasma levels of inflammatory markers and may be a promising method in periodontology. 2. We found that supragingival irrigation with aerosolized 0.5% hydrogen peroxide created large numbers of spherical bubbles in gingival tissues. PMID:27743448

  8. High-resolution taxonomic profiling of the subgingival microbiome for biomarker discovery and periodontitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Szymon P; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jáuregui, Ruy; Plumeier, Iris; Klawonn, Frank; Tomasch, Jürgen; Meisinger, Christa; Kühnisch, Jan; Sztajer, Helena; Pieper, Dietmar H; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The oral microbiome plays a key role for caries, periodontitis, and systemic diseases. A method for rapid, high-resolution, robust taxonomic profiling of subgingival bacterial communities for early detection of periodontitis biomarkers would therefore be a useful tool for individualized medicine. Here, we used Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 and V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. A sample stratification pipeline was developed in a pilot study of 19 individuals, 9 of whom had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Five hundred twenty-three operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the V1-V2 region and 432 from the V5-V6 region. Key periodontal pathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia could be identified at the species level with both primer sets. Principal coordinate analysis identified two outliers that were consistently independent of the hypervariable region and method of DNA extraction used. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size algorithm (LEfSe) identified 80 OTU-level biomarkers of periodontitis and 17 of health. Health- and periodontitis-related clusters of OTUs were identified using a connectivity analysis, and the results confirmed previous studies with several thousands of samples. A machine learning algorithm was developed which was trained on all but one sample and then predicted the diagnosis of the left-out sample (jackknife method). Using a combination of the 10 best biomarkers, 15 of 17 samples were correctly diagnosed. Training the algorithm on time-resolved community profiles might provide a highly sensitive tool to detect the onset of periodontitis.

  9. Prevalence of dental caries in dentistry students.

    PubMed

    Pavleova, G; Vesela, S; Stanko, P

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates dental caries prevalence in dentistry students. They represent a sample of individuals with good dental status, socio-economical level and access to dental care. The values of teeth number with decay and filling and values of surfaces of teeth with decay and filling indices in group with lower caries incidence give the information as to what could be achieved by systemic care and prevention of dental caries in whole population (Tab. 4. Ref. 25).

  10. Understanding Caries From the Oral Microbiome Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Anne C R; Kressirer, Christine A; Faller, Lina L

    2016-07-01

    Dental caries is a major disease of the oral cavity with profound clinical significance. Caries results from a transition of a healthy oral microbiome into an acidogenic community of decreased microbial diversity in response to excessive dietary sugar intake. Microbiological cultivation, molecular identification, gene expression and metabolomic analyses show the importance of the entire microbial community in understanding the role of the microbiome in the pathology of caries. PMID:27514155

  11. Vitamin D and Dental Caries in Children.

    PubMed

    Schroth, R J; Rabbani, R; Loewen, G; Moffatt, M E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and dental caries in Canadian school-aged children participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). The CHMS was a national cross-sectional study involving physical assessments, laboratory analysis, and interviews. Analysis was restricted to data for 1,017 children 6 to 11 y of age. Outcome variables included the presence of caries and overall total caries score (dmft/DMFT index). Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured from serum samples obtained from participants. Bivariate analysis, logistic regression for the presence of caries, and multiple linear regression for total caries scores were used. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, 56.4% of children experienced caries, and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 2.47 (95% CI 2.09 to 2.84). The unadjusted odds of children with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/L having experienced caries was 0.57 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.82), while the odds for caries at the ≥50 nmol/L level was 0.56 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.89). After controlling for other covariates, backward logistic regression revealed that the presence of caries was significantly associated with 25(OH) levels <75 nmol/L and <50 nmol/L, lower household education, not brushing twice daily, and yearly visits to the dentist. Similarly, multiple linear regression revealed that total dmft/DMFT caries scores were also associated with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L, not brushing twice daily, lower household education, and yearly visits to the dentist. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of Canadian children suggest that there is an association between caries and lower serum vitamin D. Improving children's vitamin D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries.

