Chanchaev, E A; Aĭzman, R I
The blood plasma antioxidant activity was studied in the Russian and Kazakh aborigines of the southern Altai low and high mountains. There was established a decrease of the blood plasma antioxidant activity with age and a relatively low plasma antioxidant activity in the mid-mountain population; in its senior age groups, the gender differences of this parameter were revealed.
Yokotani, Kaori; Umegaki, Keizo
The contribution of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) intake to in vivo antioxidant activity is unclear, even with respect to plasma. In this study, we examined how administration of EGCg contributes to plasma antioxidant activity, relative to its concentration, endogenous antioxidants, and assay methods, namely oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Administration of EGCg (500 mg/kg) to rats increased plasma EGCg (4μmol/L as free form) and ascorbic acid (1.7-fold), as well as ORAC (1.2-fold) and FRAP (3-fold) values. The increase in plasma ascorbic acid following EGCg administration was accompanied by its relocation from the adrenal glands and lymphocytes into plasma, and was related to the increase in FRAP. Plasma deproteinization and assays in plasma model solutions revealed that protein levels significantly contributed to ORAC values, where <3 μmol/L EGCg in the presence of protein exhibited minimal antioxidant activity, as measured by both FRAP and ORAC. As the concentration of plasma ascorbic acid was not influenced by deproteinization, differences in FRAP values with and without deproteinization were estimated to determine the contribution of enhanced ascorbic acid attributable to EGCg administration. These results will help to understand the points that should be considered when evaluating EGCg antioxidant activity in plasma.
Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya
The mechanism of growth enhancement induced by active oxygen species generated in an oxygen plasma is investigated. The plant growth enhancement induced by the active oxygen species would relate to an antioxidative activity, which is one of the biological responses. The amount of generated active oxygen species is varied by the oxygen gas pressure in a low-pressure RF glow discharge plasma. The antioxidative activity of sprouts of Brassicaceae induced by the oxygen plasma is maximized at pressures between 30 and 40 Pa, whereas the antioxidative activity becomes small at around 60 and 80 Pa. The pressure dependence of the antioxidative activity of sprout stems is opposite to that of the stem length of the sprouts. The growth enhancement would be induced by the increase in the concentration of active oxygen species in plants owing to the decrease in the amount of antioxidative substances.
Sugita, O; Nakano, M; Matsuto, T; Miida, T; Okada, M
We describe a new method using cumene hydroperoxide to determine antioxidant activity (AO) in human plasma. We used a kit (Determiner LPO: Kyowa Medex Co., LTD. Tokyo Japan) for the determination of lipid peroxides in plasma or serum. 30 microliters 1 of sample was mixed with 70 microliters 1 of cumene hydroperoxide (50 nmol/ml) and incubated at 30 degrees C for 120 min before analysis. Samples were mixed with 1.0 ml of reagent-I (Determiner LPO) and incubated at 30 degrees C for 5 min. Then 2.0 ml of reagent-II (Determiner LPO) was added and incubated at 30 degrees C for 10 min, at which time the absorbance at 675 nm was measured. AO were calculated using the following formula: AO nmol/ml = 35 nmol/ml-(Es-Eb)/(Estd-Eb) x 35 nmol/ml (Es = sample abs., Eb = blank abs., Estd = standard abs.). Within-run precision for plasma AO was 2.3%. AO in plasma samples stored for 4 h at 4 degrees C was decreased by 1 nmol/ml. After 3 h at room temperature, AO was decreased by the same amount. Because this method measured ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione peroxidase and quercetin as antioxidant compounds, we were able to measure antioxidant activity in human plasma. Our reference values were calculated from the volunteers group which consisted of 172 students and 82 soldiers. The reference intervals for plasma AO by this procedure were 15.4-20.9 nmol/ml.
Malaguti, Marco; Baldini, Marta; Angeloni, Cristina; Biagi, Pierluigi; Hrelia, Silvana
The authors evaluated the role of a high-protein, low-calorie, polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) -supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte-membrane fatty-acid composition, and plasma antioxidant defenses of nonprofessional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n = 5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n = 6) followed a high-protein, low-calorie diet with a 3-g/day fish-oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body-mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant increase in erythrocyte-membrane PUFA content and in the unsaturation index value (UI) because of the fish-oil supplementation.A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fish-oil-supplemented diet seems to be useful only when the aim of the diet is to obtain weight loss in a short-term period. The significant increase in the UI of erythrocyte membranes indicates the potential for harm, because a high intake of PUFA might increase susceptibility to lipid peroxidation not counterbalanced by a higher increase in TAA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be the better choice.
Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Sobczak, Andrzej; Król, Dorota
Tobacco smoke contains many reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Crucial role in defending the organism against ROS play vitamins E and A. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of tobacco smoke on concentration of main ingredients of these vitamins alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, as well as retinol. The study population consisted of 104 healthy males between the age of 34 and 45 years. Survey questionnaire and determination of plasma cotinine concentration were used to divide the group into smokers (62 males) and non-smokers (42 males). The arbitrary threshold value of plasma cotinine concentration was set to 15 ng/ml. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to estimate the plasma concentration of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, retinol and cotinine. Within the smoking part of the study population a significantly lower (by 12.5%) concentration of alpha-tocopherol, and non-significantly higher (by 15.7%) concentration of gamma-tocopherol was ascertained, when compared to the plasma concentration of those compounds in the non-smoking group. Practically no difference in concentration of retinol was found between the two studied groups. In order to determine the magnitude of interdependency between the extensiveness of exposure to tobacco smoke and the concentration of analyzed antioxidants, correlations between their plasma concentrations and plasma concentration of cotinine were investigated. A significant, moderate and negative correlation of alpha-tocopherol versus cotinin was determined, in the smoking group as well as in the entire study population (r = -0.291 and r = - 0,317, respectively). Other relationship: gamma-tocopherol versus cotinine and retinol versus cotinine did not show any correlation. The obtained results suggest that tobacco smoke weakens the organism's antioxidant barrier by decreasing the concentration of plasma alpha-tocopherol, while not influencing significantly the plasma
Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.
Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V
We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively.
McGahan, M.C.; Grimes, A.M. )
Copper (Cu) complexes of a number of compounds have increased efficacy against many pathological conditions when compared to the parent compound. In the present study, the authors combined Cu treatment with daily administration of d-penicillamine (d-pen; 100 mg/kg) to determine effectiveness against the ocular inflammatory response to endotoxin. Four groups of rabbits (New Zealand white) were used in this study. Groups 1 and 2 were sham operated and Group 2 received daily injections of d-pen. Groups 3 and 4 had subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps delivering 4.15 mg Cu per day, with Group 4 also receiving daily injections of d-pen. After 6 days of treatment the eyes were injected intravitreally with 10 ng endotoxin. Twenty-four hours later the eyes were examined, the rabbits killed and plasma and eyes obtained for analysis. There were no differences in the ocular inflammatory response between any of the groups. However, plasma antioxidant activity was significantly greater in Group IV than in any of the other groups. Plasma from groups 1-4 inhibited spontaneous lipid peroxidation by 38.9, 37.4, 54.1 and 69.2%, respectively. Increased plasma antioxidant activity in Group 4 was not due to a Cu/d-pen complex or any other compound with a molecular weight less than 10,000, but could possibly contribute to the increased anti-inflammatory efficacy of Cu/d-pen treatment found in other models of inflammation.
Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P; Nowak, Dariusz
Strawberries can augment plasma antioxidant activity, but this may be confounded by selection of methods, time of blood sampling and concomitant dietary restrictions. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (DPPH-test) of native and non-urate plasma in healthy subjects on their usual diet. Eleven subjects consumed strawberries (500 g daily) for 9 days. Fasting and 3-h postprandial plasma and 24-h urine collection were obtained before, during and after strawberry course for FRAP, DPPH-test and polyphenols determination. Fifteen subjects served as a control in respect to plasma antioxidant activity changes and effect of 300 mg of oral ascorbate. First, 5th and 9th strawberry dose increased 3-h postprandial DPPH-test by 17.4, 17.6 and 12.6%, and FRAP by 15.5, 25.6 and 21.4% in comparison to fasting values in non-urate plasma (p<0.05). In native plasma only a trend was observed to higher postprandial values for both tests. Strawberries increased urinary urolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric acid whereas plasma polyphenols were stable. No changes of FRAP and DPPH-test were noted in controls and after ascorbate intake. Strawberries transiently increased non-urate plasma antioxidant activity but this cannot be attributed to direct antioxidant effect of polyphenols and ascorbate.
Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P.; Nowak, Dariusz
Strawberries can augment plasma antioxidant activity, but this may be confounded by selection of methods, time of blood sampling and concomitant dietary restrictions. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (DPPH-test) of native and non-urate plasma in healthy subjects on their usual diet. Eleven subjects consumed strawberries (500 g daily) for 9 days. Fasting and 3-h postprandial plasma and 24-h urine collection were obtained before, during and after strawberry course for FRAP, DPPH-test and polyphenols determination. Fifteen subjects served as a control in respect to plasma antioxidant activity changes and effect of 300 mg of oral ascorbate. First, 5th and 9th strawberry dose increased 3-h postprandial DPPH-test by 17.4, 17.6 and 12.6%, and FRAP by 15.5, 25.6 and 21.4% in comparison to fasting values in non-urate plasma (p<0.05). In native plasma only a trend was observed to higher postprandial values for both tests. Strawberries increased urinary urolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric acid whereas plasma polyphenols were stable. No changes of FRAP and DPPH-test were noted in controls and after ascorbate intake. Strawberries transiently increased non-urate plasma antioxidant activity but this cannot be attributed to direct antioxidant effect of polyphenols and ascorbate. PMID:27895386
Titov, V N; Krylin, V V; Dmitriev, V A; Iashin, Ia I
The authors discuss the diagnostic value of a test for total serum antioxidant activity determined by an electrochemistry method on a liquid chromatograph (without a column), by using an amperometric detector, as well as the composition of the endogenously synthesized hydrophilic and hydrophobic acceptors of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Uric acid is a major hydrophilic acceptor of ROS; monoenic oleic fatty acid acts as its major lipophilic acceptor. The constant determined by the authors for of 03 oleic acid oxidation during automatic titration in the organic medium is an order of magnitude higher than that for alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and linoleic fatty acid; its concentration is also an order of magnitude higher. In oxidative stress, the adrenal steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone initiates oleic acid synthesis via expression of palmitoyl elongase and steatoryl desaturase. In early steps of phylogenesis in primates, spontaneous mutation resulted in ascorbic acid synthesis gene knockout; phylogenetically, further other mutation knocked out the gene encoding the synthesis of uricase and the conversion of uric acid to alantoin. In primates, uric acid became not only a catabolite of purine bases in vivo, but also the major endogenous hydrophilic acceptor of ROS. This philogenetic order makes it clear why the epithelium in the proximal nephron tubule entirely reabsorbs uric acid (a catabolite?) from primary urine and then secretes it again to urine depending on the impairment of biological functions of endoecology (the intercellular medium being contaminated with biological rubbish), the activation of a biological inflammatory reaction, the cellular production of ROS, and the reduction in serum total antioxidant activity. With each biological reaction, there was an increase in the blood content of uric acid as a hydrophilic acceptor of ROS, by actively lowering its secretion into urine. Uric acid is a diagnostic test of inflammation, or rather compensatory
Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Teeter, Danette L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P; West, Sheila G
There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) for insulin and TG, corresponding with 21 and 31% reductions in postprandial levels with the spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses.
Cao, Hui; Shi, Yujun; Chen, Xiaoqing
Tea materials are widely consumed beverages in the world and are a rich source of dietary polyphenols. Catechins found in tea show excellent antioxidant potential, which is beneficial for many diseases such as cancers and cardiovascular diseases. These Tea catechins can interact with plasma proteins to form soluble or insoluble complexes, which are responsible for their bioactivities in vivo. However, there is little review published recently which focused on tea catechins-plasma protein interaction (TcPI), despite numerous articles have appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trend in TcPI studies focusing on metabolism, structure-affinity relationship, influence on antioxidant activity, and molecular docking aspects.
Ávila, Felipe; Echeverria, Guadalupe; Perez, Druso; Trejo, Sebastian; Leighton, Federico
This study formulated and characterized an antioxidant-rich concentrate of berries (BPC-350) produced in Chile, which was used to perform a crossover study aimed at determining the effect of the berries on the modulation of plasma postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Healthy male volunteers (N = 11) were randomly assigned to three experimental meals: (1) 250 g of ground turkey burger (GTB) + 500 mL of water; (2) 250 g of GTB + 500 mL of 5% BPC-350; (3) 250 g of GTB prepared with 6% BPC-350 + 500 mL of 5% BPC-350. Venous blood samples were collected prior to meal intake and every hour for six hours after intake. Malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyls in proteins, and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) antioxidant capacity were quantified in plasma. Significant differences indicated that BPC-350 decreases MDA plasma concentration and protein carbonyls (p < 0.05). Additionally, a significant increase in the DPPH antioxidant capacity was observed in Meals 2 and 3 when compared to Meal 1 (p < 0.05). The results are discussed in terms of oxidative reactions that occur during digestion at the stomach level and the important effect of oxidative reactions that occur during the thermal processing of red meat. PMID:28243359
Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789
Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai
The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.
Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin
Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.
Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph
Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC) assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO). Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR). LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds. PMID:19171044
Fehresti Sani, Mohammad; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Moradabadi, Leila
In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of the bulbs of Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae) and Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae ), ASE, AAE and SOE respectively, on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities and on the levels of plasma lipids profiles such as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) in Alloxan diabetic Wistar rats. In comparison with diabetic control rats in diabetic treated rats, AAE increases the activities of SOD (65%), GPX (43%) and CAT (55%). ASE and SOE increase SOD activity by 60% and 33% respectively. ASE reduces TC (34%), SOE decreases TG (40%) and LDL (30%) and AAE reduces VLDL (24%). Metformin exhibits mild antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. Results of quantitative phytochemical analysis show that the methanolic garlic and Persian shallot bulbs extracts contain secondary metabolites including alkaloids (3.490% and 3.430%), glycosides (18.023% and 13.301%) and saponins (0.812% and 0.752%). Methanolic sage leaves extract contains flavonoids (1.014%), glycosides (23.142%) and saponins (2.096%). The total phenolic contents of ASE, AAE and SOE were in order 4.273, 3.621 and 6.548 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW). These results suggest that Allium sativum, Allium ascalonicum and Salvia officinalis are beneficial in the control of diabetes by noticeable antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties.
Agacayak, Elif; Basaranoglu, Serdar; Tunc, Senem Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Findik, Fatih Mehmet; Kaplan, Ibrahim; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Gul, Talip
Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol (E2), E2 combined with progesterone (Prog) (E2/Prog), and genistein (Gen) treatment had antioxidative and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in the plasma of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods Adult female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Rats in all groups, except for those in a sham group, underwent bilateral ovariectomy under general anesthesia. The groups were as follows: sham group; control OVX group; group treated with estrogen (0.014 mg/kg 17-β E2); group treated with a combination of E2 and Prog (0.014 mg/kg 17-β E2 plus 0.028 mg/kg drospirenone), and group treated with Gen (10 mg/kg/day). Plasma of rats of each treatment group was analyzed to determine the total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, paraoxonase activity, lipid profile, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-chol), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-chol), total cholesterol (Total-C), triacylglycerols, lipoprotein (a), and oxidative stress index. Results Plasma Total-C levels and body weight increased in all the OVX groups compared with the sham group (P<0.005). The group treated with E2 had significantly elevated total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, LDL-chol, and Total-C compared with the control group (P<0.005). Gen treatment might lead to lower LDL-chol and Total-C levels compared with E2 treatment. Conclusions Gen treatment might be preferred to E2 treatment for treatment of menopausal symptoms in patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, considering the small sample size of this study, larger studies are needed in this area. PMID:26089646
Mseddi, Malek; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Mnif, Fatma; Gargouri, Bochra; Abid, Mohamed; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi; Lassoued, Saloua
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress profile in hashitoxicosis (HTX) and to compare it with that of healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Spectrophotometric methods were used to evaluate the oxidative stress markers. The selenium level was investigated by atomic absorption. Results: High levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and conjugated dienes were found in HTX patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.043, respectively) compared with healthy controls. For antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities increased, whereas that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased (p = 0.000, p = 0.014, p = 0.000, respectively) compared with controls. A reduction in the level of selenium (p = 0.029) and thiol groups (p = 0.008) were shown in patients; however, levels of carbonyl group and malondialdehyde (MDA) protein adducts decreased (p = 0.000) compared with controls. Positive correlation was shown between levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and TBARS (r = 0.711, p = 0.048) and between FT4 level and SOD activity (r = 0.713, p = 0.047). Conversely, GPx activity presented a negative correlation with FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels (r = –0.934, p = 0.001; r = –0.993, p = 0.000, respectively). In addition, GPx activity showed positive correlation with selenium level (r = 0.981, p = 0.019) and the FT3 level correlated negatively with the level of thiol groups (r = –0.892, p = 0.017). Conclusions: This study shows the presence of an oxidative stress and selenium deficiency in HTX patients and suggests that the hyperthyroid state is strongly implicated in the establishment of this disturbed oxidative profile. PMID:26445640
Zhu, Qin Yan; Hackman, Robert M; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Holt, Roberta R; Keen, Carl L
While the antioxidative properties of green and black tea have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to these properties in oolong tea. The reducing powers, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities, the amount of total phenolic compounds, the inhibitory effect on FeCl(2)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton reaction system)-induced DNA damage, and the inhibitory effect on erythrocyte hemolysis of an oolong tea water extract (OTE) were evaluated in the present study. The OTE was found to have strong antioxidative activities in all of the model systems tested. When the OTE was separated into different fractions according to molecular weight, it was found that the fractions with higher amounts of phenolic compounds (lower molecular weight) have stronger antioxidative activities. The present results support the concept that oolong tea contains several low molecular weight antioxidants that may have health promotion activities.
Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A
The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.
Gisbert, E; Skalli, A; Campbell, J; Solovyev, M M; Rodríguez, C; Dias, J; Polo, J
Terrestrial animal byproduct meals, including nonruminant blood meal and blood products, represent the largest and largely untapped safe source of animal protein available within the international market for the aquafeed industry. Spray-dried blood and spray-dried plasma (SDP) proteins have long been recognized as high-quality feed ingredients for farmed animals. In this study, we evaluated the inclusion of SDP from porcine blood (SDPP) in growing diets for gilthead sea bream. Three isonitrogenous (CP = 51.2%) and isolipidic (fat = 12.4%) diets manufactured by cold extrusion (0.8 to 1.5 mm pellet size) were prepared by substituting high-quality fish meal with 0, 3, and 6% SDPP. The diets were tested for a period of 60 d at 22°C with 4 replicates each (400-L cylindroconical tanks, 150 fish per tank, and initial density = 0.5 kg/m(3)). The SDPP inclusion in diets for gilthead sea bream fingerlings were evaluated in terms of growth performance, feed utilization, histological organization of the intestinal mucosa, activity of oxidative stress enzymes (catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the intestine, and nonspecific serum immune parameters (lysozyme and bactericidal activity). Results from this study indicated that dietary SDPP promoted fish growth in terms of BW and length; fish fed 3% SDPP were 10.5% heavier (P < 0.05) than those fed the control diet. Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood modulated the activity of the antioxidative defenses in the intestine (P < 0.05) and increased the density of goblet cells in the intestine (P < 0.05) and benefited the host by providing an effective immune barrier against gut pathogenic microbiota. The nonspecific serum immune response in fish fed diets with SDPP was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish fed the control diet. These results indicated that the inclusion of SDPP in gilthead sea bream feed could be beneficial for the fish by enhancing intestinal and serum innate immune
Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R
The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.
Tauler, Pedro; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Pujol, Pere; Drobnic, Franchek; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of an antioxidant supplementation, which includes coenzyme Q(10), on plasma and neutrophil oxidative stress and the antioxidant response after a soccer match. Nineteen voluntary male pre-professional footballers were randomly and double-blinded treated with either a multivitamin and mineral supplement (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 11). After the 3 months of supplementation, the sportsmen played a friendly soccer match of 60 min. The 3-month supplementation induced higher plasma ascorbate and coenzyme Q levels when compared to the placebo group. Antioxidant supplementation influenced plasma oxidative stress markers because they were lower in the supplemented group than in the placebo one after the match. The football match induced decreased neutrophil vitamin E levels and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities but increased glutathione reductase activity. Antioxidant diet supplementation prevented plasma oxidative damage but did not influence the neutrophil response to a football match.
Mancini, Antonio; Festa, Roberto; Silvestrini, Andrea; Nicolotti, Nicola; Di Donna, Vincenzo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta
Infertility is associated with oxidative stress, normally counterbalanced by different antioxidant systems. In order to explore the hormonal control of seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) we evaluated TAC and hormone patterns in a group of unselected infertile patients and control subjects. One hundred and ten infertile patients (divided into 3 groups: inflammation, varicocele, and other etiologies) and 31 fertile men were examined, evaluating blood serum gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, free tri-iodothyronine, free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyrotropin, prolactin (PRL), seminal parameters, and TAC. TAC was measured using the H(2)O(2)-metmyoglobin system, which generates the spectroscopically detectable radical cation of the chromogenous compound 2,2(I)-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate). The "lag time" of its appearance is proportional to the antioxidant activity. Lag phase was significantly higher in varicocele vs controls, whereas it was lower in patients with inflammation vs varicocele or other kinds of infertility. The correlation analysis between hormones and seminal parameters showed an inverse correlation between PRL and sperm motility, and a direct correlation of TAC with PRL and FT4, but not with gonadotropins or gonadal steroids. Our data suggest that systemic hormones may play a role in regulating seminal antioxidant capacity. This is interesting also because some hormones, such as thyroid and pituitary hormones, are not usually tested in the first-level evaluation of male patients with fertility problems.
[The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, content of lipid peroxidation products and nitric oxide in the blood plasma and liver of rats with induced insulin-resistance].
Onopchenko, O V; Kosiakova, H V; Horid'ko, T M; Berdyshev, A H; Mehed', O F; Hula, N M
The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the content of lipid peroxidation products, activity of antioxidant enzymes and the nitric oxide level in the liver and blood plasma of rats with insulin-resistance (IR) state was investigated. IR state was induced in rats by prolonged high-fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat) for 6 months combined with one injection of streptozotocin (15 mg/kg of body weight). The existence of IR state was estimated by results of glucoso-tolerance test and blood plasma insulin content. The level of lipid peroxides products was shown to be higher in the liver of insulin resistant animals as a result of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, however, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased. The increase of nitric-oxide content in the liver and blood plasma of high-fat diet rats compared with healthy control animals was also observed. The administration of the NSE suspension per os in a dose of 50 mg/kg during 2 weeks to the rats with induced insulin-resistance state contributed to the increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity. In consequence of antioxidant enzymes activation the intensity of POL process was decreased. The NSE administration caused normalization of nitric oxide level, restoring pro-/antioxidant balance in the liver and blood plasma of rats with IR state. In conclusion, the NSE administration to the rats with insulin-resistance state restored pro-/antioxidant balance and enhanced the content of nitric oxide, therefore, improving insulin sensitivity.
Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak
Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.
Jędrejek, Dariusz; Kontek, Bogdan; Lis, Bernadetta; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) is a widespread perennial of the Asteraceae family. Dandelion is a rich source of different bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, vitamin and minerals. However, the content of phenolics in tested extracts by various authors was not always well described. Dandelion is also a commonly available food with a long history of human use and as such poses little risk of harm. In this study, we focused on four different phenolic fractions from leaves and petals of dandelion, which might be of great interest. The objective was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the phenolic fractions from dandelion leaves and petals in vitro. Effects of four different phenolic fractions from dandelion leaves and petals on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) in human plasma were studied in vitro. Their antioxidant properties against human plasma protein carbonylation and oxidation of protein thiols induced by a strong biological oxidant - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals) were also examined. The tested fractions of dandelion (0.5-50 μg/mL; the incubation time - 30 min) inhibited plasma lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. However, their antioxidant properties were not concentration-dependent. All tested samples also inhibited plasma protein carbonylation and oxidation of thiol groups in plasma proteins stimulated by oxidants (H2O2 and OH(∙)). The obtained results suggest that four tested dandelion fractions, especially phenolic fractions from petals which are recognized as better than leaves source of flavonoids, may be a new and promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant activity beneficial for diseases-associated with oxidative stress, and with changes of hemostasis.
[The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and on the level of stable NO metabolites in the rat testes and blood plasma at the early stages of streptozotocine-induced diabetes].
Gorid'ko, T M; Kosiakova, H V; Berdyshev, A H; Bazylians'ka, V R; Margitych, V M; Gula, N M
The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine was investigated on the activity of enzymes of antioxidant protection and content of stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) in the testes and plasma of rats at the early stages of development of streptozotocine-induced diabetes mellitus. It was shown that the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase is reduced in the plasma and testes of animals with streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetes (blood glucose 8-10 mmol/L). A significant increase in the amount of nitrite and nitrate anions was revealed in the plasma of rats, while only the level of nitrite was significantly changed in the testes of animals. The per os administration of the NSE aqueous suspension in a dose of 50 mg/kg during 10 days to the rats with induced diabetes contributed to the normalization of catalase activity in the testis, which correlated with a decrease in the amount of TBA-reacting products and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the blood plasma of animals; the use of NSE also contributed to the reduction of nitrite content in the gonads and to normalization of both nitrite and nitrate in the blood plasma of rats. The NSE administration to intact animals caused an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and significantly reduced the content of stable NO metabolites in the blood plasma of animals.
In vitro and animal studies show that polyphenols from olives have potent antioxidant activities; 50 % of the phenolic compounds contained in olives and virgin olive oil are hydroxytyrosol and derivatives thereof. Hydroxytyrosol is the major olive polyphenol consumed and well absorbed in humans. It is considered to have the highest antioxidant potency compared to the other olive polyphenols. Review of the human intervention studies showed that olive polyphenols decreased the levels of oxidized-LDL in plasma and positively affected several biomarkers of oxidative damage. The antioxidant effects of olive polyphenols on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation are observed after a dietary intake of about 10 mg per day. The overall evidence from in vitro assays, and animal and human studies support the antioxidant effect of olive polyphenols. However, further larger human studies are needed to clarify the effect of olive polyphenols on markers of oxidative stress, particularly DNA damage and plasma isoprostane levels.
Kaur, Gunpreet; Gupta, Vikas; Bansal, Parveen
Herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare known to humanity. Recently, much attention is being directed toward the use of antioxidants. There are some very commonly used Ayurvedic preparations that might have inbuilt antioxidant activity, and their therapeutic potential can be partially attributable to its antioxidant activity. Hence, it was proposed to find out antioxidant activity of such common formulations. Estimation of innate antioxidant activity of some commonly used traditional formulations. In this study, five formulations were evaluated for antioxidant activity in comparison to gallic acid (standard) using the in vitro reducing power method and superoxide radical scavenging activity by dimethyl sulfoxide method followed by calculation of scavenging activity and inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The result shows that Ayurvedic drug extracts possess good reducing power and antioxidant activity. Laxmivilas Ras shows higher reducing power ranging from 117 ± 0.021 to 0.176 ± 0.012 as compared to other extracts. The drug extracts were also found to be an efficient scavenger of superoxide radical. The IC50 values for Laxmivilas Ras, Agnitundi Vati, Ajmodadi Churna, Tribhuvankirti Rasa, gallic acid (standard) and Sitopladi Churna, were found to be 50.07, 98.41, 105.13, 116.39, 176.80, and 200.17, respectively. From this study, it can be concluded that the above Ayurvedic formulations possess antioxidant property. However, work could be initiated on the isolation and identification of these antioxidant components. PMID:28217554
Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Sorrenti, Valeria; Vanella, Angelo; Grasso, Salvatore; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Galvano, Fabio; Vanella, Luca; Renis, Marcella
Aerobic exercise increases free radical production as a consequence of enhanced oxygen consumption. If free radical formation exceeds antioxidant capacity, lipids, proteins, and DNA may be oxidized. Oxidative stress is widely recognized as a factor in many degenerative human diseases. The role of dietary antioxidants in protection against disease is a topic of continuing interest. In fact, there is epidemiological evidence correlating a higher intake of nutrients possessing antioxidant abilities with a lower incidence of various human diseases. This study was directed at investigating whether changes in plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers occur in voluntary wheel runners, before and after oral supplementation with lycopene and isoflavones. For this purpose, plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in long distance runners at the end of a 60-minute run. Comparisons were made between runners before and after 60 days of supplementation with lycopene and isoflavones. DNA damage in blood cells of the same samples was also evaluated by comet assay. This investigation shows that oral supplementation with lycopene and soy-derived isoflavones significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced plasma nonproteic antioxidant defense.
Xie, Zhuohong; Sintara, Marsha; Chang, Tony; Ou, Boxin
This study was to investigate the absorption and antioxidant effect of a mangosteen-based functional beverage in humans. The beverage contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with generally healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age. Ten men and 10 women participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and placebo group. Participants received either a daily single dose (245 mL) of the beverage or a placebo. Blood samples were collected from each participant at time points 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The plasma samples were analyzed by LC/MS for α-mangostin and vitamins B2 and B5. Results indicated that the three analytes were bioavailable, with observed Cmax at around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 60% after 1 h, and the elevated antioxidant level lasted at least 6 h. This study demonstrated the bioavailability of α-mangostin and B vitamins from a xanthone-rich beverage and the mechanisms of the increase in plasma antioxidant may be direct effects from antioxidants, enhancement of endogenous antioxidant activity through activation of Nrf2 pathway, and synergism of the antioxidants. PMID:25649891
Prozorovskaia, N N; Rusina, I F; Lupinovich, V L; Beketova, N A; Sorokin, I V; Ipatova, O M; Levachev, M M
Effective concentration of antioxidants and its reactivity toward peroxil radicals (constant k7) have been measured by the chemiluminescence technique for flaxseed oil. Effective concentration of antioxidants is shown to depend on the technology of producing flaxseed oil; period of seed storage before use; and storing duration of flaxseed oil also. Minor component content of flaxseed oil, which may be the members of antioxidant pool, has been quantitatively estimated.
Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xiangying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Yan
A Caco-2 cell-based antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantitative evaluation of antioxidants was developed by optimizing seeding density and culture time of Caco-2 cells, incubation time and concentration of fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, DCFH-DA), incubation way and incubation time of antioxidants (pure phytochemicals) and DCFH-DA with cells, and detection time of fluorescence. Results showed that the CAA assay was of good reproducibility and could be used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of antioxidants at the following conditions: seeding density of 5 × 10(4)/well, cell culture time of 24h, co-incubation of 60 μM DCFH-DA and pure phytochemicals with Caco-2 cells for 20 min and fluorescence recorded for 90 min. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between CAA values and rat plasma ORAC values following the intake of antioxidants for selected pure phytochemicals (R(2) = 0.815, p < 0.01), demonstrating the good biological relevance of CAA assay.
During frying, an antioxidant is lost by reaction with radicals for its antioxidant activity, but it is also lost by decomposition and evaporation before it is able to exert antioxidant activity. Some low molecular weight antioxidants are often so volatile that they show much reduced antioxidant act...
Schlesier, K; Harwat, M; Böhm, V; Bitsch, R
In this study, six common tests for measuring antioxidant activity were evaluated by comparing four antioxidants and applying them to beverages (tea and juices): Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC I-III assay), Total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter assay (TRAP assay), 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH assay), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine assay (DMPD assay), Photochemiluminescence assay (PCL assay) and Ferric reducing ability of plasma assay (FRAP assay). The antioxidants included gallic acid representing the group of polyphenols, uric acid as the main antioxidant in human plasma, ascorbic acid as a vitamin widely spread in fruits and Trolox as water soluble vitamin E analogue. The six methods presented can be divided into two groups depending on the oxidising reagent. Five methods use organic radical producers (TEAC I-III, TRAP, DPPH, DMPD, PCL) and one method works with metal ions for oxidation (FRAP). Another difference between these tests is the reaction procedure. Three assays use the delay in oxidation and determine the lag phase as parameter for the antioxidant activity (TEAC I, TRAP, PCL). They determine the delay of radical generation as well as the ability to scavenge the radical. In contrast, the assays TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD and FRAP analyse the ability to reduce the radical cation (TEAC II and III, DPPH, DMPD) or the ferric ion (FRAP). The three tests acting by radical reduction use preformed radicals and determine the decrease in absorbance while the FRAP assay measures the formed ferrous ions by increased absorbance. Gallic acid was the strongest antioxidant in all tests with exception of the DMPD assay. In contrast, uric acid and ascorbic acid showed low activity in some assays. Most of the assays determine the antioxidant activity in the micromolar range needing minutes to hours. Only one assay (PCL) is able to analyse the antioxidant activity in the nanomolar range. Black currant juice showed highest
Shobana, S; Naidu, K A
Spices and vegetables possess antioxidant activity that can be applied for preservation of lipids and reduce lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The potential antioxidant activities of selected spices extracts (water and alcohol 1:1) were investigated on enzymatic lipid peroxidation. Water and alcoholic extract (1:1) of commonly used spices (garlic, ginger, onion, mint, cloves, cinnamon and pepper) dose-dependently inhibited oxidation of fatty acid, linoleic acid in presence of soybean lipoxygenase. Among the spices tested, cloves exhibited highest while onion showed least antioxidant activity. The relative antioxidant activities decreased in the order of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, garlic, mint and onion. Spice mix namely ginger, onion and garlic; onion and ginger; ginger and garlic showed cumulative inhibition of lipid peroxidation thus exhibiting their synergistic antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts were retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C, indicating that the spice constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation. The antioxidant activity of these dietary spices suggest that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, they possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation.
Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
The synthesis of derivatives of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MUs), which are structurally interesting antioxidants, was performed in this study. The modification of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) by different reaction steps was performed to yield the target compounds, the 4-MUs. The 4-MUs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform infrared; FT-IR and Nuclear magnetic resonance; NMR) and micro-elemental analysis (CHNS). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the 4-MUs was evaluated in terms of their free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity assay, chelating activity and their (FRAP) ferric-reducing antioxidant power, which were compared with a standard antioxidant. Our results reveal that the 4-MUs exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant mechanisms of the 4-MUs were also studied. Density Function Theory (DFT)-based quantum chemical studies were performed with the basis set at 3-21G. Molecular models of the synthesized compounds were studied to understand the antioxidant activity. The electron levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), for these synthesized antioxidants were also studied. PMID:27243231
Yu, Longquan; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu; Sugane, Nozomi; Hosono, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoshijiro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Takatori, Kazuhiro
Our previous study showed that tsao-ko intake can lower plasma and liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations and has hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity in mice. This study involved separating two major fractions (A and B) from the methanol extracts (MeX) of tsao-ko using silica gel column chromatography, and then determining the effect of the fractions in vivo and in vitro to clarify the most effective components of tsao-ko. An intake of MeX and A fraction statistically significantly reduced body lipids and plasma thiobarbitutic acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations compared with the control and inhibited lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. These reductions were not observed in mice fed the B fraction and these inhibitions of B fraction were mild compared with MeX and A fraction. The plasma and liver TG concentrations of each fraction group did not show significant differences compared with the control. The [M-H](+) and maximum UV absorption of the A fraction were 291 m/z and 279 nm, respectively. The peak of A fraction appeared at a similar time to the epicatechin standard in the LC/MS/MS analysis and the MS/MS spectrum of the A fraction was similar to that of the epicatechin standard. It was concluded that the most effective component of tsao-ko for body lipid reduction and hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity was contained in the polar fraction and the evidence suggested that this component could be epicatechin. However, the strongest TG lowering components of tsao-ko may be methanol insoluble.
