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Sample records for plasma cell induced

  1. Apoptosis in vascular cells induced by cold atmospheric plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladek, Raymond; Stoffels, Eva

    2006-10-01

    Apoptosis is a natural mechanism of cellular self-destruction. It can be triggered by moderate, yet irreversible damage. Apoptosis plays a major role in tissue renewal. Artificial apoptosis induction will become a novel therapy that meets all requirements for tissue-saving surgery. Diseased tissues can disappear without inflammation and scarring. This is particularly important in treatment of blockages in body tracts (e.g. cardiovascular diseases). Artificial induction of apoptosis can be achieved by means of cold plasma treatment. In this work an atmospheric micro-plasma operated in helium/air has been used to induce apoptosis in vascular cells. Parametric studies of apoptosis induction have been conducted; the efficiency is almost 100%. The apoptotic factors are ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species). Their densities in the plasma have been measured by mass spectrometry. For apoptosis induction, RNS seem to be more important than ROS, because of their relative abundance. Moreover, addition of a ROS scavenger (ascorbic acid) to the cell culture medium does not reduce the occurrence of apoptosis. Cold plasma is a very efficient tool for fundamental studies of apoptosis, and later, for controlled tissue removal in vivo.

  2. Arsenic trioxide and melarsoprol induce apoptosis in plasma cell lines and in plasma cells from myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Rousselot, P; Labaume, S; Marolleau, J P; Larghero, J; Noguera, M H; Brouet, J C; Fermand, J P

    1999-03-01

    Recent data have renewed the interest for arsenic-containing compounds as anticancer agents. In particular, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been demonstrated to be an effective drug in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia by inducing programmed cell death in leukemic cells both in vitro and in vivo. This prompted us to study the in vitro effects of As2O3 and of another arsenical derivative, the organic compound melarsoprol, on human myeloma cells and on the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells. At pharmacological concentrations (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L), As2O3 and melarsoprol caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of survival and growth in myeloma cell lines that was, in some, similar to that of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Both arsenical compounds induced plasma cell apoptosis, as assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, detection of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface using annexin V, and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. As2O3 and melarsoprol also inhibited viability and growth and induced apoptosis in plasma-cell enriched preparations from the bone marrow or blood of myeloma patients. In nonseparated bone marrow samples, both arsenical compounds triggered death in myeloma cells while sparing most myeloid cells, as demonstrated by double staining with annexin V and CD38 or CD15 antibodies. In primary myeloma cells as in cell lines, interleukin 6 did not prevent arsenic-induced cell death or growth inhibition, and no synergistic effect was observed with IFN-alpha. In contrast to As2O3, melarsoprol only slightly reduced the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells induced by pokeweed mitogen. Both pokeweed mitogen-induced normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells showed a normal nuclear distribution of PML protein, which was disrupted by As2O3 but not by melarsoprol, suggesting that the two arsenical derivatives acted by different mechanisms. These results point to the

  3. Analysis of non-thermal plasma-induced cell injury in human lung cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Sano, Kaori; Wada, Motoi; Mizuno, Kazue; Ono, Ryo; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Recent progress of biomedical application of atmospheric pressure plasma shows that the biological effects are mainly due to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in liquid produced by the plasma exposure. To elucidate the cellular responses induced by exposure to the plasma, we focused on identification and quantification of reactive chemical species in plasma-exposed cell culture medium, and cell injury in mammalian cells after treatment of the plasma-exposed medium. In this study, we examined human lung cancer cell lines. The contribution of H2O2 to the cellular responses was considered. Here, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) sustained by a pulsed power supply in argon was used. After APPJ exposure to cell culture medium, RONS detection in liquid was conducted. It showed that OH radical, ONOO-, NO2-, NO3-, and H2O2 were produced in the plasma-exposed medium. Cellular responses of human lung cancer cell lines to the plasma-exposed medium in a concentration-dependence manner were also studied. It showed that the plasma-exposed medium and the H2O2 treatment gave similar reduction in viability and induction of apoptosis. This work was partly supported by MEXT KAKENHI Grant Number 24108005 and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26390096.

  4. Lipaemic plasma induces haemolysis in resuspended red cell concentrate.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S; Wiltshire, M; Cardigan, R; Thomas, S

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether haemolysis in red cells suspended in plasma was affected by the lipid content and/or methylene blue (MB) treatment of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP). We also investigated whether haemolysis was affected by the conditions under which lipaemic plasma was stored. Study 1: Visibly lipaemic (n = 22) or nonlipaemic FFP (n = 24) units were thawed, pooled and split into identical pairs, one of which was MB treated. These units were used to resuspend red cell concentrates (RCC) and tested for haemolysis immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage at 2-6°C. Study 2: Fresh plasma was aliquoted into 15-ml tubes and stored in one of four ways as follows: room temperature; 2-6°C; frozen and thawed; or twice frozen and thawed. A sample of RCC was resuspended in each of these plasmas and haemolysis measured after 2 h. Study 3: Plasma was divided into 15-ml tubes and stored as in study 2 followed by storage left standing upright in a refrigerator (2-6°C) for 24 h (with the exception of the room temperature sample). Plasma was separated into top, middle and bottom fractions and used to resuspend RCC that were assessed for haemolysis after 2 h. The levels of haemolysis in RCC were immediately greater when suspended in lipaemic plasma (0·70 ± 0·53% v 0·05 ± 0·06% for nonlipaemic plasma), which increased further on subsequent storage for 48 h (1·22 ± 0·40% v 0·15 ± 0·14% for nonlipaemic plasma). This was irrespective of whether plasma was MB treated. Lipaemic plasma stored frozen and then thawed resulted in the greatest haemolysis. In lipaemic plasma stored at 2-6°C, the chylomicron-rich top fraction caused the highest level of haemolysis. Haemolysis in red cells is increased in those suspended in lipaemic plasma and is dependent upon the storage conditions of that plasma prior to suspension. These data are relevant to the choice of plasma used to suspend red cells for neonatal exchange transfusion. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012

  5. DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction in cell apoptosis induced by nonthermal air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. J.; Kim, W.; Kim, K. T.; Lee, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma is known to induce animal cell death but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here, cellular and biochemical regulation of cell apoptosis is demonstrated for plasma treated cells. Surface type nonthermal air plasma triggered apoptosis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells causing DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. Plasma treatment activated caspase-3, apoptosis executioner. The plasma treated cells also accumulated gamma-H2A.X, marker for DNA double strand breaks, and p53 tumor suppressor gene as a response to DNA damage. Interestingly, cytochrome C was released from mitochondria and its membrane potential was changed significantly.

  6. DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction in cell apoptosis induced by nonthermal air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. J.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, W.; Kim, K. T.

    2010-01-11

    Nonthermal plasma is known to induce animal cell death but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here, cellular and biochemical regulation of cell apoptosis is demonstrated for plasma treated cells. Surface type nonthermal air plasma triggered apoptosis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells causing DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. Plasma treatment activated caspase-3, apoptosis executioner. The plasma treated cells also accumulated gamma-H2A.X, marker for DNA double strand breaks, and p53 tumor suppressor gene as a response to DNA damage. Interestingly, cytochrome C was released from mitochondria and its membrane potential was changed significantly.

  7. Non-thermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells via Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Sensenig, Rachel; Kalghatgi, Sameer; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Fridman, Gregory; Shereshevsky, Alexey; Torabi, Behzad; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Podolsky, Erica; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Brooks, Ari D.

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that non-thermal plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm2. TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm2. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm2. Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by γ-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies. PMID:21046465

  8. Characterization of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization: focus on OH radical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Honda, Ryosuke; Hokari, Yutaro; Takashima, Keisuke; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-08-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) is used medically for plasma-induced cell permeabilization. However, how plasma irradiation specifically triggers permeabilization remains unclear. In an attempt to identify the dominant factor(s), the distribution of plasma-produced reactive species was investigated, primarily focusing on OH radicals. A stronger plasma discharge, which produced more OH radicals in the gas phase, also produced more OH radicals in the liquid phase (OHaq), enhancing the cell membrane permeability. In addition, plasma irradiation-induced enhancement of cell membrane permeability decreased markedly with increased solution thickness (<1 mm), and the plasma-produced OHaq decayed in solution (diffusion length on the order of several hundred micrometers). Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of OHaq corresponded with the distribution of the permeabilized cells by plasma irradiation, while the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species in solution (detected by iodine-starch reaction) exhibited a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that OHaq, among the plasma-produced oxidizing species, represents the dominant factor in plasma-induced cell permeabilization. These results enhance the current understanding of the mechanism of APP as a cell-permeabilization tool.

  9. Cell death induced by ozone and various non-thermal plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskii, Vitalii; Churpita, Olexander; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2014-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma has been recognized as a promising tool across a vast variety of biomedical applications, with the potential to create novel therapeutic methods. However, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind non-thermal plasma cellular effects remains a significant challenge. In this study, we show how two types of different non-thermal plasmas induce cell death in mammalian cell cultures via the formation of multiple intracellular reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Our results showed a discrepancy in the superoxide accumulation and lysosomal activity in response to air and helium plasma, suggesting that triggered signalling cascades might be grossly different between different plasmas. In addition, the effects of ozone, a considerable component of non-thermal plasma, have been simultaneously evaluated and have revealed much faster and higher cytotoxic effects. Our findings offer novel insight into plasma-induced cellular responses, and provide a basis for better controlled biomedical applications.

  10. Cell death induced by ozone and various non-thermal plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskii, Vitalii; Churpita, Olexander; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma has been recognized as a promising tool across a vast variety of biomedical applications, with the potential to create novel therapeutic methods. However, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind non-thermal plasma cellular effects remains a significant challenge. In this study, we show how two types of different non-thermal plasmas induce cell death in mammalian cell cultures via the formation of multiple intracellular reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Our results showed a discrepancy in the superoxide accumulation and lysosomal activity in response to air and helium plasma, suggesting that triggered signalling cascades might be grossly different between different plasmas. In addition, the effects of ozone, a considerable component of non-thermal plasma, have been simultaneously evaluated and have revealed much faster and higher cytotoxic effects. Our findings offer novel insight into plasma-induced cellular responses, and provide a basis for better controlled biomedical applications. PMID:25410636

  11. Study of plasma-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells survival using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ranjit K; Salman, Ahmad; Mordechai, Shaul; Manor, Esther

    2013-11-01

    Components present in the acellular fraction of blood influence the blood cell survival and function and the response to biotic and abiotic factors. Human plasma and sera have been used as therapeutic agents and are known to increase cell survival. White blood cells in normal blood are exposed to plasma components in vivo, but the effect of such plasma components in vitro on adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that includes monocytes has not been fully investigated. We cultured human PBMCs with autologous plasma and observed structural variation due to plasma addition in PBMCs along with increased cell survival. Light microscopy of the cells showed increased granularity in plasma-treated cells. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to elucidate the possible mechanism by studying the changes in the biochemical composition of the cells that explained the observations. FTIR spectroscopy of plasma-treated cells show altered spectral pattern in the mid-IR region, indicating increased phospholipid levels. Heat-stable components in the plasma possibly increase the differentiation of PBMCs, as evident by increased phospholipid metabolism. The data suggest that plasma-stimulated membrane biogenesis may contribute to PBMC survival by inducing them to differentiate into antigen presenting cells (APCs) like macrophages and dendritic cells.

  12. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xu; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Sharon Stack, M.

    2013-06-10

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was applied to induce DNA damage of SCC-25 oral cancer cells. Optical emission spectra were taken to characterize the reactive species produced in APPJ. In order to explore the spatial distribution of plasma effects, cells were placed onto photo-etched grid slides and the antibody H2A.X was used to locate double strand breaks of DNA inside nuclei using an immunofluorescence assay. The number of cells with double strand breaks in DNA was observed to be varied due to the distance from the irradiation center and duration of plasma treatment.

  13. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Sharon Stack, M.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2013-06-01

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was applied to induce DNA damage of SCC-25 oral cancer cells. Optical emission spectra were taken to characterize the reactive species produced in APPJ. In order to explore the spatial distribution of plasma effects, cells were placed onto photo-etched grid slides and the antibody H2A.X was used to locate double strand breaks of DNA inside nuclei using an immunofluorescence assay. The number of cells with double strand breaks in DNA was observed to be varied due to the distance from the irradiation center and duration of plasma treatment.

  14. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2013-09-01

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC-25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory consists of two external electrodes wrapping around a quartz tube and nitrogen as a feed gas and operates based on dielectric barrier gas discharge. Generally, it is more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, this design provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to the noble gases for future clinical operation. Different parameters of the APPJ configuration were tested in order to determine radiation dosage. To explore the effects of delayed damage and cell self-repairing, various incubation times of cells after plasma treatment were also performed. Reactive species generated in plasma jet and in liquid environment are essential to be identified and quantified, with the aim of unfolding the mystery of detailed mechanisms for plasma-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, from the comparison of plasma treatment effect on normal oral cells OKF6T, an insight to the selectivity for cancer treatment by APPJ can be explored. All of these studies are critical to better understand the damage responses of normal and abnormal cellular systems to plasma radiation, which are useful for the development of advanced plasma therapy for cancer treatment at a later stage.

  15. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces a Predominantly Necrotic Cell Death via the Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cousty, Sarah; Cambus, Jean-Pierre; Valentin, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cold plasma is a partially ionized gas generated by an electric field at atmospheric pressure that was initially used in medicine for decontamination and sterilization of inert surfaces. There is currently growing interest in using cold plasma for more direct medical applications, mainly due to the possibility of tuning it to obtain selective biological effects in absence of toxicity for surrounding normal tissues,. While the therapeutic potential of cold plasma in chronic wound, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment is beginning to be documented, information on plasma/cell interaction is so far limited and controversial. Methods and Results Using normal primary human fibroblast cultures isolated from oral tissue, we sought to decipher the effects on cell behavior of a proprietary cold plasma device generating guided ionization waves carried by helium. In this model, cold plasma treatment induces a predominantly necrotic cell death. Interestingly, death is not triggered by a direct interaction of the cold plasma with cells, but rather via a transient modification in the microenvironment. We show that modification of the microenvironment redox status suppresses treatment toxicity and protects cells from death. Moreover, necrosis is not accidental and seems to be an active response to an environmental cue, as its execution can be inhibited to rescue cells. Conclusion These observations will need to be taken into account when studying in vitro plasma/cell interaction and may have implications for the design and future evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this new treatment strategy. PMID:26275141

  16. Nonthermal Atmospheric Plasma Rapidly Disinfects Multidrug-Resistant Microbes by Inducing Cell Surface Damage

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian; Mondello, Frank; Garner, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma, a unique state of matter with properties similar to those of ionized gas, is an effective biological disinfectant. However, the mechanism through which nonthermal or “cold” plasma inactivates microbes on surfaces is poorly understood, due in part to challenges associated with processing and analyzing live cells on surfaces rather than in aqueous solution. Here, we employ membrane adsorption techniques to visualize the cellular effects of plasma on representative clinical isolates of drug-resistant microbes. Through direct fluorescent imaging, we demonstrate that plasma rapidly inactivates planktonic cultures, with >5 log10 kill in 30 s by damaging the cell surface in a time-dependent manner, resulting in a loss of membrane integrity, leakage of intracellular components (nucleic acid, protein, ATP), and ultimately focal dissolution of the cell surface with longer exposure time. This occurred with similar kinetic rates among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We observed no correlative evidence that plasma induced widespread genomic damage or oxidative protein modification prior to the onset of membrane damage. Consistent with the notion that plasma is superficial, plasma-mediated sterilization was dramatically reduced when microbial cells were enveloped in aqueous buffer prior to treatment. These results support the use of nonthermal plasmas for disinfecting multidrug-resistant microbes in environmental settings and substantiate ongoing clinical applications for plasma devices. PMID:22232292

  17. Nonthermal atmospheric plasma rapidly disinfects multidrug-resistant microbes by inducing cell surface damage.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Erik; Davis, Brian; Mondello, Frank; Garner, Allen L

    2012-04-01

    Plasma, a unique state of matter with properties similar to those of ionized gas, is an effective biological disinfectant. However, the mechanism through which nonthermal or "cold" plasma inactivates microbes on surfaces is poorly understood, due in part to challenges associated with processing and analyzing live cells on surfaces rather than in aqueous solution. Here, we employ membrane adsorption techniques to visualize the cellular effects of plasma on representative clinical isolates of drug-resistant microbes. Through direct fluorescent imaging, we demonstrate that plasma rapidly inactivates planktonic cultures, with >5 log(10) kill in 30 s by damaging the cell surface in a time-dependent manner, resulting in a loss of membrane integrity, leakage of intracellular components (nucleic acid, protein, ATP), and ultimately focal dissolution of the cell surface with longer exposure time. This occurred with similar kinetic rates among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We observed no correlative evidence that plasma induced widespread genomic damage or oxidative protein modification prior to the onset of membrane damage. Consistent with the notion that plasma is superficial, plasma-mediated sterilization was dramatically reduced when microbial cells were enveloped in aqueous buffer prior to treatment. These results support the use of nonthermal plasmas for disinfecting multidrug-resistant microbes in environmental settings and substantiate ongoing clinical applications for plasma devices.

  18. Miniature Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Inhibits Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments like radiotherapy and chemotherapy have drawbacks and are not selective for killing only cancer cells. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can be applied to living cells and tissues and have emerged as novel tools for localized cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different effects caused by miniature DBD (mDBD) plasma to A549 lung cancer cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cells cultured in 12 well plates were treated with mDBD plasma for specified treatment times to assess the changes in the size of the area of cell detachment, the viability of attached or detached cells, and cell migration. Furthermore, we investigated an innovative mDBD plasma-based therapy for localized treatment of lung cancer cells through apoptotic induction. Our results indicate that plasma treatment for 120 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 35.8% of cells, while mDBD plasma treatment for 60 sec, 30 sec, or 15 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 20.5%, 14.1%, and 6.3% of the cell population, respectively. Additionally, we observed reduced A549 cell migration in response to mDBD plasma treatment. Thus, mDBD plasma system can be a viable platform for localized lung cancer therapy. PMID:28243603

  19. Miniature Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Inhibits Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surya B; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Ayan, Halim

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments like radiotherapy and chemotherapy have drawbacks and are not selective for killing only cancer cells. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can be applied to living cells and tissues and have emerged as novel tools for localized cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different effects caused by miniature DBD (mDBD) plasma to A549 lung cancer cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cells cultured in 12 well plates were treated with mDBD plasma for specified treatment times to assess the changes in the size of the area of cell detachment, the viability of attached or detached cells, and cell migration. Furthermore, we investigated an innovative mDBD plasma-based therapy for localized treatment of lung cancer cells through apoptotic induction. Our results indicate that plasma treatment for 120 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 35.8% of cells, while mDBD plasma treatment for 60 sec, 30 sec, or 15 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 20.5%, 14.1%, and 6.3% of the cell population, respectively. Additionally, we observed reduced A549 cell migration in response to mDBD plasma treatment. Thus, mDBD plasma system can be a viable platform for localized lung cancer therapy.

  20. Elisidepsin Interacts Directly with Glycosylceramides in the Plasma Membrane of Tumor Cells to Induce Necrotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Guijarro, José Manuel; García, Carolina; Macías, Álvaro; García-Fernández, Luis Francisco; Moreno, Cristina; Reyes, Fernando; Martínez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Fernández, Rogelio; Martínez, Valentín; Valenzuela, Carmen; Lillo, M. Pilar; Galmarini, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane integrity is essential for cell life. Any major break on it immediately induces the death of the affected cell. Different molecules were described as disrupting this cell structure and thus showing antitumor activity. We have previously defined that elisidepsin (Irvalec®, PM02734) inserts and self-organizes in the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing a rapid loss of membrane integrity, cell permeabilization and necrotic death. Here we show that, in sensitive HCT-116 colorectal cells, all these effects are consequence of the interaction of elisidepsin with glycosylceramides in the cell membrane. Of note, an elisidepsin-resistant subline (HCT-116-Irv) presented reduced levels of glycosylceramides and no accumulation of elisidepsin in the plasma membrane. Consequently, drug treatment did not induce the characteristic necrotic cell death. Furthermore, GM95, a mutant derivative from B16 mouse melanoma cells lacking ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) activity and thus the synthesis of glycosylceramides, was also resistant to elisidepsin. Over-expression of UGCG gene in these deficient cells restored glycosylceramides synthesis, rendering them sensitive to elisidepsin, at a similar level than parental B16 cells. These results indicate that glycosylceramides act as membrane targets of elisidepsin, facilitating its insertion in the plasma membrane and the subsequent membrane permeabilization that leads to drug-induced cell death. They also indicate that cell membrane lipids are a plausible target for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:26474061

  1. Pro-apoptotic NOXA is implicated in atmospheric-pressure plasma-induced melanoma cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) has been successfully used to treat several types of cancers in vivo and in vitro, with the effect being primarily attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanisms by which APP induces apoptosis in cancer cells require further elucidation. In this study, the effects of APP on the expression of 500 genes in melanoma Mel007 cancer cells were examined. Pro-apoptotic phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein (PMAIP1), also known as NOXA, was highly expressed as a result of APP treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking of ROS using scavenger NAC or silencing of NOXA gene by RNA interference inhibited the APP-induced NOXA genes upregulation and impaired caspases 3/7 mediated apoptosis, confirming the important role plasma-generated ROS species and pro-apoptotic NOXA play in APP-induced cancer cell death.

  2. DNA damage in oral cancer and normal cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Kapaldo, James; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) have been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory operates based on dielectric barrier discharge. It consists of two copper electrodes alternatively wrapping around a fused silica tube with nitrogen as a feed gas. It is generally more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, N2 provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to noble gases, thus this design can be beneficial for the future long-term clinical use. To compare the effects of plasma on cancer cells (SCC25) and normal cells (OKF), the cells from both types were treated at the same experimental condition for various treatment times. The effective area with different damage levels after the treatment was visualized as 3D maps. The delayed damage effects were also explored by varying the incubation times after the treatment. All of these studies are critical for a better understanding of the damage responses of cellular systems exposed to the plasma radiation, thus are useful for the development of the advanced plasma cancer therapy. The research described herein was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER15533.

  3. Changes in the biomechanical properties of a single cell induced by nonthermal atmospheric pressure micro-dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeongwon; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kyung Sook

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical properties of a single cell are closely related to the fate and functions of the cell. Changes in mechanical properties may cause diseases or cell apoptosis. Selective cytotoxic effects of nonthermal atmospheric pressure micro-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma have been demonstrated on cancer cells. In this work, changes in the mechanical properties of a single cell induced by nonthermal atmospheric pressure micro-DBD plasma were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Two cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and SiHa) and normal human fibroblast cells (HFBs) were exposed to micro-DBD plasma for various exposure times. The elasticity of a single cell was determined by force-distance curve measurement using AFM. Young's modulus was decreased by plasma treatment for all cells. The Young's modulus of plasma-treated HeLa cells was decreased by 75% compared to nontreated HeLa cells. In SiHa cells and HFBs, elasticity was decreased slightly. Chemical changes induced by the plasma treatment, which were observed by Raman spectroscopy, were also significant in HeLa cells compared to SiHa cells and HFBs. These results suggested that the molecular changes induced by micro-DBD plasma were related to cell mechanical changes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acid-inducible proton influx currents in the plasma membrane of murine osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Miyuki; Li, Guangshuai; Moriura, Yoshie; Hino, Yoshiko; Kawawaki, Junko; Sakai, Hiromu

    2016-05-01

    Acidification of the resorption pits, which is essential for dissolving bone, is produced by secretion of protons through vacuolar H(+)-ATPases in the plasma membrane of bone-resorbing cells, osteoclasts. Consequently, osteoclasts face highly acidic extracellular environments, where the pH gradient across the plasma membrane could generate a force driving protons into the cells. Proton influx mechanisms during the acid exposure are largely unknown, however. In this study, we investigated extracellular-acid-inducible proton influx currents in osteoclast-like cells derived from a macrophage cell line (RAW264). Decreasing extracellular pH to <5.5 induced non-ohmic inward currents. The reversal potentials depended on the pH gradients across the membrane and were independent of concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and HCO3 (-), suggesting that they were carried largely by protons. The acid-inducible proton influx currents were not inhibited by amiloride, a widely used blocker for cation channels/transporters, or by 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenesulfonate(DIDS) which blocks anion channels/transporters. Additionally, the currents were not significantly affected by V-ATPase inhibitors, bafilomycin A1 and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Extracellular Ca(2+) (10 mM) did not affect the currents, but 1 mM ZnCl2 decreased the currents partially. The intracellular pH in the vicinity of the plasma membrane was dropped by the acid-inducible H(+) influx currents, which caused overshoot of the voltage-gated H(+) channels after removal of acids. The H(+) influx currents were smaller in undifferentiated, mononuclear RAW cells and were negligible in COS7 cells. These data suggest that the acid-inducible H(+) influx (H(+) leak) pathway may be an additional mechanism modifying the pH environments of osteoclasts upon exposure to strong acids.

