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Sample records for plasma antioxidant activity

  1. In vitro antioxidative activity of (-)-epicatechin glucuronide metabolites present in human and rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Midori; Osakabe, Naomi; Yasuda, Akiko; Baba, Seigo; Tokunaga, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuo; Osawa, Toshihiko; Terao, Junji

    2004-12-01

    Recently we identified four conjugated glucuronide metabolites of epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide (E3'G), 4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide (4'ME3'G), (-)-epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide (E7G) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide (3'ME7G) from plasma and urine. E3'G and 4'ME3'G were isolated from human urine, while E7G and 3'ME7G were isolated from rats that had received oral administration of (-)-epicatechin (Natsume et al. (2003), Free Radic. Biol. Med. 34,840-849). It has been suggested that these metabolites possess considerable in vivo activity, and therefore we carried out a study to compare the antioxidant activities of the metabolites with that of the parent compound. This was achieved by measuring superoxide scavenging activity, reduction of plasma TBARS production and reduced susceptibility of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation. (-)-Epicatechin was found to have more potent antioxidant activity than the conjugated glucuronide metabolites. Both (-)-epicatechin and E7G had marked antioxidative properties with respect to superoxide radical scavenging activity, plasma oxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis-(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and LDL oxidation induced by copper ions or 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (MeO-AMVN). In contrast, the other metabolites had light antioxidative activities over the range of physiological concentrations found in plasma.

  2. Differential partitioning of antioxidants, including hydroxytyrosol, in human plasma and LDL: implications for their antioxidant activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Colombo, Claudio; Galli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    In vivo studies of LDL oxidation following consumption of natural phenolic compounds have yielded mixed results. It is reported that the amphiphilic hydroxytyrosol, after addition to human plasma, does not accumulate in LDL but protects plasma lipids, which are extracted together with hydroxytyrosol, from chemically-induced oxidation. Thus, a novel methodology was proposed, which does not rely on LDL separation and subsequent oxidation but is based on the oxidation of total lipids - simultaneously extracted from plasma with antioxidants - to evaluate the effects of micronutrients that do not partition into LDL, after in vivo supplementation.

  3. Antioxidant activity in plasma and rumen papillae development in lambs fed fermented apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muela, C; Rodríguez, H E; Arzola, C; Díaz-Plascencia, D; Ramírez-Godínez, J A; Flores-Mariñelarena, A; Mancillas-Flores, P F; Corral, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of fermented apple pomace (FAP) on animal health, antioxidant activity (AA), hematic biometry (HBm) and the development of ruminal epithelium were investigated in a study with 24 finishing lambs (BW = 25.4 ± 3.3 Kg). Lambs were grouped by sex (12 male and 12 female) and fed (n = 6 per group of treatment) a basal fattening diet (Control diet, T1) or the basal diet supplemented to include 10.91% of fermented apple pomace (FAP diet, T2). The animals were kept 56 d in individual metabolic cages, with ad libitum access to water and feed. Two blood samples were collected from each animal on d 0, 28, and 56 to determine AA in plasma and hematic biometry (HBm). Four samples of ruminal tissue were taken postmortem to evaluate the development of ruminal epithelium based on the length (LP) and width (WP) of papillae. AA and HBm data were analyzed with a mixed model (fixed effects: diet, sampling, sex, and their interaction; using the experimental unit nested in the effect of the diet as the random effect). LP and WP were analyzed with a hierarchical model, as simple and nested effects in the sampling site, where the fixed effects were the diet and the sex of the animal and their interaction. There was an effect of diet on AA, which was higher (P < 0.06) in T2 vs. T1 at 56 d (24.34 vs. 21.79 mM Fe2). Leukocytes increased (P < 0.05) from 7.52*10(3) ± 1.29*10/(3)μL to 9.14*10(3) ± 1.24*10(3)/μL in all the animals in the experiment, with a marked increased (P < 0.05) at 28 d after beginning of the feeding period, with values within the normal range for this species and without effect of the diet (P > 0.05) for the other indicators of HBm. Males' LP was higher in T2 than in T1 (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the use of FAP in the diets of finishing sheep reaped benefits on animal health and the development of rumen epithelium by improving antioxidant activity in plasma and stimulating the growth of papillae.

  4. The role of route of vitamin E administration on the plasma antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Mokhber-Dezfouli, Mohammad Reza; Rahimikia, Edris; Asadi, Farzad; Nadalian, Mohammad Gholi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate plasma values of alpha-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant activity after a single-dose administration of vitamin E as intramuscular injection, oral supplementation and intramuscular injection plus oral supplementation at 4 hr after birth. Thirty calves were bled at birth and assigned to treatments as follows: control (n = 8), intramuscular injection (40 IU/kg, n = 7), oral supplementation (25 IU/kg, n = 7) and intramuscular injection (20 IU/kg) plus oral supplementation (12.5 IU/kg, n = 8). Blood was collected at 12 and 24 hr after birth and plasma alpha-tocopherol, MDA and antioxidant activity values were determined. Results showed that no changes in MDA values were observed after oral administration (P > 0.05). However, antioxidant activity values showed an increase at both 12 (9.57 +/- 0.65 mmol/l) and 24 hr (10.42 +/- 0.54 mmol/l) after birth when compared to control (3.73 +/- 0.75 mmol/l). Injection with or without oral supplementation increased serum antioxidant activity values at 12 (about 102%, 46%) and 24 hr (94%, 115%) after birth, when compared to control. In addition, MDA values were found to be lower in those animals receiving an injection of vitamin E or injection plus oral supplementation of vitamin E as compared to control at both time-points (P < 0.001). Injection of vitamin E provided beneficial effects to plasma antioxidant activity and MDA values. Therefore, injection may be the best method of vitamin E administration in newborn calves for protecting them in the stressful postnatal condition.

  5. Air pollution impact on phagocytic capacity of peripheral blood macrophages and antioxidant activity of plasma among school children

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, F.; Videla, L.A.; Vargas, N.; Parra, M.A.; Trier, A.; Silva, C.

    1988-07-01

    Peripheral blood macrophages of school children from downtown Santiago, Chile--a highly polluted city--exhibited a lower phagocytic index with higher percentage of killing than those of the rural village of Maria Pinto. These findings were observed concomitantly with a lower antioxidant activity of plasma in Santiago students. No differences were observed in serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), secretory IgA in saliva, and complement component C3. White blood cell count was higher in Maria Pinto residents than in Santiago students, including those cells with phagocytic capacity. It is suggested that particulate air pollution may enhance macrophage activity with impairment of the antioxidant capacity of plasma.

  6. Effect of copper and d-penicillamine treatment on the ocular inflammatory response and plasma antioxidant activity

    SciTech Connect

    McGahan, M.C.; Grimes, A.M. )

    1990-02-26

    Copper (Cu) complexes of a number of compounds have increased efficacy against many pathological conditions when compared to the parent compound. In the present study, the authors combined Cu treatment with daily administration of d-penicillamine (d-pen; 100 mg/kg) to determine effectiveness against the ocular inflammatory response to endotoxin. Four groups of rabbits (New Zealand white) were used in this study. Groups 1 and 2 were sham operated and Group 2 received daily injections of d-pen. Groups 3 and 4 had subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps delivering 4.15 mg Cu per day, with Group 4 also receiving daily injections of d-pen. After 6 days of treatment the eyes were injected intravitreally with 10 ng endotoxin. Twenty-four hours later the eyes were examined, the rabbits killed and plasma and eyes obtained for analysis. There were no differences in the ocular inflammatory response between any of the groups. However, plasma antioxidant activity was significantly greater in Group IV than in any of the other groups. Plasma from groups 1-4 inhibited spontaneous lipid peroxidation by 38.9, 37.4, 54.1 and 69.2%, respectively. Increased plasma antioxidant activity in Group 4 was not due to a Cu/d-pen complex or any other compound with a molecular weight less than 10,000, but could possibly contribute to the increased anti-inflammatory efficacy of Cu/d-pen treatment found in other models of inflammation.

  7. [Plasma antioxidant activity--a test for impaired biological functions of endoecology, exotrophy, and inflammation reactions].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Krylin, V V; Dmitriev, V A; Iashin, Ia I

    2010-07-01

    The authors discuss the diagnostic value of a test for total serum antioxidant activity determined by an electrochemistry method on a liquid chromatograph (without a column), by using an amperometric detector, as well as the composition of the endogenously synthesized hydrophilic and hydrophobic acceptors of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Uric acid is a major hydrophilic acceptor of ROS; monoenic oleic fatty acid acts as its major lipophilic acceptor. The constant determined by the authors for of 03 oleic acid oxidation during automatic titration in the organic medium is an order of magnitude higher than that for alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and linoleic fatty acid; its concentration is also an order of magnitude higher. In oxidative stress, the adrenal steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone initiates oleic acid synthesis via expression of palmitoyl elongase and steatoryl desaturase. In early steps of phylogenesis in primates, spontaneous mutation resulted in ascorbic acid synthesis gene knockout; phylogenetically, further other mutation knocked out the gene encoding the synthesis of uricase and the conversion of uric acid to alantoin. In primates, uric acid became not only a catabolite of purine bases in vivo, but also the major endogenous hydrophilic acceptor of ROS. This philogenetic order makes it clear why the epithelium in the proximal nephron tubule entirely reabsorbs uric acid (a catabolite?) from primary urine and then secretes it again to urine depending on the impairment of biological functions of endoecology (the intercellular medium being contaminated with biological rubbish), the activation of a biological inflammatory reaction, the cellular production of ROS, and the reduction in serum total antioxidant activity. With each biological reaction, there was an increase in the blood content of uric acid as a hydrophilic acceptor of ROS, by actively lowering its secretion into urine. Uric acid is a diagnostic test of inflammation, or rather compensatory

  8. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

    PubMed Central

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) for insulin and TG, corresponding with 21 and 31% reductions in postprandial levels with the spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  9. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  10. Non-thermal plasma activates human keratinocytes by stimulation of antioxidant and phase II pathways.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-03-13

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application.

  11. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  12. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  13. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks. PMID:26109009

  14. Electrochemical determination of the total antioxidant capacity of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ziyatdinova, G K; Budnikov, H C; Pogorel'tzev, V I

    2005-04-01

    Electrochemical reduction of oxygen at a glassy carbon electrode in a 0.05 mol L(-1) solution of (C2H5)4NI in dimethylformamide leads to generation of the superoxide anion-radical. This product of reversible one-electron oxygen reduction reacts with antioxidants, a process which is based on protonation of the anion-radical by the antioxidant. Rate constants of this interaction have been calculated. Human plasma antioxidants also react with electrochemically generated superoxide anion-radical. A voltammetric method is proposed for estimation of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma on the basis of on this reaction. The TAC of plasma was also determined using constant-current coulometry with electro-generated bromine as the active species. A correlation was observed between TAC data obtained by voltammetry (O2*-, in alpha-tocopherol units) and coulometry (Br2 as titrant). TAC of plasma from patients with purulent infections was determined. Statistically significant differences were found between TAC of patients and control group. Treatment of purulent infections increases the TAC of plasma. So, use of electrochemical methods (voltammetry and coulometry) for determination of TAC can be used for estimation of the effectiveness of treatment.

  15. Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties.

  16. Effects of Three Medicinal Plants Extracts in Experimental Diabetes: Antioxidant Enzymes Activities and Plasma Lipids Profiles inComparison with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. PMID:24250517

  17. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress of seminal plasma: a double-blind randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nadjarzadeh, A; Shidfar, F; Amirjannati, N; Vafa, M R; Motevalian, S A; Gohari, M R; Nazeri Kakhki, S A; Akhondi, M M; Sadeghi, M R

    2014-03-01

    Low seminal plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) have been correlated with impaired sperm parameters, but the exact mechanism remains of dominating interest. This randomised, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of CoQ10 on catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and F2 -isoprostanes in seminal plasma in infertile men and their relation with CoQ10 concentration. Sixty infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) were randomised to receive 200 mg d(-1) of CoQ10 or placebo for 3 months. 47 persons of them completed the study. Semen analysis, anthropometric measurements, diet and physical activity assessment were performed for subjects before and after treatment. Independent and paired t-test, chi-square test and ancova were compared outcomes of supplementation between two groups. CoQ10 levels increased from 44.74 ± 36.47 to 68.17 ± 42.41 ng ml(-1) following supplementation in CoQ10 (P < 0.001). CoQ10 group had higher catalase and SOD activity than the placebo group. There was a significant positive correlation between CoQ10 concentration and normal sperm morphology (P = 0.037), catalase (P = 0.041) and SOD (P < 0.001). Significant difference was shown between the mean of changes in seminal plasma 8-isoprostane in two groups (P = 0.003) after supplementation. Three-month supplementation with CoQ10 in OAT infertile men can attenuate oxidative stress in seminal plasma and improve semen parameters and antioxidant enzymes activity.

  18. Scuba diving activates vascular antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.

  19. Free radical activity and loss of plasma antioxidants, vitamin E, and sulfhydryl groups in patients with burns: the 1993 Moyer Award.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T; Cox, C S; Traber, D L; Gasser, H; Redl, H; Schlag, G; Herndon, D N

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of burn injury and plasma levels of conjugated dienes, total sulfhydryl groups, and vitamin E in patients with thermal injuries. Plasma neopterin levels were determined as an index of macrophage activity and serine elastase as an index of polymorphonuclear cell activation. Thirteen patients with burns, six survivors and seven nonsurvivors, were studied for the first 4 days, then every other day until postburn day 14. Twelve healthy volunteers served as the control group. Survivors had 56% +/- 4% total body surface area burned, and nonsurvivors had 63.9% +/- % total body surface area burned. The patients with burns, compared with the control group, showed elevated plasma levels of the lipid peroxidation products conjugated dienes (0.767 +/- 0.045 vs 0.269 +/- 0.013 Abs at 233 nm) and reduced levels of the natural scavengers of free radicals, vitamin E (196.2 +/- 12.6 vs 841.1 +/- 22.7 micrograms/dl) and total sulfhydryl groups (54.0 +/- 0.4 vs 15.8 +/- 1.0 mumol/dl). The total sulfhydryl groups/conjugated dienes ratio fell at a greater rate (9.8% +/- 3.2% vs 3.2% +/- 0.7%/day) in nonsurvivors than in survivors (p < 0.05 by Mann-Whitney). The levels of elastase were slightly elevated in the patients with burns, but there was no difference between survivors and nonsurvivors. Normal neopterin levels are 3 to 10 nm/L; peak levels were 119 +/- 48 nm/L in nonsurvivors and 37.4 +/- 10 nm/L in survivors. Patients with burns demonstrated evidence of increased oxygen free radical activity and activation of polymorphonuclear cell and macrophages. Nonsurvivors demonstrated increased consumption of antioxidants compared with survivors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Spray-dried plasma promotes growth, modulates the activity of antioxidant defenses, and enhances the immune status of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Skalli, A; Campbell, J; Solovyev, M M; Rodríguez, C; Dias, J; Polo, J

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial animal byproduct meals, including nonruminant blood meal and blood products, represent the largest and largely untapped safe source of animal protein available within the international market for the aquafeed industry. Spray-dried blood and spray-dried plasma (SDP) proteins have long been recognized as high-quality feed ingredients for farmed animals. In this study, we evaluated the inclusion of SDP from porcine blood (SDPP) in growing diets for gilthead sea bream. Three isonitrogenous (CP = 51.2%) and isolipidic (fat = 12.4%) diets manufactured by cold extrusion (0.8 to 1.5 mm pellet size) were prepared by substituting high-quality fish meal with 0, 3, and 6% SDPP. The diets were tested for a period of 60 d at 22°C with 4 replicates each (400-L cylindroconical tanks, 150 fish per tank, and initial density = 0.5 kg/m(3)). The SDPP inclusion in diets for gilthead sea bream fingerlings were evaluated in terms of growth performance, feed utilization, histological organization of the intestinal mucosa, activity of oxidative stress enzymes (catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the intestine, and nonspecific serum immune parameters (lysozyme and bactericidal activity). Results from this study indicated that dietary SDPP promoted fish growth in terms of BW and length; fish fed 3% SDPP were 10.5% heavier (P < 0.05) than those fed the control diet. Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood modulated the activity of the antioxidative defenses in the intestine (P < 0.05) and increased the density of goblet cells in the intestine (P < 0.05) and benefited the host by providing an effective immune barrier against gut pathogenic microbiota. The nonspecific serum immune response in fish fed diets with SDPP was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish fed the control diet. These results indicated that the inclusion of SDPP in gilthead sea bream feed could be beneficial for the fish by enhancing intestinal and serum innate immune

  1. Spray-dried plasma promotes growth, modulates the activity of antioxidant defenses, and enhances the immune status of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Skalli, A; Campbell, J; Solovyev, M M; Rodríguez, C; Dias, J; Polo, J

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial animal byproduct meals, including nonruminant blood meal and blood products, represent the largest and largely untapped safe source of animal protein available within the international market for the aquafeed industry. Spray-dried blood and spray-dried plasma (SDP) proteins have long been recognized as high-quality feed ingredients for farmed animals. In this study, we evaluated the inclusion of SDP from porcine blood (SDPP) in growing diets for gilthead sea bream. Three isonitrogenous (CP = 51.2%) and isolipidic (fat = 12.4%) diets manufactured by cold extrusion (0.8 to 1.5 mm pellet size) were prepared by substituting high-quality fish meal with 0, 3, and 6% SDPP. The diets were tested for a period of 60 d at 22°C with 4 replicates each (400-L cylindroconical tanks, 150 fish per tank, and initial density = 0.5 kg/m(3)). The SDPP inclusion in diets for gilthead sea bream fingerlings were evaluated in terms of growth performance, feed utilization, histological organization of the intestinal mucosa, activity of oxidative stress enzymes (catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the intestine, and nonspecific serum immune parameters (lysozyme and bactericidal activity). Results from this study indicated that dietary SDPP promoted fish growth in terms of BW and length; fish fed 3% SDPP were 10.5% heavier (P < 0.05) than those fed the control diet. Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood modulated the activity of the antioxidative defenses in the intestine (P < 0.05) and increased the density of goblet cells in the intestine (P < 0.05) and benefited the host by providing an effective immune barrier against gut pathogenic microbiota. The nonspecific serum immune response in fish fed diets with SDPP was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish fed the control diet. These results indicated that the inclusion of SDPP in gilthead sea bream feed could be beneficial for the fish by enhancing intestinal and serum innate immune

  2. Photochemiluminescent detection of antiradical activity. VI. Antioxidant characteristics of human blood plasma, low density lipoprotein, serum albumin and amino acids during in vitro oxidation.

    PubMed

    Popov, I; Lewin, G

    1999-01-01

    During investigation of the mechanism of therapeutic efficacy of UV (254 nm)-irradiated autologous blood, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of plasma, serum albumin, 20 amino acids, uric acid, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol was measured after irradiation in vitro. AC of plasma demonstrated a biphasic time course (decrease to in a minimum (greater zero) followed by an increase). AC of uric acid, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol diminished under irradiation to zero. In contrast, albumin and seven amino acids developed AC following irradiation. During the Cu(+2)-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the AC measured in a system for water-soluble substances appeared, after a lag-phase, to be comparable to that of the conjugated diene formation; AC of LDL measured in a system for lipid-soluble substances demonstrated a biphasic course. Our results suggest that: (a) the oxidized products of some amino acids and proteins acquire antiradical properties at the same time that they are being produced; (b) the biphasic character of changes of antioxidant properties of blood plasma during UV irradiation represents the overlapping of two processes: disappearing of antioxidants and acquisition of AC by (lipo)proteins; and (c) the measurement of AC of blood plasma (lipo)proteins can possibly serve to detect the existence and extent of oxidative stress in human organism.

  3. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    PubMed

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724

  4. Plasma antioxidant status in healthy smoking and non-smoking men.

    PubMed

    Goraca, A; Skibska, B

    2005-01-01

    Human serum contains many different antioxidants which may be important in the maintenance of an antioxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lipid peroxidation and total plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy smoking and non-smoking young and elderly subjects. Plasma concetrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were detected by HPLC. Additionally, in the in vitro experiments, the effects of exogenous compounds (ascorbic acid, uric acid, Trolox) on total ferric reducing activity of plasma were tested. We demonstrated that total antioxidant capacity of plasma obtained from healthy non-smoking young subjects was significantly higher than plasma antioxidant capacity of smoking elderly subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (p < 0.001) in young non-smoking volunteers was lower than that in young smokers. The concentration of TBARS in elderly non-smoking volunteers was lower than in elderly smokers. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were significantly lower in elderly smokers than in elderly non-smokers of same age. No difference in plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were found in 22-year-old smoking and non-smoking subjects. In vitro addition of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or Trolox to plasma samples significantly increased their total antioxidant capacity. Decrease of FRAP values and increase of TBARS concentra-' tions is a significant physiologic condition of aging process. Supplementation of antioxidants could be useful for the enhancement of plasma antioxidant status (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref: 35).

  5. Caffeoyl triterpenes from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peels and their antioxidative activities against oxidation of rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-05-15

    Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.

  6. A novel technology to increase antioxidant activity of an antioxidant by reducing volatility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During frying, an antioxidant is lost by reaction with radicals for its antioxidant activity, but it is also lost by decomposition and evaporation before it is able to exert antioxidant activity. Some low molecular weight antioxidants are often so volatile that they show much reduced antioxidant act...

  7. A Caco-2 cell-based quantitative antioxidant activity assay for antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xiangying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Yan

    2015-05-15

    A Caco-2 cell-based antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantitative evaluation of antioxidants was developed by optimizing seeding density and culture time of Caco-2 cells, incubation time and concentration of fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, DCFH-DA), incubation way and incubation time of antioxidants (pure phytochemicals) and DCFH-DA with cells, and detection time of fluorescence. Results showed that the CAA assay was of good reproducibility and could be used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of antioxidants at the following conditions: seeding density of 5 × 10(4)/well, cell culture time of 24h, co-incubation of 60 μM DCFH-DA and pure phytochemicals with Caco-2 cells for 20 min and fluorescence recorded for 90 min. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between CAA values and rat plasma ORAC values following the intake of antioxidants for selected pure phytochemicals (R(2) = 0.815, p < 0.01), demonstrating the good biological relevance of CAA assay.

  8. Functional beverage of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhuohong; Sintara, Marsha; Chang, Tony; Ou, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the absorption and antioxidant effect of a mangosteen-based functional beverage in humans. The beverage contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with generally healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age. Ten men and 10 women participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and placebo group. Participants received either a daily single dose (245 mL) of the beverage or a placebo. Blood samples were collected from each participant at time points 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The plasma samples were analyzed by LC/MS for α-mangostin and vitamins B2 and B5. Results indicated that the three analytes were bioavailable, with observed Cmax at around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 60% after 1 h, and the elevated antioxidant level lasted at least 6 h. This study demonstrated the bioavailability of α-mangostin and B vitamins from a xanthone-rich beverage and the mechanisms of the increase in plasma antioxidant may be direct effects from antioxidants, enhancement of endogenous antioxidant activity through activation of Nrf2 pathway, and synergism of the antioxidants. PMID:25649891

  9. Functional beverage of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuohong; Sintara, Marsha; Chang, Tony; Ou, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the absorption and antioxidant effect of a mangosteen-based functional beverage in humans. The beverage contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with generally healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age. Ten men and 10 women participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and placebo group. Participants received either a daily single dose (245 mL) of the beverage or a placebo. Blood samples were collected from each participant at time points 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The plasma samples were analyzed by LC/MS for α-mangostin and vitamins B2 and B5. Results indicated that the three analytes were bioavailable, with observed C max at around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 60% after 1 h, and the elevated antioxidant level lasted at least 6 h. This study demonstrated the bioavailability of α-mangostin and B vitamins from a xanthone-rich beverage and the mechanisms of the increase in plasma antioxidant may be direct effects from antioxidants, enhancement of endogenous antioxidant activity through activation of Nrf2 pathway, and synergism of the antioxidants.

  10. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  11. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  12. Measuring the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma using potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Tessutti, L S; Macedo, D V; Kubota, L T; Alves, A A

    2013-10-15

    The use of potentiometry to measure plasma antioxidant capacity to contribute to oxidative stress evaluation is presented. In this assay, plasma (n=60) diluted (0.3 to 1 ml) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, NaCl 9%, was submitted to potentiometry. A platinum wire was the working electrode and saturated calomel the reference. The results are presented as the difference between sample and buffer potential (ΔE). ΔE presented a good inverse correlation with added increasing concentrations of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L; R=-0.99), urate (9.0-150 μmol/L; R=-0.99), and bilirubin (0.78-13 μmol/L; R=-0.99). Increase in the antioxidant capacity decreased ΔE. Depletion of the antioxidant capacity by tert-butylhydroperoxide (6.5-50 μmol/L) presented a direct correlation (0.97) with ΔE. Furthermore, ΔE presented an inverse correlation (R=-0.99) with increased antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP) induced by the addition of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L). The response of the potentiometric method proved be adequate for measuring the plasma antioxidant depletion induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats (control, n=15; exercised, n=15). This exercise decreased the concentration of urate (p<0.05), decreased FRAP (p<0.5), increased TBARS (p<0.5), and decreased the potentiometer sensor response (p=6.5×10⁻³). These results demonstrate the adequacy of potentiometry for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma samples.

  13. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Lukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (P<0.01) than in rooster spermatozoa. Each of the investigated antioxidant enzymes had greater (P<0.01) activity in goose than chicken sperm. Catalase activity was detected in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from both studied species for the first time. In seminal plasma, the activity of GPx was two times greater (P<0.01) in the White Koluda(®) than in chickens, whereas SOD activity was less (P<0.01) than in chickens. This is the first study describing the presence of CAT in avian semen and the occurrence of indicator of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in geese. Data from the present study clearly show the species-specific differences in the activity of antioxidant defense and LPO. The greater amount of lipid peroxidation and greater activity of antioxidant enzymes in goose semen might suggest that spermatozoa were under greater oxidative stress and the enzymes were not utilized for the protection of functionally and structurally impaired cells. In turn, in fresh chicken semen a lesser activity of antioxidant enzymes accompanied with a lesser lipid peroxidation amount and good semen quality could indicate that fowl spermatozoa were under oxidative stress, but the enzymes were employed to protect and maintain sperm quality.

  14. Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  15. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    PubMed

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  16. [Antioxidant properties of UV-irradiated blood plasma as determined by the photochemiluminescence method].

    PubMed

    Udilova, N; Popov, I N; Levin, G I; Vladimirov, Iu A

    1997-01-01

    UV-irradiation of human serum albumin, tryptophan, and histidine resulted in products formation showing antiradical activity, as detected by increased latent period in development of luminol photochemiluminescence. UV-irradiation of ascorbic acid decreased its antiradical activity. Under UV-illumination, antiradical activity of blood plasma decreased rapidly followed by a gradual increase of antiradical activity. Apparently, the former effect (decrease of antiradical activity) is a result of photolysis of natural blood antioxidants, while subsequent increase of antiradical activity is a consequence of the accumulation of plasma protein photolysis products.

  17. Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa M. M.; Shalaby, Emad A.; El-Fayoumy, Eman A.

    2011-01-01

    The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzyme determination (ascorbate oxidase and catalase). The air-dried ground alga was extracted with ethanol (crude extract) then sequentially fractionated by organic solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Antioxidant activity of all extracts was assayed using different methods (total antioxidant, DPPH [2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], ABTS [2, 2 azino-bis ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and reducing power, and β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching methods). The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was concentration and time dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated higher antioxidant activity against DPPH method (82.80%) compared to the synthetic standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 88.5%). However, the crude ethanolic extract, pet ether, chloroform fractions recorded lower to moderate antioxidant activities (49.0, 66.0, and 78.0%, resp.). Using chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, an active compound was separated and identified from the promising ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:21869863

  18. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    PubMed

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p < 0.05) in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds. PMID:24647154

  19. Antioxidant Activities of 4-Methylumbelliferone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of derivatives of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MUs), which are structurally interesting antioxidants, was performed in this study. The modification of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) by different reaction steps was performed to yield the target compounds, the 4-MUs. The 4-MUs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform infrared; FT-IR and Nuclear magnetic resonance; NMR) and micro-elemental analysis (CHNS). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the 4-MUs was evaluated in terms of their free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity assay, chelating activity and their (FRAP) ferric-reducing antioxidant power, which were compared with a standard antioxidant. Our results reveal that the 4-MUs exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant mechanisms of the 4-MUs were also studied. Density Function Theory (DFT)-based quantum chemical studies were performed with the basis set at 3-21G. Molecular models of the synthesized compounds were studied to understand the antioxidant activity. The electron levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), for these synthesized antioxidants were also studied. PMID:27243231

  20. Mammary gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in milk and plasma of dairy cows fed flax lignans and infused with flax oil in the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, Cristiano; Palin, Marie-France; Gagnon, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Lacasse, Pierre; Petit, Hélène V

    2012-10-28

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of flax hulls and/or flax oil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) in plasma and the mammary gland and the relative mRNA abundance of antioxidant genes in the mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four treatments: control with no flax hulls (CONT), 9·88% flax hulls in the DM (HULL), control with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO), 9·88% flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). Plasma GPX activity tended to decrease with flax oil supplementation. Cows fed HULL had higher levels of CAT, GPX1 and SOD1 mRNA in the mammary gland and lower mRNA abundance of GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 compared with those fed CONT. Abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 mRNA was down-regulated in the mammary gland of cows fed HUFO compared to those fed CONT. The mRNA abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3 and SOD3 was lower in the mammary gland of cows fed COFO than in the mammary gland of cows fed CONT. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls contribute to increasing the abundance of some antioxidant genes, which can contribute to protecting against oxidative stress damage occurring in the mammary gland and other tissues of dairy cows.

  1. Aerospatiale industrial thermal plasma activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrot, Maxime

    Details of nontransferred arc torches, plasma systems in industrial use and operational plasma applications are listed. A plasma application on a foundry cupola is detailed. The setting up of a plasma system is described. Research and development activities are summarized.

  2. Antioxidant activities from different rosemary clonal lines.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D

    2016-06-15

    Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract. PMID:26868574

  3. Antioxidant activities from different rosemary clonal lines.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D

    2016-06-15

    Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract.

  4. Bilirubin as an antioxidant in micelles and lipid bilayers: its contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Patricia D; Drake, Emily C; Ross, L; Barclay, C

    2007-08-15

    The antioxidant capacities, antioxidant activities, k(inh), and stoichiometric factors, n, of water-soluble derivatives of bilirubin (BR), BR-human serum albumin (BR-HSA), and BR-ditaurate disodium conjugate (BRC) were determined in aqueous/lipid dispersions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles/methyl linoleate and in bilayers of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) during initiation by water-soluble azo-bis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (ABAP). The inhibition rate constants for BRC and BR-HSA were similar in micelles (k(inh) approximately 1.3 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), where n approximately 2, whereas the k(inh) for BR-HSA dropped by (1/2) in bilayers. The dimethyl ester of bilirubin (BRDE) gave a k(inh) only one-tenth that of the vitamin E analog, pentamethylhydroxychroman (PMHC) in SDS micelles/methyl linoleate when initiated by lipid-soluble azo-bis-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile (DMVN). Biliverdin hydrochloride (BVHCl) was NOT an effective peroxyl radical-trapping agent in the micellar phase during initiation by ABAP or DMVN containing methyl linoleate but it inhibited oxygen uptake in the aqueous phase. Both BRC and BR-HSA extended the total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP) of human blood plasma and their contribution to TRAP was in the range of 5-10% of the natural TRAP of blood plasma, depending on the BR content determined in the blood plasma.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  6. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS⁺ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

  7. Plasma antioxidant capacity is reduced in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Carmen; Mac-Dowell, Karina; Leza, Juan Carlos; Giraldez, Marisa; Bailón, Concepción; Castro, Carmen; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; Fraguas, David; Arango, Celso

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that children with autism have impaired detoxification capacity and may suffer from chronic oxidative stress. To our knowledge, there has been no study focusing on oxidative metabolism specifically in Asperger syndrome (a milder form of autism) or comparing this metabolism with other psychiatric disorders. In this study, total antioxidant status (TAOS), non-enzymatic (glutathione and homocysteine) and enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma or erythrocyte lysates in a group of adolescent patients with Asperger syndrome, a group of adolescents with a first episode of psychosis, and a group of healthy controls at baseline and at 8-12 weeks. TAOS was also analyzed at 1 year. TAOS was reduced in Asperger individuals compared with healthy controls and psychosis patients, after covarying by age and antipsychotic treatment. This reduced antioxidant capacity did not depend on any of the individual antioxidant variables measured. Psychosis patients had increased homocysteine levels in plasma and decreased copper and ceruloplasmin at baseline. In conclusion, Asperger patients seem to have chronic low detoxifying capacity. No impaired detoxifying capacity was found in the first-episode psychosis group in the first year of illness.

  8. Vitamin E and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dormandy, T L

    1977-01-01

    Forty years after its discovery, vitamin E remains a biochemical Don Basilio, not to be trusted or believed but impossible to dismiss. It is a powerful antioxidant in vitro, in many animals and probably in the newborn. To assess its physiological role and possible therapeutic usefulness in the human adult we need to know more about the mechanisms which normally protect from autoxidative damage. PMID:859819

  9. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dewanto, Veronica; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-08-14

    Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than the fresh produce due to the loss of vitamin C during processing. Vitamin C in apples has been found to contribute <0.4% of total antioxidant activity, indicating most of the activity comes from the natural combination of phytochemicals. This suggests that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity despite the loss of vitamin C. Here it is shown that thermal processing at 115 degrees C for 25 min significantly elevated the total antioxidant activity of sweet corn by 44% and increased phytochemical content such as ferulic acid by 550% and total phenolics by 54%, although 25% vitamin C loss was observed. Processed sweet corn has increased antioxidant activity equivalent to 210 mg of vitamin C/100 g of corn compared to the remaining 3.2 mg of vitamin C in the sample that contributed only 1.5% of its total antioxidant activity. These findings do not support the notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce. This information may have a significant impact on consumers' food selection by increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:12166989

  10. Enhancement of antioxidant effects of naringin after atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Jang, Soo Jeung; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-03-15

    Naringin is the natural chief bitter flavonoid found in Citrus species. Herein, bitter naringin was treated with atmospheric pressure plasma to afford two new converted flavonoids, narinplasmins A (2) and B (3), along with the known compound, 2R-naringin. The structures of the two new naringin derivatives were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of all isolates was evaluated based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging assays. The new flavanone glycoside 2 containing a methoxyalkyl group exhibited significantly improved antioxidant properties in these assays relative to the parent naringin.

  11. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461

  12. Antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Janet; Melchor, Gleiby; Martínez, Gregorio; Escobar, Arturo; Faure, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark aqueous extract and its majoritary component and high molecular weight polyphenols' fraction were studied using deoxyribose assay. The total extract and its fraction showed scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and hability to chelate iron ions. PMID:16436316

  13. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls), aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx). Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p < 0.05). Mean activities of anti-radical GPx and CAT enzymes were not affected by the BMI increase. Although, total cholesterol levels were statistically higher in the obese group, there was no significant association with the SOD activity. Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response. PMID:23360568

  14. Antioxidant activity of Filipendula hexapetala flowers.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Zoran; Petrović, Silvana; Pavlović, Milica; Kovacević, Nada; Kukić, Jelena

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Filipendula hexapetala flowers was assessed by the assay for ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the assay for DPPH free radical scavenging ability (DPPH) and the assay for the influence of lipid peroxidation in liposomes, induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate system and measured by the TBA test (LP). The activity of the investigated extract in all test-systems was found to be significant. The principal constituent responsible for the observed effects was isolated and identified as spiraeoside. PMID:17337331

  15. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708

  16. Antioxidant activity of puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) as assessed by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Arlene; Thompson, Scott; Stark, Mirjam; Ou, Zong-Quan; Gould, Kevin S

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable interest in antioxidant dietary components that can be protective against degenerative diseases in humans. Puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, and exhibits strong antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. However, the potential of puha to protect against degenerative diseases requires that low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) are absorbed by, and active in, human cells. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of puha leaf extracts. Preparation methods of freezing and freeze-drying reduced the total polyphenolic content compared with fresh puha, but did not affect the LMWA potential as determined by the DPPH assay. The IC(50) values were 0.012 ± 0.003 mg/mL and 0.010 ± 0.005 mg/mL for freeze-dried and fresh puha leaves, respectively. Using the CAA assay, it was shown that LMWAs from foliar extracts of puha were effectively absorbed into HepG2 cells, and exerted antioxidant activity at levels comparable to those of extracts from blueberry fruits, the much-touted antioxidant superfood. Methylene blue staining of HepG2 cells indicated that puha extracts were not cytotoxic at concentrations below 100 mg DW/mL. The data indicate the potential of puha as a nutraceutical supplement for human health.