MacLean, Patricia D; Drake, Emily C; Ross, L; Barclay, C
The antioxidant capacities, antioxidant activities, k(inh), and stoichiometric factors, n, of water-soluble derivatives of bilirubin (BR), BR-human serum albumin (BR-HSA), and BR-ditaurate disodium conjugate (BRC) were determined in aqueous/lipid dispersions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles/methyl linoleate and in bilayers of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) during initiation by water-soluble azo-bis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (ABAP). The inhibition rate constants for BRC and BR-HSA were similar in micelles (k(inh) approximately 1.3 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), where n approximately 2, whereas the k(inh) for BR-HSA dropped by (1/2) in bilayers. The dimethyl ester of bilirubin (BRDE) gave a k(inh) only one-tenth that of the vitamin E analog, pentamethylhydroxychroman (PMHC) in SDS micelles/methyl linoleate when initiated by lipid-soluble azo-bis-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile (DMVN). Biliverdin hydrochloride (BVHCl) was NOT an effective peroxyl radical-trapping agent in the micellar phase during initiation by ABAP or DMVN containing methyl linoleate but it inhibited oxygen uptake in the aqueous phase. Both BRC and BR-HSA extended the total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP) of human blood plasma and their contribution to TRAP was in the range of 5-10% of the natural TRAP of blood plasma, depending on the BR content determined in the blood plasma.
Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Canadanović-Brunet, J; Stajner, M
The antioxidative properties of bulb, leaf and stalk of Allium ursinum were investigated. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase), quantities of malonyldialdehyde, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and reduced glutathione and also the contents of total flavonoids, chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids were determined. The extracts from all plant organs exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest having been observed in the leaves. Furthermore, ESR signal of PBN-OH radical adducts in the presence of leaves phosphate buffer (pH 7) extract was reduced for 87.61%.
Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D
Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract.
Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.
Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808
Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Carmen; Mac-Dowell, Karina; Leza, Juan Carlos; Giraldez, Marisa; Bailón, Concepción; Castro, Carmen; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; Fraguas, David; Arango, Celso
Recent evidence suggests that children with autism have impaired detoxification capacity and may suffer from chronic oxidative stress. To our knowledge, there has been no study focusing on oxidative metabolism specifically in Asperger syndrome (a milder form of autism) or comparing this metabolism with other psychiatric disorders. In this study, total antioxidant status (TAOS), non-enzymatic (glutathione and homocysteine) and enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma or erythrocyte lysates in a group of adolescent patients with Asperger syndrome, a group of adolescents with a first episode of psychosis, and a group of healthy controls at baseline and at 8-12 weeks. TAOS was also analyzed at 1 year. TAOS was reduced in Asperger individuals compared with healthy controls and psychosis patients, after covarying by age and antipsychotic treatment. This reduced antioxidant capacity did not depend on any of the individual antioxidant variables measured. Psychosis patients had increased homocysteine levels in plasma and decreased copper and ceruloplasmin at baseline. In conclusion, Asperger patients seem to have chronic low detoxifying capacity. No impaired detoxifying capacity was found in the first-episode psychosis group in the first year of illness.
Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Xing, Yun; Yu, Jing; Li, Xue-Jiao; Mei, Rui-Feng; Ding, Zhong-Tao
A new C20-diterpenoid alkaloid handelidine (1) and twenty-seven known alkaloids (2-28) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum handelianum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The study indicated that denudatine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids with vicinal-triol system and benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids exhibited significant antioxidant activities measured by three antioxidant test systems. The aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids could serve as potential secondary antioxidants for their strong binding effects to metal ions.
Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir
Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112
Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Mulugeta, Afework; Tong, Capella; Newman, Emily; Lyons, Timothy J
Green tea, a popular polyphenol-containing beverage, has been shown to alleviate clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. However, its effects in endogenous antioxidant biomarkers are not clearly understood. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that green tea supplementation will upregulate antioxidant parameters (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five obese participants with the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive one of the following for 8 weeks: green tea (4 cups per day), control (4 cups water per day), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water per day). Blood samples and dietary information were collected at baseline (0 week) and 8 weeks of the study. Circulating carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol) and trace elements were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, respectively. Serum antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, catalase) and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Green tea beverage and green tea extract significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 to 2.3 μmol/L and 1.2 to 2.5 μmol/L, respectively; P < .05) and whole blood glutathione (1783 to 2395 μg/g hemoglobin and 1905 to 2751 μg/g hemoglobin, respectively; P < .05) vs controls at 8 weeks. No effects were noted in serum levels of carotenoids and tocopherols and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Green tea extract significantly reduced plasma iron vs baseline (128 to 92 μg/dL, P < .02), whereas copper, zinc, and selenium were not affected. These results support the hypothesis that green tea may provide antioxidant protection in the metabolic syndrome.
Kim, Tae Hoon; Jang, Soo Jeung; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun
Naringin is the natural chief bitter flavonoid found in Citrus species. Herein, bitter naringin was treated with atmospheric pressure plasma to afford two new converted flavonoids, narinplasmins A (2) and B (3), along with the known compound, 2R-naringin. The structures of the two new naringin derivatives were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of all isolates was evaluated based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging assays. The new flavanone glycoside 2 containing a methoxyalkyl group exhibited significantly improved antioxidant properties in these assays relative to the parent naringin.
Kofuji, Kyoko; Aoki, Ayumi; Tsubaki, Kazufumi; Konishi, Masanori; Isobe, Takashi; Murata, Yoshifumi
β-Glucans extracted from barley, which mainly contains β-(1,3-1,4)-D-glucan, are used extensively as supplements and food additives due to their wide biologic activities, including a reduction in blood lipid level. In this study, the antioxidant activity of β-glucan was examined to assess potential new benefits associated with β-glucan, because oxidative stress is considered one of the primary causal factors for various diseases and aging. β-Glucan extracted from barley was found to possess significant antioxidant activity. The amount of antioxidant activity was influenced by different physiologic properties (e.g., structure and molecular size) of β-glucan, which varied depending on the source and extraction method used. The antioxidant activity of β-glucan was significantly higher than that of various polymers that are used as food additives. These results indicate that β-glucan has promise as a polymeric excipient for supplement and food additive with antioxidant and other benefits, which may contribute to enhancing health and beauty. PMID:22500243
Puzhevskaia, T O; Grammatikova, N E; Bibikova, M V; Katlinskiĭ, A V
Complex compounds produced by fungal cultures of Lecanicilium and Beauveria with both high hypolipidemic and antioxydant activities were screened. Two fractions of the hypolipipidemic compounds with antioxidant activity of 95 and 75% in a dose of 25 mcg/ml were isolated.
Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Raseta, Milena
Extracts of Melittis melissophyllum leaves in ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were evaporated to dryness and dissolved in 50% ethanol to make 10% (w/v) solutions. The potential protective action of the extracts was assessed by the corresponding in vitro and in vivo tests. In the in vitro experiments extracts were tested as potential scavengers of free radicals (DPPH, O₂·⁻, NO, and OH radicals), as well as inhibitors of liposomal peroxidation (LPx). The results obtained show that all extracts (exept n-BuOH extract) are good scavengers of radicals and reduce LPx intensity in liposomes, which points to their protective (antioxidant) activity. In vivo experiments were concerned with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx) in liver homogenate and blood-hemolysate of experimental animals after their treatment with extracts of M. melissophyllum leaves, or in combination with CCl₄. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts have protective (antioxidative) effect and this antioxidative behaviour is more pronounced in liver than in blood-hemolysate. The reason is probably the fact that liver contains other enzymatic systems, which can also participate in the antioxidative mechanism. Of all the extracts the H₂O one showed the highest protective activity.
Astaeva, M D; Klichkhanov, N K
The intensity of oxidative modification of plasma proteins and activity of the antioxidative system of the blood of the ground squirrels during awakening from winter sleep is studied. During waking of animals, processes of oxidative modification of proteins in the blood plasma intensify. While the body temperature rises, the antioxidative activity of hydrophylic components of the blood plasma grows essentially, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase too. Activity of erythrocyte catalase at all stages of waking is definitely higher than in the control. The received results evidence that the high activity of various links of antioxidative blood protection provides stability to oxidative stress during waking of animals from deep sleep.
McDowell, Arlene; Thompson, Scott; Stark, Mirjam; Ou, Zong-Quan; Gould, Kevin S
There is considerable interest in antioxidant dietary components that can be protective against degenerative diseases in humans. Puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, and exhibits strong antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. However, the potential of puha to protect against degenerative diseases requires that low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) are absorbed by, and active in, human cells. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of puha leaf extracts. Preparation methods of freezing and freeze-drying reduced the total polyphenolic content compared with fresh puha, but did not affect the LMWA potential as determined by the DPPH assay. The IC(50) values were 0.012 ± 0.003 mg/mL and 0.010 ± 0.005 mg/mL for freeze-dried and fresh puha leaves, respectively. Using the CAA assay, it was shown that LMWAs from foliar extracts of puha were effectively absorbed into HepG2 cells, and exerted antioxidant activity at levels comparable to those of extracts from blueberry fruits, the much-touted antioxidant superfood. Methylene blue staining of HepG2 cells indicated that puha extracts were not cytotoxic at concentrations below 100 mg DW/mL. The data indicate the potential of puha as a nutraceutical supplement for human health.
Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook
Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases.
Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Acar, Mustafa; Berkoz, Mehmet; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal
We investigated the antioxidant effects of curcumin in an experimental rat model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Female Wistar albino rats (n = 34) were divided randomly into four groups: healthy rats (control group, n = 8), AR with no treatment (AR + NoTr group, n = 10), AR with azelastine HCl treatment (AR + Aze group, n = 8), and AR with curcumin treatment (AR + Curc group, n = 8). On day 28, total blood IgE levels were measured. For measurement of antioxidant activity, the glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in both inferior turbinate tissue and serum. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured only in inferior turbinate tissue, and paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities were measured only in serum. Statistically significant differences were found for all antioxidant measurements (GSH levels and CAT, SOD, GSH-Px activities in the serum and tissue, MDA levels in the tissue, and PON and ARE activities in the serum) between the four groups. In the curcumin group, serum SOD, ARE, and PON and tissue GSH values were higher than the control group. Moreover, tissue GSH levels and serum GSH-Px activities in the curcumin group were higher than in the AR + NoTr group. In the azelastine group, except MDA, antioxidant measurement values were lower than in the other groups. Curcumin may help to increase antioxidant enzymes and decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis. We recommend curcumin to decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis.
Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae
Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239
Liu, Chin-San; Chen, Haw-Wen; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Tsai, Ching-Shan; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Wei, Yau-Huei
The effects of long-term smoking on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in hair follicles were investigated in subjects with different antioxidant capacity. Twenty-two male smokers with a smoking index of greater than 5 pack-years and without any known systemic diseases were recruited for this study. Forty healthy nonsmoking males were included as controls. We found that the concentrations of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol and the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase in blood plasma were significantly decreased in smokers. The levels of glutathione and protein thiols in whole blood and the incidence of a 4,977 bp deletion of mtDNA (dmtDNA) in hair follicles were significantly increased in smokers. A significantly higher incidence of the 4,977 bp dmtDNA was found in smokers with plasma GST activity less than 5.66 U/l (OR = 7.2, P = 0.020). Using multiple covariate ANOVA and logistic regression, we found that age and low plasma GST activity were the only two risk factors for the 4,977 bp dmtDNA. These results suggest that smoking depletes antioxidants and causes mtDNA deletions and that plasma GST may play an important role in the preservation of the mitochondrial genome in tissue cells of smokers.
Pathak, Chandramani; Jaiswal, Yogesh K; Vinayak, Manjula
Constant generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism of an organism is generally balanced by similar rate of consumption by antioxidants. Imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defense results in increased level of ROS causing oxidative stress which leads to promotion of malignancy. Queuine is a hyper modified base analogue of guanine, found at first anti-codon position of Q- family of tRNAs. These tRNAs are completely modified with respect to queuosine in terminally differentiated somatic cells, however hypomodification of Q-tRNAs is close association with cell proliferation. Q-tRNA modification is essential for normal development, differentiation and cellular functions. Queuine is a nutrient factor to eukaryotes. It is found to promote cellular antioxidant defense system and inhibit tumorigenesis. The activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase are found to be low in Dalton's lymphoma ascites transplanted (DLAT) mouse liver compared to normal. However, exogenous administration of queuine to DLAT mouse improves the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that queuine promotes antioxidant defense system by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and in turn inhibits oxidative stress and tumorigenesis.
Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio
Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.
Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma
Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín
Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368
Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.
Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J
The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures.
Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin
In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.
Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Chu, Yi-Fang; Sun, Jie; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai
Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body. In this study, 10 common vegetables were selected on the basis of consumption per capita data in the United States. A more complete profile of phenolic distributions, including both free and bound phenolics in these vegetables, is reported here using new and modified methods. Broccoli possessed the highest total phenolic content, followed by spinach, yellow onion, red pepper, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, celery, and cucumber. Red pepper had the highest total antioxidant activity, followed by broccoli, carrot, spinach, cabbage, yellow onion, celery, potato, lettuce, and cucumber. The phenolics antioxidant index (PAI) was proposed to evaluate the quality/quantity of phenolic contents in these vegetables and was calculated from the corrected total antioxidant activities by eliminating vitamin C contributions. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver cancer cells. Spinach showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by cabbage, red pepper, onion, and broccoli. On the basis of these results, the bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a simple reference for consumers to choose vegetables in accordance with their beneficial activities. The BI could be a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Maffei, Francesca; Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Moraga, Juan Manuel Zolezzi; Pasqui, Francesca; Poli, Carolina; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide; Hrelia, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana
Oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal (CR) cancer. This study investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in plasma of 82 participants of a screening program for CR cancer prevention (30 females and 52 males; age 50-70 years). All subjects resulted positive to fecal occult blood test and were subsequently classified, according to the colonoscopy and histological findings, in patients with CR cancer, patients with colorectal polyps or controls. Furthermore, the activity of clastogenic factors (CFs) in plasma from study population was measured as the ability of inducing micronuclei (MN) in vitro in peripheral of a healthy donor. CAT and GR activities were significantly lower in CR cancer patients compared to controls (P<0.05) and polyps groups (P<0.05). SOD activity was significantly higher in patients with CR cancer than in polyp (P<0.05) and control (P<0.05) groups. GST activity was not significantly different in plasma of the three groups. An increase of CFs induction was observed in plasma of CR cancer patients (MN: 8.89±3.42) with respect to control (MN: 6.37±0.96 P<0.05). These results can contribute to define plasma biomarkers associated to oxidative stress damage that could predictive of CR cancer risk.
Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.
Kurihara, Hiroshi; Fukami, Harukazu; Asami, Sumio; Toyoda, Yoshiko; Nakai, Masaaki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Yao, Xin-Sheng
In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative effect of oolong tea in vitro and in vivo using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. An oolong tea extract, catechin and related compounds suppressed the oxidation of fluorescence induced by AAPH in a dose-dependent manner, that is, they prolonged the antioxidant time in vitro. Oral administration of the oolong tea extract to mice treated with restraint stress increased ORAC activity in plasma as compared with a stress control group. The extract also increased plasma vitamin C levels, and there was a good relationship between ORAC activity and the vitamin C level in plasma. The elevation of plasma ORAC and vitamin C level may have been related to the stress-relieving effect of oolong tea. These effects are probably due to the antioxidative properties of the tea. Thus, these findings suggested that oolong tea has beneficial effects on health related to its antioxidative action.
Ogunro, P S; Ogungbamigbe, T O; Muhibi, M A
Stored blood is used for transfusion in humans but peroxidative processes occur in stored blood before transfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the length of storage on plasma antioxidant levels and RBCs antioxidant enzyme activity. Blood collected from 15 donors and preserved with anticoagulant (citerate phosphate, dextrose adenine (CPDA-1) were examined. The concentration of total antioxidant status (TAS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and potassium (K+) in the plasma as well as glutathione peroxidise (GSH- Px), glutathione superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in erythrocytes were determined on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 of storage. Day 1 of the study is the day of donation. A 24.8% increase in plasma concentration of MDA and 15.8% increase in the concentration K+ on day 15 were recorded (p < 0.05). A 27% decrease in the plasma concentration of TAS was observed on day 20 compared with day 1 (p < 0.05). Similarly GSH-Px activity is stored RBC decreased by 17.1%, on day 15 (p < 0.05). SOD activities reduced by 17.1% on day 20, CAT activities reduced by 12.6% on day 15 (in each case p < 0.05). In this study blood stored in CPDA-1 shows that those glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes systems in erythrocytes and antioxidant defence in plasma were depleting gradually depending on the day of storage. We concluded based on our finding that 10 days period can be considered a safe storage limits for transfusion in relation to oxidative stress the RBCs were subjected in the storage medium.
Barclay, L R; Vinqvist, M R; Mukai, K; Goto, H; Hashimoto, Y; Tokunaga, A; Uno, H
[reaction: see structure] The antioxidant activity of curcumin (1, 7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) was determined by inhibition of controlled initiation of styrene oxidation. Synthetic nonphenolic curcuminoids exhibited no antioxidant activity; therefore, curcumin is a classical phenolic chain-breaking antioxidant, donating H atoms from the phenolic groups not the CH(2) group as has been suggested (Jovanovic et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9677). The antioxidant activities of o-methoxyphenols are decreased in hydrogen bond accepting media.
Record, Ian R; McInerney, Jennifer K; Noakes, Manny; Bird, Anthony R
As part of a larger study into the effects of polyphenols derived from chocolate on bowel health we have compared the effects of consumption of chocolate containing either 200 mg of flavanols and related procyanidins or a similar chocolate containing less than 10 mg of polyphenols on fecal free radical production and antioxidant activity in 18 volunteers. In a double-blind crossover trail volunteers consumed chocolate for two 4-wk periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. During the time the volunteers consumed the chocolate they also consumed a low-polyphenol diet. Free radical production in the fecal water was lowered from 122 +/- 10 micromol/l/h to 94 +/- 9 micromol/l/h (P = 0.009) when the high procyanidin chocolate diet was consumed and from 117 +/- 14 micromol/l/h to 86 +/- 12 micromol/l/h when the low procyanidin chocolate was consumed (P = 0.014). Fecal water antioxidant capacity measured by either the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity or ferric reducing ability of plasma procedure was not significantly affected. Consumption of either chocolate reduced the production of free radicals in fecal water. This suggests that some component of the chocolate other than the flavanols and related procyanidins may have been effective.
Woźniak, Dorota; Dryś, Andrzej; Matkowski, Adam
We evaluated the antioxidant properties of four main flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis: baicalein, wogonin and their glucuronides - baicalin and wogonoside. We used three in vitro assays: free radical scavenging with 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, transition metal ions reducing power by phosphomolybdenum assay and inhibition of the hydroxyl radical-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid assay. All flavones have antioxidant capacity, which differs depending on the structure and mechanisms of activity. In all tests, only baicalein - the aglycone with three adjacent hydroxyl groups - exhibited consistent antioxidant effect. Wogonin protected linoleic acid against oxidation. Baicalin displayed less potent antioxidant properties whereas wogonoside did not have significant antioxidant activity.
Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products.
Raghu Chandrashekhar, H; Venkatesh, P; Ponnusankar, S; Vijayan, P
Methanolic extracts of leaf, root, flower and aerial parts of Hypericum hookerianum were assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity using eight different models. Total antioxidant capacity, phenol and flavanol content of the extracts were determined to correlate between their antioxidant activity and constituents present therein. Results of in vitro antioxidant study suggest that extracts from leaf and flower have strong antioxidant potential. Leaf extract (100 & 200 mg kg(-1) b.w. p.o.) that showed maximum activity was selected for in vivo antioxidant studies using a CCl(4)-intoxicated rat model. The effects of extracts on lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in serum and liver homogenate were analysed. CCl(4) treatment caused a significant increase in the level of CAT and SOD and a significant decrease in the level of LPO in a dose-dependent manner when compared to CCl(4) treated control. The results indicate the strong antioxidant nature of H. hookerianum leaf extract.
Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa
The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 108 CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 108 CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27066188
Soengas, P; Cartea, M E; Francisco, M; Sotelo, T; Velasco, P
Antioxidant activity of six Brassica crops-broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, nabicol and tronchuda cabbage-was measured at four plant stages with DPPH and FRAP assays. Samples taken three months after sowing showed the highest antioxidant activity. Kale crop possessed the highest antioxidant activity at this plant stage and also at the adult plant stage, while cauliflower showed the highest antioxidant activity in sprouts and in leaves taken two months after sowing. Brassica by-products could be used as sources of products with high content of antioxidants. Phenolic content and composition varied, depending on the crop under study and on the plant stage; sprout samples were much higher in hydroxycinnamic acids than the rest of samples. Differences in antioxidant activity of Brassica crops were related to differences in total phenolic content but also to differences in phenolic composition for most samples.
Golestanzadeh, Mohsen; Naeimi, Hossein; Zahraie, Zohreh
Phenolic antioxidants play important role in prevention of oxidation in different industrials. The research objective in the current study was synthesis and evaluate of antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants. The synthetic compounds were prepared in the presence of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide. The antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was investigated by spectrophotometrically method according to the DPPH assay. Overall, these compounds are potentially important antioxidant and also to limit activity of reactive oxygen species.
Mishra, Neeraj; Dubey, Akhilesh; Mishra, Rahul; Barik, Nabneeta
This study investigates the antioxidant activity of different dry fruits (almonds, walnut, cashew nut, raisins, chironji) through several chemical and biochemical assays: reducing power, lipid peroxidation damage in biomembranes, determination of antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD and CAT). To estimate the total phenolic content, the assay using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used. The EC(50) values were calculated for all the methods in order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of each dry fruit. The results obtained were quite heterogenous, revealing significant differences among the dry fruits. The methanolic extract of walnut showed the higher value of antioxidant activity based on lipid peroxidation assay. The higher phenolic content was found in walnuts followed by almonds cashew nut, chironji and least phenolic content was found in raisins. Walnut revealed the best antioxidant properties, presenting lower EC(50) values in all assays except in antioxidant enzymatic activity.
Emami, S. A.; Asili, J.; Mohagheghi, Z.
Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol. PMID:17965761
Chiue, H; Kusano, T; Iwami, K
Barley hordein was comparable to maize zein in antioxidation under a powder model system. Various deamidated "hordein" preparations were obtained and examined for their molecular-size distribution (by Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration), hydrophobicity (by fluorescence measurement using fluorescent probes) and antioxidative activity (by the ferric thiocyanate method). Deamidation caused fragmentation of the hordein molecule and simultaneously lowered its fatty acid-binding capacity rather than its surface hydrophobicity. Then, the antioxidative activity diminished with increasing deamidation. When the fatty acid-binding capacity was plotted against the antioxidative activity, a high correlation (r2 = 0.92) was observed between these two events.
Ruan, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Liang Liang; Lin, Yi Ming
The antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf extracts was investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The methanolic extract and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antioxidant activity than the other ones. HPLC data indicated that S. cumini leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, responsible for their antioxidant activity. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical-scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts supported this observation.
Xu, Jin Ze; Yeung, Sai Ying Venus; Chang, Qi; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu
Canned and bottled tea drinks contain not only green tea epicatechins (GTE), namely (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC), but also four GTE epimers, namely (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-catechin gallate (CG), (-)-gallocatechin (GC) and (-)-catechin (C). In the present study we examined the antioxidant activity and bioavailability of these epimers compared with their corresponding precursors. The epimerisation reaction was induced by autoclaving GTE extract derived from longjing green tea at 120 degrees C for 20 min. Isolation and purification of each GTE and epimer were accomplished by various column chromatographic and semi-preparative HPLC techniques. The antioxidant activity of each epimer with its corresponding GTE precursor was conducted in the three in vitro systems, namely human LDL oxidation, ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), and anti-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assays. The results of all three assays demonstrated that CG had similar antioxidant activity with its precursor ECG, while GC was less potent as an antioxidant than its precursor EGC. Regarding EGCG and GCG, the antioxidant potency was similar for both LDL oxidation and DPPH free radical assays, but GCG was statistically less effective than EGCG in the FRAP assay. For EC and C, the latter had less anti-free radical activity in the DPPH assay, but in LDL oxidation and FRAP assays the antioxidant activity was similar. Oral and intravenous dosing of GTE-epimer mixture led to increase in total plasma antioxidant capacity in rats. In general, both epicatechins and epimers had low bioavailability (0.08-0.31) and most of the observed differences between epicatechins and their corresponding epimers were small, even if they were statistically significant in some cases. It was concluded that the epimerisation reaction occurring in manufacturing canned and bottled tea drinks would not
Limpisophon, Kanokrat; Schleining, Gerhard
This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The released antioxidant power of gallic acid from the film was not reduced by glycerol. The presence of gallic acid not only increased the antioxidant capacity of the film, but also increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and reduced UV absorption due to interaction between gallic acid and protein by hydrogen bonding. Glycerol did not affect the antioxidant capacities of the film, but increased the elasticity of the films. Overall, this study revealed that gallic acid entrapped in the fish gelatin film provided antioxidant activities and improved film characteristics, namely UV barrier, strength, and elasticity of the film.
Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert
Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication.
Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing
Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment
Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan
Several inflammatory diseases are thought to be related to oxidative injury and free oxygen radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of heart disease and aging. To investigate the effects of daily intake of medicinal plants on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and lipid profiles in rat, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with three plant extracts (0.2 g/kg body weight): Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower), Rosa hybrida (flower) and with saline as a control. After 3 weeks, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in plasma were measured. The SOD activity of the Piper cubeba group and the catalase activity of the Piper cubeba and Rosa hybrida groups were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the SOD and catalase activities of the Physalis angulata group were not significantly changed (p<0.05). TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in all experimental groups compeered with the control group. No significant changes occurred in the TG, total- and LDL-cholesterol of all groups, but the HDL-cholesterol of the Physalis angulata group was significantly increased. This study showed that the intake of medicinal plants in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in malondialdehyde, which may reduce the risk of inflammatory and heart disease.
Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi
The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.
Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee
The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress. PMID:28074103
Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F
The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries.
Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Setting the Scene: 2. Sites of activity; 3. Plasma models; Part II. Quiescence: 4. Introduction; 5. Magnetohydrodynamic states; 6. Particle picture of steady states; 7. A unified theory of steady states; 8. Quasi-static evolution and thin current sheets (TCS); Part III. Dynamics: 9. Nonideal effects; 10. Selected macroinstabilities; 11. Magnetic reconnection; 12. Aspects of bifurcation and nonlinear dynamics; Part IV. Applications: 13. Magnetospheric activity; 14. Models of solar activity; 15. Discussion; Appendix 1. Unified theory: details and derivations; Appendix 2. Variational principle for collisionless plasmas; Appendix 3. Symbols and fundamental constants; References; Index.
Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong
It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26682009
Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong
It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms.
Souza-Junior, Tp; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, Cv; Polotow, Tg; Barros, Mp
Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis.
Souza-Junior, TP; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, CV; Polotow, TG
Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669
Rhemrev, J P; van Overveld, F W; Haenen, G R; Teerlink, T; Bast, A; Vermeiden, J P
Total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) measurements of human seminal plasma (N = 25) were performed by using a post-addition assay based on trapping 2,2' Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. This method enables the antioxidant capacity of human seminal plasma and its constituents to be quantified. The standard procedure consisted of determination of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) after incubating the test sample in the ABTS radical solution for 10 seconds (fast TRAP) and 300 s (total TRAP). Interestingly, seminal plasma showed a fast TRAP and a high slow TRAP (Total TRAP - Fast TRAP). The final total TRAP of seminal plasma is about 10 times higher than that of blood plasma. Various components of seminal plasma contribute to its fast TRAP; 37% can be attributed to vitamin C, uric acid, and tyrosine; proteins and polyphenolic compounds contribute a further 57%. In contrast, the slow TRAP was attributed to vitamin C (1%), uric acid (2%), and tyrosine (15%) and to proteins and polyphenolic compounds (33%). It was not possible to account for the remaining 49%. Neither known putative antioxidants, such as spermine, pyruvate, and taurine, nor other seminal compounds, such as carnitine, sialic acid, fructose, spermidine, glycerophosphorylcholine, and hyaluronic acid, contributed to any significant radical-trapping activity at a standard concentration of 1 mM. Of the amino acids, only tyrosine possessed a slow TRAP, and it is present at a high concentration in seminal plasma. Glutathione and hypotaurine show high fast and slow TRAPs, respectively. However, because of their low concentration in seminal plasma, their contribution to the TRAP is negligible. In conclusion, seminal plasma possesses a high antioxidant buffer capacity that protects spermatozoa from oxidative stress. Moreover, these findings suggest that the fast and slow TRAPs may have an important role as infertility markers and treatment targets in
Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Chen, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Shui; Ding, Zhong-Tao
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the acetone extract and derived fractions from the walnut (Juglans regia) pellicle were estimated. The BuOH fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the highest phenolic content. A phytochemical investigation of this fraction led to the isolation of three tannins, 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose (1), pedunculagin (2) and 2,3,4,6-tetragalloylglucose (3). Pedunculagin showed high content and powerful activity, which implied that this compound plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of the walnut pellicle.
Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres
Three procedures have been investigated for the isolation of tyrosol (1) and hydroxytyrosol (2) from a phenolic extract obtained from the solid residue of olive milling. These three methods, which facilitated the recovery of these phenols, were chemical or enzymatic acetylation, benzylation, and carbomethoxylation, and subsequent carbonylation or acetonation reactions. Several new lipophilic alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol have been synthesized, coupling the primary hydroxy group of this phenol, through a carbonate linker, using alcohols with different chain lengths. The antioxidant properties of these lipophilic derivatives have been evaluated by different methods and compared with free hydroxytyrosol (2) and also with the well-known antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. Three methods were used for the determination of this antioxidant activity: FRAP and ABTS assays, to test the antioxidant power in hydrophilic media, and the Rancimat test, to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in a lipophilic matrix. These new alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol enhanced the antioxidant activity of this natural phenol, with their antioxidant properties also being higher than those of the commercial antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. There was no clear influence of the side-chain length on the antioxidant properties of the alkyl-carbonate derivatives of 2, although the best results were achieved mainly by the compounds with a longer chain on the primary hydroxy group of this natural phenolic substance.
Muruhan, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Senthil; Viswanathan, Pugalendi Kodukkur
Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Conclusions S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine. PMID:23570013
Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with higher levels in the breeding season. The yearly pattern of GRD and catalase was close to that of melatonin, and GRD showed a significant seasonal variation (P < 0.01) with a higher activity during the breeding season. Linear regression analysis between the studied hormones and antioxidant enzymes showed a significant correlation between melatonin and testosterone, GRD, SOD and catalase. Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system. PMID:20540737
Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai
A cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantifying the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, food extracts, and dietary supplements has been developed. Dichlorofluorescin is a probe that is trapped within cells and is easily oxidized to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The method measures the ability of compounds to prevent the formation of DCF by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-generated peroxyl radicals in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The decrease in cellular fluorescence when compared to the control cells indicates the antioxidant capacity of the compounds. The antioxidant activities of selected phytochemicals and fruit extracts were evaluated using the CAA assay, and the results were expressed in micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 micromol of phytochemical or micromoles of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit. Quercetin had the highest CAA value, followed by kaempferol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), myricetin, and luteolin among the pure compounds tested. Among the selected fruits tested, blueberry had the highest CAA value, followed by cranberry > apple = red grape > green grape. The CAA assay is a more biologically relevant method than the popular chemistry antioxidant activity assays because it accounts for some aspects of uptake, metabolism, and location of antioxidant compounds within cells.
Cabrera, Carmen; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen
Levels of essential elements with antioxidant activity, as well as catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine levels, in a total of 45 samples of different teas commercialized in Spain have been evaluated. Chromium, manganese, selenium, and zinc were determined in the samples mineralized with HNO(3) and V(2)O(5), using ETAAS as the analytical technique. The reliability of the procedure was checked by analysis of a certified reference material. Large variations in the trace element composition of teas were observed. The levels ranged from 50.6 to 371.4 ng/g for Cr, from 76.1 to 987.6 microg/g for Mn, from 48.5 to 114.6 ng/g for Se, and from 56.3 to 78.6 ng/g for Zn. The four major catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC)], gallic acid (GA), and caffeine were simultaneously determined by a simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector. In all analyzed samples, EGCG ranged from 1.4 to 103.5 mg/g, EGC from 3.9 to 45.3 mg/g, ECG from 0.2 to 45.6 mg/g, and EC ranged from 0.6 to 21.2 mg/g. These results indicated that green tea has a higher content of catechins than both oolong and fermented teas (red and black teas); the fermentation process during tea manufacturing reduces the levels of catechins significantly. Gallic acid content ranged from 0.039 to 6.7 mg/g; the fermentation process also elevated remarkably gallic acid levels in black teas (mean level of 3.9 +/- 1.5 mg/g). The amount of caffeine in the analyzed samples ranged from 7.5 to 86.6 mg/g, and the lower values were detected in green and oolong teas. This study will be useful for the appraisal of trace elements and antioxidant components in various teas, and it will also be of interest for people who like drinking this beverage.
Gomez del Arco, P; Martínez-Martínez, S; Calvo, V; Armesilla, A L; Redondo, J M
Activity of the transcription factor AP-1 is controlled by different MAPK cascades that regulate the different AP-1 components at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Recently, AP-1 has been shown to behave as a redox-sensitive transcription factor that can be induced under both pro-oxidative and antioxidative conditions. In this overview we summarize the signaling pathways that converge on the activation of AP-1 and the components of these pathways that have been shown to be targets of antioxidants. The activation of AP-1 by antioxidants may account for the expression of a number of genes that mediate important functions under physiological conditions.
Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Shrivastava, Deepti
Aims and Objectives: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Mostly, all oral cancer lesions are preceded by a stage of premalignancy. The present study aims to evaluate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the venous blood of patients with different clinicopathologic stages of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was designed with the inclusion of 20 new cases of histopathologically proven leukoplakia of various clinical stages along with an equal number of positive and negative control individuals. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were estimated in plasma using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± SD. The statistical comparisons between and within the study groups were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. Results: Significant enhanced lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) with a decrease in antioxidants (P < 0.001) was observed in the venous blood of leukoplakia patients compared with positive as well as negative controls. Accordingly, significant (P < 0.001) pattern of progression in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels was observed at various clinical stages among patients of both control groups. Among enzymes, glutathione showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction along the stages on comparison with two control groups. Conclusion: Enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defense in plasma indicate the development of oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and glutathione Pperoxidase
Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli
The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate.
Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli
The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751
Liu, S. H.; Sun, S. W.; Tian, Z. F.; Wu, J. Y.; Li, X. L.; Xu, C. P.
This work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of the exopolysaccharides produced in a stirred-tank bioreactor by Inocutus hispidus. The exopolysaccharides showed significant antioxidant activities, up to 70.7±2.5% inhibition of hydroxyl radicals, 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3.3 mM. The exopolysaccharide also showed notable hypoglycemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, reducing the plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations by 18.2±1.5, 20.9±0.8 and 14.4±0.4, respectively. The results demonstrated the potential of this EPS for human health protection against oxidative damage and hyperglycemia. PMID:26180285
Liu, S H; Sun, S W; Tian, Z F; Wu, J Y; Li, X L; Xu, C P
This work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of the exopolysaccharides produced in a stirred-tank bioreactor by Inocutus hispidus. The exopolysaccharides showed significant antioxidant activities, up to 70.7±2.5% inhibition of hydroxyl radicals, 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3.3 mM. The exopolysaccharide also showed notable hypoglycemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, reducing the plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations by 18.2±1.5, 20.9±0.8 and 14.4±0.4, respectively. The results demonstrated the potential of this EPS for human health protection against oxidative damage and hyperglycemia.
Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.
Harasym, Joanna; Oledzki, Remigiusz
For a long time, the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables was considered critical in protecting humans against a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart and brain vascular diseases. Presently, it is thought that the protective properties of these foods result from the presence of low-molecular antioxidants that protect the cells and their structures against oxidative damage. The alleged effect of reducing the risk for many diseases is not only due to the effect of individual antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, or β-carotene, but also may be the result of antioxidant compounds not yet known or synergy of several different antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables. Studies on macromolecules (DNA, nucleotides, proteins) free-radical-related damage showed that diets enriched with extra servings of fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid had only limited effect on the inhibition of oxidation processes. A number of studies have shown, however, that consuming less common fruits and vegetables contribute much more to the reduction of free-radical processes, most likely because they contain a large amount of non-vitamin antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins.
Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Luangaram, Saowanee; Leekhaosoong, Krissadarut; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Preeprame, Srisomporn
Phytochemicals contained in dietary plants provide a variety of health benefits and may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aqueous extracts from three popular Thai dietary and herbal plants, Cratoxylum formosum, Syzygium gratum, and Limnophila aromatica, were investigated for the antioxidant and vascular protective activities in the in vitro and in vivo models. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of plant extracts were evaluated in vitro by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, the intracellular antioxidant activity in rat peritoneal macrophages by dihydrofluorescein assay, and the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In an animal model of oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with aqueous plant extracts (1 g/kg/d) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 300 mg/kg/d) as a control for 6 d. On day four, all animals except the normal control group, were administered with phenylhydrazine (PHZ) intraperitoneally. It was demonstrated that the plant extracts possessed high free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PHZ induced severe hemolysis and hemodynamic disturbances and treatment with the extracts and NAC significantly improved the hemodynamic status. Vascular responsiveness to bradykinin, acetylcholine, and phenylephrine in PHZ-control rats was markedly impaired, and the plant extracts or NAC largely restored the vascular responses. Moreover, the plant extracts prevented loss of blood reduced glutathione and suppressed formation of plasma malondialdehyde, plasma NO metabolites and blood superoxide anion. It was concluded that the plant extracts possess antioxidants and have potential roles in protection of vascular dysfunction.
Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa
Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854
Fernando, I P Shanura; Kim, Misook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Jeon, You-Jin
Polyphenolic compounds isolated from marine algae exhibit a broad spectrum of beneficial biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities, along with several other bioactivities centered on their antioxidant properties. Consequently, polyphenolic compounds are increasingly being investigated for their potential use in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. The antioxidant activities of these compounds have been explored widely through experimental studies. Nonetheless, a theoretical understanding of the structural and electronic properties could broaden research perspectives, leading to the identification and synthesis of efficient structural analogs with prophylactic uses. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in marine algae with an attempt to describe the structure-activity relationship.
Yadav, Baljeet S; Yadav, Roshanlal; Yadav, Ritika B; Garg, Munish
Study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of methanolic (ME), ethanolic (EE) and butanolic extracts (BE) of selected gourd vegetables. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different assays namely ferric thiocyanate test (FTC), thiobarbituric acid test (TBA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH free radicals scavenging test. A densitometric HPTLC analysis was performed for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Different extracts of the selected gourd vegetables revealed different antioxidant activity. Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrica revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total phenols, flavonids, tannins and carotenoids content and also the antioxidant activity in comparison to remaining vegetable extracts. Correlation studies indicated that FRAP test best described the antioxidant activity of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids (r = 0.854, 0.692 and 0.915 respectively). HPTLC profiles revealed the presence of maximum number of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L. siceraria and M. charantia.
Chew, Ai Lan; Jessica, Jeyanthi James Antony; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan
Objective To evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different parts (root, flower, leaf and stem) of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Labiatae). Methods Different parts of L. aspera were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol. The methanol extracts were subjected to antioxidant, antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the extracts showed moderate to potent antioxidant activity, among which the root extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552 µg/mL. Methanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. The root extract showed the highest mean zone of inhibition ranging from 9.0–11.0 mm against tested microorganisms, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it was evident that the methanol root extract did not show significant toxicity. The LC50 value for 12 h and 24 h observation was 2.890 mg/mL and 1.417 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present finding suggests that the methanol root extract of L. aspera could be developed as pharmaceutical products. PMID:23569893
Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa
An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals
Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li
Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (rad OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that rad OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the rad OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.
De Martino, Laura; Mencherini, Teresa; Mancini, Emilia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; De Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo
The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities. PMID:22754304
Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li
Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.
Torres, Fernando Cidade; Brucker, Natália; Andrade, Saulo Fernandes; Kawano, Daniel Fabio; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Poser, Gilsane Lino von; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia
Coumarins are considered to be privileged structures due to their broad range of biological properties, including anticoagulant, anti-neurodegenerative, antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activities. These interesting properties of coumarins can be ascribed to the chemical attributes of the 2H-chromen-2-one core; its aromatic ring can establish a series of hydrophobic, π-π, CH-π and cation-π interactions, and the two oxygen atoms in the lactone ring may hydrogen-bond to a series of amino acid residues in different classes of enzymes and receptors. Additionally, the double bond in the lactone helps to make the entire system planar, allows charge delocalization between the carbonyl group of the lactone and the aromatic ring and confers the characteristic fluorescence of this class of compounds, which can be explained by their preventing the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. It is the possibility of radical delocalization in the 2H-chromen-2-one nucleus that makes most of the coumarins good antioxidants by acting as free radical scavengers, although some coumarins (mainly hydroxycoumarins) may also prevent the formation of free radicals by chelating metal ions. In this review, we provide a systematic analysis of the most important aspects surrounding the development of coumarins as antioxidants. Our analysis includes the synthesis of some complex antioxidant coumarins, strategies for structural modification to improve their antioxidant activities, qualitative/ quantitative structure-antioxidant relationships studies and the main in vitro assays used to evaluate their antioxidant properties.
Suarna, C; Hood, R L; Dean, R T; Stocker, R
The antioxidant activity of tocotrienols toward peroxyl radicals was compared with that of other natural lipid-soluble antioxidants in three different systems by measuring the temporal disappearance of antioxidants and the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. In homogeneous solution, the initial rates of consumption of the various antioxidants, assessed by competition experiments between pairs of antioxidants for radicals, decreased in the order: ubiquinol-10 approximately ubiquinol-9 > alpha-tocopherol approximately alpha-tocotrienol > beta-carotene approximately lycopene > gamma-tocopherol approximately gamma-tocotrienol. Following in vitro incubation of human plasma with alpha-tocotrienol, this form of vitamin E was present in all classes of lipoproteins isolated from the supplemented plasma. Dietary supplementation of rats and humans with a tocotrienol-rich preparation resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols in plasma and all circulating lipoproteins, respectively. Exposure of such enriched rat plasma to aqueous peroxyl radicals resulted in simultaneous consumption of the alpha- and then gamma-isomers of vitamin E. The sequence of radical-induced consumption of antioxidants in freshly isolated, in vitro and in vivo tocotrienol-enriched low density lipoprotein (LDL) was again ubiquinol-10 > alpha-tocotrienol approximately alpha-tocopherol > carotenoids > gamma-tocopherol approximately gamma-tocotrienol. Under conditions where radicals were generated at constant rates, the rate of lipid hydroperoxide formation in LDL was not constant. It proceeded in at least three stages separated by the phase of ubiquinol-10 consumption and, subsequently, that of alpha-tocopherol/alpha-tocotrienol. Our results show that dietary tocotrienols become incorporated into circulating human lipoproteins where they react with peroxyl radicals as efficiently as the corresponding tocopherol isomers.
Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan
The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.
Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan
The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. PMID:21845104
Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly
Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products. PMID:24298210
Mandal, P.; Misra, T. K.; Singh, I. D.
Two neglected species of Araceae, Alocasia macrorhiza (Linn.) G. Don and Alocasia fornicata (Roxb.) Schott are important as food and ethno medicine in Asia and Africa. Their bioefficacy is documented in the Ayurveda. The solvent extracts of different edible parts of these two species like rhizomes, leaves, roots and stolons were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The successive extracts in hexane, benzene, toluene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction exhibited IC50 values in the following order, roots>rhizome>leaves for Alocasia macrorhiza and leaves>stolon for Alocasia fornicate, respectively in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl antioxidant inhibition assay. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed in diethyl ether extracts for both species. The IC50 values were comparable with those of quercetine and ascorbic acid as standards. These results suggest that the two aroid species have antioxidant activity in their edible parts and should be extracted using diethyl ether solvent. PMID:20582198
Bharathi, A.; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy
Many naturally occurring and synthetic compounds containing dihydrocyanopyridine and cyanopyran moiety show pharmacological properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the larvicidal and antioxidant potential of dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives 4a–f. A novel series of 2-amino-10-chloro-4,12-diphenyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[j][1,7]phenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized by reacting different substituted acridine chalcones through Michel addition. The compounds were synthesized in excellent yields and the structures were corroborated on the basis of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and ESI Mass analysis data. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. From the antioxidant assay, the compound 4c was reported with profound antioxidant potential. PMID:24868553
Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Magné, Christian
For the first time, both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities are simultaneously reported in halophytic plants, particularly on polar fractions. Chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the halophytes Eryngium maritimum L., Crithmum maritimum L. and Cakile maritima Scop. were tested for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacterial and yeast strains. In addition, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities were assessed, as well as total phenol contents. Only one bacterial strain (Listeria monocytogenes) was not inhibited by plants extracts, and apolar (chloroformic) fractions were generally more active than polar (methanolic) ones. Eryngium maritimum presented the weakest radical scavenging activity (ABTS IC(50)=0.28 mg ml(-1)), as well as the lowest total phenol content (16.4 mg GAE g(-1) DW). However, the three halophytic species had relatively strong total antioxidant activities (from 32.7 to 48.6 mg ascorbate equivalents g (-1) DW). Consequences on the potential use of these plants in food or cosmetic industry are discussed.
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Chung, Hau Yin; Jin, Zhengyu
Antioxidant capacities of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) oil were evaluated by two different in vitro assays: the DPPH* free radical scavenging assay and the Fe2+-metal chelating assay. Results showed that the vetiver oil (VO) possessed a strong free radical scavenging activity when compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. However, its metal chelating capacity was relatively weak. VO (10 microL/mL) dissolved in methanol exhibited approximately 93% free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH* assay and approximately 34% Fe2+ chelating activity in the metal chelating assay. By contrast, 10 mM BHT and 0.1 mM alpha-tocopherol exhibited 93 and 89% free radical scavenging activities in the DPPH* assay, respectively, and 1 mM EDTA exhibited approximately 97% activity in the metal chelating assay. Among the complex constituents in the crude VO, beta-vetivenene, beta-vetivone, and alpha-vetivone, which had shown strong antioxidant activities, were isolated and identified using various chromatographic techniques including silica gel open column chromatography, silica HPLC, and GC-MS. These results show that VO and some of its inherent components can be potential alternative natural antioxidants.
Ottaviano, Filomena G.; Tang, Shiow-Shih; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph
Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3) is a selenocysteine-containing extracellular antioxidant protein that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. Selenoprotein expression involves the alternate recognition of a UGA codon as a selenocysteine codon and requires signals in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR), including a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS), as well as specific translational cofactors. To ascertain regulatory determinants of GPx-3 expression and function, we generated recombinant GPx-3 (rGPX-3) constructs with various 3′-UTR, as well as a Sec73Cys mutant. In transfected Cos7 cells, the Sec73Cys mutant was expressed at higher levels than the wild type rGPx-3, although the wild type rGPx-3 had higher specific activity, similar to plasma purified GPx-3. A 3′-UTR with only the SECIS was insufficient for wild type rGPx-3 protein expression. Selenocompound supplementation and co-transfection with SECIS binding protein 2, increased wild type rGPx-3 expression. These results demonstrate the importance of translational mechanisms in GPx-3 expression. PMID:19219623
Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...
Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata
The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.
Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina; Olas, Beata
We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the shoots and roots of Scutellaria species (S. altissima and S. alpina) against the action of strong oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2+Fe(2+) (donor of hydroxyl radicals) on plasma proteins and lipids. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Protein oxidation was measured by quantitation of thiol group. We observed that the extracts (5-50 µg ml(-1)) containing phenolic compounds from both Scutellaria species distinctly reduced oxidation of lipids and proteins in human plasma treated with H2O2. These results also indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against oxidative damage to the human plasma lipids and proteins by induced hydroxyl radical. The main components of the plant materials analysed were flavonoids, present as aglycones (luteolin) or glycosides (cynaroside, baicalin, wogonoside). In all of the extracts, the phenylethanoid verbascoside was also found. The properties of the tested plant extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterised commercial antioxidative polyphenolic extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)). The comparative studies indicated that the analysed plant extracts were comparable to or even more effective in reducing the oxidation processes than the A. melanocarpa extract. The present study suggests that natural extracts from S. altissima and S. alpina have antioxidant activities and, therefore, may be beneficial in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases.
Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.
Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh
Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.
Semsang, N; Kawaree, R; Cutler, R W; Chundet, R; Yu, L D; Anuntalabhochai, S
Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105) is highly valued due to its subtle aroma, robust seed characteristics and high nutritional quality. Low-energy ion-beam bombardment was chosen to improve the quality of jasmine rice by mutation induction. One mutated variety, named BKOS, was found to exhibit a deep purple colour due to an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of cooked and uncooked rice extracts were compared with KDML105, BKOS and other rice mutants created by a low-energy ion beam. The BKOS extracts showed the highest total phenol content (0.140 and 0.096 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g(-1) dry extract from uncooked and cooked rice, respectively). The BKOS extracts also had improved antioxidant activities, determined using three standard methods: 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation (ABTS•(+)) decolourisation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. BKOS extracts showed 2-2.5-fold increased levels for each method. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between the antioxidant activities of the cooked and uncooked BKOS rice extracts. The increased quantity of antioxidants in this anthocyanin-based natural product could allow antioxidants to be consumed by a wider population than what is currently possible.
Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You
The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497
Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi
This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) . We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.
Facino, R M; Carini, M; Aldini, G; Berti, F; Rossoni, G; Bombardelli, E; Morazzoni, P
Aim of this work was to study the efficacy of procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds, a standardized mixture of polyphenol antioxidants, on cardiac mechanics following ischemia/reperfusion stunning in the rat, after 3 weeks supplementation. Young and aged male rats were fed a diet enriched with procyanidins complexed (1:3 w/w) with soybean lecithin (2.4%); control animals (CTR-young and CTR-aged) received an equal amount of lecithin and 2 additional groups of animals the standard diet. At the end of the treatment, the total plasma antioxidant defense (TRAP), vitamin E, ascorbic acid and uric acid were determined in plasma and the hearts from all groups of animals subjected to moderate ischemia (flow reduction to 1 ml/min for 20 min) and reperfusion (15 ml/min for 30 min). In both young and aged rats supplemented with procyanidins the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) at the end of reperfusion was 93% (p < 0.01) and 74% (p < 0.01) of the preischemic values and the values of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were maintained close to those of the preischemic period. Also creatine kinase (CK) outflow was restrained to baseline levels, while a 2-fold increase in prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1alpha) in the perfusate from hearts of young and aged rats was elicited during both ischemia and reperfusion. In parallel, procyanidins significantly increased the total antioxidant plasma capacity (by 40% in young and by 30% in aged rats) and the plasma levels of ascorbic acid, while tend to reduce vitamin E levels; no significant differences were observed in uric acid levels. The results of this study demonstrate that procyanidins supplementation in the rat (young and aged) makes the heart less susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage and that this is positively associated to an increase in plasma antioxidant activity.
Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Ali, Reem Mustafa; Shotar, Ali Muhammad; Alkaraki, Almuthanna Khalaf
Ifosfamide is an anticancer agent used largely in treatment of solid tumors. The mainstay dose-limiting toxicity of ifosfamide is nephrotoxicity. This is largely believde to be a result of ifosfamide-induced oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of simvastatin and the possible protective role of simvastatin against ifosfamide induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty Sprague-Dawely rats were divided into five groups and given orally different drug combinations. Group I and II were regarded as control groups and received 0.1% DMSO and normal saline, respectively. Group III received ifosfamide at 50 mg/kg, group IV received simvastatin at 0.3 mg/kg and group V received both ifosfamide and simvastatin. All animals were decapitated 2 days after the last ifosfamide administration. Findings revealed that ifosfamide induced nephrotoxicity as indicated by a significant increase in plasma creatinine and lipid per oxidation. This increase was significantly inhibited in animals pretreated with simvastatin. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters in that simvastatin minimized ifosfamide-induced renal tubular damage. The above results promote a future use of simvastatin in combination with ifosfamide in treatment of cancer patients to indicate that simvastatin protectics against ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in terms of oxidative stress and might be given in combination.
Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue
Objective: In order to investigate the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides (BPL-1 and BPL-2), one of the most important functional constituents in Brasenia schreberi was isolated from the external mucilage of B. schreberi (BPL-1) and the plant in vivo (BPL-2). This paper examines the relationship between the content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL and the antioxidant activity of BPL. Materials and Methods: The free radicals, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) and 1,1-diphnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-), were used to determine the antioxidant activity of BPL. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of BPL-1 and BPL-2 revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Results: The two sample types had different contents. This was proved by their different adsorption peak intensities. The IC50 values of BPL-1 (31.189 mg/ml) and BPL-2 (1.863 mg/ml) showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Based on the quantification of ABTS radical scavenging, the IC50 value of BPL-1 (5.460 mg/ml) was higher than that of BPL-2 (0.239 mg/ml). Therefore, in terms of the reducing power, the IC50 value of BPL-1 was too high to determine, and the IC50 value of BPL-2 was found to be 50.557 mg/ml. Hence, the antioxidant activity and total reducing power were high, and they were greater in BPL-2 than in BPL-1. In addition, BPL-2 was found to have more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid than BPL-1. Conclusion: The contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid are significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity and reducing power of BPL; the more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid, the more antioxidant activity and reducing power BPL has. SUMMARY The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the external mucilage and the Brasenia schreberi plant in vivo were confirmed to have high contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acidBoth BPL-1 and BPL-2 exhibited antioxidative activity and reducing power, and their antioxidative
Lee, Bor-Jen; Lin, Yi-Chin; Huang, Yi-Chia; Ko, Ya-Wen; Hsia, Simon; Lin, Ping-Ting
A higher oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coenzyme Q10 concentration and lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities and the risk of CAD. Patients who were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery were assigned to the case group (n = 51). The control group (n = 102) comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Subjects with CAD had significant lower plasma coenzyme Q10, CAT and GPx activities and higher MDA and SOD levels compared to those of the control group. The plasma coenzyme Q10 was positively correlated with CAT and GPx activities and negatively correlated with MDA and SOD. However, the correlations were not significant after adjusting for the potential confounders of CAD with the exception of SOD. A higher level of plasma coenzyme Q10 (≥ 0.52 μmol/L) was significantly associated with reducing the risk of CAD. Our results support the potential cardioprotective impact of coenzyme Q10.
Chan, Chang; Silevitch, Michael B.; Villalon, Elena
During the course of the research period our efforts were focused on the following areas: (1) An examination of stochastic acceleration mechanisms in the ionosphere; (2) A study of nonequilibrium dynamics of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system; and (3) Laboratory studies of active space experiments. Reprints include: Dynamics of charged particles in the near wake of a very negatively charged body -- Laboratory experiment and numerical simulation; Laboratory study of the electron temperature in the near wake of a conducting body; New model for auroral breakup during substorms; Substorm breakup on closed field lines; New model for substorm on sets -- The pre-breakup and triggering regimes; Model of the westward traveling surge and the generation of Pi 2 pulsations; Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances; Relativistic particle acceleration by obliquely propagating electromagnetic fields; Some consequences of intense electromagnetic wave injection into space plasmas.
Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of variety of diseases. Since the endogenous antioxidant defense may be not adequate to counteract the enhanced generation of oxidants, a growing interest in research for exogenous nutrients has been observed. The present study was designed to assess in vitro the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives: calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate (0.5-3 mM) in the protection of plasma proteins and lipids, against the damage caused by 0.1 mM peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻). Exposure of plasma to ONOO⁻ resulted in carbonyl groups increase, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, reduction in thiol groups, and enhanced lipid peroxidation. D-gluconic acid lactone and sodium D-gluconate effectively decreased 3-NT formation; the antinitrative action of calcium D-glucarate was less effective. In plasma samples incubated with ONOO⁻ and tested compounds, the level of carbonyl groups was decreased in comparison to plasma samples treated only with ONOO⁻. The level of protein -SH groups and glutathione was significantly higher in the presence of glucose derivatives than in plasma samples treated with ONOO⁻ only. All the tested compounds had the inhibitory effect on the peroxynitrite-induced plasma lipids peroxidation. The results obtained from our work indicate that calcium D-glucarate, D-gluconic acid lactone, and sodium D-gluconate may partly protect plasma proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-induced damages.
Promden, Worrawat; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Umehara, Kaoru; Noguchi, Hiroshi; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai
The antioxidant activities of 24 isoflavonoids that were previously isolated as pure compounds from Dalbergia parviflora were evaluated using three different in vitro antioxidant-based assay systems: xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO), ORAC, and DPPH. The isolates consisted of three subgroups, namely isoflavones, isoflavanones, and isoflavans, each of which appeared to have diversified substituents, and were thus ideal for the study of their structure-activity relationships (SARs). The SAR analysis was performed using the results obtained from both the inter-subgroup isoflavonoids with the same substitution pattern and the intra-subgroup compounds with different substitution patterns. The inter-subgroup comparison showed that the isoflavones exhibited the highest antioxidant activities based on all three assays. The intra-subgroup analysis showed that the additional presence of an OH group in Ring B at either R3' or R5' from the basic common structure of the R7-OH of Ring A and the R4'-OH (or -OMe) of Ring B greatly increased the antioxidant activities of all of the isoflavonoid subgroups and that other positions of OH and OMe substitutions exerted different effects on the activities depending on the subgroup and assay type. Therefore, based on the structural diversity of the isoflavonoids in D. parviflora, the present study provides the first clarification of the detailed antioxidant SARs of isoflavonoids.
Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel
Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.
Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel
Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTS+ scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.
Ma, De-Lu; Chen, Mai; Su, Chen X; West, Brett J
Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials.
Czeczot, Hanna; Scibior, Dorota; Skrzycki, Michał; Podsiad, Małgorzata
The aim of our studies was the estimation of activities of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis. We investigated activities of superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD, MnSOD), catalase (CAT), selenium dependent GSH peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), selenium independent GSH peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), GSH-S-transferase (GST), GSH reductase (GSHR) and the level ofreduced gutathione (GSH) in cirrhotic and healthy liver tissues. The activities of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT and GSH-dependent enzymes (except GSHR) were found to be lower in cirrhotic tissue compared to healthy liver. Those changes were associated with decrease of GSH level in cirrhotic tissue compared with control liver tissue. Our results show that antioxidant barrier in liver cirrhosis is impaired. It is associated with decrease of glutathione level and changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSHPx, GST, GSHR) in liver cirrhosis compared with healthy liver.
Lind, Karianne F.; Hansen, Espen; Østerud, Bjarne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Bayer, Annette; Engqvist, Magnus; Leszczak, Kinga; Jørgensen, Trond Ø.; Andersen, Jeanette H.
In this paper, we present novel bioactivity for barettin isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti. We found that barettin showed strong antioxidant activity in biochemical assays as well as in a lipid peroxidation cell assay. A de-brominated synthetic analogue of barettin did not show the same activity in the antioxidant cell assay, indicating that bromine is important for cellular activity. Barettin was also able to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. This combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities could indicate that barettin has an atheroprotective effect and may therefore be an interesting product to prevent development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23880935
Vucinovic, Zoran; Duplancic, Darko; Seselja-Perisin, Ana; Kukoc-Modun, Lea; Gunjaca, Grgo; Radman, Maja; Vukovic, Jonatan; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Poljak, Kolja; Modun, Darko
We investigated the effects of acute intake of antioxidants on hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress, reduction of plasma nitrite and change in arterial stiffness. Twelve healthy males randomly consumed either placebo or an oral antioxidant cocktail (vitamin C, 1000 mg; vitamin E, 600 IU; alpha-lipoic acid, 600 mg). Every therapy was consumed once, a week apart, in a cross-over design, 30 min before the experiment. The volunteers breathed 100% normobaric oxygen between 30th and 60th min of 1-h study protocol. Plasma levels of nitrite, lipid peroxides (LOOH) and vitamin C, arterial stiffness (indicated by augmentation index, AIx) and arterial oxygen (Ptc O2 ) pressure were measured before and after hyperoxia. Exposure to oxygen caused a similar increase of Ptc O2 in both placebo and antioxidants groups, confirming comparable exposure to hyperoxia (438 ± 100 versus 455 ± 83 mm Hg). Vitamin C was increased in the antioxidants group confirming successful application of antioxidants (69 ± 14 versus 57 ± 15 μm). Hyperoxia resulted in increased AIx and LOOH and decreased nitrite in placebo (-32 ± 11 versus -47 ± 13%, 72 ± 7 versus 62 ± 6 μm H2 O2 and 758 ± 184 versus 920 ± 191 nm, respectively), but not in the antioxidants group (-42 ± 13 versus -50 ± 13%, 64 ± 9 versus 61 ± 8 μm H2 O2 and 847 ± 156 versus 936 ± 201 nm, respectively). The acute intake of selected antioxidants was effective in preserving bioavailabity of ˙NO and vascular function, against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress.
Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R
This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils.
Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O.
Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD. PMID:23912327
Avinash, S S; Anitha, M; Vinodchandran; Rao, Gayathri M; Sudha, K; Shetty, Beena V
The present study was designed to assess the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and percent hemolysis (that indirectly indicates the degree of membrane damage secondary to lipid peroxidation) in colorectal carcinoma. Glutathione (GSH), total thiols and albumin were measured to determine the antioxidant status. Considering the dynamic interaction between various antioxidants in the body, we measured the total antioxidant activity (AOA). Globulin was measured to assess the inflammatory response secondary to oxidative stress. Investigations were conducted in 45 cases of recently diagnosed primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. As control, 45 age and sex matched healthy persons were chosen. GSH was estimated in whole blood, percent hemolysis in RBC suspension and other parameters in plasma. We observed a very high significant increase (P<0.001) in AOPP, percent hemolysis and a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in globulin in colorectal carcinoma. We observed a very high significant decrease (P<0.001) in whole blood GSH, total thiols, albumin, AOA and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in plasma GSH in colorectal carcinoma. A very high significant negative correlation between percent hemolysis and AOA and an apparent negative correlation between total thiols and AOPP was seen in colorectal carcinoma. This demonstrated oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant status and secondary inflammatory response in colorectal carcinoma.
Zhang, Xin; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Zhaoxi; Li, Dapeng
Many traditionally used herbs demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the mechanism underlying this synergism is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antioxidant activity of Astragalus membranaceus (AME) and Paeonia Lactiflora (PL), and identify the potential antioxidant components by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical spiking test followed by a high performance liquid chromatography separation combined with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (DPPH-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Eight AME-PL combined extracts (E1–E8) were prepared based on bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among them, E1 exhibited the strongest synergistic effect in scavenging DPPH radicals and reducing ferric ions (P<0.05). Moreover, E1 presented strong cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in MRC-5 cells by suppressing the decrease of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities. A strong correlation between the increment of total phenolic/flavonoid and synergistic antioxidant activity, especially between the increment of total flavonoid and the increase in ferric reducing power was observed. Finally, seven antioxidant substances were identified in E1 as oxypaeoniflora, catechin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, fomononetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 9,10-dimethoxy-pterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin and 2′-dihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethyl-isoflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:24816851
Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil
This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.
Bishko, O I; Harasym, N P; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I
There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and H2O2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose H2O2 and hydroperoxides were inhibited. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase ofcatalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the considerable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.
Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Vit, Patricia; Rivas, Efraín; Sciortino, Rosa; Sosa, Angel; Tejada, Daniel; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J
Bee pollen has been reported to show antioxidant and radical scavenging activities; contributing to anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties. Venezuelan honeybee pollen has been little studied, but is consumed because its properties are known from other countries reports. On the basis of these reports, water, ethanol and methanol soluble fractions were prepared from dried bee-pollen commercially available and produced by La Montaña farm (Mérida, Venezuela). These fractions were evaluated for their functional properties, specifically, polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity. Pollen samples were separated by color in four fractions: yellow, brown, orange and ochre. Polyphenol content ranged between 396.7 to 1286.7 gallic acid equivalents GAE/100 g pollen; it was highest in pollen homogenates obtained with ethanol, followed by those obtained with methanol and water. The antioxidant activity ranged from 0.50 to 1.84 micromoles Trolox equivalents TEAC/100 g for water and ethanol homogenates respectively. The results presented in this work suggest that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent antioxidant activity, comparable to human plasma, probably due to total polyphenol content of bee pollen. This is important because the bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food.
Pinho, Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Souza, Celestina Elba Sobral; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar
Background. Duguetia furfuracea is popular plant used in popular medicine. Hypothesis/Purpose. This claim evaluated the phytochemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract (HEDF), fractions of Duguetia furfuracea, and antioxidant and antifungal activity. Methods. The chemical profile was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid components were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reaction. The antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) methods. The antifungal activity was determined by microdilution assay. Results. HPLC analysis revealed caffeic acid and rutin as major compounds (HEDF), caffeic acid and quercitrin (Mt-OH fraction), and quercitrin and isoquercitrin (Ac-OEt fraction). The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were found for Ac-OEt fraction, and the crude extract showed higher in vitro antioxidant potential. The antifungal activity showed synergic effect with fluconazole and EHDF against C. krusei, fluconazole and Mt-OH against C. krusei and C. tropicalis, and Ac-OE and fluconazole against C. albicans. Conclusion. The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were marked with antioxidant effect. This is the first report of bioactivity of the synergic effect of HEDF and fractions. More studies would be required to better clarify its mechanism of synergic action. PMID:27127550
Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Stanojković, Tatjana
The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Umbilicaria crustulosa, U. cylindrica, and U. polyphylla. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 5 separate methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds, and determination of total flavonoid content. Of the lichens tested, U. polyphylla had largest free radical scavenging activity (72.79% inhibition at a concentration of 1 mg/mL), which was similar as standard antioxidants in the same concentration. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. The strong relationships between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant effect of tested extracts were observed. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was extract of U. polyphylla with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1.56 to 12.5 mg/mL. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. All extracts were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC₅₀ values ranging from 28.45 to 97.82 μg/mL. The present study shows that tested lichen extracts demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. That suggests that lichens may be used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents.
Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai
Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.
Suthar, M; Rathore, G S; Pareek, A
The present investigations evaluated the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Helicteres isora (L.) fruits belonging to the family Sterculiaceae. The hot water extract of Helicteres isora fruits was prepared and screened for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl,2-picryl hydrazyl assay, ss-carotene-linoleate model and microsomal lipid peroxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive species assays and the IC(50) values were calculated. Antidiabetic effect was studied using the in vitro glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemi-diaphragm model. The hot water extract of Helicteres isora showed maximum activity with IC(50) value 25.12+/-0.18 mug/ml for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picryl hydrazyl assay method, and low activity with IC(50) value 740.64+/-4.76 mug/ml for microsomal lipid peroxidation assay. In the ss-carotene-linoleate model, the extract showed 45.63% antioxidant activity. The extract produce a significant (P<0.05) uptake of glucose by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm but less effective to that of the reference drug, metformin. The hot water extract of fruit of Helicteres isora exhibited significant antioxidant activity and moderate antidiabetic activity and merits further investigation in animal models and isolation of its active constituents.
Suthar, M.; Rathore, G. S.; Pareek, A.
The present investigations evaluated the antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Helicteres isora (L.) fruits belonging to the family Sterculiaceae. The hot water extract of Helicteres isora fruits was prepared and screened for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl,2-picryl hydrazyl assay, ß-carotene-linoleate model and microsomal lipid peroxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive species assays and the IC50 values were calculated. Antidiabetic effect was studied using the in vitro glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemi-diaphragm model. The hot water extract of Helicteres isora showed maximum activity with IC50 value 25.12±0.18 μg/ml for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picryl hydrazyl assay method, and low activity with IC50 value 740.64±4.76 μg/ml for microsomal lipid peroxidation assay. In the ß-carotene-linoleate model, the extract showed 45.63% antioxidant activity. The extract produce a significant (P<0.05) uptake of glucose by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm but less effective to that of the reference drug, metformin. The hot water extract of fruit of Helicteres isora exhibited significant antioxidant activity and moderate antidiabetic activity and merits further investigation in animal models and isolation of its active constituents. PMID:20376228
Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viškelis, Pranas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Kviklys, Darius; Uselis, Norbertas; Janulis, Valdimaras
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.
Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira
Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.
Rosa, Antonella; Deiana, Monica; Casu, Viviana; Corona, Giulia; Appendino, Giovanni; Bianchi, Federica; Ballero, Mauro; Dessì, M Assunta
The use of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) as a culinary spice and as a flavoring agent for alcoholic beverages is widespread in the Mediterranean area, and especially in Sardinia. Myrtle contains unique oligomeric non-prenylated acylphloroglucinols, whose antioxidant activity was investigated in various systems. Both semimyrtucommulone (1) and myrtucommulone A (2) showed powerful antioxidant properties, protecting linoleic acid against free radical attack in simple in vitro systems, inhibiting its autoxidation and its FeCl3- and EDTA-mediated oxidation. While both compounds lacked pro-oxidant activity, semimyrtucommulone was more powerful than myrtucommulone A, and was further evaluated in rat liver homogenates for activity against lipid peroxidation induced by ferric-nitrilotriacetate, and in cell cultures for cytotoxicity and the inhibition of TBH- or FeCl3-induced oxidation. The results of these studies established semimyrtucommulone as a novel dietary antioxidant lead.
Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319
Guedes, A. Catarina; Gião, Maria S.; Seabra, Rui; Ferreira, A. C. Silva; Tamagnini, Paula; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Malcata, F. Xavier
A growing market for novel antioxidants obtained from non-expensive sources justifies educated screening of microalgae for their potential antioxidant features. Characterization of the antioxidant profile of 18 species of cyanobacteria (prokaryotic microalgae) and 23 species of (eukaryotic) microalgae is accordingly reported in this paper. The total antioxidant capacity, accounted for by both water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants, was evaluated by the (radical cation) ABTS method. For complementary characterization of cell extracts, a deoxyribose assay was carried out, as well as a bacteriophage P22/Salmonella-mediated approach. The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus strain M2-1 exhibited the highest (p > 0.05) total antioxidant capacity (149 ± 47 AAU) of intracellular extracts. Its scavenger activity correlated well with its protective effects against DNA oxidative damage induced by copper(II)-ascorbic acid; and against decay in bacteriophage infection capacity induced by H2O2. Finally, performance of an Ames test revealed no mutagenic effects of the said extract. PMID:23595054
Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei
Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS), reducing power (RP), and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP). Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs. PMID:25789875
Fadillioğlu, Ersin; Erdoğan, Hasan
The clinical use of doxorubicin (Dxr), an antineoplastic agent, is limited by its extensive toxicity which is mostly mediated by oxidant injury. We have studied the effect of erdosteine, a mucolytic drug showing antioxidant properties, in preventing Dxr-toxicity to improve future Dxr therapy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group that underwent no medication was accepted as control group; the second group was treated with a single i.p. injection of Dxr (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.); the third group was treated with oral erdosteine alone (10 mg kg(-1) b.wt. day(-1) for 12 days); and in the last group erdosteine was administered starting before Dxr injection for 12 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level of Dxr group was higher in both plasma and erythrocyte than the other groups. In plasma and erythrocyte, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were increased in Dxr plus erdosteine group in comparison with control group, and the activities of GSH-Px were increased in Dxr plus erdosteine group in comparison with Dxr group. The erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity of Dxr plus erdosteine group was higher than control and Dxr groups. Plasma xanthine oxidase activities and nitric oxide (NO) levels were not significantly different between groups, however erythrocyte NO level of Dxr group was higher than control. In conclusion, Dxr administration resulted in increased lipid peroxidation in plasma as well as erythrocyte and erdosteine treatment helped to prevent oxidative injury by increasing antioxidant enzymes, especially SOD, GSH-Px and CAT, in rats.