  5. Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP) induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rate of microscopic incomplete resections of gastrointestinal cancers including pancreatic cancer has not changed considerably over the past years. Future intra-operative applications of tissue tolerable plasmas (TTP) could help to address this problem. Plasma is generated by feeding energy, like electrical discharges, to gases. The development of non-thermal atmospheric plasmas displaying spectra of temperature within or just above physiological ranges allows biological or medical applications of plasmas. Methods We have investigated the effects of tissue tolerable plasmas (TTP) on the human pancreatic cancer cell line Colo-357 and PaTu8988T and the murine cell line 6606PDA in vitro (Annexin-V-FITC/DAPI-Assay and propidium iodide DNA staining assay) as well as in the in vivo tumour chorio-allantoic membrane (TUM-CAM) assay using Colo-357. Results TTP of 20 seconds (s) induced a mild elevation of an experimental surface temperature of 23.7 degree Celsius up to 26.63+/−0.40 degree Celsius. In vitro TTP significantly (p=0.0003) decreased cell viability showing the strongest effects after 20s TTP. Also, TTP effects increased over time levelling off after 72 hours (30.1+/−4.4% of dead cells (untreated control) versus 78.0+/−9.6% (20s TTP)). However, analyzing these cells for apoptosis 10s TTP revealed the largest proportion of apoptotic cells (34.8+/−7.2%, p=0.0009 versus 12.3+/−6.6%, 20s TTP) suggesting non-apoptotic cell death in the majority of cells after 20s TTP. Using solid Colo-357 tumours in the TUM-CAM model TUNEL-staining showed TTP-induced apoptosis up to a depth of tissue penetration (DETiP) of 48.8+/−12.3μm (20s TTP, p<0.0001). This was mirrored by a significant (p<0.0001) reduction of Ki-67+ proliferating cells (80.9+/−13.2% versus 37.7+/−14.6%, p<0.0001) in the top cell layers as well as typical changes on HE specimens. The bottom cell layers were not affected by TTP. Conclusions Our data suggest possible future intra

  6. The relation between doses or post-plasma time points and apoptosis of leukemia cells induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Haixia; Xue, Zhixiao; Yin, Huijuan; Niu, Qing; Chen, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was applied to induce apoptosis of LT-12 leukemia cells. Plasma effects on cell death was evaluated by MTT assay and FCM apoptosis assay with Annexin V/PI double staining, suggesting that plasma killing cells rate and inducing cell apoptosis rate both positively were related to the plasma doses or the post-plasma time points. The cell death rates increased from 15.2% to 33.1% and the apoptosis rate raise from 23.8% to 28% when the dose raise from 60s to 120 s at 8 h post-plasma, while they increased from 15.4% to 34.9% and from 48% to 55.3% respectively at the same doses at 12 h post-plasma. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members were measured for exploring the related apoptotic mechanisms phenomenon. We found ROS immediately increased to 1.24 times of the original amount, then increasing to 5.39-fold at 20 h after treatment. The gene and protein expression for Caspases and Bcl-2 family members are very active at 8-12 h post-plasma. Our results demonstrate that DBD plasma can effectively induce tumor cell death through primarily related apoptotic mechanisms.

  7. Spatially-Selective Membrane Permeabilization Induced by Cell-Solution Electrode Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Hokari, Yutaro; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-09-01

    Gene transfection, which is the process of deliberately introducing nucleic acids into cells, is expected to play an important role in medical treatment because the process is necessary for gene therapy and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional transfection methods have some problems, so we focus attention on promising transfection methods by atmospheric pressure plasma (APP). We have previously reported that the cell membrane permeability, which is closely related with gene transfection, is improved using a cell-solution electrode for generating He-APP. He-APP is irradiated to the solution containing the adherent cells and delivery materials such as fluorescent dyes (YOYO-1) and plasmid DNA (GFP). In case of YOYO-1 delivery, more than 80% of cells can be transferred only in the plasma-irradiated area and the spatially-selective membrane permeabilization is realized by the plasma irradiation. In addition, it is confirmed that plasmid DNA is transfected and the GFP genes are expressed using same APP irradiation system with no obvious cellular damage.

  8. Plasma from human volunteers subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning protects human endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nina C; Riedemann, Isabelle; Smit, Kirsten F; Zitta, Karina; van de Vondervoort, Djai; Zuurbier, Coert J; Hollmann, Markus W; Preckel, Benedikt; Albrecht, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Short repeated cycles of peripheral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can protect distant organs from subsequent prolonged I/R injury; a phenomenon known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). A RIPC-mediated release of humoral factors might play a key role in this protection and vascular endothelial cells are potential targets for these secreted factors. In the present study, RIPC-plasma obtained from healthy male volunteers was tested for its ability to protect human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) from hypoxia-induced cell damage. 10 healthy male volunteers were subjected to a RIPC-protocol consisting of 4 × 5 min inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff located at the upper arm. Plasma was collected before (T0; control), directly after (T1) and 1 h after (T2) the RIPC procedure. HUVEC were subjected to 24 h hypoxia damage and simultaneously incubated with 5% of the respective RIPC-plasma. Cell damage was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-measurements. Western blot experiments of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1alpha), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) were performed. Furthermore, the concentrations of hVEGF were evaluated in the RIPC-plasma by sandwich ELISA. Hypoxia-induced cell damage was significantly reduced by plasma T1 (p = 0.02 vs T0). The protective effect of plasma T1 was accompanied by an augmentation of the intracellular HIF1alpha (p = 0.01 vs T0) and increased phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 (p = 0.03 vs T0). Phosphorylation of AKT and STAT5 remained unchanged. Analysis of the protective RIPC-plasma T1 showed significantly reduced levels of hVEGF (p = 0.01 vs T0). RIPC plasma protects endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage and humoral mediators as well as intracellular HIF1alpha may be involved.

  9. Recruitment of Lyn from endomembranes to the plasma membrane through calcium-dependent cell-cell interactions upon polarization of inducible Lyn-expressing MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Takao; Yanase, Sayuri; Okamoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-03-28

    Src-family kinases, expressed in a wide variety of cell types, are anchored to cellular membranes through posttranslational lipid modifications and involved in diverse cellular signalling. In epithelial cells, Src-family kinases are localized at the plasma membrane and participate in epithelial functions. Epithelial cell polarity is achieved through dynamic reorganization of protein trafficking. To examine the trafficking of Src-family kinases between polarized and non-polarized epithelial cells, we generated an MDCK cell line that can inducibly express a protein of interest in a polarized state at any time. We show here that Lyn, a member of Src-family kinases, mainly localizes to the plasma membrane in polarized MDCK cells and to endomembranes in non-polarized MDCK cells. Cell-cell interactions between adjacent MDCK cells recruit Lyn from endomembranes to the plasma membrane even without cell attachment to extracellular matrix scaffolds, and loss of cell-cell interactions by calcium deprivation relocates Lyn from the plasma membrane to endomembranes through Rab11-mediated recycling. Therefore, using our MDCK cells expressing inducible Lyn, we reveal that calcium-dependent cell-cell interactions play a critical role in plasma membrane localization of Lyn in polarized MDCK cells.

  10. Roles of charged particles and reactive species on cell membrane permeabilization induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hokari, Yutaro; Tominami, Kanako; Mokudai, Takayuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    As factors that influence cell membrane permeabilization during direct and indirect atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation, charged particle influx, superoxide anion radicals (O2 -•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plasma-irradiated solution were evaluated. These are the three strong candidate factors and might multiply contribute to cell membrane permeabilization. In particular, a shorter plasma diffusion distance leads to the enhancement of the direct effects such as charged particle influx and further increase cell membrane permeability. In addition, O2 -• dissipates over time (a life span of the order of minutes) in plasma-irradiated water, and the deactivation of a plasma-irradiated solution in term of cell membrane permeabilization occurs in a life span of the same order. These results could promote the understanding of the mechanism of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization.

  11. Plasma membrane reorganization induced by tumor promoters in an epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    PACKARD, BEVERLY S.; SAXTON, MICHAEL J.; BISSELL, MINA J.; KLEIN, MELVIN P.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the lateral diffusion in plasma membrane lipid environments were examined by the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. To this end, the probe collarein, a fluorescent lipid analog that has the property of exclusive localization in the plasma membrane, was synthesized. Measured decreases in three parameters [percentage of fluorescence bleached (30%), percentage of recovery (52%), and half-time for recovery (52%)] connoted the appearance of an immobile fraction upon exposure to tumor promoters. These data are consistent with lipid reorganization in response to a reorganization of the intra- and perimembranous macromolecular scaffolding upon the interaction of cells with tumor promoters. The idea of induced reorganization is supported by experiments in which cell shape change, brought about by either exposure to cytochalasin B or growth on matrices of collagen, fibronectin, or laminin, resulted in values in the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique similar to those with active phorbol esters.

  12. Plasma membrane reorganization induced by tumor promoters in an epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, B.S.; Saxton, M.J.; Bissell, M.J.; Klein, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of phorbol ester tumor promoters on the lateral diffusion in plasma membrane lipid environments were examined by the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. To this end, the probe collarein, a fluorescent lipid analog that has the property of exclusive localization in the plasma membrane, was synthesized. Measured decreases in three parameters (percentage of fluorescence bleached (30%), percentage of recovery (52%), and half-time for recovery (52%)) connoted the appearance of an immobile fraction upon exposure to tumor promoters. These data are consistent with lipid reorganization in response to a reorganization of the intra- and perimembranous macromolecular scaffolding upon the interaction of cells with tumor promoters. The idea of induced reorganization is supported by experiments in which cell shape change, brought about by either exposure to cytochalasin B or growth on matrices of collagen, fibronectin, or laminin, resulted in values in the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique similar to those with active phorbol esters. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  13. Evaluation of non-thermal plasma-induced anticancer effects on human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jeongho; Hong, Young-Jun; Bae, Woom-Yee; Choi, Eun Ha; Jeong, Joo-Won; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma has been introduced in various applications such as sterilization, wound healing, blood coagulation, and other biomedical applications. The most attractive application of non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is in cancer treatment, where the plasma is used to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to facilitate cell apoptosis. We investigate the effects of different durations of exposure to dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on colon cancer cells using measurement of cell viability and ROS levels, western blot, immunocytochemistry, and Raman spectroscopy. Our results suggest that different kinds of plasma-treated cells can be differentiated from control cells using the Raman data. PMID:28663896

  14. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and change of cell viability induced by atmospheric pressure plasma in normal and cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja Kim, Sun; Min Joh, Hea; Chung, T. H.

    2013-10-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. Using a detection dye, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be increased in plasma-treated cells compared to non-treated and gas flow-treated cells. A significant overproduction of ROS and a reduction in cell viability were induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS, and cell viability was less changed. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as a cancer therapy.

  15. Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    to conclusions about specific USEP- induced cellular effects that arc unlikely to be true for all cell types. We also investigated the mechanism ...Thresholds of 10ns Electric Pulse induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...uptake at 780 J/g and 1274 J/g, respectively. The mechanism responsible for differences observed amongst the studied cell lines was explored by

  16. Micronucleus formation induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma exposure in brain cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Uhm, Hansup; Ha Choi, Eun

    2012-02-01

    Induction of micronucleus formation (cytogenetic damage) in brain cancer cells upon exposure of dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been investigated. We have investigated the influence of exposure and incubation times on T98G brain cancer cells by using growth kinetic, clonogenic, and micronucleus formation assay. We found that micronucleus formation rate directly depends on the plasma exposure time. It is also shown that colony formation capacity of cells has been inhibited by the treatment of plasma at all doses. Cell death and micronucleus formation are shown to be significantly elevated by 120 and 240 s exposure of dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

  17. 3D Mapping of plasma effective areas via detection of cancer cell damage induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yueing; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for irradiation of oral cancer cells. Since cancer cells are very susceptible to plasma treatment, they can be used as a tool for detection of APPJ-effective areas, which extended much further than the visible part of the APPJ. An immunofluorescence assay was used for DNA damage identification, visualization and quantification. Thus, the effective damage area and damage level were determined and plotted as 3D images.

  18. Red blood cell coagulation induced by low-temperature plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Ikehara, Sanae; Takei, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Sakakita, Hajime; Ishikawa, Kenji; Ueda, Masashi; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Yamagishi, Masahiro; Kim, Jaeho; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Hori, Masaru; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-09-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatment promotes blood clot formation by stimulation of the both platelet aggregation and coagulation factors. However, the appearance of a membrane-like structure in clots after the treatment is controversial. Based on our previous report that demonstrated characteristics of the form of coagulation of serum proteins induced by LTP treatment, we sought to determine whether treatment with two plasma instruments, namely BPC-HP1 and PN-110/120TPG, formed clots only from red blood cells (RBCs). LTP treatment with each device formed clots from whole blood, whereas LTP treatment with BPC-HP1 formed clots in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 2 × 10(9)/mL RBCs. Light microscopic analysis results showed that hemolysis formed clots consisting of materials with membrane-like structures from both whole blood and PBS-suspended RBCs. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis results showed a monotonous material with high electron density in the formed clots, presenting a membrane-like structure. Hemolysis disappeared with the decrease in the current through the targets contacting with the plasma flare and clot formation ceased. Taken together, our results and those of earlier studies present two types of blood clot formation, namely presence or absence of hemolysis capability depending on the current through the targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling fundamental plasma transport and particle-induced emission in a simplified Test Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, Paul Nicholas

    This work involves the modeling of fundamental plasma physics processes occurring within environments that are similar to that of the discharge and plume regions of electric propulsion devices such as Hall effect thrusters. The research is conducted as a collaborative effort with the Plasma & Space Propulsion Laboratory at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), as part of the University of Michigan/AFRL Center for Excellence in Electric Propulsion (MACEEP). Transport physics, such as particle-particle collisions and particle-induced electron emission, are simulated within the UCLA experimental facility and its representative electric propulsion environment. Simulation methods employed include the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques for the kinetic simulation of charged, rarefied species on high-performance computing architectures. Momentum- (MEX) and charge-exchange (CEX) collision cross-section models for Xe and Xe+, both total and differential, are successfully validated at collision energies of ˜1.5 keV within the novel facility. Heavy-species collisional transport models are validated and the importance of scattering anisotropy in this collision-dominated environment is shown. The theory of particle-induced electron emission (PIE) is then investigated in the context of the relevant energies and environments of the UCLA facility and electric propulsion devices and diagnostics. Reduced, semi-empirical models for total yield and emitted electron energy distribution functions that are easily implemented in a DSMC-PIC code are developed for the simulation of secondary-electron emission due to low-energy ions and high-energy atoms, even in the case of incomplete target-material information. These models are important for the characterization of electric propulsion devices due to the problematic nature of low-temperature plasma diagnostic techniques in which the emission of electrons is physically indistinguishable

  20. Argon Plasma-Induced Graft Polymerization of PEGMA on Chitosan Membrane Surface for Cell Adhesion Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shiheng; Ren, Li; Wang, Yingjun

    2013-10-01

    For its biocompatibility and biodegradability, chitosan has had considerable attention for biomedical applications in recent years. In this paper, polymerization of poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto chitosan membrane surface through argon plasma-induced graft polymerization. The surface properties after modification were characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The results indicated that PEGMA can be grafted successfully onto chitosan membrane surface. The surface hydrophilicity and free energy were improved and the surface roughness increased after modification. The adhesion of a human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) on chitosan membrane surface was enhanced due to improvement of surface free energy and roughness.

  1. Modeling particle-induced electron emission in a simplified plasma Test Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliano, Paul N.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2013-03-21

    Particle-induced electron emission (PIE) is modeled in a simplified, well-characterized plasma Test Cell operated at UCLA. In order for PIE to be a useful model in this environment, its governing equations are first reduced to lower-order models which can be implemented in a direct simulation Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell framework. These reduced-order models are described in full and presented as semi-empirical models. The models are implemented to analyze the interaction of low- and high-energy ({approx}1-2 keV) xenon ions and atoms with the stainless steel electrodes of the Test Cell in order to gain insight into the emission and transport of secondary electrons. Furthermore, there is a lack of data for xenon-stainless steel atom- and ion-surface interactions for similar environments. Using experimental data as a reference, both total yields and emitted electron energy distribution functions can be deduced by observing sensitivities of current collection results to these numerical models and their parameters.

  2. Hemorheological alterations of red blood cells induced by non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongho; Kim, Jae Hyung; Chang, Boksoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been introduced in various applications such as wound healing, sterilization of infected tissues, blood coagulation, delicate surgeries, and so on. The non-thermal plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), including ozone. Various groups have reported that the produced ROS influence proliferation and differentiation of cells, as well as apoptosis and growth arrest of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of non-thermal plasma on rheological characteristics of red blood cells (RBC). We experimentally measured the extent of hemolysis, deformability, and aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) with respect to exposure times of non-thermal plasma. RBC morphology was also examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The absorbance of hemoglobin released from the RBCs increased with increasing exposure time of the non-thermal plasma. Values of the elongation index and aggregation index were shown to decrease significantly with increasing plasma exposure times. Therefore, hemorheological properties of RBCs could be utilized to assess the performance of various non-thermal plasmas.

  3. The Natural Pesticide Dihydrorotenone Induces Human Plasma Cell Apoptosis by Triggering Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Activating p38 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Biyin; Zhang, Zubin; Li, Jie; Schimmer, Aaron D.; He, Sudan; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-01-01

    Dihydrorotenone (DHR) is a natural pesticide widely used in farming industry, such as organic produces. DHR is a potent mitochondrial inhibitor and probably induces Parkinsonian syndrome, however, it is not known whether DHR is toxic to other systems. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of DHR on human plasma cells. As predicted, DHR impaired mitochondrial function by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential in plasma cells. Because mito-dysfunction leads to unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we examined the signature proteins in ER stress, including GRP78, ATF4, and CHOP. After DHR treatment, these proteins were significantly upregulated. It is reported that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK are involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, in the subsequent study, DHR was found to activate p38 but not the JNK signaling. When pre-treated with p38 inhibitor SB203580, activation of p38 and cell apoptosis induced by DHR was partially blocked. Thus, we found that DHR induced human plasma cell death by activating the p38 but not the JNK signaling pathway. Because plasma cells are very important in the immune system, this study provided a new insight in the safety evaluation of DHR application. PMID:23922854

  4. How plasma induced oxidation, oxygenation, and de-oxygenation influences viability of skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Strudwick, Xanthe; Short, Robert D.; Ogawa, Kotaro; Hatta, Akimitsu; Furuta, Hiroshi; Gaur, Nishtha; Hong, Sung-Ha; Cowin, Allison J.; Fukuhara, Hideo; Inoue, Keiji; Ito, Masafumi; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Roderick W.; Bradley, James W.; Graves, David B.; Szili, Endre J.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of oxidation, oxygenation, and de-oxygenation arising from He gas jet and He plasma jet treatments on the viability of skin cells cultured in vitro has been investigated. He gas jet treatment de-oxygenated cell culture medium in a process referred to as "sparging." He plasma jet treatments oxidized, as well as oxygenated or de-oxygenated cell culture medium depending on the dissolved oxygen concentration at the time of treatment. He gas and plasma jets were shown to have beneficial or deleterious effects on skin cells depending on the concentration of dissolved oxygen and other oxidative molecules at the time of treatment. Different combinations of treatments with He gas and plasma jets can be used to modulate the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and other oxidative molecules to influence cell viability. This study highlights the importance of a priori knowledge of the concentration of dissolved oxygen at the time of plasma jet treatment, given the potential for significant impact on the biological or medical outcome. Monitoring and controlling the dynamic changes in dissolved oxygen is essential in order to develop effective strategies for the use of cold atmospheric plasma jets in biology and medicine.

  5. Non-thermal plasma with 2-deoxy-D-glucose synergistically induces cell death by targeting glycolysis in blood cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Neha; Lee, Su Jae; Choi, Tae Gyu; Baik, Ku Youn; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we show the selective and efficient anti-cancer effects of plasma (at a low dose) when cell metabolic modifiers are also included. 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, was used with effective doses of non-thermal plasma, synergistically attenuating cell metabolic viability and inducing caspase-dependent and independent cell death. The combination treatment decreased the intracellular ATP and lactate production in various types of blood cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that 2-DG enhances the efficacy and selectivity of plasma and induces the synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth by targeting glycolysis and apoptosis. Specifically, this treatment strategy demonstrated an enhanced growth inhibitory effect of plasma in the presence of a metabolic modifier that was selective against cancer cells, not non-malignant cells. This is the first study to report the advantage of combining plasma with 2-DG to eradicate blood cancer cells. Finally, we conclude that 2-DG with non-thermal plasma may be used as a combination treatment against blood cancer cells.

  6. Nonthermal plasma induces apoptosis in ATC cells: involvement of JNK and p38 MAPK-dependent ROS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei Young; Kang, Sung Un; Kim, Kang Il; Kang, Sam; Shin, Yoo Seob; Chang, Jae Won; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Keunho; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Eunpyo; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-11-01

    To determine the effects of nonthermal plasma (NTP) induced by helium (He) alone or He plus oxygen (O₂) on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. NTP was generated in He alone or He plus O₂ blowing through a nozzle by applying a high alternating current voltage to the discharge electrodes. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to identify various excited plasma species. The apoptotic effect of NTP on the anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines, such as HTH83, U-HTH 7, and SW1763, was verified with annexin V/propidium staining and TUNEL assay. ROS formation after NTP treatment was identified with fluorescence-activated cell sorting with DCFDA staining. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and caspase cascade were investigated to evaluate the molecular mechanism involved and cellular targets of plasma. NTP induced significant apoptosis in all three cancer cell lines. The plasma using He and O₂ generated more O₂-related species, and increased apoptosis and intracellular ROS formation compared with the plasma using He alone. NTP treatment of SW1763 increased the expression of phosphor-JNK, phosphor-p38, and caspase-3, but not phosphor-ERK. Apoptosis of SW1763 as well as expressions of elevated phosphor-JNK, phosphor-p38, and caspase-3 induced by NTP were effectively inhibited by intracellular ROS scavengers. NTP using He plus O₂ induced significant apoptosis in anaplastic cancer cell lines through intracellular ROS formation. This may represent a new promising treatment modality for this highly lethal disease.

  7. Plasma-activated medium induces A549 cell injury via a spiral apoptotic cascade involving the mitochondrial-nuclear network.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nonomura, Saho; Hara, Hirokazu; Kondo, Shin-ichi; Hori, Masaru

    2015-02-01

    Plasma medicine is a rapidly expanding new field of interdisciplinary research that combines physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma can be applied to living cells and tissues and has emerged as a novel technology for cancer therapy. Plasma has recently been shown to affect cells not only directly, but also by indirect treatment with previously prepared plasma-activated medium (PAM). The objective of this study was to demonstrate the inhibitory effects of PAM on A549 cell survival and elucidate the signaling mechanisms responsible for cell death. PAM maintained its ability to suppress cell viability for at least 1 week when stored at -80°C. The severity of PAM-triggered cell injury depended on the kind of culture medium used to prepare the PAM, especially that with or without pyruvate. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or its derived or cooperating reactive oxygen species reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2, activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and released apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria with endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the activation of caspase 3/7 and attenuation of cell viability by the addition of caspase inhibitor were not observed. The accumulation of adenine 5'-diphosphoribose as a product of the above reactions activated transient receptor potential melastatin 2, which elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels and subsequently led to cell death. These results demonstrated that H2O2 and/or other reactive species in PAM disturbed the mitochondrial-nuclear network in cancer cells through a caspase-independent apoptotic pathway. Moreover, damage to the plasma membrane by H2O2-cooperating charged species not only induced apoptosis, but also increased its permeability to extracellular reactive species. These phenomena were also detected in PAM-treated HepG2 and MCF-7 cells.

  8. Altered Antioxidant System Stimulates Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Cell Death for Solid Tumor Cell Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Park, Daehoon; Choi, Eun H.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the experimental findings and plasma delivery approach developed at the Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Korea for the assessment of antitumor activity of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for cancer treatment. Detailed investigation of biological effects occurring after atmospheric pressure non-thermal (APNT) plasma application during in vitro experiments revealed the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulation of the antioxidant defense system, cellular metabolic activity, and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. To understand basic cellular mechanisms, we investigated the effects of APNT DBD plasma on antioxidant defense against oxidative stress in various malignant cells as well as normal cells. T98G glioblastoma, SNU80 thyroid carcinoma, KB oral carcinoma and a non-malignant HEK293 embryonic human cell lines were treated with APNT DBD plasma and cellular effects due to reactive oxygen species were observed. Plasma significantly decreased the metabolic viability and clonogenicity of T98G, SNU80, KB and HEK293 cell lines. Enhanced ROS in the cells led to death via alteration of total antioxidant activity, and NADP+/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios 24 hours (h) post plasma treatment. This effect was confirmed by annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. These consequences suggested that the failure of antioxidant defense machinery, with compromised redox status, might have led to sensitization of the malignant cells. These findings suggest a promising approach for solid tumor therapy by delivering a lethal dose of APNT plasma to tumor cells while sparing normal healthy tissues. PMID:25068311

  9. Altered antioxidant system stimulates dielectric barrier discharge plasma-induced cell death for solid tumor cell treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Nagendra K; Kaushik, Neha; Park, Daehoon; Choi, Eun H

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the experimental findings and plasma delivery approach developed at the Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Korea for the assessment of antitumor activity of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for cancer treatment. Detailed investigation of biological effects occurring after atmospheric pressure non-thermal (APNT) plasma application during in vitro experiments revealed the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulation of the antioxidant defense system, cellular metabolic activity, and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. To understand basic cellular mechanisms, we investigated the effects of APNT DBD plasma on antioxidant defense against oxidative stress in various malignant cells as well as normal cells. T98G glioblastoma, SNU80 thyroid carcinoma, KB oral carcinoma and a non-malignant HEK293 embryonic human cell lines were treated with APNT DBD plasma and cellular effects due to reactive oxygen species were observed. Plasma significantly decreased the metabolic viability and clonogenicity of T98G, SNU80, KB and HEK293 cell lines. Enhanced ROS in the cells led to death via alteration of total antioxidant activity, and NADP+/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios 24 hours (h) post plasma treatment. This effect was confirmed by annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. These consequences suggested that the failure of antioxidant defense machinery, with compromised redox status, might have led to sensitization of the malignant cells. These findings suggest a promising approach for solid tumor therapy by delivering a lethal dose of APNT plasma to tumor cells while sparing normal healthy tissues.