  17. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases.

  18. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:22902824

  19. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  20. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

  1. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources.

  2. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5-10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  3. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Withania frutescens.

    PubMed

    El Bouzidi, Laila; Larhsini, Mustapha; Markouk, Mohamed; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Hassani, Lahcen; Bekkouche, Khalid

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we report for the first time the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Withania frutescens (L.) Pauquy roots and leaves. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power methods. Antimicrobial activity tests were carried out against ten bacterial species involved in nosocomial infections and two opportunistic clinical yeast isolates. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol leaf fractions exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 = 4.53 +/- 0.12 and 8.49 +/- 0.46 microg/mL, respectively. The n-butanol root fraction showed the greatest reducing power comparable with that of quercetin at 0.4 mg/mL. The dichloromethane leaf fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MIC values ranging between 50 and 400 microg/mL, depending on the tested bacteria. However, none of the examined extracts exhibited anticandidal activity. The polyphenol and glycowithanolide constituents appeared to be responsible for the antioxidant capacity of W. frutescens, whereas the observed antimicrobial activity may be due to the presence of withanolides.

  5. Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activity of Teucrium hyrcanicum

    PubMed Central

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Laghaei, Pedram; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teucrium hyrcanicum belonging to the Lamiaceae family is a native plant in Iran; it is called Maryam nokhodi-e-jangali in Farsi. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI), antioxidant activity and flavonoids content of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract. Materials and Methods: The air-dried and the ground aerial parts of T. hyrcanicum were extracted by percolation method with methanol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated by using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) methods. In addition, AChEI and flavonoid content of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract were measured. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content of T. hyrcanicum in reference to the standard curve for quercetin was 20.70 ± 0.05 mg quercetin equivalents/g of extract. In the FRAP method, the antioxidant activity of T. hyrcanicum extract and butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA) (as a positive control) were 657.5 ± 0.04 and 880 ± 0.06 mmol Fe II/1 g dried extract. According to results of DPPH assay, half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for DPPH radical-scavenging activities of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract, vitamin E and BHA were 74.6, 14.12 and 7.8 μg/mL, respectively. IC50 value for AChEI of T. hyrcanicum and donepezil as a positive control were 2.12 mg/mL and 0.013 mg/mL. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed T. hyrcanicum is a natural antioxidant that the flavonoid content can be responsible for extract effects. PMID:26109782

  6. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-03-30

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  8. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  9. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  10. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  11. Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant potential following a 3 h run.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Steven R; McAnulty, Lisa S; Nieman, David C; Morrow, Jason D; Utter, Alan C; Henson, Dru A; Dumke, Charles L; Vinci, Debra M

    2003-08-01

    Concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase during exercise secondary to increased oxygen uptake, xanthine oxidase activity, and immune system activation. Carbohydrate compared to placebo beverage ingestion is associated with an attenuated cortisol and catecholamine response. Catecholamines can undergo autooxidation to form ROS. We hypothesized that during intense exercise, ingestion of carbohydrate compared to placebo would diminish oxidative stress. Sixteen experienced marathoners ran on treadmills for 3 h at approximately 70% VO2(max) on two occasions while receiving carbohydrate or placebo beverages (11/h, double-blinded) in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Plasma samples were analyzed for F2-isoprostanes (FIP) and lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH) as measures for lipid peroxidation, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of plasma antioxidant potential and for cortisol. The pattern of change in cortisol was significantly different between carbohydrate and placebo conditions (P = 0.024), with post-exercise levels higher in the placebo condition. Under both carbohydrate and placebo conditions, significant increases in FIP, ROOH, and FRAP were measured, but the pattern of increase was not different (FIP, interaction effect, P = 0.472; ROOH, P = 0.572; FRAP, P = 0.668). Despite an attenuation in the cortisol response, carbohydrate compared to placebo ingestion does not counter the increase in oxidative stress or modulate plasma antioxidant potential in athletes running 3 h at 70% VO2(max). PMID:14567443

  12. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2003-08-27

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.

  13. Antioxidant activity of Glossogyne tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Chia-Lin; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Kou, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Lisu

    2005-08-10

    Glossogyne tenuifolia is a native traditional anti-inflammatory herb in Taiwan. It has previously been shown that the ethanol extract of G. tenuifolia (GT) inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator release from murine macrophage cell line and human whole blood. In the present work, the ethanol extracts of G. tenuifolia and its major constituent, luteolin-7-glucoside, were shown to be scavengers of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation was suppressed by GT and luteolin-7-glucoside as measured by decreased formation of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene as well as reduced electrophoretic mobility. GT and luteolin-7-glucoside were also against N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In summary, these data indicated that GT is a potential ROS scavenger and may prevent atherosclerosis via inhibiting LDL oxidation or ROS production in human leukocytes. Moreover, luteolin-7-glucoside may serve as the active principal of GT.

  14. Antioxidant activity of Glossogyne tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Chia-Lin; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Kou, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Lisu

    2005-08-10

    Glossogyne tenuifolia is a native traditional anti-inflammatory herb in Taiwan. It has previously been shown that the ethanol extract of G. tenuifolia (GT) inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator release from murine macrophage cell line and human whole blood. In the present work, the ethanol extracts of G. tenuifolia and its major constituent, luteolin-7-glucoside, were shown to be scavengers of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation was suppressed by GT and luteolin-7-glucoside as measured by decreased formation of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene as well as reduced electrophoretic mobility. GT and luteolin-7-glucoside were also against N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In summary, these data indicated that GT is a potential ROS scavenger and may prevent atherosclerosis via inhibiting LDL oxidation or ROS production in human leukocytes. Moreover, luteolin-7-glucoside may serve as the active principal of GT. PMID:16076111

  15. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of chamazulene.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of chamomile contain several bioactive compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes and fatty acids. Hydrodistillation of chamomile EO induces the formation of chamazulene, a bioactive compound. Chamazulene was isolated from the EO by column chromatography. The total antioxidant capacity confirmed a higher antioxidant activity of chamazulene (IC50 = 6.4 μg mL(- 1)) than of ascorbic acid (IC50 = 12.8 μg mL(- 1)), α-tocopherol (IC50 = 20.5 μg mL(- 1)) and of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 30.8 μg mL(- 1)). Chamazulene was unable to react with DPPH√. However, when chamazulene was assayed with ABTS√, a strong and significantly (P < 0.05) higher free radical scavenging activity was observed (IC50 = 3.7 μg mL(- 1)), with respect to BHT (IC50 = 6.2 μg mL(- 1)) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 11.5 μg mL(- 1)). The results of this work show that chamazulene is an important factor for the antioxidant power of chamomile oil. PMID:24980540

  16. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity.

  17. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity. PMID:26991849

  18. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in "early potatoes".

    PubMed

    Leo, Lucia; Leone, Antonella; Longo, Cristiano; Lombardi, Domenico Antonio; Raimo, Francesco; Zacheo, Giuseppe

    2008-06-11

    The antioxidant content and the antioxidant capacity of both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant extracts from four "early potato" cultivars, grown in two different locations (Racale and Monteroni), were examined. There was a considerable variation in carotenoid content and weak differences in the ascorbic acid concentration of the examined cultivars of "early potato" and between the harvested locations. An increase in both methanol/water (8:2 v/v) and phosphate buffer soluble (PBS) free phenols (70%) and bound phenols (28%) in the extracts from the cultivars grown at Racale site was found and discussed. Examination of individual phenols revealed that chlorogenic acid and catechin were the major phenols present in potato tuber extracts; a moderate amount of caffeic acid and ferulic acid was also detected. The total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was higher in the Racale extracts and a highly positive linear relationship ( R (2) = 0.8193) between TEAC values and total phenolic content was observed. The oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) of methanol/water and PBS extracts of peel and whole potatoes against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was also analyzed. A highly significant linear correlation ( R (2) = 0.9613) between total antioxidant capacity (as a sum of peroxyl radicals + peroxynitrite) and total phenol content of methanol/water extracts was established. Moreover, proliferation of human mammalian cancer (MCF-7) cells was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to potato extracts. These data can be useful for "early potato" tuber characterization and suggest that the "early potato" has a potential as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  19. Antioxidant activity of different parts of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks fruit and its correlation to phenolic composition.

    PubMed

    Hatamnia, Ali Asghar; Rostamzad, Arman; Malekzadeh, Parviz; Darvishzadeh, Reza; Abbaspour, Nasser; Hosseini, Mohammadyar; Nourollahi, Khoshnood; Mehr, Reza Sheikh Akbari

    2016-06-01

    The fruits of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks were collected from Ilam province, Iran. The aim of this study was to analyse antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of different parts of P. khinjuk fruit. The antioxidant capacity of extracts was measured using different assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The phenolic composition of P. khinjuk fruit is reported for the first time. Amongst different parts of the fruit analysed in this study, hull extract contained the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. We observed a high correlation between different antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Therefore, antioxidant capacity can be related to total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A correlation analysis revealed that ascorbic acid, gallic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid were the phenolic compounds mainly responsible for antioxidant power of the fruit extracts.

  20. Effect of a probiotic intake on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in plasma of athletes during intense exercise training.

    PubMed

    Martarelli, Daniele; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Scuri, Stefania; Cocchioni, Mario; Silvi, Stefania; Cecchini, Cinzia; Pompei, Pierluigi

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 on oxidative stress in athletes during a four-week period of intense physical activity. Two groups of twelve subjects each were selected for this analysis. The first group consumed a daily dose of a mixture of the two probiotic strains (1:1 L. rhamnosus IMC 501 and L. paracasei IMC 502; ~10(9) cells/day) for 4 weeks. The second group (control) did not consume any supplements during the 4 weeks. Blood samples collected immediately before and after the supplementation were analyzed, and plasma levels of reactive oxygen metabolites and biological antioxidant potential were determined. Faeces were also collected and analyzed before and at the end of the probiotic supplementation. Antioxidative activity and oxidative stress resistance of the two strains were determined in vitro. Results demonstrated that intense physical activity induced oxidative stress and that probiotic supplementation increased plasma antioxidant levels, thus neutralizing reactive oxygen species. The two strains, L. rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and L. paracasei IMC 502(®), exert strong antioxidant activity. Athletes and all those exposed to oxidative stress may benefit from the ability of these probiotics to increase antioxidant levels and neutralize the effects of reactive oxygen species.

  1. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products.

  2. Theoretical investigation on antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic acids for designing a novel antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajeri, Afshan; Asemani, S. Somayeh

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict antioxidant property for two interesting classes of compounds including phenolic acids and vitamins. Important characteristics of antioxidants such as O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) were calculated in the gas-phase to analyze the effect of heterocyclic ring, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and presence of electron donating group near the O-H on the antioxidant activity. The results reveal that the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding through ortho-hydroxy group lowers BDE, IP and spin density. In general, phenolic acids were found to be more effective antioxidant than vitamins. The H-atom transfer (HAT) mechanism was selected to study the hydrogen abstraction from phenolic compounds by hydroperoxyl radical. It is found that the antioxidant with lower BDE undergoes hydrogen abstraction with low barrier and considerable exothermicity. On the basis of these results we were able to design a novel antioxidant with enhanced activity.

  3. Structural elucidation and cellular antioxidant activity evaluation of major antioxidant phenolics in lychee pulp.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Ti, Huihui; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhengchen; Deng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Jinxin

    2014-09-01

    Lychee pulp contains phenolic compounds that are strong antioxidants, but the identities of the major antioxidants present are unknown. In the present study, the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of fresh lychee pulp were identified and their cellular antioxidant activities were investigated. Aqueous acetone extracts of lychee pulp were fractionated on polyamide resin, and those fractions with the largest antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were selected using cellular antioxidant activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Three compounds that were major contributors to the antioxidant activity in these fractions were obtained by reverse-phase preparative HPLC and identified as quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnosidase (quercetin 3-rut-7-rha), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin) and (-)-epicatechin using NMR spectroscopy, HMBC, and ESI-MS spectrometry. The concentration of quercetin 3-rut-7-rha was 17.25mg per 100g of lychee pulp fresh weight. This is the first report of the identification and cellular antioxidant activity of quercetin 3-rut-7-rha from lychee pulp.

  4. Effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Sugahara, Takuya; Matsugi, Junko; Someya, Tatsushi; Masuda, Toshiya; Kishida, Taro; Akiyama, Koichi; Maruyama, Masafumi

    2007-09-01

    The effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity was evaluated. Secoisolariciresinol (1) and 3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran (2), which have two secondary benzylic positions without oxygen, showed the highest antioxidant activity. Optically active verrucosin (4) was synthesized for the first time in this experiment.

  5. The impact of red cabbage fermentation on bioavailability of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Romaszko, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The effect of red cabbage fermentation on anthocyanin bioavailability and plasma antioxidant capacity in humans was studied. In a randomized crossover study, 13 volunteers consumed fresh and fermented red cabbage. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after consumption. Analyses of anthocyanins by HPLC-MS/MS and plasma antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminescence assay were conducted. Red cabbage products contained 20 different nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins with the main structure of cyanidin triglucosides. The anthocyanins ingested were present in physiological fluids in form of 18 native anthocyanins and 12 metabolites (methylated, glucuronided, sulfated). Among cyanidin metabolites identified, methylated forms were predominant. Bioavailability of anthocyanin from fresh red cabbage was over 10% higher than from fermented red cabbage. Upon fresh cabbage consumption, volunteers plasma showed higher antioxidant capacity than after fermented cabbage intake. The study has shown that fermentation process affects red cabbage anthocyanins bioavailability and human plasma antioxidant capacity.

  6. Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-11

    The antioxidative activity of column chromatographic fractions obtained from brewed coffee was investigated to find antioxidants and to assess the benefit of coffee drinking. The dichloromethane extract inhibited hexanal oxidation by 100 and 50% for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, at the level of 5 microg/mL. A GC/MS analysis of fractions, which exhibited oxidative activity, revealed the presence of antioxidative heterocyclic compounds including furans, pyrroles, and maltol. The residual aqueous solution exhibited slight antioxidative activity. The inhibitory activity (%) of the seven fractions from an aqueous solution toward malonaldehde formation from lipid oxidation ranged from 10 to 90 at a level of 300 microg/mL. The results indicate that brewed coffee contains many antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich brewed coffee may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:14759154

  7. The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 108 CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 108 CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27066188

  8. The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes.

  9. The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27066188

  10. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Liang Liang; Lin, Yi Ming

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf extracts was investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The methanolic extract and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antioxidant activity than the other ones. HPLC data indicated that S. cumini leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, responsible for their antioxidant activity. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical-scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts supported this observation. PMID:18927517

  11. Plasma adipocytokines and antioxidants-status in Korean overweight and obese females with dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Jeong, Su Youn; Kang, Nam E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES It is hypothesized that obese people with dyslipidemia is more likely to have increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status, in comparison with the controls who were obese without dyslipidemia. Thus, the aims of the present study were to determine the dietary intakes, plasma adipokines, and antioxidative systems between obese with dyslipidemia and obese without dyslipidemia were investigated. SUBJECTS/METHODS Female subjects who were between 20 and 55 years old, and whose BMI was 23 or greater were recruited. Subjects who met the criteria of BMI ≥ 23, total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dL, and TG ≥ 110 mg/dL were categorized Obese with dyslipidemia. Anthropometric measurements and blood biochemical tests were conducted. The diet survey was conducted by a trained dietitian using two days of 24 hour dietary recall. The lipid peroxidation, the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the activities of antioxidantive enzymes, and various antioxidantive vitamins levels were determined. RESULTS Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were also determined. There were no significant differences for age, Body Mass index (BMI), and body fat (%), waist-size between two groups. Obese with dyslipidemia had significantly high levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C, and the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C, respectively. Blood alkaline phosphatase level was statistically different between the two groups (P < 0.05). No statistical significance in dietary intake between two groups was shown. In case of obese with dyslipidemia group, the levels of GSH-Px (P < 0.05) and catalase (P < 0.05) as well as adjusted blood retinol (P < 0.05) and tocopherol level (P < 0.05) were significantly low. However, the plasma concentration of leptin was significantly high (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Obesity with dyslipidemia was shown to have high arthtrogenic index, depleted antioxidant status, and

  12. [Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds and nuts].

    PubMed

    Padilla, F C; Rincón, A M; Bou-Rached, L

    2008-09-01

    Foods from plant origin not only provide human diet with certain antioxidant vitamins (C, E and beta-carotene), but also a complex mixture of polyphenols, with antioxidant activity. Numerous studies have been focused on the protective and preventing effect of this antioxidant activity on certain degenerative illnesses such as cardiovascular, cancer, and neurological diseases, cataracts and oxidative stress dysfunctions. The objective of this work was to evaluate total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds, nuts, or grains such as Theobroma cacao, Canpsiandra comosa Benth (chiga), Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench, Melicoccus bijugatus (genip). Total polyphenol content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant activity by the beta carotene/linoleate, reducing power, and the anti-radical activity methods. Results showed genip pericarp with the lowest polyphenol content (1.40 gGAE/100 g), and cacao beans with the highest (6.66 gGAE/100 g). Reducing power of cacao beans was also the highest and similar to the reducing power of 5.80 g ascorbic acid/100 g, followed by Campsiandra comosa. Moreover, Campsiandra comosa and cacao seeds presented an antioxidant activity comparable to that of the butylhydroxianisol, a synthetic antioxidant. The highest anti-radical activity was shown by Campsiandra comosa with an EC50 of 2.67 g/gDPPH. Total polyphenol content shows a good correlation with the antioxidant activity. Moreover, these seeds might have the same health beneficial effects attributed to other fruits and vegetables.

  13. Application of KRL test to assess total antioxidant activity in pigs: sensitivity to dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The application of Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL) test to assess total blood antioxidant activity in pigs was evaluated. The KRL has been validated and is widely used in humans for assessing the effectiveness of natural or pharmaceutical treatments, and in vitro to evaluate the antioxidant activities of natural or synthetic antioxidants. In this study the sensitivity of the KRL test in assessing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E and plant extract) was evaluated in two different phases of pig breeding. The first trial, in post-weaned piglets (40 piglets/group) fed dietary vitamin E supplementation for 60 days, indicated that there was a higher total antioxidant activity (P=0.032) of whole blood and of red blood cells (P=0.001) than for control pigs. The second trial indicated that long-term supplementation of water soluble plant extract (20 pigs/group) from the leaves of Verbenaceae (Lippia spp.) tended (P=0.091) to increase antioxidant activity in the whole blood of treated, rather than control pigs. These results indicate that the KRL might be recommended as one of efficient means for evaluating antioxidant activity of dietary ingredients fed to pigs.

  14. Antioxidant activities of a peptide derived from chicken dark meat.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Yoko; Mizutani, Saki; Nomura, Sarika; Hara, Wakana; Matsui, Riko; Nagai, Kumiko; Murakami, Yuki; Washio, Nanami; Ikemoto, Narumi; Terashima, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    Antioxidant activities against hypochlorite ions and peroxyl radicals of a chicken dark meat hydrolysate digested with pepsin were examined with the myoglobin method based on the structure change of myoglobin due to redox reaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS). A peptide that showed strong antioxidant activity against the peroxyl radical was isolated from the hydrolysate using HPLC equipped with a hydrophobic-interacting column. The sequence of the first five amino acid residues of the peptide was determined as YASGR (Tyr-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg), and this sequence matched with the amino acid residues 143-147 of chicken β-actin (GenBank: CAA25004.1). The synthetic peptide YASGR showed very high antioxidant activity against the peroxyl radical. Antioxidant activities of the free amino acids, confirmed that the tyrosine residue of this peptide was possibly responsible for antioxidant activity. PMID:27407214

  15. The anti-oxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa).

    PubMed

    Selvam, R; Subramanian, L; Gayathri, R; Angayarkanni, N

    1995-07-01

    The turmeric anti-oxidant protein (TAP) had been isolated from the aqueous extract of turmeric. The anti-oxidant principle was found to be a heat stable protein. Trypsin treatment abolished the anti-oxidant activity. The anti-oxidant principle had an absorbance maximum at 280 nm. After gel filtration, the protein showed a 2-fold increase in anti-oxidant activity and showed 2 bands in the SDS-PAGE with approximate molecular weight range of 24,000 Da. The protein showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the promoter induced lipid peroxidation. A 50% inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation was observed at a protein concentration of 50 micrograms/ml. Ca(2+)-ATPase of rat brain homogenate was protected to nearly 50% of the initial activity from the lipid peroxidant induced inactivation by this protein. This protection of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was found to be associated with the prevention of loss of -SH groups.

  16. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  17. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives. PMID:27630047

  18. Studies on antioxidant activity of teasaponins after hydrolyzed by enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi

    The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.

  19. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries. PMID:26008718

  20. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries.

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    PubMed

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential. PMID:24409635

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    PubMed

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential.

  3. Bio-antioxidants - a chemical base of their antioxidant activity and beneficial effect on human health.

    PubMed

    Kancheva, V D; Kasaikina, O T

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of aerobic life is that higher eukaryotic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous to their existence. Autoxidation of organic substances frequently occurs via free radical mechanism which generates different active radicals and peroxides OH(•), O2 (•-), LO2 (•), HOOH, LOOH, so called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to be responsible for oxygen toxicity. To survive in such an unfriendly oxygen environment, living organisms generate - or obtain from food - a variety of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds. Biologically active compounds with antioxidant potential, i.e. bio-antioxidants (natural and their synthetic analogues) have a wide range of applications. They are important drugs, antibiotics, agrochemical substitutes, and food preservatives. Many of the drugs today are synthetic modifications of naturally obtained substances. This review presents information about the chemical base of antioxidant activities and beneficial effects on human health of known and new bio-antioxidants. There is abundant literature on the phenolic antioxidants and tocopherols in particular. In this review the following bio-antioxidants are considered: A) Carotenoids, B) Cathecholamines, C) Phospholipids, D) Chalcones, E) Coumarins, F) Phenolic acids, G) Flavonoids, H) Lignans, and I) Tannins.

  4. Reviews on Mechanisms of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26682009

  5. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Hydroxytyrosol Alkyl-Carbonate Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2016-07-22

    Three procedures have been investigated for the isolation of tyrosol (1) and hydroxytyrosol (2) from a phenolic extract obtained from the solid residue of olive milling. These three methods, which facilitated the recovery of these phenols, were chemical or enzymatic acetylation, benzylation, and carbomethoxylation, and subsequent carbonylation or acetonation reactions. Several new lipophilic alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol have been synthesized, coupling the primary hydroxy group of this phenol, through a carbonate linker, using alcohols with different chain lengths. The antioxidant properties of these lipophilic derivatives have been evaluated by different methods and compared with free hydroxytyrosol (2) and also with the well-known antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. Three methods were used for the determination of this antioxidant activity: FRAP and ABTS assays, to test the antioxidant power in hydrophilic media, and the Rancimat test, to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in a lipophilic matrix. These new alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol enhanced the antioxidant activity of this natural phenol, with their antioxidant properties also being higher than those of the commercial antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. There was no clear influence of the side-chain length on the antioxidant properties of the alkyl-carbonate derivatives of 2, although the best results were achieved mainly by the compounds with a longer chain on the primary hydroxy group of this natural phenolic substance. PMID:27337069

  6. Tannins and Antioxidant Activities of the Walnut (Juglans regia) Pellicle.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Chen, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Shui; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-12-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the acetone extract and derived fractions from the walnut (Juglans regia) pellicle were estimated. The BuOH fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the highest phenolic content. A phytochemical investigation of this fraction led to the isolation of three tannins, 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose (1), pedunculagin (2) and 2,3,4,6-tetragalloylglucose (3). Pedunculagin showed high content and powerful activity, which implied that this compound plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of the walnut pellicle.

  7. pH dependent antioxidant activity of lettuce (L. sativa) and synergism with added phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-01-01

    Influence of pH on the antioxidant activities of combinations of lettuce extract (LE) with quercetin (QC), green tea extract (GTE) or grape seed extract (GSE) was investigated for both reduction of Fremy's salt in aqueous solution using direct electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and in L-α-phosphatidylcholine liposome peroxidation assay measured following formation of conjugated dienes. All examined phenolic antioxidants showed increasing radical scavenging effect with increasing pH values by using both methods. QC, GTE and GSE acted synergistically in combination with LE against oxidation of peroxidating liposomes and with QC showing the largest effect. The pH dependent increase of the antioxidant activity of the phenols is due to an increase of their electron-donating ability upon deprotonation and to their stabilization in alkaline solutions leading to polymerization reaction. Such polymerization reactions of polyphenolic antioxidants can form new oxidizable -OH moieties in their polymeric products resulting in a higher radical scavenging activity.

  8. pH dependent antioxidant activity of lettuce (L. sativa) and synergism with added phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-01-01

    Influence of pH on the antioxidant activities of combinations of lettuce extract (LE) with quercetin (QC), green tea extract (GTE) or grape seed extract (GSE) was investigated for both reduction of Fremy's salt in aqueous solution using direct electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and in L-α-phosphatidylcholine liposome peroxidation assay measured following formation of conjugated dienes. All examined phenolic antioxidants showed increasing radical scavenging effect with increasing pH values by using both methods. QC, GTE and GSE acted synergistically in combination with LE against oxidation of peroxidating liposomes and with QC showing the largest effect. The pH dependent increase of the antioxidant activity of the phenols is due to an increase of their electron-donating ability upon deprotonation and to their stabilization in alkaline solutions leading to polymerization reaction. Such polymerization reactions of polyphenolic antioxidants can form new oxidizable -OH moieties in their polymeric products resulting in a higher radical scavenging activity. PMID:26212937

  9. Strawberry consumption improves plasma antioxidant status and erythrocyte resistance to oxidative haemolysis in humans.

    PubMed

    Tulipani, Sara; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Busco, Franco; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, Josè L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-09-01

    Significant increases in the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) have already been reported after acute intake of strawberries. In addition, antihaemolitic effects of strawberry extracts have been recently demonstrated in vitro, revealing that part of the antioxidant properties of strawberry bioactive compounds could lie in their localisation within cell membranes. However, there is a lack of research evidence from in vivo protracted strawberry consumption studies. We carried out a 16-day pilot study where 12 healthy subjects ingested 500g of antioxidants-rich strawberries daily, and we evaluated the potential effects of fruit consumption on biomarkers of plasma and cellular antioxidant status. A significant increase in fasting plasma TAC and in serum vitamin C concentrations were progressively observed during the period of strawberry supplementation. An enhanced resistance to haemolysis was also observed in both AAPH-treated and untreated erythrocytes, collected during and after the period of strawberry consumption. The results obtained in this work suggest that regular consumption of antioxidant-rich strawberries may exert an improvement on the plasma antioxidant status and an increase on the antihaemolitic defenses of human erythrocytes. PMID:25214346

  10. Delayed uric Acid accumulation in plasma provides additional anti-oxidant protection against iron-triggered oxidative stress after a wingate test.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Tp; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, Cv; Polotow, Tg; Barros, Mp

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  11. DELAYED URIC ACID ACCUMULATION IN PLASMA PROVIDES ADDITIONAL ANTI-OXIDANT PROTECTION AGAINST IRON-TRIGGERED OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER A WINGATE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Junior, TP; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, CV; Polotow, TG

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  12. In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from common legumes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Du, Shuang-kui; Wang, Hanxin; Cai, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activity of pinto bean, cowpea, baby lima bean, lentil, chickpea, small red bean, red kidney bean, black kidney bean, navy bean, and mung bean extracts were investigated. Significant differences were observed in the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity amongst the legume extracts. Lentils demonstrated the highest phenolic content (47.6 mg/g), total antioxidant activity (720.68 U/g), DPPH• scavenging activity (38.5%), and total reducing power, whereas baby lima beans and navy beans had the lowest. Amongst the extracts, hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavenging was higher in black kidney bean (85.68%) and baby lima bean (74.97%) extracts. The total antioxidant activity (r=0.84), DPPH• scavenging activity (r=0.83), and total reducing power (r=0.84) were positively correlated with the total phenolic content. However, •OH scavenging and the phenolic content were not correlated. PMID:24444962

  13. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737

  14. Antioxidant activities of Toona Sinensis leaves extracts using different antioxidant models.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Huei; Chen, Chee-Shan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Huang, Chin-Jung; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Wu, Jia-Jiuan; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of Toona sinensis (TS; 0-100 microg/mL) and gallic acid (0-50 microg/mL), with the purified natural phenolic components evaluated using different antioxidant models. It was found that the TS extracts and gallic acid possess effective antioxidant activity against various oxidative systems in vitro, including the scavenging of free and superoxide anion radicals, reducing power, and metal chelation. However, antioxidant activity in terms of metal chelation was not observed for the gallic acid. Moreover, TS extracts and gallic acid appear to possess powerful antioxidant properties with respect to oxidative modification of human LDL induced by CuSO4, AAPH or sodium nitroprusside, as assessed by the relative electrophoretic mobility, TBARS formation, and cholesterol degradation of oxidized LDL. Furthermore, AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, and decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in human erythrocytes were prevented by both the TS extracts and the gallic acid. Our findings suggest that T. sinensis may act as a chemopreventative agent, providing antioxidant properties and offering effective protection from atherogenesis. PMID:17703862

  15. Synthesis and antioxidant activities of Coenzyme Q analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Li, Shuo; Yang, Tao; Yang, Jian

    2014-10-30

    A series of 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinones (Coenzyme Q) substituted at the C-6 position with various groups were designed and synthesized based on the Coenzyme Q10 as potent antioxidant. In vitro antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated and compared with commercial antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 employing DPPH assay. All these synthesized Coenzyme Q analogues are found to exhibit good antioxidant activities. Of which Compound 8b bearing a N-benzoylpiperazine group at the C-6 position showed more potent inhibition of DPPH radical than Coenzyme Q10. All these results suggested the applicability of the Coenzyme Q analogues as potent antioxidants for combating oxidative stress.

  16. Inhibitory effects of volatile antioxidants found in various beans on malonaldehyde formation in horse blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2005-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of aroma extracts isolated from dried soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans on malonaldehyde (MA) formation from horse blood plasma oxidized with Fenton's reagent was determined by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Aroma chemicals such as maltol, eugenol, benzyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, butyrolactone, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, found in the aroma extracts of beans, were also examined for their inhibitory effect on the same system. Among the four aroma extracts tested, the aroma extract of soybeans exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. Extracts of soybeans, mung beans, azuki beans, and kidney beans inhibited MA formation by 58%, 47%, 40%, and 23%, respectively, at the level of 400 microg/mL, whereas, alpha-tocopherol and BHT inhibited MA formation by 52% and 70%, respectively, at the same level. Among the tested aroma chemicals, the antioxidant activity decreased in the following order: eugenol>maltol>1-octen-3-ol>benzyl alcohol>butyrolactone>1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

  17. Inhibitory effects of volatile antioxidants found in various beans on malonaldehyde formation in horse blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2005-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of aroma extracts isolated from dried soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans on malonaldehyde (MA) formation from horse blood plasma oxidized with Fenton's reagent was determined by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Aroma chemicals such as maltol, eugenol, benzyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, butyrolactone, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, found in the aroma extracts of beans, were also examined for their inhibitory effect on the same system. Among the four aroma extracts tested, the aroma extract of soybeans exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. Extracts of soybeans, mung beans, azuki beans, and kidney beans inhibited MA formation by 58%, 47%, 40%, and 23%, respectively, at the level of 400 microg/mL, whereas, alpha-tocopherol and BHT inhibited MA formation by 52% and 70%, respectively, at the same level. Among the tested aroma chemicals, the antioxidant activity decreased in the following order: eugenol>maltol>1-octen-3-ol>benzyl alcohol>butyrolactone>1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. PMID:15721197

  18. Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract.

    PubMed

    Piñero Estrada, J E; Bermejo Bescós, P; Villar del Fresno, A M

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina platensis, planktonic blue-green algae, is gaining increasing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. This microalgae contains phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin). Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that a protean extract of S. platensis is a potent free-radical scavenger (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize phycocyanin of S. platensis. Besides, we tried to demonstrate that one of the main components responsible for this antioxidant activity is a biliprotein phycocyanin. For this purpose, we studied the antioxidant activity of different fractions obtained during the phycocyanin purification process, through the scavenger activity of hydroxyl radical. We also observed that an increase in phycocyanin content was related to an increase in the antioxidant activity in different fractions, and therefore phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is the component mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  19. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Alkyl Nitroderivatives of Hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Elena; Palma-Valdés, Rocío; Sarriá, Beatriz; Gallardo, Irene; de la Cruz, José P; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel; Espartero, José L

    2016-01-01

    A series of alkyl nitrohydroxytyrosyl ether derivatives has been synthesized from free hydroxytyrosol (HT), the natural olive oil phenol, in order to increase the assortment of compounds with potential neuroprotective activity in Parkinson's disease. In this work, the antioxidant activity of these novel compounds has been evaluated using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and Oxygen Radical Scavenging Capacity (ORAC) assays compared to that of nitrohydroxytyrosol (NO₂HT) and free HT. New compounds showed variable antioxidant activity depending on the alkyl side chain length; compounds with short chains (2-4 carbon atoms) maintained or even improved the antioxidant activity compared to NO₂HT and/or HT, whereas those with longer side chains (6-8 carbon atoms) showed lower activity than NO₂HT but higher than HT. PMID:27213306

  20. Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymolysis to Improve the Antioxidant Activities of Peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) Antioxidant Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751

  1. Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Activities of Exopolysaccharide by Submerged Culture of Inocutus Hispidus.

    PubMed

    Liu, S H; Sun, S W; Tian, Z F; Wu, J Y; Li, X L; Xu, C P

    2015-01-01

    This work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of the exopolysaccharides produced in a stirred-tank bioreactor by Inocutus hispidus. The exopolysaccharides showed significant antioxidant activities, up to 70.7±2.5% inhibition of hydroxyl radicals, 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3.3 mM. The exopolysaccharide also showed notable hypoglycemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, reducing the plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations by 18.2±1.5, 20.9±0.8 and 14.4±0.4, respectively. The results demonstrated the potential of this EPS for human health protection against oxidative damage and hyperglycemia. PMID:26180285

  2. Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils.

    PubMed

    Miraliakbari, H; Shahidi, F

    2008-11-15

    The antioxidative components of tree nut oils were extracted using a solvent stripping process. Tree nut oil extracts contained phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and tocopherols. The chloroform/methanol extracted oils had higher amounts of phenolic compounds than their hexane extracted counterparts. The antioxidant activity of tree nut oil minor component extracts were assessed using the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, β-carotene bleaching test, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and photochemiluminescence inhibition assays. Results of these studies demonstrated that extracts of chloroform/methanol extracted oils possessed higher antioxidant activities than extracts of their hexane extracted counterparts. Meanwhile the extract of chloroform/methanol extracted pecan oil possessed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:26047445

  3. Review of antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of chitosans in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    shellfish, arises from the fact that they are reported to exhibit numerous health-related beneficial effects, including strong antibiotic and antioxidative activities in foods. The extraordinary interest in the chemistry and application in agriculture, horticulture, environmental science, industry,...