Kenan Celik, Veysel; Eken, İmge Ezgi; Aydin, Hüseyin; Yildiz, Gürsel; Birhan Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gurlek, Ahmet
Summary Aim Oxidative stress, which is widely recognised as an important feature of many diseases, can be defined as an increased formation of reactive oxygen species or decreased antioxidant defense. In this study we measured plasma vitamin E levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) in patients with slow coronary flow (SCF). Methods The plasma vitamin E levels and AOA were measured in 40 patients with angiographically diagnosed SCF. Forty subjects with normal coronary flow (NCF) served as the control group. SCF and NCF were analysed, and blood samples were taken for plasma vitamin E levels and AOA. Plasma vitamin E levels and AOA in patients with SCF were evaluated and compared to those of patients with NCF. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of plasma AOA, lipid profile and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels but there was a significant difference in vitamin E levels between the two groups (p = 0.001). Conclusion Vitamin E levels were found to be lowered in patients with SCF compared to the NCF group. The association between smoking and vitamin E levels is worth further investigating in larger samples. PMID:24337212
Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B
Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients.
Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori
Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.
Alonso, Eva; Alvariño, Rebeca; Leirós, Marta; Tabudravu, Jioji N.; Feussner, Klaus; Dam, Miriam A.; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Jaspars, Marcel; Botana, Luis M.
Makaluvamines are pyrroloiminoquinones isolated from Zyzzya sponges. Until now, they have been described as topoisomerase II inhibitors with cytotoxic effects in diverse tumor cell lines. In the present work, seven makaluvamines were tested in several antioxidant assays in primary cortical neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Among the alkaloids studied, makaluvamine J was the most active in all the assays. This compound was able to reduce the mitochondrial damage elicited by the well-known stressor H2O2. The antioxidant properties of makaluvamine J are related to an improvement of the endogenous antioxidant defenses of glutathione and catalase. SHSY5Y assays proved that this compound acts as a Nrf2 activator leading to an improvement of antioxidant defenses. A low concentration of 10 nM is able to reduce the reactive oxygen species release and maintain a correct mitochondrial function. Based on these results, non-substituted nitrogen in the pyrrole plus the presence of a p-hydroxystyryl without a double bond seems to be the most active structure with a complete antioxidant effect in neuronal cells. PMID:27801775
Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran
Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity.
Jain, Dheeraj P.; Pancholi, Shyam S.; Patel, Rakesh
Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315
Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah
The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) only for seaweed treated with 5% lemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.
Ekin, Suat; Uzun, Yusuf; Demirel, Kenan; Bayramoglu, Mahire; Kiziltas, Hatice
The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antiradical activities in methanol extracts of two edible mushrooms from Turkey, Agaricus urinascens (Jul. Schäff. & F.H. Møller) Singer and Volvopluteus gloiocephala (DC.) Vizzini, Contu & Justo, as well as to examine trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Cd, Pb), minerals (Mg, Ca, K, Na) and vitamin C content. The levels of trace elements and minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Vitamin C and antioxidant properties were measured with a spectrophotometer. According to the results, total antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents of A. urinascens and V. gloiocephala were 67.53 ± 2.54 mM ascorbic acid/g and 31.68 ± 2.27 mM ascorbic acid/g, 6.88 ± 0.31 mg GA/g and 5.22 ± 0.53 mg GA/g, and 3.80 ± 0.04 mg QE/g and 2.60 ± 0.20 mg QE/g, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that methanol extract of A. urinascens has a significant antioxidant activity and contents of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds. However, V. gloiocephala contains high levels of Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Na, whereas A. urinascens contains higher levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn than that of V. gloiocephala. Some trace elements that are in the compound of macrofungi may contribute the antioxidant capacity of macrofungi. A. urinascens has the ability to accumulate some heavy metals that prevent environmental metal pollution and can be used as a biomonitor. A. urinascens is expected to be used as an antioxidant in future studies of experimental animal models, against free radicals generated in response to oxidative stress.
Hanachi, Parichehr; Naghavi, Farzaneh Sadat
Introduction Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aims of this study were to compare the total antioxidant and carotenoid production in R. Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa. Methods To isolate the carotenoid pigment, cells were suspended in acetone and broken using a homogenizer, followed by centrifugation, and supernatant was separated. For analytical method, pigments were measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm. The B-carotene bleaching and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH) assay were used to determine antioxidant properties of R. Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 470 and 517 nm. Results The results showed that the content of total carotenoid in R. Slooffiae was higher than R. Mucilaginosa and it presented higher ability to show antioxidant activity. The mean total antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid was the highest (97.11 ± 6.11%), followed by BHT (64.71 ± 5.41%), R. sloofias extract (57.91 ± 7.34%) and R. Mucilaginosa (39.32 ± 5.85%). The EC50 of ascorbic acid was the strongest (0.252 ± 0.000 mg/ml), followed by BHT (0.612 ± 0.009 mg/ml) and R. Slooffiae (0.658 ± 0.033 mg/ml). There was significant difference observed between the EC50 of R. Slooffiae and BHT. Conclusion It was found that both strains have ability to produce carotenoid and show antioxidant ability; however, R. Slooffiae had more potential in producing carotenoid and showing antioxidant ability than R. Mucilaginosa. Further study is required, in order to utilize this strain in the food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries. PMID:27957311
Velthut, Agne; Zilmer, Mihkel; Zilmer, Kersti; Kaart, Tanel; Karro, Helle; Salumets, Andres
The aim of the study was to determine the roles of intrafollicular and systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant response in ovarian stimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. For this purpose, 102 ICSI patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation were enrolled and samples were collected on the day of follicle puncture. Total peroxide (TPX) concentrations and total antioxidant response (TAR) were measured in follicular fluid and blood plasma, and an oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated based on these two parameters. Urinary concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (F2IsoP) were measured. Elevated intrafollicular oxidative stress was positively correlated with ovarian stimulation outcome: less FSH per retrieved oocyte was used, more oocytes were collected and higher serum oestradiol concentrations were measured in patients with higher follicular OSI. However, high urinary F2IsoP related to lower embryo quality and F2IsoP was also elevated in smoking patients. Patients with endometriosis had lower follicular antioxidant status. Most importantly, higher systemic blood TAR was significantly favourable for achieving clinical pregnancy (P=0.03). In conclusion, the findings suggest clear associations between oxidative stress, antioxidant status and several aspects of ovarian stimulation and IVF/ICSI outcome, including pregnancy rate. Several oxygen-dependent biochemical reactions produce reactive oxygen species as by-products that may eventually lead to oxidative stress, which is detrimental to cells and tissues. Total antioxidant status, on the other hand, comprises several agents that balance the excess of these reactive oxygen species and reduce potential damage to the body. The aim of the current work was to study this balance in 102 patients participating in an ICSI programme and to examine the degree to which total peroxide content and antioxidant status influence infertility and pregnancy outcome. During the study, several tests
Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman
Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity.
Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee
Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.
Locatelli, D A; Nazareno, M A; Fusari, C M; Camargo, A B
The antioxidant properties and the main beneficial organosulphur compounds of home-cooked garlic samples were studied in order to establish relationships between them. Antioxidant activity was tested by free radical scavenging against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(+)), Fe(III) reducing ability (FRAP) and linoleic acid co-oxidation initiated by soybean lipoxygenase in a micelle system. DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays showed the highest activity for raw garlic samples, while β-carotene bleaching assay yielded the highest activity for stir-fried garlic. Pure organosulphur compounds tested by DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays showed that allicin had an antiradical action mechanism, as well as iron reducing capacity; while antioxidant activity was the main mechanism for ajoenes and 2-VD. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that home-cooked garlic retains its antioxidant activity, and, at the same time, elucidates the mechanisms involved in this activity.
Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Jung Hoan; Jeong, Sehyun; Kim, Min Hee; Yang, Su-Jin; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Hae-Jeung
This study investigated the antioxidant activity of functional beverage concentrates containing herbal medicine extracts (FBCH) using various antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenolic content of FBCH (81.45 mg/100 g) was higher than Ssanghwa tea (SHT, 37.56 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of FBCH showed 52.92% DPPH and 55.18% ABTS radical scavenging activities at 100 mg/mL, respectively. FBCH showed significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the SHT (DPPH, 23.43%; ABTS, 22.21%; reducing power optical density; 0.23, P<0.05). In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following FBCH treatment. These results suggest that the addition of herbal medicine extract contributes to the improved functionality of beverage concentrates.
Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida
A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052
Piacente, Sonia; Montoro, Paola; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo
Two new phenolic constituents with unusual spirostructures, named yuccaols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark. Their structures were established by spectroscopic (ESIMS and NMR) analysis. The new yuccaols D and E, along with resveratrol (3), trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), yuccaols A-C (5-7), yuccaone A (8), larixinol (9), the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark, and the phenolic portion of this extract, were assayed for antioxidant activity by measuring the free radical scavenging effects using two different assays, namely, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid (autoxidation assay). The significant activities exhibited by the phenolic fraction and its constituents in both tests show the potential use of Y. schidigera as a source of antioxidant principles.
Nemś, Agnieszka; Pęksa, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kita, Agnieszka; Drożdż, Wioletta; Hamouz, Karel
Coloured-fleshed potatoes of four varieties were used as raw material for coloured flour and fried snack production. The effects of thermal processes traditionally used in dried potato processing and in snack pellet manufacturing on anthocyanin profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant properties of obtained half- and ready products were studied. There was a significant influence of potato variety on the experimental flour and snack properties. Flours with the highest antioxidant activities were obtained from Salad Blue and Herbie 26 potatoes; however, the flour prepared from the Blue Congo exhibited a much higher total polyphenol and anthocyanin content. Snacks produced with coloured flour had 2-3 times higher antioxidant activities, 40% higher contents of polyphenols, attractive colour and better expansion compared to control samples. The lowest losses of anthocyanins during snack processing were in snacks with flour from the purple-fleshed Blue Congo and red-fleshed Herbie 26.
Crawford, J.; Hill, G. A.
Lubricating oil additives having both dispersant and antioxidant activity, particularly useful for incorporation in two-stroke petrol engine lubricating oil compositions, are produced when a dispersant having free >n-h groups, E.G., a substituted succinimide, is reacted with an aldehyde and a compound having antioxidant activity containing in its molecular structure a group or groups capable of condensing with the aldehyde and >n-h groups present in the dispersant, thereby chemically bonding the compound to the dispersant. Representative antioxidants are mononuclear and polynuclear substituted phenols having at least one unsubstituted ortho- or para-position, E.G. 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and secondary aromatic amines. Typical reaction conditions are a temperature in the range 100* to 175/sup 0/C, and atmospheric pressure.
Frassinetti, Stefania; Della Croce, Clara Maria; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Longo, Vincenzo
In the present study the antimutagenic and antioxidant effects of a powder of grain (Lisosan G) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Results showed that Lisosan G treatment decreased significantly the intracellular ROS concentration and mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in S. cerevisiae D7 strain. The effect of Lisosan G was then evaluated by using superoxide dismutase (SOD) proficient and deficient strains of S. cerevisiae. Lisosan G showed protective activity in sod1Δ and sod2Δ mutant strains, indicating an in vivo antioxidant effect. A high radical scavenging activity of Lisosan G was also demonstrated in vitro using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The obtained results showed a protective effect of Lisosan G in yeast cells, indicating that its antioxidant capacity contributes to its antimutagenic action.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés
In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.
Fan, Jing; Feng, Haibo; Yu, Yu; Sun, Mingxian; Liu, Yuren; Li, Tongzhan; Sun, Xin; Liu, Shuaijie; Sun, Mengdi
The water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted and purified from the root of Chuanminshen violaceum (CVPS). The antioxidant activities of the CVPS were evaluated both with in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of the in vitro antioxidant assay suggested that the CVPS scavenged DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide anion radicals. The oral administration of three different doses of CVPS administered over a period of 6 weeks to D-galactose induced aging mice models, enhanced the activities of T-SOD, Mn-SOD, Cu, Zn-SOD, and CAT, and markedly decreased the content of MDA. Therefore, significant up-regulation of mRNA expression levels of Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and thioredoxin 2 (Trx1) occurred. Finally, the results demonstrated that the CVPS are a novel potential resource for natural antioxidants and anti-aging drugs.
Külkamp, Irene C; Rabelo, Bruna D; Berlitz, Simone J; Isoppo, Mateus; Bianchin, Mariana D; Schaffazick, Scheila R; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Sílvia S
Lipoic acid is a widely studied substance, whose therapeutic effects are related to its antioxidant activity. Our objective was to develop lipoic acid-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant effect against lipid peroxidation induced by ascorbyl free radicals, using soybean lecithin liposomes as the substrate. The nanocapsule suspensions were prepared by interfacial deposition of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and characterized by particle size and polydispersion index (photon correlation spectroscopy), zeta potencial (eletrophoretic mobility), drug content and encapsulation efficiency (HPLC). The extent of lipid peroxidation was determined (TBARS). The nanostrucutures presented mean diameters of between 191 and 349 nm, zeta potential values from -14.1 +/- 4.5 to -10.4 +/- 0.6, and high lipoic acid encapsulation. A significant increase in the antioxidant activity of lipoic acid was achieved through nanoencapsulation or by increasing its concentration in the formulation. The protection results ranged from 48.9 +/- 3.4 to 57.4 +/- 9.1% for lipoic acid-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules. The lipoic acid release from nanostrucutures significantly decreased with increasing polymer concentration. Also, it was observed an increasing in the antioxidant activity as the lipoic acid release time decreased. The co-encapsulation of lipoic acid with melatonin in lipid-core nanocapsules did not improve the protection against lipid peroxidation. The results obtained demonstrate the optimal concentrations of polymer and lipoic acid in the formulations in terms of enhancing the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, by the strategy applied, it was verified that nanoencapsulation is an efficient alternative to increase the antioxidant effect of lipoic acid, representing a potential approach for therapeutic applications.
Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming
In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.
Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming
In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795
Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 μM Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 μM Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Morais, Marcela Isis; Pinto, Maria Eduarda Amaral; Araújo, Sthéfane Guimarães; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; Duarte-Almeida, Joaquim Mauricio; Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Johann, Susana; Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos
Ethanol extract and fractions obtained from aerial parts of Smilax campestris were examined in order to determine their phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antifungal activities. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD analysis indicated that quercetin and rutin were the main phenolic compounds present in butanol fraction and ethanol extract, respectively. The antioxidant activity assessed by the scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was significantly more pronounced for the ethanol extract and butanol fraction than that of the commercial antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. The antifungal activity of extract and fractions was investigated by using microdilution method against five Candida and two Cryptococcus yeast strains. Ethanol extract and fractions exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus gattii. This work provides the knowledge of profile and content of flavonoids and their antioxidant and antifungal activities in the extract and fractions of aerial parts of S. campestris.
Verma, Sristi; Sinha, Reema; Kumar, Puspendra; Amin, Faizal; Jain, Jainendra; Tanwar, Shivani
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy is a perennial wild herb commonly found on sandy & rocky areas under xerophytic conditions in northern India. It is a reputed drug of ayurveda and reported to posses antioxidant, brain tonic, nervine tonic, laxative and has been used in anxiety, neurosis, epilepsy, insomnia, burning sensation, oedema and urinary disorders. In the present study, methanolic extract of whole plant of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy was evaluated for antioxidant activity by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging model and anticonvulsant activity by using maximal electroshock seizure model. In antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid was used as standard agent while results of anticonvulsant studies were compared with phenytoin. Results of antioxidant activity have demonstrated significant free radical scavenging effect for methanolic extract of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. IC50 value of methanolic extract was observed as 41.00μg/ml as compared to 2.03μg/ml of ascorbic acid. Methanolic extract of C. pluricaulis was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity at 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Experimental results have shown that at the dose of 500 and 1000mg/kg, C. pluricaulis didn't abolish the hind limb extension, but reduced the mean recovery time from convulsion.
Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim
Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287
Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar
There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects
Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.
Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.
Mahboub, Radia; Memmou, Faiza
In this work, we report the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of 6-bromoeugenol and eugenol. EC50, the concentration providing 50% inhibition, is calculated and the antioxidant activity index (AAI) is evaluated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method. EC50 values of 6-bromoeugenol, ascorbic acid and eugenol were 34.270 μg/mL, 54.888 μg/mL and 130.485 μg/mL, respectively. 6-Bromoeugenol showed higher AAI value (1.122) followed by ascorbic acid (0.700), then by eugenol (0.295). We also investigate the kinetics of DPPH radical scavenging activity of our products to determine the useful parameter TEC50 to evaluate their antiradical efficiency (ARE). Our results have shown high ARE. This study has provided the following ARE ( × 10(-3)) order for the tested antioxidants: ascorbic acid (70.119)>6-bromoeugenol (34.842) > eugenol (21.313). Finally, we classify ascorbic acid and eugenol as fast kinetics reaction (TEC50 8.82 and 11.38 min, respectively) and 6-bromoeugenol as medium kinetics reaction (TEC50 39.24 min).
Ancient grains were known for special nutritional values along with gluten free qualities. Amaranth, quinoa, teff, buckwheat flours were evaluated for pasting properties, water holding capacity, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities (free and bound). They all had higher water holding capacit...
Madrona, A; Pereira-Caro, G; Bravo, L; Mateos, R; Espartero, J L
Preparation of tyrosyl and homovanillyl lipophilic derivatives was carried out as a response to the food industry's increasing demand for new synthetic lipophilic antioxidants. Tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers were synthesized in high yields by a three-step procedure starting from tyrosol (Ty) and homovanillic alcohol (HMV). The antioxidant activity of these new series of alkyl tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers was evaluated by the Rancimat test in a lipophilic food matrix and by the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays and compared to free Ty and HMV as well as two antioxidants widely used in the food industry, butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol. The results pointed out the higher activity of homovanillyl series in comparison with tyrosyl series with all the assayed methods. However, while both synthetic series were less antioxidant than BHT and α-tocopherol in a lipophilic matrix after their Rancimat test evaluation, homovanillyl alkyl ethers showed the best reducing power and radical scavenging activity of all evaluated compounds. This batch of synthetic lipophilic compounds, derived from biologically active compounds such as Ty and HMV, provide interesting and potentially bioactive compounds.
Sithisarn, Pongtip; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee
Leaves, fruits, flowers and stem bark extracts from the Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton, Meliaceae) were assessed for antioxidant activity in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, total antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in Chago K1 cancer cell culture by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. The results showed that leaf aqueous extract, flower and stem bark ethanol extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging effect on the DPPH assay with 50% scavenging activity at 26.5, 27.9 and 30.6 microg/ml, respectively. The total antioxidant activity of these extracts was found to be 0.959, 0.988 and 1.064 mM of standard trolox, respectively. At 100 microg/ml, the flower ethanol and leaf aqueous extracts significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (46.0 and 50.6%, respectively) by the TBARS method. The results suggest that extracts from leaf, flower and stem bark of the Siamese neem tree have strong antioxidant potential. This report supports the ethnomedical use of young leaves and flowers of this plant as a vegetable bitter tonic to promote good health.
Ben Djemaa, Ferdaous Ghrab; Bellassoued, Khaled; Zouari, Sami; El Feki, Abdelfatteh; Ammar, Emna
Lavandula aspic L. is a strongly aromatic shrub plant of the Lamiaceae family and traditionally used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several skin disorders, including wounds, burns, and ulcers. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of lavender essential oil. In addition, it aimed to evaluate the excision wound healing activity and antioxidant property of a Lavandula aspic L. essential oil formulated in ointment using a rat model. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. The test groups were topically treated with the vehicle, lavender ointment (4%) and a reference drug, while the control group was left untreated. Wound healing efficiency was determined by monitoring morphological and biochemical parameters and skin histological analysis. Wound contraction and protein synthesis were also determined. Antioxidant activity was assessed by the determination of MDA rates and antioxidant enzymes (GPx, catalase and superoxide dismutase). The treatment with lavender ointment was noted to significantly enhance wound contraction rate (98%) and protein synthesis. Overall, the results provided strong support for the effective wound healing activity of lavender ointment, making it a promising candidate for future application as a therapeutic agent in tissue repairing processes associated with skin injuries.
Kapche, Gilbert D W F; Fozing, Christian D; Donfack, Jean H; Fotso, Ghislain W; Amadou, Dawe; Tchana, Angèle N; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Moundipa, Paul F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Abegaz, Berhanu M
Five prenylated arylbenzofurans, moracins Q-U, were isolated from Morus mesozygia (Moraceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Along with these compounds, 3beta-acetoxyurs-12-en-11-one, marsformoxide, moracin C, moracin M, moracin K, artocarpesin, cycloartocarpesin, morachalcone A were also isolated. Four of the five compounds, (moracins R-U) displayed potent antioxidant activity.
The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs.
Van Le Thanh, Bich; Lemay, Michel; Bastien, Alexandre; Lapointe, Jérôme; Lessard, Martin; Chorfi, Younès; Guay, Frédéric
Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The "mycotoxin" effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced
Spada, Patrícia D S; de Souza, Gabrielle Gianna Nunes; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian
Many studies have focused on the effect of fresh fruits on the risk of developing cancer and other diseases involved with reactive species and free radicals. The intake of frozen fruits has spread widely in the last years, but, until now, their biological activity is not completely known. In this study, 23 samples of frozen fruits were analyzed for their nutritional composition, total polyphenols, total carotenoids, and vitamin C content. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic effects were also evaluated. Antioxidant assays included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(.)) scavenging activity and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD)- and catalase (CAT)-like activities. Mutagenic and antimutagenic evaluations were performed in eukaryotic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Most samples (74%) showed antioxidant activity similar to vitamin C in the DPPH(.) assay, and this activity was positively correlated (r = 0.366; P
Umamaheswari, M; Asokkumar, K; Rathidevi, R; Sivashanmugam, A T; Subhadradevi, V; Ravi, T K
The study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of 70% ethanolic axtract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (JGLE). The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in folk medicine for treating ulcerative stomatitis, skin diseases, ulcers, wounds, corns - a hard or soft hyperkeratosis of the sole of the human foot secondary to friction and pressure (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. p. 443), etc., Antiulcerogenic activity of JGLE (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w., orally) was evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) and alcohol (AL) induced acute gastric ulcer models and ulcer-healing activity using acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model in rats. Both the antisecretory and cytoprotection hypothesis were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of JGLE has been assayed by using in vitro methods like 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH) assay, reductive ability, superoxide anion scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and total phenolic content, in order to explain the role of antioxidant principles in the antiulcerogenic activity of the extract. There was a significant (P<0.01) dose-dependent decrease in the ulcerative lesion index produced by all the three models in rats as compared to the standard drug famotidine (20 mg/kg, b.w. orally). The reduction in gastric fluid volume, total acidity and an increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in APL rats proved the antisecretory activity of JGLE. Additionally, JGLE completely healed the ulcer within 20 days of treatment in AC model as evidenced by histopathological studies. Like antiulcer activity, the free radical scavenging activities of JGLE depends on concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extract. These results suggest that leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum possess potential antiulcer activity, which may be attributed to its antioxidant mechanism of action.
Rong, Yuzhi; Wang, Zhengwu; Wu, Jinhong; Zhao, Bo
The antioxidant capacities of the selected flavonoids quercetin, luteolin and taxifolin have been investigated at density functional level of theory with the aim of verifying the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) values representative of experimental findings. The selected flavonoids were believed to act through the H-atom transfer mechanism. Their potentiality of hydrogen abstraction was evaluated by computing the Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) in gas-phase and in dimethylsulfoxide solution. Results indicate that the order of antioxidant efficacies calculated in this work is in agreement with that reported by experimental results of CAA. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations were also performed both in gas-phase and in dimethylsulfoxide to reproduce the electronic UV-vis spectra of the selected flavonoids.
Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M
The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.
Akanitapichat, Pannarat; Phraibung, Kallayanee; Nuchklang, Kwunchai; Prompitakkul, Suparichart
Eggplant is consumed throughout the world and varies in fruit color, shape, and size. In this study, five varieties of eggplant (purple colored moderate size, white-green colored moderate size, long green, green striped moderate size and pale-green colored small size, respectively, called SM1-SM5) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotection against cytotoxicity of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2. Total phenolic content found in methanol extracts of SM1-SM5 ranged from 739.36 ± 1.59 to 1116.13 ± 7.30 gallic acid equivalents mg/100g extract and total flavonoid content from 1991.29 ± 6.32 to 3954.20 ± 6.06 catechin equivalents mg/100 g extract. SM1 and SM2 which contained high total phenolic and flavonoid had better antioxidant activities than the other varieties. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 50 and 100 μg/mL of SM1-SM5 significantly increased the viability (p<0.05) of t-BuOOH-exposed HepG2 cells by 14.49 ± 1.14% to 44.95 ± 2.72%. The antioxidant activities of the eggplant were correlated with the total amounts of phenolic and flavonoid (r = 0.5310-0.7961). Significant correlation was found between hepatoprotective activities and total phenolic/flavonoid content (r = 0.6371-0.8842) and antioxidant activities (r = 0.5846-0.9588), indicating the contribution of the phenolic antioxidant present in eggplant to its hepatoprotective effect on t-BuOOH-induced toxicity.
Karyakina, Elena E; Vokhmyanina, Darya V; Sizova, Natalya V; Sabitov, Aytugan N; Borisova, Anastasiya V; Sazontova, Tatyana G; Arkhipenko, Yury V; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A; Zolotov, Yury A; Karyakin, Arkady A
We propose a novel approach for assessment of total antioxidant activity by monitoring kinetics of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging after its injection into liquid sample under study. H(2)O(2) is known to be the strongest oxidant, really presented in human body in contrast to the majority of the model oxidative systems used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. In addition, kinetic approach, being more informative than the commonly used determination of the final product, obviously provides better discrimination of potential antioxidants. Prussian Blue based sensor due to its high sensitivity and operational stability allowed to monitor kinetics of hydrogen peroxide consumption in turbid and colored samples. The pseudo-first order kinetic constants of hydrogen peroxide scavenging in the presence of different food additives correlated with total antioxidant activity of these samples evaluated via standard procedure based on lipid peroxidation. However, in contrast to the standard method, the proposed kinetic approach is expressed and does not require fresh biological tissues.
Jiménez-Monreal, A M; García-Diz, L; Martínez-Tomé, M; Mariscal, M; Murcia, M A
The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest losses of LOO. scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving, pea after boiling, and zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH. scavenging capacity in all the processes. Celery increased its antioxidant capacity in all the cooking methods, except boiling when it lost 14%. Analysis of the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the different vegetables showed that the highest losses occurred in garlic with all the methods, except microwaving. Among the vegetables that increased their TEAC values were green bean, celery, and carrot after all cooking methods (except green bean after boiling). These 3 types of vegetables showed a low ABTS radical scavenging capacity. According to the method of analysis chosen, griddling, microwave cooking, and baking alternately produce the lowest losses, while pressure-cooking and boiling lead to the greatest losses; frying occupies an intermediate position. In short, water is not the cook's best friend when it comes to preparing vegetables.
You, Juan; Luo, Yongkang; Wu, Jianping
Ovotransferrin (OTF), representing 12-13% of the total egg white, is a member of transferrin family with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Catechin is a polyphenolic antioxidant found in green tea. The objective of the study was to conjugate ovotransferrin with catechin to improve the antioxidant activity of OTF. Conjugates were prepared either by the free radical method using hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid as the initiator or by the alkaline method at pH of 9.0. The oxygen-radical-scavenging effect was increased from 3.95 mol trolox equivalent (TE)/mol of ovotransferrin to 22.80 and 17.14 mol TE/mol sample, respectively, in radical and alkaline prepared conjugates, which indicated that conjugation with catechin is an effective way to improve antioxidant activity of the protein. Conjugation between ovotransferrin and catechin was analyzed by fluorescence analyses, ultra performance liquid chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled online to a tandem mass spectrometer. Catechin was covalently bound to lysine (residues 327) and glutamic acid (residues 186) in ovotransferrin. The ovotransferrin-catechin conjugate may have a potential application as a functional food and nutraceutical ingredient.
Baroudi, Olfa; Younes, Sonia Ben; Mézlini, Amel; Bignon, Yves Jean; Medimeg, Imen; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Gaiied, Amel Ben Ammar E L; Ellouz, Soufia Chabchoub
In our case-control study, we measure the antioxidant status by dosing enzymes involved in oxidant stress in plasma of patients with colorectal and gastric cancer, and in the second step, we investigate the impact of chemotherapy before and after surgery on plasma antioxidant status and polyphenols in patients. Blood serum was collected from patients with stomach and colorectal cancer before conventional treatment, and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPX) enzyme activities and total polyphenols were determined by spectrophotometric methods. In our study, we found a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma of patients compared with controls (P = 0.02), although we did not find a significant association between total polyphenols and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS in plasma of colorectal and stomach cancer compared with control; furthermore, we observed no significant difference in the average plasma polyphenols in patients treated with chemotherapy before and after surgery. We have shown the decrease in GSHPX activity in plasma of cases with colorectal and gastric cancer, and this decrease reflects that the oxidative stress is associated with tumor tract and related to oxidative metabolism; however, no association was found between total polyphenols and ABTS in our study.
Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ae-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi
To determine the medicinal properties of pine pollen, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of pine pollen extract (PPE) were investigated. PPE displayed a strong free radical scavenger activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. It was observed also that the antioxidant activity, measured by the ferric thiocyanate method, increased with the addition of PPE to the linoleic acid emulsion system. PPE was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls formed from liver homogenate. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power of PPE was excellent. Thereafter, the study investigated the effects of PPE in modulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the effect of PPE on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in the human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982. PPE was found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment with PPE at 10 microg/mL significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) production in SW982 cells. IL-1beta-induced JNK activation was inhibited by PPE (10 microg/mL), whereas p38 and ERK1/2 were not affected. These findings suggest that pine pollen is a potential antioxidant and beneficial for inflammatory conditions through down-regulation of JNK and MMPs.
Padhy, Gayatri; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Ganju, Lilly
Abstract Padhy, Gayatri, Niroj Kumar Sethy, Lilly Ganju, and Kalpana Bhargava. Abundance of plasma antioxidant proteins confers tolerance to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. High Alt Med Biol 14:289–297, 2013—Systematic identification of molecular signatures for hypobaric hypoxia can aid in better understanding of human adaptation to high altitude. In an attempt to identify proteins promoting hypoxia tolerance during acute exposure to high altitude, we screened and identified hypoxia tolerant and susceptible rats based on hyperventilation time to a simulated altitude of 32,000 ft (9754 m). The hypoxia tolerance was further validated by estimating 8-isoprotane levels and protein carbonyls, which revealed that hypoxia tolerant rats possessed significant lower plasma levels as compared to susceptible rats. We used a comparative plasma proteome profiling approach using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) combined with MALDI TOF/TOF for both groups, along with an hypoxic control group. This resulted in the identification of 19 differentially expressed proteins. Seven proteins (TTR, GPx-3, PON1, Rab-3D, CLC11, CRP, and Hp) were upregulated in hypoxia tolerant rats, while apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) was upregulated in hypoxia susceptible rats. We further confirmed the consistent higher expression levels of three antioxidant proteins (PON1, TTR, and GPx-3) in hypoxia-tolerant animals using ELISA and immunoblotting. Collectively, these proteomics-based results highlight the role of antioxidant enzymes in conferring hypoxia tolerance during acute hypobaric hypoxia. The expression of these antioxidant enzymes could be used as putative biomarkers for screening altitude adaptation as well as aiding in better management of altered oxygen pathophysiologies. PMID:24067188
Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya
Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases.
Pittella, Frederico; Dutra, Rafael C; Junior, Dalton D; Lopes, Miriam T P; Barbosa, Nádia R
In the present study, the phenolic (Folin-Dennis) and flavonoid (colorimetric assay) constituents, antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay] and cytotoxic activities of an aqueous extract (AE) of Centella asiatica leaves were investigated. The aqueous extract (50 g/L) was obtained by infusion followed by cold maceration for 24 h. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 2.86 g/100 g and 0.361 g/100 g, respectively. The AE showed elevated DPPH scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 31.25 microg/mL. The AE had a promising activity against mouse melanoma (B(16)F(1)), human breast cancer (MDA MB-231) and rat glioma (C(6)) cell lines, with IC(50) values of 698.0, 648.0 and 1000.0 microg/mL, respectively. A positive correlation was established between the level of flavonoids, antioxidant and antitumor activities.
Pittella, Frederico; Dutra, Rafael C.; Junior, Dalton D.; Lopes, Miriam T. P.; Barbosa, Nádia R.
In the present study, the phenolic (Folin-Dennis) and flavonoid (colorimetric assay) constituents, antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay] and cytotoxic activities of an aqueous extract (AE) of Centella asiatica leaves were investigated. The aqueous extract (50 g/L) was obtained by infusion followed by cold maceration for 24 h. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 2.86 g/100 g and 0.361 g/100 g, respectively. The AE showed elevated DPPH scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL. The AE had a promising activity against mouse melanoma (B16F1), human breast cancer (MDA MB-231) and rat glioma (C6) cell lines, with IC50 values of 698.0, 648.0 and 1000.0 μg/mL, respectively. A positive correlation was established between the level of flavonoids, antioxidant and antitumor activities. PMID:19865514
Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia
Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26885210
Parejo, Irene; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles
The fractionation of a methanolic extract of Tagetes maxima guided for antioxidant activity resulted in the isolation of three acylated quercetagetin glycosides, quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) and quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), as well as four known flavonoid glycosides. The structural elucidation was accomplished by spectroscopic methods (ESI-MS/MS and NMR). The antioxidant activity of fractions and isolated compounds was determined by checking the scavenging activity against three different radicals: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH*), hydroxyl (*OH), and superoxide (O2*-). The three isolated compounds exhibited a high radical scavenging activity in comparison with reference compounds.
Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah
Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.
Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X; Park, Youngki; Martin, Derek A; Xie, Liyang; Taheri, Rod; Lee, Jiyoung; Bolling, Bradley W
We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich chokeberry extract (CBE) would modulate hepatic lipid metabolism and improve antioxidant function in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed diets containing 15% fat with 0.2% cholesterol alone or supplemented with 0.005% or 0.05% CBE for 4 weeks. CBE polyphenol content was determined by the total phenols, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 0.05% CBE diet provided mice with mean daily doses of 1.2 mg gallic acid equivalents of total phenols, 0.19 mg anthocyanins, 0.17 mg phenolic acids, 0.06 mg proanthocyanidins (as catechin-equivalents), and 0.02 mg flavonols. The 0.05% CBE group had 12% less plasma total cholesterol concentrations than the control. Despite the hypocholesterolemic effect of CBE, hepatic mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in CBE-fed mice were not significantly different from controls. Dietary CBE did not alter hepatic lipid content or the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation such as fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities were significantly increased in mice fed 0.05% CBE. Both CBE diets increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but the 0.05% CBE group had 24% less proximal intestine GPx activity relative to controls. Thus, dietary CBE lowered total cholesterol and improved plasma and hepatic antioxidant function at nutritionally-relevant doses in apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism.
Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo
Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Sun, Yujing; Rukeya, Japaer; Tao, Wenyang; Sun, Peilong; Ye, Xingqian
An infusion of the wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) is a traditional Asian herbal tea. This is the most commonly consumed form of dried wolfberry worldwide, yet little scientific information on wolfberry infusions is available. We investigated the effects of making infusions with hot water on the color, the content of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) and the antioxidant ability of wolfberry infusions. The contents of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of a wolfberry infusion increased with increased infusion temperature and time. Total polysaccharides content (TPOC), total polyphenols (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and total carotenoids contents (TCC) were important for determining the antioxidant capacity of wolfberry infusions with the contribution to antioxidant activity in the order TPC > TFC > TCC > TPOC. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated preparation conditions of 100 °C for 1~3 h, 90 °C for 2~3 h and 80 °C for 2.5~3 h were equivalent as regards the value of TPC, TPOC, TFC, TCC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS. The results of this study suggest the length of time of making a wolfberry infusion in actual real life practice is too short and different dietary habits associated with the intake of wolfberry infusion might provide the same bioactive nutrients. PMID:28102295
Sun, Yujing; Rukeya, Japaer; Tao, Wenyang; Sun, Peilong; Ye, Xingqian
An infusion of the wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) is a traditional Asian herbal tea. This is the most commonly consumed form of dried wolfberry worldwide, yet little scientific information on wolfberry infusions is available. We investigated the effects of making infusions with hot water on the color, the content of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) and the antioxidant ability of wolfberry infusions. The contents of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of a wolfberry infusion increased with increased infusion temperature and time. Total polysaccharides content (TPOC), total polyphenols (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and total carotenoids contents (TCC) were important for determining the antioxidant capacity of wolfberry infusions with the contribution to antioxidant activity in the order TPC > TFC > TCC > TPOC. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated preparation conditions of 100 °C for 1~3 h, 90 °C for 2~3 h and 80 °C for 2.5~3 h were equivalent as regards the value of TPC, TPOC, TFC, TCC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS. The results of this study suggest the length of time of making a wolfberry infusion in actual real life practice is too short and different dietary habits associated with the intake of wolfberry infusion might provide the same bioactive nutrients.