  10. Atorvastatin reduces the proadhesive and prothrombotic endothelial cell phenotype induced by cocaine and plasma from cocaine consumers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Claudia G; Pereira-Flores, Karla; Ebensperger, Roberto; Panes, Olga; Massardo, Teresa; Hidalgo, Patricia; Mezzano, Diego; Pereira, Jaime

    2014-11-01

    Cocaine consumption is a risk factor for vascular ischemic complications. Although endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis have been observed in cocaine consumers, the mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis are not fully understood. This study aimed at identifying the effects of atorvastatin in relation to a proadhesive and prothrombotic phenotype induced by cocaine and plasma from chronic cocaine users on endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to either cocaine or platelet-free plasma (PFP) from chronic cocaine consumers in the presence or absence of 10 μmol/L of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced the enhanced platelet adhesion that was induced by cocaine and PFP from chronic cocaine consumers, as well as the release of the von Willebrand factor. Atorvastatin also avoided striking alterations on cell monolayer structure triggered by both stimuli and enhanced NO reduction because of cocaine stimulation through disrupting interactions between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and caveolin-1, thus increasing eNOS bioavailability. Cocaine-increased tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity and reactive oxygen species generation were not counteracted by atorvastatin. Although monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels were not significantly higher than controls either under cocaine or PFP stimulation, atorvastatin completely avoided monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release in both conditions. Platelets stimulated with cocaine or PFP did not express P-selectin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, or CD40L and failed to adhere to resting human umbilical vein endothelial cell. Cocaine and patient plasma equally induced a proadhesive and prothrombotic phenotype in endothelial cells, except for von Willebrand Factor release, which was only induced by PFP from chronic cocaine consumers. Atorvastatin improved endothelial cell function by reducing cocaine-induced and PFP from chronic cocaine consumer-induced

  11. Plasma protein induced clustering of red blood cells in micro capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Brust, Mathias; Aouane, Othmane; Flormann, Daniel; Thiebaud, Marine; Verdier, Claude; Coupier, Gwennou; Podgorski, Thomas; Misbah, Chaouqi; Selmi, Hassib

    2013-11-01

    The plasma molecule fibrinogen induces aggregation of RBCs to clusters, the so called rouleaux. Higher shear rates in bulk flow can break them up which results in the pronounced shear thinning of blood. This led to the assumption that rouleaux formation does not take place in the microcapillaries of the vascular network where high shear rates are present. However, the question is of high medical relevance. Cardio vascular disorders are still the main cause of death in the western world and cardiac patients have often higher fibrinogen level. We performed AFM based single cell force spectroscopy to determine the work of separation. Measurements at low hematocrit in a microfluidic channel show that the number of size of clusters is determined by the adhesion strength and we found that cluster formation is strongly enhanced by fibrinogen at physiological concentrations, even at shear rate as high as 1000 1/s. Numerical simulations based on a boundary integral method confirm our findings and the clustering transition takes place both in the experiments and in the simulations at the same interaction energies. In vivo measurements with intravital fluorescence microscopy in a dorsal skin fold chamber in a mouse reveal that RBCs indeed form clusters in the micrcapillary flow. This work was supported by the German Science Foundation research imitative SFB1027.

  12. Changes of immunoregulatory cells induced by psychological and physical stress: relationship to plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Landmann, R M; Müller, F B; Perini, C; Wesp, M; Erne, P; Bühler, F R

    1984-10-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations were measured before and after physical and psychological stress in 15 healthy subjects and correlated with plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels. During psychological stress monocytes (P less than 0.05), NK (P less than 0.01), B cells (P less than 0.05) and heart rate (P less than 0.001) increased, while catecholamines remained unchanged. With physical stress granulocytes, monocytes and all lymphocyte subsets increased significantly, although B cells rose more than T cells and T (suppressor) cells more than T (helper) cells. Thus the ratio of T/B cells and of Th/Ts cells decreased (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01). Adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations increased (P less than 0.001), while cortisol remained unchanged. There was a negative relationship between adrenaline and the Th/Ts cell ratio before and after stress (P less than 0.05). Lymphocyte subpopulations from a different group of 4 healthy subjects were analysed before and after isoproterenol infusion. There was a small increase in Ts and B cells only (P less than 0.1) and a decrease of the T/B cell ratio (P less than 0.05). The predominant enrichment of circulating B, Ts and NK cells during short lasting adrenergic activation, as well as the relationship of the T cell changes to plasma adrenaline, suggest an immunoregulatory effect of the sympathetic nervous system in stress.

  13. Changes of immunoregulatory cells induced by psychological and physical stress: relationship to plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed Central

    Landmann, R M; Müller, F B; Perini, C; Wesp, M; Erne, P; Bühler, F R

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulations were measured before and after physical and psychological stress in 15 healthy subjects and correlated with plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels. During psychological stress monocytes (P less than 0.05), NK (P less than 0.01), B cells (P less than 0.05) and heart rate (P less than 0.001) increased, while catecholamines remained unchanged. With physical stress granulocytes, monocytes and all lymphocyte subsets increased significantly, although B cells rose more than T cells and T (suppressor) cells more than T (helper) cells. Thus the ratio of T/B cells and of Th/Ts cells decreased (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01). Adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations increased (P less than 0.001), while cortisol remained unchanged. There was a negative relationship between adrenaline and the Th/Ts cell ratio before and after stress (P less than 0.05). Lymphocyte subpopulations from a different group of 4 healthy subjects were analysed before and after isoproterenol infusion. There was a small increase in Ts and B cells only (P less than 0.1) and a decrease of the T/B cell ratio (P less than 0.05). The predominant enrichment of circulating B, Ts and NK cells during short lasting adrenergic activation, as well as the relationship of the T cell changes to plasma adrenaline, suggest an immunoregulatory effect of the sympathetic nervous system in stress. PMID:6478647

  14. Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    about specific USEP- induced cellular effects that are unlikely to be true for all cell types. We also investigated the mechanism responsible for the...Dose-Dependent Thresholds of 10-ns Electric Pulse Induced Plasma Membrane Disruption and Cytotoxicity in Multiple Cell Lines Bennett L. Ibey1*, Caleb...HeLa, and 142 J/g for GH3. Both Jurkat and U937 had a LD50 lower than the ED50 for Pr uptake at 780 J/g and 1274 J/g, respectively. The mechanism

  15. Graphene Oxide Induced Perturbation to Plasma Membrane and Cytoskeletal Meshwork Sensitize Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianqiang; Xu, Ming; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong; Xia, Tian; Liu, Sijin

    2017-03-28

    The outstanding physicochemical properties endow graphene materials (e.g., graphene oxide, GO) with beneficial potentials in diverse biomedical fields such as bioimaging, drug delivery, and biomolecular detection. GO recently emerged as a chemosensitizer; however, the detailed molecular basis underlying GO-conducted sensitization and corresponding biological effects are still elusive. Based on our recent findings that GO treatment at sublethal concentrations could impair the general cellular priming state, including disorders of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton construction, we aimed here to explore the mechanism of GO as a sensitizer to make cancer cells more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents. We discovered that GO could not only compromise plasma membrane and cytoskeleton in J774A.1 macrophages and A549 lung cancer cells at sublethal concentrations without incurring significant cell death but also dampen a number of biological processes. Using the toxicogenomics approaches, we laid out the gene expression signature affected by GO and further defined those genes involved in membrane and cytoskeletal impairments responding to GO. The mechanistic investigation uncovered that the interactions of GO-integrin occurred on the plasma membrane and consequently activated the integrin-FAK-Rho-ROCK pathway and suppressed the expression of integrin, resulting in compromised cell membrane and cytoskeleton and a subsequent cellular priming state. By making use of this mechanism, the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., doxorubicin and cisplatin) could be enhanced by GO pretreatment in killing cancer cells. This study unveiled a feature of GO in cancer therapeutics: sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents by undermining the resistance capability of tumor cells against chemotherapeutic agents, at least partially, by compromising plasma membrane and cytoskeleton meshwork.

  16. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mammosser, John D.

    2015-07-15

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar–O{sub 2} (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM{sub 010}-mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper.

  17. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mammosser, John D

    2015-07-01

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar-O2 (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM010-mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper.

  18. Particle-in-cell simulations of multi-MeV pulsed X-ray induced air plasmas at low pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Ribière, M. D'Almeida, T.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de; Maulois, M.; Delbos, C.; Garrigues, A.; Cessenat, O.; Azaïs, B.

    2016-03-15

    A full kinetic modelling of the charge particles dynamics generated upon the irradiation of an air-filled cavity by a multi-MeV pulsed x-ray is performed. From the calculated radiative source generated by the ASTERIX generator, we calculated the electromagnetic fields generated by x-ray induced air plasmas in a metallic cavity at different pressures. Simulations are carried out based on a Particle-In-Cell interpolation method which uses 3D Maxwell-Vlasov calculations of the constitutive charged species densities of air plasmas at different pressures at equilibrium. The resulting electromagnetic fields within the cavity are calculated for different electron densities up to 4 × 10{sup 10 }cm{sup −3}. For each air pressure, we show electronic plasma waves formation followed by Landau damping. As electron density increases, the calculations exhibit space-charged neutralization and return current formation.

  19. Universal pooled plasma (Uniplas(®)) does not induce complement-mediated hemolysis of human red blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heger, Andrea; Brandstätter, Hubert; Prager, Bettina; Brainovic, Janja; Cortes, Rhoda; Römisch, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Pooling of plasma of different blood groups before large scale manufacturing of Uniplas(®) results in the formation of low levels of soluble immune complexes (CIC). The aim of this study was to investigate the level and removal of CIC during Uniplas(®) manufacturing. In addition, an in vitro hemolysis assay should be developed and investigate if Uniplas(®) does induce complement-mediated hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBC). In-process samples from Uniplas(®) (universal plasma) and Octaplas(LG)(®) (blood group specific plasma) routine manufacturing batches were tested on CIC using commercially available ELISA test kits. In addition, CIC was produced by admixing heat-aggregated immunoglobulins or monoclonal anti-A/anti-B antibodies to plasma and removal of CIC was followed in studies of the Uniplas(®) manufacturing process under down-scale conditions. The extent of RBC lysis was investigated in plasma samples using the in-house hemolysis assay. Levels of CIC in Uniplas(®) are within the normal ranges for plasma and comparable to that found in Octaplas(LG)(®). Down-scale experiments showed that both IgG/IgM-CIC levels are significantly removed on average by 40-50% during Uniplas(®) manufacturing. Uniplas(®) does not induce hemolysis of RBCs in vitro. Hemolysis occurs only after spiking with high titers of anti-A/anti-B antibodies and depends on the antibody specificity (i.e. titer) in the plasma sample. The results of this study confirm the safety of Uniplas(®) regarding transfusion to patients of all ABO blood groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Myeloperoxidase-Specific Plasma Cell Depletion by Bortezomib Protects from Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies–Induced Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Bontscho, Julia; Manz, Rudolf A.; Schneider, Wolfgang; Luft, Friedrich C.; Kettritz, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) cause vasculitis and necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN). Steroids and cytotoxic drugs reduce mortality but can cause significant adverse events. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) prevents glomerulonephritis in mouse models of lupus but its efficacy in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis is unknown. We induced anti-MPO IgG-mediated NCGN by transplanting wild-type bone marrow (BM) into irradiated MPO-deficient mice immunized with MPO. Four weeks after BM transplantation, we treated mice with steroid/cyclophosphamide (S/CYC) or BTZ. Compared with untreated control mice, both S/CYC and BTZ significantly reduced urine abnormalities, NCGN, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Response to BTZ depended on timing of administration: BTZ abrogated NCGN if begun 3 weeks, but not 5 weeks, after BM transplantation. BTZ treatment significantly reduced total and MPO-specific plasma cells in both the spleen and bone marrow, resulting in significantly reduced anti-MPO titers. Furthermore, BTZ affected neither B cells nor total CD4 and CD8 T cells, including their naive and effector subsets. In contrast, S/CYC reduced the total number of cells in the spleen, including total and MPO-specific plasma cells and B cells. In contrast to BTZ, S/CYC did not affect total and MPO-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow. Three of 23 BTZ-treated mice died within 36 hours after BTZ administration. In summary, BTZ depletes MPO-specific plasma cells, reduces anti-MPO titers, and prevents NCGN in mice. PMID:21233415

  1. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Induces Anti-Proliferative Effects in Prostate Cancer Cells by Redox and Apoptotic Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Martin; Gümbel, Denis; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Robert; Gelbrich, Nadine; Zimmermann, Uwe; Walther, Reinhard; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Sckell, Axel; Kramer, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Lillig, Christopher H.; Stope, Matthias B.

    2015-01-01

    One of the promising possibilities of the clinical application of cold plasma, so-called cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), is its application on malignant cells and cancer tissue using its anti-neoplastic effects, primarily through the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS). In this study, we investigated the impact of CAP on cellular proliferation and consecutive molecular response mechanisms in established prostate cancer (PC) cell lines. PC cells showed a significantly reduced cell growth following CAP treatment as a result of both an immediate increase of intracellular peroxide levels and through the induction of apoptosis indicated by annexin V assay, TUNEL assay, and the evaluation of changes in nuclear morphology. Notably, co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely neutralized CAP effects by NAC uptake and rapid conversion to glutathione (GSH). Vitamin C could not counteract the CAP induced effects on cell growth. In summary, relatively short treatments with CAP of 10 seconds were sufficient to induce a significant inhibition of cancer proliferation, as observed for the first time in urogenital cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand the mode of CAP related cell death and clarify and optimize CAP as cancer therapy. Increased levels of peroxides can alter redox-regulated signaling pathways and can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. We assume that the general intracellular redox homeostasis, especially the levels of cellular GSH and peroxidases such as peroxiredoxins affect the outcome of the CAP treatment. PMID:26132846

  2. Inhibition of DEPDC1A, a bad prognostic marker in multiple myeloma, delays growth and induces mature plasma cell markers in malignant plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Kassambara, Alboukadel; Schoenhals, Matthieu; Moreaux, Jérôme; Veyrune, Jean-Luc; Rème, Thierry; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hose, Dirk; Klein, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    High throughput DNA microarray has made it possible to outline genes whose expression in malignant plasma cells is associated with short overall survival of patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM). A further step is to elucidate the mechanisms encoded by these genes yielding to drug resistance and/or patients' short survival. We focus here on the biological role of the DEP (for Disheveled, EGL-10, Pleckstrin) domain contained protein 1A (DEPDC1A), a poorly known protein encoded by DEPDC1A gene, whose high expression in malignant plasma cells is associated with short survival of patients. Using conditional lentiviral vector delivery of DEPDC1A shRNA, we report that DEPDC1A knockdown delayed the growth of human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs), with a block in G2 phase of the cell cycle, p53 phosphorylation and stabilization, and p21(Cip1) accumulation. DEPDC1A knockdown also resulted in increased expression of mature plasma cell markers, including CXCR4, IL6-R and CD38. Thus DEPDC1A could contribute to the plasmablast features of MMCs found in some patients with adverse prognosis, blocking the differentiation of malignant plasma cells and promoting cell cycle.

  3. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  4. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  5. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by both the 50 and 100 ppm treatments of T. cacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of muscarinic receptors in rat parotid acinar cells induces AQP5 trafficking to nuclei and apical plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gota; Bragiel, Aneta M; Wang, Di; Pieczonka, Tomasz D; Skowronski, Mariusz T; Shono, Masayuki; Nielsen, Søren; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2015-04-01

    The subcellular distribution of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) in rat parotid acinar cells in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation remains unclear. Immunoconfocal and immunoelectron microscopy were used to visualize the distribution of AQP5 in parotid acinar cells. Western blotting was used to analyze AQP5 levels in membranes. To clarify the characteristics of membrane domains associated with AQP5, detergent solubility and sucrose-density flotation experiments were performed. Under control conditions, AQP5 was diffusely distributed on the apical plasma membrane (APM) and apical plasmalemmal region and throughout the cytoplasm. Upon mAChR activation, AQP5 was predominantly located in the nucleus, APM and lateral plasma membrane (LPM). Subsequently, localization of AQP5 in the nucleus, APM and LPM was decreased. Prolonged atropine treatment inhibited mAChR agonist-induced translocation of AQP5 to the nucleus, APM and LPM. AQP5 levels were enhanced in isolated nuclei and nuclear membranes prepared from parotid tissues incubated with mAChR agonist. mAChR agonist induced AQP5 levels in both soluble and insoluble nuclear fractions solubilized with Triton X-100 or Lubrol WX. Small amounts of AQP5 in nuclei were detected using low-density sucrose gradient. When AQP5 was present in the nuclear membrane, nuclear size decreased. The activation of mAChR induced AQP5 translocation to the nucleus, APM and LPM, and AQP5 may trigger water transport across the nuclear membrane and plasma membrane in rat parotid acinar cells. AQP5 translocates to the nuclear membrane and may trigger the movement of water, inducing shrinkage of the nucleus and the start of nuclear functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-temperature plasma treatment induces DNA damage leading to necrotic cell death in primary prostate epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, A M; Simms, M S; Mann, V M; Maitland, N J; O'Connell, D; Frame, F M

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the rapidly advancing field of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas has shown considerable promise for future translational biomedical applications, including cancer therapy, through the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Method: The cytopathic effect of low-temperature plasma was first verified in two commonly used prostate cell lines: BPH-1 and PC-3 cells. The study was then extended to analyse the effects in paired normal and tumour (Gleason grade 7) prostate epithelial cells cultured directly from patient tissue. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and staurosporine were used as controls throughout. Results: Low-temperature plasma (LTP) exposure resulted in high levels of DNA damage, a reduction in cell viability, and colony-forming ability. H2O2 formed in the culture medium was a likely facilitator of these effects. Necrosis and autophagy were recorded in primary cells, whereas cell lines exhibited apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LTP treatment causes cytotoxic insult in primary prostate cells, leading to rapid necrotic cell death. It also highlights the need to study primary cultures in order to gain more realistic insight into patient response. PMID:25839988

  8. Non-thermal atmospheric plasma induces ROS-independent cell death in U373MG glioma cells and augments the cytotoxicity of temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Gillian E; Casey, Alan; Milosavljevic, Vladimir; Liu, Yupeng; Howe, Orla; Cullen, Patrick J; Curtin, James F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) is an ionised gas produced under high voltage that can generate short-lived chemically active species and induce a cytotoxic insult in cancer cells. Cell-specific resistance to NTAP-mediated cytotoxicity has been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether resistance against NTAP could be overcome using the human glioma cell line U373MG. Methods: Non-thermal atmospheric plasma was generated using a Dielectric Barrier Device (DBD) system with a maximum voltage output of 120 kV at 50 Hz. The viability of U373MG GBM cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was determined using morphology, flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. Fluorescent probes and inhibitors were used to determine the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of cells exposed to the plasma field. Combinational therapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and multi-dose treatments were explored as mechanisms to overcome resistance to NTAP. Results: Non-thermal atmospheric plasma decreased cell viability in a dose (time)-dependent manner. U373MG cells were shown to be resistant to NTAP treatment when compared with HeLa cells, and the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantified in U373MG cells were much lower than in HeLa cells following exposure to the plasma field. Reactive oxygen species inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) only alleviated the cytotoxic effects in HeLa cells and not in the relatively NTAP-resistant cell line U373MG. Longer exposures to NTAP induced a cell death independent of ROS, JNK and caspases in U373MG. The relative resistance of U373MG cells to NTAP could be overcome when used in combination with low concentrations of the GBM chemotherapy TMZ or exposure to multiple doses. Conclusions: For the very first time, we report that NTAP induces an ROS-, JNK- and caspase-independent mechanism of cell death in the U373MG GBM cell line that can be greatly enhanced when used in combination with low doses of TMZ

  9. Non-thermal gas plasma-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ruwan Kumara, Madduma Hewage Susara; Piao, Mei Jing; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Ryu, Yea Seong; Park, Jeong Eon; Shilnikova, Kristina; Jo, Jin Oh; Mok, Young Sun; Shin, Jennifer H; Park, Yeonsoo; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common type of tumor among both men and women worldwide. Conventional remedies such as chemotherapies pose the risk of side‑effects, and in many cases cancer cells develop chemoresistance to these treatments. Non‑thermal gas plasma (NTGP) was recently identified as a potential tool for cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the potential use of NTGP to control SNUC5 human colon carcinoma cells. We hypothesized that NTGP would generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these cells, resulting in induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ROS generation, expression of ER stress‑related proteins and mitochondrial calcium levels were analyzed. Our results confirmed that plasma‑generated ROS induce apoptosis in SNUC5 cells. Furthermore, we found that plasma exposure resulted in mitochondrial calcium accumulation and expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) proteins such as glucose‑related protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R (PKR)‑like ER kinase (PERK), and inositol‑requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Elevated expression of spliced X‑box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) further confirmed that ROS generated by NTGP induces apoptosis through the ER stress signaling pathway.

  10. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma induces annulus fibrosus cell proliferation and matrix production.

    PubMed

    Pirvu, T N; Schroeder, J E; Peroglio, M; Verrier, S; Kaplan, L; Richards, R G; Alini, M; Grad, S

    2014-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors and creates a 3D structure upon clotting; PRP or platelet lysate (PL) might be considered for annulus fibrosus (AF) repair. Bovine AF cells were cultured with 25% PRP, 50% PRP, 25% PL, 50% PL, or 10% FBS. After 2 and 4 days, DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and mRNA levels were analyzed. Histology was performed after injection of PRP into an AF defect in a whole disc ex vivo. By day 4, significant increases in DNA content were observed in all treatment groups. All groups also showed elevated GAG synthesis, with highest amounts at 50% PL. Collagen I and II expression was similar between groups; aggrecan, decorin, and versican expression was highest at 25% PL. Injection of PRP into the AF defect resulted in an increased matrix synthesis. Platelet-rich preparations increased the matrix production and cell number and may therefore be considered to promote AF repair.

  12. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2−), hydroxyl radical (HO·), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO· (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma. PMID:25715710

  13. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO.), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO. (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma.

  14. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals. PMID:26919318

  15. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  16. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  17. Nanopore formation process in artificial cell membrane induced by plasma-generated reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Tero, Ryugo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    We investigated morphological change of an artificial lipid bilayer membrane induced by oxygen radicals which were generated by non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma. Neutral oxygen species, O((3)Pj) and O2((1)Δg), were irradiated of a supported lipid bilayer existing under a buffer solution at various conditions of dose time and distances, at which the dose amounts of the oxygen species were calculated quantitatively. Observation using an atomic force microscope and a fluorescence microscope revealed that dose of the neutral oxygen species generated nanopores with the diameter of 10-50 nm in a phospholipid bilayer, and finally destructed the bilayer structure. We found that protrusions appeared on the lipid bilayer surface prior to the formation of nanopores, and we attributed the protrusions to the precursor of the nanopores. We propose a mechanism of the pore formation induced by lipid oxidation on the basis of previous experimental and theoretical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise-induced changes in blood, red cell, and plasma volumes in man.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, J E; Gutin, B; Horvath, S M

    1977-01-01

    Changes in blood (BV), red cell (RCV), and plasma (PV) volumes were computed from hemoglobin and hematocrit values during submaximal treadmill exercise at 5 work intensities (30, 45, 60, 75, and 90% VO2 max) in 5 male subjects. RCV remained constant under all conditions. Changes in BV (hemoconcentration) could, therefore, be accounted for entirely by decreases in PV at all work levels. PV was a linear function of work intensity from rest through 60% VO2 max. However, a "break" occurred at that point in the data. Modeling of this break was accomplished by the use of one model (the "Fold" catastrophe) taken from the generalized catastrophe therory. However, several limitations to the acceptance of the model are presented, including the need to demonstrate a hysteresis in PV occurring at about 65% VO2 max.