  4. Antioxidative activity and growth regulation of Brassicaceae induced by oxygen radical irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nobuya; Ono, Reoto; Shiratani, Masaharu; Yonesu, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The growth regulation characteristics of plants are investigated when plant seeds are irradiated with atmospheric discharge plasma. Enhancement of the germination and lengths of the stem and root of plants are observed after seeding. The total length of the stem and root increases approximately 1.6 times after a cultivation period of 72 h. The growth regulation effect is found to be maintained for 80 h of cultivation after seeding. The growth regulation originates from the change in the antioxidative activity of plant cells induced by active oxygen species generated in the oxygen plasma, which leads to the production of growth factor in plants.

  5. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  6. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis.

  7. Antioxidant and vascular protective activities of Cratoxylum formosum, Syzygium gratum and Limnophila aromatica.

    PubMed

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Luangaram, Saowanee; Leekhaosoong, Krissadarut; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Preeprame, Srisomporn

    2007-04-01

    Phytochemicals contained in dietary plants provide a variety of health benefits and may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aqueous extracts from three popular Thai dietary and herbal plants, Cratoxylum formosum, Syzygium gratum, and Limnophila aromatica, were investigated for the antioxidant and vascular protective activities in the in vitro and in vivo models. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of plant extracts were evaluated in vitro by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, the intracellular antioxidant activity in rat peritoneal macrophages by dihydrofluorescein assay, and the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In an animal model of oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with aqueous plant extracts (1 g/kg/d) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 300 mg/kg/d) as a control for 6 d. On day four, all animals except the normal control group, were administered with phenylhydrazine (PHZ) intraperitoneally. It was demonstrated that the plant extracts possessed high free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PHZ induced severe hemolysis and hemodynamic disturbances and treatment with the extracts and NAC significantly improved the hemodynamic status. Vascular responsiveness to bradykinin, acetylcholine, and phenylephrine in PHZ-control rats was markedly impaired, and the plant extracts or NAC largely restored the vascular responses. Moreover, the plant extracts prevented loss of blood reduced glutathione and suppressed formation of plasma malondialdehyde, plasma NO metabolites and blood superoxide anion. It was concluded that the plant extracts possess antioxidants and have potential roles in protection of vascular dysfunction.

  8. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry.

  9. Potent Antioxidant Dendrimers Lacking Pro-oxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A.; Upadhaya, Samik K.; Nelson, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens and electron donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical quenching property. In order to minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity towards Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:20977937

  10. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  11. Antioxidative activity of lactobacilli measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity.

    PubMed

    Saide, J A O; Gilliland, S E

    2005-04-01

    The reducing ability and antioxidative activity of some species of Lactobacillus were compared under in vitro conditions. Cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were grown at 37 degrees C in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth supplemented with 0.5% 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate reducing activity. Reduced TTC was extracted from the cultures with acetone, and the intensity of the red color measured colorimetrically at 485 nm was an indication of reducing activity. The lactobacilli varied significantly in relative ability to reduce TTC when grown in MRS broth for 15 h. The relative amounts of growth as indicated by pH values at 18 h appeared to influence the amount of reduction. Antioxidative activity was evaluated by the ability of the whole cells or the cell-free extracts from cultures to protect a protein from being attacked by free radicals. These analyses were performed using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. All cultures tested exhibited some degree of antioxidative activity. Among the treatments, the cell-free extracts from cells grown in MRS broth exhibited significantly higher values than did whole cells. There was no apparent relationship between the reducing and antioxidative activities of the cultures evaluated. The results from this study show that these cultures can provide a source of dietary antioxidants. Furthermore, selection of cultures that produce antioxidants as starters could provide yet another health or nutritional benefit from cultured or culture-containing dairy products.

  12. New acylated anthocyanins from purple yam and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chiemi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Agawa, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kozone, Ikuko; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Terahara, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.), which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is characterized by its color and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that purple yams contain a variety of acylated anthocyanins that exhibit higher levels of antioxidant activity than the corresponding nonacylated compounds. In this study, the pigments found in purple yams from the Philippines (D. alata) were isolated and evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Four new acylated anthocyanins, alanins (1-4) were isolated from the MeOH extracts of purple yam, which were subsequently determined to be cyanidin (1, 2, and 4) and peonidin (3) type compounds, along with four known anthocyanins (5-8). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS analyses. The antioxidant activities of anthocyanins 1-8 were investigated using oxygen radical absorbing capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. PMID:25848974

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Marine Algal Polyphenolic Compounds: A Mechanistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Kim, Misook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds isolated from marine algae exhibit a broad spectrum of beneficial biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities, along with several other bioactivities centered on their antioxidant properties. Consequently, polyphenolic compounds are increasingly being investigated for their potential use in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. The antioxidant activities of these compounds have been explored widely through experimental studies. Nonetheless, a theoretical understanding of the structural and electronic properties could broaden research perspectives, leading to the identification and synthesis of efficient structural analogs with prophylactic uses. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in marine algae with an attempt to describe the structure-activity relationship. PMID:27332715

  14. Antioxidant activities of crude phlorotannins from Sargassum hemiphyllum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Li; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Gong, Zhong-Qing; Pan, Ming-Zhu; Han, Ya-Li; Liu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Brown algae are well known as a source of biologically active compounds, especially those having antioxidant activities, such as phlorotannins. In this study we examined the antioxidant activities of crude phlorotannins extracts (CPEs) obtained from Sargassum hemiphyllum (SH) and fractionated according to the molecular weights. When CPEs were administrated at a dose of 30 mg/kg to Kunming mice pre-treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), the levels of oxidative stress indicators in the liver, kidney and brain were significantly reduced in vivo. All the components of various molecular weight fractions of CPEs exhibited greater scavenging capacities in clearing hydroxyl free radical and superoxide anion than the positive controls gallic acid, vitamin C and vitamin E. Particularly, the components greater than 30 kD obtained from ethyl acetate phase showed the highest antioxidant capacities. These results indicated that SH is a potential source for extracting phlorotannins, the algal antioxidant compounds. PMID:27376819

  15. Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin.

  16. Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin. PMID:25829633

  17. Antioxidant Activities of Ginseng Seeds Treated by Autoclaving

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hye-Min; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Yang, Deok-Chun; Ko, Sung Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng seeds were treated with different autoclaving temperatures and autoclaving times, and extracted with 80% methanol to measure changes in antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of ginseng seeds treated by autoclaving was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2’-aziono-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase SOD-like activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and total phenolic compound content. As autoclaving temperature and time were increased, the L lightness value decreased and the redness value tended to increase. Total phenolic compound content was about three times higher in ginseng seeds treated with autoclaving at 130℃ than in ginseng seeds that were not treated. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity increased as autoclaving temperature and time were increased. In particular, when the concentration was 100 ppm, the ABTS radical scavenging activity was 91.80% in ginseng seeds treated by autoclaving at 130℃, which was the highest antioxidant activity. FRAP and SOD-like antioxidant activity tended to increase significantly as autoclaving temperature and time were increased. PMID:23717144

  18. Antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected gourd vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Baljeet S; Yadav, Roshanlal; Yadav, Ritika B; Garg, Munish

    2016-04-01

    Study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of methanolic (ME), ethanolic (EE) and butanolic extracts (BE) of selected gourd vegetables. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different assays namely ferric thiocyanate test (FTC), thiobarbituric acid test (TBA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH free radicals scavenging test. A densitometric HPTLC analysis was performed for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Different extracts of the selected gourd vegetables revealed different antioxidant activity. Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrica revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total phenols, flavonids, tannins and carotenoids content and also the antioxidant activity in comparison to remaining vegetable extracts. Correlation studies indicated that FRAP test best described the antioxidant activity of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids (r = 0.854, 0.692 and 0.915 respectively). HPTLC profiles revealed the presence of maximum number of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L. siceraria and M. charantia. PMID:27413209

  19. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ai Lan; Jessica, Jeyanthi James Antony; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different parts (root, flower, leaf and stem) of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Labiatae). Methods Different parts of L. aspera were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol. The methanol extracts were subjected to antioxidant, antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the extracts showed moderate to potent antioxidant activity, among which the root extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552 µg/mL. Methanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. The root extract showed the highest mean zone of inhibition ranging from 9.0–11.0 mm against tested microorganisms, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it was evident that the methanol root extract did not show significant toxicity. The LC50 value for 12 h and 24 h observation was 2.890 mg/mL and 1.417 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present finding suggests that the methanol root extract of L. aspera could be developed as pharmaceutical products. PMID:23569893

  20. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  1. Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Harasym, Joanna; Oledzki, Remigiusz

    2014-05-01

    For a long time, the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables was considered critical in protecting humans against a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart and brain vascular diseases. Presently, it is thought that the protective properties of these foods result from the presence of low-molecular antioxidants that protect the cells and their structures against oxidative damage. The alleged effect of reducing the risk for many diseases is not only due to the effect of individual antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, or β-carotene, but also may be the result of antioxidant compounds not yet known or synergy of several different antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables. Studies on macromolecules (DNA, nucleotides, proteins) free-radical-related damage showed that diets enriched with extra servings of fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid had only limited effect on the inhibition of oxidation processes. A number of studies have shown, however, that consuming less common fruits and vegetables contribute much more to the reduction of free-radical processes, most likely because they contain a large amount of non-vitamin antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins.

  2. Antioxidant activity of gilan Mentha pulegium during growth.

    PubMed

    Shahmohamadi, Rezvan; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Rasa, Mahdi; Aghamali, Mahmudreza

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of methanolic and hydroalcoholic-acetone extracts of Iranian Mentha pulegium in two stages of maturity were investigated. The aim was to investigate the most suitable solvent for extraction of antioxidants and to find the correlation existed between plant growth stage and its antioxidant capacity. In vitro antioxidant properties of the extracts were examined by 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods. Moreover, total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. On the other hand, the phenolic compounds were analyzed by chromatographic methods, TLC and SPE-reversed phase-HPLC. The results revealed that the antioxidant capacities and total phenol contents of the extracts in flowering season were higher than pre-flowering season. A positive relationship was found between the results obtained from three different assay methods used, i.e. FRAP, DPPH and phenol contents. The TLC chromatogram of the two extracts showed differences in the number of separated compounds of extracts. HPLC results indicated that the fraction collected with washing buffer (pH = 6) had highest antioxidant activity.

  3. In vitro phytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of selected flavonoids.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; Mencherini, Teresa; Mancini, Emilia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; De Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities.

  4. In Vitro Phytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Laura; Mencherini, Teresa; Mancini, Emilia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; De Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities. PMID:22754304

  5. The pretreatment effects on the antioxidant activity of jujube polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.

  6. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  7. Effect of cryopreservation on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in fowl semen.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of chicken semen cryopreservation on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pooled semen from 10 Black Minorca roosters was used in the study. Semen samples were subjected to cryopreservation using the "pellet" method and dimethylacetamide (DMA) as a cryoprotectant. In the fresh and the frozen-thawed semen sperm membrane integrity (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI)), acrosomal damage (PNA-Alexa Fluor(®)488) and mitochondrial activity (Rhodamine 123) were assessed using flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. All sperm characteristics evaluated using flow cytometry were affected by cryopreservation. After freezing-thawing, there was significant (P < 0.01) reduction in sperm membrane integrity, sperm acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity. Following cryopreservation, MDA concentration significantly increased in chicken seminal plasma and spermatozoa (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The CAT activity in seminal plasma significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while intracellular activity of this enzyme did not significantly change in frozen-thawed semen. In seminal plasma of frozen-thawed semen the significant increase (P < 0.01) in GPx activity was detected. Whereas GPx activity in spermatozoa remained statistically unchanged after thawing. The SOD activity significantly increased (P < 0.01) in cryopreserved seminal plasma with simultaneous decrease (P < 0.01) of its activity in cells. In conclusion, this is probably the first report describing the level of antioxidant enzymes in frozen-thawed avian semen. The present study showed that the activity of CAT, GPx and SOD in chicken semen was affected by cryopreservation, what increased the intensity of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Catalase appeared to play an important role

  8. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  9. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine. PMID:22691230

  10. Antioxidative and Anticholinesterase Activity of Cyphomandra betacea Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products. PMID:24298210

  11. In Vitro Larvicidal and Antioxidant Activity of Dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, A.; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Many naturally occurring and synthetic compounds containing dihydrocyanopyridine and cyanopyran moiety show pharmacological properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the larvicidal and antioxidant potential of dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives 4a–f. A novel series of 2-amino-10-chloro-4,12-diphenyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[j][1,7]phenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized by reacting different substituted acridine chalcones through Michel addition. The compounds were synthesized in excellent yields and the structures were corroborated on the basis of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and ESI Mass analysis data. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. From the antioxidant assay, the compound 4c was reported with profound antioxidant potential. PMID:24868553

  12. Antioxidant activity of extracts from foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    PubMed

    Suma, P Florence; Urooj, Asna

    2012-08-01

    The less explored, commercially available foxtail millet-milled fractions like whole flour & bran rich fraction were studied for its antioxidant potency. Phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, reducing sugars and flavonoids were found only in methanolic & aqueous extracts, while tannins and terpenoids were present in all the solvent extracts of whole flour & bran rich fraction. Antioxidants were extracted using methanol, ethanol and water. Methanolic extracts of whole flour and bran rich fraction exhibited a significantly higher (P < 0.05) radical scavenging activity (44.62% & 51.80% respectively) using DPPH model system, and reducing power (0.381 & 0.455 respectively) at 2 mg, than the other solvents used for extraction. As bran rich fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, suggesting the presence of antioxidant components in the bran layer. PMID:23904660

  13. Antioxidant potential of spices and their active constituents.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K

    2014-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.

  14. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables. PMID:27547805

  15. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.

  16. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  17. Antioxidant activity in extracts of 27 indigenous Taiwanese vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan's indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  18. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  19. Changes in plasma antioxidant status during eccentric exercise and the effect of vitamin supplementation.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, S R; Jakeman, P; Thomason, H; Leguen, C; Thorpe, G H

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy students undertook one hour of box-stepping exercise. Prior to exercise eight had received no medication (Group A), eight received 400 mg of vitamin C daily for three weeks before and one week after exercise (Group C) and eight received 400 mg of vitamin E for the same period (Group E). Groups C and E had significantly higher levels of vitamin C (p < 0.01) and vitamin E (p < 0.01) respectively than group A at the commencement of exercise. Plasma total antioxidant capacity rose significantly during exercise in all group (A - p < 0.05; C - p < 0.001; E - p < 0.001). This rise was accounted for by increases in plasma uric acid in all groups. In addition there were significant increases in vitamin C in group C (p < 0.001) and vitamin E in group E (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in plasma malondialdehyde following exercise in any group. It is concluded that plasma antioxidant capacity rises in response to one hour of eccentric exercise and that the contribution of individual antioxidants to this change can be influenced by vitamin supplementation. The possible mechanisms of the antioxidant changes during exercise and their implications are discussed.

  20. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  1. Application of constant-current coulometry for estimation of plasma total antioxidant capacity and its relationship with transition metal contents.

    PubMed

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel K; Voloshin, Alexandr V; Gilmutdinov, Albert Kh; Budnikov, Herman C; Ganeev, Talgat S

    2006-03-01

    Simple and express coulometric method for the evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of human plasma based on the reaction with electrogenerated bromine is applied. TAC of plasma from patients with different ethiology of chronic renal failure was observed. The levels of antioxidant capacity for venous and arterial plasma are authentically different (15+/-1 kCl/L versus 11.7+/-0.7 kCl/L, p<0.01). The application of Vitamin E and ximedon as an antioxidant treatment significantly increase TAC level of plasma. Free liposoluble antioxidants in plasma in alpha-tocopherol units was determined. Redox potential of plasma is measured and its correlation with lg(TAC) is obtained. Transition metal contents of Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Cr in plasma of patients with chronic renal failure is significantly higher than that for a control group. Correlation analysis has shown negative linear regression between TAC value and transition metals concentration in plasma. This confirms interrelation of processes with participation of free radicals, antioxidants and transition metals as donors of electrons in chain radical processes. Moreover, it shows utility of common parameters, TAC for example, for estimation of efficiency of antioxidant defense system in living organism, in particular its antioxidant status.

  2. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Brasenia schreberi

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides (BPL-1 and BPL-2), one of the most important functional constituents in Brasenia schreberi was isolated from the external mucilage of B. schreberi (BPL-1) and the plant in vivo (BPL-2). This paper examines the relationship between the content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL and the antioxidant activity of BPL. Materials and Methods: The free radicals, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) and 1,1-diphnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-), were used to determine the antioxidant activity of BPL. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of BPL-1 and BPL-2 revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Results: The two sample types had different contents. This was proved by their different adsorption peak intensities. The IC50 values of BPL-1 (31.189 mg/ml) and BPL-2 (1.863 mg/ml) showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Based on the quantification of ABTS radical scavenging, the IC50 value of BPL-1 (5.460 mg/ml) was higher than that of BPL-2 (0.239 mg/ml). Therefore, in terms of the reducing power, the IC50 value of BPL-1 was too high to determine, and the IC50 value of BPL-2 was found to be 50.557 mg/ml. Hence, the antioxidant activity and total reducing power were high, and they were greater in BPL-2 than in BPL-1. In addition, BPL-2 was found to have more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid than BPL-1. Conclusion: The contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid are significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity and reducing power of BPL; the more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid, the more antioxidant activity and reducing power BPL has. SUMMARY The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the external mucilage and the Brasenia schreberi plant in vivo were confirmed to have high contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acidBoth BPL-1 and BPL-2 exhibited antioxidative activity and reducing power, and their antioxidative

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Brasenia schreberi

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides (BPL-1 and BPL-2), one of the most important functional constituents in Brasenia schreberi was isolated from the external mucilage of B. schreberi (BPL-1) and the plant in vivo (BPL-2). This paper examines the relationship between the content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL and the antioxidant activity of BPL. Materials and Methods: The free radicals, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) and 1,1-diphnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-), were used to determine the antioxidant activity of BPL. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of BPL-1 and BPL-2 revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Results: The two sample types had different contents. This was proved by their different adsorption peak intensities. The IC50 values of BPL-1 (31.189 mg/ml) and BPL-2 (1.863 mg/ml) showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Based on the quantification of ABTS radical scavenging, the IC50 value of BPL-1 (5.460 mg/ml) was higher than that of BPL-2 (0.239 mg/ml). Therefore, in terms of the reducing power, the IC50 value of BPL-1 was too high to determine, and the IC50 value of BPL-2 was found to be 50.557 mg/ml. Hence, the antioxidant activity and total reducing power were high, and they were greater in BPL-2 than in BPL-1. In addition, BPL-2 was found to have more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid than BPL-1. Conclusion: The contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid are significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity and reducing power of BPL; the more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid, the more antioxidant activity and reducing power BPL has. SUMMARY The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the external mucilage and the Brasenia schreberi plant in vivo were confirmed to have high contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acidBoth BPL-1 and BPL-2 exhibited antioxidative activity and reducing power, and their antioxidative

  5. Antioxidant activity of simvastatin prevents ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Ali, Reem Mustafa; Shotar, Ali Muhammad; Alkaraki, Almuthanna Khalaf

    2016-03-01

    Ifosfamide is an anticancer agent used largely in treatment of solid tumors. The mainstay dose-limiting toxicity of ifosfamide is nephrotoxicity. This is largely believde to be a result of ifosfamide-induced oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of simvastatin and the possible protective role of simvastatin against ifosfamide induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty Sprague-Dawely rats were divided into five groups and given orally different drug combinations. Group I and II were regarded as control groups and received 0.1% DMSO and normal saline, respectively. Group III received ifosfamide at 50 mg/kg, group IV received simvastatin at 0.3 mg/kg and group V received both ifosfamide and simvastatin. All animals were decapitated 2 days after the last ifosfamide administration. Findings revealed that ifosfamide induced nephrotoxicity as indicated by a significant increase in plasma creatinine and lipid per oxidation. This increase was significantly inhibited in animals pretreated with simvastatin. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters in that simvastatin minimized ifosfamide-induced renal tubular damage. The above results promote a future use of simvastatin in combination with ifosfamide in treatment of cancer patients to indicate that simvastatin protectics against ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in terms of oxidative stress and might be given in combination.

  6. Regulation of the Extracellular Antioxidant Selenoprotein Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx-3) in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviano, Filomena G.; Tang, Shiow-Shih; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) is a selenocysteine-containing extracellular antioxidant protein that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. Selenoprotein expression involves the alternate recognition of a UGA codon as a selenocysteine codon and requires signals in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR), including a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS), as well as specific translational cofactors. To ascertain regulatory determinants of GPx-3 expression and function, we generated recombinant GPx-3 (rGPX-3) constructs with various 3′-UTR, as well as a Sec73Cys mutant. In transfected Cos7 cells, the Sec73Cys mutant was expressed at higher levels than the wild type rGPx-3, although the wild type rGPx-3 had higher specific activity, similar to plasma purified GPx-3. A 3′-UTR with only the SECIS was insufficient for wild type rGPx-3 protein expression. Selenocompound supplementation and co-transfection with SECIS binding protein 2, increased wild type rGPx-3 expression. These results demonstrate the importance of translational mechanisms in GPx-3 expression. PMID:19219623

  7. Studies on the antioxidant properties of extracts from the roots and shoots of two Scutellaria species in human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina; Olas, Beata

    2015-01-01

    We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the shoots and roots of Scutellaria species (S. altissima and S. alpina) against the action of strong oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2+Fe(2+) (donor of hydroxyl radicals) on plasma proteins and lipids. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Protein oxidation was measured by quantitation of thiol group. We observed that the extracts (5-50 µg ml(-1)) containing phenolic compounds from both Scutellaria species distinctly reduced oxidation of lipids and proteins in human plasma treated with H2O2. These results also indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against oxidative damage to the human plasma lipids and proteins by induced hydroxyl radical. The main components of the plant materials analysed were flavonoids, present as aglycones (luteolin) or glycosides (cynaroside, baicalin, wogonoside). In all of the extracts, the phenylethanoid verbascoside was also found. The properties of the tested plant extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterised commercial antioxidative polyphenolic extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)). The comparative studies indicated that the analysed plant extracts were comparable to or even more effective in reducing the oxidation processes than the A. melanocarpa extract. The present study suggests that natural extracts from S. altissima and S. alpina have antioxidant activities and, therefore, may be beneficial in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26015995

  8. Effect of UV treatment on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and decay in strawberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changes in antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and decay inhibition in strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa) illuminated with different UV-C dosages were investigated. Three UV-C illumination durations and dosages, 1 min, 5 min and 10 min, (0.43, 2.15 and 4.30 kJ m-2) tested promoted the anti...

  9. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  10. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  11. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Berry and Fruit Wines and Liquors.

    PubMed

    Heinonen; Lehtonen; Hopia

    1998-01-19

    A total of 44 different berry and fruit wines and liquors with total phenolic contents between 91 and 1820 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Dealcoholized wine extracts were added to methyl linoleate (MeLo), and the oxidation in the dark at 40 degrees C was followed by conjugated diene measurement. Wines made of mixtures of black currants and crowberries or bilberries (240-275 µM GAE) were slightly superior to reference red grape wines (330-375 µM GAE) and equally as active as the control antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (50 µM), in inhibiting MeLo hydroperoxide formation. Also, raw materials including apple, arctic bramble, cowberries, cranberries, red currants, or rowanberries possessed antioxidant activity. Thus, these raw materials contain phenolic compounds, some of which are capable of protecting lipids against oxidation also in a hydrophobic lipid system. Liquors, apart from arctic bramble liquor, were less active than wines. However, the total phenolic content did not correlate with the antioxidant activity of the berry and fruit wines and liquors, therefore alleviating the importance of further characterization of the phenolic antioxidants present in berry and fruit wines. PMID:10554191

  13. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Acanthus ilicifolius flower

    PubMed Central

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Prihanto, Asep Awaludin; Nurdiani, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the flower of Acanthus ilicifolius (A. ilicifolius). Methods Antioxidant activity was determined as antiradical efficiency with diphenyl picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method and cytotoxic assay was undertaken using brine shrimp lethal toxicity test. Results A. ilicifolius flower contained terpenoid, phenolic compounds, and alkaloid. The methanol extract of A. ilicifolius flower showed the highest antiradical efficiency (AE=1.41×10−3) against DPPH radicals and the highest cytotoxicity (LC50=22 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii. Conclusions It is suggested that active compounds of A. ilicifolius flower solved in methanol play a role to inhibit free radical activity and kill Artemia salina nauplii. The substances can be considered as potential antioxidant and cytotoxic agents as well as imminent candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:23570011

  14. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  15. Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: a photochemiluminescence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils.

  16. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested.

  17. Advanced oxidation protein products and total antioxidant activity in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avinash, S S; Anitha, M; Vinodchandran; Rao, Gayathri M; Sudha, K; Shetty, Beena V

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and percent hemolysis (that indirectly indicates the degree of membrane damage secondary to lipid peroxidation) in colorectal carcinoma. Glutathione (GSH), total thiols and albumin were measured to determine the antioxidant status. Considering the dynamic interaction between various antioxidants in the body, we measured the total antioxidant activity (AOA). Globulin was measured to assess the inflammatory response secondary to oxidative stress. Investigations were conducted in 45 cases of recently diagnosed primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. As control, 45 age and sex matched healthy persons were chosen. GSH was estimated in whole blood, percent hemolysis in RBC suspension and other parameters in plasma. We observed a very high significant increase (P<0.001) in AOPP, percent hemolysis and a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in globulin in colorectal carcinoma. We observed a very high significant decrease (P<0.001) in whole blood GSH, total thiols, albumin, AOA and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma GSH in colorectal carcinoma. A very high significant negative correlation between percent hemolysis and AOA and an apparent negative correlation between total thiols and AOPP was seen in colorectal carcinoma. This demonstrated oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant status and secondary inflammatory response in colorectal carcinoma.

  18. In vitro synergistic antioxidant activity and identification of antioxidant components from Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Zhaoxi; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Many traditionally used herbs demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the mechanism underlying this synergism is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antioxidant activity of Astragalus membranaceus (AME) and Paeonia Lactiflora (PL), and identify the potential antioxidant components by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical spiking test followed by a high performance liquid chromatography separation combined with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (DPPH-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Eight AME-PL combined extracts (E1-E8) were prepared based on bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among them, E1 exhibited the strongest synergistic effect in scavenging DPPH radicals and reducing ferric ions (P<0.05). Moreover, E1 presented strong cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in MRC-5 cells by suppressing the decrease of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities. A strong correlation between the increment of total phenolic/flavonoid and synergistic antioxidant activity, especially between the increment of total flavonoid and the increase in ferric reducing power was observed. Finally, seven antioxidant substances were identified in E1 as oxypaeoniflora, catechin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, fomononetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 9,10-dimethoxy-pterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin and 2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethyl-isoflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:24816851

  19. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.

  20. In vitro antioxidant activities of five cultivars of daylily flowers from China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Maorun; Mao, Linchun

    2008-05-10

    Different cultivars of functional vegetables may vary in an antioxidant capacity. In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from five cultivars of daylily flower grown in China was compared by various antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power, the various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and ascorbic acid. All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in all tested methods. Among the five cultivars, Panlonghua and Mengzihua were found to possess the highest antioxidant activity, while Xiye and Baihua were found to possess the lowest antioxidant activity. In addition, a high positive correlation between the antioxidant properties and total phenolic content was observed. PMID:18569695

  1. Phytochemical Composition, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Duguetia furfuracea A. St.-Hill

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Souza, Celestina Elba Sobral; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Duguetia furfuracea is popular plant used in popular medicine. Hypothesis/Purpose. This claim evaluated the phytochemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract (HEDF), fractions of Duguetia furfuracea, and antioxidant and antifungal activity. Methods. The chemical profile was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid components were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reaction. The antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) methods. The antifungal activity was determined by microdilution assay. Results. HPLC analysis revealed caffeic acid and rutin as major compounds (HEDF), caffeic acid and quercitrin (Mt-OH fraction), and quercitrin and isoquercitrin (Ac-OEt fraction). The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were found for Ac-OEt fraction, and the crude extract showed higher in vitro antioxidant potential. The antifungal activity showed synergic effect with fluconazole and EHDF against C. krusei, fluconazole and Mt-OH against C. krusei and C. tropicalis, and Ac-OE and fluconazole against C. albicans. Conclusion. The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were marked with antioxidant effect. This is the first report of bioactivity of the synergic effect of HEDF and fractions. More studies would be required to better clarify its mechanism of synergic action. PMID:27127550

  2. Antioxidant activity of four color fractions of bee pollen from Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Vit, Patricia; Rivas, Efraín; Sciortino, Rosa; Sosa, Angel; Tejada, Daniel; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2012-12-01

    Bee pollen has been reported to show antioxidant and radical scavenging activities; contributing to anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties. Venezuelan honeybee pollen has been little studied, but is consumed because its properties are known from other countries reports. On the basis of these reports, water, ethanol and methanol soluble fractions were prepared from dried bee-pollen commercially available and produced by La Montaña farm (Mérida, Venezuela). These fractions were evaluated for their functional properties, specifically, polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity. Pollen samples were separated by color in four fractions: yellow, brown, orange and ochre. Polyphenol content ranged between 396.7 to 1286.7 gallic acid equivalents GAE/100 g pollen; it was highest in pollen homogenates obtained with ethanol, followed by those obtained with methanol and water. The antioxidant activity ranged from 0.50 to 1.84 micromoles Trolox equivalents TEAC/100 g for water and ethanol homogenates respectively. The results presented in this work suggest that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent antioxidant activity, comparable to human plasma, probably due to total polyphenol content of bee pollen. This is important because the bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food. PMID:24020258

  3. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.

  4. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts. PMID:27664697

  5. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  6. Acute application of antioxidants protects against hyperoxia-induced reduction of plasma nitrite concentration.

    PubMed

    Vucinovic, Zoran; Duplancic, Darko; Seselja-Perisin, Ana; Kukoc-Modun, Lea; Gunjaca, Grgo; Radman, Maja; Vukovic, Jonatan; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Poljak, Kolja; Modun, Darko

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute intake of antioxidants on hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress, reduction of plasma nitrite and change in arterial stiffness. Twelve healthy males randomly consumed either placebo or an oral antioxidant cocktail (vitamin C, 1000 mg; vitamin E, 600 IU; alpha-lipoic acid, 600 mg). Every therapy was consumed once, a week apart, in a cross-over design, 30 min before the experiment. The volunteers breathed 100% normobaric oxygen between 30th and 60th min of 1-h study protocol. Plasma levels of nitrite, lipid peroxides (LOOH) and vitamin C, arterial stiffness (indicated by augmentation index, AIx) and arterial oxygen (Ptc O2 ) pressure were measured before and after hyperoxia. Exposure to oxygen caused a similar increase of Ptc O2 in both placebo and antioxidants groups, confirming comparable exposure to hyperoxia (438 ± 100 versus 455 ± 83 mm Hg). Vitamin C was increased in the antioxidants group confirming successful application of antioxidants (69 ± 14 versus 57 ± 15 μm). Hyperoxia resulted in increased AIx and LOOH and decreased nitrite in placebo (-32 ± 11 versus -47 ± 13%, 72 ± 7 versus 62 ± 6 μm H2 O2 and 758 ± 184 versus 920 ± 191 nm, respectively), but not in the antioxidants group (-42 ± 13 versus -50 ± 13%, 64 ± 9 versus 61 ± 8 μm H2 O2 and 847 ± 156 versus 936 ± 201 nm, respectively). The acute intake of selected antioxidants was effective in preserving bioavailabity of ˙NO and vascular function, against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Effect of the French Oak Wood Extract Robuvit on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Orszaghova, Zuzana; Laubertova, Lucia; Sabaka, Peter; Rohdewald, Peter; Durackova, Zdenka; Muchova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    We examined in vitro antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur (QR), Robuvit, using TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the effect of its intake on markers of oxidative stress, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and total antioxidant capacity in plasma of 20 healthy volunteers. Markers of oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids and activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the erythrocytes. We have found an in vitro antioxidant capacity of Robuvit of 6.37 micromole Trolox equivalent/mg of Robuvit. One month intake of Robuvit in daily dose of 300 mg has significantly decreased the serum level of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid peroxides (LP). Significantly increased activities of SOD and CAT as well as total antioxidant capacity of plasma after one month intake of Robuvit have been shown. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the intake of Robuvit is associated with decrease of markers of oxidative stress and increase of activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma in vivo. PMID:25254080

  8. Exercise in a hot environment influences plasma anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Banquells, Montserrat; Riera, Joan; Drobnic, Franchek; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Exercise in thermally stressful environmental conditions can enhance oxidative stress. We sought to measure the plasma antioxidant defenses and cytokine response together with oxidative damage post-exercise in a temperate versus a hot environment. The plasma concentrations of vasoactive endothelin-1 and vascular angiogenic growth factor were also evaluated. Male athletes (n=9) volunteered to participate. The athletes randomly performed two bouts of treadmill exercise of 45min at 75-80% of maximal oxygen uptake in a climatic-controlled chamber under two different conditions: temperate environment (10-12°C, 40-55% humidity) and hot, humid environment (30-32°C, 75-78% humidity). Venous blood samples were obtained immediately pre- and post-bout and on recovery after 2h. Serum glucose, malondialdehyde and lactate concentrations were significantly increased post-exercise in hot but maintained in the temperate environment; these post-exercise values were significantly higher after exercise in hot than in temperate. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration, plasma phosphocreatine kinase and catalase activities, creatinine and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interleukin-6 significantly increased post-exercise in hot but maintained in temperate environment. The post-exercise circulating values of antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase-1 and endothelin were significantly higher in the hot than in temperate environment. Exercise in a hot and humid environment resulted in mild hyperthermia with elevated perceived exertion and thermal stress. Hyperthermic environment induced hyperglycemia, lactatecidemia and more cellular and oxidative damage than exercise in a temperate environment but also induced a post-exercise antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response in plasma. These results suggest that environmental temperature needs to be taken into account when evaluating exercise-related oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:25526659

  9. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS), reducing power (RP), and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP). Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs. PMID:25789875

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  12. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. PMID:27208744

  13. Assessment of radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants contained in foods and beverages in plasma solution.

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of the radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants has been the subject of extensive studies and controversy. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and inexpensive method for the assessment of the radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants contained in foods and beverages in plasma solution, a biologically relevant heterogeneous medium. Three types of probes, hydrophilic pyranine, with low reactivity, hydrophilic pyrogallol red (PGR), with high reactivity, and lipophilic BODIPY, with moderate reactivity, were separately used to measure the amount and rate of peroxyl radical scavenging. The amount of radicals scavenged by antioxidants was assessed from the lag phase produced by antioxidants in the decay of pyranine and BODIPY, while the reactivity of the antioxidants was assessed from their effect on the decay rate of PGR. Two liquid and two solid samples were tested. Commercial bottled green tea and vegetable juice were found to scavenge 15.6 and 3.45 mmol radicals L(-1) and the former scavenged peroxyl radicals 81 times faster than the latter. As for the solid samples, instant coffee powder was found to scavenge several times more radicals and more rapidly than green tea powder. This method may be applied to the assessment of the radical scavenging capacity of antioxidants contained in foods, beverages, and supplements in biologically relevant heterogeneous media. PMID:25857408

  14. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD. PMID:23912327

  15. Elimination of seaweed odour and its effect on antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) only for seaweed treated with 5% lemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.

  16. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dheeraj P.; Pancholi, Shyam S.; Patel, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

  17. [Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite].