Turner, Rufus; Etienne, Nicolas; Alonso, Maria Garcia; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Minihane, Anne Marie; Weinberg, Peter D; Rimbach, Gerald
The aim of the current study was to investigate the antioxidant and cellular activity of the olive oil phenolics oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and homovanillic alcohol (which is also a major metabolite of hydroxytyrosol). Well-characterized chemical and biochemical assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Further experiments investigated their influence in cell culture on cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), nitric oxide production by activated macrophages, and secretion of chemoattractant and cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium. Inhibitory influences on in vitro platelet aggregation were also measured. The antioxidant assays indicated that homovanillic alcohol was a significantly more potent antioxidant than the other phenolics, both in chemical assays and in prolonging the lag phase of LDL oxidation. Cell culture experiments suggested that the olive oil phenolics induce a significant reduction in the secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (and a trend towards a reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and protect against cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized LDL. However, no influence on nitric oxide production or platelet aggregation was evident. The data show that olive oil phenolics have biochemical and cellular actions, which, if also apparent in vivo, could exert cardioprotective effects.
Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid
Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221
Vucić, Dragana M; Petković, Miroslav R; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanović, Olgica D; Vasić, Sava M; Comić, Ljiljana R
Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves and flowers of Erica herbacea L. were studied. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by macrodilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris. The values for MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. The most sensitive bacterial strains were Proteus vulgaris strains. The aqueous extract from E. herbacea was found the most active. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 14.98 and 119.88 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in extracts was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminium chloride and obtained results varied from 16.19 to 26.90 mg RU/g. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically using DPPH reagent. The highest capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals was found in the aqueous extract from E. herbacea. The results of the total phenolic content determination of the examined extracts indicate that E. herbacea extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and also possess a significant antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial activity.
Masuda, T; Yonemori, S; Oyama, Y; Takeda, Y; Tanaka, T; Andoh, T; Shinohara, A; Nakata, M
The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of 39 plant species was examined. These leaves were collected from the plants growing on subtropical seashores. The activity was evaluated by three kinds of assay methods, which included the DPPH radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid oxidation assay, and oxidative cell death assay. Two extracts from Excoecaria agallocha and Terminalia catappa showed remarkably potent activity in all assay systems. The HPLC analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of the same antioxidant and isolation work for the compound identified ellagic acid. The isolated ellagic acid showed strong antioxidant activity in the assay systems used.
Abudunia, A-M; Marmouzi, I; Faouzi, M E A; Ramli, Y; Taoufik, J; El Madani, N; Essassi, E M; Salama, A; Khedid, K; Ansar, M; Ibrahimi, A
Calendula arvensis (CA) is one of the important plants used in traditional medicine in Morocco, due to its interesting chemical composition. The present study aimed to determine the anticandidal, antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and the effects of extracts of CA flowers on the growth of myeloid cancer cells. Also, to characterize the chemical composition of the plant. Flowers of CA were collected based on ethnopharmacological information from the villages around the region Rabat-Khemisset, Moroccco. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by soxhlet extraction, while aqueous extracts was obtained by maceration in cold water. CA extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity using four different methods (DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, β-carotene bleaching test). Furthermore, the phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured, also the antimicrobial activity has been evaluated by the well diffusion method using several bacterial and fungal strains. Finally, extracts cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT test. Phytochemical quantification of the methanolic and aqueous extracts revealed that they were rich with flavonoid and phenolic content and were found to possess considerable antioxidant activities. MIC values of methanolic extracts were 12.5-25μg/mL. While MIC values of hexanolic extracts were between 6.25-12.5μg/mL and were bacteriostatic for all bacteria while methanolic and aqueous extracts were bactericidal. In addition, the extracts exhibited no activity on Candida species except the methanolic extract, which showed antifungal activity onCandida tropicalis 1 and Candida famata 1. The methanolic and aqueous extracts also exhibited antimyeloid cancer activity (IC50 of 31μg/mL). In our study, we conclude that the methanolic and aqueous extracts were a promising source of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.
Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M
The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.
Zaragozá, M C; López, D; P Sáiz, M; Poquet, M; Pérez, J; Puig-Parellada, P; Màrmol, F; Simonetti, P; Gardana, C; Lerat, Y; Burtin, P; Inisan, C; Rousseau, I; Besnard, M; Mitjavila, M T
The consumption of seaweeds has increased in recent years. However, their adverse and beneficial effects have scarcely been studied. Two extracts from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus containing 28.8% polyphenols or 18% polyphenols plus 0.0012% fucoxanthin have been obtained and studied to determine their toxicity in mice and rats and also their antioxidant activity. Both extracts were shown to lack any relevant toxic effects in an acute toxicity test following a 4 week daily treatment in rats. The extracts exhibited antioxidant activity in noncellular systems and in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, as well as in ex vivo assays in plasma and erythrocytes, after the 4 week treatment in rats. Our ex vivo results indicated that compounds from extract 2 may be more easily absorbed and that the antioxidants in their parent or metabolized form are more active. These findings support the view that the daily consumption of F. vesiculosus extract 2 (Healsea) would have potential benefits to humans.
Plazonić, Ana; Mornar, Ana; Maleš, Željan; Kujundžić, Nikola
Since C. platycarpos contains a wide variety of antioxidants, in the present study total flavonoid and phenolic acid content as well as antioxidative activity of various C. platycarpos extracts were investigated. The results obtained show a significant polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the investigated plant. Moreover, a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was found, indicating the responsibility of these compounds for the antioxidant effectiveness of C. platycarpos extracts and making C. platycarpos a good potential source of natural antioxidants.
Žura Žaja, Ivona; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Vilić, Marinko; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana
The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic traits of boars on lipid and protein concentrations and antioxidative system variables in seminal plasma (SP) and spermatozoa and their correlations with semen quality variables. Semen samples from 27 boars: Swedish Landraces (SL), German Landraces (GL), Large Whites (LW), Pietrains (P) and Pig Improvement Company hybrids (PIC-hybrid), aged from 1.5 to 3 years old, were collected. SP was spectrophotometrically analyzed to determine total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), total protein (TP), albumin, and zinc concentrations. The antioxidative system in SP and spermatozoa was established spectrophotometrically by determining total antioxidative status (TAS), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) parameters, as well as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in spermatozoa. The hybrid boars had higher (P<0.05) SP concentrations of: TC, LDL-C and TAG than P and GL; HDL-C than P, GL and SL; and TP than P and LW. PIC-hybrid had lower values (P<0.05) in spermatozoa of: TAS and CuZnSOD than SL; TSOD and GSH-Px than SL and P; and MnSOD than SL and LW. Differences in SP and spermatozoa antioxidative system variables and the significant differences in SP protein and lipid variables exist among boars of different breeds and hybrid. Novel data and observed differences in semen variables among boar breeds and hybrids and their correlations with semen quality parameters in this study could contribute to better assessment of boar semen quality.
We studied the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of monomeric and dimeric phenol compounds. Dimeric compounds had higher antioxidant activities than monomeric compounds. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping experiments showed that phenol compounds with an allyl substituent on their aromatic rings directly scavenged superoxide, and that only eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals. We developed a generation system of the hydroxyl radical without using any metals by adding L-DOPA and DMPO to PBS or MiliQ water in vitro. We found that eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals directly and is metabolized to a dimer. On the other hand, dipropofol, a dimer of propofol, has strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. However, it lacks solubility in water and this property is assumed to limit its efficacy. We tried to improve the solubility and found a new solubilization method of dipropofol in water with the addition of a monosaccharide or ascorbic acid.
Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergo; Alberti, Agnes; Sonati, Mirella; Kéry, Agnes
Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazel), a common hazel species in Europe, could be considered as a source of pharmacologically important natural compounds, since other members of the Corylus genus have been reported to contain several constituents with beneficial biological activity. Nevertheless, its phytochemical exploration is still incomplete. In this study the potent antioxidant phenolic compounds in different parts of the plant were investigated. The phenolics in the leaves, bark, catkins and involucre of C. colurna possess notable scavenger activity on both DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The total polyphenol content shows significant correlation with the antioxidant activity of the samples. Twenty-three phenolic compounds - hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives and diarylheptanoids - were characterized in the C. colurna extracts by LC-DAD, LC-ESI-TOF and LC-ESI-QQQ-MS.
Noreen, Shabana; Shaheen, Ghazala; Akram, Muhammad; Rashid, Abid; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
The objective of present study was to evaluate the antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit. The parent extract was ethanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). N-butanol fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.0±1.15 activity but the activity was less than ascorbic acid i.e. 93.74±0.12. Highly significant urease inhibition was shown by crude ethanolic extract (71.00±0.2a) with IC50 (392.66±2.1) followed by aqueous fraction (68.00±0.5e) with IC50 (159.83±2.8). The results of crude ethanolic extract and aqueous extracts were highly significant (p<0.05) than standard Thiourea. Present study showed that Vaccinium macrocarpon exhibits potent antiurease and antioxidant activities.
Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sergio
The present work aimed to analyze the alkaloid content of the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae family) and its fractions as well as to evaluate their antioxidant and anticholinesterasic activities. The analyses of the ethanolic extract of T. catharinensis by mass spectrometry allowed identifying the presence of the alkaloids 16-epi-affinine, coronaridine-hydroxyindolenine, voachalotine, voacristine-hydroxyindolenine, and 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, as well as an alkaloid with m/z 385.21 whose spectrum suggests a derivative of voacristine or voacangine. The extract and its alkaloid rich fractions showed antioxidant activity, especially those that contain the alkaloid m/z 385.21 or 16-epi-affinine with DPPH scavenging activity (IC50) between 37.18 and 74.69 μg/mL. Moreover, the extract and its fractions exhibited anticholinesterasic activity, particularly the fractions characterized by the presence of 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, with IC50 = 2.1 to 2.5 μg/mL. Fractions with 16-epi-affinine combined good antioxidant (IC50 = 65.59 to 74.69 μg/mL) and anticholinesterasic (IC50 = 7.7 to 8.3 μg/mL) activities, representing an option for further studies aimed at treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23983637
Yin, Jie; Kwon, Gu-Joong; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
This study investigated in vitro antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus L. by extraction solvent, which were examined by reducing power, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity(HRSA) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. 70% MeOH extract had the greatest reducing power while EtOH extract had the greatest HRSA. The antioxidant activity of S. oleraceus extracts was concentration dependent and its IC(50) values ranged from 47.1 to 210.5 microg/ml and IC(50) of 70% MeOH, boiling water and 70% EtOH extracts were 47.1, 52.7 and 56.5 microg/ml, respectively. 70% MeOH extract of S. oleraceus contained the greatest amount of both phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extracts tested had greater nitrite scavenging effects at lower pH conditions. The cytotoxic activity showed that EtOH extract had the best activity against the growth of stomach cancer cell. These results suggest that S. oleraceus extract could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.
Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam
Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.
Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh
The ajowain (Carum copticum (L.)) is a popular spice and traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. copticum fruits extract and its fractions were evaluated. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum (2087.7 micromol) and DPPH assay (90.2%) followed by other fractions comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT. Based on antioxidant activity, methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic potential against direct acting mutagens sodium azide (NaN(3)) and methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) and indirect acting mutagens 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), using Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102) tester strains. The methanolic fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentrations (25-100 microg/plate). Antimutagenic activity was recorded with inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 10.8% to 83.1% in a concentration dependent manner. The phytochemical analysis by IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and total phenolic assay revealed a high content of phenolic terpenoids. Further, characterization of active principle is needed to understand the mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy in vivo.
Lee, Darye; Kim, Choon Young
The major trend in the antioxidant market is the growing consumer demand for natural antioxidants. Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is an easy way to obtain antioxidant components from a natural source. Our objective was to develop burdock root tea (BRT) with potent antioxidant activity and good color quality. In order to obtain maximum antioxidant activity and quality, the effect of roasting was determined. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of BRT increased as roasting increased. The color of BRT became darker with increased roasting, extraction time, and amount of burdock roots. Color of BRT was also positively correlated with total antioxidant capacity. Roasting significantly enhanced the total antioxidant activities and color quality of BRT. These results suggest that roasting BRT increases beneficial antioxidant components from burdock roots.
The change in antioxidant capacity in plasma following consumption of various berries and fruits (blueberry, dried plum, dried plum juice, grape, cherry, kiwi and strawberry) following a single meal was studied in 5 different clinical trials. The area under the curve (AUC) of the change from baselin...
Background The main aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of forty four traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts and to examine these activities in relation to their antioxidant content. Methods The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method and yeast model. The anti-inflammatory properties of the herbal extracts were evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated by LPS and IFN- γ, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were determined by Alomar Blue assay by measuring cell viability. In order to understand the variation of antioxidant activities of herbal extracts with their antioxidant contents, the total phenolics, total flavonoids and trace metal (Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo) quantities were estimated and a correlation analysis was carried out. Results Results of this study show that significant levels of phenolics, flavonoids and trace metal contents were found in Ligustrum lucidum, Paeonia suffuticosa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sanguisorba officinalis, Spatholobus suberectus, Tussilago farfara and Uncaria rhyncophylla, which correlated well with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the plants displayed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities but contained low levels of phenolics and flavonoids. Interestingly, these plants contained significant levels of trace metals (such as Zn, Mg and Se) which are likely to be responsible for their activities. Conclusions The results indicate that the phenolics, flavonoids and trace metals play an important role in the antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. Many of the plants studied here have been identified as potential sources of new antioxidant compounds. PMID:23038995
Lin, C C; Chen, Y L; Lin, J M; Ujiie, T
The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Terminalia catappa was studied. Treatment with T. catappa water extracts showed antihepatotoxic activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in the rat liver that was tested. The crude drug also exhibited anti-oxidant effects in FeCl2-Ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver homogenate. Moreover, the superoxide radical scavenger effect of T. catappa was demonstrated using electron spin resonance (ESR) and spintrapping technique. The results indicate that T. catappa possesses good antihepatotoxic activity and superoxide radical scavenger activity.
Kusirisin, W; Srichairatanakool, S; Lerttrakarnnon, P; Lailerd, N; Suttajit, M; Jaikang, C; Chaiyasut, C
Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p<0.01 and r = 0.810, p<0.01). PE had stronger antioxidative activity as well as inhibition of TBARS and glycation than the other plants. The investigation showed that total polyphenol and tannin content of PE and the flavonoid content of HC were the highest. The results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress in diabetes.
Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood S.; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed
Background: Nardostachys jatamansi Linn. commonly known as jatamansi is a well notorious drug in Indian systems of medicines having various health-related benefits and employed in various herbal formulations due to the presence of high levels of valuable phenolic constituents. The present study was aimed to quality assessment of Jatamansi rhizome by studying macro- and micro-scopic characters along with physicochemical tests, chemo-profiling using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in vitro antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines and contaminant estimation was carried out by analyzing the samples for the determination of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins. Chemo-profiling was done with TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The GC-MS chemo-profiling was also carried out by using hexane soluble fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract. The drug is well known for a protective role in the human body as an antioxidant, so total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy was also determined by using established methods. Results: The results of quality control and anatomical studies were very much useful for its identification, whereas significant antioxidant efficacy was also observed. The drug was found free of contaminants when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins, whereas heavy metals were found under the pharmacopeial limit. Conclusion: The findings of the present research can be utilized for the identification and quality control of the jatamansi rhizome. PMID:26681882
Wongsawatkul, Orapin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong
This study reports the effect of Spilanthes acmella Murr. extracts on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as their antioxidant activity. Results show that the extracts exert maximal vasorelaxations in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects are less than acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. Significant reduction of vasorelaxations is observed in both NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). In the presence of l-NAME plus INDO, synergistic effects are observed, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both acetylcholine and the extracts. Similarly, the vasorelaxations of the extracts are completely abolished upon the removal of endothelial cells. This demonstrates that the extracts exhibit vasorelaxation via partially endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract exerts immediate vasorelaxation (ED50 76.1 ng/mL) and is the most potent antioxidant (DPPH assay). The chloroform extract shows the highest vasorelaxation and antioxidation (SOD assay). These reveal a potential source of vasodilators and antioxidants. PMID:19330100
Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar
The bioprotection performance of Piriformospora indica against the root parasite Fusarium verticillioides was studied. We found that maize plants first grown with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica showed improvements in biomass, and root length and number as compared with plants grown with F. verticillioides alone. To validate our finding that inoculation with P. indica suppresses colonization by F. verticillioides, we performed PCR analyses using P. indica- and F. verticillioides-specific primers. Our results showed that inoculation with P. indica suppresses further colonization by F. verticillioides. We hypothesized that as the colonization by P. indica increases, the presence of/colonization by F. verticillioides decreases. In roots, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found to be higher in F. verticillioides-colonized plants than in non-colonized plants. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes minimizes the chances of oxidative burst (excessive production of reactive oxygen species), and therefore F. verticillioides might be protected from the oxidative defence system during colonization. We also observed decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants first inoculated with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica as compared with plants inoculated with F. verticillioides alone. These decreased antioxidant enzyme activities due to the presence of P. indica help the plant to overcome the disease load of F. verticillioides. We propose that P. indica can be used as a bioprotection agent against the root parasite F. verticillioides.
Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh
The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), α-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588
Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Sheded, M.G.; Mohamed, E.A.
Metabolomic profiling of different parts (leaves, flowers and pods) of Acacia species (Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia laeta) was evaluated. The multivariate data analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to differentiate the distribution of plant metabolites among different species or different organs of the same species. A.nilotica was characterized with a high content of saponins and A.seyal was characterized with high contents of proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. A.laeta had a higher content of carbohydrates than A. nilotica and A. seyal. On the basis of these results, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the methanolic extracts of studied parts were evaluated. A.nilotica and A.seyal extracts showed less inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) compared to A.laeta extracts which means that these two species have the strongest radical scavenging activity whereas A. laeta extracts have the lowest radical scavenging activity. A positive correlation between saponins and flavonoids with total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed. Based on these results, the potentiality of these plants as antioxidants was discussed. PMID:25313274
Gao, Dawei; Gao, Zhengrong; Zhu, Guanghua
The present study was undertaken to investigate antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects, as well as its molecular mechanism of wild Lactobacillus plantarum FC225 isolated from fermented cabbages. The scavenging activities of superoxide anion radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical were enhanced by FC225 treatment. The strain FC225 also attenuated hyperlipidemic status, decreased lipid peroxidation, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high fat diet-fed mice. Meanwhile, FC225 therapy could significantly elevate the activities of superoxidase dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and decrease the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates, whereas there was no change in catalase activity in high fat diet-fed mice. In addition, compared with the control group, FC225 markedly elevated the gene expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which was in parallel with the increased value of CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the FC225-treated hyperlipidemic mice. The results demonstrated that the strain FC225 confers hypolipidemic and antioxidant protective effects which may be attributable to Nrf2 signal pathway mediated antioxidant enzyme expression.
Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Lu, Li-Zhen
Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (PSP) extracted by microwave baking (MB) and acidified electrolyzed water (AEW) exhibited antioxidant activity. After further purification by macroporous AB-8 resin, the color value of PSP anthocyanin (PSPA) reached 30.15 with a total flavonoid concentration of 932.5 mg/g. The purified extracts had more potent antioxidant activities than the crude extracts. After continuously administering the PSP extracts to 12-mo-old mice for 1 mo, the anti-aging index of the experimental group was not significantly different from that of 5-mo-old mice. To a certain degree, PSPA was also effective for controlling plasma glucose levels in male Streptozocin (STZ)-treated diabetic mice. In addition, the extracts inhibited Sarcoma S180 cell growth in ICR mice. Mice consuming the PSP extracts formed significantly fewer and smaller sarcomas than mice consuming the control diets. The highest inhibition rate was 69.03%. These results suggest that anthocyanin extracts from PSP not only exert strong antioxidant effects in vitro, but also had anti-aging, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-tumor activities. PMID:24133614
Ren, X; Xue, Y; Zhang, K; Liu, J; Luo, G; Zheng, J; Mu, Y; Shen, J
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily arise from products of normal metabolic activities and are thought to be the etiology of many diseases. A novel dicyclodextrinyl ditelluride (2-TeCD) compound was designed to be a functional mimic of the glutathione peroxidase that normally removes ROS. 2-TeCD exhibited highly catalytic efficiency and good water solubility. Antioxidant activity was studied by using ferrous sulfate/ascorbate-induced mitochondria damage model system. 2-TeCD protected the mitochondria against oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited also great antioxidant ability in comparison with 2-phenyl-1,2-benziososelenazol-3(2H)-one. The mimic may result in better clinical therapies for the treatment of ROS-mediated diseases.
Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol
Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) ( MANGIFERA INDICA L. cv. "Fahlun") and quantified using a TLC scanning densitometric method. The MSKE and its isolates were investigated by studying their antioxidant capacities using four different methods, by determining their IN VITRO anti-inflammatory activities, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl (4)). The hepatoprotective effect of MSKE is clearly supported by its polyphenolic nature of the main principle, PGG, which exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
The rational design of 4-hydroxycoumarins with tailor-made antioxidant activities is required nowadays due to the wide variety of pharmacologically significant, structurally interesting of coumarins and researcher orientation toward green chemistry and natural products. A simple and unique coumarins have been achieved by reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin with aromatic aldehyde accompanied with the creation of a macromolecules have 2-aminothiazolidin-4-one. The molecular structures of the compounds were characterized by the Fourier transformation infrared and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, in addition to CHN analysis. The scavenging abilities of new compounds against stable DPPH radical (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide were done and the results show that the compounds exhibited high antioxidant activates.
Antonella, Di Sotto; Federico, Durazzi; Grazia, Sarpietro Maria; Gabriela, Mazzanti
Monoterpenes limonene and its metabolic derivatives, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineol, commonly found as aroma wine components, were studied for their antimutagenicity by the bacterial reverse mutation assay on different strains. Substances were also tested for their antioxidant activity, i.e. radical scavenger, chelation, reduction, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Limonene and its metabolites, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineol, resulted able to inhibit the chemically-induced mutagenesis, although with a different specificity. The antimutagenicity of limonene has been generally retained by its metabolites and sometimes increased. In particular, α-terpineol exhibited the strongest inhibition, moreover it showed to be a remarkable ferrous ions chelating agent. Limonene and 1,8-cineol were devoid of antioxidant activity. Present results are a starting point in evaluating the potential of α-terpineol as a chemopreventive agent and suggest potential functional dietary benefits of wine.
Mizuno, Mirei; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsubayashi, Satoko; Imai, Kohei; Arai, Takuya; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi
Proanthocyanidin, an oligomer of catechin, is a natural antioxidant and a potent inhibitor of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1, which is involved in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. We synthesized proanthocyanidin analogue 1, in which the geometry of one catechin molecule in procyanidin B3, a dimer of (+)-catechin, is constrained to be planar. The antioxidant activities of the compounds were evaluated in terms of their capacities to scavenge galvinoxyl radicals, and results demonstrate that while procyanidin was 3.8 times more potent than (+)-catechin, the radical scavenging activity of proanthocyanidin analogue 1 was further increased to 1.9 times that of procyanidin B3. This newly designed proanthocyanidin analogue 1 may be a promising lead compound for the treatment of arteriosclerosis and related cerebrovascular diseases.
Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio
In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.
Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22 h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. They were also analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method and the β-carotene linoleate model assay. Moreover, the effects of different crude olive leaf extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 40°C and sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (10% o/w) at 37°C, at a final concentration of crude extract 200 mg kg(-1) oil, were tested and compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene.
Özen, Tevfik; Türkekul, İbrahim
The antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated in this study. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing power, metal chelating ability, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, superoxide, peroxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects. Various antioxidant activities were compared to references antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and trolox. In total antioxidant (12674.45 μmol α-tocopherol/g of extract), superoxide scavenging (53.74%) and peroxide scavenging activity (45.73%), the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum showed stronger activity patterns than that of references antioxidants. Reducing power, metal chelating activity and free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity was increased with the increasing concentration. The contents of total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene of Sarcodon imbricatum were determined and found to be noteworthy. PMID:20668572
Son, Yu-Ra; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi
This study aimed to test whether green tea formulated with vitamin C and xylitol (GTVX) could improve absorption of flavanols and total antioxidant activity (TAC) of plasma compared with green tea only (GT) in healthy subjects. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter method was used to measure the TAC of plasma. Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve (AUC) of flavanols in plasma after consumption of GTVX were 5980.58 μg/mL, 2.14 h, and 18,915.56 h·μg/mL, respectively, indicating that GTVX showed significantly higher AUC than GT (13,855.43 μg/mL). The peak TACs occurred at 3 and 0.5 h after intake of GT and GTVX, respectively. The TAC of plasma was found to be significantly higher in GTVX than in GT at each time point. This study suggests that formulating green tea with vitamin C and xylitol could increase the absorption of flavanols in green tea, enhancing cellular antioxidative effects.
Hossain, M. Sarowar; Alam, M. Badrul; Asadujjaman, M.; Zahan, Ronok; Islam, M. Monirul; Mazumder, M. Ehsanul H.; Haque, Md. Ekramul
Musa sapientum (M.sapientum) commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Bangladeshi folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate antidiarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of M.sapientum seed (MMSS). The extract was studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MMSS. In addition, disc diffusion methods were used for antibacterial assay using various diarrheal induced bacterial strains. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p<0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. In DPPH and NO scavenging method, MMSS showed good antioxidant potentiality in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 12.32±0.33 µg/ml and 18.96±1.01 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.001) good reducing power. The extract also displayed strong anti-bacterial effect against when tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Altogether, these results suggest that the MMSS could be used as a potential antidiarrheal agent along with its antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. PMID:23407989
Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A
Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.
Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.
Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706
Savitha, Rabeque C; Padmavathy, S; Sundhararajan, A
Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the quantitative phytochemicals and invitro antioxidant activity of fresh leaves of Syzygium malaccense. The result showed that the methanolic extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity and contains a higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids when compared to aqueous extract. PMID:22557439
Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso
Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.
Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han
The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05). Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in the extract-treated mice compared with the EAC control mice. MPBL and EPBL treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05) and restored GSH, SOD and CAT levels towards normal compared with the EAC control. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that Piper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.
Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang
A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.
Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sharifi, Simin; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Fathiazad, Fatemeh
Purpose: Naturally occurring substances as novel drugs in cancer therapy, at all times, represent a challenge to science since medicinal plants are proving to be brilliant sources of new chemopreventive agents. Methods: In the present study, methanol extract from aerial parts of Marrubium crassidens was assessed for its antiproliferative activity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through MTT bioassay using cell viability and cytotoxicity indices. The antioxidant property of M. crassidens extract together with its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated, as well. Results: According to data obtained in the study, M. crassidens exhibited antiproliferative activity with a gradual rise in cytotoxicty effect setting out on 240µg/mL concentration of the extract. Moreover, the RC50 value for antioxidant activity of the extract was determined as 40µg/mL and values for the total phenolic and flavonoids were calculated as 512.64mg gallic acid equivalent and 212.73mg quercetin equivalent per 100g of dry plant material. Conclusion: Generally, the observed antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of M. crassidens could be certified to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content detected in the extract. PMID:25364663
BOZKURT, Hakan; NEYAL, Abdurrahman; GEYİK, Sırma; TAYSI, Seyithan; ANARAT, Rüksan; BULUT, Mesut; NEYAL, Ayşe Münife
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. In the present study, we assessed the nitrite level, which is an indirect indicator of nitric oxide (NO), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), which may be associated with endotel dysfunction. We investigated the difference between the groups and the relationship among the severity of comorbid conditions. Methods This study was conducted in 39 OSA patients confirmed by polysomnography and 40 healthy subjects (controls). The OSA group consisted of 10 women and 29 men and the control group consisted of 20 women and 20 men. Polysomnographic revealed mild OSA in two, moderate in 7 and severe in 30 cases. We measured plasma TAS, TOS and nitrite levels from venous blood. The OSI value was obtained by dividing the TOS and TAS values. Values were compared with the control group and between patient groups. Results A high body mass index (BMI), cardiovasculer diseases (CVD) and the use of medication for co-morbid diseases were more prevalent in the OSA group (p=.001, p=.029 and p=.006, respectively). The median plasma TOS level and OSI in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OUA) group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p=.001 and p=.001, respectively). The plasma median nitrite level and TAS did not show any significant difference between the OSA and the control groups. None of the parameters revealed a significant difference between severe and moderate OSA cases. Conclusion Our findings in the present study revealed that the oxidant–antioxidant balance shifted toward the oxidant side in OSA cases; however, the NO level did not change. These findings together may point out that some molecules other than NO may have a role in the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction and also in the disturbed oxidant–antioxidant balance in OSA.
Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh
Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study
Dietary antioxidants interact in a dynamic fashion, including recycling and sparing one another, to decrease oxidative stress. Limited information is available regarding the interrelationships in vivo between quercetin and vitamin E. We investigated the antioxidant activity and metabolism of querc...
Emami, Sayed Ahmad; Shahani, Ali; Hassanzadeh Khayyat, Mohammad
Background Use of antioxidants is a means of reducing rancidity of fats and oils in food stuffs. The commercial synthetic antioxidants in food industry have been suspected to cause negative health effects. Therefore as alternatives, there is a strong need in finding new effective and safe antioxidants from natural sources to prevent deterioration of foods, drugs and cosmetics. Objectives In order to investigate the antioxidant activity from natural sources as alternatives of commercial antioxidants, the antioxidant activity of the extracts of leaves and fruits of six different species of Iranian common conifers: Cupressus arizonica, Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra, Pinus brutia var. elderica, Pinus wallichiana and Cedrus deodara were investigated in the current study. Materials and Methods The leaves and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of Iranian common conifers (six species) were prepared. Antioxidant activity of the samples was measured using ferric thiocyante (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests. Results The results of the study, using the two methods, showed that all methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of the six species possessed antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the samples was compared with the antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT), as a synthetic antioxidant and α-tocopherol as a natural antioxidant. Methanol extractions of Pinus spp. leaves and fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (quite higher than α- tocopherol). Among the extracts examined, the leaves of P. halpensis methanol extract showed the lowest activity. Conclusions At this stage it can be concluded that methanol extracts of these plants can be considered as strong antioxidant agents. However more investigation is necessary in order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the components separate from each extracted sample using several different antioxidant methods
Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei
Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (P<0.05) total motility. The spermatozoa plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were improved at four different concentrations: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL. The addition of alginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (P<0.05). The freezing extenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (P<0.05). In summary, alginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.
Al-Qudah, Khaled M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Al-Shyyab, Maysa'a M
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of trace minerals Zn, Cu, and Se, the effect of dermatophytosis on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, the status of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, and the relationship between the mentioned trace minerals and antioxidant defense system in calves with dermatophytosis. A total of 21 Holstein calves with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis and an equal number of healthy ones were included in this study. Results showed that 81% of mycotic isolates were Trichophyton verrucosum, while 19% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The level of Zn, Cu, Se, and glutathione (GSH) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly (P
Plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration, antioxidant status, and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide concentration in dogs with various cardiovascular diseases and the effect of cardiac treatment on measured variables.
Svete, Alenka Nemec; Verk, Barbara; Seliškar, Alenka; Tomsič, Katerina; Križman, Petra Jazbec; Petrič, Aleksandra Domanjko
OBJECTIVE To determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and plasma coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) concentration in dogs with various stages of cardiovascular diseases and in healthy dogs; assess the influence of cardiac treatment on the levels of antioxidant variables, plasma CoQ10 concentration, and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration, and determine any correlation between the disease severity (NT-proBNP concentration) and antioxidant variables or CoQ10 concentration. ANIMALS 43 dogs with various types and stages of cardiovascular diseases (congenital and acquired) and 29 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from all dogs for spectrophotometric assessment of antioxidant variables. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was determined with a high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. Serum NT-proBNP concentration was measured with an ELISA. RESULTS Values for antioxidant variables did not differ among groups of dogs with cardiovascular diseases, regardless of disease stage or treatment. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was significantly increased in treated dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF), compared with untreated patients. However, plasma CoQ10 concentration did not differ among heart failure classes. A significant, negative correlation between serum NT-proBNP and plasma CoQ10 concentrations was identified in treated CHF-affected dogs, suggesting that low plasma CoQ10 concentration may be associated with increased severity of CHF. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The antioxidant variables evaluated were not altered in dogs with CHF, regardless of cardiac disease stage or treatment. Further investigation into the possible effects of CoQ10 supplementation in dogs with advanced stages of CHF is warranted.
Sun, Jie; Liu, Shao-fang; Zhang, Chu-shu; Yu, Li-na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Qing-li
Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs) was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC–MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products. PMID:22389678
Yoo, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jae Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Hwang, In Kyeong
Epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of fruits can reduce the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease, and this may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic compounds. The present study investigated the variations in vitamin C, total phenolic, hesperidin, and naringin contents, and total antioxidant activity of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)-which is a popular citrus fruit in Korea and Japan-between cultivars and during maturity. The amounts of phenolics and vitamin C and the antioxidant activity in all tested yuzu cultivars were higher in peel than in flesh. Ripening increased the total antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in both peel and flesh of yuzu. However, the amounts of all total phenolics, hesperidin, and naringin in peel increased with ripening, whereas they decreased slightly in flesh. There was a highly linear relationship between the vitamin C content and the total antioxidant activity in both peel (r(2) = 1.000) and flesh (r(2) =0.998), suggesting that vitamin C plays a key role in the antioxidant activity of yuzu. In addition, the contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant activity of yuzu was determined using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and is expressed here in terms of the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The means of vitamin C, naringin, and hesperidin in yuzu were 90.4, 63.8, and 65.7 mg/100 g fresh yuzu, respectively. The relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the following order: vitamin C (1.00) > naringin (0.195) > hesperidin (0.162). Therefore, the estimated contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh yuzus is as follows (in mg of VCEAC): vitamin C (90.36 mg) > naringin (12.44 mg) > hesperidin (10.64 mg). Our results indicate that mature yuzu contains higher amounts of vitamin C and phenolics than other citrus fruits and could therefore be
Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Vitalone, Annabella
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main flavonoid of green tea (GT), could play an active role in the prevention of oxidative-stress-related diseases, such as hematologic malignancies. Some effects of EGCG are not imputable to antioxidant activity, but involve modulation of antioxidant enzymes and uric acid (UA) levels. The latter is the major factor responsible of the plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). However, hyperuricemia is a frequent clinical feature caused by tumor lysis syndrome or cyclosporine side effects, both before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Besides this, food-drug interactions could be associated with GT consumption and could have clinical implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the redox and drug metabolizing/transporting pathways were discussed, with particular reference to the potential role of GT and EGCG in BMT. Moreover, on reviewing data on NEAC, isoprostanes, uric acid, and various enzymes from human studies on GT, its extract, or EGCG, an increase in NEAC, without effect on isoprostanes, and contrasting results on UA and enzymes were observed. Currently, few and contrasting available evidences suggest caution for GT consumption in BMT patients and more studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of EGCG on oxidative stress and metabolizing/transporting systems.
Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro; López-Arroyo, Joel; Alanís-Garza, Blanca Alicia; Waksman de Torres, Noemí
Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii), three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains), and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata); their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml−1. We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 μg ml−1), C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1) and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml−1); Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1); Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml−1) and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml−1). Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri. PMID:19770266
Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro; López-Arroyo, Joel; Alanís-Garza, Blanca Alicia; Waksman de Torres, Noemí
Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii), three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains), and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata); their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml(-1). We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 μg ml(-1)), C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)) and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml(-1)); Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)); Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml(-1)) and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri.
Kotosai, Mari; Shimada, Sachiko; Kanda, Mai; Matsuda, Namiko; Sekido, Keiko; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Tokumura, Akira; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji
The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced oxidation contained nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), in addition to cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PtdCho-OOH). A platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor suppressed formation of FFA-OOH and lysoPtdCho in oxidized LDL. Among LOOH species, FFA-OOH was preferentially reduced by incubating oxidized LDL with HDL. HDL exhibited selective FFA-OOH reducing ability if it was mixed with a liposomal solution containing FFA-OOH, CE-OOH and PtdCho-OOH. Two-electron reduction of the hydroperoxy group to the hydroxy group was confirmed by the formation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid in HPLC analyses. This reducing effect was also found in apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). FFA-OOH released from PtdCho-OOH due to PAF-AH activity in oxidized LDL undergo two-electron reduction by the reducing ability of apoA1 in HDL. This preferential reduction of FFA-OOH may participate in the mechanism of the antioxidant property of HDL.
Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang
Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250
Zhang, Qin; Dong, Lanfang; Tong, Tong; Wang, Qingchao; Xu, Mingzhu
Marine organisms constitute unlimited resource of bioactive substances due to their high biodiversity and represent a valuable source of new compounds. This study optimized the alkali-extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of soluble polysaccharides from the body wall of Sipunculus nudus. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction duration, extraction temperature, and alkali concentration on the yield of S. nudus polysaccharides (SNP) were examined, according to which the optimal combination of extraction parameters was obtained by an orthogonal test. The relative influencing importance of different extraction parameters on the yield of SNP followed the order as solid-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > alkali concentration > extraction duration. The highest extraction yield, 1.98%, was achieved under an optimal extraction condition: temperature 60°C, solid-liquid ratio 1:6 g mL-1, duration 5 h, and alkali (NaOH) mass fraction 6%. The in vitro antioxidant activities examination showed that extracted SNP under this optimized condition had strong power in reducing certain hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging abilities. The promising results showed that extracted SNP could be a potent natural antioxidant.
Guo, Gai; Yue, Li; Fan, Shaoli; Jing, Siqun; Yan, Liang-Jun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of PSO in vitro and its application in horse oil storage. We determined the reducing power of PSO and its scavenging effects on hydroxyl (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and tested its stabilizing effects on horse oil storage. The results showed that PSO had remarkable, dose-dependent antioxidant activities, and it effectively prevented horse oil lipid oxidation. We treated cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with PSO using non-neoplastic monkey kidney Vero cells as controls. The results indicate that PSO significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Our studies suggest that PSO may be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants in food preservation and may be potentially useful as a food and cosmetic ingredient. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress can cause hypertension, so PSO is expected to develop a health care products for the prevention and mitigation hypertensive symptoms. PMID:27928516
Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M
Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.
Moretti, Maurizio; Marchioni, Carlo Felice
Erdosteine was introduced in the market as a mucolytic agent for chronic pulmonary diseases more than 10 years ago. The drug contains two blocked sulphydryl groups one of which, after hepatic metabolization and opening of the thiolactone ring, becomes available both for the mucolytic and free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity too. There are several experimental evidences which support the protective effect of erdosteine in acute injury induced by a variety of pharmacological or noxious agents, mediated by products of oxidative stress. Experimental data in animal assigned to receive the noxious agent evidence that co-treatment with erdosteine increases the tissue antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, compared with the toxic agent alone; meanwhile erdosteine decreases the tissue level of nitric oxide, xanthine oxidase, which catalyze oxygen-free radical production. In summary, erdosteine prevents the accumulation of free oxygen radicals when their production is accelerated and increases antioxidant cellular protective mechanisms. The final result is a protective effect on tissues which reduces lipid peroxidation, neutrophil infiltration or cell apoptosis mediated by noxious agents. Recent positive clinical trials in humans seem to fulfill the impressive promises that theory and experimental research have put forward.
Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad R.; Shabbir, Maria; Rashid, Umbreen; Jan, Shumaila; Zai, Jawaid A.
Methanol extract and its n-hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fraction of Galium aparine L. (Rubiacea) were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant capacity (DPPH, superoxide radical, phosphomolybdate assay); reducing power (ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ ions) and to estimate total flavonoid and phenolic contents. All the free radical generating assay models depicted differential positive scavenging activity but considerable magnitude for all the fractions. The results showed that aqueous fraction strongly scavenge the DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between IC50 values of DPPH and superoxide radical with total phenolic content and phosphomolybdate assay with total flavonoid contents, respectively. These results suggested that aqueous fraction can be a good source of antioxidant therapeutic in oxidative stress damages.
Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H; Swami, Dheer Singh; Sharma, R K
The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production.
Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Serio, Claudia; Raimondi, Laura
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels produced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin-II (AT-II) are considered among the pathogenic factors in the malignant transformation of diabetic renal cells. We aimed to investigate the potential role of AT-II in the increased cancer risk seen in diabetes; measuring oxidative damage to renal DNA and protective antioxidant defenses, including adiponectin (Adp) and plasma antioxidant capacity by the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method. In the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (55 mg/kg) diabetic rats either treated or not treated for 3 weeks with losartan, an AT-II type 1 receptor antagonist (20 mg/kg/day); we measured 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels, as an index of oxidative DNA damage, circulating Adp and FRAP. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher 8-oxodGuo levels in renal DNA (8.48 ± 0.98 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n = 11) than normoglycemic ones (1.18 ± 0.04 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM, n=7) and lower plasma Adp and FRAP levels in comparison to normoglycemics. The treatment of diabetic rats with losartan significantly (P < 0.01) reduced 8-oxodGuo levels (5.4 ± 0.58 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n=9) in renal DNA and conserved FRAP values. Moreover, an inverse correlation was found between 8-oxodGuo in kidney DNA and circulating Adp levels in normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Losartan treatment preserves FRAP levels, reduces DNA oxidative injury and thus the carcinogenesis risk. Furthermore, our results indicate that Adp plasma levels are a further marker of oxidative injury to the kidney and confirm that it is an important part of the plasma antioxidant defense.
Wang, Lifeng; Chen, Jingyi; Xie, Huihui; Ju, Xingrong; Liu, Rui Hai
Consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of developing major chronic diseases. These health benefits have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemicals. Little is known about the complete profiles of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of different adlay varieties. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemicals profiles of the three adlay varieties, including both free and bound of total phenolics and total flavonoids, and to determine the total antioxidant activity of adlay. The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of adlay samples ranged from 31.23 to 45.19 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, from 28.07 to 30.86 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, and from 59.30 to 76.04 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, respectively. On average, the bound phenolics contributed 45.3% of total phenolic content of the adlay varieties analyzed. The free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of adlay samples ranged from 6.21 to 18.24 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, from 18.68 to 35.27 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, and from 24.88 to 52.86 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, respectively. The average values of bound flavonoids contributed 71.1% of total flavonoids of the adlay varieties analyzed. The percentage contribution of flavonoid content to phenolic content of free, bound, and total ranged from 11.6 to 35.2%, from 50.5 to 66.8%, and from 24.6 to 50.5%. The free, bound, and total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of adlay samples ranged from 231.9 to 316.6 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, from 209.0 to 351.4 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, and from 440.9 to 668.0 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, respectively. The average ORAC values of bound phytochemicals contributed 48.1% of total antioxidant activity of the adlay varieties analyzed. The content of total polyphenol and the antioxidant capacity are obviously different among different species. Liaoning 5 adlay and Longyi 1 adlay are significantly better than Guizhou
Santos, M R; Rodríguez-Gómez, M J; Justino, G C; Charro, N; Florencio, M H; Mira, L
Background and purpose Flavonoids are known to possess a broad set of pharmacological effects, some of which have been attributed to their antioxidant properties and, more recently, to cell signalling modulation. Nevertheless, flavonoids are extensively metabolized and their metabolites are the potential bioactive forms in vivo. Therefore, a first and crucial step to understand the mechanisms underlying potential health benefits of flavonoids is knowledge of their metabolites and their biological activities. Experimental approach To approximate a human dietary pattern of intake of flavonoids, regular rat chow was supplemented with 0.02% quercetin and fed to Sprague–Dawley rats over 3 weeks. Plasma samples were analysed by HPLC and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, and plasma antioxidant capacity was measured by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulphonate) assay. Key results Major metabolites were 3′-methylquercetin (isorhamnetin) glucuronide sulphate conjugates, the most plausible conjugation positions being at the 3-, 5- and 7-hydroxyl positions. Isorhamnetin conjugates are methylated at the 3′-OH position, which decreases the high antioxidant activity of quercetin and its metabolites and their contribution to plasma antioxidant potential. Conclusions and implications This metabolic pattern differs from that observed after a single high-dose administration, where the major metabolites were quercetin conjugates at 5- and 7-hydroxyl positions and a significantly increased plasma antioxidant activity was observed. These data show altogether that the different metabolic patterns obtained under a prolonged low-dosage regimen or after a single high dose, crucially affected the antioxidant potential of plasma in treated animals. Our data also allow for the establishment of structure–antioxidant activity relationships for quercetin metabolites. PMID:18311191
Chen, Jie; Wanming, Da; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Qing; Kang, Jiuhong
Curcumin (Cur) is a promising antioxidant and anticancer drug, but several recent studies indicate that Cur exerts its anticancer activity through promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In the present study, concentration-dependent regulation of Cur on cell proliferation, viability and ROS generation, and effect of water-soluble antioxidants ascorbic acid (ASA), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on the antioxidant and anticancer activity of Cur were investigated in human myeloid leukemia cells (HL-60 cells). We found that although Cur concentration- and time-dependently decreased the proliferation and viability of cells, its effect on ROS generation (as indicated by the level of malondialdehyde, MDA) varied with its concentrations. I.e., low concentrations of Cur diminished the ROS generation, while high Cur promoted it. Combined with the opposite effect of 50 microM H2O2 on low or high Cur-induced MDA alteration, cell proliferation arrest and cell death, these results proved that low Cur exerted its anticancer activity through diminishing ROS generation in HL-60 cells, while high Cur through promoting ROS generation. Further studies showed that all water-soluble antioxidants ASA, NAC and GSH significantly enhanced both the antioxidant and the anticancer activity of low Cur. Considering that the extra accumulation of ROS is harmful to normal cells, the data presented here indicate that instead of using high doses, combining low doses of Cur with water-soluble antioxidants is a better strategy for us to improve the anticancer activity of Cur.
Tauro, Marilena; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Piemontese, Luca; Caradonna, Alessia; Capelli, Davide; Montanari, Roberta; Pochetti, Giorgio; Di Pizio, Antonella; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tortorella, Paolo
New catechol-containing chemical entities have been investigated as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as antioxidant molecules. The combination of the two properties could represent a useful feature due to the potential application in all the pathological processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity and radical oxygen species (ROS) production, such as inflammation and photoaging. A series of catechol-based molecules were synthesized and tested for both proteolytic and oxidative inhibitory activity, and the detailed binding mode was assessed by crystal structure determination of the complex between a catechol derivative and the matrix metalloproteinase-8. Surprisingly, X-ray structure reveals that the catechol oxygens do not coordinates the zinc atom.
Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won
The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348
Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won
The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.
Ogutu, Fredrick Onyango; Mu, Tai-Hua
The effect of ultrasound factors (time, power, and duty cycle) on sweet potato pectin molecular weight, neutral sugar composition, pectin structure, and antioxidant activity was investigated. Sweet potato pectin dispersions (0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01g/mL) in deionized water were sonolyzed for 5, 10 and 20min to assess effect of sonication time and pectin concentration on sonolysis. For further experiments 0.0025g/mL was sonicated under varying ultrasonic power and duty cycle levels, subsequently the molecular weight, galacturonic acid content, degree of methoxylation and antioxidant activity of sonicated pectin products were investigated. Results showed that ultrasound treatment reduced pectin molecular weight, while polydispersity did not show clear trend which characterized random pectin scission, increasing duty cycle from 20% to 80% resulted in approximately threefold reduction in pectin molecular weight, increased sonication power from 100W to 400W led to significant increase in galacturonic acid content from 72.0±1.2% in native pectin to between 85.0±3.2% and 92.0±2.7%, the degree of methoxylation significantly reduced from 12.0±3.0% to between 5.25% and 6.28%, sonication led to increase in galactose and decrease in rhamnose consistent with debranching of pectin. Moreover, sonication lead to increased antioxidant capacity, both 200W and 400W sonicated pectin having higher ORAC and FRAP values, with highest pectin concentration 4mg/mL in ORAC and 0.8mg/ml in FRAP giving substantially high antioxidant activity than native and 100W treated pectin. The ORAC value of 400W sonicated pectin increased five hold above the native pectin, while it's FRAP value was almost three fold higher than native pectin. However, ultrasound did not alter pectin primary structure as showed by FTIR and HPAEC results. The results indicated that ultrasound offers effective and green process for pectin transformation and creation of antioxidant potent pectin products.
Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.
Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan
The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.
Yao, Qian; He, Gang; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yibing; Shen, Yuanfu; Gou, Xiaojun
Context Although olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds, disposing OMWW is a serious environmental challenge. Production of wine via fermenting OMWW may be a promising alternative to deal with OMWW. However, whether or not olive wine from OMWW still reserves its original bioactivities remains unclear. Objective This study examines antioxidant activity of olive wine fermented from OMWW. Materials and methods Hydroxytyrosol in olive oil was determined by HPLC. Total flavonoid, total polyphenol and in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Aged mice were intragastricly administered 7, 14 and 28 mL/kg olive wine consecutively for 30 d. Afterward, levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in mouse plasma and liver. Results Contents of hydroxytyrosol, total flavonoid and total polyphenol in olive wine were 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of olive wine to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals was 2.5% and 3.2% (v/v), respectively. Compared with the solvent control group, olive wine with a dose of 28 mL/kg remarkably lowered mouse MDA concentration in liver, and reduced protein carbonyl level in plasma (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, olive wine at doses of 7 and 28 mL/kg notably enhanced SOD activity in both mouse plasma and liver (p < 0.05). The beneficial effect on liver was superior to that of γ-tocopherol. Conclusion The study demonstrated that olive wine from OMWW has potential for treating oxidative stress-associated diseases.
Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Miralles, Esther; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.
A simple and accurate reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneously determining and quantifying the antioxidants carotenes, xanthophylls, and retinol in human plasma is presented in this paper. Compounds were extracted with hexane, a C30 column, and a mobile phase of methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, and water were used for the separation of the compounds. A total of 8 carotenoids, 3 Z-β-carotene isomers, and 1 fat-soluble vitamin (retinol) were resolved within 72 min at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was achieved at 450 nm for carotenoids and 330 nm for retinol. To evaluate the effectiveness of themethod, it has been applied to an intervention study conducted on eight volunteers. Results. Limits of detection were between 0.1 μg/mL for lycopene and astaxanthin and 1.3 μg/mL for 15-Z-β-carotene. Recoveries were ranged between 89% and 113% for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Accuracy was between 90.7% and 112.2% and precision was between 1% and 15% RSD. In human plasma samples compounds studied were identified besides three lycopene isomers, demonstrated to be suitable for application in dietary intervention studies. Conclusions. Due to its accuracy, precision, selectivity, and reproducibility, this method is suitable to dietary habits and/or antioxidants status studies. PMID:26697143
Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G
The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.
Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Eun-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jo, Chan-Mi; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Jin Wook
Resveratrol acts as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant in the inhibition of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS). The function of resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles in protecting human lung cancer cells (A549) against hydrogen peroxide was investigated in this study. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Resveratrol had substantially high antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value) compared to trolox and vitamin E since the concentration of resveratrol was more than 50 μM. Nanoparticles prepared from β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were successfully developed. The β-lg nanoparticle showed 60 to 146 nm diameter in size with negatively charged surface. Non-cytotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with β-lg nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocynate-conjugated β-lg nanoparticles were identified into the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells, indicating that nanoparticles can be used as a delivery system. Hydrogen peroxide caused accumulation of ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles restored H2O2-induced ROS levels by induction of cellular uptake of resveratrol in A549 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) signaling in A549 cells, thereby accumulation of Nrf2 abundance, as demonstrated by western blotting approach. Overall, these results may have implications for improvement of oxidative stress in treatment with nanoparticles as a biodegradable and non-toxic delivery carrier of bioactive compounds. PMID:26732454
Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...
Two natural antioxidants, sesamol and omega-oryzanol, were examined for their antioxidant activity towards omega-3 oil. Sesamol and omega-oryzanol have been known to provide antioxidant effects at high temperatures such as those used for frying. In this study, the effects of 0.84 mM and 8.4 mM oryza...
Munteanu, Bogdanel Silvestru; Aytac, Zeynep; Pricope, Gina M.; Uyar, Tamer; Vasile, Cornelia
The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E have been combined by incorporation of these two active components within polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning (PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers). The morphological and structural characterizations of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The average fiber diameter was 140 ± 60 nm, and the size of the Ag-NP was 2.7 ± 1.5 nm. PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhymurium up to 100 %. The amount of released Ag ions from the nanofibers immersed in aqueous solution was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and it has been observed that the release of Ag ions was kept approximately constant after 10 days of immersion. The antioxidant activity of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers was evaluated according to DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and determined as 94 %. The results of the tests on fresh apple and apple juice indicated that the PLA/Ag/VitaminE nanofiber membrane actively reduced the polyphenol oxidase activity. The multifunctional electrospun PLA nanofibers incorporating Ag-NP and Vitamin E may be quite applicable in food packaging due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. These materials could find application in food industry as a potential preservative packaging for fruits and juices.
Shanidze, E; Zhvania, M
Aim of study consists of establishing of some clinical-biological correlates for rheumatic fever (RF) in children, namely correlations between clinical status and lipoperoxidation products -- malonidialdehide (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes in the blood. In the neutralization process of superoxside anions ceruloplazmin (CP), catalase (CAT) and transferin (TF) are key antioxidant enzymes (AOE) of antioxidative defense system (AOD). We studied 38 patients 3-15 years of age with different variants of RF. We measured the levels of MDA, CAT, CP, TF in the plasma in patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). In all of our cases AOE (CAT, CP, TF) were high at time of diagnosis, concomitant with increased MDA and inflammatory tests. Our study revealed intensified activity of AOD enzymes in children with RF.
Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin
The crude polysaccharide (W) was extracted by water from Saccharina japonica and five fractions were separated by anion-exchange chromatography. And their chemical constituents, neuroprotective activities and antioxidant activities were studied. It showed that W had the neuroprotective activity while its fractions did not. In addition, the fractions displayed higher activities on hydroxyl-radical scavenging effects and reducing power than these of W. Moreover, it was speculated that the neuroprotective activities of samples were related to the hydroxyl-radical scavenging effect and reducing power while did not relate to superoxide-radical scavenging effect. Finally, it was concluded that some fractions could be good candidate antioxidants in food chemistry owing to the high antioxidant activities and their non-toxic characteristics.
Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Comić, Ljiljana; Dačić, Dragana; Curčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.
Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369
Kadiiska, Maria B.; Peddada, Shyamal; Herbert, Ronald A.; Basu, Samar; Hensley, Kenneth; Jones, Dean P.; Hatch, Gary E.; Mason, Ronald P.
This is the newest report in a series of publications aiming to identify a blood-based antioxidant biomarker that could serve as an in vivo indicator of oxidative stress. The goal of the study was to test whether acutely exposing Göttingen mini pigs to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in a loss of antioxidants from plasma. We set as a criterion that a significant effect should be measured in plasma and seen at both doses and at more than one time point. Animals were injected with two doses of LPS at 2.5- and 5 μg/kg i.v. Control plasma was collected from each animal before the LPS injection. After the LPS injection, plasma samples were collected at 2 h, 16 h, 48 h and 72 h. Compared with the controls at the same time point, statistically significant losses were not found for either dose at multiple time points in any of the following potential markers: ascorbic acid, tocopherols (α, δ, γ), ratios of GSH/GSSG, cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), mixed disulfides and total antioxidant capacity. However, uric acid, total GSH, and total Cys were significantly increased, probably because LPS had harmful effect on liver. The leakage of substances from damaged cells into the plasma may have increased plasma antioxidants concentrations making changes difficult to detect. Although this study used a mini pig animal model of LPS-induced oxidative stress, it confirmed our previous findings in different rat models, that measurement of antioxidants in plasma is not useful for the assessment of oxidative damage in vivo. PMID:25614459
Yilmazer, N; Coskun, C; Gurel-Gurevin, E; Yaylim, I; Eraltan, E H; Ikitimur-Armutak, E I
This study aimed to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a commercial product of noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice. Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was employed as inflammatory model. One control and three experimental groups were formed. Experimental groups were administered noni juice alone, noni juice+carrageenan, and carrageenan alone. Oxidant and antioxidant capacity were determined by d-ROMs test and BAP test, respectively. Plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 and leptin were measured by ELISA. Measurements were performed at zero time and 2nd hour of inflammation. Oxidant capacity decreased in noni-received groups at 2nd hour (p=0.019). Antioxidant capacity of the group which received noni alone was found to be higher at 2nd hour (p=0.036). Plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 and leptin were notably lower in noni-received groups (p=0.001 and p=0.021, respectively). The results show that the commercial noni juice investigated has pronounced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Procházková, D; Wilhelmová, N
Reactive oxygen species are known to increase in plant senescence. We investigated the participation of antioxidative enzymes in initiation of cotyledon senescence. Senescence of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cotyledons was modulated by UV C irradiation and by the decapitation of plant apices. Senescence was accompanied by a decrease of protein content and by a decrease of photochemical efficiency. A drop in activity of antioxidative enzymes preceded the onset of senescence in control plants. In cotyledons with prolonged life span, the decrease of antioxidant activities and the markers of senescence onset appeared at a similar age as in controls. Thus we presumed that the period from senescence initiation to cotyledon abscission was extended. On the other hand, in UV C irradiated plants we did not observe actual senescence initiation, and antioxidant enzymes although elevated, did not effectively play their role. The decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity and the markers of senescence appeared at a similar age both in control and in decapitated (D) plants, so we can presume that we prolonged mainly the period from senescence onset to cotyledon abscission in D plants. In UV C irradiated plants the antioxidative enzymes were probably destroyed before the process of senescence could begin.
Castro López, María del Mar; López de Dicastillo, Carol; López Vilariño, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Victoria
Two types of active antioxidant food packages with improved release properties, based on polypropylene (PP) as one of the most common polymers used in food-packaging applications, were developed. Incorporation of catechin and green tea as antioxidant provided PP with 6 times higher stabilization against thermal oxidation. Release of natural antioxidants (catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, and quercetin) into various food simulants from that nonpolar matrix were improved by blending poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) (PPG-PEG-PPG) as plasticizer into the polymer formulation. Increasing release levels between 10- and 40-fold into simulant A and between 6 and 20-fold into simulant D1 resulted from the incorporation of catechin and green tea as antioxidants and PPG-PEG-PPG as plasticizer into the film formulation. The efficiency of the antioxidants in the food simulants after the release process was also corroborated through antioxidant activity tests. Therefore, the developed PPG-PEG-PPG-modified polypropylene resulted in a potential system to be used in active packaging.
Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira
In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)).
Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Mika; Sano, Kaori; Nakajima, Tomoko; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Mizuno, Akira
Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) has been extensively studied for biological and medical applications in recent years. Chemically active species are generated and injected into aqueous media subjected to plasma exposure. They play an important role in the activation and/or inactivation of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, lipid, and proteins, in aqueous media. To evaluate the effect of NTP on these biomolecules at the molecular level, we have been considering large DNA molecules to be used as a biomarker. The single-molecule-based analysis of strand breakages induced by NTP, namely, the atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), on large DNA molecules has been performed. We demonstrated the facile estimation of the rate of double-strand breaks induced by the APPJ. Using this analysis, we have evaluated both the intensity of radical reaction and the protective effect on the reaction by adding antioxidant agents.
Background The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacities, and antibacterial activities of Aloe vera lyophilized leaf gel (LGE) and 95% ethanol leaf gel extracts (ELGE) using GC-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Results Analytically, 95% ethanol is less effective than ethyl acetate/diethyl ether or hexane (in the case of fatty acids) extractions in separating phytochemicals for characterization purposes. However, although fewer compounds are extracted in the ELGE, they are approximately 345 times more concentrated as compared to the LGE, hence justifying ELGE use in biological efficacy studies in vivo. Individual phytochemicals identified included various phenolic acids/polyphenols, phytosterols, fatty acids, indoles, alkanes, pyrimidines, alkaloids, organic acids, aldehydes, dicarboxylic acids, ketones, and alcohols. Due to the presence of the antioxidant polyphenols, indoles, and alkaloids, the A. vera leaf gel shows antioxidant capacity as confirmed by ORAC and FRAP analyses. Both analytical methods used show the non-flavonoid polyphenols to contribute to the majority of the total polyphenol content. Three different solvents such as aqueous, ethanol, and acetone were used to extract the bioactive compounds from the leaves of A. vera to screen the antibacterial activity selected human clinical pathogens by agar diffusion method. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in acetone extracts (12 ± 0.45, 20 ± 0.35, 20 ± 0.57, and 15 ± 0.38 nm) other than aqueous and ethanol extracts. Conclusion Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. PMID:23870710
Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan
The strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) of Rosaceae family are an accomplished source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid and diverse range of polyphenols including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, ellagitannins etc. These phenolic compounds classify strawberry as an important health promoting food. Strawberries are proved to have potent antioxidant capacity in various in vitro assay systems. The in vivo beneficial effects are getting explored against various ailments including cancer, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. The present research study was designed to analyze the effect of strawberry fruit extracts (water and methanol) against alloxan induced hyperglycemia in albino rats of Wister strain. Upon alloxan (150mg/kg body weight) induction, the diabetic animals showed marked increase in the values of plasma glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and concomitant decrease in body weight and plasma insulin level. The oral administration of strawberry extracts for 45 days in diabetic animals reversed the biochemical changes significantly (P0.05) to near normal. Furthermore, the restoration of body weight loss was also observed. The results suggest that the strawberry extract has effective hypoglycemic activity against alloxan diabetes. The poly phenolic antioxidant contents of the strawberry fruit extracts are responsible for the observed biological effect.
Suica-Bunghez, I. R.; Teodorescu, S.; Dulama, I. D.; Voinea, O. C.; imionescu, S.; Ion, R. M.
Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a palm tree species, which is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the composition, total phenolic, flavonoid, tanins and monoterpenoids contents in the core and shell fruits. Concentration values of extracts were obtained from standard curves obtained. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. For all methods it was used the UV-VIS Specord M40, using different wavelength. The infrared spectral analysis was carried out to caracterized the type of functional group existent in snake fruit parts (shell and core).
Background Extracts from Potentilla species have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibit antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-ulcerogenic properties, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemistry and pharmacology on this genus. This study investigated and compared the phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from three Potentilla species (Potentilla fruticosa, Potentilla glabra and Potentilla parvifolia) in order to discover new resources for lead structures and pharmaceutical products. Methods Chemical composition and content of six phenolic compounds were evaluated and determined by RP-HPLC; Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau colourimetric method and sodium borohydride/chloranil-based method (SBC); Antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays; Antimicrobial properties were investigated by agar dilution and mycelial growth rate method. Results The results showed hyperoside was the predominant phenolic compound in three Potentilla species by RP-HPLC assay, with the content of 8.86 (P. fruticosa), 2.56 (P. glabra) and 2.68 mg/g (P. parvifolia), respectively. The highest content of total identified phenolic compounds (hyperoside, (+)-catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin and ellagic acid) was observed in P. parvifolia (14.17 mg/g), follow by P. fruticosa (10.01 mg/g) and P. glabra (7.01 mg/g). P. fruticosa possessed the highest content of total phenolic (84.93 ± 0.50 mmol gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total flavonoid (84.14 ± 0.03 mmol quercetin equivalent/100 g), which were in good correlation with its significant DPPHIC50 (16.87 μg/mL), ABTS (2763.48 μmol Trolox equivalent/g) and FRAP (1398.70 μmol Trolox equivalent/g) capacities. Furthermore, the effective methodology to distinguish the different species of Potentilla was also established by chromatographic fingerprint analysis for
Stoliarov, V A; Repin, A N; Markov, V A
The action of the synthetic antioxidant aemoxipin, 3-oxypyridime derivative on platelet aggregation was studied in 8 patients with ischemic heart disease and cardialgias. An hour later after an intravenous injection in a dose of 5-10 mg/kg, aemoxipin reduced platelet aggregation by 25% (p < 0.05), inhibited the reaction of "release" and spontaneous platelet aggregation. The same effect of the drug was demonstrated in the aggregation caused by ADP action on platelets preliminarily activated by minimum adrenaline concentrations in a tube. Our results are in agreement with the data of other investigators concerning a direct, non-specific nature of aemoxipin action on cellular membranes.
Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael
We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.
Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonowski, Zbigniew; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Konecki, Tomasz; Fendler, Wojciech; Sosnowski, Marek; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Reszka, Edyta
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.
Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiufei; Long, Min; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Liao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuren; Liao, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Tang, Zili; Tong, Qiang; Wang, Xiaocui; Fang, Fang; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Ouyang, Qin; Zhang, Donna D; Yu, Shicang; Zheng, Hongting
Cancer is a common comorbidity of diabetic patients; however, little is known about the effects that antidiabetic drugs have on tumors. We discovered that common classes of drugs used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the hypoglycemic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) saxagliptin and sitagliptin, as well as the antineuropathic α-lipoic acid (ALA), do not increase tumor incidence but increase the risk of metastasis of existing tumors. Specifically, these drugs induce prolonged activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated antioxidant response through inhibition of KEAP1-C151-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of NRF2, resulting in up-regulated expression of metastasis-associated proteins, increased cancer cell migration, and promotion of metastasis in xenograft mouse models. Accordingly, knockdown of NRF2 attenuated naturally occurring and DPP-4i-induced tumor metastasis, whereas NRF2 activation accelerated metastasis. Furthermore, in human liver cancer tissue samples, increased NRF2 expression correlated with metastasis. Our findings suggest that antioxidants that activate NRF2 signaling may need to be administered with caution in cancer patients, such as diabetic patients with cancer. Moreover, NRF2 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for tumor metastasis.
Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.
Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484
Lu, Ming; Liu, Yi-Hong; Goh, Hong Swen; Wang, Josh Jia Xing; Yong, Qian-Chen; Wang, Rui
The development of renovascular hypertension depends on the release of renin from the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, a process regulated by intracellular cAMP. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) downregulates cAMP production in some cell types by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, suggesting the possibility that it may modulate renin release. Here, we investigated the effect of H2S on plasma renin activity and BP in rat models of renovascular hypertension. In the two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C) model of renovascular hypertension, the H2S donor NaHS prevented and treated hypertension. Compared with vehicle, NaHS significantly attenuated the elevation in plasma renin activity and angiotensin II levels but did not affect plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Furthermore, NaHS inhibited the upregulation of renin mRNA and protein levels in the clipped kidneys of 2K1C rats. In primary cultures of renin-rich kidney cells, NaHS markedly suppressed forskolin-stimulated renin activity in the medium and the intracellular increase in cAMP. In contrast, NaHS did not affect BP or plasma renin activity in normal or one-kidney-one-clip (1K1C) rats, both of which had normal plasma renin activity. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that H2S may inhibit renin activity by decreasing the synthesis and release of renin, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for renovascular hypertension. PMID:20360313
Moura-Nunes, Nathália; Perrone, Daniel; Farah, Adriana; Donangelo, Carmen M
This study evaluated the association between the main plasma endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidant components and the increase in human antioxidant capacity (AC) after acute coffee intake. Ten adults were tested before and 90 min after consumption of coffee or water, in a crossover design, with a 7-day interval between tests. AC (FRAP and TRAP), ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, albumin, bilirubin and uric acid were analyzed in plasma/serum. After coffee consumption FRAP and TRAP increased 2.6% and 7.6% (P<0.05), whereas after water consumption FRAP and TRAP decreased 2.5% and 1.0% (P <0.05), respectively. In general, AC assays correlated with uric acid and α-tocopherol (r >0.75; P <0.04), independently of treatment and time point. Changes in AC assays after coffee intake did not correlate with endogenous components, which remained unchanged. These results suggest that coffee components spare endogenous antioxidants or are themselves the main contributors to plasma AC increase after coffee intake.
Abderrahim, Fatima; Estrella, Seyer; Susín, Cristina; Arribas, Silvia M; González, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis
Because of its good sensorial attributes, lemon verbena is used as a primary ingredient in infusions and nonalcoholic drinks. The present study was designed to assess the antioxidant activity (AA) of lemon verbena infusion (LVI) as well as the thermal stability of its AA and the content of polyphenolic compounds. The values reflecting the AA of LVI, including AA index, fast scavenging rate against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging, are higher than those of many herbal infusions and antioxidant drinks estimated from reported data. In addition, the slope lag time and specific oxyradical antioxidant capacity values of LVI are comparable to those of a commercial antioxidant drink based on green tea. Hence, LVI is a source of bifunctional antioxidants, and thus in vivo studies of the antioxidant capacity of LVI would be useful to evaluate its potential as an ingredient in antioxidant drinks.
Arriaga, Angela M C; Lima, Jefferson Q; e Vasconcelos, Jackson N; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Lemos, Telma L G; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Malcher, Grazielle T; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Mafezoli, J; Braz-Filho, Raimundo
The antioxidant and larvicidal activities of Tephrosia egregia extracts and its major component, dehydrorotenone, were studied. High antioxidant activity was found for dehydrorotenone and methanol and ethyl acetate extracts from roots and stems, respectively. Among the tested extracts, the hexane extract from stems showed potent larvicidal activity (LC50 12.88 +/- 0.64) while low activity was found for dehydrorotenone.
Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi
A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.
Ohmori, Reiko; Iwamoto, Tamami; Tago, Motomi; Takeo, Tadakazu; Unno, Tomonori; Itakura, Hiroshige; Kondo, Kazuo
Tea is a widely consumed beverage throughout the world. We assessed the antioxidant activity of six teas, including the aqueous extracts of green tea and oolong tea (Camellia sinensis), tochu (Eucommia ulmoides), Gymnema sylvestre, Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and LDL oxidation, and examined the association of LDL oxidizability with the plasma catechin levels in 10 healthy volunteers with a single dose of 5 g green tea powder. In vitro, the inhibitory effects of DPPH radicals and LDL oxidation were found to be strongest in the extract of green tea and weakest in that of barley. After the ingestion of green tea powder, the lag time increased from basal 52.2 +/- 4.1 to 60.3 +/- 4.2 min at 1 h and 59.5 +/- 4.1 min at 2 h, and then returned to the baseline lag time (51.9 +/- 1.4 at 4 h and 52.1 +/- 4.7 min at 6 h). Regarding the plasma catechin levels, epigallocatechingallate and epicatechingallate significantly increased from basal 3.7 +/- 1.3 and 0.8 +/- 0.8 ng/mL to 65.7 +/- 11.6 and 54.6 +/- 12.6 ng/mL at 1 h, and 74.4 +/- 18.6 and 49.4 +/- 7.1 ng/mL at 2 h, respectively. Green tea therefore showed the strongest antioxidant activity among the six different teas, and the inhibitory effects of green tea on LDL oxidation depended on the plasma catechin levels.
Guedes, Renata P; Bosco, Lidiane Dal; Teixeira, Camila M; Araújo, Alex S R; Llesuy, Susana; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M; Partata, Wania A
Oxidative stress is an important pathophysiological mechanism of many neurological diseases. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been cited as molecules involved in the nociceptive process. In this study, rats were submitted to sciatic nerve transection (SNT) for induction of neuropathic pain, and enzyme activities of SOD and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The results show that LPO was not changed after SNT. SOD activity was reduced 7 days after SNT, while the change in catalase activity occurred on the third and seventh days in both sham and SNT animals. Hyperalgesia in SNT group was detected at the same points in time. These results suggest that SNT was not a strong enough stimulus to deplete all antioxidant content in the spinal cord, since increase in LPO was not detected. However, the role of oxidative stress in nociception can not be excluded.