  19. IgA-producing plasma cells originate from germinal centers that are induced by B-cell receptor engagement in humans.

    PubMed

    Barone, Francesca; Vossenkamper, Anna; Boursier, Laurent; Su, Wen; Watson, Alan; John, Susan; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Fields, Paul; Wijetilleka, Sonali; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Spencer, Jo

    2011-03-01

    IgA contributes to homeostatic balance between host and intestinal microbiota. Mechanisms that initiate the IgA response are unclear and likely to differ between humans and animal models. We used multiple experimental approaches to investigate the origin of human intestinal plasma cells that produce IgA in the gastrointestinal tract. Complexity of IgA-producing plasma cell populations in human gastrointestinal mucosa and bone marrow and the specific response to oral cholera vaccine were compared by analysis of immunoglobulin genes. Flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze signaling pathways induced by B-cell receptor engagement in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and involvement of innate immunity in B-cell activation in GALT compared with nonintestinal sites. Human intestinal IgA-producing plasma cells appeared to be of germinal center origin; there was no evidence for the population complexity that accompanies multiple pathways of derivation observed in bone marrow. In germinal center B cells of human GALT, Btk and Erk are phosphorylated, CD22 is down-regulated, Lyn is translocated to the cell membrane, and Fos and Jun are up-regulated; these features indicate B-cell receptor ligation during germinal center evolution. No differences in innate activation of B cells were observed in GALT, compared with peripheral immune compartments. IgA-producing plasma cells appear to be derived from GALT germinal centers in humans. B-cell receptor engagement promotes formation of germinal centers of GALT, with no more evidence for innate immune receptor activation in the mucosa than nonintestinal immune compartments. Germinal centers in GALT should be targets of mucosal vaccinations because they are the source of human intestinal IgA response. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy Induces Early Plasma Cytokine Release and Mobilization of a Population of Blood Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manindra; Puertas, Juan; Pate, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is able to enhance the immune response of individuals. In particular, it has been reported that OMT has the capability to increase antibody titers, enhance the efficacy of vaccination, and upregulate the numbers of circulating leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown in human patients suffering chronic low back pain, that OMT is able to modify the levels of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in blood upon repeated treatment. Further, experimental animal models show that lymphatic pump techniques can induce a transient increase of cytokines in the lymphatic circulation. Taking into account all these data, we decided to investigate in healthy individuals the capacity of OMT to induce a rapid modification of the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in circulation. Human volunteers were subjected to a mixture of lymphatic and thoracic OMT, and shortly after the levels of several cytokines were evaluated by protein array technology and ELISA multiplex analysis, while the profile and activation status of circulating leukocytes was extensively evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were determined. In this study, our results show that OMT was not able to induce a rapid modification in the levels of plasma nitrites or CRP or in the proportion or activation status of central memory, effector memory or naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. A significant decrease in the proportion of a subpopulation of blood dendritic cells was detected in OMT patients. Significant differences were also detected in the levels of immune molecules such as IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α and most notably, G-CSF. Thus, OMT is able to induce a rapid change in the immunological profile of particular circulating cytokines and leukocytes. PMID:24614605

  1. Evaluation of extra- and intracellular OH radical generation, cancer cell injury, and apoptosis induced by a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Imamura, Masatoshi; Yamahara, Takayuki; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet inducing extracellular and intracellular OH radical generation as well as cell injury and apoptosis for the cultured human breast cancer cells. Increased OH radical generation in the extracellular culture medium (liquid phase) was observed with increased irradiation time, distance to the liquid surface, and voltage. From the voltage-response relationships for two breast cancer cell lines (invasive MDA-MB-231 cells and non-invasive MCF-7 cells) and normal breast cells (HMEC), the half-maximal effective peak-to-peak voltage (EV50) values were 16.7 ± 0.3 kV, 15.0 ± 0.4 kV and 11.2 ± 0.7 kV for MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and HMEC cells, respectively. This indicated that there was almost no selective cancer cell injury induced by plasma jet irradiation under these conditions. Compared with control condition without a plasma jet, intracellular OH radical accumulation and apoptotic cells were observed with a plasma jet using conditions that induced injury to 50% of cells irrespective of the cancer cell line.

  2. Exercise-induced increases in cell free DNA in human plasma originate predominantly from cells of the haematopoietic lineage.

    PubMed

    Tug, Suzan; Helmig, Susanne; Deichmann, Eva Ricarda; Schmeier-Jürchott, Anna; Wagner, Eva; Zimmermann, Tim; Radsak, Markus; Giacca, Mauro; Simon, Perikles

    2015-01-01

    The role of cell free DNA (cfDNA) has been intensively discussed under various pathological conditions and after acute bouts of exercise. To date, there is still no conclusive evidence concerning the cellular origin of cfDNA and the entire mechanism leading to elevated cfDNA concentrations in human plasma and serum. Here, we investigated the cellular origin of cfDNA in sex-mismatched haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and liver transplantation (LT) patients by determining the relative proportion of Y-chromosomal to total nuclear cfDNA. Total nuclear cfDNA and Y-chromosomal cfDNA concentrations were determined in blood plasma before and after an incremental exercise test via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Female HSCT patients showed high proportions of Y-chromosomal cfDNA. Both total nuclear and Y-chromosomal cfDNA increased significantly and in a highly correlated fashion due to exercise. In male HSCT patients with female donors less than 10% of the cfDNA was of Y-chromosomal origin at any point in time and even though the total amount of cfDNA increased during exercise, no increases in Y-chromosomal DNA could be detected. The percentage of Y-chromosomal cfDNA in female LT patients with male donors was very low and levels remained unchanged during exercise. This indicates that cells not derived from the bone marrow, in this case transplanted liver cells, represented only a minor fraction of cfDNA in blood plasma and were not released during acute physical exercise. Even though many physiological conditions may be altered in transplant patients versus healthy people, our results strongly suggest that cells from the haematopoietic lineage are the main source of cfDNA released during acute bouts of exercise.

  3. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-09-22

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5-3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm(2)) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications.

  4. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K.; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5–3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm2) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications. PMID:25241800

  5. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K.; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5-3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm2) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications.

  6. Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Ono, Natsuko; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-07

    Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere in response to light, CO2, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: the blue light receptor phototropin (phot1 and phot2), plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K(+) channels. Very few attempts have been made to enhance stomatal opening with the goal of increasing photosynthesis and plant growth, even though stomatal resistance is thought to be the major limiting factor for CO2 uptake by plants. Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H(+)-ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ∼42-63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. The dry weights of total flowering stems of 45-d-old transgenic plants, including seeds, siliques, and flowers, were ∼36-41% greater than those of the wild type. In addition, stomata in the transgenic plants closed normally in response to darkness and abscisic acid. In contrast, the overexpression of phototropin or inward-rectifying K(+) channels in guard cells had no effect on these phenotypes. These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H(+)-ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth.

  7. Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Ono, Natsuko; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere in response to light, CO2, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: the blue light receptor phototropin (phot1 and phot2), plasma membrane H+-ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K+ channels. Very few attempts have been made to enhance stomatal opening with the goal of increasing photosynthesis and plant growth, even though stomatal resistance is thought to be the major limiting factor for CO2 uptake by plants. Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H+-ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ∼42–63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. The dry weights of total flowering stems of 45-d-old transgenic plants, including seeds, siliques, and flowers, were ∼36–41% greater than those of the wild type. In addition, stomata in the transgenic plants closed normally in response to darkness and abscisic acid. In contrast, the overexpression of phototropin or inward-rectifying K+ channels in guard cells had no effect on these phenotypes. These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H+-ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth. PMID:24367097

  8. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  9. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  10. Plasma Cell Disorders.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-12-01

    Plasma cell disorders are benign, premalignant, and malignant conditions characterized by the presence of a monoclonal paraprotein detected in serum or urine. These conditions are biologically, pathologically, and clinically heterogeneous. There have been major advances in the understanding of the biology of these diseases, which are promoting the development of therapies with novel mechanisms of action. Novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies have gained approval in the United States and Europe for the treatment of plasma cell disorders. Such therapies are translating into higher rates of response and survival and better toxicity profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidant-induced inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in pancreatic acinar cells: role of the mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, Erin M.; Elliott, Austin C.; Bruce, Jason I. E.

    2008-01-01

    Impairment of the normal spatiotemporal pattern of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signaling, and in particular, the transition to an irreversible “Ca2+ overload” response, has been implicated in various pathophysiological states. In some diseases, including pancreatitis, oxidative stress has been suggested to mediate this Ca2+ overload and the associated cell injury. We have previously demonstrated that oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) evokes a Ca2+ overload response and inhibition of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) in rat pancreatic acinar cells (Bruce JI and Elliott AC. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293: C938–C950, 2007). The aim of the present study was to further examine this oxidant-impaired inhibition of the PMCA, focusing on the role of the mitochondria. Using a [Ca2+]i clearance assay in which mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was blocked with Ru-360, H2O2 (50 μM–1 mM) markedly inhibited the PMCA activity. This H2O2-induced inhibition of the PMCA correlated with mitochondrial depolarization (assessed using tetramethylrhodamine methylester fluorescence) but could occur without significant ATP depletion (assessed using Magnesium Green fluorescence). The H2O2-induced PMCA inhibition was sensitive to the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) inhibitors, cyclosporin-A and bongkrekic acid. These data suggest that oxidant-induced opening of the mPTP and mitochondrial depolarization may lead to an inhibition of the PMCA that is independent of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and ATP depletion, and we speculate that this may involve the release of a mitochondrial factor. Such a phenomenon may be responsible for the Ca2+ overload response, and for the transition between apoptotic and necrotic cell death thought to be important in many disease states. PMID:18787078

  12. Biological factors in plasma from diabetes mellitus patients enhance hyperglycaemia and pulsatile shear stress-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, X F; Yu, J Q; Dalan, R; Liu, A Q; Luo, K Q

    2014-05-01

    People suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are prone to an array of vascular complications leading to end organ damage. The hallmark of these vascular complications is endothelium dysfunction, which is caused by endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. Although the endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by hyperglycaemia and fluid shear stress has been studied, the effects of biological factors in the blood of DM patients on EC integrity have not been reported in the in vitro models that mimic the physiological pulsatile nature of the vascular system. This study reports the development of a hemodynamic lab-on-a-chip system to investigate this issue. The pulsatile flow was applied to a monolayer of endothelial cells expressing a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor that changes colour from green to blue in response to caspase-3 activation during apoptosis. Plasma samples from healthy volunteers and DM patients were compared to identify biological factors that are critical to endothelial disruption. Three types of microchannels were designed to simulate the blood vessels under healthy and partially blocked pathological conditions. The results showed that EC apoptosis rates increased with increasing glucose concentration and levels of shear stress. The rates of apoptosis further increased by a factor of 1.4-2.3 for hyperglycaemic plasma under all dynamic conditions. Under static conditions, little difference was detected in the rate of EC apoptosis between experiments using plasma from DM patients and glucose medium, suggesting that the effects of hyperglycaemia and biological factors on the induction of EC apoptosis are all shear flow-dependent. A proteomics study was then conducted to identify biological factors, demonstrating that the levels of eight proteins, including haptoglobin and clusterin, were significantly down-regulated, while six proteins, including apolipoprotein C-III, were significantly up-regulated in the plasma of DM patients

  13. Identification of key genes induced by platelet-rich plasma in human dermal papilla cells using bioinformatics methods

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haiyan; Cheng, Hanxiao; Chen, Haihua; Zhang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are located at the base of hair follicles, and are known to induce hair follicle regeneration. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) functions in hair follicle regeneration. To investigate the influence of PRP on DPCs, the present study analyzed RNA-seq data of human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) that were treated or untreated by PRP. The data included in the RNA-seq were from two normal and two treated HHDPC samples. Following identification by Cuffdiff software, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) underwent enrichment analyses, and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. Additionally, transcription factor (TF)-DEG and TF-long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) regulatory networks were constructed. A total of 178 differentially expressed lncRNA were screened, 365 were upregulated and 142 were downregulated. Notably, upregulated cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) (degree=76), polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) (degree=65), cell division cycle 20 (degree=50), cyclin B1 (degree=49), aurora kinase B (degree=47), cyclin dependent kinase 2 (degree=46) and downregulated v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) (degree=12) had higher degrees in networks. In addition, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), early growth response 1 and MYC may be key TFs for their target genes, and were enriched in pathways associated with the cell cycle. They may also be involved in cell proliferation via various interactions with other genes, for example CDK1-PLK1 and E2F1→CDK1. These dysregulated genes induced by PRP may affect proliferation of HHDPCs. PMID:27922680

  14. Mucosal Inducible NO Synthase–Producing IgA+ Plasma Cells in Helicobacter pylori–Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Mattea; Moos, Verena; Heller, Frank; Meyer, Thomas F.; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Bojarski, Christian; Fehlings, Michael; Doerner, Thomas; Allers, Kristina; Aebischer, Toni; Ignatius, Ralf; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal immune system is relevant for homeostasis, immunity, and also pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS)–dependent production of NO is one of the factors linked to both antimicrobial immunity and pathological conditions. Upregulation of iNOS has been observed in human Helicobacter pylori infection, but the cellular sources of iNOS are ill defined. Key differences in regulation of iNOS expression impair the translation from mouse models to human medicine. To characterize mucosal iNOS-producing leukocytes, biopsy specimens from H. pylori–infected patients, controls, and participants of a vaccination trial were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, along with flow cytometric analyses of lymphocytes for iNOS expression and activity. We newly identified mucosal IgA-producing plasma cells (PCs) as one major iNOS+ cell population in H. pylori–infected patients and confirmed intracellular NO production. Because we did not detect iNOS+ PCs in three distinct infectious diseases, this is not a general feature of mucosal PCs under conditions of infection. Furthermore, numbers of mucosal iNOS+ PCs were elevated in individuals who had cleared experimental H. pylori infection compared with those who had not. Thus, IgA+ PCs expressing iNOS are described for the first time, to our knowledge, in humans. iNOS+ PCs are induced in the course of human H. pylori infection, and their abundance seems to correlate with the clinical course of the infection. PMID:27456483

  15. Cellular mechanisms underlying prostaglandin-induced transient cAMP signals near the plasma membrane of HEK-293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Thomas; Xin, Wenkuan; Mehats, Céline; Hassell, Kathryn; Piggott, Leslie; Le, Xuan; Karpen, Jeffrey; Conti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We have previously used cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels as sensors to measure cAMP signals in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells. We found that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) triggered transient increases in cAMP concentration near the plasma membrane, whereas total cAMP levels rose to a steady plateau over the same time course. In addition, we presented evidence that the decline in the near-membrane cAMP levels was due primarily to a PGE1-induced stimulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, and that the differences between near-membrane and total cAMP levels were largely due to diffusional barriers and differential PDE activity. Here, we examine the mechanisms regulating transient, near-membrane cAMP signals. We observed that 5-min stimulation of HEK-293 cells with prostaglandins triggered a two- to threefold increase in PDE4 activity. Extracellular application of H89 (a PKA inhibitor) inhibited stimulation of PDE4 activity. Similarly, when we used CNG channels to monitor cAMP signals we found that both extracellular and intracellular (via the whole-cell patch pipette) application of H89, or the highly selective PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented the decline in prostaglandin-induced responses. Following pretreatment with rolipram (a PDE4 inhibitor), H89 had little or no effect on near-membrane or total cAMP levels. Furthermore, disrupting the subcellular localization of PKA with the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) disruptor Ht31 prevented the decline in the transient response. Based on these data we developed a plausible kinetic model that describes prostaglandin-induced cAMP signals. This model has allowed us to quantitatively demonstrate the importance of PKA-mediated stimulation of PDE4 activity in shaping near-membrane cAMP signals. PMID:16899551

  16. Combination of herbal extracts and platelet-rich plasma induced dermal papilla cell proliferation: involvement of ERK and Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Rastegar, Hosein; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Ehsani, Amirohushang; Barikbin, Behrooz

    2013-06-01

    Recently, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has attracted attention in various medical fields, including plastic surgery, treatment for problematic wounds, and dermatology. Specifically, PRP has been tested during hair transplantation to reduce swelling and pain and to increase hair density. We examined the effects of PRP and herbal extracts combination in order to identify potential stimulants of hair growth. PRP was prepared using the double-spin method and applied to dermal papilla cells (DPCs). MTT viability test and BrdU cell proliferation assay were used to study the effect of herbal extracts and PRP on proliferation of DPCs. To understand the mechanisms of herbal extracts and PRP involved in the regulation of hair growth, we evaluated signaling pathways and measured the expressions of ERK and Akt, by Western blot. Combination of herbal extracts and PRP was found to induce significant proliferation of human DPCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 4.5%. The present study shows that herbal extracts and PRP affect the expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in DPCs. In this study, we have shown that combination of herbal extracts and PRP plays an active role in promoting the proliferation of human dermal papilla (DP) cells via the regulation of ERK and Akt proteins, and this may be applicable to the future development of herbal extracts and PRP combination therapeutics to enhance hair growth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. PLASMA CELL LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    de Larrea, Carlos Fernandez; Kyle, Robert A.; Durie, Brian GM; Ludwig, Heinz; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David H.; Hajek, Roman; Miguel, Jésus San; Sezer, Orhan; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kumar, Shaji K.; Mahindra, Anuj; Comenzo, Ray; Palumbo, Antonio; Mazumber, Amitabha; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Caers, Jo; Cavo, Michele; LeLeu, Xavier; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Chim, CS; Schots, Rik; Noeul, Amara; Fantl, Dorotea; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Moreau, Philippe; Fonseca, Rafael; Merlini, Giampaolo; Lahuerta, JJ; Bladé, Joan; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Shah, Jatin J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic-pathologic entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10 9/L) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds for diagnosis be reexamined and consensus recommendations are made for diagnosis, as well as, response and progression criteria. Induction therapy needs to begin promptly and have high clinical activity leading to rapid disease control in an effort to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding of the pathogenesis of PCL. PMID:23288300

  18. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs’ antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2‑ and NO3‑ can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2‑, but not NO3‑, acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2‑ in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2‑ and NO3‑ in solution.

  19. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma.

    PubMed

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs' antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2(-) and NO3(-) can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2(-), but not NO3(-), acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2(-) in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2(-) and NO3(-) in solution.

  20. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs’ antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2− and NO3− can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2−, but not NO3−, acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2− in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2− and NO3− in solution. PMID:27364563

  1. Plasma rotation induced by RF

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V. S.; Chiu, S. C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698; Omelchenko, Y. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5698

    1999-09-20

    Plasma rotation has many beneficial effects on tokamak operation including stabilization of MHD and microturbulence to improve the beta limit and confinement. Contrary to present-day tokamaks, neutral beams may not be effective in driving rotation in fusion reactors; hence the investigation of radiofrequency (RF) induced plasma rotation is of great interest and potential importance. This paper reviews the experimental results of RF induced rotation and possible physical mechanisms, suggested by theories, to explain the observations. This subject is only in the infancy of its research and many challenging issues remained to be understood and resolved. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Osteogenic differentiation of muscle satellite cells induced by platelet-rich plasma encapsulated in three-dimensional alginate scaffold.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengyun; Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Guijun; Fang, Dong; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2012-11-01

    Osteogenic potential of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) makes them a possible source of seeding cells for bone tissue engineering. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by encapsulation of PRP into 3-dimensional alginate hydrogel in vitro and in vivo. PRP was obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using 2 centrifugation techniques. MSCs were expanded and differentiated in the presence or absence of PRP in monolayer and 3-dimensional cultures. Cell viability was evaluated with the use of an MTT proliferation assay after 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of stimulation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of osteogenic-related genes were performed to study the effects of PRP on osteogenic differentiation of cultured MSCs by encapsulation of PRP in alginate gel. For in vivo study, the PRP-MSCs-alginate gel mixture was implanted in subcutaneous pockets of nude mice to examine the ectopic bone formation at 2 weeks. After 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of stimulation, PRP significantly promoted MSC proliferation in PRP-alginate gel mixture cultures. ALP activity, calcium deposition, and real-time RT-PCR showed enhanced cell osteogenic differentiation in the PRP-alginate group. Histologic examination demonstrated that large amount of fibrous tissue capsule, collagen, and new vascular growth were detected in the PRP-MSCs-alginate group compared with the alginate and MSCs-alginate groups. The results of this study suggest that MSCs induced by PRP encapsulated in an alginate gel mixture can undergo induction into osteoblastic phenotype both in vitro and in vivo, which makes the production of PRP-enhanced tissue-engineered bone using MSCs possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma Derived From Human Umbilical Cord Blood Modulates Mitogen-Induced Proliferation of Mononuclear Cells Isolated From the Peripheral Blood of ALS Patients.

    PubMed

    Eve, David J; Ehrhart, Jared; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Jahan, Israt; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Cyndy Davis; Gooch, Clifton; Sanberg, Paul R; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. This disease clinically manifests as gradual muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and death by respiratory failure. While multiple interdependent factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS, increasing evidence shows the possible presence of autoimmune mechanisms that promote disease progression. The potential use of plasma derived from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) as a therapeutic tool is currently in its infancy. The hUCB plasma is rich in cytokines and growth factors that are required for growth and survival of cells during hematopoiesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of hUCB plasma on the mitogen-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells (MNCs) isolated from the peripheral blood of ALS patients and apoptotic activity by detection of caspase 3/7 expression of the isolated MNCs in vitro. Three distinct responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferation of MNCs were observed, which were independent of age, disease duration, and the ALS rating scale: Group I responded normally to PHA, Group II showed no response to PHA, while Group III showed a hyperactive response to PHA. hUCB plasma attenuated the hyperactive response (Group III) and potentiated the normal response in Group I ALS patients, but did not alter that of the nonresponders to PHA (Group II). The elevated activity of caspase 3/7 observed in the MNCs from ALS patients was significantly reduced by hUCB plasma treatment. Thus, study results showing different cell responses to mitogen suggest alteration in lymphocyte functionality in ALS patients that may be a sign of immune deficiency in the nonresponders and autoimmunity alterations in the hyperactive responders. The ability of hUCB plasma to modulate the mitogen cell response and reduce caspase activity suggests that the use of hUCB plasma alone, or with

  4. Necl-5/PVR enhances PDGF-induced attraction of growing microtubules to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Minami, Akihiro; Mizutani, Kiyohito; Waseda, Masazumi; Kajita, Mihoko; Miyata, Muneaki; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi

    2010-11-01

    Microtubules (MTs) search for and grow toward the leading edge of moving cells, followed by their stabilization at a specific structure at the rear site of the leading edge. This dynamic re-orientation of MTs is critical to directional cell movement. We previously showed that Necl-5/poliovirus receptor (PVR) interacts with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and integrin α(v) β(3) at the leading edge of moving NIH3T3 cells, resulting in an enhancement of their directional movement. We studied here the role of Necl-5 in the PDGF-induced attraction of growing MTs to the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells. Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced growth of MTs and attracted them near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of NIH3T3 cells in an integrin α(v) β(3) -dependent manner. Furthermore, Necl-5 enhanced the PDGF-induced attraction of the plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs), including EB1, CLIP170, an intermediate chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein, and p150(Glued) , a subunit of dynactin, near to the plasma membrane of the leading edge. Thus, Necl-5 plays a role in the attraction of growing MTs to the plasma membrane of the leading edge of moving cells. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Effect of active species on animal cells in culture media induced by DBD Plasma irradiation using air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsubo, Tetsuya; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Little has been reported on action mechanism of active species produced by plasmas affecting living cells. In this study, active species in culture medium generated by torch type DBD and variations of animal cells are attempted to be clarified. Animal cells are irradiated by DBD plasma through various media such as DMEM, PBS and distilled water. Irradiation period is 1 to 15 min. The distance between the lower tip of plasma touch and the surface of the medium is 10 mm. Concentrations of NO2 -, O2 in liquid are measured. After the irradiation, the cells were cultivated in culture medium and their modifications are observed by microscope and some chemical reagents. Concentration of NO2 - and H2 O2 in all media increased with discharge period. Increase rate of NO2 -concentration is much higher than that of hydrogen peroxide. After plasma irradiation for 15 min, concentrations of NO2 were 80 mg/L in DMEM, 30 mg/L in PBS and 15 mg/L in distilled water. Also, the concentration of H2 O2 became 3mg/L in DMEM, 6.5 mg/L in PBS and 6.5mg/L in distilled water. The significant inactivation of cells was observed in the PBS. Above results indicate that, in this experiment, H2 O2 or OH radicals would affect animal cells in culture media.

  6. Plasma-induced graft copolymerization of HEMA onto silicone rubber and TPX film improving rabbit corneal epithelial cell attachment and growth.

    PubMed

    Hsiue, G H; Lee, S D; Wang, C C; Shiue, M H; Chang, P C

    1994-02-01

    A poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)-grafted polymer film was prepared by plasma-induced graft copolymerization onto an elastic material, silicone rubber, and a plastic material, poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX). The control, Ar plasma-treated and pHEMA-grafted silicone rubber and TPX surfaces were characterized by ESCA, FTIR-ATR, SEM and contact angle techniques. ESCA verified the respective chemical shift of control and Ar plasma-treated films. The presence of the grafted pHEMA was also verified by ESCA. The introduction of pHEMA onto a hydrophobic support provided an adequate surface for rabbit corneal epithelium cell attachment and growth. Cell attachment and growth onto these surfaces were examined by light microscopy. Cell attachment onto the control and Ar plasma-treated surfaces was negligible, while improved attachment and growth of rabbit corneal epithelium cells was demonstrated on the pHEMA-grafted polymeric surface. At 72 h, the pHEMA-grafted silicone rubber surface attached and grew more cells as compared with those on a pHEMA-grafted TPX surface. The pHEMA-grafted silicone rubber surface demonstrated a confluent cell layer after 72 h.