    PubMed

    Bishko, O I; Harasym, N P; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and H2O2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose H2O2 and hydroperoxides were inhibited. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase ofcatalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the considerable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

  18. Alkenes with antioxidative activities from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin-Ge; Xu, Kun; Sang, Zhi-Pei; Wei, Rong-Rui; Liu, Wen-Min; Su, Ya-Lun; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Li, Lu-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Four new alkenes (1-4), and six known alkenes (5-12) were isolated from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and references. Compounds (1-12) were evaluated for antioxidative activities. Among them, compounds 1, 2, 4, and 7 exhibited significant antioxidative activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with IC50=21.4-49.5 μM. The known compounds (5-12) were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  19. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities. PMID:27390727

  20. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities. PMID:27390727

  1. Commercial dietary antioxidant supplements assayed for their antioxidant activity by different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Alberto; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2003-04-23

    Seven commercial dietary antioxidant supplements were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant capacity by different methodologies: antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.), inhibition of methyl linoleate (MeLo) autoxidation, and resistance to ion-dependent oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Great variability in antioxidant activity was seen among the supplements, as well as different patterns of antioxidant capacity depending on the method used. The same orders of activity were found for the MeLo autoxidation and LDL-induced oxidation methods, but the differences recorded by the former were wider. "Food/compound intake equivalents" of the doses recommended by the manufacturers were calculated in terms of quercetin, strawberries, and red wine for each of the supplements studied. Food/compound intake equivalents varied between 7.9 and 190 mg of quercetin according to the DPPH. scavenging method, between 0.20 and 98 mg according to the MeLo autoxidation method, and between 3.4 and 83 mg according to LDL-induced oxidation. In equivalent terms of red wine, the food/compound intake equivalents varied between 7 and 159 mL, between 3 and 1354 mL, and between 4 and 89 mL for the same three methods. In terms of equivalents of strawberry, they varied between 14 and 343 mg according to the DPPH. scavenging method and between 57 g and 26 kg according to the MeLo autoxidation method. These results show the need to standardize dietary supplements in terms of their antioxidant capacity to match required doses to the oxidative status of consumers. PMID:12696929

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Picrorhiza kurroa (Leaves) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kant, K.; Walia, M.; Agnihotri, V. K.; Pathania, Vijaylata; Singh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is a well-known herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Although it shows antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, it is most valued for its hepatoprotective effect. The rhizomes are widely used against indigestion problems since ancient times due to improper digestive secretions. Aim of this study was to explore antioxidant study of P. kurroa leaves for a new source of naturally occurring antioxidants. Two pure compounds, luteolin-5-O-glucopyranoside (1) and picein (2) were isolated from butanol extract through column chromatography. Different extracts of P. kurroa leaves (ethanol, ethyl acetate, butanol) were quantified for isolated compound (2) by high-performance liquid chromatography. All the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated for its antioxidant activity using two assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. The linear detection range was 1.56-200 μg/ml for picein. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for picein were 2.34 and 7.81 μg/ml, respectively. Butanol and ethyl acetate extract showed greater antioxidant activity as compare to ethanol extract. Compound 1 and ascorbic acid showed nearly similar antioxidant activity where as 2 showed no activity at standard concentration. The IC50 values for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay for ascorbic acid, compound 1, ethanol extract and its different fractions (ethyl acetate and butanol) were found to be 0.81, 1.04, 67.48, 39.58, 37.12 and 2.59, 4.02, 48.36, 33.24, 29.48 μg, respectively. PMID:24082348

  3. Structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activities of a series of flavonoids in a liposomal system.

    PubMed

    Arora, A; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M

    1998-06-01

    Structurally diverse plant phenolics were examined for their abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced either by Fe(II) and Fe(III) metal ions or by azo-derived peroxyl radicals in a liposomal membrane system. The antioxidant abilities of flavonoids were compared with those of coumarin and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). The antioxidant efficacies of these compounds were evaluated on the basis of their abilities to inhibit the fluorescence intensity decay of an extrinsic probe, 3-(p-(6-phenyl)-I,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenylpropionic acid (DPH-PA), caused by the free radicals generated during lipid peroxidation. All the flavonoids tested exhibited higher antioxidant efficacies against metal-ion-induced peroxidations than peroxyl-radical-induced peroxidation, suggesting that metal chelation may play a larger role in determining the antioxidant activities of these compounds than has previously been believed. Distinct structure-activity relationships were also revealed for the antioxidant abilities of the flavonoids. Presence of hydroxyl substituents on the flavonoid nucleus enhanced activity, whereas substitution by methoxy groups diminished antioxidant activity. Substitution patterns on the B-ring especially affected antioxidant potencies of the flavonoids. In cases where the B-ring could not contribute to the antioxidant activities of flavonoids, hydroxyl substituents in an catechol structure on the A-ring were able to compensate and become a larger determinant of flavonoid antioxidant activity. PMID:9641252

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Hamelia patens extracts.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman

    2016-01-01

    Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity.

  5. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Euryale ferox seed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2002-05-31

    Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla

    PubMed Central

    Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida

    2010-01-01

    A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052

  7. Dispersants having antioxidant activity and lubricating compositions containing them

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.; Hill, G. A.

    1981-02-03

    Lubricating oil additives having both dispersant and antioxidant activity, particularly useful for incorporation in two-stroke petrol engine lubricating oil compositions, are produced when a dispersant having free >n-h groups, E.G., a substituted succinimide, is reacted with an aldehyde and a compound having antioxidant activity containing in its molecular structure a group or groups capable of condensing with the aldehyde and >n-h groups present in the dispersant, thereby chemically bonding the compound to the dispersant. Representative antioxidants are mononuclear and polynuclear substituted phenols having at least one unsubstituted ortho- or para-position, E.G. 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and secondary aromatic amines. Typical reaction conditions are a temperature in the range 100* to 175/sup 0/C, and atmospheric pressure.

  8. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  9. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  10. Effect of permethrin plus antioxidants on locomotor activity and striatum in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Nasuti, Cinzia; Falcioni, Maria Letizia; Nwankwo, Innocent Ejike; Cantalamessa, Franco; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2008-09-29

    Pyrethroids are important insecticides used largely because of their high activity as an insecticide and their low mammalian toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated that these products show neurotoxic effects on the mammalian central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the propensity of permethrin to induce oxidative stress in adolescent rats and its possible attenuation by Vitamin E alone or+Coenzyme Q(10). Data indicated that adolescent rats exposed to permethrin exhibited alteration in the locomotor activity and plasma membrane fluidity of striatum. Vitamin E+Q(10) and Vitamin E alone supplementation reversed the negative effect on central nervous system. Permethrin alteration of striatum plasma membrane fluidity was restored by Vitamin E+Q(10). Data obtained from red blood cells showed that permethrin did not induce any modification of plasma membrane fluidity in adolescent rats, whereas antioxidants supplementation induced pro-oxidant effect. In summary some differences between antioxidant treatments were observed at striatum level: Coenzyme Q(10)+Vitamin E maintains plasma membrane fluidity, while Vitamin E is more effective to preserve GSH level.

  11. Saengshik, a formulated health food, prevents liver damage in CCl4-induced mice and increases antioxidant activity in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa-young; Kim, Joong-Hark; Lee, Seong-Ae; Chang, Hey-eun; Park, Mi-hyoun; Hwang, Sung-joo; Lee, Ju-yeon; Mok, Chulkyoon; Hong, Seong-gil

    2008-06-01

    Saengshik is a Korean noncooked food made with of more than 30 different whole gains, vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, and seaweeds. All of these ingredients are frozen and dried to minimize the loss of nutrients. Saengshik has become popular among health-conscious people in the Republic of Korea. The study aims to investigate antioxidant effects of Saengshik by in vivo and human experiments. In in vivo tests, mice were fed Saengshik for 4 weeks, and oxidative damage was induced by CCl(4). Then the effects of Saengshik on oxidative damage were examined. It was found that plasma lipid hydroperoxide and protein oxidative damages were significantly suppressed and antioxidants, glutathione, and thiol groups were increased. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was increased, and the level of glutamate pyruvate transaminase was decreased. In a human study, elderly people were given Saengshik for 24 weeks, and changes in antioxidant defense of the body were examined. Antioxidant activities in plasma were enhanced, although the difference was not significant. Therefore, it is expected that Saengshik is effective at removing oxidants from body tissues, preventing oxidative damage, and eventually boosting the antioxidant capacity of the body.

  12. Potentiometric study of antioxidant activity: development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A V; Gerasimova, E L; Brainina, Kh Z

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the study of the antioxidant activity of different objects is caused by an unbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the performance of the antioxidant system in humans under certain conditions, which leads to oxidative stress and pathological states of the organism. This article presents a brief critical review of the methods that are used to measure integrated antioxidant activity (AOA). It is shown that the most promising methods for measuring AOA are electrochemical ones, particularly potentiometry, as it best fits the nature of the processes causing oxidative stress. The article gives the theoretical rational for requirements that an oxidizer of antioxidants (AO) should meet. The work presents the thermodynamic grounds for the use of an earlier proposed mediator system, kinetics of chemical reactions between AO and the mediator system. In order to confirm reliability and accuracy of the results, numerous correlation studies were conducted, aiming to compare the data obtained with the use the proposed method and independent analytical methods. The article presents the results of the potentiometric study of AOA for a variety of objects, including individual antioxidant → nutritional supplements → food → blood and blood fractions.

  13. Antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids from Bidens tripartita.

    PubMed

    Wolniak, Michał; Tomczykowa, Monika; Tomczyk, Michał; Gudej, Jan; Wawer, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    Extracts from herb and flowers of Bidens tripartita L. (Asteraceae), obtained using solvents of different polarity, were studied for their radical scavenging effects. Antioxidant activities of pure flavonoids: flavanomarein (isookanin 7-O-glucoside), cynaroside (luteolin 7-O-glucoside) and luteolin, which had been isolated from this plant, were also evaluated. Radical-scavenging activity was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The content of flavonoids in flower heads is half of that found in the herb; however, the extract from flowers showed that the antioxidant activity was almost two times higher there. Some extracts (n-BuOH fraction) showed long lasting radical scavenging activity and the EPR spectra were recorded in time to follow the reaction kinetics. Scavenging of DPPH showed second-order kinetics at the beginning of the assay period and later the first-order one. Different kinetics suggested the presence of polymerized and/or less active antioxidants with different scavenging mechanisms for particular polyphenolic compounds. Bur-marigold extracts are a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used in pharmaceutical or food industry. PMID:18540165

  14. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of extracts from Cirsium japonicum roots

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Heo, Seong-Il

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of methanol (MeOH) and water extracts from roots of Cirsium japonicum in vitro. MeOH extract showed a stronger free radical scavenging activity than water extract. However, both of extracts showed a concentration dependent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating ability. MeOH extract had greater phenolic and flavonoid contents than water extract. The antidiabetic activity of these two extracts was evaluated by the α-glucosidase inhibition assay. The water extract showed a considerable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. To our knowledge, this may be the first time to report the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in Cirsium japonicum roots. PMID:20016726

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of 5-n-alkylresorcinols.

    PubMed

    Parikka, Kirsti; Rowland, Ian R; Welch, Robert W; Wähälä, Kristiina

    2006-03-01

    Incubation with 5-n-alkylresorcinols (chain lengths C15:0, C17:0, C19:0, C21:0, and C23:0) increased the self-protection capacity of HT29 human colon cancer cells against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and genotoxic fecal water samples using comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis assay). The alkylresorcinols did not exert potent antioxidant activity in the FRAP (ferric reduction ability of plasma) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assays. However they were able to significantly inhibit copper-mediated oxidation of human LDL (low-density lipoprotein) in vitro, and pentadecylresorcinol at 25 micromol/L increased lag time by 65 min. The results show that alkylresorcinols have antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity under in vitro conditions.

  16. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Büyükbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

    2008-03-01

    > sage > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > roselle. In particular, their phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities may be useful for meal planning in type 2 diabetes. They could contribute to sustain plasma antioxidant level because antioxidants present in plants and herbs prevent the development of vascular diseases seen in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of extracts from peanut parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represent approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were det...

  18. Antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil under frying conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant activity of sesamol was investigated in soybean oil using a miniaturized frying experiment with potato cubes fried at 180 °C. Oxidation of soybean oil was determined by gel permeation chromatography for polymerized triacylglycerols and by 1H NMR spectroscopy for reactions at reactive si...

  19. Antioxidant activity of isolated ellagitannins from red raspberries and cloudberries.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Marja; Kylli, Petri; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Heinonen, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Ellagitannins from red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) and cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus) were isolated by using column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The berry phenolic isolates consisted of 80% (cloudberry) and of 60% (raspberry) of ellagitannins, with raspberries also containing anthocyanins. The main ellagitannins of both raspberries and cloudberries were identified by ESI-MS to consist of the dimeric sanguiin H-6 and the trimeric lambertianin C. Monomeric ellagitannins such as casuarictin in raspberries and pedunculagin in cloudberries were also found. The antioxidant activity of the berry phenolic isolate, ellagitannin isolate (mixture), ellagitannin main fraction (dimer and trimer), and ellagic acid was studied in bulk and emulsified methyl linoleate, in human low-density lipoprotein in vitro, and the radical scavenging activity was studied in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Cloudberry and red raspberry ellagitannins were highly effective as radical scavengers. Berry ellagitannins also showed significant antioxidant activity toward oxidation of both human LDL and methyl linoleate emulsions. However, only weak or moderate antioxidant activity was exhibited by ellagitannins toward oxidation of bulk oil. Thus, ellagitannins contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of cloudberries and red raspberries in lipoprotein and lipid emulsion environments, the latter being more relevant for food applications.

  20. Antioxidant activity and kinetics studies of eugenol and 6-bromoeugenol.

    PubMed

    Mahboub, Radia; Memmou, Faiza

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of 6-bromoeugenol and eugenol. EC50, the concentration providing 50% inhibition, is calculated and the antioxidant activity index (AAI) is evaluated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method. EC50 values of 6-bromoeugenol, ascorbic acid and eugenol were 34.270 μg/mL, 54.888 μg/mL and 130.485 μg/mL, respectively. 6-Bromoeugenol showed higher AAI value (1.122) followed by ascorbic acid (0.700), then by eugenol (0.295). We also investigate the kinetics of DPPH radical scavenging activity of our products to determine the useful parameter TEC50 to evaluate their antiradical efficiency (ARE). Our results have shown high ARE. This study has provided the following ARE ( × 10(-3)) order for the tested antioxidants: ascorbic acid (70.119)>6-bromoeugenol (34.842) > eugenol (21.313). Finally, we classify ascorbic acid and eugenol as fast kinetics reaction (TEC50 8.82 and 11.38 min, respectively) and 6-bromoeugenol as medium kinetics reaction (TEC50 39.24 min).

  1. Antioxidant activities of selective gluten free ancient grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ancient grains were known for special nutritional values along with gluten free qualities. Amaranth, quinoa, teff, buckwheat flours were evaluated for pasting properties, water holding capacity, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities (free and bound). They all had higher water holding capacit...

  2. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  3. Vernonia kotschyana roots: therapeutic potential via antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vasincu, Alexandru; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Vasincu, Ioana; Aprotosoaie, Ana C; Bild, Veronica; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca; Gavrilescu, Cristina M

    2014-11-19

    The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts for their in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content. The roots were extracted successively with chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The antioxidant activity of root extracts was evaluated in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Their chemical characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) whereas the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest phenolic content and was found to be the most active in the free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays; it also showed a high antioxidant activity in MCF-12F cells. This study suggests a potential use of the ethyl acetate extract of Vernonia kotschyana not only as an antioxidant agent in gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis, but also in other disorders characterized by high levels of oxidative stress.

  4. Antioxidative activities of aroma extracts isolated from natural plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A; Shibamoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Natural leaves and flowers containing numerous aroma chemicals are widely used in aromatherapy since ancient times. In addition to their pleasant smells, aroma chemicals might have some beneficial health effects. Aroma extracts, isolated from coffee beans, soybeans, and mung beans by steam distillation under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 85 mm Hg) were examined for their antioxidative activities. The inhibitory effect of these extracts toward hexanal/hexanoic acid conversion was measured in the testing solution over prolonged time periods. The inhibitory effects of these extracts toward malonaldehyde formation from lipids oxidized by Fenton's reagent were also measured. The antioxidative activity of these extracts, in particular coffee bean extract, was consistent with that of BHT or alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Soybeans and mung beans extract contained maltol, which inhibits hexanal oxidation significantly. Eugenol, which is one of the major constituents of mung bean extract, exhibited potent antioxidative activity in an aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Antioxidants such as eugenol and maltol may play an important role in the pharmaceutical activities of natural plant extracts used for aromatherapy. PMID:11237179

  5. Arbutin content and antioxidant activity of some Ericaceae species.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, R D; Lakusić, B; Doslov-Kokorus, Z; Kovacević, N

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative analyses and investigation of antioxidant activity of herb and dry ethanolic extracts of five species from Ericaceae family (Arbutus unedo L., Bruckentalia spiculifolia Rchb., Calluna vulgaris Salisb., Erica arborea L. and Erica carnea L.) were performed. Total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically and arbutin content was measured both spectrophotometrically and by HPLC coupled with DAD detection. Antioxidative properites of the ethanolic extracts were tested by means of FRAP (total antioxidant capacity), lipid peroxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A significant amount of arbutin was detected only in Arbutus unedo. All samples investigated showed excellent antioxidant activity. The best inhibition of lipid peroxidation has been shown by Bruckentalia spiculifolia herb extract (62.5 microg/ml; more than 95%), which contained the highest amount of flavonoids (11.79%). The highest scavenging activity was obtained with leave extract of Arbutus unedo (IC50 = 7.14 microg/ml). The leaves of A. unedo contained a small amount of flavonoids but high content of non-tannins polyphenols. PMID:19947168

  6. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa MM; Mostafa, Soha SM; Shalaby, Emad A; Mahmoud, Ghada I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2′- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content. PMID:23569980

  7. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  8. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b 5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  9. Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of Pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay.

    PubMed

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Kasimsetty, Sashi G; Khan, Shabana I; Ferreira, Daneel

    2009-11-11

    Many health benefits of pomegranate products have been attributed to the potent antioxidant action of their tannin components, mainly punicalagins and ellagic acid. While moving through the intestines, ellagitannins are metabolized by gut bacteria into urolithins that readily enter systemic circulation. In this study, the antioxidant properties of seven urolithin derivatives were evaluated in a cell-based assay. This method is biologically more relevant because it reflects bioavailability of the test compound to the cells, and the antioxidant action is determined in the cellular environment. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity of urolithins was correlated with the number of hydroxy groups as well as the lipophilicity of the molecule. The most potent antioxidants are urolithins C and D with IC(50) values of 0.16 and 0.33 microM, respectively, when compared to IC(50) values of 1.1 and 1.4 microM of the parent ellagic acid and punicalagins, respectively. The dihydroxylated urolithin A showed weaker antioxidant activity, with an IC(50) value 13.6 microM, however, the potency was within the range of urolithin A plasma concentrations. Therefore, products of the intestinal microbial transformation of pomegranate ellagitannins may account for systemic antioxidant effects.

  10. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  11. Measurement of antioxidant activity with trifluoperazine dihydrochloride radical cation.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M N; Khan, I U

    2008-06-01

    A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH) decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM) and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS)-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays) and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.

  12. The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Le Thanh, Bich; Lemay, Michel; Bastien, Alexandre; Lapointe, Jérôme; Lessard, Martin; Chorfi, Younès; Guay, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The "mycotoxin" effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced

  13. Plasma lipoproteins in transport of silibinin, an antioxidant flavonolignan from Silybum marianum.

    PubMed

    Svagera, Zdenek; Skottová, Nina; Vána, Petr; Vecera, Rostislav; Urbánek, Karel; Belejová, Marie; Kosina, Pavel; Simánek, Vilím

    2003-05-01

    To assess the role of plasma lipoproteins in the transport of silibinin, an antioxidant flavonolignan, (125)I-labelled silibinin ((125)I-SB) administered perorally to the rat was used. The plasma (125)I-SB derived radioactivity was distributed among plasma lipoproteins according to their lipophilicity (TAG-rich lipoproteins 30-40% > LDL 15% > HDL 5%), and in the fraction of d > 1.215 containing albumin and other proteins a minority amount of radioactivity was found. Administration of (125)I-SB in a complex with phosphatidylcholine resulted in proportionally higher radioactivities in all fractions as well as in tissues. Dietary olive oil had a slightly decreasing effect on plasma concentrations of silibinin measured by HPLC as well as on (125)I-SB derived radioactivity in plasma and liver. In the TAG-rich lipoprotein fraction and HDL no effects of olive oil on the levels of (125)I-SB derived radioactivities were observed, however, at a 30 min interval the levels of (125)I-SB derived radioactivity in LDL and the heart were significantly decreased in the olive oil group. These results suggest that (i) silibinin is not resorbed by the chylomicron pathway, and (ii) the endogenous lipoprotein pathway VLDL --> LDL may play a role in the transport of silibinin from the liver to the extrahepatic tissues concurrently facilitating the lipoprotein antioxidant influence of silibinin.

  14. [Study on antioxidant activity of two major secoiridoid glucosides in the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zuo, Yan; Sun, Wen-Ji

    2007-05-01

    The antioxidant effects of two major secoiridoid glucosides (nuezhenoside and G13, separated in our laboratory) from Fructus Ligustri Lucidi had already been assayed though DPPH radicals, respectively. The results revealed that these ingredients showed significant antioxidant activities. A positive correlation existed between total content and antioxidant activity. G13 had shown higher antioxidant activity than nuezhenoside. It implied that the structure of secoiridoid glucoside was postitive to antioxidant activity. Otherwise, the results could promote the deep research of Furctus Ligustri Lucidi on antioxidant mechanism. PMID:17727057

  15. Appraisal of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity potential of cornelian cherry leaves.

    PubMed

    Celep, Engin; Aydın, Ahmet; Kırmızıbekmez, Hasan; Yesilada, Erdem

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant activity of the 80% methanolic extract of Cornus mas L. leaves (CMM) was evaluated by various methods both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro screening tests indicated that CMM had high antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging and metal reducing activity. In vivo antioxidant activity studies in normal healthy rats demonstrated that the total antioxidant capacity of liver homogenates were increased, although no changes were observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase or in the level of lipid peroxidation. Studies on CCl4-treated rats also showed that CMM restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and elevated the total antioxidant capacities of both the total blood and liver homogenates of the animals. Further activity-guided fractionation studies led to the isolation of gallic acid, a well-known antioxidant, as one of the active components. PMID:24035707

  16. Composition and antioxidant activity of red fruit liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Wińska, Katarzyna; Szumny, Antoni; Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Mizgier, Paulina; Wyspiańska, Dorota

    2014-08-15

    Fruits traditionally used for liqueurs are a good source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to compare the content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of liqueurs made from red fruits. The liqueurs were made from fruits of 10 species: chokeberry, cornelian cherry, black rose, blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, mahonia, sloe, strawberry, and sour cherry. The liqueurs from black rose, chokeberry, sloe and mahonia fruits contained the most of substances which react with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (671, 329, 271 and 218 mg GAE/100 mL, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity. The samples stored at a temperature of 30 °C had antioxidant activity from 3% to 11% lower than the fresh samples. After 6 months, anthocyanins degraded almost completely in the samples stored at 30 °C and at 15 °C there was from 0% (blackcurrant liqueurs) to 47% (sloe liqueurs) of their initial content and slightly more in sweet liqueurs. PMID:24679815

  17. Evaluation of colour parameters and antioxidant activities of fruit wines.

    PubMed

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of oenological colorimetric indexes, CIELAB parameters, total phenols and antioxidant activities has been studied in different fruit wines made from black mulberry, blackberry, quince, apple, apricot, melon, red raspberry, bilberry, sour cherry and strawberry. The highest value of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents were determined in bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines (61.80%, 1161 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 60.00%, 1232 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 58.10%, 1081 mg/l gallic acid equivalents), respectively. The highest values for A420 nm, A520 nm, A620 nm, the proportion of blue, wine colour, wine total colour of pigments, wine polymeric pigment colour and K-K values logarithmic colour intensity) were determined in bilberry fruit wine. Positive correlation was found between antioxidant activities and total phenols (r=0.958, P = 0.001). The results of grouping of different parameters in n-dimensional space with different fruit wines demonstrated the importance of bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines as natural antioxidants and colourants. PMID:16849114

  18. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, A M; García-Diz, L; Martínez-Tomé, M; Mariscal, M; Murcia, M A

    2009-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest losses of LOO. scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving, pea after boiling, and zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH. scavenging capacity in all the processes. Celery increased its antioxidant capacity in all the cooking methods, except boiling when it lost 14%. Analysis of the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the different vegetables showed that the highest losses occurred in garlic with all the methods, except microwaving. Among the vegetables that increased their TEAC values were green bean, celery, and carrot after all cooking methods (except green bean after boiling). These 3 types of vegetables showed a low ABTS radical scavenging capacity. According to the method of analysis chosen, griddling, microwave cooking, and baking alternately produce the lowest losses, while pressure-cooking and boiling lead to the greatest losses; frying occupies an intermediate position. In short, water is not the cook's best friend when it comes to preparing vegetables.

  19. Composition and antioxidant activity of red fruit liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Wińska, Katarzyna; Szumny, Antoni; Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Mizgier, Paulina; Wyspiańska, Dorota

    2014-08-15

    Fruits traditionally used for liqueurs are a good source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to compare the content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of liqueurs made from red fruits. The liqueurs were made from fruits of 10 species: chokeberry, cornelian cherry, black rose, blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, mahonia, sloe, strawberry, and sour cherry. The liqueurs from black rose, chokeberry, sloe and mahonia fruits contained the most of substances which react with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (671, 329, 271 and 218 mg GAE/100 mL, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity. The samples stored at a temperature of 30 °C had antioxidant activity from 3% to 11% lower than the fresh samples. After 6 months, anthocyanins degraded almost completely in the samples stored at 30 °C and at 15 °C there was from 0% (blackcurrant liqueurs) to 47% (sloe liqueurs) of their initial content and slightly more in sweet liqueurs.

  20. Antioxidants may Attenuate Plasma Erythropoietin Decline after Hyperbaric Oxygen Diving.

    PubMed

    Mutzbauer, T S; Schneider, M; Neubauer, B; Weiss, M; Tetzlaff, K

    2015-11-01

    According to previous studies, plasma erythropoietin (EPO) may decrease after hyperbaric oxygen exposure due to oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that the decrease of EPO can be attenuated by oxygen free radical scavengers.The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether EPO plasma levels can be influenced by oral application of vitamin C and E before repeated hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. 16 healthy male police task force divers performed 3 morning dives on oxygen within a regular diving schedule on 3 consecutive days. They were randomized into either the placebo group or the vitamin group, receiving 1 g ascorbic acid and 600 IU D-α-tocopherol orally 60 min before the dive. Blood samples for EPO measurement were taken on days 1, 2, and 3 at T1, T3 and T5 60 min before and at T2, T4 and T6 60 min after each dive, respectively. A moderate decrease of EPO was observed beginning at T3 until T6 in the placebo group. The EPO concentrations in the vitamin group did not show relevant variations compared to baseline. Radical scavenging vitamins C and D may counteract hyperbaric oxygen related mechanisms reducing EPO production in hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving.

  1. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of pine pollen extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ae-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the medicinal properties of pine pollen, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of pine pollen extract (PPE) were investigated. PPE displayed a strong free radical scavenger activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. It was observed also that the antioxidant activity, measured by the ferric thiocyanate method, increased with the addition of PPE to the linoleic acid emulsion system. PPE was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls formed from liver homogenate. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power of PPE was excellent. Thereafter, the study investigated the effects of PPE in modulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the effect of PPE on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in the human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982. PPE was found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment with PPE at 10 microg/mL significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) production in SW982 cells. IL-1beta-induced JNK activation was inhibited by PPE (10 microg/mL), whereas p38 and ERK1/2 were not affected. These findings suggest that pine pollen is a potential antioxidant and beneficial for inflammatory conditions through down-regulation of JNK and MMPs.

  2. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

  3. Extraction and antioxidant activity of flavonoids of Morus nigra

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26885210

  4. Purification, structural characterization, and antioxidant activity of antioxidant substance from the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Lak; Ryu, Il-Hwan

    2009-04-01

    An antioxidant substance (AOS) obtained from an enzymatic extract of the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax was purified by DEAE-Sephadex CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The purification yield of AOS was 14.3%. The AOS predominantly contained fucose, mannose, and galactose but also contained a sulfate group. The structure of AOS was investigated by periodate oxidation, desulfation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AOS was mainly composed of alternating units of beta-D-Glc(1 --> 2)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal(1 --> 4)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal alpha-D-Man (1 --> 4) beta-D-Glc (or Xyl)- and branched linkage of alpha-D-Man(1 --> 3) alpha-D-Fuc. In addition, the fucose residues were shown to be 2-O- and 4-O-sulfated and, therefore, were either terminal or 3-linked. The antioxidative activity of AOS was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the beta-carotene-linoleate assay systems and was compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid (AscA). The results showed that AOS exhibited higher antioxidative activity than AscA in the DPPH assay model and in the beta-carotene-linoleate assay system at all of the four concentration levels tested (from 50 to 200 microg/mL). These results suggested that AOS from the red seaweed G. tenax is an efficient novel antioxidant. PMID:19459750

  5. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power.

  6. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  7. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  8. Phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Erica herbacea L.

    PubMed

    Vucić, Dragana M; Petković, Miroslav R; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanović, Olgica D; Vasić, Sava M; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves and flowers of Erica herbacea L. were studied. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by macrodilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris. The values for MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. The most sensitive bacterial strains were Proteus vulgaris strains. The aqueous extract from E. herbacea was found the most active. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 14.98 and 119.88 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in extracts was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminium chloride and obtained results varied from 16.19 to 26.90 mg RU/g. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically using DPPH reagent. The highest capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals was found in the aqueous extract from E. herbacea. The results of the total phenolic content determination of the examined extracts indicate that E. herbacea extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and also possess a significant antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial activity.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Turkish extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Hande; Soyer, Ferda; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen

    2010-07-28

    Turkish extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from different varieties/geographical origins and their phenolic compounds were investigated in terms of their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties in comparison to refined olive, hazelnut, and canola oils. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella Enteritidis. Although all EVOOs showed a bactericidal effect, the individual phenolic compounds demonstrated only slight antimicrobial activity. Moreover, refined oil samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. Among the phenolic compounds, cinnamic acid (2 mg/kg of oil) had the highest percent inhibition value with 0.25 log reduction against L. monocytogenes. The synergistic interactions of tyrosol, vanillin, vanillic, and cinnamic acids were also observed against Salmonella Enteritidis. The antioxidant activities of oils were tested by beta-carotene-linoleate model system and ABTS method. In both methods, EVOOs showed higher antioxidant activities, whereas refined oils had lower activity. The ABTS method provided a higher correlation (0.89) with total phenol content.

  10. Phenolic content and antioxidant activities of burr parsley (Caucalis platycarpos L.).

    PubMed

    Plazonić, Ana; Mornar, Ana; Maleš, Željan; Kujundžić, Nikola

    2013-07-22

    Since C. platycarpos contains a wide variety of antioxidants, in the present study total flavonoid and phenolic acid content as well as antioxidative activity of various C. platycarpos extracts were investigated. The results obtained show a significant polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the investigated plant. Moreover, a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was found, indicating the responsibility of these compounds for the antioxidant effectiveness of C. platycarpos extracts and making C. platycarpos a good potential source of natural antioxidants.

  11. Antioxidant activity of selected Spanish wines in corn oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, C; Satué-Gracia, M T; Frankel, E N

    2000-11-01

    Wines contain phenolic compounds that may be useful for preventing lipid oxidation as dietary antioxidants. This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity in corn oil emulsions of seventeen selected Spanish wines and two California wines. The inhibition of hydroperoxide formation at 10 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) varied from 8.4% to 40.2% with the red wines, from 20.9% to 45.8% with the rosé wines, and from 6.5% to 47.0% with the white wines. The inhibition of hydroperoxide formation at 20 microM GAE varied from 11.9% to 34.1% with the red wines, from 0.1% to 34. 5% with the rosé wines, and from 3.3% to 37.2% with the white wines. The inhibition of hexanal formation at 10 microM GAE varied from 23. 6% to 64.4% with the red wines, from 42.7% to 68.5% with the rosé wines, and from 28.4% to 68.8% with the white wines. The inhibition of hexanal formation at 20 microM GAE varied from 33.0% to 46.3% with the red wines, from 11.3% to 66.5% with the rosé wines, and from -16.7% to +21.0% with the white wines. The antioxidant effect decreased with increasing concentration. This antioxidant activity was related to the five main groups of phenolic compounds identified in wines by HPLC. The relative antioxidant activity correlated positively with the total phenol content of wines (by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and by HPLC), benzoic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols, for the inhibition of hydroperoxides and hexanal at 10 and 20 microM GAE.

  12. Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Some Carpathian Basin honeys.

    PubMed

    Gyergyák, Kinga; Boros, Borbála; Marton, Krisztina; Felinger, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Farkas, Ágnes

    2016-02-01

    Unifloral honeys have a high commercial value and should undergo a strict quality control before marketing. This study aimed at determining floral origin, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 7 samples marketed as lavender and thyme honeys. The samples were subjected to pollen analysis to confirm their botanical origin. Coupled chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were optimized for the separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Pollen profile analysis revealed that only 3 out of 5 alleged lavender honeys contained a low percentage (0.6-1.5) of lavender pollen; and there were only traces (0.1-0.6%) of thyme pollen in the alleged thyme honeys. Polyphenolic constituents did not allow for the clear separation of honey samples, revealing no marker compounds previously associated with lavender and thyme honeys. All samples contained large amounts of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, hesperetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid; as well as abscisic acid, a plant hormone known to be present in floral nectar and honey. Our results suggest that only one of five alleged lavender honeys and neither of the two alleged thyme honeys are true unifloral honeys. However, they can still provide various health benefits, such as being good sources of antioxidants. There was no relationship between the antioxidant activity and the uni- or multifloral character of the honey samples. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was the lowest in the honey sample with lavender and the highest in one of the alleged lavender honeys. Our findings highlight the importance of microscopical and phytochemical analyses of honeys before marketing, to ensure satisfactory quality for customers. PMID:27032212

  13. Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Some Carpathian Basin honeys.

    PubMed

    Gyergyák, Kinga; Boros, Borbála; Marton, Krisztina; Felinger, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Farkas, Ágnes

    2016-02-01

    Unifloral honeys have a high commercial value and should undergo a strict quality control before marketing. This study aimed at determining floral origin, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 7 samples marketed as lavender and thyme honeys. The samples were subjected to pollen analysis to confirm their botanical origin. Coupled chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were optimized for the separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Pollen profile analysis revealed that only 3 out of 5 alleged lavender honeys contained a low percentage (0.6-1.5) of lavender pollen; and there were only traces (0.1-0.6%) of thyme pollen in the alleged thyme honeys. Polyphenolic constituents did not allow for the clear separation of honey samples, revealing no marker compounds previously associated with lavender and thyme honeys. All samples contained large amounts of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, hesperetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid; as well as abscisic acid, a plant hormone known to be present in floral nectar and honey. Our results suggest that only one of five alleged lavender honeys and neither of the two alleged thyme honeys are true unifloral honeys. However, they can still provide various health benefits, such as being good sources of antioxidants. There was no relationship between the antioxidant activity and the uni- or multifloral character of the honey samples. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was the lowest in the honey sample with lavender and the highest in one of the alleged lavender honeys. Our findings highlight the importance of microscopical and phytochemical analyses of honeys before marketing, to ensure satisfactory quality for customers.

  14. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity. PMID:23875901

  15. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of Corylus colurna.

    PubMed

    Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergo; Alberti, Agnes; Sonati, Mirella; Kéry, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazel), a common hazel species in Europe, could be considered as a source of pharmacologically important natural compounds, since other members of the Corylus genus have been reported to contain several constituents with beneficial biological activity. Nevertheless, its phytochemical exploration is still incomplete. In this study the potent antioxidant phenolic compounds in different parts of the plant were investigated. The phenolics in the leaves, bark, catkins and involucre of C. colurna possess notable scavenger activity on both DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The total polyphenol content shows significant correlation with the antioxidant activity of the samples. Twenty-three phenolic compounds - hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives and diarylheptanoids - were characterized in the C. colurna extracts by LC-DAD, LC-ESI-TOF and LC-ESI-QQQ-MS.