  12. Surgical and nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Learned and unlearned concepts.

    PubMed

    Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A; Lang, Niklaus P

    2013-06-01

    This review aims to highlight concepts relating to nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy, which have been learned and unlearned over the past few decades. A number of treatment procedures, such as gingival curettage and aggressive removal of contaminated root cementum, have been unlearned. Advances in technology have resulted in the introduction of a range of new methods for use in nonsurgical periodontal therapy, including machine-driven instruments, lasers, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and local antimicrobial-delivery devices. However, these methods have not been shown to offer significant benefits over and above nonsurgical debridement using hand instruments. The method of debridement is therefore largely dependent on the preferences of the operator and the patient. Recent evidence indicates that specific systemic antimicrobials may be indicated for use as adjuncts to nonsurgical debridement in patients with advanced disease. Full-mouth disinfection protocols have been proven to be a relevant treatment option. We have learned that while nonsurgical and surgical methods result in similar long-term treatment outcomes, surgical therapy results in greater probing-depth reduction and clinical attachment gain in initially deep pockets. The surgical technique chosen seems to have limited influence upon changes in clinical attachment gain. What has not changed is the importance of thorough mechanical debridement and optimal plaque control for successful nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy.

  13. Depth of penetration in periodontal pockets with oral irrigation.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Ford, C; Boyd, R L

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Water Pik oral irrigator as a vehicle for delivering an aqueous solution into periodontal pockets. Plaque-disclosing dye diluted with sterile saline solution was applied with the irrigator toward the gingival margins of teeth at 90 degrees and at 45 degrees prior to their extraction. The mean % penetration measured between a reference notch at the gingival crest and the periodontal ligament at the bottom of the pocket showed no statistical difference between the two angles of application. Penetration ranged from 44% to 71%, the lowest being into pockets 4-7 mm; higher mean penetration was noted in both subgroups 0-3 and greater than 7 mm. No statistical difference was found between proximal and facial or lingual surfaces, maxilla and mandible, existence of tooth contact, and proximal tissue contour or consistency. The mean % penetration was independent of pocket depth (chi 2 analysis). Correlation between pocket depth and mean penetration was low for all but one subgroup (90 degrees application and pockets greater than 7 mm). The results suggest that the oral irrigator will deliver an aqueous solution into periodontal pockets and will penetrate on average to approximately half the depth of the pockets. PMID:3003166

  14. Early childhood caries screening tools

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Richard K.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Edelstein, Burton L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood caries (ECC) is prevalent and consequential. Risk assessment tools have been proposed that can be used to identify children who require intensive interventions. In this study, the authors compare four approaches for identifying children needing early and intensive intervention to prevent or minimize caries experience for their accuracy and clinical usefulness. Methods The authors screened 229 predominantly low-income Hispanic children younger than 3 years with ECC and 242 without ECC by using the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry’s Caries-risk Assessment Tool (CAT) and the optional screening measure of culturing Streptococcus mutans. The authors compared four approaches (CAT, CAT minus socioeconomic status, CAT minus socioeconomic status plus mutans streptococci [MS] and MS alone) for accuracy and clinical usefulness. Results The results of the CAT demonstrated high sensitivity (100.0 percent) and negative predictive value (NPV) (100.0 percent) but low specificity (2.9 percent) and positive predictive value (PPV) (49.4 percent). The MS culture alone had the highest combination of accuracy and clinical usefulness (sensitivity, 86.5 percent; specificity, 93.4 percent; PPV, 92.5 percent; NPV, 87.9 percent). When we removed the socioeconomic status element, the CAT’s performance improved. Conclusions Salivary culture of MS alone in a population of young, low-income Hispanic children outperformed the CAT and variations on the CAT for test accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) and clinical usefulness (predictive values). Clinical Implications Screening for ECC by using salivary MS cultures and variations on the CAT are promising approaches for identifying children who need early and intensive intervention to prevent or minimize caries experience. PMID:22751977

  15. Influence of combined oral contraceptives on the periodontal condition

    PubMed Central

    DOMINGUES, Roberta Santos; FERRAZ, Bruna Fidêncio Rahal; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; PASSANEZI, Euloir; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi

    2012-01-01

    Most studies investigating the impact of oral contraceptives have been performed some years ago, when the level of sexual hormones was greater than the actual formulations. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of current combined oral contraceptives (COC) on periodontal tissues, correlating the clinical parameters examined with the total duration of continuous oral contraceptive intake. Material and methods Twenty-five women (19-35 years old) taking combined oral contraceptives for at least 1 year were included in the test group. The control group was composed by 25 patients at the same age range reporting no use of hormone-based contraceptive methods. Clinical parameters investigated included pocket probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), sulcular bleeding index (SBI) and plaque index (Pl.I). Data were statistically evaluated by unpaired t test, Pearson's correlation test and Spearman's correlation test. Results The test group showed increased PD (2.228±0.011 x 2.154±0.012; p<0.0001) and SBI (0.229±0.006 x 0.148±0.005, p<0.0001) than controls. No significant differences between groups were found in CAL (0.435±0.01 x 0.412±0.01; p=0.11). The control group showed greater Pl.I than the test group (0.206±0.007 x 0.303±0.008; p<0.0001). No correlation between the duration of oral contraceptive intake, age and periodontal parameters was observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that the use of currently available combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal conditions of the patients, independently of the level of plaque accumulation or total duration of medication intake, resulting in increased gingival inflammation. PMID:22666846

  16. Relationships between periodontal disease and bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, F A; Mylotte, J M

    1996-10-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a prevalent and costly infection that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients of all ages. The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., penicillin-resistant pneumococci) suggests that bacterial pneumonia will assume increasing importance in the coming years. Thus, knowledge of the pathogenesis of, and risk factors for, bacterial pneumonia is critical to the development of strategies for prevention and treatment of these infections. Bacterial pneumonia in adults is the result of aspiration of oropharyngeal flora into the lower respiratory tract and failure of host defense mechanisms to eliminate the contaminating bacteria, which multiply in the lung and cause infection. It is recognized that community-acquired pneumonia and lung abscesses can be the result of infection by anaerobic bacteria; dental plaque would seem to be a logical source of these bacteria, especially in patients with periodontal disease. It is also possible that patients with high risk for pneumonia, such as hospitalized patients and nursing home residents, are likely to pay less attention to personal hygiene than healthy patients. One important dimension of this personal neglect may be diminished attention to oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease may promote oropharyngeal colonization by potential respiratory pathogens (PRPs) including Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter species, etc.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This paper provides the rationale for the development of this hypothesis especially as it pertains to mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients and nursing home residents, two patient groups with a high risk for bacterial pneumonia. PMID:8910830

  17. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  18. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815

  19. Effect of Periodontal Surgery on Osteoprotegerin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid, Saliva, and Gingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sandy H. S.; El-Refai, Mahmoud I.; Ghallab, Noha A.; Kasem, Rehab Fawzy; Shaker, Olfat G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study was undertaken to investigate the OPG profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva, and gingival tissues of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients in response to open flap debridement (OFD). Subjects and Methods. The study included 30 subjects divided into 2 groups: 20 CP patients and 10 periodontally healthy subjects. Plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, and clinical attachment level measurements were recorded for all subjects. GCF, salivary, and gingival samples were collected from all 30 subjects at baseline and 3 and 6 month after OFD from the 20 CP patients. GCF and salivary OPG levels were assessed by ELISA assay, while OPG expression in gingival tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results. GCF, salivary and gingival OPG profiles were significantly higher in control subjects compared to CP patients at baseline (P < 0.001). Within CP group, OPG levels in GCF, saliva, and gingival samples showed a significant increase at 3 and 6 months after OFD (P < 0.001) compared to baseline. Although OPG values increased significantly in gingival samples and insignificantly in saliva after 3 months compared to 6 months, yet GCF levels were significantly decreased. Conclusions. OPG might be considered as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of periodontal bone destruction. This trial is registered with NCT02160613. PMID:25814780