  7. Control of adhesion of human induced pluripotent stem cells to plasma-patterned polydimethylsiloxane coated with vitronectin and γ-globulin.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryotaro; Hattori, Koji; Tachikawa, Saoko; Tagaya, Motohiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising source of cells for medical applications. Recently, the development of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microdevices to control the microenvironment of hiPSCs has been extensively studied. PDMS surfaces are often treated with low-pressure air plasma to facilitate protein adsorption and cell adhesion. However, undefined molecules present in the serum and extracellular matrix used to culture cells complicate the study of cell adhesion. Here, we studied the effects of vitronectin and γ-globulin on hiPSC adhesion to plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces under defined culture conditions. We chose these proteins because they have opposite properties: vitronectin mediates hiPSC attachment to hydrophilic siliceous surfaces, whereas γ-globulin is adsorbed by hydrophobic surfaces and does not mediate cell adhesion. Immunostaining showed that, when applied separately, vitronectin and γ-globulin were adsorbed by both plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces. In contrast, when PDMS surfaces were exposed to a mixture of the two proteins, vitronectin was preferentially adsorbed onto plasma-treated surfaces, whereas γ-globulin was adsorbed onto untreated surfaces. Human iPSCs adhered to the vitronectin-rich plasma-treated surfaces but not to the γ-globulin-rich untreated surfaces. On the basis of these results, we used perforated masks to prepare plasma-patterned PDMS substrates, which were then used to pattern hiPSCs. The patterned hiPSCs expressed undifferentiated-cell markers and did not escape from the patterned area for at least 7 days. The patterned PDMS could be stored for up to 6 days before hiPSCs were plated. We believe that our results will be useful for the development of hiPSC microdevices.

  8. Statin-induced expression change of INSIG1 in lymphoblastoid cell lines correlates with plasma triglyceride statin response in a sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Theusch, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungpil; Stevens, Kristen; Smith, Joshua D.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Medina, Marisa W.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are widely prescribed to lower plasma LDL cholesterol levels. They also modestly reduce plasma triglycerides (TG), an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor, in most people. The mechanism and inter-individual variability of TG statin response is poorly understood. We measured statin-induced gene expression changes in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 150 participants of a simvastatin clinical trial and identified 23 genes (FDR=15%) with expression changes correlated to plasma TG response. The correlation of insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) expression changes with TG response (rho=0.32, q=0.11) was driven by men (interaction p=0.0055). rs73161338 was associated with INSIG1 expression changes (p=5.4×10−5) and TG response in two statin clinical trials (p=0.0048), predominantly in men. A combined model including INSIG1 expression level and splicing changes accounted for 29.5% of plasma TG statin response variance in men (p=5.6×10−6). Our results suggest that INSIG1 variation may contribute to statin-induced changes in plasma TG in a sex-specific manner. PMID:26927283

  9. Plasma cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Flavio; Fonseca, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, yet aggressive plasma cell (PC) neoplasm, variant of multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by high levels of PCs circulating in the peripheral blood. PCL can either originate de novo (primary PCL) or as a secondary leukemic transformation of MM (secondary PCL). Presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in MM such as renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but can also include hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected PCL should include a review of the peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) with immunofixation, and protein electrophoresis of an aliquot from a 24h urine collection (UPEP). The diagnosis is made when a monoclonal population of PCs is present in the peripheral blood with an absolute PC count exceeding 2000/μL and PC comprising 20% or more of the peripheral blood white cells. The prognosis of PCL is poor with a median survival of 7 to 11 months. Survival is even shorter (2 to 7 months) when PCL occurs in the context of refractory or relapsing MM. There have been no prospective randomized trials investigating the treatment of PCL. Recommendations are primarily based upon data from small retrospective series, case reports, and extrapolation of data from patients with MM. In general, patients are treated with induction therapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in those who are appropriate candidates for this approach. The best induction regimen for PCL is not known and there is great variability in clinical practice. Newer agents that are being incorporated into frontline and salvage therapy for MM have also demonstrated activity in PCL such as Immunomodulatory agents and the use of bortezomib with different combinations.

  10. Plasma cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Flavio; Fonseca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare, yet aggressive plasma cell (PC) neoplasm, variant of multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by high levels of PCs circulating in the peripheral blood. PCL can either originate de novo (primary PCL) or as a secondary leukemic transformation of MM (secondary PCL). Presenting signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in MM such as renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but can also include hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected PCL should include a review of the peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) with immunofixation, and protein electrophoresis of an aliquot from a 24h urine collection (UPEP). The diagnosis is made when a monoclonal population of PCs is present in the peripheral blood with an absolute PC count exceeding 2000/μL and PC comprising 20% or more of the peripheral blood white cells. The prognosis of PCL is poor with a median survival of 7 to 11 months. Survival is even shorter (2 to 7 months) when PCL occurs in the context of refractory or relapsing MM. There have been no prospective randomized trials investigating the treatment of PCL. Recommendations are primarily based upon data from small retrospective series, case reports, and extrapolation of data from patients with MM. In general, patients are treated with induction therapy followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in those who are appropriate candidates for this approach. The best induction regimen for PCL is not known and there is great variability in clinical practice. Newer agents that are being incorporated into frontline and salvage therapy for MM have also demonstrated activity in PCL such as Immunomodulatory agents and the use of bortezomib with different combinations. PMID:21295388

  11. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment. PMID:25319447

  12. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-16

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  13. Induced apoptosis in melanocytes cancer cell and oxidation in biomolecules through deuterium oxide generated from atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Attri, Pankaj; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Choi, Jinsung; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2014-12-23

    Recently, atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma-jets (APPJ) are being for the cancer treatment. However, APPJ still has drawbacks such as efficiency and rise in temperature after treatment. So, in this work, a synergetic agent D2O vapour is attached to APPJ which not only increase the efficiency of plasma source against cancer treatment, but also controlled the temperature during the treatment. OD generated by the combination of D2O + N2 plasma helped in enhancing the efficiency of APPJ. We observed OD induced apoptosis on melanocytes G361 cancer cells through DNA damage signalling cascade. Additionally, we observed that plasma induces ROS, which activated MAPK p38 and inhibits p42/p44 MAPK, leading to cancer cell death. We have also studied DNA oxidation by extracting DNA from treated cancer cell and then analysed the effects of OD/OH/D2O2/H2O2 on protein modification and oxidation. Additionally, we attempted molecular docking approaches to check the action of D2O2 on the apoptosis related genes. Further, we confirmed the formation of OD/OH simultaneously in the solution using optical emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the simultaneous generation of D2O2/H2O2 was detected by the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy and density measurements.

  14. Induced apoptosis in melanocytes cancer cell and oxidation in biomolecules through deuterium oxide generated from atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Attri, Pankaj; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Choi, Jinsung; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2014-12-01

    Recently, atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma-jets (APPJ) are being for the cancer treatment. However, APPJ still has drawbacks such as efficiency and rise in temperature after treatment. So, in this work, a synergetic agent D2O vapour is attached to APPJ which not only increase the efficiency of plasma source against cancer treatment, but also controlled the temperature during the treatment. OD generated by the combination of D2O + N2 plasma helped in enhancing the efficiency of APPJ. We observed OD induced apoptosis on melanocytes G361 cancer cells through DNA damage signalling cascade. Additionally, we observed that plasma induces ROS, which activated MAPK p38 and inhibits p42/p44 MAPK, leading to cancer cell death. We have also studied DNA oxidation by extracting DNA from treated cancer cell and then analysed the effects of OD/OH/D2O2/H2O2 on protein modification and oxidation. Additionally, we attempted molecular docking approaches to check the action of D2O2 on the apoptosis related genes. Further, we confirmed the formation of OD/OH simultaneously in the solution using optical emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the simultaneous generation of D2O2/H2O2 was detected by the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy and density measurements.

  15. Induced apoptosis in melanocytes cancer cell and oxidation in biomolecules through deuterium oxide generated from atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Attri, Pankaj; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Choi, Jinsung; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2014-01-01

    Recently, atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma-jets (APPJ) are being for the cancer treatment. However, APPJ still has drawbacks such as efficiency and rise in temperature after treatment. So, in this work, a synergetic agent D2O vapour is attached to APPJ which not only increase the efficiency of plasma source against cancer treatment, but also controlled the temperature during the treatment. OD generated by the combination of D2O + N2 plasma helped in enhancing the efficiency of APPJ. We observed OD induced apoptosis on melanocytes G361 cancer cells through DNA damage signalling cascade. Additionally, we observed that plasma induces ROS, which activated MAPK p38 and inhibits p42/p44 MAPK, leading to cancer cell death. We have also studied DNA oxidation by extracting DNA from treated cancer cell and then analysed the effects of OD/OH/D2O2/H2O2 on protein modification and oxidation. Additionally, we attempted molecular docking approaches to check the action of D2O2 on the apoptosis related genes. Further, we confirmed the formation of OD/OH simultaneously in the solution using optical emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the simultaneous generation of D2O2/H2O2 was detected by the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy and density measurements. PMID:25534001

  16. Plasma cytokine concentration and the cytokine producing ability of whole blood cell cultures from healthy females with pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Lackovic, V; Veselková, Z; Horváthová, M; Koska, J; Blazícková, S; Vigas, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia on plasma cytokine concentration and blood leukocyte cytokine production in healthy female volunteers. No changes were found in the plasma concentration of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-13 during hyperprolactinemia when compared with control values. Using unseparated blood leukocytes, we found that the spontaneous production of IL-6 (4-8 h) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 (2-4 h) was significantly decreased and that the in vitro stimulated production of IFN-gamma (2-8 h) and TNF (4 h) was significantly increased compared with control. Our data concerning the increased IFN-gamma and TNF producing capacity of unseparated leukocytes during pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia strongly support the possibility that the lymphocyte production of these cytokines can be rapidly amplified by prolactin via a priming mechanism.

  17. Effect of stress during handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma ion levels and somatolactin-expressing cells in mature female Liza ramada.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Noha A; Hashem, Amal M; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Mousa, Mostafa A

    2012-08-01

    The present experiments were designed to determine the effect of different stress factors; handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma cortisol, hydro mineral balance as well as changes in size, number and integrated intensity of somatolactin (SL)-expressing cells in Liza ramada mature females confined to fresh water ponds. The plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), and K(+) were higher, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were lower than controls during transportation without anesthesia. By using clove oil (5 mg L(-1)) as an anesthetic during transportation, the plasma cortisol, PO(4) (3-), Na(+), and K(+) were similar to controls, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were higher. During seawater acclimation, the plasma cortisol and minerals were significantly higher except Na(+) which was lower than controls. In addition, during induction of spawning, the plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) were significantly higher than controls. The SL-producing cells are located in the pars intermedia (PI) bordering the neurohypophysis. The stress affected the number, size, and immunostaining of SL-expressing cells. During seawater acclimation, the size and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were lower, but the number of these cells was higher than controls. Furthermore, the number, size, and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were significantly lower than controls during handling and after spawning, which was opposite to confinement. The response of SL-expressing cells in PI in parallel with changes in cortisol and hydro mineral balance induced by stress support the possible role of SL in the adaptive response of fish to stress.

  18. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  19. Components of Goutengsan in Rat Plasma by Microdialysis Sampling and Its Protection on Aβ1–42-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hou-Cai; Gu, Jun-Fei; Chen, Juan; Hou, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Rong-Ling; Xia, Zhi; Zhao, Di; Yang, Nan; Wang, Jing; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Di, Liu-Qing; Dong, Zi-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Goutengsan, a Chinese herbal formula, potential protection on Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been less reported. In current study, we investigated the protection of Goutengsan on Aβ1–42-induced pheochromocytoma-derived cells (PC12). Furthermore, the components from Goutengsan in rat plasma were identified by microdialysis (MD) for in vivo sampling. Meanwhile, the protection of components identified was also verified. At last, we found that Goutengsan has a potential protective effect on Aβ1–42-induced PC12 cells via reducing cells damage and increasing cells vitality as well as six components (pachymic acid, liquiritin, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, corynoxeine, and isocorynoxeine) which may be effective components. This study helps to understand the treatment of Goutengsan for AD and would facilitate the clinical and further studies for this formula. PMID:28348625

  20. Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Preferentially Induces Apoptosis in p53-Mutated Cancer Cells by Activating ROS Stress-Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonghao; Ha, Chang Seung; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Lee, Kyo-Won; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) is an ionized gas at room temperature and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy that acts by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is imperative to determine its selectivity and standardize the components and composition of NTAPP. Here, we designed an NTAPP-generating apparatus combined with a He gas feeding system and demonstrated its high selectivity toward p53-mutated cancer cells. We first determined the proper conditions for NTAPP exposure to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The apoptotic effect of NTAPP was greater for p53-mutated cancer cells; artificial p53 expression in p53-negative HT29 cells decreased the pro-apoptotic effect of NTAPP. We also examined extra- and intracellular ROS levels in NTAPP-treated cells to deduce the mechanism of NTAPP action. While NTAPP-mediated increases in extracellular nitric oxide (NO) did not affect cell viability, intracellular ROS increased under NTAPP exposure and induced apoptotic cell death. This effect was dose-dependently reduced following treatment with ROS scavengers. NTAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of NTAPP as a potent cancer therapy. Collectively, these results strongly support the potential of NTAPP as a selective anticancer treatment, especially for p53-mutated cancer cells. PMID:24759730

  1. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, T.J.; Palmer, B.A.; Hof, D.E.

    1990-11-06

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies is disclosed. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy. 1 fig.

  2. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Thomas J.; Palmer, Byron A.; Hof, Douglas E.

    1990-01-01

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy.

  3. [Hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism syndrome induced by plasma exchange].

    PubMed

    Fourrier, F; Leclerc, L; Racadot, A; Wemeau, J L; Lestavel, P; Chopin, C

    1988-10-08

    The study was designed to measure sequential changes in plasma renin activity, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and ionograms, prior to, and after therapeutic plasma exchange. Each measurement was repeated before and after stimulation of renin activity induced by furosemide. The results showed that plasma exchange induces a syndrome of hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism associated with a depletion in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity which might account for the dissociation between plasma renin activity and aldosterone.

  4. Dopamine induces lipid accumulation, NADPH oxidase-related oxidative stress, and a proinflammatory status of the plasma membrane in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Begieneman, Mark P V; Ter Horst, Ellis N; Rijvers, Liza; Meinster, Elisa; Leen, René; Pankras, Jeannette E; Fritz, Jan; Kubat, Bela; Musters, René J P; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Stap, Jan; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2016-11-01

    Excess catecholamine levels are suggested to be cardiotoxic and to underlie stress-induced heart failure. The cardiotoxic effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine are well recognized. However, although cardiac and circulating dopamine levels are also increased in stress cardiomyopathy patients, knowledge regarding putative toxic effects of excess dopamine levels on cardiomyocytes is scarce. We now studied the effects of elevated dopamine levels in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. H9c2 cells were cultured and treated with dopamine (200 μM) for 6, 24, and 48 h. Subsequently, the effects on lipid accumulation, cell viability, flippase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, subcellular NADPH oxidase (NOX) protein expression, and ATP/ADP and GTP/GDP levels were analyzed. Dopamine did not result in cytotoxic effects after 6 h. However, after 24 and 48 h dopamine treatment induced a significant increase in lipid accumulation, nitrotyrosine levels, indicative of ROS production, and cell death. In addition, dopamine significantly reduced flippase activity and ATP/GTP levels, coinciding with phosphatidylserine exposure on the outer plasma membrane. Furthermore, dopamine induced a transient increase in cytoplasmic and (peri)nucleus NOX1 and NOX4 expression after 24 h that subsided after 48 h. Moreover, while dopamine induced a similar transient increase in cytoplasmic NOX2 and p47(phox) expression, in the (peri)nucleus this increased expression persisted for 48 h where it colocalized with ROS. Exposure of H9c2 cells to elevated dopamine levels induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and a proinflammatory status of the plasma membrane. This can, in part, explain the inflammatory response in patients with stress-induced heart failure.

  5. Mestastable State Population in Laser Induced Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, V. H. S.; Kyriakides, C.; Ward, W. K.

    2006-01-01

    Laser induced plasma has been used as a source of neutrals and ions in the study of astrophysical plasmas. The purity of state of this source is essential in the determination of collision parameters such as the charge transfer rate coefficients between ions and neutrals. We will show that the temperature of the laser induced plasma is a rapidly decreasing function of time. The temperature is initially high but cools off rapidly through collisions with the expanding plasma electrons as the plasma recombines and streams into the vacuum. This rapid expansion of the plasma, similar to a supersonic jet, drastically lowers the internal energy of the neutrals and ions.

  6. Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase1 increases plasma membrane wt-CFTR in human airway epithelial cells by inhibiting its endocytic retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bomberger, Jennifer M; Coutermarsh, Bonita A; Barnaby, Roxanna L; Sato, J Denry; Chapline, M Christine; Stanton, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) secretion by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) located in the apical membrane of respiratory epithelial cells plays a critical role in maintenance of the airway surface liquid and mucociliary clearance of pathogens. Previously, we and others have shown that the serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 (SGK1) increases wild type CFTR (wt-CFTR) mediated Cl transport in Xenopus oocytes by increasing the amount of wt-CFTR protein in the plasma membrane. However, the effect of SGK1 on the membrane abundance of wt-CFTR in airway epithelial cells has not been examined, and the mechanism whereby SGK1 increases membrane wt-CFTR has also not been examined. Thus, the goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism whereby SGK1 regulates the membrane abundance of wt-CFTR in human airway epithelial cells. We report that elevated levels of SGK1, induced by dexamethasone, increase plasma membrane abundance of wt-CFTR. Reduction of SGK1 expression by siRNA (siSGK1) and inhibition of SGK1 activity by the SGK inhibitor GSK 650394 abrogated the ability of dexamethasone to increase plasma membrane wt-CFTR. Overexpression of a constitutively active SGK1 (SGK1-S422D) increased plasma membrane abundance of wt-CFTR. To understand the mechanism whereby SGK1 increased plasma membrane wt-CFTR, we examined the effects of siSGK1 and SGK1-S442D on the endocytic retrieval of wt-CFTR. While siSGK1 increased wt-CFTR endocytosis, SGK1-S442D inhibited CFTR endocytosis. Neither siSGK1 nor SGK1-S442D altered the recycling of endocytosed wt-CFTR back to the plasma membrane. By contrast, SGK1 increased the endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This study demonstrates for the first time that SGK1 selectively increases wt-CFTR in the plasma membrane of human airway epithelia cells by inhibiting its endocytic retrieval from the membrane.

  7. Plasma Interferon-Gamma-Inducible Protein 10 Level Associates With Abnormal Memory B Cells Phenotypes in Perinatal HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Contreras, German A; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate for perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving combined antiretroviral therapy and in good clinical status with respect to HIV disease that high concentrations of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 associate with increased exhausted memory B cells.

  8. Trichoderma viride cellulase induces resistance to the antibiotic pore-forming peptide alamethicin associated with changes in the plasma membrane lipid composition of tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alamethicin is a membrane-active peptide isolated from the beneficial root-colonising fungus Trichoderma viride. This peptide can insert into membranes to form voltage-dependent pores. We have previously shown that alamethicin efficiently permeabilises the plasma membrane, mitochondria and plastids of cultured plant cells. In the present investigation, tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow-2) were pre-treated with elicitors of defence responses to study whether this would affect permeabilisation. Results Oxygen consumption experiments showed that added cellulase, already upon a limited cell wall digestion, induced a cellular resistance to alamethicin permeabilisation. This effect could not be elicited by xylanase or bacterial elicitors such as flg22 or elf18. The induction of alamethicin resistance was independent of novel protein synthesis. Also, the permeabilisation was unaffected by the membrane-depolarising agent FCCP. As judged by lipid analyses, isolated plasma membranes from cellulase-pretreated tobacco cells contained less negatively charged phospholipids (PS and PI), yet higher ratios of membrane lipid fatty acid to sterol and to protein, as compared to control membranes. Conclusion We suggest that altered membrane lipid composition as induced by cellulase activity may render the cells resistant to alamethicin. This induced resistance could reflect a natural process where the plant cells alter their sensitivity to membrane pore-forming agents secreted by Trichoderma spp. to attack other microorganisms, and thus adding to the beneficial effect that Trichoderma has for plant root growth. Furthermore, our data extends previous reports on artificial membranes on the importance of lipid packing and charge for alamethicin permeabilisation to in vivo conditions. PMID:21156059

  9. Plasma Etching Improves Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunyan, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    Etching front surfaces of screen-printed silicon photovoltaic cells with sulfur hexafluoride plasma found to increase cell performance while maintaining integrity of screen-printed silver contacts. Replacement of evaporated-metal contacts with screen-printed metal contacts proposed as one way to reduce cost of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

  10. A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo study of plasma-induced damage of normal incidence collector optics used in extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieggers, R. C.; Goedheer, W. J.; Akdim, M. R.; Bijkerk, F.; Zegeling, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolution and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.

  11. Surface wettability of plasma SiOx:H nanocoating-induced endothelial cells' migration and the associated FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Wang, Guixue; Huang, Xianliang; Zhang, Qin; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Chaojun; Yu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and migration are essential processes in re-endothelialization of implanted biomaterials. There is no clear relationship and mechanism between EC adhesion and migration behaviour on surfaces with varying wettabilities. As model substrates, plasma SiOx:H nanocoatings with well-controlled surface wettability (with water contact angles in the range of 98.5 ± 2.3° to 26.3 ± 4.0°) were used in this study to investigate the effects of surface wettability on cell adhesion/migration and associated protein expressions in FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways. It was found that EC adhesion/migration showed opposite behaviour on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces promoted EC migration but were anti-adhesions). The number of adherent ECs showed a maximum on hydrophilic surfaces, while cells adhered to hydrophobic surfaces exhibited a tendency for cell migration. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor targeting the Y-397 site of FAK could significantly inhibit cell adhesion/migration, suggesting that EC adhesion and migration on surfaces with different wettabilities involve (p)FAK and its downstream signalling pathways. Western blot results suggested that the FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways were correlative to EC migration on hydrophobic plasma SiOx:H surfaces, but uncertain to hydrophilic surfaces. This work demonstrated that surface wettability could induce cellular behaviours that were associated with different cellular signalling events. PMID:21715399

  12. Surface wettability of plasma SiOx:H nanocoating-induced endothelial cells' migration and the associated FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Wang, Guixue; Huang, Xianliang; Zhang, Qin; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Chaojun; Yu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2012-02-07

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and migration are essential processes in re-endothelialization of implanted biomaterials. There is no clear relationship and mechanism between EC adhesion and migration behaviour on surfaces with varying wettabilities. As model substrates, plasma SiO(x):H nanocoatings with well-controlled surface wettability (with water contact angles in the range of 98.5 ± 2.3° to 26.3 ± 4.0°) were used in this study to investigate the effects of surface wettability on cell adhesion/migration and associated protein expressions in FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways. It was found that EC adhesion/migration showed opposite behaviour on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces promoted EC migration but were anti-adhesions). The number of adherent ECs showed a maximum on hydrophilic surfaces, while cells adhered to hydrophobic surfaces exhibited a tendency for cell migration. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor targeting the Y-397 site of FAK could significantly inhibit cell adhesion/migration, suggesting that EC adhesion and migration on surfaces with different wettabilities involve (p)FAK and its downstream signalling pathways. Western blot results suggested that the FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways were correlative to EC migration on hydrophobic plasma SiO(x):H surfaces, but uncertain to hydrophilic surfaces. This work demonstrated that surface wettability could induce cellular behaviours that were associated with different cellular signalling events.

  13. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B. . E-mail: pravin_sehgal@nymc.edu

    2006-03-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and {alpha}-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1{alpha} and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis.