  17. [Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of dimeric phenol compounds].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masahiro

    2008-08-01

    We studied the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of monomeric and dimeric phenol compounds. Dimeric compounds had higher antioxidant activities than monomeric compounds. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping experiments showed that phenol compounds with an allyl substituent on their aromatic rings directly scavenged superoxide, and that only eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals. We developed a generation system of the hydroxyl radical without using any metals by adding L-DOPA and DMPO to PBS or MiliQ water in vitro. We found that eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals directly and is metabolized to a dimer. On the other hand, dipropofol, a dimer of propofol, has strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. However, it lacks solubility in water and this property is assumed to limit its efficacy. We tried to improve the solubility and found a new solubilization method of dipropofol in water with the addition of a monosaccharide or ascorbic acid.

  18. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase and antioxidative activity of Gentiana lutea extracts.

    PubMed

    Nastasijević, Branislav; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana; Pašti, Igor; Vujačić, Ana; Joksić, Gordana; Vasić, Vesna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Gentiana lutea extracts on the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), as well as the antioxidant activity of these extracts and their correlation with the total polyphenol content. Extracts were prepared using methanol (100%), water and ethanol aqueous solutions (96, 75, 50 and 25%v/v) as solvents for extraction. Also, isovitexin, amarogentin and gentiopicroside, pharmacologically active constituents of G. lutea were tested as potential inhibitors of MPO. Antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test and also using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among all extracts, the antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanol aqueous extract was the highest, both when measured using the DPPH test, with IC(50)=20.6 μg/ml, and when using CV. Also, 50% ethanol extract, showed the best inhibition of MPO activity in comparison with other extracts. In the group of the selected G. lutea constituents, gentiopicroside has proved to be the strongest inhibitor of MPO, with IC(50)=0.8 μg/ml. Also, the concentration of G. lutea constituents were determined in all extracts, using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC).

  19. Chemical Constituents Antioxidant and Anticholinesterasic Activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to analyze the alkaloid content of the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae family) and its fractions as well as to evaluate their antioxidant and anticholinesterasic activities. The analyses of the ethanolic extract of T. catharinensis by mass spectrometry allowed identifying the presence of the alkaloids 16-epi-affinine, coronaridine-hydroxyindolenine, voachalotine, voacristine-hydroxyindolenine, and 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, as well as an alkaloid with m/z 385.21 whose spectrum suggests a derivative of voacristine or voacangine. The extract and its alkaloid rich fractions showed antioxidant activity, especially those that contain the alkaloid m/z 385.21 or 16-epi-affinine with DPPH scavenging activity (IC50) between 37.18 and 74.69 μg/mL. Moreover, the extract and its fractions exhibited anticholinesterasic activity, particularly the fractions characterized by the presence of 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, with IC50 = 2.1 to 2.5 μg/mL. Fractions with 16-epi-affinine combined good antioxidant (IC50 = 65.59 to 74.69 μg/mL) and anticholinesterasic (IC50 = 7.7 to 8.3 μg/mL) activities, representing an option for further studies aimed at treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23983637

  20. Antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Shabana; Shaheen, Ghazala; Akram, Muhammad; Rashid, Abid; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali

    2016-07-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit. The parent extract was ethanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). N-butanol fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.0±1.15 activity but the activity was less than ascorbic acid i.e. 93.74±0.12. Highly significant urease inhibition was shown by crude ethanolic extract (71.00±0.2a) with IC50 (392.66±2.1) followed by aqueous fraction (68.00±0.5e) with IC50 (159.83±2.8). The results of crude ethanolic extract and aqueous extracts were highly significant (p<0.05) than standard Thiourea. Present study showed that Vaccinium macrocarpon exhibits potent antiurease and antioxidant activities. PMID:27592488

  1. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Carum copticum fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

    2010-06-01

    The ajowain (Carum copticum (L.)) is a popular spice and traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. copticum fruits extract and its fractions were evaluated. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum (2087.7 micromol) and DPPH assay (90.2%) followed by other fractions comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT. Based on antioxidant activity, methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic potential against direct acting mutagens sodium azide (NaN(3)) and methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) and indirect acting mutagens 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), using Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102) tester strains. The methanolic fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentrations (25-100 microg/plate). Antimutagenic activity was recorded with inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 10.8% to 83.1% in a concentration dependent manner. The phytochemical analysis by IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and total phenolic assay revealed a high content of phenolic terpenoids. Further, characterization of active principle is needed to understand the mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  2. Antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from various spices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.

  3. SAR and QSAR of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Amić, Dragan; Davidović-Amić, Dusanka; Beslo, Drago; Rastija, Vesna; Lucić, Bono; Trinajstić, Nenad

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring phytochemicals abundantly present in fruits, vegetables, and beverages such as wine and tea. In the past two decades, flavonoids have gained enormous interest because of their beneficial health effects such as anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and anticancer activities. These findings have contributed to the dramatic increase in the consumption and use of dietary supplements containing high concentrations of plant flavonoids. The pharmacological effect of flavonoids is mainly due to their antioxidant activity and their inhibition of certain enzymes. In spite of abundant data, structural requirements and mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully understood. This review presents the current knowledge about structure-activity relationships (SARs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. SAR and QSAR can provide useful tools for revealing the nature of flavonoid antioxidant action. They may also help in the design of new and efficient flavonoids, which could be used as potential therapeutic agents.

  4. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF) enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules. PMID:22974481

  5. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient.

  6. Antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Shabana; Shaheen, Ghazala; Akram, Muhammad; Rashid, Abid; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali

    2016-07-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit. The parent extract was ethanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). N-butanol fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.0±1.15 activity but the activity was less than ascorbic acid i.e. 93.74±0.12. Highly significant urease inhibition was shown by crude ethanolic extract (71.00±0.2a) with IC50 (392.66±2.1) followed by aqueous fraction (68.00±0.5e) with IC50 (159.83±2.8). The results of crude ethanolic extract and aqueous extracts were highly significant (p<0.05) than standard Thiourea. Present study showed that Vaccinium macrocarpon exhibits potent antiurease and antioxidant activities.

  7. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:25442547

  8. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X; Park, Youngki; Martin, Derek A; Xie, Liyang; Taheri, Rod; Lee, Jiyoung; Bolling, Bradley W

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich chokeberry extract (CBE) would modulate hepatic lipid metabolism and improve antioxidant function in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed diets containing 15% fat with 0.2% cholesterol alone or supplemented with 0.005% or 0.05% CBE for 4 weeks. CBE polyphenol content was determined by the total phenols, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 0.05% CBE diet provided mice with mean daily doses of 1.2 mg gallic acid equivalents of total phenols, 0.19 mg anthocyanins, 0.17 mg phenolic acids, 0.06 mg proanthocyanidins (as catechin-equivalents), and 0.02 mg flavonols. The 0.05% CBE group had 12% less plasma total cholesterol concentrations than the control. Despite the hypocholesterolemic effect of CBE, hepatic mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in CBE-fed mice were not significantly different from controls. Dietary CBE did not alter hepatic lipid content or the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation such as fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities were significantly increased in mice fed 0.05% CBE. Both CBE diets increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but the 0.05% CBE group had 24% less proximal intestine GPx activity relative to controls. Thus, dietary CBE lowered total cholesterol and improved plasma and hepatic antioxidant function at nutritionally-relevant doses in apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism.

  9. Orange Peel Extracts: Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant, Antioxidative Burst, and Phytotoxic Activities.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Iqbal Chaudhary, M; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Shukralla, Ahmed; Muhammad, Aliyu; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Elemo, Gloria N

    2016-01-01

    The search for novel drugs and alternative medicine has led to increased research in medicinal plants. Among such plants is the orange fruit. Its peels have been utilized for long as an active ingredient in most traditional medicines. This study aims at investigating the chemical properties of the hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of orange peel as well as their biological potentials. Blended peels were extracted with n-hexane and n-dichloromethane, respectively. The resulting extracts were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) characterization. The extracts were also assayed for free radical scavenging ability against 1,1 -diphenyl -2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidative burst via measuring luminol -amplified chemiluminescence response in human blood, and phytotoxicity against lemna minor. GCMS analysis revealed a predominance of fatty acid methyl esters in the hexane extract, while the DCM extract had more ketone metabolites. The DCM extract had significant (p < .05) higher free radical scavenging and antioxidative burst activities compared to the hexane. Both extracts revealed a significantly (p < .05) high phytotoxicity activity. Results from this study indicated that solvent type played a vital a role in the extraction of secondary metabolites, which are responsible for the observed biological activities. The higher activities by the DCM extract can be attributed to its constituents as revealed by GCMS analysis. There is great need to explore the phytotoxicity potentials of both extracts as natural herbicides. PMID:26930349

  10. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Chinese medicinal plants and their relation with antioxidant content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of forty four traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts and to examine these activities in relation to their antioxidant content. Methods The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method and yeast model. The anti-inflammatory properties of the herbal extracts were evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated by LPS and IFN- γ, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were determined by Alomar Blue assay by measuring cell viability. In order to understand the variation of antioxidant activities of herbal extracts with their antioxidant contents, the total phenolics, total flavonoids and trace metal (Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo) quantities were estimated and a correlation analysis was carried out. Results Results of this study show that significant levels of phenolics, flavonoids and trace metal contents were found in Ligustrum lucidum, Paeonia suffuticosa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sanguisorba officinalis, Spatholobus suberectus, Tussilago farfara and Uncaria rhyncophylla, which correlated well with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the plants displayed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities but contained low levels of phenolics and flavonoids. Interestingly, these plants contained significant levels of trace metals (such as Zn, Mg and Se) which are likely to be responsible for their activities. Conclusions The results indicate that the phenolics, flavonoids and trace metals play an important role in the antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. Many of the plants studied here have been identified as potential sources of new antioxidant compounds. PMID:23038995

  11. Use of photochemiluminescence for the determination of antioxidant activities of carotenoids and antioxidant capacities of selected tomato products.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Jasmin; Hintze, Victoria; Kschonsek, Josephine; Killenberg, Margrit; Böhm, Volker

    2014-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of carotenoids to that of α-tocopherol by using a photochemiluminescence method (PCL). Comparisons to results obtained by using other established methods (α-TEAC, FRAP, DPPH, LPSC) were carried out. A relationship between the chemical structure of carotenoids and their antioxidant activity could be discussed. The number of conjugated double bonds and functional groups had a positive influence. Additionally, the lipophilic antioxidant capacities of selected tomato products were analyzed using PCL and α-TEAC. HPLC was used to identify and quantify contents of carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The raw material fresh tomatoes had the lowest antioxidant effect in both assays due to the lower carotenoid content. Tomato ketchup had the highest AOC in PCL, and tomato puree, in α-TEAC. The antioxidant capacities were mainly dependent on the water content of the samples. Furthermore, a concentration-dependent effect could be observed in both assays. PMID:25026001

  12. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of lichen species Ramalina roesleri.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, R; Geol, M; Verma, S; Rani, A; Dureja, P

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts of Ramalina roesleri Nyl were assayed for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Hexane extract was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of extracts ranged from 29.42% to 87.90%. Atranorin, protolichesterinic acid, usnic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-propyl benzoic acid, homosekikaic acid, sekikaic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxy-6-propyl and 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoate were isolated from the hexane extract. Maximum DPPH radical scavenging activity was exhibited by sekikaic acid followed by homosekikaic acid. PMID:23822758

  13. Standardization and in vitro antioxidant activity of jatamansi rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood S.; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nardostachys jatamansi Linn. commonly known as jatamansi is a well notorious drug in Indian systems of medicines having various health-related benefits and employed in various herbal formulations due to the presence of high levels of valuable phenolic constituents. The present study was aimed to quality assessment of Jatamansi rhizome by studying macro- and micro-scopic characters along with physicochemical tests, chemo-profiling using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in vitro antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines and contaminant estimation was carried out by analyzing the samples for the determination of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins. Chemo-profiling was done with TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The GC-MS chemo-profiling was also carried out by using hexane soluble fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract. The drug is well known for a protective role in the human body as an antioxidant, so total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy was also determined by using established methods. Results: The results of quality control and anatomical studies were very much useful for its identification, whereas significant antioxidant efficacy was also observed. The drug was found free of contaminants when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins, whereas heavy metals were found under the pharmacopeial limit. Conclusion: The findings of the present research can be utilized for the identification and quality control of the jatamansi rhizome. PMID:26681882

  14. Vasorelaxant and Antioxidant Activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr.

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawatkul, Orapin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the effect of Spilanthes acmella Murr. extracts on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as their antioxidant activity. Results show that the extracts exert maximal vasorelaxations in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects are less than acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. Significant reduction of vasorelaxations is observed in both NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). In the presence of l-NAME plus INDO, synergistic effects are observed, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both acetylcholine and the extracts. Similarly, the vasorelaxations of the extracts are completely abolished upon the removal of endothelial cells. This demonstrates that the extracts exhibit vasorelaxation via partially endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract exerts immediate vasorelaxation (ED50 76.1 ng/mL) and is the most potent antioxidant (DPPH assay). The chloroform extract shows the highest vasorelaxation and antioxidation (SOD assay). These reveal a potential source of vasodilators and antioxidants. PMID:19330100

  15. Vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr.

    PubMed

    Wongsawatkul, Orapin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2008-12-01

    This study reports the effect of Spilanthes acmella Murr. extracts on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as their antioxidant activity. Results show that the extracts exert maximal vasorelaxations in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects are less than acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. Significant reduction of vasorelaxations is observed in both N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). In the presence of l-NAME plus INDO, synergistic effects are observed, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both acetylcholine and the extracts. Similarly, the vasorelaxations of the extracts are completely abolished upon the removal of endothelial cells. This demonstrates that the extracts exhibit vasorelaxation via partially endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract exerts immediate vasorelaxation (ED(50) 76.1 ng/mL) and is the most potent antioxidant (DPPH assay). The chloroform extract shows the highest vasorelaxation and antioxidation (SOD assay). These reveal a potential source of vasodilators and antioxidants. PMID:19330100

  16. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hiraganahalli, Bhaskarmurthy Deepak; Chinampudur, Velusami Chandrasekaran; Dethe, Shekhar; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Pandre, Manoj Kumar; Balachandran, Jaya; Agarwal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, and Acacia catechu have been shown to possess widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases namely cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, and oxidative stress. Objective: We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of the standardized herbal extracts against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH) induced toxicity and their mechanism of hepatoprotective action in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line). Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of these herbal extracts on t-BH induced reduction in cell viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, the reducing power of the extracts and their ability to scavenge free radicals were evaluated using two antioxidant assay systems: cell free [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)] (ABTS)] and cell based [cellular antioxidant activity (CAA)]. Results and Discussion: The results obtained showed that these extracts possess significant hepatoprotective activity. This may indicate that the plant extracts contain compounds, which can remove toxic metabolites following t-BH induced toxicity. The extracts exhibited significant antioxidant property as evident by the Trolox values and effective scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals. The extracts also demonstrated inhibition of AAPH-induced fluorescence in HepG2 cells. These results indicate the ability of the plant extracts to protect the liver cells from chemical-induced damage, which might be correlated to their radical scavenging potential. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that these extracts have potential hepatoprotective activity which is mainly attributed to the antioxidant potential, which might occur by reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage. PMID:22701284

  17. Benzofuranyl Esters: Synthesis, Crystal Structure Determination, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C S Chidan; Then, Li Yee; Chia, Tze Shyang; Chandraju, Siddegowda; Win, Yip-Foo; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Hashim, Nurul Shafiqah; Ooi, Kheng Leong; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-09-11

    A series of five new 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl 4-(un/substituted)benzoates 4(a-e), with the general formula of C₈H₅O(C=O)CH₂O(C=O)C₆H₄X, X = H, Cl, CH₃, OCH₃ or NO₂, was synthesized in high purity and good yield under mild conditions. The synthesized products 4(a-e) were characterized by FTIR, ¹H-, (13)C- and ¹H-(13)C HMQC NMR spectroscopic analysis and their 3D structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The tested compounds showed antimicrobial ability in the order of 4b < 4a < 4c < 4d < 4e and the highest potency with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 125 µg/mL was observed for 4e. The results of antioxidant activities revealed the highest activity for compound 4e (32.62% ± 1.34%) in diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 4d (31.01% ± 4.35%) in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and 4a (27.11% ± 1.06%) in metal chelating (MC) activity.

  18. Zinc, copper and antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy elderly Tunisian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Braham, Hamadi; Amor, Salah; Laporte, François; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2009-12-01

    Trace elements like zinc and copper play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in elderly subjects and is therefore expected to have a crucial effect on antioxidant mechanism. The objective of the present study was to investigate age-related variations of zinc, copper and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase: SOD, glutathione peroxidase: GPx and catalase: CAT) taking into account gender differences in a Tunisian elderly population. A group of 100 healthy elderly subjects (55-85 years old) were then separated in three sub-groups according to age intervals. A control group of 100 adults aged between 30 and 45 years was considered. The obtained results confirmed the decrease of plasma zinc level with age increase in both men and women. Moreover, prevalence of zinc deficiency increased with age: normal zinc concentration was obtained in about 60% of adults and only in 35% of the elderly subjects over 75 years old. No significant variation was obtained for copper concentration. GPx and SOD activities were lower in aged subjects in comparison to adults. Zinc and antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be negatively correlated to age. However, an investigation on a large size sample with various health and well-controlled dietary statuses should be conducted for a better understanding of the zinc or copper metabolism and their effect on oxidant stress during aging. PMID:19836441

  19. [Investigation of the antioxidant activity and cardioprotective effect of reamberin and cytoflavin in newborn rats exposed to chronic hemic hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Zadnipryanyi, I V; Tretyakova, O S; Sataeva, T P

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the antioxidant activity of reamberin and cytoflavin and evaluated their cardioprotective effect, by investigating lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of plasma proteins, as well as the ultrastructure of newborn rat cardiomyocytes under chronic hemic hypoxia induced by sodium nitrite. Reamberin and cytoflavin can reduce the manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction and the degree of cardiomyocyte damage in the neonatal rats due to the antioxidant and membrane-protective properties of the drugs. Succinic acid in combination with the metabolic components of the drugs significantly inhibits lipid peroxidation, by improving the structure of membranes and the mitochondrial function of cardiomyocytes. PMID:26841648

  20. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides from Anoectochilus roxburghii.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Biyu; Su, Minghua; Chen, Qingxi; Chang, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Li, Huihua

    2016-11-20

    The physicochemical properties (molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions), antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides (ARPPs: ARPP30, ARPP60 and ARPP80) isolated from Anoectochilus roxburghii were investigated. ARPP80 exhibited relatively strong antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. In mice subjected to carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, ARPP80 pretreatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced the levels of aspartate and alanine amino transferases and malonyldialdehyde, prominently (p<0.01) restored the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione in serum or liver homogenate. These hepatoprotective effects were comparable to those of the standard drug silymarin at the same dose (200mg/kg). The study clearly demonstrated that ARPPs, especially ARPP80, might be suitable as functional foods or hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:27561510

  1. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of commercial Portuguese honeys.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça

    2013-08-01

    The present study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 13 commercial honeys from diverse floral origin, produced in Portugal. The values of electrical conductivity of cardoon and pennyroyal honeys were superior to the maximum limits defined by European legislation. Citrus, strawberry tree, and 1 sample of lavender honeys had values of diastase activity below those determined by European legislation. Strawberry tree, pennyroyal, and cardoon honeys had the highest amounts of potassium that coincided with the highest electrical conductivity. Strawberry tree honey was the most effective as antioxidant along with cardoon and heather honeys. This ability was strongly correlated with the amounts of phenols and flavonoids and not with the levels of vitamin C or proline.

  2. Novel macromolecules derived from coumarin: synthesis and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2015-07-01

    The rational design of 4-hydroxycoumarins with tailor-made antioxidant activities is required nowadays due to the wide variety of pharmacologically significant, structurally interesting of coumarins and researcher orientation toward green chemistry and natural products. A simple and unique coumarins have been achieved by reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin with aromatic aldehyde accompanied with the creation of a macromolecules have 2-aminothiazolidin-4-one. The molecular structures of the compounds were characterized by the Fourier transformation infrared and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, in addition to CHN analysis. The scavenging abilities of new compounds against stable DPPH radical (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide were done and the results show that the compounds exhibited high antioxidant activates.

  3. In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Trianthema portulacastrum L. Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Sadaf; Sultana, Bushra; Mushtaq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolysates of Trianthema portulacastrum in acidified methanol were evaluated for their total phenolic (TP) constituents and respective antioxidant activities using in vitro assays (i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and ferric reducing power). The observed results indicate that root, shoot, and leaf fractions of T. portulacastrum contain 50.75~98.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of TP. In addition, these fractions have substantial reducing potentials (0.10~0.59), abilities to inhibit peroxidation (43.26~89.98%), and DPPH radical scavenging capabilities (6.98~311.61 μg/mL IC50). The experimental data not only reveal T. portulacastrum as potential source of valuable antioxidants, but also indicate that acidified methanol may be an ideal choice for the enhanced recovery of phenolic compounds with retained biological potential for the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24772406

  4. Antioxidant activity of a Mediterranean food product: "fig syrup".

    PubMed

    Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

  5. Antioxidant activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, A; Çinbilgel, I; Gün, S Ş; Çetin, A

    2015-01-01

    DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of some less known plants, distributed in Burdur-Antalya provinces and consumed both as food and for the medicine, Asplenium ceterach L. (golden herb), Valeriana dioscoridis Sm. (valerian), Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (tiger herb), Cota pestalozzae (Boiss.) Boiss. (camomile), Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb. (foxtail lily), Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (asphodel) and Smyrnium connatum Boiss. and Kotschy (hemlock) were investigated. As a result, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined in C. pestalozzae extract (IC50 = 18.66 μg mL(-1)), the highest superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined in A. ceterach extract (IC50 = 145.17 and 372.03 μg mL(-1)). The highest TPC was determined in A. ceterach extract (59,26 μg mL(-1)) as gallic acid equivalent. Further bioactivity and phytochemistry studies on these plants may enlighten new drug discovery researches. PMID:25649168

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bauhinia racemosa L. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R S; Sivakumar, T; Sunderam, R S; Gupta, M; Mazumdar, U K; Gomathi, P; Rajeshwar, Y; Saravanan, S; Kumar, M S; Murugesh, K; Kumar, K A

    2005-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of a methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR) (Caesalpiniaceae) stem bark in various systems. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract increased in a concentration-dependent manner. About 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg MEBR inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 62.43, 67.21, 71.04, and 76.83%, respectively. Similarly, the effect of MEBR on reducing power increased in a concentration-dependent manner. In DPPH radical scavenging assays the IC50 value of the extract was 152.29 microg/ml. MEBR inhibited the nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside with an IC50 of 78.34 microg/ml, as opposed to 20.4 microg/ml for curcumin. Moreover, MEBR scavenged the superoxide generated by the PMS/NADH-NBT system. MEBR also inhibited the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton's reaction, with an IC50 value of more than 1000 microg/ml, as compared to 5 microg/ml for catechin. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined and 64.7 microg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in MEBR (1 mg). The antimicrobial activities of MEBR were determined by disc diffusion with five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative and four fungal species. MEBR showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The results obtained in the present study indicate that MEBR can be a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. methanolic leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, P. S. Sujan; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Rai, S. Padmalatha

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative potential of methanolic leaf extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica was evaluated using hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion scavenging and reducing power assays. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract increased in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in all in vitro antioxidant assays and contained high level of total phenolic content PMID:24826020

  8. Antidiarrheal, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Musa sapientum Seed

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Sarowar; Alam, M. Badrul; Asadujjaman, M.; Zahan, Ronok; Islam, M. Monirul; Mazumder, M. Ehsanul H.; Haque, Md. Ekramul

    2011-01-01

    Musa sapientum (M.sapientum) commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Bangladeshi folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate antidiarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of M.sapientum seed (MMSS). The extract was studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MMSS. In addition, disc diffusion methods were used for antibacterial assay using various diarrheal induced bacterial strains. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p<0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. In DPPH and NO scavenging method, MMSS showed good antioxidant potentiality in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 12.32±0.33 µg/ml and 18.96±1.01 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.001) good reducing power. The extract also displayed strong anti-bacterial effect against when tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Altogether, these results suggest that the MMSS could be used as a potential antidiarrheal agent along with its antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. PMID:23407989

  9. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  10. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  11. Isolation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Schisandra sphenanthera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.

  12. Mineral components and anti-oxidant activities of tropical seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso

    2005-07-01

    Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.

  13. Antioxidant activity of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers in unsaturated lipids.

    PubMed

    Cert, Rosa; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Pérez-Camino, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of ethyl and octyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers toward lipids was determined using the Rancimat and open cup methods at high temperatures and 50 °C, respectively. The effect of the unsaturation of the matrix was evaluated using sunflower, soya, and fish refined oils. The antioxidant activities of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers (HTy ethers), hydroxytyrosyl esters, and free hydroxytyrosol are similar, and are much higher than that of α-tocopherol at the same millimolar concentration. The relationship between the induction period and the concentration of the HTy ethers is a sigmoidal curve; an accurate concentration of HTy ethers is necessary to achieve maximum activity, as it increases with the level of matrix unsaturation. The presence of tocopherols in commercial oils affects the antioxidant effect of HTy ethers. Thus, the addition of a low concentration of HTy ethers results in a positive effect, whereas the effect of the addition of high amounts of ethers is slightly less than that of the phenol alone. The addition of HTy ethers to commercial refined oils increases the stability of the oils and preserves tocopherols and polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation, enabling the oils to maintain their nutritional properties for longer periods of time.

  14. Evaluating Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activity of Marrubium crassidens

    PubMed Central

    Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sharifi, Simin; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Naturally occurring substances as novel drugs in cancer therapy, at all times, represent a challenge to science since medicinal plants are proving to be brilliant sources of new chemopreventive agents. Methods: In the present study, methanol extract from aerial parts of Marrubium crassidens was assessed for its antiproliferative activity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through MTT bioassay using cell viability and cytotoxicity indices. The antioxidant property of M. crassidens extract together with its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated, as well. Results: According to data obtained in the study, M. crassidens exhibited antiproliferative activity with a gradual rise in cytotoxicty effect setting out on 240µg/mL concentration of the extract. Moreover, the RC50 value for antioxidant activity of the extract was determined as 40µg/mL and values for the total phenolic and flavonoids were calculated as 512.64mg gallic acid equivalent and 212.73mg quercetin equivalent per 100g of dry plant material. Conclusion: Generally, the observed antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of M. crassidens could be certified to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content detected in the extract. PMID:25364663

  15. Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Han, Zi-Hua; Ye, Jian-Min; Wang, Guan-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) is a traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of HEP was investigated. HPLC analysis showed that the HEP was composed of xylose (7.8%), ribose (2.7%), glucose (68.4%), arabinose (11.3%), galactose (2.5%) and mannose (5.2%). HEP was pre-administered to mice by gavage at a dose of 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Results found that HEP preadministration resulted in a significant decline in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and increase in creatinine clearance (CrCI) levels in HEP-pretreated group compared to renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level significantly increased, whereas Level of reduced glutathione (GSH) markedly decreased in renal IR animals. These results indicate that IR induced renal oxidative injury damage, as indicated by a increase in MDA level, and decrease in GSH level as well as the antioxidant enzymes activity. Such effects reflect that HEP can significantly decrease lipid peroxidation level and increase antioxidant enzymes activities in experimental animals.

  16. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Randia echinocarpa fruit.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cervantes, María Elena; Ibarra-Zazueta, María Emilia; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Paredes-López, Octavio; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    We report for the first time the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of fractions from Randia echinocarpa fruit, which is a Rubiaceae plant native to Sinaloa, Mexico. This fruit has been traditionally used in the prevention or treatment of cancer, among other diseases. The pulp of the fruit was sequentially extracted with solvents of different polarity (i.e. hexane, chloroform, methanol and water). A high extraction yield was obtained with methanol (72.17% d.w.). The aqueous extract showed the highest content of phenolics (2.27 mg/g as ferulic acid equivalents) and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene bleaching method (486.15). The commercial antioxidant BHT was used as control (835.05). Antimutagenic activity of the aqueous extract (0-500 microg/tube) was evaluated using the Salmonella microsuspension assay (YG1024 strain) and 1-NP as the mutagen (50 and 100 ng/tube). The aqueous extract was neither toxic nor mutagenic and the percentage of inhibition on 1-NP mutagenicity was 32 and 53% at doses of 50 and 100 ng/tube, respectively. The results of the double incubation assay suggest that the extract inhibited the mutagenicity of 1-NP by a combination of desmutagenic and bioantimutagenic effects.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study

  18. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-01

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  19. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  20. Dietary habits are major determinants of the plasma antioxidant status in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Anlasik, Timur; Sies, Helmut; Griffiths, Helen R; Mecocci, Patrizia; Stahl, Wilhelm; Polidori, M Cristina

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that regular consumption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk for age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the often-reported age-related decrease of plasma antioxidants in man depends on differences in dietary intake or on other age- and gender-related factors. In this observational case-control study, thirty-nine community-dwelling healthy subjects aged 65 years and older consuming high intakes of fruits and vegetables daily (HI) and forty-eight healthy subjects aged 65 and older consuming low intakes of fruit and vegetables daily (LI) were enrolled. Plasma levels of retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as content of protein carbonyls in Ig G were measured. Plasma levels of retinol, tocopherols and carotenoids were significantly higher in group HI than in group LI subjects independent of age and gender. MDA levels were inversely correlated with vitamin A and alpha-carotene. Protein carbonyls were inversely correlated with gamma-tocopherol. In the elderly, a higher daily intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with an improved antioxidant status in comparison to subjects consuming diets poor in fruits and vegetables. Modification of nutritional habits among other lifestyle changes should be encouraged to lower prevalence of disease risk factors in later life.

  1. Green Tea and Bone Marrow Transplantation: From Antioxidant Activity to Enzymatic and Multidrug-resistance Modulation.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Vitalone, Annabella

    2016-10-25

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main flavonoid of green tea (GT), could play an active role in the prevention of oxidative-stress-related diseases, such as hematologic malignancies. Some effects of EGCG are not imputable to antioxidant activity, but involve modulation of antioxidant enzymes and uric acid (UA) levels. The latter is the major factor responsible of the plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). However, hyperuricemia is a frequent clinical feature caused by tumor lysis syndrome or cyclosporine side effects, both before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Besides this, food-drug interactions could be associated with GT consumption and could have clinical implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the redox and drug metabolizing/transporting pathways were discussed, with particular reference to the potential role of GT and EGCG in BMT. Moreover, on reviewing data on NEAC, isoprostanes, uric acid, and various enzymes from human studies on GT, its extract, or EGCG, an increase in NEAC, without effect on isoprostanes, and contrasting results on UA and enzymes were observed. Currently, few and contrasting available evidences suggest caution for GT consumption in BMT patients and more studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of EGCG on oxidative stress and metabolizing/transporting systems.

  2. Green Tea and Bone Marrow Transplantation: From Antioxidant Activity to Enzymatic and Multidrug-resistance Modulation.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Vitalone, Annabella

    2016-10-25

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main flavonoid of green tea (GT), could play an active role in the prevention of oxidative-stress-related diseases, such as hematologic malignancies. Some effects of EGCG are not imputable to antioxidant activity, but involve modulation of antioxidant enzymes and uric acid (UA) levels. The latter is the major factor responsible of the plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). However, hyperuricemia is a frequent clinical feature caused by tumor lysis syndrome or cyclosporine side effects, both before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Besides this, food-drug interactions could be associated with GT consumption and could have clinical implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the redox and drug metabolizing/transporting pathways were discussed, with particular reference to the potential role of GT and EGCG in BMT. Moreover, on reviewing data on NEAC, isoprostanes, uric acid, and various enzymes from human studies on GT, its extract, or EGCG, an increase in NEAC, without effect on isoprostanes, and contrasting results on UA and enzymes were observed. Currently, few and contrasting available evidences suggest caution for GT consumption in BMT patients and more studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of EGCG on oxidative stress and metabolizing/transporting systems. PMID:26047551

  3. Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides from brown and red seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Souza, Micheline Cristiane; Marques, Cybelle Teixeira; Guerra Dore, Celina Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Fernando Roberto; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activities of the following six sulfated polysaccharides were investigated: iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, which are widely used in the food industry, fucoidan (homofucan) from the edible seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and fucans (heterofucans) F0.5 and F1.1 from the seaweed Padina gymnospora. With respect to the inhibition of superoxide radical formation, fucoidan had an IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.058 mg·mL−1, while the IC50 for the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans were 0.112, 0.332 and 0.046 mg·mL−1, respectively. All of the samples had an inhibitory effect on the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The results of peroxidation tests showed that fucoidan had an IC50 of 1.250 mg·mL−1 and that the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans had an IC50 of 2.753 and 2.338 and 0.323 mg·mL−1, respectively. Fucan fractions showed low antioxidant activity relative to fucoidan. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of algal polysaccharides as antioxidants. PMID:19396353

  4. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  5. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  6. Chemical properties and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Slovenian propolis.

    PubMed

    Mavri, Ana; Abramovič, Helena; Polak, Tomaž; Bertoncelj, Jasna; Jamnik, Polona; Smole Možina, Sonja; Jeršek, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    The chemical composition as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two EtOH extracts of propolis (PEEs) from Slovenia were determined. EtOH was used as extracting solvent at 70 and 96%, providing the extracts PEE70 and PEE96, respectively. The extraction with 70% EtOH was more efficient than that with 96% EtOH, as the PEE70 was richer in total phenolic compounds than the PEE96. The Slovenian propolis was characterized by different phenolic acids and flavonoids. The PEE96 was slightly richer in three specific compounds, i.e., caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and luteolin, while all other substances detected showed higher contents in the PEE70. The PEE70 showed a stronger reducing power and ability to scavenge free radicals and metal ions than the PEE96. Both PEEs were in the main more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli, with the exception of Campylobacter. The PEE96 decreased the intracellular oxidation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner. The antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties were related to the total phenolic contents. The two PEEs have the potential for use as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in foods.

  7. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-09-14

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes.

  8. Comparative antioxidant activities and synergism of resveratrol and oxyresveratrol.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Nan; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-11-01

    Resveratrol (1) and oxyresveratrol (2) are phytoalexins with antioxidant activities (AAs) and proposed effects against several pathological processes. The main objective of this study was to provide a novel, comparative assessment of their AAs, and to test for potential synergism in their combined activities, or in combination with another phytochemical antioxidant, curcumin (3). The phytochemicals were tested at 10 µM total concentrations in a heme-based assay that involved, as the final step, quantification of tetramethyl-phenylene-diamine oxidation. Significant AAs were observed for both 1 and 2, 27-33% inhibition of oxidation (p < 0.05 relative to non-phytochemical control). The combination of 1 and 2 in the same assay (5 µM each) suggested a moderate synergistic effect of about 10% (41% inhibition of oxidation by 1/2 under the same conditions as for 1 and 2 separately). Combinations of 1/3 and 2/3 were also synergistic, but 1/3 had a two-fold greater AA (p < 0.05) than 2/3 (or 1/2). Our results indicate that (i) 1 and 2 are effective antioxidants in the assay, (ii) in combination, their AAs can synergise, and (iii) in relation to 2, 1 has a much greater synergistic potential with 3. The latter suggests different synergy mechanisms of the curcuminoid with each of the two stilbene phytoalexins.