  20. The pathology of parietal pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. Hefin

    1971-01-01

    The incidence, morbid anatomy, histology, and relationship of hyaline pleural plaques to exposure to asbestos has been studied. Plaques were found in 12·3% of 334 hospital necropsies (in an urban population in Glasgow, 41 cases). In 85·3% (35 cases) asbestos bodies were found in the lungs. There is evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of asbestos bodies found in the lungs and the presence of pleural plaques. The selective distribution of plaques within the pleural cavities suggests that mechanical factors play a part in their localization. Histological examination contributed little to understanding the mechanism of plaque formation; that asbestos bodies have been detected in only a few cases suggest that their presence in the parietal pleura is not essential to plaque formation. The suggested mechanisms of plaque formation are discussed. Images PMID:5556121

  1. The effect of waxed and unwaxed dental floss on gingival health. Part I. Plaque removal and gingival response.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, D M; Wunderlich, R C; Caffesse, R G

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of waxed and unwaxed floss in plaque removal and on gingival health when used in a home oral hygiene program. Eighty patients, having previously received periodontal therapy, were divided into four similar groups, according to the S-OHI. Each group represented four different types of dental floss being tested: Butler waxed, Butler unwaxed, Johnson and Johnson waxed, and Johnson and Johnson unwaxed. After receiving a thorough prophylaxis, each patient received oral hygiene instruction with a video tape, and was given a toothbrush and a quantity of test floss. At 0, 28 and 56 day intervals, The patients were scored for plaque and gingivitis. The data were then analyzed statistically using analysis of variance. It was found that there was no statistical difference among the four different types of tested floss as far as their plaque removal ability or prevention of gingivitis is concerned.

  2. [pH-metric efficacy evaluation of interdental spaces cleaning from dental plaque by wood toothpicks].

    PubMed

    Zin'kovskaia, E P; Petrikas, A Zh; Rumiantsev, V A

    2007-01-01

    With the help of local pH-metry the degree of interdental spaces cleaning from dental plaque by wood toothpicks was determined in 18 students-volunteers 21-23 years old. Positive effect was achieved of the wood toothpicks use in the group with preliminary stimulation of metabolic activity of acid producing microflora by 47% solution of sucrose and without it. Expressed change of hydrogen ion exponent in patients with high DMFT index and inflammatory periodontal disease was noted. High accuracy of the method allows to use it in the groups with relatively small number of subjects.

  3. [The importance of periodontal evaluation in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Pré, P

    1998-01-01

    The orthodontist is in fact a periodontal-therapist since his aim is to move the teeth with and through the periodontal tissues. It is most important for the orthodontist to be able to determine at the initial clinical examination what are the various periodontal risk factors. When the pathology is obvious with inflammation, periodontal pockets, gingival hyperplasia, edema of the papillae, gingival recessions, the need for periodontal treatment is manifest. But many times, the periodontal evaluation is complicated by the presence of slight variations of the quality of the marginal tissue that represent a risk of developing periodontal defects during the orthodontic treatment. The aim of this presentation is to put forward the importance of the periodontal evaluation during the initial examination of the patient so that, if necessary, an adequate periodontal therapy can be initiated to stabilize the periodontal tissues and thus improves the esthetical outcome.

  4. Occurrence of periodontal pathogens among patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Farias, B.C.; Souza, P.R.E.; Ferreira, B.; Melo, R.S.A.; Machado, F.B.; Gusmão, E.S.; Cimões, R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the periodontal pathogens that form the red complex (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis. The sample consisted of 29 patients with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of chronic periodontitis based on the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology (3). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected from the four sites of greatest probing depth in each patient, totaling 116 samples. These samples were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction, which achieved the following positive results: 46.6% for P. gingivalis, 41.4% for T. forsythia, 33.6% for T. denticola and 27.6% for A. actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were more prevalent (p < 0.05) in periodontal pockets ≥ 8 mm. The combinations T. forsythia + P. gingivalis (23.2%) and T. forsythia + P. gingivalis + T. denticola (20.0%) were more frequent in sites with a probing depth ≥ 8 mm. Associations with the simultaneous presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans + P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans + T. forsythia, P. gingivalis + T. forsythia and T. forsythia + T. denticola were statistically significant (p < 0.05). It was concluded that the red complex pathogens are related to chronic periodontitis, presenting a higher occurrence in deep periodontal pockets. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of these bacteria in deep sites suggests a symbiotic relationship between these virulent species, favoring, in this way, a further progression of periodontal disease. PMID:24031906