  14. Activation of the Ca²+-sensing receptor induces deposition of tight junction components to the epithelial cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Jouret, François; Wu, Jingshing; Hull, Michael; Rajendran, Vanathy; Mayr, Bernhard; Schöfl, Christof; Geibel, John; Caplan, Michael J

    2013-11-15

    The Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and plays essential roles in divalent ion homeostasis and cell differentiation. Because extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions (TJs), we hypothesized that the CaSR participates in regulating TJ assembly. We first assessed the expression of the CaSR in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at steady state and following manipulations that modulate TJ assembly. Next, we examined the effects of CaSR agonists and antagonists on TJ assembly. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that endogenous CaSR is located at the basolateral pole of MDCK cells. Stable transfection of human CaSR in MDCK cells further reveals that this protein co-distributes with β-catenin on the basolateral membrane. Switching MDCK cells from low-Ca(2+) medium to medium containing a normal Ca(2+) concentration significantly increases CaSR expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Exposure of MDCK cells maintained in low-Ca(2+) conditions to the CaSR agonists neomycin, Gd(3+) or R-568 causes the transient relocation of the tight junction components ZO-1 and occludin to sites of cell-cell contact, while inducing no significant changes in the expression of mRNAs encoding junction-associated proteins. Stimulation of CaSR also increases the interaction between ZO-1 and the F-actin-binding protein I-afadin. This effect does not involve activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase. By contrast, CaSR inhibition by NPS-2143 significantly decreases interaction of ZO-1 with I-afadin and reduces deposition of ZO-1 at the cell surface following a Ca(2+) switch from 5 µM to 200 µM [Ca(2+)]e. Pre-exposure of MDCK cells to the cell-permeant Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM, similarly prevents TJ assembly caused by CaSR activation. Finally, stable transfection of MDCK cells with a cDNA encoding a human disease-associated gain-of-function mutant form of the CaSR increases the

  15. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor induces deposition of tight junction components to the epithelial cell plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jouret, François; Wu, Jingshing; Hull, Michael; Rajendran, Vanathy; Mayr, Bernhard; Schöfl, Christof; Geibel, John; Caplan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and plays essential roles in divalent ion homeostasis and cell differentiation. Because extracellular Ca2+ is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions (TJs), we hypothesized that the CaSR participates in regulating TJ assembly. We first assessed the expression of the CaSR in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at steady state and following manipulations that modulate TJ assembly. Next, we examined the effects of CaSR agonists and antagonists on TJ assembly. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that endogenous CaSR is located at the basolateral pole of MDCK cells. Stable transfection of human CaSR in MDCK cells further reveals that this protein co-distributes with β-catenin on the basolateral membrane. Switching MDCK cells from low-Ca2+ medium to medium containing a normal Ca2+ concentration significantly increases CaSR expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Exposure of MDCK cells maintained in low-Ca2+ conditions to the CaSR agonists neomycin, Gd3+ or R-568 causes the transient relocation of the tight junction components ZO-1 and occludin to sites of cell–cell contact, while inducing no significant changes in the expression of mRNAs encoding junction-associated proteins. Stimulation of CaSR also increases the interaction between ZO-1 and the F-actin-binding protein I-afadin. This effect does not involve activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase. By contrast, CaSR inhibition by NPS-2143 significantly decreases interaction of ZO-1 with I-afadin and reduces deposition of ZO-1 at the cell surface following a Ca2+ switch from 5 µM to 200 µM [Ca2+]e. Pre-exposure of MDCK cells to the cell-permeant Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM, similarly prevents TJ assembly caused by CaSR activation. Finally, stable transfection of MDCK cells with a cDNA encoding a human disease-associated gain-of-function mutant form of the CaSR increases the

  16. Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Yanes, Esperanza; Juarranz, Ángeles; Cuevas, Jesús; Gonzalez, Salvador; Mallol, Jordi

    2012-08-01

    A single dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces significant changes in blood and skin of hairless mice. Oral administration of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PL, 300 mg/kg during 5 days before UVR and for two additional days after irradiation) modulates some of the effects of UVR. Most significantly, PL administration reduced the number of proliferating cells by 13%, increased the number of p53(+) cells by 63%, enhanced the antioxidant plasma capacity (ORAC) by 30% and reinforced the network of dermal elastic fibres. Western blot analysis of skin antioxidant-related enzymes failed to demonstrate significant changes caused by PL. Thus, the beneficial effect of PL likely owes to its antioxidant and anti-ROS properties rather than its modulation of the expression of endogenous antioxidant systems. These data provide mechanistic clues for its efficacy as a systemic photoprotective agent with antioxidant and anti-photo-ageing properties.

  17. The anti-cancer peptide, PNC-27, induces tumor cell necrosis of a poorly differentiated non-solid tissue human leukemia cell line that depends on expression of HDM-2 in the plasma membrane of these cells.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Katlin; Babcock, Blake D; Fenelus, Maly; Poon, Chi Kong; Sarkar, Abhishek; Trivigno, Vincent; Zolkind, Paul A; Matthew, Sheena M; Grin'kina, Natalia; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Shaikh, Mohammad F; Adler, Victor; Michl, Josef; Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ehsan; Pincus, Matthew R; Bowne, Wilbur B

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the anti-cancer peptide, PNC-27, which is a membrane-active peptide that binds to the HDM-2 protein expressed in the cancer cell membranes of solid tissue tumor cells and induces transmembrane pore formation in cancer, but not in normal cells, resulting in tumor cell necrosis that is independent of p53 activity in these cells. We now extend our study to non-solid tissue tumor cells, in this case, a primitive, possible stem cell human leukemia cell line (K562) that is also p53-homozygously deleted. Our purpose was twofold: to investigate if these cells likewise express HDM-2 in their plasma membranes and to determine if our anti-cancer peptide induces tumor cell necrosis in these non-solid tissue tumor cells in a manner that depends on the interaction between the peptide and membrane-bound HDM-2. The anti-cancer activity and mechanism of PNC-27, which carries a p53 aa12-26-leader sequence connected on its carboxyl terminal end to a trans-membrane-penetrating sequence or membrane residency peptide (MRP), was studied against p53-null K562 leukemia cells. Murine leukocytes were used as a non-cancer cell control. Necrosis was determined by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and apoptosis was determined by the detection of Caspases 3 and 7. Membrane colocalization of PNC-27 with HDM-2 was analyzed microscopically using fluorescently labeled antibodies against HDM-2 and PNC-27 peptides. We found that K562 cells strongly express HDM-2 protein in their membranes and that PNC-27 co-localizes with this protein in the membranes of these cells. PNC-27, but not the negative control peptide PNC-29, is selectively cytotoxic to K562 cells, inducing nearly 100 percent cell killing with LDH release. In contrast, this peptide had no effect on the lymphocyte control cells. The results suggest that HDM-2 is expressed in the membranes of non-solid tissue tumor cells in addition to the membranes of solid tissue tumor cells. Since K-562 cells appear to be

  18. Analysis of nuclear induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic model is developed for a plasma generated by fission fragments, and the results are employed to study He plasma generated in a tube coated with fissionable material. Because both the heavy particles and electrons play important roles in creating the plasma, their effects are considered simultaneously. The calculations are carried out for a range of neutron fluxes and pressures. In general, the predictions of the theory are in good agreement with available intensity measurements. Moreover, the theory predicts the experimentally measured inversions. However, the calculated gain coefficients are such that lasing is not expected to take place in a helium plasma generated by fission fragments.

  19. Seminal plasma induces prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2 expression in immortalized human vaginal cells: involvement of semen prostaglandin E2 in PTGS2 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Theresa; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Sawyer, Lyn C; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of the cervicovaginal mucosa is considered a risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexual transmission. In this context, seminal plasma (SP) may play an important role that is not limited to being the main carrier for the virions. It is known that SP induces an inflammatory reaction in the cervix called postcoital leukocytic reaction, which has been associated with promotion of fertility. The mechanisms by which SP triggers this reaction, however, have not been clearly established. Previously we reported the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), in human vaginal cells in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and other proinflammatory stimuli. In this study, we demonstrate that SP induces transcriptional and translational increase of COX-2 expression in human vaginal cells and cervicovaginal tissue explants. Furthermore, SP potentiates vaginal PTGS2 expression induced by other proinflammatory stimulants, such as TLR ligands and a vaginal mucosal irritant (nonoxynol-9) in a synergistic manner. SP-induced PTGS2 expression is mediated by intracellular signaling pathways involving MAPKs and NF-κB. Using fractionation and functional analysis, seminal prostaglandin (PG)-E(2) was identified as a one of the major factors in PTGS2 induction. Given the critical role of this PG-producing enzyme in mucosal inflammatory processes, the finding that SP induces and potentiates the expression of PTGS2 in cervicovaginal cells and tissues has mechanistic implications for the role of SP in fertility-associated mucosal leukocytic reaction and its potential HIV infection-enhancing effect.

  20. Antibodies against Clonorchis sinensis LDH could cross-react with LDHB localizing on the plasma membrane of human hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721 and induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianzhang; Gan, Wenjia; Chen, Jintao; Huang, Lilin; Yin, Hongling; He, Tailong; Huang, Huaiqiu; Hu, Xuchu

    2016-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a terminal enzyme in anaerobic glycolytic pathway. It widely exists in various organisms and is in charge of converting the glycolysis product pyruvic acid to lactic acid. Most parasites, including Clonorchis sinensis, predominantly depend on glycolysis to provide energy. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that the LDHs from many species have more than one transmembrane region, suggesting that it may be a membrane protein. C. sinensis LDH (CsLDH) has been confirmed as a transmembrane protein mainly located in the tegument. The antibodies against CsLDH can inhibit the worm's energy metabolism, kill the worm, and may have the same effects on human cancer cells. In this study, we cloned and characterized human LDHA (HsLDHA), HsLDHB, and CsLDH. Semi-quantitative real-time RCP showed that HsLDHB only existed in hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721. Confocal microscopy and Western blot experiments revealed that HsLDHB was localized in the plasma membrane of SMMC-7721 cells, and the antibodies against CsLDH could cross-react with it. This cross-reaction could inhibit the enzymatic activity of HsLDHB. The cancer cells co-cultured with anti-CsLDH sera showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation rate and increases in caspase 9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, anti-CsLDH antibodies can induce the apoptosis of cancer cells SMMC-7721 and may serve as a new tool to inhibit tumor.

  1. Plasma Cell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Examination (Video) Blood Clots: Plugging the Breaks (News) Drone Sets New Record for Transporting Blood Samples (News) ... cells Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Drone Sets New Record for Transporting Blood Samples TUESDAY, ...

  2. Impurity-induced divertor plasma oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2016-01-07

    Two different oscillatory plasma regimes induced by seeding the plasma with high- and low-Z impurities are found for ITER-like divertor plasmas, using computer modeling with the DUSTT/UEDGE and SOLPS4.3 plasma-impurity transport codes. The oscillations are characterized by significant variations of the impurity-radiated power and of the peak heat load on the divertor targets. Qualitative analysis of the divertor plasma oscillations reveals different mechanisms driving the oscillations in the cases of high- and low-Z impurity seeding. The oscillations caused by the high-Z impurities are excited near the X-point by an impurity-related instability of the radiation-condensation type, accompanied by parallel impurity ion transport affected by the thermal and plasma friction forces. The driving mechanism of the oscillations induced by the low-Z impurities is related to the cross-field transport of the impurity atoms, causing alteration between the high and low plasma temperature regimes in the plasma recycling region near the divertor targets. As a result, the implications of the impurity-induced plasma oscillations for divertor operation in the next generation tokamaks are also discussed.

  3. Impurity-induced divertor plasma oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D. Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2016-01-15

    Two different oscillatory plasma regimes induced by seeding the plasma with high- and low-Z impurities are found for ITER-like divertor plasmas, using computer modeling with the DUSTT/UEDGE and SOLPS4.3 plasma-impurity transport codes. The oscillations are characterized by significant variations of the impurity-radiated power and of the peak heat load on the divertor targets. Qualitative analysis of the divertor plasma oscillations reveals different mechanisms driving the oscillations in the cases of high- and low-Z impurity seeding. The oscillations caused by the high-Z impurities are excited near the X-point by an impurity-related instability of the radiation-condensation type, accompanied by parallel impurity ion transport affected by the thermal and plasma friction forces. The driving mechanism of the oscillations induced by the low-Z impurities is related to the cross-field transport of the impurity atoms, causing alteration between the high and low plasma temperature regimes in the plasma recycling region near the divertor targets. The implications of the impurity-induced plasma oscillations for divertor operation in the next generation tokamaks are also discussed.

  4. Impurity-induced divertor plasma oscillations

    DOE PAGES

    Smirnov, R. D.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; ...

    2016-01-07

    Two different oscillatory plasma regimes induced by seeding the plasma with high- and low-Z impurities are found for ITER-like divertor plasmas, using computer modeling with the DUSTT/UEDGE and SOLPS4.3 plasma-impurity transport codes. The oscillations are characterized by significant variations of the impurity-radiated power and of the peak heat load on the divertor targets. Qualitative analysis of the divertor plasma oscillations reveals different mechanisms driving the oscillations in the cases of high- and low-Z impurity seeding. The oscillations caused by the high-Z impurities are excited near the X-point by an impurity-related instability of the radiation-condensation type, accompanied by parallel impurity ionmore » transport affected by the thermal and plasma friction forces. The driving mechanism of the oscillations induced by the low-Z impurities is related to the cross-field transport of the impurity atoms, causing alteration between the high and low plasma temperature regimes in the plasma recycling region near the divertor targets. As a result, the implications of the impurity-induced plasma oscillations for divertor operation in the next generation tokamaks are also discussed.« less

  5. Impurity-induced divertor plasma oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    Two different oscillatory plasma regimes induced by seeding the plasma with high- and low-Z impurities are found for ITER-like divertor plasmas, using computer modeling with the DUSTT/UEDGE and SOLPS4.3 plasma-impurity transport codes. The oscillations are characterized by significant variations of the impurity-radiated power and of the peak heat load on the divertor targets. Qualitative analysis of the divertor plasma oscillations reveals different mechanisms driving the oscillations in the cases of high- and low-Z impurity seeding. The oscillations caused by the high-Z impurities are excited near the X-point by an impurity-related instability of the radiation-condensation type, accompanied by parallel impurity ion transport affected by the thermal and plasma friction forces. The driving mechanism of the oscillations induced by the low-Z impurities is related to the cross-field transport of the impurity atoms, causing alteration between the high and low plasma temperature regimes in the plasma recycling region near the divertor targets. The implications of the impurity-induced plasma oscillations for divertor operation in the next generation tokamaks are also discussed.

  6. Superficial treatment of mammalian cells using plasma needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, E.; Kieft, I. E.; Sladek, R. E. J.

    2003-12-01

    Interactions of a small-size, non-thermal plasma (plasma needle) with living cells in culture are studied. We have demonstrated the non-destructive character of the plasma needle: under moderate conditions (low-power and low concentration of molecular species) the plasma needle does not heat biological samples and does not induce cell death. Treatment of living cells is restricted to the cell exterior (membrane). As a result of the interactions of plasma radicals with cell adhesion molecules, cell attachment is temporarily interrupted; the loose cells can be removed, reattached or transferred. This effect may prove very useful in fine surgery, where a part of the tissue must be removed with high-precision, without damage to the adjacent cells and without inflammatory reaction.

  7. Phospholipase D Activity Regulates Integrin-mediated Cell Spreading and Migration by Inducing GTP-Rac Translocation to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Young Chan; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Kyung Lock; Kim, Hyun Wook; Lee, Hye Young; Heo, Won Do; Meyer, Tobias; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2008-01-01

    Small GTPase Rac is a crucial regulator of actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, and it plays an important role in cell spreading, migration, mitogenesis, phagocytosis, superoxide generation, and axonal growth. It is generally accepted that Rac activity is regulated by the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)/guanosine diphosphate (GDP) cycle. But, it is suggested that in addition to Rac-GTP loading, membrane localization is required for the initiation of downstream effector signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the targeting of GTP-Rac to the plasma membrane remain largely unknown. Here, we have uncovered a signaling pathway linking phospholipase D (PLD) to the localized functions of Rac1. We show that PLD product phosphatidic acid (PA) acts as a membrane anchor of Rac1. The C-terminal polybasic motif of Rac1 is responsible for direct interaction with PA, and Rac1 mutated in this region is incapable of translocating to the plasma membrane and of activating downstream target p21-activated kinase upon integrin activation. Finally, we show that PA induces dissociation of Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor from Rac1 and that PA-mediated Rac1 localization is important for integrin-mediated lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and migration. These results provide a novel molecular mechanism for the GTP-Rac1 localization through the elevating PLD activity, and they suggest a general mechanism for diverse cellular functions that is required localized Rac activation. PMID:18480413

  8. Bortezomib resistance can be reversed by induced expression of plasma cell maturation markers in a mouse in vitro model of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Stessman, Holly A F; Mansoor, Aatif; Zhan, Fenghuang; Linden, Michael A; Van Ness, Brian; Baughn, Linda B

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematopoietic malignancy, remains an incurable plasma cell (PC) neoplasm. While the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Bz) has increased patient survival, resistance represents a major treatment obstacle as most patients ultimately relapse becoming refractory to additional Bz therapy. Current tests fail to detect emerging resistance; by the time patients acquire resistance, their prognosis is often poor. To establish immunophenotypic signatures that predict Bz sensitivity, we utilized Bz-sensitive and -resistant cell lines derived from tumors of the Bcl-X(L)/Myc mouse model of PC malignancy. We identified significantly reduced expression of two markers (CD93, CD69) in "acquired" (Bz-selected) resistant cells. Using this phenotypic signature, we isolated a subpopulation of cells from a drug-naïve, Bz-sensitive culture that displayed "innate" resistance to Bz. Although these genes were identified as biomarkers, they may indicate a mechanism for Bz-resistance through the loss of PC maturation which may be induced and/or selected by Bz. Significantly, induction of PC maturation in both "acquired" and "innate" resistant cells restored Bz sensitivity suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for reversing Bz resistance in refractory MM.

  9. Responses of cells in plasma-activated medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kano, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    Plasma consists of electrons, ions, radicals, and lights, and produces various reactive species in gas and liquid phase. Cells receive various inputs from their circumstances, and induce several physiological outputs. Our goal is to clarify the relationships between plasma inputs and physiological outputs. Plasma-activated medium (PAM) is a circumstance that plasma provides cells and our previous studies suggest that PAM is a promising tool for cancer therapy. However, the mode of actions remains to be elucidated. We propose survival and proliferation signaling networks as well as redox signaling networks are key factors to understand cellular responses of PAM-treated glioblastoma cells.

  10. Induction of cell growth arrest by atmospheric non-thermal plasma in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Seong-Ho; Kim, Gye-Yeop; Jun, Seung-Ik; Lee, Keunho; Baek, Seung Joon

    2010-12-01

    Plasma is generated by ionizing neutral gas molecules, resulting in a mixture of energy particles, including electrons and ions. Recent progress in the understanding of non-thermal atmospheric plasma has led to applications in biomedicine. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in plasma-induced cell growth arrest are unclear. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment for cancer therapy and examined the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-proliferative properties and cell death in human colorectal cancer cells. Non-thermal atmospheric plasma induced cell growth arrest and induced apoptosis. In addition, plasma reduced cell migration and invasion activities. As a result, we found that plasma treatment to the cells increases β-catenin phosphorylation, suggesting that β-catenin degradation plays a role at least in part in plasma-induced anti-proliferative activity. Therefore, non-thermal atmospheric plasma constitutes a new biologic tool with the potential for therapeutic applications that modulate cell signaling and function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SURFACE ALLOANTIGENS OF PLASMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshitada; Old, Lloyd J.; Boyse, Edward A.

    1970-01-01

    A serological study of immunoglobulin-forming cells of the mouse, normal and malignant, shows that they lack all known surface differentiation antigens of the thymocyte-lymphocyte axis: TL, θ, Ly-A, Ly-B, and MSLA. Two systems of normal alloantigens are expressed on these cells, H-2 and a new system named PC. The gene Pca (Plasma cell antigen) which specifies PC.1 alloantigen segregates as a mendelian dominant not closely linked with H-2. This cell surface antigen is absent from thymocytes, leukemias, and very probably from thymus-derived lymphocytes also; it is present on cells of the liver, kidney, brain, and lymph nodes as well as on hemolytic plaque-forming cells of the spleen, and on myelomas. So PC.1 is properly classified as a differentiation alloantigen. The strain distribution of PC.1 does not conform to that of any known immunoglobulin allotype or cell surface alloantigen previously described. Thus the cell surface antigens of immunoglobulin-producing cells are clearly different from those of cells belonging to the thymocyte-lymphocyte axis. Each family of cells has distinctive alloantigens, and the two families share alloantigens of only one known system, H-2. This implies that either immunoglobulin-producing cells are not derived from thymic lymphocytes, or if they are, the program responsible for the transition must include extensive revision of cell surface structure. PMID:5419273

  12. Platelet-rich plasma induces mixed osteogenic/osteoclastogenic phenotype in osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells: role of TGF-beta.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Simona; Mazzucco, Laura; Balbo, Valeria; Patrone, Mauro; Mozzati, Marco; Ranzato, Elia; Burlando, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used to promote tissue repair and accelerate osteogenesis, but there is no agreement about its mechanism of action. We characterized the modulatory effect of PRP on the in vitro osteoblast model SaOS-2, by using cell motility/chemoattraction and osteogenesis/mineralization assays, and a series of osteogenic/ osteoclastogenic genomic markers. Scratch wound assay showed that PRP stimulates cell motility, while transwell assay revealed a strong chemoattraction. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red-S assays showed that PRP induces slight, but significant, stimulations of ALP activity and mineralization. The TGF-β inhibitor SB431542 reversed these effects, showing a main role for TGF-β1 released by PRP. Analyses of gene expression by qRT-PCR, showed the upregulation of osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of NFκB (RANK), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) genes, with a total reversion by SB431542 for osteoprotegerin and RANK, and a partial reversion for ostecalcin, osteopontin, and RUNX2. The use of PCR array technique revealed the upregulation of the cathepsin K gene. These data show that PRP induces the development of mixed osteogenic/osteoclastogenic traits in the SaOS-2 model. Such a behavior may favour in vivo bone resorption and reconstitution at post-surgery or post-traumatic sites.

  13. Excimer laser induced plasma for aluminum alloys surface carburizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariaut, F.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Le Menn, E.; Sauvage, T.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Langlade, C.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, while light alloys are useful for automotive industries, their weak wear behavior is a limiting factor. The excimer laser carburizing process reported here has been developed to enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of aluminum alloys. An excimer laser beam is focused onto the alloy surface in a cell containing 1 bar methane or/and propylene gas. A vapor plasma expands from the surface, the induced shock wave dissociates and ionizes the ambient gas. Carbon atoms diffuse into the plasma in contact with the irradiated surface. An aluminum carbide layer is created by carbon diffusion in the surface liquid layer during the recombination phase of the plasma.

  14. Photoreflectance and DLTS evaluation of plasma-induced damage in GaAs and InP prior to solar cell fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, L.; Anderson, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect is considered of plasma etching on both GaAs and InP followed by damage removal using rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Effects of these processes were studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy (PR) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). These techniques are useful in evaluation of wafers prior to and effects of plasma processing during solar cell fabrication.

  15. Proteomic changes in chicken plasma induced by Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are cell wall components of gram-negative bacteria that cause inflammation and sickness through genetic and proteomic activation. The objective of our study was to identify the proteomic changes in plasma associated with inflammation induced by LPS treatment. Five-week-old ...

  16. MicroRNA profiles in hippocampal granule cells and plasma of rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy – comparison with human epileptic samples

    PubMed Central

    Roncon, Paolo; Soukupovà, Marie; Binaschi, Anna; Falcicchia, Chiara; Zucchini, Silvia; Ferracin, Manuela; Langley, Sarah R.; Petretto, Enrico; Johnson, Michael R.; Marucci, Gianluca; Michelucci, Roberto; Rubboli, Guido; Simonato, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of the transformation of normal to epileptic tissue would help to stratify patients at risk of epilepsy following brain injury, and inform new treatment strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an attractive option in this direction. In this study, miRNA microarrays were performed on laser-microdissected hippocampal granule cell layer (GCL) and on plasma, at different time points in the development of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in the rat: latency, first spontaneous seizure and chronic epileptic phase. Sixty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in the GCL when considering all time points. Three main clusters were identified that separated the control and chronic phase groups from the latency group and from the first spontaneous seizure group. MiRNAs from rats in the chronic phase were compared to those obtained from the laser-microdissected GCL of epileptic patients, identifying several miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-23a-5p, miR-146a-5p and miR-181c-5p) that were up-regulated in both human and rat epileptic tissue. Analysis of plasma samples revealed different levels between control and pilocarpine-treated animals for 27 miRNAs. Two main clusters were identified that segregated controls from all other groups. Those miRNAs that are altered in plasma before the first spontaneous seizure, like miR-9a-3p, may be proposed as putative biomarkers of epileptogenesis. PMID:26382856

  17. Synergistic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhenzhen; Yin, Xiaojing; Li, Hua; Jia, Lili; He, Xiuzhen; Yan, Yongbo; Liu, Naihua; Wan, Kayiu; Li, Xiaokun; Lin, Shaoqiang

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic wounds are a major clinical challenge, because minor skin wounds can lead to chronic, unhealed ulcers and ultimately result in infection, gangrene, or even amputation. Studies on bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and a series of growth factors have revealed their many benefits for wound healing and regeneration. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve the environment for BMSC development and differentiation. However, whether combined use of BMSCs and PRP may be more effective for accelerating diabetic ulcer healing remains unclear. We investigated the efficacy of BMSCs and PRP for the repair of refractory wound healing in a diabetic rat model. Forty-eight rats with diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin were divided into four groups: treatment with BMSCs plus PRP, BMSCs alone, PRP alone, phosphate buffered saline. The rate of wound closure was quantified. A histopathological study was conducted regarding wound depth and the skin edge at 7, 14, and 28 days after surgery. Wound healing rates were significantly higher in the BMSC plus PRP group than in the other groups. The immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and transforming growth factor-β1 increased significantly in the BMSC plus PRP group compared to the other treatment groups. On day 7, CD68 expression increased significantly in the wounds of the BMSC plus PRP group, but decreased markedly at day 14 compared to the controls. The combination of BMSCs and PRP aids diabetic wound repair and regeneration.