  9. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  10. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  11. Strawberry and human health: effects beyond antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits on human health has been widely recognized: a high intake of antioxidant and bioactive compounds may in fact play a crucial role in the prevention of several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other chronic pathologies. The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) possesses a remarkable nutritional composition in terms of micronutrients, such as minerals, vitamin C, and folates, and non-nutrient elements, such as phenolic compounds, that are essential for human health. Although strawberry phenolics are known mainly for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, recent studies have demonstrated that their biological activities also spread to other pathways involved in cellular metabolism and cellular survival. This paper has the main objective of reviewing current information about the potential mechanisms involved in the effects elicited by strawberry polyphenols on human health, devoting special attention to the latest findings. PMID:24450925

  12. Antiangiogenesis and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium jiringa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays a critical role in embryonic development and various physiological processes. However, excessive angiogenesis is associated with several pathological conditions including cancer. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain is a traditional medicinal plant from the family Leguminosae. It is native to the Southeast Asia, where it has been used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as hypertension and diabetes. The present work is aimed to study antioxidant and antiangiogenesis activities of P. jiringa ethanol extracts. Methods P. jiringa fruit rinds were extracted with ethanol and 50% ethanol. The antioxidant property was analysed using, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical analysis was performed using thin layer chromatography and colorimetric methods. Then, cell growth inhibition was studied against a panel of human cell lines by MTT test. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis was studied by the following assays: isolated rat aortic rings cell viability, colony formation, endothelial cell migration, endothelial tube formation on matrigel, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by endothelial cells. In vivo antiangiogenesis effect was studied by utilising fertilised chick embryos assay. The results were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Results Ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts showed relatively high concentration of total phenolics associated with potent antioxidant activity. The rat aortic rings study conducted showed potent inhibition of the microvessels outgrowth with IC50s 5.27 ± 0.81 μg/ml (ethanolic) and 4.45 ± 0.63 μg/ml (50% hydro-ethanolic). Both extracts arrested the growth of human endothelial cells via down-regulation of VEGF expression, leading to inhibition of other angiogenesis cascades including migration of endothelial cells, and formation of capillary network on matrigel matrix. The extracts also inhibited the neovascularisation of

  13. Influence of the metabolic profile on the in vivo antioxidant activity of quercetin under a low dosage oral regimen in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M R; Rodríguez-Gómez, M J; Justino, G C; Charro, N; Florencio, M H; Mira, L

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose Flavonoids are known to possess a broad set of pharmacological effects, some of which have been attributed to their antioxidant properties and, more recently, to cell signalling modulation. Nevertheless, flavonoids are extensively metabolized and their metabolites are the potential bioactive forms in vivo. Therefore, a first and crucial step to understand the mechanisms underlying potential health benefits of flavonoids is knowledge of their metabolites and their biological activities. Experimental approach To approximate a human dietary pattern of intake of flavonoids, regular rat chow was supplemented with 0.02% quercetin and fed to Sprague–Dawley rats over 3 weeks. Plasma samples were analysed by HPLC and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, and plasma antioxidant capacity was measured by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulphonate) assay. Key results Major metabolites were 3′-methylquercetin (isorhamnetin) glucuronide sulphate conjugates, the most plausible conjugation positions being at the 3-, 5- and 7-hydroxyl positions. Isorhamnetin conjugates are methylated at the 3′-OH position, which decreases the high antioxidant activity of quercetin and its metabolites and their contribution to plasma antioxidant potential. Conclusions and implications This metabolic pattern differs from that observed after a single high-dose administration, where the major metabolites were quercetin conjugates at 5- and 7-hydroxyl positions and a significantly increased plasma antioxidant activity was observed. These data show altogether that the different metabolic patterns obtained under a prolonged low-dosage regimen or after a single high dose, crucially affected the antioxidant potential of plasma in treated animals. Our data also allow for the establishment of structure–antioxidant activity relationships for quercetin metabolites. PMID:18311191

  14. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348

  15. [Express evaluation of antioxidant activity of uracil derivatives].

    PubMed

    Gimadieva, A R; Khazimullina, Yu Z; Belaya, E A; Zimin, Yu S; Abdrakhmanov, I B; Mustafin, A G

    2015-01-01

    Using photometric methods the antioxidant activity of 19 uracil derivatives has been analyzed. The test using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals can be applied for the rapid assessment of antioxidant activity of uracils. Among uracil derivatives studied the compounds possesing a proton-donor group in C-5 position--free or alkylated amino group, as well as hydroxyl group were the most active: 5-aminouracil (IC50 3 mg/ml), 5-amino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 5 mg/ml), 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 15 mg/ml), 5-hydroxy-1,3,6-trimethyluracil (IC50 of 15 mg/ml), 5-ethylamino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-methylamino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-allylaminouracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-amino-1,3,6- trimethyluracil (IC50 of 25 mg/ml). These uracil derivatives were more active than the reference compounds ionol (IC50 of 30 mg/ml) and a-naphthylamine (IC50 of 45 mg/ml), but less active than ascorbic acid (IC50 0.8 mg/ml). There was a correlation between the results of DPPH test (IC50) and coupling constants of uracil derivatives with peroxide radicals of 1,4-dioxane (fk7). Uracil with proton-donor group at C-5 also showed high ferrum-reducing activity as determined by FRAP.

  16. Short communication: Effect of genetic type on antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese made from the milk of 2 breeds, Italian Brown and Italian Holstein, and ripened for 1, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d. The antioxidant activity of cheese was measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. Italian Brown cheese had higher antioxidant activity than Italian Holstein cheese, and antioxidant activity increased during ripening of both cheeses types. Moreover, antioxidant activity varied during ripening depending on the rate of formation of soluble peptides. To date, few studies have evaluated the effect of genetic type on antioxidant capacity of the pasta filata cheeses; thus, this study forms the basis of new knowledge that could lead to the production of a pasta filata cheese with specific nutraceutical characteristics.

  17. Quantification of leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo bulls and its correlation with antioxidant status, conventional and computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) semen variables.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H; Swami, Dheer Singh; Sharma, R K

    2016-03-01

    The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production.

  18. New p-Substituted Salicylaldehyde Phenylhydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yorur-Goreci, Cigdem; Altas-Kiymaz, Nilay; Peksel, Aysegul; Bilgin-Eran, Belkis; Sonmez, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of new p-nitrophenylhydrazone derivatives 3a–f were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their antioxidant activities. These compounds have been synthesized by refluxing (p-nitrophenyl)hydrazine with 4-sub-stituted salicylaldehydes. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS data. The antioxidant activities (free radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating activity, and total anti-oxidant activity) of the hydrazone compounds were evaluated. All of the compounds exhibited significant activities, while compound 3a, with the shortest chain, showed the highest antioxidant activity in all of the tests. PMID:26279974

  19. Antibacterial, Antifungal and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Asma; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants (Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica and Zanthoxylum armatum) were tested against Gentamicin (standard drug) on eleven gram positive and seventeen gram negative bacteria by agar well method. It was revealed that seven-gram negative and six gram positive bacterial species were inhibited by these plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by broth micro-dilution method. The significant MIC value of Swertia chirata was 20mg/ml against Serratia marcesens, Zanthoxylum armatum was 10 mg/ml against Aeromonas hydrophila and Terminali bellerica was 20mg/ml against Acinetobacter baumanii as well as Serratia marcesens. Antifungal screening was done for methanolic extracts of these plants by agar well method with the 6 saprophytic, 5 dermatophytic and 6 yeasts. In this case Griseofulvin was used as a standard. All saprophytes and dermatophytes were showed resistance by these plants extracts except Microsporum canis, which was inhibited by Z. armatum and S. chirata extracts. The significant MIC value of Zanthoxylum armatum was 10mg/ml against Microsporum canis and Swertia chirata was 10mg/ml against Candida tropicalis. The anti-oxidant study was performed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay using ascorbic acid as a reference standard. Significant antioxidant activities were observed by Swertia chirata and Zanthoxylum armatum at concentration 200μg/ml was 70% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=937.5μg/ml) while Terminalia bellerica showed 55.6% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=100μg/ml). This study has shown that these plants could provide potent antibacterial compounds and may possible preventive agents in ROS related ailments.

  20. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  1. Relation between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and antihypertensive activity for six essential oils.

    PubMed

    Yvon, Yan; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Razafindrazaka, René; Randriantsoa, Adolphe; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chabir, Naziha; Mkaddem, Mounira Guedri; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2012-08-01

    Six essential oils (EOs), Juniperus phoenicea (leaves and berries), Thymus capitatus, Lauris nobilis, Melaleuca armillaris, and Eucalyptus gracilis, were screened for their antioxidant and antihypertensive activity as well as their chemical compositions. We identified and quantified 24 compounds (representing 99.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea leaves, 14 compounds (representing 98.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea berries, 11 compounds (representing 99.6% of total oil) for T. capitatus, 32 compounds (representing 98.9% of total oil) for L. nobilis, 32 compounds (representing 98.7% of total oil) for M. armillaris, and 26 compounds (representing 99.3% of total oil) for E. gracilis. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 0.59 to 2183.6 mg/L, whereas T. capitatus (1.24 ± 0.05 mg/L) gave the best activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated by testing the vasorelaxing capacity of EOs on rat aorta precontracted by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). T. capitatus and L. nobilis were most active for an antihypertensive activity (29 ± 3 and 59 ± 2 mg/L, respectively). Correlations between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and/or antihypertensive activity were studied. Significant correlation has been found for antihypertensive activity and p-cymene (R(2) = 0.86), β-elemene (R(2) = 0.90), and β-myrcene (R(2) = 0.76). A good correlation has been found between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (R(2) = 0.98). Antioxidant activity can contribute to the prevention of the increase of the blood pressure. According to the literature, no study has been reported until now of correlation between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity. Natural EOs can find its interest and application in a medicinal area. PMID:22860587

  2. Antioxidant activity of sesamol and omega-oryzanol towards fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural antioxidants, sesamol and omega-oryzanol, were examined for their antioxidant activity towards omega-3 oil. Sesamol and omega-oryzanol have been known to provide antioxidant effects at high temperatures such as those used for frying. In this study, the effects of 0.84 mM and 8.4 mM oryza...

  3. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  4. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  5. Investigation of Antiulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Moclobemide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Alp, Hamit H.; Suleyman, Halis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Even though there are many drugs for the treatment of gastric ulcers, these drugs sometimes cannot succeed. Since the 1950s, antidepressant drugs have been used for several non-psychiatric indications. Many antidepressant drugs have been shown experimentally to produce antiulcer activity in various ulcer models. Moclobemide is an antidepressant drug which inhibits monoamine oxidase-A (MAO) enzyme selectively. When it is compared to the classic antidepressants drugs, moclobemide is the first choice in depression treatment because of its effectiveness and less side effects. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer effects of moclobemide and to determine its relationship with antioxidant mechanisms in rat gastric tissue. Materials and Methods: The antiulcer activities of 10, 20, 40, 80, 150 mg/kg moclobemide and 20 mg/kg famotidine have been investigated on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats, and the results have been compared with that of the control group. Results: Moclobemide decreased the indomethacin-induced ulcers significantly at all doses used. While used doses of moclobemide increased the glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, it decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in stomach tissue when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It is determined that an antidepressant drug, moclobemide is a potent anti-ulcer agent. Inhibition of toxic oxidant radicals and activation of antioxidant mechanisms play a role in its anti-ulcer effect mechanisms. PMID:25745343

  6. Resveratrol-loaded Nanoparticles Induce Antioxidant Activity against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Eun-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jo, Chan-Mi; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol acts as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant in the inhibition of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS). The function of resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles in protecting human lung cancer cells (A549) against hydrogen peroxide was investigated in this study. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Resveratrol had substantially high antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value) compared to trolox and vitamin E since the concentration of resveratrol was more than 50 μM. Nanoparticles prepared from β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were successfully developed. The β-lg nanoparticle showed 60 to 146 nm diameter in size with negatively charged surface. Non-cytotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with β-lg nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocynate-conjugated β-lg nanoparticles were identified into the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells, indicating that nanoparticles can be used as a delivery system. Hydrogen peroxide caused accumulation of ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles restored H2O2-induced ROS levels by induction of cellular uptake of resveratrol in A549 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) signaling in A549 cells, thereby accumulation of Nrf2 abundance, as demonstrated by western blotting approach. Overall, these results may have implications for improvement of oxidative stress in treatment with nanoparticles as a biodegradable and non-toxic delivery carrier of bioactive compounds. PMID:26732454

  7. Losartan reduces oxidative damage to renal DNA and conserves plasma antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Serio, Claudia; Raimondi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels produced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin-II (AT-II) are considered among the pathogenic factors in the malignant transformation of diabetic renal cells. We aimed to investigate the potential role of AT-II in the increased cancer risk seen in diabetes; measuring oxidative damage to renal DNA and protective antioxidant defenses, including adiponectin (Adp) and plasma antioxidant capacity by the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method. In the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (55 mg/kg) diabetic rats either treated or not treated for 3 weeks with losartan, an AT-II type 1 receptor antagonist (20 mg/kg/day); we measured 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels, as an index of oxidative DNA damage, circulating Adp and FRAP. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher 8-oxodGuo levels in renal DNA (8.48 ± 0.98 × 10−6 dG, mean ± SEM n = 11) than normoglycemic ones (1.18 ± 0.04 × 10−6 dG, mean ± SEM, n=7) and lower plasma Adp and FRAP levels in comparison to normoglycemics. The treatment of diabetic rats with losartan significantly (P < 0.01) reduced 8-oxodGuo levels (5.4 ± 0.58 × 10−6 dG, mean ± SEM n=9) in renal DNA and conserved FRAP values. Moreover, an inverse correlation was found between 8-oxodGuo in kidney DNA and circulating Adp levels in normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Losartan treatment preserves FRAP levels, reduces DNA oxidative injury and thus the carcinogenesis risk. Furthermore, our results indicate that Adp plasma levels are a further marker of oxidative injury to the kidney and confirm that it is an important part of the plasma antioxidant defense. PMID:25710927

  8. Losartan reduces oxidative damage to renal DNA and conserves plasma antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Serio, Claudia; Raimondi, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels produced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin-II (AT-II) are considered among the pathogenic factors in the malignant transformation of diabetic renal cells. We aimed to investigate the potential role of AT-II in the increased cancer risk seen in diabetes; measuring oxidative damage to renal DNA and protective antioxidant defenses, including adiponectin (Adp) and plasma antioxidant capacity by the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method. In the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (55 mg/kg) diabetic rats either treated or not treated for 3 weeks with losartan, an AT-II type 1 receptor antagonist (20 mg/kg/day); we measured 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels, as an index of oxidative DNA damage, circulating Adp and FRAP. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher 8-oxodGuo levels in renal DNA (8.48 ± 0.98 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n = 11) than normoglycemic ones (1.18 ± 0.04 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM, n=7) and lower plasma Adp and FRAP levels in comparison to normoglycemics. The treatment of diabetic rats with losartan significantly (P < 0.01) reduced 8-oxodGuo levels (5.4 ± 0.58 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n=9) in renal DNA and conserved FRAP values. Moreover, an inverse correlation was found between 8-oxodGuo in kidney DNA and circulating Adp levels in normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Losartan treatment preserves FRAP levels, reduces DNA oxidative injury and thus the carcinogenesis risk. Furthermore, our results indicate that Adp plasma levels are a further marker of oxidative injury to the kidney and confirm that it is an important part of the plasma antioxidant defense.

  9. Dihydroasparagusic acid: antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities and improved synthesis.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Mandrone, Manuela; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Iannello, Carmelina; Poli, Ferruccio; Antognoni, Fabiana

    2013-07-17

    Dihydroasparagusic acid (DHAA) is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. In this work, DHAA was synthetically produced by modifying some published protocols, and the synthesized molecule was tested in several in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP-ferrozine, BCB, deoxyribose assays) to evaluate its radical scavenging activity. Results show that DHAA is endowed with a significant in vitro antioxidant activity, comparable to that of Trolox. DHAA was also evaluated for its inhibitory activity toward tyrosinase, an enzyme involved, among others, in melanogenesis and in browning processes of plant-derived foods. DHAA was shown to exert an inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity, and the inhibitor kinetics, analyzed by a Lineweaver-Burk plot, exhibited a competitive mechanism. Taken together, these results suggest that DHAA may be considered as a potentially active molecule for use in various fields of application, such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, agronomic and food. PMID:23790134

  10. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue. PMID:26513373

  11. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  12. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)).

  13. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)). PMID:26213037

  14. Antioxidant activity of citrus limonoids, flavonoids, and coumarins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Wang, Limin; Walzem, Rosemary L; Miller, Edward G; Pike, Leonard M; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2005-03-23

    A variety of in vitro models such as beta-carotene-linoleic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and hamster low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were used to measure the antioxidant activity of 11 citrus bioactive compounds. The compounds tested included two limonoids, limonin (Lim) and limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG); eight flavonoids, apigenin (Api), scutellarein (Scu), kaempferol (Kae), rutin trihydrate (Rut), neohesperidin (Neh), neoeriocitrin (Nee), naringenin (Ngn), and naringin(Ng); and a coumarin (bergapten). The above compounds were tested at concentration of 10 microM in all four methods. It was found that Lim, LG, and Ber inhibited <7%, whereas Scu, Kae, and Rut inhibited 51.3%, 47.0%, and 44.4%, respectively, using the beta-carotene-linoleate model system. Lim, LG, Rut, Scu, Nee, and Kae showed 0.5% 0.25%, 32.2%, 18.3%, 17.2%, and 12.2%, respectively, free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH method. In the superoxide model, Lim, LG, and Ber inhibited the production of superoxide radicals by 2.5-10%, while the flavonoids such as Rut, Scu, Nee, and Neh inhibited superoxide formation by 64.1%, 52.1%, 48.3%, and 37.7%, respectively. However, LG did not inhibit LDL oxidation in the hamster LDL model. But, Lim and Ber offered some protection against LDL oxidation, increasing lag time to 345 min (3-fold) and 160 min (33% increase), respectively, while both Rut and Nee increased lag time to 2800 min (23-fold). Scu and Kae increased lag time to 2140 min (18-fold) and 1879 min (15.7-fold), respectively. In general, it seems that flavonoids, which contain a chromanol ring system, had stronger antioxidant activity as compared to limonoids and bergapten, which lack the hydroxy groups. The present study confirmed that several structural features were linked to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoids. This is the first report on the antioxidant activity of limonin, limonin glucoside, and neoeriocitrin.

  15. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of five lichen species.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  16. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  17. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  18. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 < 50.0 μg/mL). The oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile. PMID:27214068

  19. A New Method to Simultaneously Quantify the Antioxidants: Carotenes, Xanthophylls, and Vitamin A in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Miralles, Esther; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and accurate reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneously determining and quantifying the antioxidants carotenes, xanthophylls, and retinol in human plasma is presented in this paper. Compounds were extracted with hexane, a C30 column, and a mobile phase of methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, and water were used for the separation of the compounds. A total of 8 carotenoids, 3 Z-β-carotene isomers, and 1 fat-soluble vitamin (retinol) were resolved within 72 min at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was achieved at 450 nm for carotenoids and 330 nm for retinol. To evaluate the effectiveness of themethod, it has been applied to an intervention study conducted on eight volunteers. Results. Limits of detection were between 0.1 μg/mL for lycopene and astaxanthin and 1.3 μg/mL for 15-Z-β-carotene. Recoveries were ranged between 89% and 113% for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Accuracy was between 90.7% and 112.2% and precision was between 1% and 15% RSD. In human plasma samples compounds studied were identified besides three lycopene isomers, demonstrated to be suitable for application in dietary intervention studies. Conclusions. Due to its accuracy, precision, selectivity, and reproducibility, this method is suitable to dietary habits and/or antioxidants status studies. PMID:26697143

  20. A New Method to Simultaneously Quantify the Antioxidants: Carotenes, Xanthophylls, and Vitamin A in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Miralles, Esther; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneously determining and quantifying the antioxidants carotenes, xanthophylls, and retinol in human plasma is presented in this paper. Compounds were extracted with hexane, a C30 column, and a mobile phase of methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, and water were used for the separation of the compounds. A total of 8 carotenoids, 3 Z-β-carotene isomers, and 1 fat-soluble vitamin (retinol) were resolved within 72 min at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was achieved at 450 nm for carotenoids and 330 nm for retinol. To evaluate the effectiveness of themethod, it has been applied to an intervention study conducted on eight volunteers. Results. Limits of detection were between 0.1 μg/mL for lycopene and astaxanthin and 1.3 μg/mL for 15-Z-β-carotene. Recoveries were ranged between 89% and 113% for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Accuracy was between 90.7% and 112.2% and precision was between 1% and 15% RSD. In human plasma samples compounds studied were identified besides three lycopene isomers, demonstrated to be suitable for application in dietary intervention studies. Conclusions. Due to its accuracy, precision, selectivity, and reproducibility, this method is suitable to dietary habits and/or antioxidants status studies. PMID:26697143

  1. In vitro and vivo antioxidant activities of daylily flowers and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Que, Fei; Mao, Linchun; Zheng, Xiaojie

    2007-01-01

    Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva Linn.) flowers were hot air-dried and freeze-dried after harvest. Antioxidant properties of water and ethanol extracts prepared from these dried flowers were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activity. Extracts from daylily flowers exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Ethanol was more efficiency to extract antioxidants than water, and freeze-drying preserved higher activities than air-drying. Rutin, (+)-catechin, and gallic acid were identified in the extracts by HPLC, and were highly related to the antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity was further evaluated by feeding mice with ethanol extract from freeze-dried daylily flowers for 60 days. The results demonstrated that the extract at dosage of 40-225 mg/100 g significantly increased the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and reduced the lipid peroxidation in both blood and liver of rat. PMID:17392104

  2. Review of antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of chitosans in food.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Juneja, Vijay K

    2010-09-01

    Interest in chitosan, a biodegradable, nontoxic, non-antigenic, and biocompatible biopolymer isolated from shellfish, arises from the fact that chitosans are reported to exhibit numerous health-related beneficial effects, including strong antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in foods. The extraordinary interest in the chemistry and application in agriculture, horticulture, environmental science, industry, microbiology, and medicine is attested by about 17,000 citations on this subject in the Scopus database. A special need exists to develop a better understanding of the role of chitosans in ameliorating foodborne illness. To contribute to this effort, this overview surveys and interprets our present knowledge of the chemistry and antimicrobial activities of chitosan in solution, as powders, and in edible films and coating against foodborne pathogens, spoilage bacteria, and pathogenic viruses and fungi in several food categories. These include produce, fruit juices, eggs and dairy, cereal, meat, and seafood products. Also covered are antimicrobial activities of chemically modified and nanochitosans, therapeutic properties, and possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial, antioxidative, and metal chelating effects. Further research is suggested in each of these categories. The widely scattered data on the multifaceted aspects of chitosan microbiology, summarized in the text and in 10 tables and 8 representative figures, suggest that low-molecular-weight chitosans at a pH below 6.0 presents optimal conditions for achieving desirable antimicrobial and antioxidative-preservative effects in liquid and solid foods. We are very hopeful that the described findings will be a valuable record and resource for further progress to improve microbial food safety and food quality. PMID:20828484

  3. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  4. Antioxidant, cytotoxic activities, and structure-activity relationship of gallic acid-based indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, Hamid; Alhadi, Abeer A; Yehye, Wagee A; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Hassandarvish, Pouya

    2011-11-01

    A new series of gallic hydrazones containing an indole moiety was synthesized through the reaction of gallic hydrazide and different indole carboxaldehydes. Their antioxidant activities were determined on DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The in-vitro cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against HCT-116 (human colon cancer cell line) and MCF-7 (estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line) by the MTT method. An attempt to correlate the biological results with their structural characteristics has been done. A limited positive structure activity relationship was found between cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sova, M

    2012-07-01

    Cinnamic acid is an organic acid occurring naturally in plants that has low toxicity and a broad spectrum of biological activities. In the search for novel pharmacologically active compounds, cinnamic acid derivatives are important and promising compounds with high potential for development into drugs. Many cinnamic acid derivatives, especially those with the phenolic hydroxyl group, are well-known antioxidants and are supposed to have several health benefits due to their strong free radical scavenging properties. It is also well known that cinnamic acid has antimicrobial activity. Cinnamic acid derivatives, both isolated from plant material and synthesized, have been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. Acids, esters, amides, hydrazides and related derivatives of cinnamic acid with such activities are here reviewed.

  6. Antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds of snake fruit (Salacca Zalacca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).

  7. Report: Antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity of strawberry fruit extracts against alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2016-01-01

    The strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) of Rosaceae family are an accomplished source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and diverse range of polyphenols including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, ellagitannins etc. These phenolic compounds classify strawberry as an important health promoting food. Strawberries are proved to have potent antioxidant capacity in various in vitro assay systems. The in vivo beneficial effects are getting explored against various ailments including cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. The present research study was designed to analyze the effect of strawberry fruit extracts (water and methanol) against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in albino rats of Wister strain. Upon alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) induction, the diabetic animals showed marked increase in the values of plasma glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and concomitant decrease in body weight and plasma insulin level. The oral administration of strawberry extracts for 45 days in diabetic animals reversed the biochemical changes significantly (P0.05) to near normal. Furthermore, the restoration of body weight loss was also observed. The results suggest that the strawberry extract has effective hypoglycemic activity against alloxan diabetes. The poly phenolic antioxidant contents of the strawberry fruit extracts are responsible for the observed biological effect. PMID:26826817

  8. Antioxidant activity of commercial wild rice and identification of flavonoid compounds in active fractions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Liu, Qin; Beta, Trust

    2009-08-26

    The health benefits of whole grain consumption have been attributed to their content of complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemical constituents. Wild rice is a whole grain finding applications in gourmet foods due to its nutritional value and unique taste. However, little is known about its antioxidant properties and phytochemical components. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wild rice. Eleven commercial wild rice samples (raw, mixed, and processed) were extracted with acetone and fractionated using a Sephadex LH-20 column. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and total phenolic content were evaluated to determine the antioxidant properties of wild rice. The antioxidant activity of wild rice was found to be 30 times greater than that of the control white rice. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in antioxidant activities were found among raw, mixed, and processed samples. For raw samples, DPPH(*) radical scavenging activities and ORAC values ranged from 611 to 917 micromol of Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and from 4069 to 6064 micromol of TE/100 g, respectively. For mixed and processed wild rice, DPPH(*) radical scavenging activities were 373 and 441 micromol of TE/100 g, respectively. The corresponding ORAC values were 2284 and 2557 micromol of TE/100 g. Total phenolic content (TPC) of raw wild rice varied from 2472 to 4072 mg of ferulic acid equivalent (FAE)/kg, higher than that of the mixed sample (1460 mg of FAE/kg) and processed sample (2076 mg of FAE/kg). TPC was highly correlated with total antioxidant activity of wild rice (r = 0.92). Tandem mass spectrometric techniques revealed the antioxidants identified in wild rice to be flavonoid glycosides (diglucosyl apigenin, glucosyl-arabinosyl apigenin, and diarabinosyl apigenin) in factions 2 and 3 and flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, and oligomeric procyanidin) in

  9. The antioxidant activity and thermal stability of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) infusion.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Estrella, Seyer; Susín, Cristina; Arribas, Silvia M; González, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2011-05-01

    Because of its good sensorial attributes, lemon verbena is used as a primary ingredient in infusions and nonalcoholic drinks. The present study was designed to assess the antioxidant activity (AA) of lemon verbena infusion (LVI) as well as the thermal stability of its AA and the content of polyphenolic compounds. The values reflecting the AA of LVI, including AA index, fast scavenging rate against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging, are higher than those of many herbal infusions and antioxidant drinks estimated from reported data. In addition, the slope lag time and specific oxyradical antioxidant capacity values of LVI are comparable to those of a commercial antioxidant drink based on green tea. Hence, LVI is a source of bifunctional antioxidants, and thus in vivo studies of the antioxidant capacity of LVI would be useful to evaluate its potential as an ingredient in antioxidant drinks.

  10. The antioxidant activity and thermal stability of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) infusion.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Estrella, Seyer; Susín, Cristina; Arribas, Silvia M; González, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2011-05-01

    Because of its good sensorial attributes, lemon verbena is used as a primary ingredient in infusions and nonalcoholic drinks. The present study was designed to assess the antioxidant activity (AA) of lemon verbena infusion (LVI) as well as the thermal stability of its AA and the content of polyphenolic compounds. The values reflecting the AA of LVI, including AA index, fast scavenging rate against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging, are higher than those of many herbal infusions and antioxidant drinks estimated from reported data. In addition, the slope lag time and specific oxyradical antioxidant capacity values of LVI are comparable to those of a commercial antioxidant drink based on green tea. Hence, LVI is a source of bifunctional antioxidants, and thus in vivo studies of the antioxidant capacity of LVI would be useful to evaluate its potential as an ingredient in antioxidant drinks. PMID:21434775

  11. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  12. NRF2 activation by antioxidant antidiabetic agents accelerates tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiufei; Long, Min; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Liao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuren; Liao, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Tang, Zili; Tong, Qiang; Wang, Xiaocui; Fang, Fang; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Ouyang, Qin; Zhang, Donna D; Yu, Shicang; Zheng, Hongting

    2016-04-13

    Cancer is a common comorbidity of diabetic patients; however, little is known about the effects that antidiabetic drugs have on tumors. We discovered that common classes of drugs used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the hypoglycemic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) saxagliptin and sitagliptin, as well as the antineuropathic α-lipoic acid (ALA), do not increase tumor incidence but increase the risk of metastasis of existing tumors. Specifically, these drugs induce prolonged activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated antioxidant response through inhibition of KEAP1-C151-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of NRF2, resulting in up-regulated expression of metastasis-associated proteins, increased cancer cell migration, and promotion of metastasis in xenograft mouse models. Accordingly, knockdown of NRF2 attenuated naturally occurring and DPP-4i-induced tumor metastasis, whereas NRF2 activation accelerated metastasis. Furthermore, in human liver cancer tissue samples, increased NRF2 expression correlated with metastasis. Our findings suggest that antioxidants that activate NRF2 signaling may need to be administered with caution in cancer patients, such as diabetic patients with cancer. Moreover, NRF2 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for tumor metastasis. PMID:27075625

  13. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-05-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  14. Synthesis, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of novel coumarylthiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Belma Zengin; Gazioglu, Isil; Sonmez, Fatih; Kucukislamoglu, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A newly series of coumarylthiazole derivatives containing aryl urea/thiourea groups were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were evaluated. The result showed that all the synthesized compounds exhibited inhibitory activity to both cholinesterases. Among them, 1-(4-(8-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)thiazol-2-yl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)thiourea (f8, IC50 = 4.58 μM) was found to be the most active compound against AChE, and 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-(6-nitro-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)thiazol-2-yl)urea (e31) exhibited the strongest inhibition against BuChE with IC50 value of 4.93 μM, which was 3.5-fold more potent than that of galantamine. The selectivity of f8 and e31 were 2.64 and 0.04, respectively. In addition, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacities (CUPRAC) and ABTS cation radical scavenging abilities of the synthesized compounds were investigated for antioxidant activity. Among them, f8, f4 and f6 (IC50=1.64, 1.82 and 2.69 μM, respectively) showed significantly better ABTS cation radical scavenging ability than standard quercetin (IC50 = 15.49 μM). PMID:25706320

  15. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    PubMed

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%. PMID:24919478

  16. Biomarkers of oxidative stress study VI. Endogenous plasma antioxidants fail as useful biomarkers of endotoxin-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kadiiska, Maria B; Peddada, Shyamal; Herbert, Ronald A; Basu, Samar; Hensley, Kenneth; Jones, Dean P; Hatch, Gary E; Mason, Ronald P

    2015-04-01

    This is the newest report in a series of publications aiming to identify a blood-based antioxidant biomarker that could serve as an in vivo indicator of oxidative stress. The goal of the study was to test whether acutely exposing Göttingen mini pigs to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in a loss of antioxidants from plasma. We set as a criterion that a significant effect should be measured in plasma and seen at both doses and at more than one time point. Animals were injected with two doses of LPS at 2.5 and 5 µg/kg iv. Control plasma was collected from each animal before the LPS injection. After the LPS injection, plasma samples were collected at 2, 16, 48, and 72 h. Compared with the controls at the same time point, statistically significant losses were not found for either dose at multiple time points in any of the following potential markers: ascorbic acid, tocopherols (α, δ, γ), ratios of GSH/GSSG and cysteine/cystine, mixed disulfides, and total antioxidant capacity. However, uric acid, total GSH, and total Cys were significantly increased, probably because LPS had a harmful effect on the liver. The leakage of substances from damaged cells into the plasma may have increased plasma antioxidant concentrations, making changes difficult to interpret. Although this study used a mini-pig animal model of LPS-induced oxidative stress, it confirmed our previous findings in different rat models that measurement of antioxidants in plasma is not useful for the assessment of oxidative damage in vivo. PMID:25614459

  17. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  18. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Results: Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. Conclusions: These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women. PMID:26473159

  19. A genomic screen for activators of the antioxidant response element

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanxia; Kern, Jonathan T.; Walker, John R.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a cis-acting regulatory enhancer element found in the 5′ flanking region of many phase II detoxification enzymes. Up-regulation of ARE-dependent target genes is known to have neuroprotective effects; yet, the mechanism of activation is largely unknown. By screening an arrayed collection of ≈15,000 full-length expression cDNAs in the human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 with an ARE-luciferase reporter, we have identified several cDNAs not previously associated with ARE activation. A subset of cDNAs, encoding sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) and dipeptidylpeptidase 3 (DPP3), activated the ARE in primary mouse-derived cortical neurons. Overexpression of SQSTM1 and DPP3 in IMR-32 cells stimulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) nuclear translocation and led to increased levels of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, a protein which is transcriptionally regulated by the ARE. When transfected into IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells that were depleted of transcription factor NRF2 by RNA interference, SQSTM1 and DPP3 were unable to activate the ARE or induce NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression, indicating that the ARE activation upon ectopic expression of these cDNAs is mediated by NRF2. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors indicated that 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C signaling are essential for activity. Overexpression of these cDNAs conferred partial resistance to hydrogen peroxide or rotenone-induced toxicity, consistent with the induction of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes, which can protect from oxidative stress. This work and other such studies may provide mechanisms for activating the ARE in the absence of general oxidative stress and a yet-unexploited therapeutic approach to degenerative diseases and aging. PMID:17360324

  20. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  2. Composition and antioxidant activity of Trigona carbonaria honey from Australia.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Livia Persano; Heard, Tim A; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Fernández-Muiño, Miguel; Sancho, María Teresa; Sesta, Giulio; Lusco, Lorenzo; Vit, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini) are a diverse group of highly eusocial bees distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. Trigona carbonaria honey, from Australia, was characterized by traditional physicochemical parameters (acidity, sugars, diastase, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural, invertase, nitrogen, and water content) and other compositional factors (flavonoids, polyphenols, organic acids, and water activity), as well as total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activity. For the Australian T. carbonaria, the traditional analytical parameters were similar to those previously reported for neotropical stingless bee honey and confirm that honeys produced by Meliponini bees possess several physicochemical properties that are distinctly different from Apis mellifera honey, with higher values of moisture (26.5 +/- 0.8 g of water/100 g of honey), water activity (0.74 +/- 0.01), electrical conductivity (1.64 +/- 0.12 mS/cm), and free acidity (124.2 +/- 22.9 mEq/kg of honey) and a very low diastase activity (0.4 +/- 0.5 diastase number) and invertase activity (5.7 +/- 1.5 invertase number). The sugar spectrum was quite different from that of A. mellifera honey, with 20.3 +/- 2.9 g of maltose/100 g of honey. The values of pH (4.0 +/- 0.1), lactonic acidity (4.7 +/- 0.8 mEq/kg of honey), sucrose (1.8 +/- 0.4 g/100 g of honey), and fructose/glucose ratio (1.42 +/- 0.13) fell in the same ranges as those of A. mellifera honey. Citric (0.23 +/- 0.09) and malic (0.12 +/- 0.03) acid concentrations (in g/kg of honey) of T. carbonaria honeys were in the range described for A. mellifera honey. D-Gluconic was more concentrated (9.9 +/- 1.3 g/kg of honey), in the range of Italian Castanea, Thymus, Arbutus, and honeydew honeys. Flavonoid content was 10.02 +/- 1.59 mg of quercetin equivalents/100 g of honey, and polyphenol contents were 55.74 +/- 6.11 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey. The antioxidant activity, expressed as percentage of 2

  3. Composition and antioxidant activity of Trigona carbonaria honey from Australia.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Livia Persano; Heard, Tim A; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Fernández-Muiño, Miguel; Sancho, María Teresa; Sesta, Giulio; Lusco, Lorenzo; Vit, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini) are a diverse group of highly eusocial bees distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. Trigona carbonaria honey, from Australia, was characterized by traditional physicochemical parameters (acidity, sugars, diastase, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural, invertase, nitrogen, and water content) and other compositional factors (flavonoids, polyphenols, organic acids, and water activity), as well as total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activity. For the Australian T. carbonaria, the traditional analytical parameters were similar to those previously reported for neotropical stingless bee honey and confirm that honeys produced by Meliponini bees possess several physicochemical properties that are distinctly different from Apis mellifera honey, with higher values of moisture (26.5 +/- 0.8 g of water/100 g of honey), water activity (0.74 +/- 0.01), electrical conductivity (1.64 +/- 0.12 mS/cm), and free acidity (124.2 +/- 22.9 mEq/kg of honey) and a very low diastase activity (0.4 +/- 0.5 diastase number) and invertase activity (5.7 +/- 1.5 invertase number). The sugar spectrum was quite different from that of A. mellifera honey, with 20.3 +/- 2.9 g of maltose/100 g of honey. The values of pH (4.0 +/- 0.1), lactonic acidity (4.7 +/- 0.8 mEq/kg of honey), sucrose (1.8 +/- 0.4 g/100 g of honey), and fructose/glucose ratio (1.42 +/- 0.13) fell in the same ranges as those of A. mellifera honey. Citric (0.23 +/- 0.09) and malic (0.12 +/- 0.03) acid concentrations (in g/kg of honey) of T. carbonaria honeys were in the range described for A. mellifera honey. D-Gluconic was more concentrated (9.9 +/- 1.3 g/kg of honey), in the range of Italian Castanea, Thymus, Arbutus, and honeydew honeys. Flavonoid content was 10.02 +/- 1.59 mg of quercetin equivalents/100 g of honey, and polyphenol contents were 55.74 +/- 6.11 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey. The antioxidant activity, expressed as percentage of 2

  4. Preparation and antioxidant activities of oligosaccharides from Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Huang, Xiaolian

    2017-02-01

    Oligosaccharides were prepared from Crassostrea gigas by hydrolysis of polysaccharide in C. gigas with peroxide oxygen (H2O2). The hydrolysates were cleared of protein, filtered, ultrafiltered and precipitated with absolute ethanol to give C. gigas oligosaccharides (CGOs). Factors affecting CGO yields, i.e., reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration, were optimised as follows: 2.96h reaction time, 84.71°C reaction temperature, and 2.46% H2O2 concentration. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of CGOs reached 10.61%. The CGOs were then partially characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, and antioxidant activities. Results indicate that CGOs possessed strong hydroxyl radical activity, 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl-radical-scavenging activity and reducing capacity at a concentration of 100μg/mL. PMID:27596415

  5. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP. PMID:26506375

  6. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-21

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  7. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity. PMID:27668121

  8. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity.