  5. A six-month clinical comparison of the efficacy of the Sonicare and the Braun Oral-B electric toothbrushes on improving periodontal health in adult periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P J; Maddalozzo, D; Breslin, S

    1997-01-01

    A sonic electric toothbrush (Sonicare) and an oscillating/rotating electric brush (Braun Oral-B) were compared for efficacy in removing supragingival plaque, reducing gingival inflammation, reducing probing pocket depth (Pd) and improving probing attachment levels (PAL) in a 6-month, single-blind clinical trial. Sixty-six adults with early-moderate periodontitis (5-7 mm Pd in at least two quadrants) entered the study, and 54 completed the entire study. The Sonicare and Braun groups were equally matched for plaque scores, and balanced for age, race and gender. Plaque was scored using the Turesky, Gilmore and Glickman Index. Gingival inflammation was determined by the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) of Loesche. Probing depths and attachment levels were determined using a manual North Carolina probe. All measurements were recorded at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months. The mean overall plaque scores improved in both the Sonicare and the Braun groups at each of the follow-up visits. Interproximal plaque scores also improved in both groups with time, and the mean differential Sonicare post-brushing score was significantly better than the Braun at the 6-month visit (t-test; p = 0.039). Gingival inflammation also decreased in both groups over the 6-month period, but the Sonicare group showed significantly superior PBS scores at 4 months (t-test; p = 0.002) and 6 months (p = 0.005). The percentage reduction in inflammation from baseline at 6 months was 31.9% for Sonicare and 18.1% for Braun. Probing depth scores followed a similar pattern, with the Sonicare showing a mean reduction of 0.84 mm (15.8%) from baseline at 6 months, and Braun showing a 0.39 mm (7.2%) reduction (p = 0.002). In the Sonicare group probing attachment levels improved by 8.6% (MANOVA; p = 0.01), but no PAL improvement was seen in the Braun group. Overall, this study demonstrates that long-term use of these two electric toothbrushes improves periodontal health in adult periodontitis patients, and that the

  6. Multimodality Intravascular Imaging Assessment of Plaque Erosion versus Plaque Rupture in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jee Eun; Mintz, Gary S.; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Sung Yun; Kim, Ki Seok; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Kumar, Kaup Sharath; Won, Hoyoun; Hyeon, Seong Hyeop; Shin, Seung Yong; Lee, Kwang Je; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Chee Jeong; Kim, Sang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We assessed plaque erosion of culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome in real world practice. Subjects and Methods Culprit lesion plaque rupture or plaque erosion was diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to determine arterial remodeling. Positive remodeling was defined as a remodeling index (lesion/reference EEM [external elastic membrane area) >1.05. Results A total of 90 patients who had plaque rupture showing fibrous-cap discontinuity and ruptured cavity were enrolled. 36 patients showed definite OCT-plaque erosion, while 7 patients had probable OCT-plaque erosion. Overall, 26% (11/43) of definite/probable plaque erosion had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) while 35% (15/43) had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Conversely, 14.5% (13/90) of plaque rupture had NSTEMI while 71% (64/90) had STEMI (p<0.0001). Among plaque erosion, white thrombus was seen in 55.8% (24/43) of patients and red thrombus in 27.9% (12/43) of patients. Compared to plaque erosion, plaque rupture more often showed positive remodeling (p=0.003) with a larger necrotic core area examined by virtual histology (VH)-IVUS, while negative remodeling was prominent in plaque erosion. Overall, 65% 28/43 of plaque erosions were located in the proximal 30 mm of a culprit vessel-similar to plaque ruptures (72%, 65/90, p=0.29). Conclusion Although most of plaque erosions show nearly normal coronary angiogram, modest plaque burden with negative remodeling and an uncommon fibroatheroma might be the nature of plaque erosion. Multimodality intravascular imaging with OCT and VH-IVUS showed fundamentally different pathoanatomic substrates underlying plaque rupture and erosion. PMID:27482258