  18. Anti-cancer efficacy of nonthermal plasma dissolved in a liquid, liquid plasma in heterogeneous cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Hoan; Park, Hyung Jun; Yang, Sang Sik; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic potential of nonthermal plasma for cancer treatment has been reported recently. The heterogeneity of cancer cells need to be addressed to design effective anticancer treatments. Here, we show that treatment with nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma dissolved in a liquid (liquid plasma) induces oxidative stress in heterogeneous populations of cancer cells and ultimately kills these cells via apoptosis, regardless of genetic status, e.g., mutations in p53 and other DNA-damage-response genes. We found that liquid plasma markedly increased the concentration of intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), reflecting an influx from the extracellular milieu. Liquid plasma contributed to mitochondrial accumulation of ROS and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential with consequent cell death. Healthy normal cells, however, were hardly affected by the liquid-plasma treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked liquid-plasma-induced cell death. A knockdown of CuZn-superoxide dismutase or Mn-SOD enhanced the plasma-induced cell death, whereas expression of exogenous CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, or catalase blocked the cell death. These results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by ROS production is a key contributor to liquid-plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, regardless of genetic variation. Thus, liquid plasma may have clinical applications, e.g., the development of therapeutic strategies and prevention of disease progression despite tumor heterogeneity.

  19. Anti-cancer efficacy of nonthermal plasma dissolved in a liquid, liquid plasma in heterogeneous cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ngoc Hoan; Park, Hyung Jun; Yang, Sang Sik; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of nonthermal plasma for cancer treatment has been reported recently. The heterogeneity of cancer cells need to be addressed to design effective anticancer treatments. Here, we show that treatment with nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma dissolved in a liquid (liquid plasma) induces oxidative stress in heterogeneous populations of cancer cells and ultimately kills these cells via apoptosis, regardless of genetic status, e.g., mutations in p53 and other DNA-damage-response genes. We found that liquid plasma markedly increased the concentration of intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), reflecting an influx from the extracellular milieu. Liquid plasma contributed to mitochondrial accumulation of ROS and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential with consequent cell death. Healthy normal cells, however, were hardly affected by the liquid-plasma treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked liquid-plasma-induced cell death. A knockdown of CuZn-superoxide dismutase or Mn-SOD enhanced the plasma-induced cell death, whereas expression of exogenous CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, or catalase blocked the cell death. These results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by ROS production is a key contributor to liquid-plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, regardless of genetic variation. Thus, liquid plasma may have clinical applications, e.g., the development of therapeutic strategies and prevention of disease progression despite tumor heterogeneity. PMID:27364630

  20. Inflammatory response in the pig uterus induced by seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Bischof, R J; Lee, C S; Brandon, M R; Meeusen, E

    1994-03-01

    The immunological and physiological influence of seminal plasma on the local uterine environment was investigated by immunohistochemical and flow cytometrical studies on uterine tissues and lymph nodes taken from gilts after mating with a vasectomised boar and from control, unmated gilts. These studies revealed that mating with a vasectomised boar induces an acute transient inflammatory response in the endometrium resulting in marked changes in the presence and distribution of leukocytes and extensive proliferation of the endometrial glands. At the same time there was an increase in CD8L and sIg+ cells and an up-regulation of MHC class II and IL-2 receptor expression in the uterine lymph nodes of mated pigs. This would suggest that seminal plasma deposited in the uterus can activate cells in the local draining lymph nodes. Together, these results demonstrate in utero that pronounced immunological and physiological changes are induced in vivo by seminal plasma.

  1. Tipifarnib-Induced Apoptosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Multiple Myeloma Cells Depends on Ca2+ Influx through Plasma Membrane Ca2+ ChannelsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yanamandra, Niranjan; Buzzeo, Robert W.; Gabriel, Mark; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Mari, Yelenis; Beaupre, Darrin M.

    2011-01-01

    A major contributing factor to the high mortality rate associated with acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma is the development of resistance to chemotherapy. We have shown that the combination of tipifarnib, a nonpeptidomimetic farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), with bortezomib, a proteosome inhibitor, promotes synergistic death and overcomes de novo drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. Experiments were undertaken to identify the molecular mechanisms by which tipifarnib produces cell death in acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines (U937 and 8226, respectively). Tipifarnib, but not other FTIs tested [N-[4-[2(R)-amino-3-mercaptopropyl]amino-2-phenylbenzoyl]methionine methyl ester trifluoroacetate salt (FTI-277) and 2′-methyl-5-((((1-trityl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)amino)methyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid (FTI-2153), promotes elevations in intracellular free-calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in both cell lines. These elevations in [Ca2+]i were accompanied by highly dynamic plasmalemmal blebbing and frequently resulted in membrane lysis. The tipifarnib-induced elevations in [Ca2+]i were not blocked by thapsigargin or ruthenium red, but were inhibited by application of Ca2+-free extracellular solution and by the Ca2+ channel blockers Gd3+ and La3+. Conversely, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) potentiated the tipifarnib-evoked [Ca2+]i overload. Preventing Ca2+ influx diminished tipifarnib-evoked cell death, whereas 2-APB potentiated this effect, demonstrating a link between tipifarnib-induced Ca2+ influx and apoptosis. These data suggest that tipifarnib exerts its effects by acting on a membrane channel with pharmacological properties consistent with store-operated channels containing the Orai3 subunit. It is noteworthy that Orai3 transcripts were found to be expressed at lower levels in tipifarnib-resistant 8226/R5 cells. Our results indicate tipifarnib causes cell death via a novel mechanism involving activation of

  2. A novel approach to regulate cell membrane permeability for ATP and NADH formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Liu, Tingting; Xiong, Yuqin

    2017-02-01

    Air cold plasma has been used as a novel method for enhancing microbial fermentation. The aim of this work was to explore the effect of plasma on membrane permeability and the formation of ATP and NADH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, so as to provide valuable information for large-scale application of plasma in the fermentation industry. Suspensions of S. cerevisiae cells were exposed to air cold plasma for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min, and then subjected to various analyses prior to fermentation (0 h) and at the 9 and 21 h stages of fermentation. Compared with non-exposed cells, cells exposed to plasma for 1 min exhibited a marked increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration as a result of the significant increase in membrane potential prior to fermentation. At the same time, the ATP level in the cell suspension decreased by about 40%, resulting in a reduction of about 60% in NADH prior to culturing. However, the levels of ATP and NADH in the culture at the 9 and 21 h fermentation stages were different from the level at 0 h. Taken together, the results indicated that exposure of S. cerevisiae to air cold plasma could increase its cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration by improving the cell membrane potential, consequently leading to changes in ATP and NADH levels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21246012, 21306015 and 21476032).

  3. A novel approach to regulate cell membrane permeability for ATP and NADH formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyu, DONG; Tingting, LIU; Yuqin, XIONG

    2017-02-01

    Air cold plasma has been used as a novel method for enhancing microbial fermentation. The aim of this work was to explore the effect of plasma on membrane permeability and the formation of ATP and NADH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, so as to provide valuable information for large-scale application of plasma in the fermentation industry. Suspensions of S. cerevisiae cells were exposed to air cold plasma for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min, and then subjected to various analyses prior to fermentation (0 h) and at the 9 and 21 h stages of fermentation. Compared with non-exposed cells, cells exposed to plasma for 1 min exhibited a marked increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration as a result of the significant increase in membrane potential prior to fermentation. At the same time, the ATP level in the cell suspension decreased by about 40%, resulting in a reduction of about 60% in NADH prior to culturing. However, the levels of ATP and NADH in the culture at the 9 and 21 h fermentation stages were different from the level at 0 h. Taken together, the results indicated that exposure of S. cerevisiae to air cold plasma could increase its cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration by improving the cell membrane potential, consequently leading to changes in ATP and NADH levels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21246012, 21306015 and 21476032).

  4. Stem cell responses to plasma surface modified electrospun polyurethane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zandén, Carl; Hellström Erkenstam, Nina; Padel, Thomas; Wittgenstein, Julia; Liu, Johan; Kuhn, H Georg

    2014-07-01

    The topographical effects from functional materials on stem cell behavior are currently of interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here we investigate the influence of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasma surface modification of electrospun polyurethane fibers on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and rat postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) responses. The plasma gases were found to induce three combinations of fiber surface functionalities and roughness textures. On randomly oriented fibers, plasma treatments lead to substantially increased hESC attachment and proliferation as compared to native fibers. Argon plasma was found to induce the most optimal combination of surface functionality and roughness for cell expansion. Contact guided migration of cells and alignment of cell processes were observed on aligned fibers. Neuronal differentiation around 5% was found for all samples and was not significantly affected by the induced variations of surface functional group distribution or individual fiber topography. In this study the influence of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasma surface modification of electrospun polyurethane fibers on human embryonic stem cell and rat postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) responses is studied with the goal of clarifying the potential effects of functional materials on stem cell behavior, a topic of substantial interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Non-Thermal Plasma on Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalghatgi, Sameer; Kelly, Crystal M.; Cerchar, Ekaterina; Torabi, Behzad; Alekseev, Oleg; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gary; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been widely used in medicine to cut, ablate and cauterize tissues through heating; in contrast, non-thermal plasma produces no heat, so its effects can be selective. In order to exploit the potential for clinical applications, including wound healing, sterilization, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of non-thermal plasma with living tissues is required. Using mammalian cells in culture, it is shown here that non-thermal plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has dose-dependent effects that range from increasing cell proliferation to inducing apoptosis. It is also shown that these effects are primarily due to formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have utilized γ-H2AX to detect DNA damage induced by non-thermal plasma and found that it is initiated by production of active neutral species that most likely induce formation of organic peroxides in cell medium. Phosphorylation of H2AX following non-thermal plasma treatment is ATR dependent and ATM independent, suggesting that plasma treatment may lead to replication arrest or formation of single-stranded DNA breaks; however, plasma does not lead to formation of bulky adducts/thymine dimers. PMID:21283714

  6. Plasma extraction by centrifugo-pneumatically induced gating of flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Robert; Reis, Nuno; Garcia da Fonseca, João; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel valving mechanism to implement plasma extraction from whole blood on a centrifugal microfluidic ‘lab-on-a-disc’ platform. The new scheme is based on pressure-induced deflection of a liquid membrane which gates the centrifugally driven flow through a microfluidic structure. Compared to conventional concepts such as capillary burst valves, siphons or sacrificial materials, the valving structure presented here is represented by a compact, small-footprint design which obviates the need for (local) surface functionalization or hybrid materials integration, thus significantly reducing the complexity (and hence cost) of manufacture. As a pilot study of this new centrifugal flow control element, we demonstrate here the efficient separation of metered plasma from whole blood. While the flow is stopped, blood is separated into plasma and its cellular constituents by centrifugally induced sedimentation. After completion, the flow resumes by elevating the spinning frequency, providing up to 80% of the original plasma content to an overflow chamber within a short, 2 min interval. The amount of residual cells in the plasma amounts to less than 20 cells μl-1.

  7. Intracellular and plasma membrane-initiated pathways involved in the [Ca2+]i elevations induced by iodothyronines (T3 and T2) in pituitary GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Del Viscovo, Adelaide; Secondo, Agnese; Esposito, Alba; Goglia, Fernando; Moreno, Maria; Canzoniero, Lorella M T

    2012-06-01

    The role of 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and its metabolite 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2) in modulating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was evaluated in pituitary GH(3) cells in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca(2+). When applied in Ca(2+)-free solution, T2 and T3 increased [Ca(2+)](i), in a dose-dependent way, and NO levels. Inhibition of neuronal NO synthase by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and l-n(5)-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride significantly reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) increase induced by T2 and T3. However, while depletion of inositol trisphosphate-dependent Ca(2+) stores did not interfere with the T2- and T3-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increases, the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by LY-294002 and the dominant negative form of Akt mutated at the ATP binding site prevented these effects. Furthermore, the mitochondrial protonophore carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone prevented the increases in both [Ca(2+)](i) and NO elicited by T2 or T3. Interestingly, rotenone blocked the early [Ca(2+)](i) increases elicited by T2 and T3, while antimycin prevented only that elicited by T3. Inhibition of mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by CGP37157 significantly reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) increases induced by T2 and T3. In the presence of extracellular calcium (1.2 mM), under carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, T2 and T3 increased both [Ca(2+)](i) and intracellular Na(+) concentration; nimodipine reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) increases elicited by T2 and T3, but inhibition of NO synthase and blockade of the Na(+)/H(+) pump by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride prevented only that elicited by T3; and CB-DMB, bisindolylmaleimide, and LY-294002 (inhibitors of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, PKC, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, respectively) failed to modify the T2- and T3-induced effects. Collectively, the present results suggest that T2 and T3 exert short

  8. The death of ouabain-treated renal epithelial C11-MDCK cells is not mediated by swelling-induced plasma membrane rupture.

    PubMed

    Platonova, Alexandra; Koltsova, Svetlana; Maksimov, Georgy V; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Orlov, Sergei N

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the role of cell volume modulation in plasma membrane rupture and death documented in ouabain-treated renal epithelial cells. Long-term exposure to ouabain caused massive death of C11-MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells, documented by their detachment, chromatin cleavage and complete loss of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but did not affect the survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the rat aorta. Unlike the distinct impact on cell survival, 2-h exposure to ouabain led to sharp elevation of the [Na⁺](i)/[K⁺](i) ratio in both cell types. A similar increment of Na⁺(i) content was evoked by sustained inhibition of Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase in K⁺-free medium. However, in contrast to ouabain, C11-MDCK cells survived perfectly during 24-h exposure to K⁺-free medium. At 3 h, the volume of ouabain-treated C11-MDCK cells and VSMCs, measured by the recently developed dual-image surface reconstruction technique, was increased by 16 and 12%, respectively, whereas 5-10 min before the detachment of ouabain-treated C11-MDCK cells, their volume was augmented by ~30-40%. To examine the role of modest swelling in the plasma membrane rupture of ouabain-treated cells, we compared actions of hypotonic medium on volume and LDH release. We observed that LDH release from hypoosmotically swollen C11-MDCK cells was triggered when their volume was increased by approximately fivefold. Thus, our results showed that the rupture of plasma membranes in ouabain-treated C11-MDCK cells was not directly caused by cell volume modulation evoked by Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase inhibition and inversion of the [Na⁺](i)/[K⁺](i) ratio.

  9. Effective wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by adipose-derived stromal cell transplantation in plasma-gel containing fragmin/protamine microparticles.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Yuki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Takikawa, Makoto; Hattori, Hidemi; Takikawa, Megumi; Azuma, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Fujita, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of the application of inbred adipose-derived stromal cells (IR-ASCs) in high inbred rat plasma (IRP) (6%)-Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) gel with fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) (IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs) on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. F/P MPs have previously been used as a cell carrier for IR-ASCs in inbred Fisher 344 rats and for preservation and controlled release of various cytokines in IRP-DMEM gel. We applied IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs to full-thickness skin excisions on the backs of the diabetic rats. The statistical significance of wound closure was evaluated on postwounding days 3, 7, 10, and 14, and the skin area surrounding the wound was removed for histological examination on days 7 and 14. The wound closure rate and histological examination of wounds treated with IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs demonstrated significantly advanced epithelialization, capillary formation, and granulation tissue formation. When DiI-labeled IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs were applied to full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of the diabetic rats, histological observation at 2 weeks showed appearances of both DiI-labeled granulation tissue and CD31-immunostained microvessels in the transplant areas. A portion of the transplanted IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs had been taken up into the granulation tissues to promote wound healing. Thus, IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs were effective for repairing healing-impaired wounds such as those arising in the diabetic rats.

  10. Protective effect of resin adsorption on septic plasma-induced tubular injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A pro-apoptotic effect of circulating mediators on renal tubular epithelial cells has been involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI). Adsorption techniques have been showed to efficiently remove inflammatory cytokines from plasma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the hydrophobic resin Amberchrom CG161 M to adsorb from septic plasma soluble mediators involved in tubular injury. Methods We enrolled in the study 10 critically ill patients with sepsis-associated AKI and we evaluated the effects of their plasma on granulocyte adhesion, apoptosis and functional alterations of cultured human kidney tubular epithelial cells. We established an in vitro model of plasma adsorption and we studied the protective effect of unselective removal of soluble mediators by the Amberchrom CG161 M resin on septic plasma-induced tubular cell injury. Results Plasma from septic patients induced granulocyte adhesion, apoptosis and altered polarity in tubular cells. Plasma adsorption significantly decreased these effects and abated the concentrations of several soluble mediators. The inhibition of granulocyte adhesion to tubular cells was associated with the down-regulation of ICAM-1 and CD40. Resin adsorption inhibited tubular cell apoptosis induced by septic plasma by down-regulating the activation of caspase-3, 8, 9 and of Fas/death receptor-mediated signalling pathways. The alteration of cell polarity, morphogenesis, protein reabsorption and the down-regulation of the tight junction molecule ZO-1, of the sodium transporter NHE3, of the glucose transporter GLUT-2 and of the endocytic receptor megalin all induced by septic plasma were significantly reduced by resin adsorption. Conclusions Septic plasma induced a direct injury of tubular cells by favouring granulocyte adhesion, by inducing cell apoptosis and by altering cell polarity and function. All these biological effects are related to the presence of circulating

  11. Zidovudine and interferon-alpha treatment induces a high response rate and reduces HTLV-1 proviral load and VEGF plasma levels in patients with adult T-cell leukemia from North East Iran.

    PubMed

    Kchour, Ghada; Makhoul, Nadine J; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Kooshyar, Mohamad-Mehdi; Shirdel, Abbas; Rastin, Maryam; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Tarhini, Mahdi; Zalloua, Pierre A; Hermine, Olivier; Farid, Reza; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2007-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is endemic in southern Japan, the Caribbean, intertropical Africa, and Brazil. Recently north east Iran, particularly the region of Mashhad, has been recognized as a new endemic region. ATLL is an aggressive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Patients with ATLL have high plasma levels of VEGF that induce angiogenesis. Prognosis of ATLL remains poor because of immunosuppression and intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy. Important advances in the treatment of ATLL were reported with the combination of zidovudine (AZT) and interferon-alpha. We investigated the effect of AZT/IFN treatment on vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) plasma levels and HTLV-I proviral load in ATLL patients from the region of Mashhad. We confirmed that AZT/IFN treatment induces a high response rate and prolonged survival with minimal side effects. We also confirmed that VEGF plasma levels and HTLV-I proviral load are higher in ATLL patients than in asymptomatic carriers. We finally showed that AZT/IFN treatment reduced both HTLV-I proviral load and importantly VEGF plasma levels, suggesting a potential antiangiogenic effect of this therapy. These results provide further evidence for the efficacy and the mechanism of action of AZT/IFN therapy for ATLL in a developing country.

  12. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Iseki, Sachiko; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakamura, Kae; Hayashi, Moemi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Kano, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-12

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.

  13. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iseki, Sachiko; Nakamura, Kae; Hayashi, Moemi; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kondo, Hiroki; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kano, Hiroyuki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2012-03-01

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.

  14. Clinically granulomatous cheilitis with plasma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Somenath; Ghosh, Sarmistha; Sengupta, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis, also known as plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign inflammatory condition clinically characterized by erythematous plaque on lips that may be ulcerated. Histopathologically it is characterized by dense plasma cell infiltrates in a band-like pattern in dermis, which corresponds to Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. On the other hand, granulomatous cheilitis, as a part of orofacial granulomatosis, manifests as sudden diffuse or nodular swelling involving lip and cheek. Initial swelling is soft to firm, but with recurrent episodes swelling gradually become firm rubbery in consistency. We hereby report a case of cheilitis in a 52-year-old man with diffuse swelling involving lower lip, which clinically resembles granulomatous cheilitis, but histopathological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of plasma cells predominantly in upper and mid-dermis. PMID:27057489

  15. The effect of jet and DBD plasma on NCI-78 blood cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Kaushik, Neha; Choi, Eun Ha

    2013-06-01

    In this study we describe the effects of a nonthermal jet and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the T98G brain cancer cell line. The results of this study reveal that the jet and DBD plasma inhibits NCI-78 blood cancer cells growth efficiently with the loss of metabolic viability of cells. The main goal of this study is to induce cell death in NCI-78 blood cancer cells by the toxic effect of jet and DBD plasma.

  16. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  17. Cold atmospheric plasma jet-generated RONS and their selective effects on normal and carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H

    2016-02-03

    Cold atmospheric helium plasma jets were fabricated and utilized for plasma-cell interactions. The effect of operating parameters and jet design on the generation of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within cells and cellular response were investigated. It was found that plasma treatment induced the overproduction of RONS in various cancer cell lines selectively. The plasma under a relatively low applied voltage induced the detachment of cells, a reduction in cell viability, and apoptosis, while the plasma under higher applied voltage led to cellular necrosis in our case. To determine whether plasma-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs through interfering with mitochondria-related cellular response, we examined the plasma effects on ROS generation in both parental A549 cells and A549 ρ(0) cells. It was observed that cancer cells were more susceptible to plasma-induced RONS (especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2(-)) radicals) than normal cells, and consequently, plasma induced apoptotic cell responses mainly in cancer cells.

  18. Selective cytotoxicity of indirect nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma against ovarian clear-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Fumi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kae; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Hori, Masaru; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a histological type of epithelial ovarian cancer that is less responsive to chemotherapy and associated with a poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid carcinoma. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma which produces reactive species has recently led to an explosion of research in plasma medicine. Plasma treatment can be applied to cancer treatment to induce apoptosis and tumor growth arrest. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that a medium exposed to plasma also has an anti-proliferative effect against cancer in the absence of direct exposure to plasma. In this study, we confirmed whether this indirect plasma has an anti-tumor effect against CCC, and investigated whether this efficacy is selective for cancer cells. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma induced apoptosis in CCC cells, while human peritoneal mesothelial cells remained viable. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma exhibits selective cytotoxicity against CCC cells which are resistant to chemotherapy.

  19. Comparison of autologous bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells, and platelet rich plasma, for treating surgically induced lesions of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Barrachina, L; Ranera, B; Remacha, A R; Moreno, B; de Blas, I; Sanz, A; Vázquez, F J; Vitoria, A; Junquera, C; Zaragoza, P; Rodellar, C

    2017-06-01

    Several therapies have been investigated for equine tendinopathies, but satisfactory long term results have not been achieved consistently and a better understanding of the healing mechanism elicited by regenerative therapies is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the separate effects of autologous bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and platelet rich plasma (PRP), for treating lesions induced in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of horses. Lesions were created surgically in both SDFTs of the forelimbs of 12 horses and were treated with BM-MSCs (six tendons), AT-MSCs (six tendons) or PRP (six tendons). The remaining six tendons received lactated Ringer's solution as control. Serial ultrasound assessment was performed prior to treatment and at 2, 6, 10, 20 and 45 weeks post-treatment. At 45 weeks, histopathology and gene expression analyses were performed. At week 6, the ultrasound echogenicity score in tendons treated with BM-MSCs suggested earlier improvement, whilst all treatment groups reached the same level at week 10, which was superior to the control group. Collagen orientation scores on histological examination suggested a better outcome in treated tendons. Gene expression was indicative of better tissue regeneration after all treatments, especially for BM-MSCs, as suggested by upregulation of collagen type I, decorin, tenascin and matrix metalloproteinase III mRNA. Considering all findings, a clear beneficial effect was elicited by all treatments compared with the control group. Although differences between treatments were relatively small, BM-MSCs resulted in a better outcome than PRP and AT-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma Cell Pododermatitis in a Cat

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R.; Bernard, J.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunological basis for the condition. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422486

  1. The involvement of calcium carriers and of the vacuole in the glucose-induced calcium signaling and activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Bouillet, L E M; Cardoso, A S; Perovano, E; Pereira, R R; Ribeiro, E M C; Trópia, M J M; Fietto, L G; Tisi, R; Martegani, E; Castro, I M; Brandão, R L

    2012-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratories demonstrated that the sugar-induced activation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on calcium metabolism with the contribution of calcium influx from external medium. Our results demonstrate that a glucose-induced calcium (GIC) transporter, a new and still unidentified calcium carrier, sensitive to nifedipine and gadolinium and activated by glucose addition, seems to be partially involved in the glucose-induced activation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. On the other hand, the importance of calcium carriers that can release calcium from internal stores was analyzed in glucose-induced calcium signaling and activation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, in experimental conditions presenting very low external calcium concentrations. Therefore the aim was also to investigate how the vacuole, through the participation of both Ca(2+)-ATPase Pmc1 and the TRP homologue calcium channel Yvc1 (respectively, encoded by the genes PMC1 and YVC1) contributes to control the intracellular calcium availability and the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activation in response to glucose. In strains presenting a single deletion in YVC1 gene or a double deletion in YVC1 and PMC1 genes, both glucose-induced calcium signaling and activation of the H(+)-ATPase are nearly abolished. These results suggest that Yvc1 calcium channel is an important component of this signal transduction pathway activated in response to glucose addition. We also found that by a still undefined mechanism Yvc1 activation seems to correlate with the changes in the intracellular level of IP(3). Taken together, these data demonstrate that glucose addition to yeast cells exposed to low external calcium concentrations affects calcium uptake and the activity of the vacuolar calcium channel Yvc1, contributing to the occurrence of calcium signaling connected to plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wettability Effect of PECVD-SiOx Films on Poly(lactic acid) Induced by Oxygen Plasma on Protein Adsorption and Cell Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarapirom, S.; Lee, J. S.; Jin, S. B.; Song, D. H.; Yu, L. D.; Han, J. G.; Chaiwong, C.