  9. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shiva Ram; Lee, Jun Gu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. "Unicon" exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity. PMID:27668121

  10. Antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity, and DNA information of Glossogyne tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Houng, Jer-Yiing; Chang, Chao-Lin; Wu, Chin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2005-07-27

    This study investigates the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Glossogyne tenuifolia extract on various cancer cell lines. The 5.8s DNA of G. tenuifolia was isolated, and the species of this plant was confirmed by NCBI's DNA database. G. tenuifolia was then extracted with ethanol and separated into several fractions using the partition procedure with water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate (EA). Among these, the EA fraction most significantly affected the activity of DPPH(*) and superoxide anion scavenging. Additionally, only the EA fraction exhibited cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and liver cancer cells (Hep G2 and Hep 3B). Next, the EA fraction was further separated by column chromatography, and 15 fractions were obtained. Three effective components were isolated and identified separately from the active fractions: oleanolic acid (OA) from fraction 6, luteolin from fractions 8-10, and luteolin-7-glucoside from fraction 12. The test of these three compounds on scavenging activity of DPPH(*) and superoxide anion indicates that luteolin had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas the effect of OA was negligible. Additionally, a synergistic effect between luteolin and luteolin-7-glucoside was observed. Kick-out experiments showed that the activities were vanished or decreased. Especially on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, the cytotoxicity completely disappeared when luteolin was eliminated from fractions 8-10. These findings demonstrate that luteolin plays a crucial role in the inhibition of the growth of hepatoma cancer cell lines. Fraction 3, which did not contain luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, and oleanolic acid, had cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, Hep G2, Hep 3B, and A549, which implies that this fraction contained some other effective ingredients and requires further study. The investigation is currently underway in our laboratory.

  11. Antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity, and DNA information of Glossogyne tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Houng, Jer-Yiing; Chang, Chao-Lin; Wu, Chin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2005-07-27

    This study investigates the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Glossogyne tenuifolia extract on various cancer cell lines. The 5.8s DNA of G. tenuifolia was isolated, and the species of this plant was confirmed by NCBI's DNA database. G. tenuifolia was then extracted with ethanol and separated into several fractions using the partition procedure with water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate (EA). Among these, the EA fraction most significantly affected the activity of DPPH(*) and superoxide anion scavenging. Additionally, only the EA fraction exhibited cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and liver cancer cells (Hep G2 and Hep 3B). Next, the EA fraction was further separated by column chromatography, and 15 fractions were obtained. Three effective components were isolated and identified separately from the active fractions: oleanolic acid (OA) from fraction 6, luteolin from fractions 8-10, and luteolin-7-glucoside from fraction 12. The test of these three compounds on scavenging activity of DPPH(*) and superoxide anion indicates that luteolin had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas the effect of OA was negligible. Additionally, a synergistic effect between luteolin and luteolin-7-glucoside was observed. Kick-out experiments showed that the activities were vanished or decreased. Especially on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, the cytotoxicity completely disappeared when luteolin was eliminated from fractions 8-10. These findings demonstrate that luteolin plays a crucial role in the inhibition of the growth of hepatoma cancer cell lines. Fraction 3, which did not contain luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, and oleanolic acid, had cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, Hep G2, Hep 3B, and A549, which implies that this fraction contained some other effective ingredients and requires further study. The investigation is currently underway in our laboratory. PMID:16029005

  12. Genotypic and climatic influence on the antioxidant activity of flavonoids in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    PubMed

    Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W

    2010-02-24

    The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.

  13. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results

  14. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Somik; Saikia, Jyoti P.; Kumar, A.; Konwar, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to π-π* and π-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H2O2. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  15. Antioxidant activity of betanidin: electrochemical study in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Stalica, Paweł; Spórna, Aneta; Nemzer, Boris; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2011-11-23

    The antioxidative mechanism of action of betalains is of significant interest because these pigments are recently emerging as highly bio-active natural compounds with potential benefits to human health. Betanidin, the basic betacyanin, comprises the 5,6-dihydroxyl moiety, which results in its high antioxidant activity. Oxidation of betanidin by voltammetric techniques and chro matographic identification of the oxidation products with spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-MS/MS) were performed. Two main oxidation peaks for betanidin are observable at pH 3-5. These peaks become merged at higher pH, suggesting a different mechanism of oxidation at higher and lower pH values. The low oxidation potential of betanidin confirms its very strong reduction properties. The presence of two prominent oxidized products, 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanidin and 2,17-bidecarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanidin, indicates their generation through two reaction routes with two different quinonoid intermediates: dopachrome derivative and quinone methide. Both lead to the decarboxylative dehydrogenation of betanidin. Subsequent oxidation and rearrangement of the conjugated chromophoric system results in formation of 14,15-dehydrogenated derivatives. PMID:21913685

  16. Comparison of the antioxidant activities of extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera

    2002-12-18

    The phenol content and antioxidant activity of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) differing in their origins and degradation degrees were studied. The o-diphenolic compounds typical of olive oil, namely, the oleuropein derivatives hydroxytyrosol (3',4'-dihydroxyphenylethanol, 3',4'-DHPEA), the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to 3',4'-DHPEA (3',4'-DHPEA-EDA), and an isomer of oleuropein aglycon (3',4'-DHPEA-EA), were analyzed by HPLC. The antioxidant activity was studied by (a) the xanthine oxidase (XOD)/xanthine system, which generates superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide; (b) the diaphorase (DIA)/NADH/juglone system, which generates superoxide radical and semiquinonic radical; and (c) the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) test. Results showed that EVOOs with a low degradation level (as evaluated by acidity, peroxide number, and spectroscopic indices K(232), K(270), and deltaK according to the EU Regulation) had a higher content of 3',4'-DHPEA-EDA and a lower content of 3',4'-DHPEA than oils having intermediate and advanced degradation levels. EVOOs with a low degradation degree were 3-5 times more efficient as DPPH scavengers and 2 times more efficient as inhibitors of the XOD-catalyzed reaction than oils with intermediate and advanced degradation levels. The DIA-catalyzed reaction was inhibited by EVOOs having low or intermediate degradation levels but not by the most degraded oils.

  17. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata.

    PubMed

    Galván, Imelda J; Mir-Rashed, Nadereh; Jessulat, Matthew; Atanya, Monica; Golshani, Ashkan; Durst, Tony; Petit, Philippe; Amiguet, Virginie Treyvaud; Boekhout, Teun; Summerbell, Richard; Cruz, Isabel; Arnason, John T; Smith, Myron L

    2008-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of chimaphilin was evaluated using the microdilution method with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.05mg/mL) and the dandruff-associated fungi Malassezia globosa (0.39mg/mL) and Malassezia restricta (0.55mg/mL). Pronounced antioxidant activity of C. umbellata crude extract was also identified using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, suggesting this phytomedicine has an antioxidant function in wound healing. A chemical-genetic profile was completed with chimaphilin using approximately 4700 S. cerevisiae gene deletion mutants. Cellular roles of deleted genes in the most susceptible mutants and secondary assays indicate that the targets for chimaphilin include pathways involved in cell wall biogenesis and transcription. PMID:17950387

  18. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Purple Potato Wine

    PubMed Central

    Zhong-hua, Liu; Jie, Guo

    2015-01-01

    Purple potatoes were used as raw material to study the purple potato wine production process and antioxidant activity. This paper analyzed different fermentation time, fermentation temperature, yeast inoculum, initial pH, the initial sugar content on alcohol and anthocyanin contents of purple potato wine by single factor experiments and response surface methodology(RSM). The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of purple potato wine were as follows: fermentation temperature was 26oC, yeast inoculum was 0.15%, fermentation time was 7 d, initial pH was 3.0 and initial sugar content was 11 %. Under these conditions the alcohol and anthocyanin contents of purple potato wine could reach 10.55%/Vol and 6.42 μg/mL, respectively. The purple potato wine was purple, bright in colour, pleasant fragrance and pure taste. Prepared purple potato wine had the ability of reducing Fe3+ and scavenging superoxide anion radicals, which meant that purple potato wine had certain antioxidant activity. PMID:26998173

  19. In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants from Iran.

    PubMed

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf; Ahmady-Asbchin, Salman

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants were evaluated. The active constituents of the edible plants were extracted using boiling water or 80% methanol. Results demonstrated that extraction of antioxidants by boiling water was more efficient. Lycium depressum and Berula angustifolia had the highest antioxidant activities and, therefore, could be rich sources of natural antioxidants. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Entrococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Further research is needed to isolate, characterize, and identify the bioactive compounds present in these plants.

  20. Understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review.

    PubMed

    Yehye, Wageeh A; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Ariffin, Azhar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Yaeghoobi, Marzieh

    2015-08-28

    Hindered phenols find a wide variety of applications across many different industry sectors. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a most commonly used antioxidant recognized as safe for use in foods containing fats, pharmaceuticals, petroleum products, rubber and oil industries. In the past two decades, there has been growing interest in finding novel antioxidants to meet the requirements of these industries. To accelerate the antioxidant discovery process, researchers have designed and synthesized a series of BHT derivatives targeting to improve its antioxidant properties to be having a wide range of antioxidant activities markedly enhanced radical scavenging ability and other physical properties. Accordingly, some structure-activity relationships and rational design strategies for antioxidants based on BHT structure have been suggested and applied in practice. We have identified 14 very sensitive parameters, which may play a major role on the antioxidant performance of BHT. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current knowledge on this topic, which is of significance in selecting and designing novel antioxidants using a well-known antioxidant BHT as a building-block molecule. Our strategy involved investigation on understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of BHT, whether through hydrogen or electron transfer mechanism to enable promising anti-oxidant candidates to be synthesized.

  1. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of five endemic Ligustrum species leaves from Taiwan flora in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Hseu, You-Cheng; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Yung-Ta; Kuo, Tzu-Ping; Ching, Hui

    2011-07-15

    Leaves from the plant species belonging to the genus Ligustrum are widely used as tea or herbal medicine in Europe, China, and Japan. The antioxidant properties of five Ligustrum species from Taiwan were compared using in vitro antioxidant methods such as DPPH radical scavenging, TEAC, and FRAP assays. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including Fe(2+)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. The amounts of major phenolic compounds from the Ligustrum species, including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and iridoids, were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that all Ligustrum species exhibited antioxidant, radical-scavenging, anti-haemolytic, and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting activities at different magnitudes of potency. A significant correlation was found between antioxidant activity and the amount of antioxidant components, in particular, total phenolics and phenylpropanoids. Among all Ligustrum species from Taiwan, Ligustrum morrisonense is presented as potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:23140701

  2. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking.

    PubMed

    Harakotr, Bhornchai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Scott, Marvin Paul; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p⩽0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss than leaching or diffusion into cooking water. Additionally, separation of kernels from the cob prior to cooking caused increased loss of antioxidant compounds. PMID:24996364

  3. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes—catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and ·O−2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells. PMID:26388737

  4. Assessing the antioxidant activity of certain drugs in oxidation of emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, L. A.

    2011-07-01

    The results from developing a kinetic model for testing water-soluble antioxidants by examining the micelle formation and oxidation kinetics of water-emulsion ethyl oleate and methyl linoleate substrates are presented. The optimum composition of the system, the catalyst, and the emulsifying agent are selected. The model is tested using standard, synthetic, and natural antioxidants. Criteria for evaluating the antioxidant's efficiency are proposed. A more complex mechanism for the action of ionol is presented, along with the possibility of using it as an external standard. The high antioxidant activity of capoten and the manifestation of antioxidant properties by α-tocopherol under selected conditions are demonstrated.

  5. Hypolipidemic, Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Activities of Microalgae Spirulina

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ruitang; Chow, Te-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Spirulina is free-floating filamentous microalgae growing in alkaline water bodies. With its high nutritional value, Spirulina has been consumed as food for centuries in Central Africa. It is now widely used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide. Recently, great attention and extensive studies have been devoted to evaluate its therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer and viral infections. The cardiovascular benefits of Spirulina are primarily resulted from its hypolipidemic, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. Data from preclinical studies with various animal models consistently demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of Spirulina. Although differences in study design, sample size and patient conditions resulting in minor inconsistency in response to Spirulina supplementation, the findings from human clinical trials are largely consistent with the hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina observed in the preclinical studies. However, most of the human clinical trials are suffered with limited sample size and some with poor experimental design. The antioxidant and/or antiinflammatory activities of Spirulina were demonstrated in a large number of preclinical studies. However, a limited number of clinical trials have been carried out so far to confirm such activities in human. Currently, our understanding on the underlying mechanisms for Spirulina’s activities, especially the hypolipidemic effect, is limited. Spirulina is generally considered safe for human consumption supported by its long history of use as food source and its favorable safety profile in animal studies. However, rare cases of side-effects in human have been reported. Quality control in the growth and process of Spirulina to avoid contamination is mandatory to guarantee the safety of Spirulina products. PMID:20633020

  6. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  7. Analysis and comparison of the active components and antioxidant activities of extracts from Abelmoschus esculentus L

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Haibing; Dong, Wenqi; Shi, Xiangjun; Liu, Hualiang; Yuan, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. is a healthy vegetable belonging to the family Malvaceae. This article reports the contents of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) in 80% methanol extracts of the flower (FL), fruit (FR), leaf (L), and seed (S) of A. esculentus, and in 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70% methanol eluates (ME), through the HP-20 column chromatography of 80% of the methanol fruit extract after it is defatted with petroleum and extracted with ethyl acetate. All the names of the samples are shortened for AEE-FL, AEE-FR, AEE-L, AEE-S and 0% MEF-WE, 10% MEF-WE, 30% MEF-WE, 50% MEF-WE, 70% MEF-WE respectively. In addition, the effects of the aforementioned extracts on 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and on ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) have been evaluated. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and the enrichment fraction of A. esculentus were also evaluated by two assays, the DPPH radical-scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The content measurement of TF and TP adopts the UV-2102 PCS method, and the measurement of the antioxidant activity adopts the Infinite M 200 method. Results: The experiment results show that all the different parts and different enrichment fractions of the water extracts of A. esculentus contain phenolics and flavonoids. Through the research of antioxidant activity we know that all the parts of the methanol extracts and different enrichment fractions of water extracts in the A. esculentus have the effect of scavenging free radicals, among which the antioxidant activity in the 50% MEF-WE part is the strongest. Here, the main components of antioxidant activity must be the flavonoids and phenolics, and furthermore, we know that there is a direct relationship between the contents of flavonoids and phenolics and the antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The study suggests that A. esculentus may be the potential rich source of natural antioxidant. The

  8. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  9. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus.

  10. Changes in whole grain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of six sorghum genotypes under different irrigation treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K; Bornman, Janet F; Bennett, Sarita J; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum grain containing elevated polyphenolic antioxidant content may provide foods with benefits to human health. A study was undertaken to determine the potential role of irrigation on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant levels in sorghum grain. Bound, free and total polyphenols were investigated in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under either full irrigation or a deficit irrigation regime. Results showed genotype, irrigation and their interaction had a significant effect on polyphenols and antioxidant activity (P⩽0.05). The deficit irrigation treatment significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the full irrigation treatment. Of the six genotypes Shawaya black short 1 and IS1311C (brown) showed the highest polyphenols levels and antioxidant activity. Therefore, both irrigation treatments and genotype need to be considered by sorghum breeders and farmers during sorghum production to produce grain with the required levels of polyphenolics and antioxidant activity for targeted end-use. PMID:27507466

  11. Antioxidant activity of herbal polysaccharides and cough reflex.

    PubMed

    Nosalova, G; Jurecek, L; Hromadkova, Z; Kostalova, Z; Sadlonova, V

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of Fallopia sachalinensis leaves resulted in two fractions (FS-1 and FS-2). Chemical and spectral analyses of samples revealed the prevalence of pectic polysaccharides with high galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, and rhamnose content. Arabinogalactan with a higher content of phenolic prevailed in the FS-1, whereas rhamnogalacturonan predominated in the FS-2 fraction. Both polysaccharides showed significant antioxidant activity according to DPPH and FRAP assays. Evaluation of antitussive activity in healthy adult conscious guinea pigs after oral application of 50 and 75 mg/kg of the FS-2 polysaccharide extracts showed a significant suppression of cough reflex, without an influence on specific airway resistance. The suppression of cough was comparable with that of codeine.

  12. Antioxidant activity of hydrazones with sterically hindered phenol fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaevskii, A. N.; Kniga, O. P.; Khizhan, E. I.; Tikhonova, G. A.; Vinogradov, V. V.; Khizhan, A. I.

    2012-12-01

    Kinetic parameters of the antiradical activity of derivatives of hydrazones of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di- tert-butyl-benzaldehyde are determined photocolorimetrically in their reactions with a stable diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, and by chemiluminescence from the capture of peroxide radicals upon the initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene. It is found that during inhibited oxidation, the reactive centers (N-H and O-H) in hetaryl- and acylhydrazone molecules operate in parallel. Regularities of the compounds' inhibiting effect are studied in heterogeneous systems upon the initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in emulsion, and in a water-lipid model of the oxidation of phosphatidylcholine dispersion. It is established that hydrazone derivatives are antioxidants of combined action in heterophase processes of the oxidation of unsaturated substrates, displaying properties of hydroperoxide deactivators in addition to their antiradical activity.

  13. Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Rana chensinensis skin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting

    2015-01-22

    The extraction process of polysaccharides from Rana chensinensis skin was optimized by using a Box-Behnken design. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time, 4.96h; extraction temperature, 100°C; ratio of water to raw material, 60; and extraction frequency, 1. Under these conditions, the experimental polysaccharide yield was 2.03±0.14%, which agreed with the predicted yield. The purified polysaccharide RCSP II was successfully obtained by diethylaminoethanol-Sepharose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vitro experiments showed that RCSP II exhibited a strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals but a weak scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals. RCSP II also showed a strong reducing capacity. Thus, this polysaccharide can be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines.

  14. Dietary arginine and N-carbamylglutamate supplementation enhances the antioxidant statuses of the liver and plasma against oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Guangmang; Fang, Tingting; Wu, Xianjian; Jia, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Chen, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Cai, Jingyi; Wang, Jing

    2016-05-18

    N-Carbamylglutamate (NCG), an effective precursor of arginine (ARG), can enhance ARG synthesis, increase intestinal growth, and improve reproductive performance. However, the antioxidant effect of NCG remains largely unknown. This study aims to survey the effects of ARG and NCG supplementation on the antioxidant statuses of the liver and plasma in rats under oxidative stress. Rats were fed for 30 days with one of the three iso-nitrogenous diets: basal diet (BD), BD plus 1% ARG, and BD plus 0.1% NCG. On day 28, half of the rats fed with BD were intraperitoneally injected with 12 mg per kg body weight of diquat (diquat group) and the other half was injected intraperitoneally with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution (control group). The other diet groups also received an intraperitoneal injection of 12 mg per kg body weight of diquat, as follows: diquat + 1% ARG (DT + ARG), and diquat + 0.1% NCG (DT + NCG). Rat liver and plasma samples obtained 48 h after diquat injection were analyzed. Results indicated that diquat significantly affected the plasma conventional biochemical components (relative to the controls), which were partially alleviated in both the DT + ARG and DT + NCG groups (P < 0.05). Diquat also significantly decreased the glutathione (GSH) content (by 30.0%), and decreased anti-superoxide anion (ASA; by 13.8%) and anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR; by 38.9%) abilities in the plasma, and also decreased catalase (CAT) activity both in the liver (by 17.5%) and plasma (by 33.4%) compared with the control group. By contrast, diquat increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content (by 23.0%) in the plasma (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Relative to those of the diquat group, higher CAT activity and GSH content were noted in the plasma of the DT + ARG group and in the liver of both DT + ARG and DT + NCG groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DT + ARG group exhibited significantly enhanced plasma ASA activity (P < 0.05). The DT + NCG group showed significantly improved total

  15. Acetamide derivatives with antioxidant activity and potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Autore, Giuseppina; Caruso, Anna; Marzocco, Stefania; Nicolaus, Barbara; Palladino, Chiara; Pinto, Aldo; Popolo, Ada; Sinicropi, Maria S; Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Saturnino, Carmela

    2010-03-01

    This study reports the synthesis and antioxidant activity of some new acetamide derivatives. The compounds' structures were elucidated by NMR analysis and their melting points were measured. The in vitro antioxidant activity of these compounds was tested by evaluating the amount of scavenged ABTS radical and estimating ROS and NO production in tBOH- or LPS-stimulated J774.A1 macrophages. All compounds were tested for their effect on cell viability by an MTT assay and by a Brine Shrimp Test. PMID:20336030

  16. Cytotoxic, antioxidant activities and structure activity relationship of some newly synthesized terpenoidal oxaliplatin analogs.

    PubMed

    Amr, Abd El-Galil E; Ali, Korany A; Abdalla, Mohamed M

    2009-02-01

    The terpenoidal oxaliplatin derivatives (6) and (12) were newly synthesized using 2beta,3alpha-dihydroxy-11-oxo-18beta-olean-12-ene-30-oic acid (1) and 2alpha,2beta-dihydroxy-18beta-ursan-12-ene-28-oic acid (7) as starting materials. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities and were compared to Oxaliplatin and vitamin C as positive controls. Some of the compounds exhibited better cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities than the reference controls. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data, toxicity (LD(50)) and pharmacological screening for the synthesized compounds were reported.

  17. Characterization of the antioxidant activity of aglycone and glycosylated derivatives of hesperetin: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Verônica Trícoli; de Franco, Élida Paula Dini; de Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco; Messias, Márcia Cristina Fernandes; Priviero, Fernanda Bruschi Marinho; Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra C H; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    The flavonoids are mainly present in Citrus fruits as their glycosyl derivatives. This study was conducted comparing in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the aglycone hesperetin and its glycosylated forms (hesperidin and G-hesperidin) and their effects on the plasma lipid profile and the oxidative-antioxidative system (TBARS and antioxidant enzymes) in rats. The concentrations of the major conjugated metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of these compounds were also determined. Wistar male rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n=6) supplemented for 30 days with 1 mmol/kg body mass of hesperetin, hesperidin or G-hesperidin. Hesperetin was a stronger xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC50=53 μM and Ki=17.3 μM) than the glycosylate derivatives. Supplementation with the three compounds led to a lower (more favorable) atherogenic index, and an antioxidant preventive effect from the increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase was observed associated to HT supplementation, possibly because of the higher level of hesperetin-glucuronide in rat plasma.

  18. Mechanochemical Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Curcumin-Templated Azoles.

    PubMed

    Sherin, Daisy R; Rajasekharan, Kallikat N

    2015-12-01

    A solvent-free, mechanochemical method for the synthesis of curcumin (1) derived 3,5-bis(styryl)pyrazoles and 3,5-bis(styryl)isoxazole (2a-g) at room temperature, with very short reaction time, is reported. Such earlier structural modifications of curcumin, at its β-diketone unit by transforming it into an isosteric pyrazole or isoxazole unit, required prolonged heating. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of these compounds, based on DPPH, FRAP, and β-carotene bleaching assays, showed that several of these azoles are better antioxidants than curcumin, with the isoxazole derivative 2g being overall the best. Typically, the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (10(-2) mmol), expressed as EC50 values, by curcumin (1), 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyryl)pyrazole (2a), and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyryl)isoxazole (2g) are 40 ± 0.06, 14 ± 0.18, and 8 ± 0.11 μmol, respectively. Moreover, the reported method is useful in accessing 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyryl)-1-phenylpyrazole (2b), which is important in studies related to neuroprotection and Alzheimer's disease, and 2a and 2g, which are inhibitors of protein kinases involved in neuronal excitotoxicity.

  19. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Containing Quercetin: Characterization and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Antônio, Emilli; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid reported as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antineurodegenerative and antitumoral. However, due to its low water solubility, its efficacy is restricted. Nanotechnology can be an importante tool to improve the quercetin properties and increase its bioavailability. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles containing quercetin were developed by desolvation technique, characterized the mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, physical state of drug in nanoparticles and drug release profile as well as their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The influence of glutaraldehyde percentage in nanoparticles properties was evaluated and did not influence the nanoparticles parameters. Nanoparticles presented a mean size around 130 nm and encapsulation efficiency around 85%. Results from X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystal of the drug was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. Quercetin release profile demonstrated a biphasic pattern and after 96 h approximately 18% of drug was released. Kinetic models demonstrated that the quercetin release followed a second-order model and the release was governed by Fickian diffusion. After 96 h, quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than free quercetin for scanvenger of radical ABTS + and hypochlorous acid. BSA nanoparticles represents potential carriers for improve quercetin properties. PMID:27433585

  20. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides of Chuanminshen violaceum.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmin; Zhang, Qing; Li, Yu; Li, Lu; Lan, Weijie; He, Jingliu; Li, Huiyan; Xiong, Yabo; Qin, Wen

    2016-05-01

    A single factor experiment and Box-Behnken design were applied to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (CVPs). The CVPs yield was 34.59 ± 0.51%, which was in accordance with the predicted value of 35.54%, under the following optimum conditions: microwave power of 466 W, extraction temperature of 64.5 °C, extraction time of 15 min, and water-raw material ratio of 40 mL/g. Two CVPs fractions (CVPs-I and CVPs-II) were obtained via stepwise ethanol precipitation. CVPs-II was further purified using DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography to obtain the major fraction of CVPs-IIa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and GC-MS analysis revealed that crude CVPs, CVPs-I, and CVPs-II were neutral polysaccharides and were mainly composed of glucose and galactose. The molecular weights of CVPs-I and CVPs-IIa were 233.69 and 11.02 kDa, respectively. Furthermore, all samples exhibited certain antioxidant activity or reducing power to scavenge the DPPH and ABTS radicals, among which CVPs-II was the strongest. In conclusion, MAE is an efficient method for extracting CVPs of C. violaceum, and this plant root has the potential to be explored as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:26806648

  1. Genetically enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant activity improves muscle function in aging.

    PubMed

    Umanskaya, Alisa; Santulli, Gaetano; Xie, Wenjun; Andersson, Daniel C; Reiken, Steven R; Marks, Andrew R

    2014-10-21

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 or greater. Here we tested the effects of increased mitochondrial antioxidant activity on age-dependent skeletal muscle dysfunction using transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of the human catalase gene to mitochondria (MCat mice). Aged MCat mice exhibited improved voluntary exercise, increased skeletal muscle specific force and tetanic Ca(2+) transients, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) leak and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load compared with age-matched wild type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, ryanodine receptor 1 (the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction; RyR1) from aged MCat mice was less oxidized, depleted of the channel stabilizing subunit, calstabin1, and displayed increased single channel open probability (Po). Overall, these data indicate a direct role for mitochondrial free radicals in promoting the pathological intracellular Ca(2+) leak that underlies age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle function. This study harbors implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for treatment of mitochondrial myopathies and other healthspan-limiting disorders. PMID:25288763

  2. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Containing Quercetin: Characterization and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Antônio, Emilli; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid reported as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antineurodegenerative and antitumoral. However, due to its low water solubility, its efficacy is restricted. Nanotechnology can be an importante tool to improve the quercetin properties and increase its bioavailability. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles containing quercetin were developed by desolvation technique, characterized the mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, physical state of drug in nanoparticles and drug release profile as well as their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The influence of glutaraldehyde percentage in nanoparticles properties was evaluated and did not influence the nanoparticles parameters. Nanoparticles presented a mean size around 130 nm and encapsulation efficiency around 85%. Results from X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystal of the drug was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. Quercetin release profile demonstrated a biphasic pattern and after 96 h approximately 18% of drug was released. Kinetic models demonstrated that the quercetin release followed a second-order model and the release was governed by Fickian diffusion. After 96 h, quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than free quercetin for scanvenger of radical ABTS + and hypochlorous acid. BSA nanoparticles represents potential carriers for improve quercetin properties.

  3. Antinociceptive and antioxidant activity of Zanthoxylum budrunga wall (Rutaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Khirul; Biswas, Nripendra Nath; Saha, Sanjib; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Khan, Tanzir Ahmed; Awang, Khalijah; Shilpi, Jamil A

    2014-01-01

    Different parts of the medicinal plant Zanthoxylum budrunga Wall enjoy a variety of uses in ethnobotanical practice in Bangladesh. In the present study, a number of phytochemical and pharmacological investigations were done on the ethanol extract of Z. budrunga seeds (ZBSE) to evaluate its antinociceptive and antioxidant potential. ZBSE was also subjected to HPLC analysis to detect the presence of some common antioxidants. In acetic acid induced writhing test in mice, ZBSE showed 65.28 and 74.30% inhibition of writhing at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In hot-plate test, ZBSE raised the pain threshold significantly (P < 0.001) throughout the entire observation period. In DPPH scavenging assay, the IC50 of ZBSE was observed at 82.60 μg/mL. The phenolic content was found to be 338.77 mg GAE/100 g of dried plant material. In reducing power assay, ZBSE showed a concentration dependent reducing ability. HPLC analysis indicated the presence of caffeic acid with a concentration of 75.45 mg/100 g ZBSE. Present investigation supported the use of Zanthoxylum budrunga seed in traditional medicine for pain management. Constituents including caffeic acid and other phenolics might have some role in the observed activity. PMID:24707219

  4. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate. PMID:12860316

  5. The effect of yeast Yarrowia lipolytica on the antioxidant indices and macro-and microelements in blood plasma of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Merska, M; Czech, A; Ognik, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different amounts of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast on the redox response and content of macro- and microelements in the blood plasma of turkey hens. The experiment was carried out on 240 turkey hens aged from 1 to 16 weeks. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups of 80 birds each. Group I served as a control (K) and did not receive any experimental compounds. The turkey hens from the experimental groups (YL3 and YL6) were administered dried Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in their feed mixtures in the amount of 3% (YL3) or 6% (YL6). Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in the feed mixtures for the turkey hens did not induce oxidation reactions in the organism of the birds. However, an increase in catalase activity and a reduction in the level of LOOH, MDA and vitamin C were observed in the blood plasma of the turkey hens whose diet was supplemented with YL yeast. In the case of other indices, such as superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant potential (FRAP), the additive caused no significant changes. Administering Yarrowia lipolytica yeast to turkey hens may stimulate the enzymatic response of the antioxidant system (e.g. increasing catalase activity), mainly by increasing the concentration of iron in the plasma. PMID:26812811

  6. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  7. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  8. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  9. Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Proteins in the Plasma Proteome during Saturation Diving: Unique Coincidence under Hypobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Domoto, Hideharu; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tadano, Yutaka; Fujii, Shigenori; Tachi, Kazuyoshi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Michiya; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4.0, were elevated during SD to 60, 100, and 200 meters sea water (msw). The expression of these proteins returned to pre-diving level when the SD training was completed. The two proteins were identified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis; the 32.4 kDa protein was transthyretin and the 44.8 kDa protein was alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. Oxidation was detected at methionine 13 of transthyretin and at methionine 129 of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, haptoglobin was up-regulated during the decompression phase of 200 msw. These plasma proteins up-regulated during SD have a common function as anti-oxidants. This suggests that by coordinating their biological effects, these proteins activate a defense mechanism to counteract the effects of hyperbaric-hyperoxic conditions during SD. PMID:27741252

  10. Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi-Pour, Badakhshan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana camara (L. camara) various parts and the determination of their total phenolics content. Methods The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity(DPPH), xanthine oxidase inhibition activity and Griess-Ilosvay method. Results The results showed that all the plant parts possessed antioxidant properties including radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and nitrites scavenging activities. The antioxidative activities were correlated with the total phenol. The leaves extract of L. camara was more effective than that of other parts. Conclusions This study suggests that L. camara extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:23593576

  11. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial activity of Pedicularis sibthorpii Boiss. And Pedicularis wilhelmsiana Fisch ex.

    PubMed Central

    khodaie, Laleh; Delazar, Abbas; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research paper presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Pedicularis sibthorpii and Pedicularis wilhelmsiana which grow in Azerbaijan/Iran with claimed a lot of therapeutic effects. Methods: DPPH assay and agar well diffusion method were carried out to determine antioxidant and antimicrobial activities respectively. Results: Methanolic extract showed better antioxidant activity compared to other crude extracts (n-hexane and dichloromethane). Methanolic extracts of both Pedicularis sibthorpii and Pedicularis wilhelmsiana were found to have antibacterial activity especially against gram positive strains of S. ureus, S.epidermidis. No antifungal activity was observed in the tested extracts. Conclusion: Existence of some phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts, such as phenylethanoids and flavonoids (found in other species of Pedicularis), which cause both antioxidant and antibacterial activities, is probable. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts supports further studies related to phytochemical investigation and bioassay of different fractions to isolate pure compounds of plants. PMID:24312775

  12. Heterofucans from the Brown Seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis with Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Fidelis, Gabriel Pereira; Nobre, Leonardo Thiago Duarte Barreto; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santana Santos Pereira; Alves, Luciana Guimaraes; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated l-fucose. We extracted six fucans from Canistrocarpus cervicornis by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. No polysaccharide was capable of prolonging prothrombin time (PT) at the concentration assayed. However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Four sulfated polysaccharides (CC-0.3/CC-0.5/CC-0.7/CC-1.0) doubled aPTT with only 0.1 mg/mL of plasma, only 1.25-fold less than Clexane®, a commercial low molecular weight heparin. Heterofucans exhibited total antioxidant capacity, low hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, good superoxide radical scavenging efficiency (except CC-1.0), and excellent ferrous chelating ability (except CC-0.3). These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of C. cervicornis polysaccharides as anticoagulants and antioxidants. Further purification steps and additional studies on structural features as well as in vivo experiments are needed to test the viability of their use as therapeutic agents. PMID:21339951

  13. Potential of Excipient Emulsions for Improving Quercetin Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; McClements, David Julian

    2016-05-11

    The potential for excipient emulsions to enhance the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of quercetin was determined in this study. Oil-in-water excipient emulsions containing two levels (4 or 10%) of small lipid droplets (d < 250 nm) were prepared from a long-chain triglyceride (corn oil). The solubilization of quercetin by the excipient emulsions was faster than by bulk corn oil or bulk water, and the solubilization rate was higher at 100 °C than at 30 °C. The bioaccessibility of quercetin samples was determined using an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the bioactivity of quercetin was determined using a rat feeding study. The excipient emulsions were more effective at enhancing quercetin bioaccessibility and rat plasma antioxidant activity than either bulk oil or bulk water. This effect was attributed to the rapid digestion of the long chain triglycerides when they were in an emulsified form, which led to the rapid production of mixed micelles capable of solubilizing, protecting, and transporting quercetin.