  7. Bacteria of Dental Caries in Primary and Permanent Teeth in Children and Young Adults▿

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Jørn A.; Griffen, Ann L.; Dardis, Sara R.; Lee, Alice M.; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Leys, Eugene J.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Although Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a major etiological agent of dental caries, our cross-sectional preliminary study indicated that 10% of subjects with rampant caries in permanent teeth do not have detectable levels of S. mutans. Our aims were to use molecular methods to detect all bacterial species associated with caries in primary and permanent teeth and to determine the bacterial profiles associated with different disease states. Plaque was collected from 39 healthy controls and from intact enamel and white-spot lesions, dentin lesions, and deep-dentin lesions in each of 51 subjects with severe caries. 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced to determine species identities. In a reverse-capture checkerboard assay, 243 samples were analyzed for 110 prevalent bacterial species. A sequencing analysis of 1,285 16S rRNA clones detected 197 bacterial species/phylotypes, of which 50% were not cultivable. Twenty-two new phylotypes were identified. PROC MIXED tests revealed health- and disease-associated species. In subjects with S. mutans, additional species, e.g., species of the genera Atopobium, Propionibacterium, and Lactobacillus, were present at significantly higher levels than those of S. mutans. Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium dentium, and low-pH non-S. mutans streptococci were predominant in subjects with no detectable S. mutans. Actinomyces spp. and non-S. mutans streptococci were predominant in white-spot lesions, while known acid producers were found at their highest levels later in disease. Bacterial profiles change with disease states and differ between primary and secondary dentitions. Bacterial species other than S. mutans, e.g., species of the genera Veillonella, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Propionibacterium, low-pH non-S. mutans streptococci, Actinomyces spp., and Atopobium spp., likely play important roles in caries progression. PMID:18216213

  8. Clinical assessment of periodontal conditions in patients treated with nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C; Willershausen-Zönnchen, B; Klug, C; Darius, H

    1996-03-19

    Calcium antagonists are widely used in treating acute and chronic coronary insufficiency disorders. A major side effect of long-term treatment is gingival hyperplasia. In the present study, 70 patients taking nifedipine for at least six months and 70 controls similar in age, gender, approximal hygiene and systemic disease with at least 6 anterior teeth in upper and lower arches were examined. Their periodontal conditions were determined by modified Sulcus-Bleeding-Index (mSBI), modified Approximal-Plaque-Index (mAPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), a hyperplasia index quantifying the extent of gingival overgrowth, probing depths, clinical attachment loss and the modified Phenytoin-Gingival-Inflammation-Index (mPGI). A mild to moderate gingival hyperplasia was diagnosed in 21 of 70 patients resulting in a prevalence of 30% compared to 8.5% in controls. The hyperplastic changes were situated mainly in the anterior region of the dentition. Significant differences between both groups could be found comparing the severity of the gingival hyperplasia, the CPITN, mSBI, probing depths and the part of mPGI evaluating colour and turgor of the gingiva (p < 0.05). The severity of gingival overgrowth was strongly correlated with the inflammatory gingival changes, probing depths, the periodontal treatment need and the approximal hygiene of the patients. No statistically significant correlation could be found between the severity of gingival hyperplasia and the age and gender of the patient, or the dose or duration of nifedipine therapy. Gingival changes seemed to be more pronounced in patients with cardiovascular disorders than in patients under hemodialysis. The high incidence of gingival hyperplasia in patients receiving nifedipine on a long-term basis emphasises the role of the dentist and general practitioner in the early detection and prophylaxis of gingival changes and requires a thorough information to the patient concerning periodontal side

  9. Lactoferrin and oral diseases: current status and perspective in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Berlutti, Francesca; Pilloni, Andrea; Pietropaoli, Miriam; Polimeni, Antonella; Valenti, Piera