He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Wu, D Q; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A
Maternal malnutrition can have temporary or long-lasting effects on development and physiological function of offspring. Our objective was to investigate whether maternal protein or energy restriction in late gestation affects the antioxidant status of plasma, immune organs (thymus and spleen), and natural barrier organs (jejunum) in neonatal goats and whether the effects could be reversed after nutritional recovery. Forty-five pregnant goats (Liuyang Blacks) of similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and BW (22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), and 40% energy restricted (ER) until parturition, after which offspring received the normal diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma and tissues of kids were sampled to determine antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and catalase (CAT)] and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn-SOD [SOD1], CAT, and peroxiredoxin 2 [PRDX2]). Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P < 0.05) SOD activities in plasma, liver, thymus, and spleen and SOD1 expression in thymus, and maternal energy restriction also decreased (P < 0.05) plasma GSH-Px activity and expressions of SOD1 and CAT in liver at birth. After nutritional recovery of 6 wk, SOD activities in thymus (both in PR and ER) and spleen (only in PR) were greater (P < 0.05), but CAT activity of thymus (both in PR and ER) and CAT expression (only in ER) were less (P < 0.01) than those in control. After nutritional recovery of 22 wk, SOD1 and PRDX2 expression in thymus (both in PR and ER) and SOD1 expression in liver (only in ER) were greater (P < 0.05) whereas CAT expression in thymus (both in PR and ER) was less (P < 0.001) than in control. The current results indicate that maternal protein or energy restriction can decrease the antioxidant capacity of the neonatal
Haga, Satoshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizaki, Hiroshi
Forest-grazing enables the intake of high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) plants that might be beneficial for the TAC status of cattle. This study evaluated the relation between the seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black (JB) heifers or the TAC levels in shrubs and trees and the changes of plasma TAC. We examined 12 JB heifers, four each of which were allocated to forest-grazing (F), pasture-grazing, and pen-housed groups. The plasma TAC level in F heifers on July 26, August 13, 30 and September 17 were significantly higher than those on April 27 and June 4 (P < 0.05). In F group, the mean rates of foraging frequency (FF) of shrubs and trees during July 5-8 and September 13-16 were much higher than that during May 31-June 3 (P < 0.05). The rate of FF of grass significantly decreased later in the season (P < 0.05). The mean TAC levels in these shrubs and trees were higher than those in grasses, concentrates, and timothy hay. Results suggest that an important factor in the increase of plasma TAC in forest-grazing cattle might be the increased foraging of TAC-rich shrubs and trees during summer-fall.
Suma Pushparaj, Florence; Urooj, Asna
Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively) on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K) and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB). The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA) owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA) reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components. PMID:26784663
Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun
Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP. PMID:26506375
Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun
Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.
Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B
Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results
Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an
To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity. PMID:27668121
Li, Heng; Yuan, Qingxia; Zhou, Xianjiao; Zeng, Fuhua; Lu, Xiangyang
Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2-4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5-10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb). Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia) was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.
Najmanová, Iveta; Doseděl, Martin; Hrdina, Radomír; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Filipský, Tomáš; Říha, Michal; Mladěnka, Přemysl
Coumarins are a large group of substances, primarily of plant origin. Like their more intensively examined congeners flavonoids, many of them are antioxidants. Although such properties may be advantageous in cardiovascular diseases, it has been shown that coumarins exhibit direct effects on the cardiovascular system which are not based on antioxidant activity. The most common example is the well-known drug warfarin, a synthetic compound derived from natural dicoumarol. Moreover, other coumarins have been shown to possess antiplatelet and vasodilatory potential. Interestingly, the former effect may be mediated by the inhibition of various pathways leading to platelet aggregation, their differing effects on those pathways being due to structural differences between the various coumarins. Conversely, their vasodilatory potential is linked in the majority of cases to the inhibition of increases in intracellular calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells, and in several coumarins also to NO-mediated vasodilatation. Available data on both activities are summarized in this review. At the end of this review, relevant data are provided from a few studies testing the in vivo effects of coumarins on major cardiovascular diseases; the clinical use of warfarin and other coumarin anticoagulants, as well as the limited data on the clinical use of coumarins in chronic venous insufficiency and the possible toxicological effects of coumarins.
Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Machera, Kyriaki
Propolis is a bee product that has been extensively used in alternative medicine and recently has gained interest on a global scale as an essential ingredient of healthy foods and cosmetics. Propolis is also considered to improve human health and to prevent diseases such as inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. However, the claimed effects are anticipated to be correlated to its chemical composition. Since propolis is a natural product, its composition is consequently expected to be variable depending on the local flora alignment. In this work, we present the development of a novel HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS targeted method, used to identify and quantify 59 phenolic compounds in Greek propolis hydroalcoholic extracts. Amongst them, nine phenolic compounds are herein reported for the first time in Greek propolis. Alongside GC-MS complementary analysis was employed, unveiling eight additional newly reported compounds. The antioxidant activity study of the propolis samples verified the potential of these extracts to effectively scavenge radicals, with the extract of Imathia region exhibiting comparable antioxidant activity to that of quercetin. PMID:28103258
Banerjee, Somik; Saikia, Jyoti P.; Kumar, A.; Konwar, B. K.
Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to π-π* and π-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H2O2. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.
Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi
In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.
Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta; Ovidiu, Oprea; Bojin, Dionezie; Meghea, Aurelia
The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene—Sq and grape seed oil—GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers—NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive β-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index <0.19. The developed carotene-NLCs presented an excellent physical stability with almost all zeta potential values ranging between -29 ÷ -40 mV. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the β-carotene incorporation has led to a perturbation of solid lipid matrix with a less ordered arrangement. By UV-Vis spectroscopy it was evidenced that after encapsulation β-carotene adopts a supramolecular structure demonstrated by appearance of a shoulder at 530 nm related to a β-carotene triplet-triplet absorption. The carotene-NLCs have been also evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant properties. The presence of Sq and GSO produced a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of developed NLCs. The samples prepared with GSO and Tween 80 as main surfactant showed the highest antioxidant activity (AA %) against free oxygen radicals, exhibiting an enhancement of 35 % for loaded NLCs, as comparing to pure carotene. In addition to these properties, the ability of NLCs to manifest antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a higher extent on the
Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Zhi
In this research, two types of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives were successfully synthesized. Their antioxidant activities were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems. In addition, the degree of sulfation was evaluated using ion-chromatography and IR spectra. The results verify that, when employing scavenging superoxide radical tests, both the sulfation of acid Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SAAAP) and the sulfation of neutral Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SNAAP) derivatives possessed considerable antioxidant activity and had a more powerful antioxidant competence than that of the native non-sulfated polysaccharides (AAAP and NAAP). On the other hand, AAAP and NAAP exhibited stronger activity on scavenging both the hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Available data obtained with in vitro measurements indicates that the sulfated groups of AAAP and NAAP played an important role on antioxidant activity. In sum, the research demonstrates that the antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives in vitro has a potential significance for seeking new natural antioxidant protective agents. PMID:21686185
Zietz, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Schmidt, Susanne; Rohn, Sascha; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W
The influence of genotype and climatic factors, e.g. mean temperature and mean global radiation level, on the antioxidant activity of kale was investigated. Therefore, eight kale cultivars, hybrid and traditional, old cultivars, were grown in a field experiment and harvested at four different times. In addition to the investigation of the total phenolic content, the overall antioxidant activity was determined by TEAC assay and electron spin resonance spectrometry. A special aim was to characterize the contribution of single flavonoids to the overall antioxidant activity using an HPLC-online TEAC approach. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were influenced by the genotype and the eco-physiological factors. The HPLC-online TEAC results showed that not all flavonol glycosides contribute to the overall antioxidant activity in the same manner. Taking the results of the structural analysis obtained by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) into account, distinct structure-antioxidant relationships have been observed.
Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Zhi
In this research, two types of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives were successfully synthesized. Their antioxidant activities were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems. In addition, the degree of sulfation was evaluated using ion-chromatography and IR spectra. The results verify that, when employing scavenging superoxide radical tests, both the sulfation of acid Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SAAAP) and the sulfation of neutral Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SNAAP) derivatives possessed considerable antioxidant activity and had a more powerful antioxidant competence than that of the native non-sulfated polysaccharides (AAAP and NAAP). On the other hand, AAAP and NAAP exhibited stronger activity on scavenging both the hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Available data obtained with in vitro measurements indicates that the sulfated groups of AAAP and NAAP played an important role on antioxidant activity. In sum, the research demonstrates that the antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives in vitro has a potential significance for seeking new natural antioxidant protective agents.
Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Yuan; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Geun-Bae
This study provides an overview of the factors that influence the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity and the mechanisms that augment antioxidative activities in fermented plant-based foods. The ability of fermentation to improve antioxidant activity is primarily due to an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids during fermentation, which is the result of a microbial hydrolysis reaction. Moreover, fermentation induces the structural breakdown of plant cell walls, leading to the liberation or synthesis of various antioxidant compounds. These antioxidant compounds can act as free radical terminators, metal chelators, singlet oxygen quenchers, or hydrogen donors to radicals. The production of protease, α-amylase and some other enzymes can be influenced by fermentation that may have metal ion chelation activity. Because the mechanisms that affect antioxidant activity during fermentation are extremely varied, further investigation is needed to establish the precise mechanisms for these processes.
Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena
Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes—catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and ·O−2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells. PMID:26388737
Fabbrini, Elisa; Serafini, Mauro; Colic Baric, Irena; Hazen, Stanley L.; Klein, Samuel
Oxidative stress is purported to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We evaluated whether alterations in levels of circulating uric acid (UA), a systemic antioxidant, affects the following: 1) systemic (plasma and saliva) nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC); 2) markers of systemic (urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α) and muscle (carbonylated protein content) oxidative stress; and 3) whole-body insulin sensitivity (percentage increase in glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure). Thirty-one obese subjects (BMI 37.1 ± 0.7 kg/m2) with either high serum UA (HUA; 7.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL; n = 15) or normal serum UA (NUA; 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL; n = 16) levels were studied; 13 subjects with HUA levels were studied again after reduction of serum UA levels to 0 by infusing a recombinant urate oxidase. HUA subjects had 20–90% greater NEAC, but lower insulin sensitivity (40%) and levels of markers of oxidative stress (30%) than subjects in the NUA group (all P < 0.05). Acute UA reduction caused a 45–95% decrease in NEAC and a 25–40% increase in levels of systemic and muscle markers of oxidative stress (all P < 0.05), but did not affect insulin sensitivity (from 168 ± 25% to 156 ± 17%, P = NS). These results demonstrate that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, oxidative stress is not a major determinant of insulin action in vivo. PMID:24353177
Yehye, Wageeh A; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Ariffin, Azhar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Yaeghoobi, Marzieh
Hindered phenols find a wide variety of applications across many different industry sectors. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a most commonly used antioxidant recognized as safe for use in foods containing fats, pharmaceuticals, petroleum products, rubber and oil industries. In the past two decades, there has been growing interest in finding novel antioxidants to meet the requirements of these industries. To accelerate the antioxidant discovery process, researchers have designed and synthesized a series of BHT derivatives targeting to improve its antioxidant properties to be having a wide range of antioxidant activities markedly enhanced radical scavenging ability and other physical properties. Accordingly, some structure-activity relationships and rational design strategies for antioxidants based on BHT structure have been suggested and applied in practice. We have identified 14 very sensitive parameters, which may play a major role on the antioxidant performance of BHT. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current knowledge on this topic, which is of significance in selecting and designing novel antioxidants using a well-known antioxidant BHT as a building-block molecule. Our strategy involved investigation on understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of BHT, whether through hydrogen or electron transfer mechanism to enable promising anti-oxidant candidates to be synthesized.
Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue
Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus.
Berry fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds. In addition to the usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, berry fruits are also rich in flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, flavones, and their glycosides. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of...
This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928
Domoto, Hideharu; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tadano, Yutaka; Fujii, Shigenori; Tachi, Kazuyoshi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Michiya; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi
Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4.0, were elevated during SD to 60, 100, and 200 meters sea water (msw). The expression of these proteins returned to pre-diving level when the SD training was completed. The two proteins were identified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis; the 32.4 kDa protein was transthyretin and the 44.8 kDa protein was alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. Oxidation was detected at methionine 13 of transthyretin and at methionine 129 of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, haptoglobin was up-regulated during the decompression phase of 200 msw. These plasma proteins up-regulated during SD have a common function as anti-oxidants. This suggests that by coordinating their biological effects, these proteins activate a defense mechanism to counteract the effects of hyperbaric-hyperoxic conditions during SD. PMID:27741252
Park, Yong Soo; Jeon, Min Hee; Hwang, Hyun Jung; Park, Mi Ra; Lee, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung Gu; Kim, Mihyang
In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts prepared with hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE), using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method. The hot water extract possessed superior antioxidant activity than the other extracts. We also compared the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts through ROS inhibition activity in a cellular system using MC3T3 E-1 cells. The hot water extract exhibited the lowest ROS production. The pattern of HPLC analysis of each extract indicated that the hot water extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin level. The pine needle hot-water extract was then isolated and fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to determine the major contributor to its antioxidant activity. The No.7 and 12 fractions had high antioxidant activities, that is, the highest contents of proanthocyanidins and catechins, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of procyanidins from the hot water extract of pine needles is positively related to not only polymeric proanthocyanidins but also to monomeric catechins. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the pine needle hot water extract was similar to well-known antioxidants, such as vitamin C. This suggests that pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins might be of interest for use as alternative antioxidants.
Park, Yong Soo; Jeon, Min Hee; Hwang, Hyun Jung; Park, Mi Ra; Lee, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung Gu
In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts prepared with hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE), using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical method. The hot water extract possessed superior antioxidant activity than the other extracts. We also compared the antioxidant activity of pine needle extracts through ROS inhibition activity in a cellular system using MC3T3 E-1 cells. The hot water extract exhibited the lowest ROS production. The pattern of HPLC analysis of each extract indicated that the hot water extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin level. The pine needle hot-water extract was then isolated and fractionated with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to determine the major contributor to its antioxidant activity. The No.7 and 12 fractions had high antioxidant activities, that is, the highest contents of proanthocyanidins and catechins, respectively. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of procyanidins from the hot water extract of pine needles is positively related to not only polymeric proanthocyanidins but also to monomeric catechins. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the pine needle hot water extract was similar to well-known antioxidants, such as vitamin C. This suggests that pine needle proanthocyanidins and catechins might be of interest for use as alternative antioxidants. PMID:21994521
Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Haddad, Ella Hasso; McCarthy, Katie; Wang, Piwen; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan
Bioactive constituents of pecan nuts such as γ-tocopherol and flavan-3-ol monomers show antioxidant properties in vitro, but bioavailability in humans is not known. We examined postprandial changes in plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in concentrations of tocopherols, catechins, oxidized LDL, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in response to pecan test meals. Sixteen healthy men and women (23-44 y, BMI 22.7 ± 3.4) were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of test meals composed of whole pecans, blended pecans, or an isocaloric meal of equivalent macronutrient composition but formulated of refined ingredients in a crossover design with a 1-wk washout period between treatments. Blood was sampled at baseline and at intervals up to 24 h postingestion. Following the whole and blended pecan test meals, plasma concentrations of γ-tocopherols doubled at 8 h (P < 0.001) and hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC increased 12 and 10% at 2 h, respectively. Post whole pecan consumption, oxidized LDL decreased 30, 33, and 26% at 2, 3, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate concentrations at 1 h (mean ± SEM; 95.1 ± 30.6 nmol/L) and 2 h (116.3 ± 80.5 nmol/L) were higher than at baseline (0 h) and after the control test meal at 1 h (P < 0.05). The postprandial molar ratio of MDA:triglycerides decreased by 37, 36, and 40% at 3, 5, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), only when whole and blended pecan data were pooled. These results show that bioactive constituent of pecans are absorbable and contribute to postprandial antioxidant defenses.
Sokolova, E V; Barabanova, A O; Homenko, V A; Solov'eva, T F; Bogdanovich, R N; Yermak, I M
Antioxidant properties of structurally different sulfated polysaccharides (carrageenans) were studied in vitro and ex vivo. Ferric reducing antioxidant activity of carrageenans and their inhibitory effects on hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion radicals were demonstrated in vitro. Activity of carrageenans depends on the polysaccharide structure. Carrageenans stimulate catalytic activity of SOD from donor erythrocyte.
García-Mateos, Rosario; Aguilar-Santelises, Leonor; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Nieto-Angel, Raúl
Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of extracts of flowers from some Mexican accessions of Crataegus were studied using six accessions with the purpose of contributing to the knowledge of the nutraceutical properties of the accessions of the Germplasm Bank of the Universidad Autonoma Chapingo. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC-MS. Among the flavonoids, the quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside (4), quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)-glucoside (2) and quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)]-glucoside (1) were assigned. Flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity explain some of the medicinal properties attributed to flowers of Mexican hawthorns.
Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K; Bornman, Janet F; Bennett, Sarita J; Fang, Zhongxiang
Sorghum grain containing elevated polyphenolic antioxidant content may provide foods with benefits to human health. A study was undertaken to determine the potential role of irrigation on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant levels in sorghum grain. Bound, free and total polyphenols were investigated in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under either full irrigation or a deficit irrigation regime. Results showed genotype, irrigation and their interaction had a significant effect on polyphenols and antioxidant activity (P⩽0.05). The deficit irrigation treatment significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the full irrigation treatment. Of the six genotypes Shawaya black short 1 and IS1311C (brown) showed the highest polyphenols levels and antioxidant activity. Therefore, both irrigation treatments and genotype need to be considered by sorghum breeders and farmers during sorghum production to produce grain with the required levels of polyphenolics and antioxidant activity for targeted end-use.
Sacan, Ozlem; Yanardag, Refiye
Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. Many of these medicinal plants are also excellent sources for phytochemicals, many of which contain potent antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) is widely spread in Turkey and used as an antidiabetic in traditional medicine. In the present study, the antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor capacity of chard were examined. In addition, proline level of chard was determined. The antioxidant activity of water extract of chard was evaluated using different antioxidant tests. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that chard may provide a natural source of antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities and proline content.
Grace-Lynn, Chong; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan
Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenoids present in the leaves of the plant Lantana camara. In the present study, in vitro antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of lantadene A was evaluated using established in vitro models such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl radical (OH•), nitric oxide radical (NO•), superoxide anion scavenging activities and ferrous ion chelating assay. Interestingly, lantadene A showed considerable in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity activities in a dose dependant manner when compared with the standard antioxidant in nitric oxide scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating assay. These findings show that the lantadene A possesses antioxidant activity with different mechanism of actions towards the different free radicals tested. Since lantadene A is a very popular drug in modern medicine, it is a promising candidate for use as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent.
Lee-Manion, Alison M; Price, Ruth K; Strain, J J; Dimberg, Lena H; Sunnerheim, Kerstin; Welch, Robert W
Avenanthramides are substituted N-cinnamoylanthranilic acids, with hydroxycinnamic acid and anthranilic acid moieties. These alkaloid phenols, which are unique to oats, may confer health benefits via antioxidant or other mechanisms. Synthetic avenanthramides, hydroxycinnamic acids, Tranilast, and ascorbic acid were evaluated for antioxidant activity using two assays, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential), and for antigenotoxicity using the Comet assay with stressed human adenocarcinoma colon cells. Of all the compounds tested, N-(3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl)-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid (2c), an abundant oat avenanthramide, generally had the highest activity in all three assays. The drug Tranilast showed antigenotoxic effects, but not antioxidant activity, suggesting that antigenotoxicity is not dependent on antioxidant effects. Overall, results show that avenanthramides exert antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities that are comparable to those of ascorbic acid and which have the potential to exert beneficial physiological effects.
Fu, Lihong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jinju; Yang, Yanrui; Hao, Limin
Morchella esculenta, an edible medicinal mushroom native to China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. This study firstly investigated the antioxidant activity of Morchella esculenta extracellular polysaccharides (MEEP). An in vitro antioxidant assay showed that MEEP exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reductive power. For antioxidant testing in vivo, MEEP were orally administered over a period of 60 days in a d-galactose induced aged mice model. Administration of the polysaccharides inhibited significantly the formation of malondialdehyde livers and serums, and raised the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we also observed that MEEPs markedly enhanced the body's immune system by measuring macrophage phagocytosis and splenocyte proliferation in d-galactose induced mice. These findings suggest that EPs from Morchella esculenta are a promising source of natural antioxidants and immunoenhancing drugs.
Kheirandish, Farnaz; Delfan, Bahram; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Moradi, Nasim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Rashidipour, Marzieh
Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had
Umanskaya, Alisa; Santulli, Gaetano; Xie, Wenjun; Andersson, Daniel C; Reiken, Steven R; Marks, Andrew R
Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 or greater. Here we tested the effects of increased mitochondrial antioxidant activity on age-dependent skeletal muscle dysfunction using transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of the human catalase gene to mitochondria (MCat mice). Aged MCat mice exhibited improved voluntary exercise, increased skeletal muscle specific force and tetanic Ca(2+) transients, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) leak and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load compared with age-matched wild type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, ryanodine receptor 1 (the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction; RyR1) from aged MCat mice was less oxidized, depleted of the channel stabilizing subunit, calstabin1, and displayed increased single channel open probability (Po). Overall, these data indicate a direct role for mitochondrial free radicals in promoting the pathological intracellular Ca(2+) leak that underlies age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle function. This study harbors implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for treatment of mitochondrial myopathies and other healthspan-limiting disorders.
Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R
The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate.
Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J
Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect
Bashir, Samra; Gilani, Anwar H
Commercially available Aztec marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract (Af.Cr) was evaluated for the in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo analgesic effect on acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing. The results revealed the presence of pronounced antioxidant potential in Aztec marigold flowers and a dose-dependent (100 and 300 mg/kg) analgesic effect. The antioxidant and analgesic activities obtained seem to be in good accordance with the medicinal uses of Aztec marigold as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic.
van Tilborg, J.; Barber, S. K.; Tsai, H.-E.; Swanson, K. K.; Steinke, S.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Bulanov, S. S.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Leemans, W. P.
Active plasma lenses have attracted interest in novel accelerator applications due to their ability to provide large-field-gradient (short focal length), tunable, and radially symmetric focusing for charged particle beams. However, if the discharge current is not flowing uniformly as a function of radius, one can expect a radially varying field gradient as well as potential emittance degradation. We have investigated this experimentally for a 1-mm-diameter active plasma lens. The measured near-axis field gradient is approximately 35% larger than expected for a uniform current distribution, and at overfocusing currents ring-shaped electron beams are observed. These observations are explained by simulations.
Satheeshkumar, Kandhan; Mugesh, Govindasamy
A series of di- and tripeptide-based ebselen analogues has been synthesized. The compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy and mass spectral techniques. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like antioxidant activity has been studied by using H(2)O(2) , tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH), and cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) as substrates, and glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate. Although all the peptide-based compounds have a selenazole ring similar to that of ebselen, the GPx activity of these compounds highly depends on the nature of the peptide moiety attached to the nitrogen atom of the selenazole ring. It was observed that the introduction of a phenylalanine (Phe) amino acid residue in the N-terminal reduces the activity in all three peroxide systems. On the other hand, the introduction of aliphatic amino acid residues such as valine (Val) significantly enhances the GPx activity of the ebselen analogues. The difference in the catalytic activity of dipeptide-based ebselen derivatives can be ascribed mainly to the change in the reactivity of these compounds toward GSH and peroxide. Although the presence of the Val-Ala-CO(2) Me moiety facilitates the formation of a catalytically active selenol species, the reaction of ebselen analogues that has a Phe-Ile-CO(2) Me residue with GSH does not generate the corresponding selenol. To understand the antioxidant activity of the peptide-based ebselen analogues in the absence of GSH, these compounds were studied for their ability to inhibit peroxynitrite (PN)-mediated nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123. In contrast to the GPx activity, the PN-scavenging activity of the Phe-based peptide analogues was found to be comparable to that of the Val-based compounds. However, the introduction of an additional Phe residue to the ebselen analogue that had a Val-Ala dipeptide significantly reduced the potency of the parent compound in PN-mediated nitration.
Mahdi-Pour, Badakhshan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan
Objective To investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana camara (L. camara) various parts and the determination of their total phenolics content. Methods The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity(DPPH), xanthine oxidase inhibition activity and Griess-Ilosvay method. Results The results showed that all the plant parts possessed antioxidant properties including radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and nitrites scavenging activities. The antioxidative activities were correlated with the total phenol. The leaves extract of L. camara was more effective than that of other parts. Conclusions This study suggests that L. camara extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:23593576
Giergiel, Marta; Lopucki, Maciej; Stachowicz, Norbert; Kankofer, Marta
Antioxidative/oxidative balance is one of the important factors for homeostasis. Antioxidative systems which protect from peroxidative damage are supposed to be under the influence of steroid hormones. The implications of this influence are age and gender as well as tissue dependent alterations in antioxidative enzyme activities. Apart from hormonal influence, antioxidative enzymes require the presence of microelements in their active centers as well as concerted action of non enzymatic antioxidants which support enzymes in their scavenging action. The aim of this review is to analyze and compare existing knowledge about the changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes in human and animal females and males of different age. Evidence as regards participation of oxidative stress in senescence are specific diseases which, to some extent, are gender dependent and appear more frequently in males or females. Several experiments in laboratory animals revealed that changes in enzyme activities are reflected in histopathological pictures of cells. The alterations observed during perimenopausal period provide with additional evidence of the participation of steroid hormones in the regulation of antioxidative system activity. Moreover, estrogens themselves exhibit antioxidative activity which is receptor independent. In conclusion, apart from genetic-related influences, also diet and style of life may have an impact on the antioxidative system which requires appropriate supplementation in microelements and vitamins for its effective function of scavenging excess of free radicals.
Murillo, Enrique; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Durant, Armando A.
Objectives: The present research was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of cultivated and wild edible fruits consumed in Panama. Materials and Methods: 39 cultivated and wild edible fruits antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was assessed by using the DPPH and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Results and Discussion: The antioxidant composition of the fruits varied between 1083.33 and 16.22 mg TEAC/100 g fresh weight. On the other hand, the total phenolic content of the 39 fruits tested ranged from 604.80 to 35.10 mg GAE/100 g FW. Ziziphus mauritania presented the highest antioxidant activity and the largest phenolic content, whereas most fruits had a moderate TEAC value. Conclusion: Fruits polyphenol content was strongly correlated with antioxidant properties, which pointed out the important role of these compounds in the prevention of many types of cancer, neurological ailments, and cardiovascular diseases through diverse antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23248565
Motozaki, W.; Nagatani, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Endo, K.; Takemura, T.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.
We present a study of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and antioxidant activity of phenolic antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol). X-ray photoelectron and emission spectra of the antioxidants have been simulated by deMon density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the molecules. The chemical bonding of aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen 'lone-pair' π-orbitals which can neutralize free radicals and thus be related to antioxidant properties of the drug. In the case of paracetamol the additional nitrogen 'lone pair' is formed which can explain toxicity of the drug. We propose an evaluation method of antioxidant activity based on the relationship between experimental half-wave oxidation potential ( Ep/2 ) and calculated ionization potentials ( IP) by the DFT calculations, and can conclude that paracetamol has the higher antioxidant activity than aspirin.
Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Blažeković, Biljana; Štefan, Maja Bival; Alegro, Antun; Koszegi, Tamás; Petrik, József
Antioxidant activities of three selected Micromeria species growing in Croatia (M. croatica, M. juliana and M. thymifolia) were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays, in comparison with plant polyphenolic constituents and reference antioxidants. All studied ethanolic extracts exhibited considerable activity to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals, reducing power, iron chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity in the order: M. croatica > M. juliana > M. thymifolia. Total polyphenol (9.69-13.66%), phenolic acid (5.26-6.84%), flavonoid (0.01-0.09%) and tannin (3.07-6.48%) contents in dried plant samples were determined spectrophotometrically. A strong positive correlation between antioxidant activities and contents of phenolic acids and tannins was found, indicating their responsibility for effectiveness of tested plants. Our findings established Micromeria species as a rich source of antioxidant polyphenols, especially the endemic M. croatica.
Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S
Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants.
Takahashi, Kenji; Kunishiro, Kazuyoshi; Kasai, Masayasu; Miike, Tomohiro; Kurahashi, Kazuyoshi; Shirahase, Hiroaki
A novel series of 1-alkyl-7-amido-indoline-based anti-oxidative acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors have been reported and are expected to lower plasma cholesterol levels due to the inhibition of intestinal and hepatic ACAT, and to inhibit cholesterol accumulation in macrophages due to the inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In the present study, relationships between lipophilicity and biological activities were examined in 13 derivatives. Lipophilicity (logP) increased and water solubility decreased with dependence on the number of carbons in the 1-alkyl chain. Inhibitory activity against both in vitro intestinal ACAT and LDL oxidation positively correlated with logP; however, the optimum logP, at which the level of activity is maximal, differed between these two effects. Inhibitory activity against in vitro plasma oxidation was weakly dependent on logP. Plasma concentrations of the derivatives after oral administration at 10 mg/kg correlated negatively with logP and positively with water solubility. Hypocholesterolemic activity in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, and the ratio of Cmax and IC50 values for ACAT inhibition, an index of effective plasma concentration, positively and highly correlated with logP, while ex vivo inhibitory activity against plasma oxidation in rats, and the ratio of Cmax and IC50 values for the inhibition of plasma oxidation negatively correlated with logP. In conclusion, in vitro ACAT inhibitory and anti-oxidative activity were differently dependent on logP, and intestinal absorption was inversely dependent on lipophilicity in indoline-based anti-oxidative ACAT inhibitors. The hypocholesterolemic effect positively correlated and the ex vivo anti-oxidative effect negatively correlated with lipophilicity. Optimum logP as a bioavailable dual inhibitor against in vivo ACAT and lipid peroxidation was estimated to be 3.8 (1-pentyl and 1-isopentyl derivatives) in the present series of derivatives.
Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Tikhaze, A K; Lankin, V Z
Antioxidant effect of a complex preparation including antioxidant vitamins C, E, provitamin A and selenium was studied on the model of Cu(2+)-initiated free-radical oxidation of LDL isolated from human blood plasma. The antioxidant effect of combined administration of alpha-tocopherol+ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol+beta-carotene is far more pronounced that the antioxidant effect of individual components of these cocktails. Moreover, in the model system the combined action of all antioxidant components completely inhibited free-radical oxidation of LDL. A 30-day course of peroral administration of antioxidant vitamin cocktail and selenium to rats pronouncedly enhanced the antioxidant potential of liver and completely suppressed free-radical processes in the myocardium. It is suggested that preparations containing antioxidant vitamins and selenium can be perspective for prevention and complex therapy of atherosclerosis.
Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mukul; Kharel, Parashu; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua
Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a byproduct of biomass pyrolysis. As a low-cost, environmental-friendly material, biochar has the potential to replace more expensive synthesized carbon nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) for use in future supercapacitors. To achieve high capacitance, biochar requires proper activation. A conventional approach involves mixing biochar with a strong base and baking at a high temperature. However, this process is time consuming and energy inefficient (requiring temperatures >900 °C). This work demonstrates a low-temperature (<150 °C) plasma treatment that efficiently activates a yellow pine biochar. Particularly, the effects of oxygen plasma on the biochar microstructure and supercapacitor characteristics are studied. Significant enhancement of the capacitance is achieved: 171.4 F g-1 for a 5-min oxygen plasma activation, in comparison to 99.5 F g-1 for a conventional chemical activation and 60.4 F g-1 for untreated biochar. This enhancement of the charge storage capacity is attributed to the creation of a broad distribution in pore size and a larger surface area. The plasma activation mechanisms in terms of the evolution of the biochar surface and microstructure are further discussed.
Wan, Yin; Li, Huixiao; Fu, Guiming; Chen, Xueyang; Chen, Feng; Xie, Mingyong
Although sesame seed oil contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and even a small amount of free fatty acids in its unrefined flavored form, it shows markedly greater stability than other dietary vegetable oils. The good stability of sesame seed oil against autoxidation has been ascribed not only to its inherent lignans and tocopherols but also to browning reaction products generated when sesame seeds are roasted. Also, there is a strong synergistic effect among these components. The lignans in sesame seed oil can be categorized into two types, i.e. inherent lignans (sesamin, sesamolin) and lignans mainly formed during the oil production process (sesamol, sesamolinol, etc.). The most abundant tocopherol in sesame seed oil is γ-tocopherol. This article reviews the antioxidant activities of lignans and tocopherols as well as the browning reaction and its products in sesame seed and/or its oil. It is concluded that the composition and structure of browning reaction products and their impacts on sesame ingredients need to be further studied to better explain the remaining mysteries of sesame oil.
Ng, T B; Liu, Fang; Lu, Yanhua; Cheng, C H K; Wang, Zhengtao
A number of compounds were isolated from the medicinal plant Aster tataricus including shionone, epifriedelinol, quercetin, kaempferol, scopoletin, emodin, aurantiamide acetate and 1,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone. The compounds were compared with regard to their ability in inhibiting hemolysis of rat erythrocytes induced by 2'-2' azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, lipid peroxidation using the FeSO(4)-ascorbic acid system, and generation of superoxide radicals using a phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide system. The effects on the Fe-bleomycin-induced DNA damage reflected pro-oxidant activity. Quercetin and kaempferol were most potent in inhibiting hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and superoxide radical generation. Scopoletin and emodin were similar to quercetin and kaempferol in inhibiting superoxide radical generation and second to them in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Aurantiamide acetate exhibited some inhibitory activity toward superoxide radical generation. 1,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone exerted an inhibitory activity only on superoxide radical generation. Shionone and epifriedelinol did not display any antioxidant activity. Quercetin and kaempferol, but not the remaining compounds, exhibited some pro-oxidant activity.
Moein, Mahmood R; Khan, Shabana I; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ayatollahi, Syed A; Kobarfard, Farzad; Nasim, Shama; Choudhary, Muhammad I; Khan, Ikhlas A
A new dihydroflavonol, songaricol ( 1) and seven known flavonoids, ayamenin A ( 2), irisflavone A ( 3), 5,7-dihydroxy-2',6-dimethoxyisoflavone ( 4), irilin B ( 5), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,8,2'-trimethoxyisoflavone ( 6) and irisoid A ( 7) were isolated from rhizome and roots of IRIS SONGARICA. Structure elucidation of 1 was achieved through extensive NMR and circular dichroism techniques. Compounds 1, 5 and 7 showed antioxidant activity in HL-60 cells (IC50 values of 21, 11 and 3.8 microg/mL), whereas 2, 5 and the previously isolated irisone B were able to show estrogenic response (EC50 values of 305.5, 159.7 and 322.0 microg/mL) in yeast cells expressing human estrogen receptor (ER-alpha).
Rana, Virendra S; Rawat, Mohan S M; Pant, Geeta; Nagatsu, Akito
Mallotus roxburghianus is used in the traditional medicine in North-Eastern India, but previously no work has been done on the identification of bioactive compounds. Two new compounds, 3-(1-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid (6) and 2,4,8,9,10-pentahydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyanthracene-6-O-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside (7) together with beta-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), betulinic acid (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside (5), and bergenin (8) were isolated and identified from the leaves of M. roxburghianus. The chloroform soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of leaf, and compounds 3, 6, 7, and 8 exhibited encouraging antioxidant activities.
Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P < 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P < 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after thawing did not change during the study period in ALA group, but decreased in PA group (P < 0.006). After 3h of incubation LPO increased in the ALA group (P < 0.02), while LPO did not differ between phases within groups. In conclusion, feeding of neither saturated nor polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls.