  14. Isolation, Identification and Activities of Natural Antioxidants from Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hao; Xie, Zhiyong; Liu, Guanghui; Sun, Xiuman; Peng, Guangtian; Lin, Baoqin; Liao, Qiongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species leads to some diseases associated with oxidative stress. Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun (CK) is a common remedy in traditional Chinese medicine and possesses diverse biological activities involving antioxidant properties; its main compounds phenylethanoid glycosides (PG) and flavonoids are always reported as antioxidants. In order to develop CK as a safe and activated antioxidant, our investigation was performed to validate antioxidant properties and assess which types of compounds (similar polarity or similar structure), even which compounds, played the role of antioxidants. The extracted compounds of CK were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC-DAD-ESI-Trap MS and UV for their contents and antioxidant activities. The correlations between antioxidant activities and known contents were respectively counted and a semi-quantitative experiment was designed to screen antioxidant compounds of CK with HPLC-UV. The n-butanol fraction (BF) showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC, TFC), and three PG (forsythiaside B, poliumoside and acteoside) contents. BF showed the significantly best (P<0.05) activities in most assays. There were significant correlations (P<0.05) between DPPH•, ABTS+•, •O2− scavenging, Cu2+-chelating, anti-lipidperoxidation activities and TPC. BF also has significant antioxidant activities on CCl4-induced acute liver injury Mice and TBHP-reduced HepG2 cells. Nine PG (forsythiaside B, poliumoside, acteoside, alyssonoside, brandioside and their derivatives) and one flavone (rhamnazin) were screened out as antioxidants. BF in CK contained abundant polyphenolic, which reflected some definite antioxidant properties. The antioxidant compounds consisted at the least of nine PG and one flavone. PMID:24667350

  15. Pecans acutely increase plasma postprandial antioxidant capacity and catechins and decrease LDL oxidation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Haddad, Ella Hasso; McCarthy, Katie; Wang, Piwen; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive constituents of pecan nuts such as γ-tocopherol and flavan-3-ol monomers show antioxidant properties in vitro, but bioavailability in humans is not known. We examined postprandial changes in plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in concentrations of tocopherols, catechins, oxidized LDL, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in response to pecan test meals. Sixteen healthy men and women (23-44 y, BMI 22.7 ± 3.4) were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of test meals composed of whole pecans, blended pecans, or an isocaloric meal of equivalent macronutrient composition but formulated of refined ingredients in a crossover design with a 1-wk washout period between treatments. Blood was sampled at baseline and at intervals up to 24 h postingestion. Following the whole and blended pecan test meals, plasma concentrations of γ-tocopherols doubled at 8 h (P < 0.001) and hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC increased 12 and 10% at 2 h, respectively. Post whole pecan consumption, oxidized LDL decreased 30, 33, and 26% at 2, 3, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate concentrations at 1 h (mean ± SEM; 95.1 ± 30.6 nmol/L) and 2 h (116.3 ± 80.5 nmol/L) were higher than at baseline (0 h) and after the control test meal at 1 h (P < 0.05). The postprandial molar ratio of MDA:triglycerides decreased by 37, 36, and 40% at 3, 5, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), only when whole and blended pecan data were pooled. These results show that bioactive constituent of pecans are absorbable and contribute to postprandial antioxidant defenses. PMID:21106921

  16. Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves.

    PubMed

    Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants. PMID:26891707

  17. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in cultivated and wild edible fruits grown in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Enrique; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Durant, Armando A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present research was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of cultivated and wild edible fruits consumed in Panama. Materials and Methods: 39 cultivated and wild edible fruits antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was assessed by using the DPPH and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Results and Discussion: The antioxidant composition of the fruits varied between 1083.33 and 16.22 mg TEAC/100 g fresh weight. On the other hand, the total phenolic content of the 39 fruits tested ranged from 604.80 to 35.10 mg GAE/100 g FW. Ziziphus mauritania presented the highest antioxidant activity and the largest phenolic content, whereas most fruits had a moderate TEAC value. Conclusion: Fruits polyphenol content was strongly correlated with antioxidant properties, which pointed out the important role of these compounds in the prevention of many types of cancer, neurological ailments, and cardiovascular diseases through diverse antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23248565

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and electronic structure of aspirin and paracetamol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motozaki, W.; Nagatani, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Endo, K.; Takemura, T.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and antioxidant activity of phenolic antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol). X-ray photoelectron and emission spectra of the antioxidants have been simulated by deMon density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the molecules. The chemical bonding of aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen 'lone-pair' π-orbitals which can neutralize free radicals and thus be related to antioxidant properties of the drug. In the case of paracetamol the additional nitrogen 'lone pair' is formed which can explain toxicity of the drug. We propose an evaluation method of antioxidant activity based on the relationship between experimental half-wave oxidation potential ( Ep/2 ) and calculated ionization potentials ( IP) by the DFT calculations, and can conclude that paracetamol has the higher antioxidant activity than aspirin.

  19. Antioxidant profile of red wines evaluated by total antioxidant capacity, scavenger activity, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Pérez, M Dolores; Muñiz, Pilar; Gonzalez-Sanjosé, Maria L

    2007-07-11

    The study of the antioxidant capacity of foodstuffs requires the use of diverse determination methods to gain a wider picture of their multiple effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the "antioxidant profile" of red wines applying TAC (total antioxidant capacity) methods: 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methods such as lipid peroxidation inhibition and inhibition of damage to DNA. Furthermore, levels of total polyphenols (TPP) of wines were also evaluated. Three bottles of 107 different Spanish red wines (total samples 321), made from different grape varieties, aging processes, and vintages, were analyzed. The validation of TAC methods, the first step in this work, provided a good linearity, proportionality, and low detection limits. Among these methods, the ABTS was the most satisfactory for its rapidity, cost, and precision. All wines showed an important capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and were capable of blocking superoxide radicals but with 10 times lower intensity. Wines also showed important protective action on biomarkers of oxidative stress; they were much more active to inhibit lipid peroxidation than DNA oxidation. Few statistically significant correlations among levels of TPP and antioxidant properties of wines were detected. Furthermore, values of these correlations were very low.

  20. Determination of oxidative stress and activities of antioxidant enzymes in guinea pigs treated with haloperidol

    PubMed Central

    GUMULEC, JAROMIR; RAUDENSKA, MARTINA; HLAVNA, MARIAN; STRACINA, TIBOR; SZTALMACHOVA, MARKETA; TANHAUSEROVA, VERONIKA; PACAL, LUKAS; RUTTKAY-NEDECKY, BRANISLAV; SOCHOR, JIRI; ZITKA, ONDREJ; BABULA, PETR; ADAM, VOJTECH; KIZEK, RENE; NOVAKOVA, MARIE; MASARIK, MICHAL

    2013-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were treated with haloperidol (HP), and free radical (FR) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels were detected and glucose levels and the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were measured in HP-treated and untreated guinea pigs. The present study demonstrated that the administration of HP causes significant oxidative stress in guinea pigs (P=0.022). In animals treated with HP, the activity of GST was significantly increased compared with a placebo (P= 0.007). The elevation of SOD and GR activity levels and increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH) in HP-treated animals were not statistically significant. In the HP-untreated animals, a significant positive correlation was observed between oxidative stress detected by the FR method and GST (r=0.88, P=0.008) and SOD (r=0.86, P= 0.01) activity levels, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the levels of plasma glucose and oxidative stress detected by the FRAP method was observed (r=−0.78, P=0.04). Notably, no significant correlations were observed in the treated animals. In the HP-treated group, two subgroups of animals were identified according to their responses to oxidative stress. The group with higher levels of plasma HP had higher enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species production compared with the group with lower plasma levels of HP. The greatest difference in activity (U/μl) between the two groups of animals was for GR. PMID:23403848

  1. Broad spectrum antimutagenic activity of antioxidant active fraction of punica granatum L. peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-12-21

    Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatum peel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80μg/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatum peel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20708098

  2. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna).

    PubMed

    Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  3. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna).

    PubMed

    Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants. PMID:26675912

  4. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on phenylpropanoids’ solubility and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Summary The complexation abilities of five cyclodextrins (CDs) with seven phenylpropanoids (PPs) were evaluated by UV–visible spectroscopy, phase solubility studies and molecular modeling. Formation constants (K f), complexation efficiency (CE), PP:CD molar ratio, increase in formulation bulk and complexation energy were assessed. All complexes exhibited a 1:1 stoichiometry but their stability was influenced by the nature and the position of the phenyl ring substituents. A relationship between the intrinsic solubility of guests (S 0) and the solubilizing potential of CD was proposed. Molecular modeling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. Finally, the antioxidant activity of encapsulated PPs was evaluated by scavenging of the stable DPPH radical. PMID:25298799

  5. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

  6. Antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Tribulus alatus in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadry, H; Abou Basha, L; El Gindi, O; Temraz, A

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Tribulus alatus was investigated by determination of blood glutathione, serum ascorbic acid and serum superoxide dismutase in rats. All groups treated with aerial parts without fruit, fruits and total herb showed a significant increase in all measured parameters (P<0.05). Upon fractionation of the alcoholic extracts using solvents with different polarities, all fractions revealed a significant increase in serum superoxide dismutase (P<0.05). On the other hand chloroformic fraction of aerial parts without fruit extract and ethylacetate fraction of fruits extract exhibited a significant increase in blood glutathione level. All fractions of fruits extract, chloroformic and ethylacetate fractions of aerial parts without fruit extract significantly increase the serum ascorbic acid concentration (P<0.05).

  7. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  8. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn

  9. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and anthocyanin contents of various rhubarb (Rheum-spp.) varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...

  10. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry.

  11. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry. PMID:26686153

  12. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sujay; Wahile, Atul; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bishnu Pada; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2006-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds (HANN) was studied using in vitro and in vivo models. Total phenolic content in HANN was found to be 7.61 +/- 0.04% (w/w). Characteristic HPTLC fingerprints of HANN were also made using different solvent systems. The HANN exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the low IC(50) values in both DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (6.12 +/- 0.41 microg/ml) and nitric oxide (84.86 +/- 3.56 microg/ml) methods. The values were found to be less than those of rutin, the standard used. Acute toxicity of HANN was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice, no signs of toxicity were observed up to the oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. Administration of HANN to Wistar rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment caused a significant dose dependent increase (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and a significant decrease (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), when compared to CCl(4) treated control in both liver and kidney. These changes observed at 100 mg/kg body weight treatment were comparable to those observed for standard Vitamin E at 50 mg/kg treatment. Nelumbo nucifera seeds contain alkaloids, saponins, phenolics and carbohydrates. The results support significant antioxidant nature of HANN.

  13. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Byrsonima species.

    PubMed

    Pereira, V V; Borel, C R; Silva, R R

    2015-01-01

    The species of the Byrsonima genus (Malpighiaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, asthma and skin infections. In this study, the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening were carried out in polar extracts of Byrsonima coccolobifolia, Byrsonima verbascifolia and Byrsonima intermedia. The presence of tannins and flavonoids in the samples and high phenols content was observed. B. coccolobifolia and B. intermedia species showed the best results of antioxidant action. It was analysed the correlation between the methods, and there was a great correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant assay, showing that the phenolic substances contribute to the antioxidant activities of these plants.

  14. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

    2004-12-01

    It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of gluathione, an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

  15. Quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of phenolics isolated from different extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Pimenta Malagueta).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Patrícia L A; Nascimento, Talita C E S; Ramos, Natália S M; Silva, Girliane R; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Falcão, Rosângela E A; Moreira, Keila A; Porto, Ana L F; Silva, Tania M S

    2014-04-24

    This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.

  16. Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mukul; Kharel, Parashu; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a byproduct of biomass pyrolysis. As a low-cost, environmental-friendly material, biochar has the potential to replace more expensive synthesized carbon nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) for use in future supercapacitors. To achieve high capacitance, biochar requires proper activation. A conventional approach involves mixing biochar with a strong base and baking at a high temperature. However, this process is time consuming and energy inefficient (requiring temperatures >900 °C). This work demonstrates a low-temperature (<150 °C) plasma treatment that efficiently activates a yellow pine biochar. Particularly, the effects of oxygen plasma on the biochar microstructure and supercapacitor characteristics are studied. Significant enhancement of the capacitance is achieved: 171.4 F g-1 for a 5-min oxygen plasma activation, in comparison to 99.5 F g-1 for a conventional chemical activation and 60.4 F g-1 for untreated biochar. This enhancement of the charge storage capacity is attributed to the creation of a broad distribution in pore size and a larger surface area. The plasma activation mechanisms in terms of the evolution of the biochar surface and microstructure are further discussed.

  17. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  18. Commonly used antioxidant botanicals: active constituents and their potential role in cardiovascular illness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Mehendale, Sangeeta R; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the US. Recent studies found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic heart disease. Many botanicals possess antioxidant properties, and these herbal antioxidants may protect against cardiovascular diseases by contributing to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. In this article, we reviewed the antioxidant components and properties of four putative antioxidant botanicals (i.e., grape seeds, green tea, Scutellaria baicalensis, and American ginseng), and their potential role in treating cardiovascular illness. The antioxidant activities of the herbal active constituents, and the relationship between their chemical structures and biological functions were also discussed. Further investigations are needed on the mechanisms of action of these botanicals as they affect salient cellular and molecular pathways involved in major diseases. Data obtained from future studies will have the potential for translation into practical benefits for human health.

  19. Commonly used antioxidant botanicals: active constituents and their potential role in cardiovascular illness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Mehendale, Sangeeta R; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the US. Recent studies found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic heart disease. Many botanicals possess antioxidant properties, and these herbal antioxidants may protect against cardiovascular diseases by contributing to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. In this article, we reviewed the antioxidant components and properties of four putative antioxidant botanicals (i.e., grape seeds, green tea, Scutellaria baicalensis, and American ginseng), and their potential role in treating cardiovascular illness. The antioxidant activities of the herbal active constituents, and the relationship between their chemical structures and biological functions were also discussed. Further investigations are needed on the mechanisms of action of these botanicals as they affect salient cellular and molecular pathways involved in major diseases. Data obtained from future studies will have the potential for translation into practical benefits for human health. PMID:17708622

  20. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many pathogenic fungi are becoming resistant to currently available drugs. Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that...

  1. Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of selected plants from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jukic, Mila; Burcul, Franko; Carev, Ivana; Politeo, Olivera; Milos, Mladen

    2012-01-01

    The methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of selected Croatian plants were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and antioxidant activity. Assessment of AChE inhibition was carried out using microplate reader at 1 mg mL⁻¹. Antioxidant capacities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenol content (TPC) of extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Out of 48 extracts, only methanolic extract of the Salix alba L. cortex exerted modest activity towards AChE, reaching 50.80% inhibition at concentration of 1 mg mL⁻¹. All the other samples tested had activity below 20%. The same extract performed the best antioxidative activity using DPPH and FRAP method, too. In essence, among all extracts used in the screening, methanolic extracts showed the best antioxidative activity as well as highest TPC.

  2. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  3. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Dicastillo, Carol López; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  4. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  5. In vitro Analysis of Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Manoj Kumar; Pavithra, Shenoy K; Krishnan, Vishnupriya; Chandrasekaran, Muthukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Background Seaweeds are taxonomically diverse benthic algae, which are rich in bioactive compounds. These compounds have a potential application in medicine. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the bioactive properties of three seaweed samples, Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata were collected from the shoreline of Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu. Materials and Methods Bioactive components were extracted by using various solvents. Antioxidant analysis methods like scavenging activity of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, free radical scavenging (DPPH), FRAP (ferric reducing ability plasma) ability and reducing power were carried out. MTT assay was employed to study the anticancer activity against cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines. Results It was found that methanolic extracts elicited higher total phenolic content, higher percentage scavenging activity of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, free radical scavenging (DPPH), FRAP (ferric reducing ability plasma) ability and reducing power. Different concentrations of crude methanolic extracts of seaweeds showed potential antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method. Crude methanolic extract of G. corticata had significant anticancer activity followed by E. antenna and E. linza on cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines by MTT assay. Conclusions The methanolic extracts of seaweeds Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata possess high total phenolic content and shows a good free radical scavenging activity and hence are proven to have better antioxidant activity and they might be good candidates for further investigations in order to develop potential anticancer drugs. PMID:24624206

  6. Immunomodulatory and antioxidative activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-yu; Feng, Cui-ping; Li, Xing; Chang, Ming-chang; Meng, Jun-long; Xu, Li-jing

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 24 male and 24 female Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice in the four experimental groups were administered 0 (normal control), 50, 100, or 200mg/kg/d body weight CMP via gavage. After 30 days, the viscera index, leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, and biochemical parameters were measured. The effect of CMP on the expression of tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β in the spleens of experimental mice was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the administration of CMP improved the immune function in mice, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, the spleen lymphocyte activity, the total quantity of white blood cells, and IgG function in mice serum. CMP exhibited significant antioxidative activity in mice, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in vivo. CMP upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β mRNA in high-dose groups compared to that observed for the control mice. We can thus conclude that CMP effectively improved the immune function through protection against oxidative stress. CMP thus shows potential for development as drugs and health supplements. PMID:26853825

  7. Synthesis and structure/antioxidant activity relationship of novel catecholic antioxidant structural analogues to hydroxytyrosol and its lipophilic esters.

    PubMed

    Bernini, Roberta; Crisante, Fernanda; Barontini, Maurizio; Tofani, Daniela; Balducci, Valentina; Gambacorta, Augusto

    2012-08-01

    A large panel of novel catecholic antioxidants and their fatty acid or methyl carbonate esters has been synthesized in satisfactory to good yields through a 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX)-mediated aromatic hydroxylation as the key step. The new catechols are structural analogues of naturally occurring hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHE). To evaluate structure/activity relationships, the antioxidant properties of all catecholic compounds were evaluated in vitro by ABTS assay and on whole cells by DCF fluorometric assay and compared with that of the corresponding already known hydroxytyrosyl derivatives. Results outline that all of the new catechols show antioxidant capacity in vitro higher than that of the corresponding hydroxytyrosyl derivatives. Less evident positive effects have been detected in whole cells experiments. Cytotoxicity experiments, using MTT assay, on a representative set of compounds evidenced no influence in cell survival.

  8. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P < 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P < 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after thawing did not change during the study period in ALA group, but decreased in PA group (P < 0.006). After 3h of incubation LPO increased in the ALA group (P < 0.02), while LPO did not differ between phases within groups. In conclusion, feeding of neither saturated nor polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls.

  9. Antioxidant Activity and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of the Polycondensate of Catechin with Glyoxylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate polymeric flavonoids, the polycondensate of catechin with glyoxylic acid (PCG) was prepared and its chemically antioxidant, cellular antioxidant (CAA) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and antiproliferative effect of PCG were lower than those of catechin, while PCG had higher CAA activity than catechin. In addition, PCG had very high α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 value, 2.59 μg/mL) in comparison to catechin (IC50 value, 239.27 μg/mL). Inhibition kinetics suggested that both PCG and catechin demonstrated a mixture of noncompetitive and anticompetitive inhibition. The enhanced CAA and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of PCG could be due to catechin polymerization enhancing the binding capacity to the cellular membrane and enzymes. PMID:26960205

  10. Effects of Temperature and Duration of Storage on the Stability of Antioxidant Compounds in Egg Yolk and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Hargitai, Rita; Nyiri, Zoltán; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Török, János

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants help protect tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In view of the widespread interest in egg yolk and plasma antioxidants in relation to environmental and life-history variables, there is a need for knowledge on the necessary conditions for sample storage, which is currently lacking. In this study, our purpose was to examine the kinetics of the degradation of lutein, retinol, and tocopherol in egg yolk samples and the total antioxidant capacity in plasma samples stored at three different temperatures (-20°, -50°, and -80°C) for 24 mo. We found that yolk lutein was stable during the study period. Yolk retinol and tocopherol showed a steep early decline and then remained relatively stable, but retinol showed significant losses at the end of the study period too. In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference in the stability of antioxidant compounds of egg yolk samples stored at different temperatures. Plasma OXY level was stable during the first 6 mo, showed a slight decline between 6 and 12 mo, and declined more intensely after 12 mo of storage. We suggest that studies focusing on the analysis of egg yolk retinol or tocopherol concentrations and total plasma antioxidant capacity should analyze the samples in the first 6-7 mo after collection. For the analysis of yolk lutein, samples can be stored for 24 mo without significant degradation. The storage temperature of -20°C seemed to be sufficient, as a lower temperature did not significantly affect the slope of degradation of the samples.

  11. Effects of Temperature and Duration of Storage on the Stability of Antioxidant Compounds in Egg Yolk and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Hargitai, Rita; Nyiri, Zoltán; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Török, János

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants help protect tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In view of the widespread interest in egg yolk and plasma antioxidants in relation to environmental and life-history variables, there is a need for knowledge on the necessary conditions for sample storage, which is currently lacking. In this study, our purpose was to examine the kinetics of the degradation of lutein, retinol, and tocopherol in egg yolk samples and the total antioxidant capacity in plasma samples stored at three different temperatures (-20°, -50°, and -80°C) for 24 mo. We found that yolk lutein was stable during the study period. Yolk retinol and tocopherol showed a steep early decline and then remained relatively stable, but retinol showed significant losses at the end of the study period too. In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference in the stability of antioxidant compounds of egg yolk samples stored at different temperatures. Plasma OXY level was stable during the first 6 mo, showed a slight decline between 6 and 12 mo, and declined more intensely after 12 mo of storage. We suggest that studies focusing on the analysis of egg yolk retinol or tocopherol concentrations and total plasma antioxidant capacity should analyze the samples in the first 6-7 mo after collection. For the analysis of yolk lutein, samples can be stored for 24 mo without significant degradation. The storage temperature of -20°C seemed to be sufficient, as a lower temperature did not significantly affect the slope of degradation of the samples. PMID:27082726

  12. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  13. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of selected species of seaweeds from Danish coast.

    PubMed

    Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-06-01

    Water and ethanolic extracts of 16 species of seaweeds collected along the Danish coasts were screened for antioxidant activities using four in vitro antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating and liposome model system). Furthermore their effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil was evaluated by an accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of seaweed species evaluated. Ethanol was more efficient for polyphenol extraction than water. Polysiphonia fucoides and all the Fucus species tested showed highest radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system and in fish oil and were high in phenolic content. These seaweeds could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants for protection of foods against oxidation. In general, the various antioxidative assays correlated well with the total phenolic content, indicating that algal polyphenols are active components in these extracts. However, in some of the antioxidative assays some species with low total phenolic content also showed good antioxidative effects indicating that some other co-extracted active compounds such as pigments and tocopherols in ethanolic extracts and sulphated polysaccharides, proteins or peptides in water extracts may also contribute to the overall antioxidant properties and this needs further investigation. PMID:23411297

  14. Antioxidant activity of wild plants collected in Beni-Sueif governorate, Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, S; Elshahaat, A; Ali, S; Choudhary, M I

    2008-10-01

    Antioxidant activity of a selection of commonly occurring wild plants growing in Beni-Sueif governorate, Upper Egypt, has been tested. The plants selected are Tamarix nilotica, Ambrosia maritima, Zygophyllum coccenium, Conyza dioscoridis, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Calotropis procera. The in vitro antioxidant assays used in this study were 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves and flowers of Tamarix nilotica have shown the highest antioxidant activity in the three kinds of assay.

  15. Antioxidant activity of blueberry fruit is impaired by association with milk.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mauro; Testa, Maria Francesca; Villaño, Debora; Pecorari, Monia; van Wieren, Karin; Azzini, Elena; Brambilla, Ada; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2009-03-15

    The antioxidant properties of dietary phenolics are believed to be reduced in vivo because of their affinity for proteins. In this study we assessed the bioavailability of phenolics and the in vivo plasma antioxidant capacity after the consumption of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with and without milk. In a crossover design, 11 healthy human volunteers consumed either (a) 200 g of blueberries plus 200 ml of water or (b) 200 g of blueberries plus 200 ml of whole milk. Venous samples were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 5 h postconsumption. Ingestion of blueberries increased plasma levels of reducing and chain-breaking potential (+6.1%, p<0.001; +11.1%, p<0.05) and enhanced plasma concentrations of caffeic and ferulic acid. When blueberries and milk were ingested there was no increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. There was a reduction in the peak plasma concentrations of caffeic and ferulic acid (-49.7%, p<0.001, and -19.8%, p<0.05, respectively) as well as the overall absorption (AUC) of caffeic acid (p<0.001). The ingestion of blueberries in association with milk, thus, impairs the in vivo antioxidant properties of blueberries and reduces the absorption of caffeic acid.

  16. Neuroprotective and Antioxidant Activities of 4-Methylcoumarins: Development of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Shashwat; Tavakkoli, Marjan; Edraki, Najmeh; Miri, Ramin; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Prasad, Ashok Kumar; Saso, Luciano; Len, Christophe; Parmar, Virinder Singh; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are a major class of polyphenols that are abundantly present in many dietary plants and possess different biological activities. Neuroprotective effect of 28 variously substituted 4-methylcoumarins was evaluated in a cell model of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration, which measures viability in PC12 cells challenged with hydrogen peroxide by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The inhibitory activity of these compounds against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was also determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate method in the same cells. Chemical redox-based assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests were employed to explore structure-antioxidant activity relationships in a cell-free environment. The results demonstrated that 4-methylcoumarins containing ortho-dihydroxy or ortho-diacetoxy substituents on the benzenoid ring possess considerable neuroprotective effects. ortho-Dihydroxy compounds inhibited cytotoxicity (44.7-62.9%) and ROS formation (41.6-71.1%) at 50 µM and showed considerable antioxidant effects. We conclude that 4-methylcoumarins are promising neuroprotective and antioxidant scaffolds potentially usefull for management of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27582333

  17. Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga Hyun; Lee, Sung June; Jeong, Sang Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Park, Ga Young; Lee, Se Geun; Choi, Jin Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Utilizing the biological activities of compounds by encapsulating natural components in stable nanoparticles is an important strategy for a variety of biomedical and healthcare applications. In this study, quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method, which is a suitable system for producing functional nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. The resulting quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in an aqueous system. Superoxide radical scavenging effects were found for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles as well as free quercetin. The quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles showed cell viability comparable to that of the controls. The amounts of proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages, such as interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, were reduced significantly for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles. These results suggest that the antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin are maintained after encapsulation in silica. Silica nanoparticles can be used for the effective and stable incorporation of biologically active natural components into composite biomaterials. PMID:27038916

  18. Structure-Functional Study of Tyrosine and Methionine Dipeptides: An Approach to Antioxidant Activity Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Torkova, Anna; Koroleva, Olga; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Tatyana; Tsentalovich, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed. PMID:26512651

  19. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of two Phlomis species: A correlation study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Zhe-zhi

    2009-09-01

    Two traditional Chinese medicines (Phlomis umbrosa Turcz. and Phlomis megalantha Diels), as well as five pure phenolic compounds (protocatechic, chlorogenic, benzoic, rosmarinic acid, and rutin) have been studied for antioxidant activities in acetone and methanol extracts from leaves. An HPLC method was developed to quantify the amounts of 14 phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant capacities of the studied species are high. Almost all samples were capable of directly scavenging DPPH and superoxide free radicals, inhibiting linoleic acid oxidation, acting as reducing agents, and reducing plasmid DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. Among different extracts, the acetone extract of P. megalantha exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The major phenolic compounds identified were protocatechic, chlorogenic, caffeic, rosmarinic acid, and (-)-epicatechin. Antioxidant activities of pure compounds and correlation analysis indicated that protocatechic and rosmarinic acids were the major contributors to the observed antioxidant activities of the investigated Phlomis extracts. PMID:19748456

  20. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir

    2010-03-24

    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities.

  1. A new high activity plasma cholinesterase variant.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, A; Lane, A B; Jenkins, T

    1988-01-01

    A South African Afrikaans speaking family is reported in which a new high activity plasma cholinesterase variant was found to occur in the mother and son. The variant has the same electrophoretic mobility as the "usual' enzyme, but greater heat stability. Its higher specific activity is associated with a normal number of enzyme molecules. The variant may be inherited as a dominant trait, though its locus is uncertain. Images PMID:3225823

  2. Coenzyme Q10 and α-lipoic acid: antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects in plasma and peripheral blood lymphocytes of supplemented subjects.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Sonia; Orlando, Patrick; Armeni, Tatiana; Padella, Lucia; Brugè, Francesca; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species not only cause damage but also have a physiological role in the protection against pathogens and in cell signalling. Mitochondrial nutrients, such as coenzyme Q10 and α-lipoic acid, beside their acknowledged antioxidant activities, show interesting features in relation to their redox state and consequent biological activity. In this study, we tested whether oral supplementation with 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 alone or in association with 200 mg/die of α-lipoic acid for 15 days on 16 healthy subjects was able to modulate the oxidative status into different compartments (plasma and cells), in basal condition and following an oxidative insult in peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to H2O2. Data have shown that tested compounds produced antioxidant and bioenergetic effects improving oxidative status of the lipid compartment and mitochondrial functionality in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Simultaneously, an increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level was observed, although they did not lead to enhanced DNA oxidative damage. Coenzyme Q10 and α-lipoic acid produced beneficial effects also steering intracellular redox poise toward a pro-oxidant environment. In contrast with other antioxidant molecules, pro-oxidant activities of tested mitochondrial nutrients and consequent oxidant mediated signalling, could have important implications in promoting adaptive response to oxidative stress.

  3. Association of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Serum Total Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Katusic, Damir; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Bucan, Kajo; Tandara, Leida; Rogosic, Veljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to estimate association of the oxidative stress with the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and additionally serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress level. 57 AMD patients (32 early and 25 late AMD) and 50 healthy, age and gender matched controls were included. GPx activity (P < 0.001) and serum TAS (P = 0.015) were significantly lower in AMD patients. The difference was not significant for SOD or CAT activities. Significant interaction between GPx and SOD was detected (P = 0.003). At high levels of SOD activity (over 75th percentile), one standard deviation decrease in GPx increases the odds for AMD for six times (OR = 6.22; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that combined values of GPx activity and TAS are significant determinants of AMD status. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75%, 95%, 52%, 69%, and 90%, respectively. The study showed that low GPx activity and TAS are associated with AMD. SOD modulates the association of GPx and AMD. The results suggest that erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity and serum TAS could be promising markers for the prediction of AMD. PMID:25815109

  4. Structure activity relationship, cytotoxicity and evaluation of antioxidant activity of curcumin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pramod K; Sahu, Praveen K; Sahu, Puran L; Agarwal, Dau D

    2016-02-15

    Series of curcumin derivatives/analogues were designed and efficient method for synthesis thereof is described. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their cytotoxicity and evaluated their antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity effect has been evaluated against three cell lines Hep-G2, HCT-116 and QG-56 by MTT assay method. Structure activity relationship has revealed that particularly, compound 3c, (IC50 value 6.25 μM) has shown better cytotoxicity effect against three cell lines. According to results of SAR study, it was found that 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole derivatives (2e and 2f), pyrazoles (3a, 3b, 3c and 3d) benzylidenes (4d) exhibited better antioxidant activity than curcumin. A correlation of structure and activities relationship of these compounds with respect to drug score profiles and other physico-chemical properties of drugs are described and verified experimentally. PMID:26810315

  5. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Boerhavia elegans (choisy) grown in Baluchestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Zahra; Valizadeh, Jafar; Azyzian Shermeh, Omid; Akaberi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant property of B. elegans species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85 ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements. PMID:25767751

  6. Antioxidant activity of some Moroccan marine microalgae: Pufa profiles, carotenoids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane

    2015-12-10

    In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants.

  7. Antioxidant activity of some Moroccan marine microalgae: Pufa profiles, carotenoids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane

    2015-12-10

    In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants. PMID:26113214

  8. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of plants of the ethnopharmacopeia from northwest of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study, is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, the total phenols content, the flavonoids content and the antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts of the plants: Krameria erecta, Struthanthus palmeri, Phoradendron californicum, Senna covesii and Stegnosperma halimifolium, used by different ethnic groups from northwestern Mexico in the treatment and cure of various diseases. Methods The in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP), the total phenols content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay, the flavonoids content by the AlCl3 colorimetric method and the antiproliferative activity (line cells HeLa, RAW 264.7, M12Ak.C3.F6 and L929) using MTT method. Results The K. erecta extract showed the higher radical scavenging activity (67.88%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (1.41 mg Trolox Eq), the highest total phenols content (598.51 mg Galic Acid Eq/g extract), the highest flavonoids content (3.80 mg Quercetin Eq/g extract) and the greatest antiproliferative activity in a dose dependent manner against most Cell line evaluated. A positive correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content. Conclusions This study is the first report on the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the five species evaluated. The results demostrate that there is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content, indicating that these type of polyphenols could be the major contributors to the observed antioxidant activity in the evaluated plant extracts. Of the extracts evaluated, that of Krameria erecta showed the greatest antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, a discovery that makes this species a promising candidate for future research. PMID:23305162

  9. Theoretical insights on the antioxidant activity of edaravone free radical scavengers derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón-Carrasco, José P.; Roy, Hélène M.; Cerezo, Javier; Jacquemin, Denis; Laurent, Adèle D.

    2014-04-01

    The prediction of antioxidant properties is not straightforward due to the complexity of the in vivo systems. Here, we use theoretical descriptors, including the potential of ionization, the electrodonating power and the spin density distribution, to characterize the antioxidant capacity of edaravone (EDV) derivatives. Our computations reveal the relationship between these parameters and their potential bioactivity as free radical scavengers. We conclude that more efficient antioxidants could be synthesized by tuning the R1 and R2 positions of the EDV structure, rather than modifying the R3 group. Such modifications might improve the antioxidant activity in neutral and deprotonated forms.

  10. Intracellular Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skin Polyphenolic Extracts in Rat Superficial Colonocytes: In situ Detection by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, M. Elena; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Schettino, Trifone; Caricato, Roberto; Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Lionetto, M. Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Colon is exposed to a number of prooxidant conditions and several colon diseases are associated with increased levels of reactive species. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet, but to date no information is available about their absorption and potential intracellular antioxidant activity on colon epithelial cells. The work was addressed to study the intracellular antioxidant activity of red grape polyphenolic extracts on rat colon epithelium experimentally exposed to prooxidant conditions. The experimental model chosen was represented by freshly isolated colon explants, which closely resemble the functional, and morphological characteristics of the epithelium in vivo. The study was carried out by in situ confocal microscopy observation on CM-H2DCFDA charged explants exposed to H2O2 (5, 10, and 15 min). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic composition of the extracts as well as their in vitro oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) was determined. The incubation of the explants with the polyphenolic extracts for 1 h produced a significant decrease of the H2O2 induced fluorescence. This effect was more pronounced following 15 min H2O2 exposure with respect to 5 min and it was also more evident for extracts obtained from mature grapes, which showed an increased ORAC value and qualitative peculiarities in the polyphenolic composition. The results demonstrated the ability of red grape polyphenols to cross the plasma membrane and exert a direct intracellular antioxidant activity in surface colonocytes, inducing a protection against pro-oxidant conditions. The changes in the polyphenol composition due to ripening process was reflected in a more effective antioxidant protection. PMID:27303304