    2012-01-01

    Summary Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein able to chelate two ferric ions per molecule, is a component of human secretions synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection/inflammation sites. Lactoferrin in saliva represents an important defence factor against bacterial injuries including those related to Streptococcus mutans and periodontopathic bacteria through its ability to decrease bacterial growth, biofilm development, iron overload, reactive oxygen formation and inflammatory processes. A growing body of research suggests that inflammatory periodontal disease involves a failure of resolution pathways to restore tissue homeostasis. There is an important distinction between anti-inflammation and resolution; anti-inflammation is pharmacologic intervention in inflammatory pathways, whereas resolution involves biologic pathways restoring inflammatory homeostasis. An appropriate regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis might be useful in reducing periodontal tissue destruction. Recently, the multi-functional IL-6 is emerging as an important factor able to modulate bone, iron and inflammatory homeostasis. Here, we report an overview of Lf functions as well as for the first time Lf anti-inflammatory ability against periodontitis in in vitro model and observational clinical study. In in vitro model, represented by gingival fibroblasts infected with Prevotella intermedia, Lf exerted a potent anti-inflammatory activity. In the observational clinical trial performed through bovine Lf (bLf) topically administered to volunteers suffering from periodontitis, bLf decreased cytokines, including IL-6 in crevicular fluid, edema, bleeding, pocket depth, gingival and plaque index, thus improving clinical attachment levels. Even if other clinical trials are required, these results provide strong evidence for a instead of an therapeutic potential of this multifunctional natural protein. PMID:22545184

  10. Adjunctive Application of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mogi, Makio; Okabe, Iichiro; Okada, Kosuke; Goto, Hisashi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Fujimura, Takeki; Fukuda, Mitsuo; Mitani, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms, and the removal of these biofilms from the root surface of teeth plays a central part in its treatment. The conventional treatment for periodontal disease fails to remove periodontal infection in a subset of cases, such as those with complicated root morphology. Adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an additional treatment for this infectious disease. Many periodontal pathogenic bacteria are susceptible to low-power lasers in the presence of dyes, such as methylene blue, toluidine blue O, malachite green, and indocyanine green. aPDT uses these light-activated photosensitizer that is incorporated selectively by bacteria and absorbs a low-power laser/light with an appropriate wavelength to induce singlet oxygen and free radicals, which are toxic to bacteria. While this technique has been evaluated by many clinical studies, some systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported controversial results about the benefits of aPDT for periodontal treatment. In the light of these previous reports, the aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about aPDT and help extend knowledge of advanced laser therapy. PMID:26473843

  11. Adjunctive Application of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment: A Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mogi, Makio; Okabe, Iichiro; Okada, Kosuke; Goto, Hisashi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Fujimura, Takeki; Fukuda, Mitsuo; Mitani, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms, and the removal of these biofilms from the root surface of teeth plays a central part in its treatment. The conventional treatment for periodontal disease fails to remove periodontal infection in a subset of cases, such as those with complicated root morphology. Adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an additional treatment for this infectious disease. Many periodontal pathogenic bacteria are susceptible to low-power lasers in the presence of dyes, such as methylene blue, toluidine blue O, malachite green, and indocyanine green. aPDT uses these light-activated photosensitizer that is incorporated selectively by bacteria and absorbs a low-power laser/light with an appropriate wavelength to induce singlet oxygen and free radicals, which are toxic to bacteria. While this technique has been evaluated by many clinical studies, some systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported controversial results about the benefits of aPDT for periodontal treatment. In the light of these previous reports, the aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about aPDT and help extend knowledge of advanced laser therapy. PMID:26473843