DiMarco, Diana M; Norris, Gregory H; Millar, Courtney L; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz
Background: HDL function may be more important than HDL concentration in determining risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, HDL is a carrier of carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes, which protect HDL and LDL particles against oxidation.Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of consuming 0-3 eggs/d on LDL and HDL particle size, HDL function, and plasma antioxidants in a young, healthy population.Methods: Thirty-eight healthy men and women [age 18-30 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 18.5-29.9] participated in this 14-wk crossover intervention. Subjects underwent a 2-wk washout (0 eggs/d) followed by sequentially increasing intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/d for 4 wk each. After each period, fasting blood was collected for analysis of lipoprotein subfractions, plasma apolipoprotein (apo) concentration, lutein and zeaxanthin concentration, and activities of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and paraoxonase-1.Results: Compared with intake of 0 eggs/d, consuming 1-3 eggs/d resulted in increased large-LDL (21-37%) and large-HDL (6-13%) particle concentrations, plasma apoAI (9-15%), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity (5-15%) (P < 0.05 for all biomarkers). Intake of 2-3 eggs/d also promoted an 11% increase in apoAII (P < 0.05) and a 20-31% increase in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin (P < 0.05), whereas intake of 3 eggs/d resulted in a 9-16% increase in serum paraoxonase-1 activity compared with intake of 1-2 eggs/d (P < 0.05). Egg intake did not affect cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity.Conclusions: Intake of 1 egg/d was sufficient to increase HDL function and large-LDL particle concentration; however, intake of 2-3 eggs/d supported greater improvements in HDL function as well as increased plasma carotenoids. Overall, intake of ≤3 eggs/d favored a less atherogenic LDL particle profile, improved HDL function, and increased plasma antioxidants in young, healthy adults. This trial was
Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J
There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.
Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...
Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong
It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of glutathione [correction of gluathione], an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.
Nascimento, Patrícia L A; Nascimento, Talita C E S; Ramos, Natália S M; Silva, Girliane R; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Falcão, Rosângela E A; Moreira, Keila A; Porto, Ana L F; Silva, Tania M S
This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.
Raymond J. Fonck
The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.
Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul
The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.
Liu, Jing-yu; Feng, Cui-ping; Li, Xing; Chang, Ming-chang; Meng, Jun-long; Xu, Li-jing
To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 24 male and 24 female Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice in the four experimental groups were administered 0 (normal control), 50, 100, or 200mg/kg/d body weight CMP via gavage. After 30 days, the viscera index, leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, and biochemical parameters were measured. The effect of CMP on the expression of tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β in the spleens of experimental mice was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the administration of CMP improved the immune function in mice, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, the spleen lymphocyte activity, the total quantity of white blood cells, and IgG function in mice serum. CMP exhibited significant antioxidative activity in mice, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in vivo. CMP upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β mRNA in high-dose groups compared to that observed for the control mice. We can thus conclude that CMP effectively improved the immune function through protection against oxidative stress. CMP thus shows potential for development as drugs and health supplements.
Narasimhan, Manoj Kumar; Pavithra, Shenoy K; Krishnan, Vishnupriya; Chandrasekaran, Muthukumaran
Background Seaweeds are taxonomically diverse benthic algae, which are rich in bioactive compounds. These compounds have a potential application in medicine. Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the bioactive properties of three seaweed samples, Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata were collected from the shoreline of Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu. Materials and Methods Bioactive components were extracted by using various solvents. Antioxidant analysis methods like scavenging activity of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, free radical scavenging (DPPH), FRAP (ferric reducing ability plasma) ability and reducing power were carried out. MTT assay was employed to study the anticancer activity against cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines. Results It was found that methanolic extracts elicited higher total phenolic content, higher percentage scavenging activity of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, free radical scavenging (DPPH), FRAP (ferric reducing ability plasma) ability and reducing power. Different concentrations of crude methanolic extracts of seaweeds showed potential antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method. Crude methanolic extract of G. corticata had significant anticancer activity followed by E. antenna and E. linza on cancer cell lines Hep-G2, MCF7 and normal VERO cell lines by MTT assay. Conclusions The methanolic extracts of seaweeds Enteromorpha antenna, Enteromorpha linza and Gracilaria corticata possess high total phenolic content and shows a good free radical scavenging activity and hence are proven to have better antioxidant activity and they might be good candidates for further investigations in order to develop potential anticancer drugs. PMID:24624206
Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee
Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.
Chung, Soo Im; Kang, Mi Young; Lee, Sang Chul
Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at 80°C for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential. PMID:27069902
López de Dicastillo, Carol; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José
Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842
Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang
Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.
Panthong, S; Boonsathorn, N; Chuchawankul, S
Biological activities of various mushrooms have recently been discovered, particularly, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. Herein, three edible mushrooms, Auricularia auricula-judae (AA), Pleurotus abalonus (PA) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS) extracted using Soxhlet ethanol extraction were evaluated for their antioxidative, anti-proliferative effects on leukemia cells. Using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, phenolics and antioxidant activity were found in all sample mushrooms. Additionally, anti-proliferative activity of mushroom extracts against U937 leukemia cells was determined using a viability assay based on mitochondrial activity. PA (0.5 mg/mL) and AA (0.25-0.5 mg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability. Interestingly, PS caused a hormetic-like biphasic dose-response. Low doses (0-0.25 mg/L) of PS promoted cell proliferation up to 140% relative to control, whereas higher doses (0.50 mg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation. Against U937 cells, AA IC50 was 0.28 ± 0.04 mg/mL, which was lower than PS or PA IC50 (0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.001 mg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage conferred cytotoxicity. PS and PA were not toxic to U937 cells at any tested concentration; AA (0.50 mg/mL) showed high LDH levels and caused 50% cytotoxicity. Additionally, UPLC-HRMS data indicated several phytochemicals known to support functional activities as either antioxidant or anti-proliferative. Glutamic acid was uniquely found in ethanolic extracts of AA, and was considered an anti-cancer amino acid with potent anti-proliferative effects on U937 cells. Collectively, all mushroom extracts exhibited antioxidant effects, but their anti-proliferative effects were dose-dependent. Nevertheless, the AA extract, with highest potency, is a promising candidate for future applications.
Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo
In order to investigate polymeric flavonoids, the polycondensate of catechin with glyoxylic acid (PCG) was prepared and its chemically antioxidant, cellular antioxidant (CAA) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and antiproliferative effect of PCG were lower than those of catechin, while PCG had higher CAA activity than catechin. In addition, PCG had very high α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 value, 2.59 μg/mL) in comparison to catechin (IC50 value, 239.27 μg/mL). Inhibition kinetics suggested that both PCG and catechin demonstrated a mixture of noncompetitive and anticompetitive inhibition. The enhanced CAA and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of PCG could be due to catechin polymerization enhancing the binding capacity to the cellular membrane and enzymes. PMID:26960205
Geng, Sheng; Shan, Sharui; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo
In order to investigate polymeric flavonoids, the polycondensate of catechin with glyoxylic acid (PCG) was prepared and its chemically antioxidant, cellular antioxidant (CAA) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and antiproliferative effect of PCG were lower than those of catechin, while PCG had higher CAA activity than catechin. In addition, PCG had very high α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 value, 2.59 μg/mL) in comparison to catechin (IC50 value, 239.27 μg/mL). Inhibition kinetics suggested that both PCG and catechin demonstrated a mixture of noncompetitive and anticompetitive inhibition. The enhanced CAA and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of PCG could be due to catechin polymerization enhancing the binding capacity to the cellular membrane and enzymes.
The term ``active plasma resonance spectroscopy'' (APRS) refers to a plasma diagnostic method which employs the natural ability of plasmas to resonate close to the plasma frequency. Essential for this method is an appropriate model to determine the relation between the resonance parameters and demanded plasma parameters. Measurements with these probes in plasmas of a few Pa typically show a broadening of the spectrum that cannot be predicted by a fluid model. Thus, a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model of APRS probes, which can be described in electorstatic approximation, valid for all pressures has been presented. This model is used to analyze the dynamic behavior of such probes by means of functional analytic methods. One of the main results is, that the system response function Y (ω) is given in terms of the matrix elements of the resolvent of the dynamic operator evaluated for values on the imaginary axis. The spectrum of this operator is continuous which implies a new phenomenon related to anomalous or non-collisional dissipation. Based on the scalar product, which is motivated by the kinetic free energy, the non-collisional damping can be interpreted: In a periodic state, the probe constantly emits plasma waves which propagate to ``infinity''. The free energy simply leaves the ``observation range'' of the probe which is recorded as damping. The kinetic damping, which depends on the mean kinetic energy of the electrons, is responsible for the broadening of a resonance peak in the measured spectrum of APRS probes. The ultimate goal is to determine explicit formulas for the relation between the broadening of the resonance peak and the ``equivalent electron temperature'', especially in the case of the spherical Impedance Probe and the Multipole Resonance Probe. Gratitude is expressed to the internal funding of Leuphana University, the BMBF via PluTO+, the DFG via Collaborative Research Center TR 87, and the Ruhr University Research School.
Mishra, A; Kumar, S; Bhargava, A; Sharma, B; Pandey, A K
Oxidative stress is initiated by free radicals, which seek stability through electron pairing with biological macromolecules in healthy human cells and cause protein and DNA damage along with lipid peroxidation. Many phytochemicals have been found to play as potential antioxidants and antimicrobials. In the present study antioxidant and antistaphylococcal activities of Bauhinia variegata, Tinospora cardifolia and Piper longum have been determined. Total phenolic contents in plant extracts were estimated and different amounts of phenolic contents were found in B. variegata, T. cardifolia and P. longum extracts. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants such as, BHA, BHT, quercetin, ascorbic acid and propyl gallate. The % scavenging activity gradually increased with increasing concentrations of the test extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay. Dose dependent antioxidant activity pattern was also observed in phosphomolybdate assay. Antioxidant activity was directly correlated with the amount of total phenolic contents in the extracts. As compared to B. variegata, the extracts from other two plants exhibited higher antioxidant activity. In disc diffusion assays several solvent extracts derived from test plants inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum inhibitory efficacy was observed in T. cardifolia extracts. However, the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) (0.43 mg/ml) was recorded for ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of P. longum. This study demonstrates notable antioxidant and anti-staphylococcal roles assigned to some plant extracts tested.
Abouzid, S; Elshahaat, A; Ali, S; Choudhary, M I
Antioxidant activity of a selection of commonly occurring wild plants growing in Beni-Sueif governorate, Upper Egypt, has been tested. The plants selected are Tamarix nilotica, Ambrosia maritima, Zygophyllum coccenium, Conyza dioscoridis, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Calotropis procera. The in vitro antioxidant assays used in this study were 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves and flowers of Tamarix nilotica have shown the highest antioxidant activity in the three kinds of assay.
Marathe, Sushama A; Rajalakshmi, V; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Sharma, Arun
Legumes are rich source of proteins, dietary fiber, micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. Thirty different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India, were screened for phenolic content and antioxidant activity using, radical scavenging [(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, (ABTS·⁺], Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and metal ion (Fe²⁺) chelation assays. Legumes varied largely in their antioxidant activity. Horse gram, common beans, cowpea (brown and red) and fenugreek showed high DPPH· radical scavenging activity (>400 units/g), while lablab bean (cream and white), chickpea (cream and green), butter bean and pea (white and green) showed low antioxidant activity (<125 units/g). Green gram, black gram, pigeon pea, lentils, cowpea (white) and common bean (maroon) showed intermediate activity. Similar trend was observed when the activity was assessed with ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays. Thus most of the varieties having light color seed coat, except soybean exhibited low antioxidant activity. While legumes having dark color seed coat did not always possessed high antioxidant activity (e.g. moth bean, black pea, black gram, lentils). Antioxidant activity showed positive correlation (r²>0.95) with phenolic contents, in DPPH·, ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays, whereas poor correlation (r²=0.297) was observed between Fe²⁺ chelating activity of the legumes and phenolic contents.
Lee, Ga Hyun; Lee, Sung June; Jeong, Sang Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Park, Ga Young; Lee, Se Geun; Choi, Jin Hyun
Utilizing the biological activities of compounds by encapsulating natural components in stable nanoparticles is an important strategy for a variety of biomedical and healthcare applications. In this study, quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method, which is a suitable system for producing functional nanoparticles of controlled size and shape. The resulting quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in an aqueous system. Superoxide radical scavenging effects were found for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles as well as free quercetin. The quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles showed cell viability comparable to that of the controls. The amounts of proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages, such as interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, were reduced significantly for the quercetin-loaded silica nanoparticles. These results suggest that the antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin are maintained after encapsulation in silica. Silica nanoparticles can be used for the effective and stable incorporation of biologically active natural components into composite biomaterials.
Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Abouali, Morteza; Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Kanani, Mohammad; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa
Supported by a growing increase of scientific research attesting the health properties of salvia species, we have decided to investigate nine Salvia namely Salvia sclarea, Salvia atropatana, Salvia sahendica, Salvia hydrangea, Salvia xanthocheila, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia chloroleuca and Salvia ceratophylla species for their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. In order to correlate the bioactivity with their phytochemical content, the total phenol and total flavonoid contents were also determined. S. ceratophylla exhibited the strongest activity against C32 cells with an IC50 value of 20.8 μg mL(- 1), while S. glutinosa exhibited an IC50 value of 29.5 μg mL(- 1) against ACHN cell line. Interestingly, S. glutinosa displayed also the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 of 3.2 μg mL(- 1). These species are characterised by the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents. The obtained results suggest that Salvia species are healthy plant foods.
Rishmawi, Suzi; Ariqat, Sharehan H.; Khalid, Mahmoud F.; Warad, Ismail; Salah, Zaidoun
Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AA). Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC)), while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner. PMID:27999608
Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming
The antioxidant activities of 70% acetone extract (70% AE) from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel and its fractions of petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), water (WF), and the LF (WF fraction further purified through a Sephadex LH-20 column), were investigated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that all the extract and fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear correlation between the total phenolics concentration and the ferric reducing power or free radical scavenging activity of the extract and fractions. Among the extract and fractions, the LF fraction exhibits the best antioxidant performance. The MALDT-TOF MS and HPLC analyses revealed that the phenolic compounds associated with the antioxidant activity of the LF fraction contains a large number of procyanidins and a small amount of prodelphinidins, and the epicatechin is the main extension unit. PMID:21152321
Torkova, Anna; Koroleva, Olga; Khrameeva, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Tatyana; Tsentalovich, Mikhail
Quantum chemical methods allow screening and prediction of peptide antioxidant activity on the basis of known experimental data. It can be used to design the selective proteolysis of protein sources in order to obtain products with antioxidant activity. Molecular geometry and electronic descriptors of redox-active amino acids, as well as tyrosine and methionine-containing dipeptides, were studied by Density Functional Theory method. The calculated data was used to reveal several descriptors responsible for the antioxidant capacities of the model compounds based on their experimentally obtained antioxidant capacities against ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) and peroxyl radical. A formula to predict antioxidant activity of peptides was proposed. PMID:26512651
Nomi, Yuri; Shimizu, Saki; Sone, Yasuko; Tuyet, Mai Truong; Gia, Tien Pham; Kamiyama, Masumi; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Otsuka, Yuzuru
Methanol extract obtained from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves exhibited potent antioxidant activity. The water extract obtained from this methanol extract by sequential extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, and n-butanol also showed the strongest antioxidant activity among extracts. This water extract was further fractionated by column chromatography with various concentrations of methanol solutions. Among the 6 resultant fractions, the fraction developed with 20% methanol exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity. The one peak among the three major HPLC peaks in this fraction was isolated and purified using a preparative HPLC. The structure of a pure compound was elucidated as a novel macrocyclic ellagitannin using a (1)H/(13)C NMR and a high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. This newly isolated compound, which was named zeylaniin A, exhibited potent antioxidant activities in the assays of DPPH, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and malonadehyde/gas chromatography. S. zeylanicum leaves can be a possible source of natural antioxidants.
Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G
A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.
Sadeghi, Zahra; Valizadeh, Jafar; Azyzian Shermeh, Omid; Akaberi, Maryam
Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant property of B. elegans species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85 ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements. PMID:25767751
Xiaoming, Wang; Ling, Lei; Jinghang, Zhang
This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of flavonoids from Puerariae radix (FPR). In vitro antioxidant activities of FPR were investigated through hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of FPR was investigated through loaded swimming exercise of mice. Results showed that FPR had not only in vitro antioxidant activities, but also an in vivo anti-fatigue activity in mice. FPR possessed superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in in vitro experimental studies. In vivo experimental studies, FPR could evidently extend exhaustive swimming time of mice, inhibit the increase of blood lactic acid (BLA), decrease serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, promote increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of mice after swimming. The results provided an important basis for developing the FPR as a novel antioxidant and anti-fatigue compound.
This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...
Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane
In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants.
Background The aim of this study, is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, the total phenols content, the flavonoids content and the antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts of the plants: Krameria erecta, Struthanthus palmeri, Phoradendron californicum, Senna covesii and Stegnosperma halimifolium, used by different ethnic groups from northwestern Mexico in the treatment and cure of various diseases. Methods The in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP), the total phenols content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay, the flavonoids content by the AlCl3 colorimetric method and the antiproliferative activity (line cells HeLa, RAW 264.7, M12Ak.C3.F6 and L929) using MTT method. Results The K. erecta extract showed the higher radical scavenging activity (67.88%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (1.41 mg Trolox Eq), the highest total phenols content (598.51 mg Galic Acid Eq/g extract), the highest flavonoids content (3.80 mg Quercetin Eq/g extract) and the greatest antiproliferative activity in a dose dependent manner against most Cell line evaluated. A positive correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content. Conclusions This study is the first report on the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the five species evaluated. The results demostrate that there is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the flavonoids content, indicating that these type of polyphenols could be the major contributors to the observed antioxidant activity in the evaluated plant extracts. Of the extracts evaluated, that of Krameria erecta showed the greatest antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, a discovery that makes this species a promising candidate for future research. PMID:23305162
Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo
Recent studies suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases have attracted renewed attention to lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen. Although the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching by antioxidants have been measured extensively, the inhibition of lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen has received relatively less attention, partly because a convenient method for measuring the rate of lipid oxidation is not available. The objective of this study was to develop a convenient method to measure plasma lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen which may be applied to a rapid assessment of the antioxidant capacity to inhibit this oxidation using a conventional microplate reader. Singlet oxygen was produced from naphthalene endoperoxide, and lipid hydroperoxide production was followed by using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). Non-fluorescent DPPP reacts stoichiometrically with lipid hydroperoxides to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide. It was found that plasma oxidation by singlet oxygen increased the fluorescence intensity of DPPP oxide, which was suppressed by antioxidants. Fucoxanthin suppressed the oxidation more efficiently than β-carotene and α-tocopherol, while ascorbic acid and Trolox were not effective. The present method may be useful for monitoring lipid oxidation and also for rapid screening of the capacity of dietary antioxidants and natural products to inhibit lipid oxidation in a biologically relevant system.
Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a
Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be
Giordano, M. Elena; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Schettino, Trifone; Caricato, Roberto; Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Lionetto, M. Giulia
Colon is exposed to a number of prooxidant conditions and several colon diseases are associated with increased levels of reactive species. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet, but to date no information is available about their absorption and potential intracellular antioxidant activity on colon epithelial cells. The work was addressed to study the intracellular antioxidant activity of red grape polyphenolic extracts on rat colon epithelium experimentally exposed to prooxidant conditions. The experimental model chosen was represented by freshly isolated colon explants, which closely resemble the functional, and morphological characteristics of the epithelium in vivo. The study was carried out by in situ confocal microscopy observation on CM-H2DCFDA charged explants exposed to H2O2 (5, 10, and 15 min). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic composition of the extracts as well as their in vitro oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) was determined. The incubation of the explants with the polyphenolic extracts for 1 h produced a significant decrease of the H2O2 induced fluorescence. This effect was more pronounced following 15 min H2O2 exposure with respect to 5 min and it was also more evident for extracts obtained from mature grapes, which showed an increased ORAC value and qualitative peculiarities in the polyphenolic composition. The results demonstrated the ability of red grape polyphenols to cross the plasma membrane and exert a direct intracellular antioxidant activity in surface colonocytes, inducing a protection against pro-oxidant conditions. The changes in the polyphenol composition due to ripening process was reflected in a more effective antioxidant protection. PMID:27303304
Liu, Shengyi; Shi, Xuejie; Xu, Lanlan; Yi, Yuetao
Jerusalem artichoke is an economic crop widely planted in saline-alkaline soil. The use of Jerusalem artichoke is of great significance. In this study, the response surface method was employed to optimize the effects of processing variables (extraction temperature, pH, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on the yield of Jerusalem artichoke pectin. Under the optimal extraction conditions: pH 1.52, 63.62 min, 100°C and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 44.4 mL/g, the maximum pectin yield was predicted to be 18.76%. Experiments were conducted under these optimal conditions and a pectin yield of 18.52±0.90% was obtained, which validated the model prediction. The effects of diff erent drying methods (freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying) on the properties of Jerusalem artichoke pectin were evaluated and they were compared with apple pectin. FTIR spectral analysis showed no major structural diff erences in Jerusalem artichoke pectin samples produced by various drying treatments. The antioxidant activities of pectin dried by diff erent methods were investigated using in vitro hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems. The results revealed that the activities of spray dried pectin (SDP) and apple pectin (AP) were stronger than those of vacuum oven dried pectin (ODP) and vacuum freeze dried pectin (FDP). Therefore compared with the other two drying methods, the spray drying method was the best.
Lee, Jang-Chang; Kao, Jung-Yie; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Liao, Chien-Fu; Huang, Chi-Hung; Fan, Ling-Ling; Way, Tzong-Der
Fatigue is a noticeable and highly prevalent symptom in tense, industriously, and economically affluent modern society. Therefore, new antifatigue agents to smooth the fatigue feature are an energetic topic. The total ethanol extract (ESI) of Saussurea involucrata Kar et Kir., known as Tian-Shan snow lotus, was evaluated for antifatigue activity in ICR mice with mice forced swimming test and the determination of the contents of blood lactic acid and serum urea nitrogen. ESI (0.05, 0.15, 0.25 g/kg) was administered orally to mice for 4 weeks. The average swimming times to exhaustion of the ESI-treated ICR mice (0.15, 0.25 g/kg) were prolonged by 132% and 180% (p<0.001) with a lessening of fatigue compared with that of the control group. Analysis of biochemical parameters showed that levels of serum urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid of experimental groups were also decreased significantly (p<0.001) compared with that of the control group. The antioxidant activity of ESI was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay and the hydrogen peroxide-induced luminol chemiluminescence assay and the results indicated that ESI exerts DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power. These results provide scientific evidence that S. involucrata may have been potential as an antifatigue agent.
Xu, Min; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Tanaka, Takashi; Kouno, Isao; Zhang, Ying-Jun
Fifty-eight phenolic compounds isolated from Phyllanthus emblica were screened and compared for their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties, as well as hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory activities. Among them, 20 compounds showed to be promising antioxidants due to the stronger scavenging activity in both DPPH radical and Danio rerio reactive oxygen species assays, while nine compounds were potential HAase inhibitors with 100-fold stronger activities than that of the positive control, DSCG. The structure activity relationship was discussed.
Hong, Ying-Kai; Wu, Hua-Tao; Ma, Tao; Liu, Wei-Juan; He, Xue-Jun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the immune and antioxidant activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides (GGP) in rats fed high-fat diet. The experiment was performed on four groups of growing Kunming mice. The results of the experiment showed a statistically significant decrease in serum antioxidant enzyme activities in high-fat group. Administration of GGP dose-dependently significantly enhanced immune and antioxidant enzyme activities in the GGP-treated mice compared to the high-fat model mice. It is concluded that GGP treatment can enhance immune activities, and reduce oxidative stress in high-fat mice.
Zou, Tang-Bin; He, Tai-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin; Tang, Huan-Wen; Xia, En-Qin
Peptides derived from dietary proteins, have been reported to display significant antioxidant activity, which may exert notably beneficial effects in promoting human health and in food processing. Recently, much research has focused on the generation, separation, purification and identification of novel peptides from various protein sources. Some researchers have tried to discover the structural characteristics of antioxidant peptides in order to lessen or avoid the tedious and aimless work involving the ongoing generated peptide preparation schemes. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the relationship between the structural features of peptides and their antioxidant activities. The relationship between the structure of the precursor proteins and their abilities to release antioxidant fragments will also be summarized and inferred. The preparation methods and antioxidant capacity evaluation assays of peptides and a prediction scheme of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) will also be pointed out and discussed.
Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah
A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.
Oliveira, Raquel; Geraldo, Dulce; Bento, Fátima
A method is proposed and tested concerning the characterization of antioxidants by means of their reaction with electrogenerated HO radicals in galvanostatic assays with simultaneous O2 evolution, using a Pt anode fairly oxidized. The consumption of a set of species with antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (AA), caffeic acid (CA), gallic acid (GA) and trolox (T), is described by a first order kinetics. The rate of the processes is limited by the kinetics of reaction with HO radicals and by the kinetics of charge transfer. Information regarding the scavenger activity of antioxidants is obtained by the relative value of the rate constant of the reaction between antioxidants and HO radicals, k(AO,HO)/k(O2). The number of HO radicals scavenged per molecule of antioxidant is also estimated and ranged from 260 (ascorbic acid) to 500 (gallic acid). The method is applied successfully in the characterization of the scavenger activity of ascorbic acid in a green-tea based beverage.
Sesamol has drawn a considerable interest as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants due to its excellent radical scavenging ability at room temperature, low cost and additional health-promoting benefits. However, when it was evaluated for its antioxidant activity in soybean oil at frying temperatu...
Amensour, Mahassine; Sendra, Esther; Abrini, Jamal; Bouhdid, Samira; Pérez-Alvarez, José Angel; Fernández-López, Juana
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaves and berries were measured to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, the reducing antioxidant power assay and beta-carotene linoleic acid assay. The total phenol content of myrtle extracts ranged between 9.0 and 35.6 mg GAE per g extract. For each solvent, leaf extracts contained significantly higher amount of total phenolic compounds than berry extracts. All of the extracts presented antioxidant capacity assessed by the three methods, but at different levels depending on the concentration, the extraction solvent and the part of the plant used. Generally, leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than berry extracts, while the overall antioxidant strength was in the order methanol > water > ethanol in leaf extracts and methanol > ethanol > water in berry extracts. The phenolic content exhibited a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity: DPPH assay showed the highest correlation (r = 0.949), followed by the reducing power assay (r = 0.914) and the lowest for the beta-carotene linoleic acid assay (r = 0.722).
Sindhu, T.; Rajamanikandan, S.; Srinivasan, P.
The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Kyllinga nemoralis. Six different in vitro antioxidant assays including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and reducing power were carried out to ensure the scavenging effect of the plant on free radicals. In addition, total antioxidant capacity assay, total phenolic contents, tannins, flavonoids and flavonol contents of the plant were also analysed by the standard protocols. Kyllinga nemoralis exhibited high antioxidant activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay (IC50= 90 μg/ml), superoxide radical scavenging assay (IC50= 180 μg/ml) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay (IC50= 200 μg/ml), compared with standards. These observations provide comprehensible supporting evidence for the antioxidant potential of the plant extract. Reducing power (IC50= 213.16 μg/ml) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50= 223 μg/ml) of the plant extract was remarkable. The methanol extract of K. nemoralis exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Standard in vitro antioxidant assays assessed the electron donating ability of the plant extract in scavenging free radicals. The inhibitory effect of the plant extract against bacterial pathogens may be due to the presence of phytochemicals. Thus, the results suggest that Kyllinga nemoralis is a potential source of antioxidants and could serve as the base for drug development. PMID:24843192
Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan
Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…
Su, Quan-Sheng; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Hui
To investigate the effects of allicin supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and antioxidative capacity, a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in well-trained athletes. Subjects were randomly assigned to an allicin supplementation group (AS group) and a control group, and received either allicin or placebo for 14 days before and 2 days after a downhill treadmill run. Plasma creatine kinase (CK), muscle-specific creatine kinase (CK-MM), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), IL-6, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and perceived muscle soreness were measured pre and post exercise. AS group had significantly lower plasma levels of CK, CK-MM and IL-6, and reduced perceived muscle soreness after exercise, when compared with the control group. AS group also demonstrated a trend toward reducing plasma concentration of LDH after exercise (P = 0.08), although not statistically significant. Allicin supplementation induced a higher value of TAC at rest, and this higher value was maintained 48 h after exercise, however, there was no difference in SOD values after exercise between the two groups. The results suggested that allicin might be a potential agent to reduce EIMD. Further studies concerning anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of allicin on EIMD are needed.
López-Andrés, Patricia; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Gibson, Trevor M; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Mueller-Harvey, Irene
A total of sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Of these, eight lambs were fed a control diet (C) and eight lambs were fed the C diet supplemented with quebracho tannins (C+T). The objective of the present study was to assess whether dietary quebracho tannins can improve the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma and if such improvement is due to a direct transfer of phenolic compounds or their metabolites, to the animal tissues. Feed, liver and plasma samples were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by liquid chromatography-MS for phenolic compounds. Profisitinidin compounds were identified in the C+T diet. However, no phenolic compounds were found in lamb tissues. The liver and the plasma from lambs fed the C+T diet displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than tissues from lambs fed the C diet, but only when samples were not purified with SPE. Profisetinidin tannins from quebracho seem not to be degraded or absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, they induced antioxidant effects in animal tissues.
Vogler, Erwin A; Siedlecki, Christopher A
This opinion identifies inconsistencies in the generally-accepted surface biophysics involved in contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation, reviews recent experimental work aimed at resolving inconsistencies, and concludes that this standard paradigm requires substantial revision to accommodate new experimental observations. Foremost among these new findings is that surface-catalyzed conversion of the blood zymogen factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) to the enzyme FXIIa (FXII [surface] --> FXIIa, a.k.a. autoactivation) is not specific for anionic surfaces, as proposed by the standard paradigm. Furthermore, it is found that surface activation is moderated by the protein composition of the fluid phase in which FXII autoactivation occurs by what appears to be a protein-adsorption-competition effect. Both of these findings argue against the standard view that contact activation of plasma coagulation is potentiated by the assembly of activation-complex proteins (FXII, FXI, prekallikrein, and high-molecular weight kininogen) directly onto activating surfaces (procoagulants) through specific protein/surface interactions. These new findings supplement the observation that adsorption behavior of FXII and FXIIa is not remarkably different from a wide variety of other blood proteins surveyed. Similarity in adsorption properties further undermines the idea that FXII and/or FXIIa are distinguished from other blood proteins by unusual adsorption properties resulting in chemically-specific interactions with activating anionic surfaces. IMPACT STATEMENT: This review shows that the consensus biochemical mechanism of contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation that has long served as a rationale for poor hemocompatibility is an inadequate basis for surface engineering of advanced cardiovascular biomaterials.
Background The aim of this study was to determine glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in the drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy control subjects. Methods It was a case-controlled study carried on twenty-three patients (20 men and 3 women, mean age = 29.3 ± 7.5 years) recruited in their first-episode of schizophrenia and 40 healthy control subjects (36 men and 9 women, mean age = 29.6 ± 6.2 years). In patients, the blood samples were obtained prior to the initiation of neuroleptic treatments. Glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and antioxidant enzyme activities: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) were determined by spectrophotometry. Results GSHt and reduced GSHr were significantly lower in patients than in controls, whereas GSSG was significantly higher in patients. GPx activity was significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects. CAT activity was significantly lower in patients, whereas the SOD activity was comparable to that of controls. Conclusion This is a report of decreased plasma levels of GSHt and GSHr, and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities in drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia. The GSH deficit seems to be implicated in psychosis, and may be an important indirect biomarker of oxidative stress in schizophrenia early in the course of illness. Finally, our results provide support for further studies of the possible role of antioxidants as neuroprotective therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia from early stages. PMID:21810251
Schoonheere, N; Dotreppe, O; Pincemail, J; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L
Selenium is a trace element of importance for animal health. It is essential for adequate functioning of many enzymes such as, the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which protects the cell against free radicals. A muscular effort induces a rise in reactive oxygen species production which, in turn, can generate an oxidative stress. Two groups of eight racing pigeons were fed respectively with a diet containing 30.3 (control group) and 195.3 (selenium group) microg selenium/kg diet. The pigeons were submitted to a standardised simulation of a flying effort during 2 h. Blood was taken before and after the effort to measure antioxidant markers and blood parameters related to muscle metabolism. Plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly higher in the selenium group. There were no significant differences for the other measured parameters. As a consequence of the effort, the pigeons of the selenium group showed a higher increase of glutathione peroxidase activity and a smaller increase of plasma lactate concentration. Variations because of the effort in the other markers were not significantly different between the two groups. It is concluded that the selenium status was improved with the feeding of feedstuffs high in Selenium.
Custódio, Luísa; Escapa, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Eliana; Fajardo, Alba; Aligué, Rosa; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Romano, Anabela
This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical content and to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour. The extracts were rich in phenolic compounds, had considerable antioxidant activity, and reduced the viability of cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. The chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts were significantly affected by gender and cultivar. Female cultivar Galhosa had the highest levels of phenolic compounds, and the highest antioxidant activity. Extracts from the hermaphrodite trees and from the female cultivars Galhosa and Costela/Canela exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity. The most abundant compound was theophylline. The phenolic content was correlated to both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Our findings provide new knowledge about the health implications of consuming food supplemented with carob germ flour.
Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.
Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another
Mohamed, Norhidayu; Abdullah, Aminah
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii obtained from Langkawi, Kedah and Semporna, Sabah were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were determined according to the Folin Ciocalteau method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by three methods namely Free Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). Both of the TPC and FRAP assays showed that seaweed from Semporna, Sabah significantly (p<0.05) had higher antioxidant activities compared to Langkawi, Kedah one (Semporna's seaweed: 73.25 mg GAE/100g and 16.94 µmol TE/100g, Langkawi's seaweed: 54.35 mg GAE/100g and 10.01 µmol TE/100 g). However, the seaweed from Langkawi (60.93 µmol TE/100g) show higher TEAC value compared to seaweed from Semporna (36.36 µmol TE/100g) but for DPPH assay there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples. Pearson coefficient correlation test, showed that there was a positive correlation (p<0.01) between TPC and antioxidant activity (FRAP assay) (r=0.980) and thus it can be concluded that the phenolic compounds was a contributor of the antioxidant activity in Kappaphycus alvarezii.
Brunschwig, Christel; Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles
Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity), in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry. PMID:28036089
Kamali, Mansureh; Khosroyar, Susan; Kamali, Hossein; Ahmadzadeh Sani, Tooba; Mohammadi, Ameneh
Objective: Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae family) has been used in traditional medicine for stomach and liver disorders, headache and congestion. In the present study, we have investigated phytochemical properties and antioxidant activities of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of D.kotschyi. Material and Methods: Antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated using the integration of HPLC-DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. In addition, the luteolincontent was determined using HPLC method. Results: The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the methanol extract (among the three tested extracts) showing 50% DPPH scavenging activity at 4.85µg/ml as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (3.00 µg/ml, 0.97 µg/ml). Also, luteolin was detected in methanol extract; it was identified by comparing its retention time and DAD spectra with standard and it was one of antioxidant components of this plant. In addition, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract was higher than BHT, in FRAP assay. Total phenolic content was in the range of 11.62-22.29 mg Gallic acid /gram of dry extract and flavonoid content was in the range of 3.97-5.042 mg Quercetin/ gram of extract for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The quantity of luteolin in D.kotschyiwas found to be 1061.005 µg/g of dried plant. Conclusion: The results of this investigation indicated that luteolin plays major role in the antioxidant activity of the plant. PMID:27516983
Brunschwig, Christel; Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles
Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP-ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC-oxygen radical absorbance capacity), in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry.
de Oliveira, Adriana Maria Fernandes; Pinheiro, Lilian Sousa; Pereira, Charlane Kelly Souto; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Assis, Temilce Simões