  12. Minocycline Ointment as a Local Drug Delivery in the Treatment of Generalized Chronic Periodontitis - A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sara; Ari, Geetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The primary goal in periodontal therapy includes removal of the etiological factors by mechanical periodontal treatment, which sometimes fail to eliminate the anaerobic infection at the base of the pocket and requires adjuvant chemical therapy. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2% minocycline ointment when used as an adjunct to periodontal flap surgery and post-operative maintenance period for the treatment of generalized chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods The study included 30 subjects comprising of 60 posterior sextants in a split mouth design in which 30 sextants were treated as experimental and 30 sextants as control with a probing pocket depth≥6mm. In Group A (experimental group) 30 sextants were treated with open flap debridement followed by the application of minocycline ointment as a local drug delivery. In Group B (control group) 30 sextants were treated with open flap debridement alone. Minocycline hydrochloride ointment was applied on the 0 day and 3rd month. The clinical parameters such as plaque index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival bleeding index were recorded at 0 day, 3rd month and 6th month in both the groups. Paired and unpaired t-test were used to compare the means of the two groups. Results When Group A and Group B were compared, Group A showed significantly greater reduction in gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level than Group B, from 0 day to 3 months and from 0 day to 6 months. Group A showed significant reduction in plaque index than Group B when they were compared at 6 months. Conclusion The results demonstrate that there was significant reduction in the clinical parameters with improvement in the periodontal status on application of minocycline ointment as an adjunct to periodontal flap surgery in generalized chronic periodontitis. PMID:27504402

  13. Association between interleukin-1 gene polymorphism and severity of chronic periodontitis in a south Indian population group

    PubMed Central

    Archana, P. M.; Salman, A. Arif; Kumar, T. S. S; Saraswathi, P. K.; Panishankar, K. H.; Kumarasamy, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is a bacterial disease modified by multiple factors. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key regulator of the host response and a major modulator of extracellular matrix catabolism and bone resorption. It has been reported that variations in IL-1 gene are associated with increased susceptibility to periodontitis. The aims of the study were 1) to analyze the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-1 (IL-1A-+4845 and IL-1B-+3954) and 2) to correlate the association of the composite genotype with the severity of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged above 35 years were selected. Following a periodontal examination, using the clinical parameters plaque index, gingival bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL), the selected subjects were categorized into four groups of differing disease severity based on CAL. Five milliliters of venous blood was drawn. DNA was isolated by phenol chloroform method. Amplification of IL-1A+4845 and IL-1B+3954 was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of genotype was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism using the enzymes FnU4HI for IL-1A and TaqI for IL-1B. The results obtained were analyzed statistically. Results: The frequencies of IL-1A-+4845 and IL-1B-+3954were significantly greater in severe periodontitis patients. The distribution of composite genotype (allele 2 of IL-1A+4845and allele 2 of IL-1B+3954) also correlated with the severity of periodontitis. Genotype-positive subjects had a higher mean bleeding index (%) when compared to genotype-negative patients. But no correlation was observed between mean plaque level among genotype-positive and -negative subjects. Conclusion: IL-1 gene polymorphism IL-1A+4845, IL-1B+3954 and composite genotype is an indicator of susceptibility to severe periodontitis in adults. PMID:23055581

  14. Oxygen high level laser therapy is efficient in treatment of chronic periodontitis: a clinical and microbiological study using PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Caccianiga, G; Rey, G; Paiusco, A; Lauritano, D; Cura, F; Ormianer, Z; Carinci, F

    2016-01-01

    In periodontology, lasers have been suggested for the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Such therapy can be defined as the inactivation of cells, microorganisms or molecules induced by light and not by heat. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of Oxygen high-level laser therapy (OHLLT) in removing all bacterial deposits on root or implant surface by means of mechanical instrumentation and laser irradiation. OHLLT has two effects on targeted bacteria and tissues, decontamination and biostimulation. A total of 33 patients were randomly selected with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. The patients enrolled were 16 females and 17 males, six smokers and 4 diabetic patients. For each patient a periodontal charting was performed, assessing probing depth, plaque index and bleeding on probing at baseline and after 6 months. Microbiological analysis were performed with PCR Real Time, using paper tips to withdraw gingival fluid in periodontal pockets before and after treatment, at baseline and after 6 months. All patients were treated with OHLLT at baseline, after 1 week, after 2 weeks and every month for 6 months. After 6 months, all periodontal pockets were treated successfully, without complications and no significant differences in res