    2013-04-01

    Surface wettability is an important property of biomaterials. Silicon oxide films have a wide range of applications due to a range of the properties such as the mechanical strength and surface wettability. This paper reports effect of the surface wettability of silicon oxide (SiOx) films on protein adsorption and cell attachment and proliferation. SiOx films were deposited onto poly(lactic acid) (PLA) substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS:Si4O4C8H24) was used as a precursor with O2 as a carrier gas. After deposition, the films were treated with O2-plasma to adapt wettability. It was found that O2-plasma enhanced the wettability of the films without changing the film thickness, while made the surface morphology slightly smoother. The polar component increased after O2-plasma treatment as observed in the contact angle measurements. The surface energy of the films was calculated by means of the Owens-Wendt method to resolve the contributions of polar and dispersive components. The chemical structure was characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The films were dense with a high Si-network structure. The reduced carbon content (-CHn, Si-CH3) and increased hydrogen content (-OH) of the O2-plasma treated SiOx films led to the polar components enhancing the SiOx wettability. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the films was investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). More BSA was adsorbed onto the O2-plasma treated SiOx films. Attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts and L929 mouse fibroblasts cells on the SiOx films were evaluated via MTT assay. The cells were attached more to the untreated SiOx films but proliferated more on the surface of the O2-plasma treated SiOx films depending on the cell types.

  3. Biomedical Applications of Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas to Cancerous Cell Treatment and Tooth Bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Koo; Kim, Myoung Soo; Byun, June Ho; Kim, Kyong Tai; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Park, Gan Young

    2011-08-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have attracted great interests and they have been widely applied to biomedical applications to interact with living tissues, cells, and bacteria due to their non-thermal property. This paper reviews the biomedical applications of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas to cancerous cell treatment and tooth bleaching. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with cancer-specific antibodies have been introduced to cancerous cells to enhance selective killing of cells, and the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by plasma has been investigated. Tooth exposed to helium plasma jet with hydrogen peroxide has become brighter and the productions of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide have been enhanced by plasma exposure.

  4. Proliferation of mouse liver stem/progenitor cells induced by plasma from patients with acute liver failure is modulated by P2Y2 receptor-mediated JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Asako; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Oikawa, Kanta; Oigawa, Kanta; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2014-12-01

    We recently reported that acute liver failure plasma (ALF-P) promotes the proliferation of mouse liver oval cells (OCs) through c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which ALF-P induces JNK activation and OC proliferation. OCs and primary hepatocytes were exposed to ALF-P or normal control plasma (NC-P). Cell proliferation and activation of JNK and other JNK signaling molecules were detected subsequently. Next, we determined the effects of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and ATP receptors on ALF-P-stimulated cell growth. Finally, the relationship between the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and ATP receptor pathways was investigated. Cell proliferation accompanied by JNK activation was only observed in ALF-P-stimulated OCs. ALF-P stimulated the activation of SEK1/MKK4 and ATF2, but not c-Jun. Both PPADS (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid) treatment and P2Y2 (G-protein-coupled) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection blocked the effects of ALF-P on cell proliferation and JNK activation. However, ATP levels in ALF-P were significantly lower than that in NC-P, and ATP did not stimulate the proliferation of OCs. On the other hand, TNFα stimulated JNK activation and proliferation of OCs. TNFα receptor antagonist partly inhibited the ALF-P-stimulated proliferation of OCs. Moreover, PPADS significantly inhibited TNFα-stimulated cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and inhibited the activation of JNK. However, our data showed no significant difference in plasma TNFα levels between the NC-P and ALF-P samples. JNK activation induced by P2Y2 receptor crosstalk with the TNFα signaling pathway is important in mediating the effects of ALF-P on the proliferation and survival of OCs.

  5. Plasma cell gingivitis: treatment with chlorpheniramine maleate.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Aravindhan Thiruputkuzhi; Chandran, Chitraa R; Prabhakar, Priya; Lakshmiganthan, Mahalingam; Parthasaradhi, Thakkalapati

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell gingivitis is a benign lesion of unknown etiology characterized by massive and diffuse infiltration of plasma cells into the gingival connective tissue. Clinically, it can be seen as a diffuse, erythematous, and edematous swelling involving the marginal gingiva and extending into the attached gingiva. Although usually painless, the lesion can be esthetically unappealing, especially when anterior gingiva is involved. Although the usual line of management is removal of the offending agent, this report describes the treatment of plasma cell gingivitis with the topical application of chlorpheniramine maleate (25 mg) for a period of 10 days.

  6. Kinetic Approach for Laser-Induced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, Banaz; Rethfeld, Baerbel

    2008-10-22

    Non-equilibrium distribution functions of electron gas and phonon gas excited with ultrashort intense laser pulses are calculated for laser-induced plasmas occurring in solids. The excitation during femtosecond irradiation and the subsequent thermalization of the free electrons, as well as the dynamics of phonons are described by kinetic equations. The microscopic collision processes, such as absorption by inverse bremsstrahlung, electron-electron collisions, and electron-phonon interactions are considered by complete Boltzmann collision integrals. We apply our kinetic approach for gold by taking s-band electron into account and compare it with the case of excitation of d-band electrons.

  7. Kinetic Approach for Laser-Induced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Banaz; Rethfeld, Bärbel

    2008-10-01

    Non-equilibrium distribution functions of electron gas and phonon gas excited with ultrashort intense laser pulses are calculated for laser-induced plasmas occurring in solids. The excitation during femtosecond irradiation and the subsequent thermalization of the free electrons, as well as the dynamics of phonons are described by kinetic equations. The microscopic collision processes, such as absorption by inverse bremsstrahlung, electron-electron collisions, and electron-phonon interactions are considered by complete Boltzmann collision integrals. We apply our kinetic approach for gold by taking s-band electron into account and compare it with the case of excitation of d-band electrons.

  8. Cold atmospheric plasma jet-generated RONS and their selective effects on normal and carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric helium plasma jets were fabricated and utilized for plasma–cell interactions. The effect of operating parameters and jet design on the generation of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within cells and cellular response were investigated. It was found that plasma treatment induced the overproduction of RONS in various cancer cell lines selectively. The plasma under a relatively low applied voltage induced the detachment of cells, a reduction in cell viability, and apoptosis, while the plasma under higher applied voltage led to cellular necrosis in our case. To determine whether plasma-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs through interfering with mitochondria-related cellular response, we examined the plasma effects on ROS generation in both parental A549 cells and A549 ρ0 cells. It was observed that cancer cells were more susceptible to plasma-induced RONS (especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2−) radicals) than normal cells, and consequently, plasma induced apoptotic cell responses mainly in cancer cells. PMID:26838306

  9. Surgery-induced changes in red blood cell and plasma lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and blood hematology of female rats: protective role of methylene blue and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Hamit; Durmus, Ali Said; Simsek, Halil

    2011-03-01

    The aim was to determine the effects on red blood cell (RBC) and plasma lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and blood hematology of intraperitoneally administered vitamin E (VE) and 1% methylene blue (MB) solutions for prevention of adhesions in rats. Thirty-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups. An adhesion model was constituted on the left uterine horn in three of the groups. They were then given intraperitoneally 0.9% saline (C group), 10 mg VE (VE group) and 1% MB (MB group) solutions, respectively. A sham group (Sh group), on which laparotomy was performed, received 2 ml of 0.9% saline solution. In the C group, the adhesion scores were significantly higher than in the VE (p<0.01), MB (p<0.01) and Sh groups (p<0.005). Results showed that adhesion formation significantly induced nitric oxide (NO) (p<0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma (p<0.01). The levels of RBC glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05) and plasma VE (p<0.01) significantly increased after VE administration, whereas the levels of MDA (RBC and plasma) (p<0.01), plasma NO (p<0.01), blood lymphocyte count (p<0.05) and blood white blood cell (WBC) counts (p<0.01) decreased. Treatment with MB caused a significant increase in plasma VE (p<0.01). On the other hand, results showed that MB significantly decreased blood WBC counts (p<0.01), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) (p<0.001) and NO (p<0.01), and RBC glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (p<0.05) and MDA levels (p<0.01). Intraperitoneal administration of MB and VE is significantly effective in preventing intraabdominal adhesion formation in a rat model. Further investigations are necessary, however, to better understand the underlying biochemical mechanisms on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants of MB. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Cell lysis induces redistribution of the GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein on both faces of the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Cardoso De Almeida, M L; Geuskens, M; Pays, E

    1999-12-01

    African trypanosomes are coated by 10 million copies of a single variant specific glycoprotein (VSG) which are anchored in the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). A GPI-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) triggers fast VSG release upon cell lysis but in vivo it is safely controlled and topologically concealed from its substrate by being intracellular. One enigmatic aspect of GPI-PLC action therefore consists of how it could gain access to the VSG in the exoplasmic leaflet of the membrane. The data presented herewith disclose an unexpected possible solution for this puzzle: upon cell rupture the VSG invades the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane which thus becomes double coated. This unusual VSG rearrangement was stable in ruptured plasma membrane from GPI-PLC null mutant trypanosomes but transiently preceded VSG release in wild-type parasites. The formation of double coat membrane (DCM) was independent of the presence or activation of GPI-PLC, occurred both at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C and was unaffected by the classical inhibitor of VSG release, p-choromercuryphenylsulfonic acid (PCM). DCMs conserved the same coat thickness and association with subpellicular microtubules as in intact cells and were prone to form vesicles following gradual detachment of the latter. Our data also demonstrate that: (i) GPI-PLC expressed by one trypanosome only targets its own plasma membrane, being unable to release VSG of another parasite; (ii) DCMs concomitantly formed from trypanosomes expressing different VSGs do not intermix, an indication that DCM might be refractory to membrane fusion.

  11. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma induces apoptosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Involvement of DNA-damage-triggering sub-G(1) arrest via the ATM/p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Kang, Sung Un; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Kang Il; Seo, Seong Jin; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Eunpyo; Baek, Seung Jae; Lee, Keunho; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in physics have made possible the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) in cancer research. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP induces death of various cancer cell types, thus offering a promising alternative treatment, the mechanism of its therapeutic effect is little understood. In this study, we report for the first time that NTP led to apoptotic cell death in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Interestingly, NTP induced a sub-G(1) arrest in p53 wild-type OSCCs, but not in p53-mutated OSCCs. In addition, NTP increased the expression levels of ATM, p53 (Ser 15, 20 and 46), p21, and cyclin D1. A comet assay, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry of γH2AX suggested that NTP-induced apoptosis and sub-G(1) arrest were associated with DNA damage and the ATM/p53 signaling pathway in SCC25 cells. Moreover, ATM knockdown using siRNA attenuated the effect of NTP on cell death, sub-G(1) arrest and related signals. Taken together, these results indicate that NTP induced apoptotic cell death in p53 wild-type OSCCs through a novel mechanism involving DNA damage and triggering of sub-G(1) arrest via the ATM/p53 pathway. These findings show the therapeutic potential of NTP in OSCC.

  12. Plasma vasopressin levels in induced migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Peatfield, R C; Hampton, K K; Grant, P J

    1988-03-01

    Vasopressin (aVP) at low concentrations functions as an antidiuretic hormone and has vasoconstrictive effects. To investigate the possible role of aVP in the pathogenesis of migraine, six patients with a history of induced migraine were given 100 g chocolate, and blood samples for plasma aVP were taken before ingestion and every hour for 4 h. In one patient who presented with severe headache and nausea the base-line plasma aVP concentration was 15.2 pg/ml; it fell to 3.2 pg/ml at 2 h before rising to 10 pg/ml at 3 h and 4 h as the symptoms worsened. In the five patients with moderate or no headache plasma aVP concentrations remained in the normal range (less than 3 pg/ml) throughout. The results suggest that aVP does not have a role in the aetiology of migraine. The possibility exists that during severe attacks of nausea there is release of aVP, which may be responsible for the facial pallor, antidiuresis, and coagulation abnormalities occasionally observed in migraine.

  13. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet Induces Apoptosis Involving Mitochondria via Generation of Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geunyoung; Moon, Eunpyo; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. However, its biological effects and mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we investigated its cell death effects and underlying molecular mechanisms, using air and N2 plasma jets from a micro nozzle array. Treatment with air or N2 plasma jets caused apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells, simultaneously with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the plasma jets were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function as surrogate apoptotic signals by targeting the mitochondrial membrane potential. Antioxidants or caspase inhibitors ameliorated the apoptotic cell death induced by the air and N2 plasma jets, suggesting that the plasma jet may generate ROS as a proapoptotic cue, thus initiating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest the potential employment of plasma jets as a novel therapy for cancer. PMID:22140530

  14. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet induces apoptosis involving mitochondria via generation of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hak Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Kim, Geunyoung; Moon, Eunpyo; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. However, its biological effects and mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we investigated its cell death effects and underlying molecular mechanisms, using air and N₂ plasma jets from a micro nozzle array. Treatment with air or N₂ plasma jets caused apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells, simultaneously with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the plasma jets were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function as surrogate apoptotic signals by targeting the mitochondrial membrane potential. Antioxidants or caspase inhibitors ameliorated the apoptotic cell death induced by the air and N₂ plasma jets, suggesting that the plasma jet may generate ROS as a proapoptotic cue, thus initiating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest the potential employment of plasma jets as a novel therapy for cancer.

  15. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    SciTech Connect

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.

    1996-05-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Electromagnetic plasma emission during beam-plasma interaction: Parametric decay versus induced scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations are performed for examination of electromagnetic plasma emission at twice the electron plasma frequency. Electromagnetic "2fp" waves are considered to be excited by nonlinear three-wave processes in beam-plasma interactions. In this paper, nonlinear development of an electron-beam-plasma instability is studied as an initial value problem. The present simulation result confirmed that electromagnetic 2fp waves are strongly enhanced by the wave-wave interaction between forward and backward Langmuir waves, which is in agreement with the previous studies. It is also demonstrated that large-amplitude forward Langmuir waves decay into backward Langmuir waves and ion acoustic waves via a parametric decay and that electromagnetic 2fp waves are also enhanced by the decay of Langmuir waves. However, the growth rate of the electromagnetic 2fp waves due to the parametric decay of Langmuir waves is not as high. It should be noted that induced backscattering of Langmuir waves by enhanced thermal fluctuations of ions cannot be neglected in the excitation of backward Langmuir waves. Hence, low-noise simulations are necessary to suppress the effect of enhanced thermal fluctuations in the particle-in-cell method.

  17. Measurement of plasma-generated RONS in the cancer cells exposed by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Hea Min; Baek, Eun Jeong; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, Tae Hun

    2015-09-01

    The plasma-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) could result in cellular responses including DNA damages and apoptotic cell death. These chemical species, O, O2-,OH, NO, and NO2-,exhibit strong oxidative stress and/or trigger signaling pathways in biological cells. Each plasma-generated chemical species having biological implication should be identified and quantitatively measured. For quantitative measurement of RONS, this study is divided into three stages; plasma diagnostics, plasma-liquid interactions, plasma-liquid-cell interactions. First, the optical characteristics of the discharges were obtained by optical emission spectroscopy to identify various excited plasma species. And the characteristics of voltage-current waveforms, gas temperature, and plume length with varying control parameters were measured. Next, atmospheric pressure plasma jet was applied on the liquid. The estimated OH radical densities were obtained by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at the liquid surface. And NO2-is detected by Griess test and compared between the pure liquid and the cell-containing liquid. Finally, bio-assays were performed on plasma treated human lung cancer cells (A549). Intracellular ROS production was measured using DCF-DA. Among these RONS, productions of NO and OH within cells were measured by DAF-2DA and APF, respectively. The data are very suggestive that there is a strong correlation among the production of RONS in the plasmas, liquids, and cells.

  18. Nonthermal Plasma-Mediated Cancer Cell Death; Targeted Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byul-Bora; Choi, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Koo; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    Non-thermal air plasma can kill cancer cells. However, there is no selectivity between normal and cancer cells. Therefore, cancer specific antibody conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) was pretreated before plasma irradiation. Stimulation of antibody conjugated GNP by plasma treatment resulted in a significant decrease in viability of cancer cells. This technology shows the feasibility of using plasma therapy for killing cancer cells selectively.

  19. The interaction of atmospheric pressure plasma jets with cancer and normal cells: generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and changes of the cell proliferation and cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Tae Hun; Joh, Hea Min; Kim, Sun Ja; Leem, Sun Hee

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of atmospheric pressure plasmas is emerging as a candidate in cancer therapy. The primary role is played by reactive oxygen species (ROS), UV photons, charged particles and electric fields. Among them, intracellular ROS induced by plasma are considered to be the key constituents that induce cellular changes and apoptosis. In this study, the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cancer cells (human lung carcinoma cells) and normal cells (embryonic kidney cells and bronchial epithelial cells) were investigated. The plasma treatment was performed under different working gases, applied voltages, gas flow rates, and with and without additive oxygen flow. Using a detection dye, we observed that plasma exposure leads to the increase of the intracellular ROS and that the intracellular ROS production can be controlled by plasma parameters. A significant ROS generation was induced by plasma exposure on cancer cells and the overproduction of ROS contributes to the reduced cell proliferation. Normal cells were observed to be less affected by the plasma-mediated ROS and cell proliferation was less changed. The plasma treatment also resulted in the alteration of the cell cycle that contributes to the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. The selective effect on cancer and normal cells provides a promising prospect of cold plasma as cancer therapy. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Contract No. 2012R1A1A2002591 and 2012R1A1A3010213.

  20. The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

  1. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  2. Systematization of the Mechanism by Which Plasma Irradiation Causes Cell Growth and Tumor Cell Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    New methods and technologies have improved minimally invasive surgical treatment and saved numerous patients. Recently, plasma irradiation has been demonstrated that might be useful in medical field and the plasma irradiation device is expected to become practically applicable. Mild plasma coagulator showed some advantages such as hemostasis and adhesion reduction in experimental animal model, but the mechanism of plasma irradiation remains unclear. Our study group aim to clarify the mechanism of plasma irradiation effects, mainly focusing on oxidative stress using cultured cell lines and small animal model. First, a study using cultured cell lines showed that the culture medium that was activated by plasma irradiation (we called this kind of medium as ``PAM'' -plasma activated medium-) induced tumor cell death. Although this effect was mainly found to be due to hydrogen peroxide, the remaining portion was considered as the specific effect of the plasma irradiation and we are now studying focusing on this effect. Second, we established a mouse intra-peritoneal adhesion model and checked biological reaction that occurred in the adhesion part. Histopathological study showed inflammatory cells infiltration into adhesion part and the expression of PTX3 that might involve tissue repair around adhesion part. We also confirmed that cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 might be useful as a marker of adhesion formation in this model. Applying ``PAM'' or mild plasma irradiation in this model, we examine the effects of plasma on inflamed cells. The samples in these experiments would be applied to targeted proteomics analysis, and we aim to demonstrate the systematization of the cell's reaction by plasma irradiation.

  3. Methadone induced lysis of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Will, P C; Noteboom, W D

    1978-08-01

    Methadone induced lysis of human erythrocytes and mouse leukemic cells was studied. The cells lyse without prior swelling that is a necessary step of colloid osmotic lysis. Methadone is accumulated by both cell types, and is widely distributed intracellurly in mouse leukemic cells. The maximum lytic rate is roughly proportional to the amount of methadone uptake and the Q10 for lysis is equal to the Q10 for methadone partitioning between octanol and water. It is concluded that the cells lyse as a result of a non-specific disruption of the plasma membrane.

  4. Hypersonic Induced Interactions of Plasma and Non-Plasma Jets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-12

    optimised . A preliminary assessment of the effects of plasma actuators on jet and jet in crossflow was conducted. NOMENCLATURE C Chapman-Rubesin...highly adaptable so as to allow for efficient changeover between the use of different geometries . The model was a zero incidence flat plate with a...Final Report: FA8655-07-1-3032 / Kontis, K Figure 7: Schematic of flat plate geometry Table 1 Pressure tappings. The non-plasma air jet was

  5. Plasma-Sheet Dynamics Induced by Plasma Mantle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weining William

    Is the magnetic field in the Earth's magnetotail static? if yes, why? if not, what causes the magnetic field to change and how does it evolve with time? These questions have haunted magnetospheric physicists for the past decade. Although significant progress has been made in this area of research, a consensus still does not exist. This thesis approaches the problem from the most fundamental basis--Faraday's law relating the curl of the electric field to the time variation of the magnetic field. If we can reach an independent theory that relates the electric field to the magnetic field, the whole problem can, at least in principle, be solved. This thesis pursues the problem both physically and mathematically. Our answers to the questions listed at the beginning are: (1) the magnetic field is generally not static; (2) the change is powered by the energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere, the agent that effects the change is plasma injection from the high-latitude plasma mantle; (3) the time-dependence is closely related to the velocity distribution of the mantle plasma; A decrease of B_{rm z} in the near tail and a flux buildup at the farther end of tail are two primary features of the time evolution; (4) a dense, drifting plasma mantle causes an intensive reconfiguration in the plasma sheet and is likely to lead to plasma sheet instability. The general results of the thesis are supportive of Hones' phenomenological model of the tail evolution (Hones, 1977).

  6. Effects of Nonequilibrium Plasmas on Eukaryotic Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    on Eukaryotic Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-06-1-0004 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Mounir Laroussi, P.I., and...plume in room air. is a dielectric barrier discharge riptions we first present the effects types of eukaryotic microalgae. e cells are presented...preliminary results on the effects 15. SUBJECT TERMS Glow discharge, Atmospheric pressure, air plasma, eukaryote , cell , non-equilibrium 19a. NAME

  7. Single-Cell-Precision Microplasma-Induced Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinpei; He, Guangyuan; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    The issue of single-cell control has recently attracted enormous interest. However, in spite of the presently achievable intracellular-level physiological probing through bio-photonics, nano-probe-based, and some other techniques, the issue of inducing selective, single-cell-precision apoptosis, without affecting neighbouring cells remains essentially open. Here we resolve this issue and report on the effective single-cell-precision cancer cell treatment using the reactive chemistry of the localized corona-type plasma discharge around a needle-like electrode with the spot size ∼1 µm. When the electrode is positioned with the micrometer precision against a selected cell, a focused and highly-localized micro-plasma discharge induces apoptosis in the selected individual HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells only, without affecting any surrounding cells, even in small cell clusters. This is confirmed by the real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at the cellular and cell nucleus levels after the plasma exposure. PMID:24971517

  8. Cellular and Chromatin Dynamics of Antibody-Secreting Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bortnick, Alexandra; Murre, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B cells responsible for maintaining protective serum antibody titers. Despite their clinical importance, our understanding of the linear genomic features and chromatin structure of plasma cells is incomplete. The plasma cell differentiation program can be triggered by different signals and in multiple, diverse peripheral B cell subsets. This heterogeneity raises questions about the gene regulatory circuits required for plasma cell specification. Recently, new regulators of plasma cell differentiation have been identified and the enhancer landscapes of naïve B cells have been described. Other studies have revealed that the bone marrow niche harbors heterogeneous plasma cell subsets. Still undefined are the minimal requirements to become a plasma cell and what molecular features make peripheral B cell subsets competent to become antibody-secreting plasma cells. New technologies promise to reveal underlying chromatin configurations that promote efficient antibody secretion. PMID:26488117

  9. Two-dimensional nanoparticle self-assembly using plasma-induced Ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Photopoulos, P; Tserepi, A; Tsoukalas, D

    2011-06-10

    In this work, a novel Ag nanoparticle self-assembly process based on plasma-induced two-dimensional Ostwald ripening is demonstrated. Ag nanoparticles are deposited on p-doped Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering process. With the assistance of O(2)/Ar plasma treatment, different sizes and patterns of Ag nanoparticles are formed, due to the Ostwald ripening. The evolution of plasma-induced nanoparticle ripening is studied and a clear increase in particle size and a decrease in particle density are observed with increasing plasma treatment. From the experiments, it is concluded that the initial nanoparticle density and the plasma gas mixture (Ar/O(2) ratio) are important factors that affect the ripening process. The proposed plasma-directed Ag nanoparticle self-assembly provides a rapid method of tailoring the nanoparticle distribution on substrates, with potential applications in the fields of solar cells, biosensors, and catalysis.

  10. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by a pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Bae, S. H.; Leem, S. H.

    2010-07-01

    By using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage with repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz, we were able to induce apoptosis in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The apoptotic changes in cells with plasma treatment were detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence staining assay. A significant portion of these cells was observed to exhibit the apoptotic fragmentation. Helium plasma with additive O2 gas was found to be effective in the induction of apoptosis. This plasma jet provides an effective mode of human breast cancer cell therapy.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of a plasma activated medium on cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mohades, S.; Laroussi, M. Sears, J.; Barekzi, N.; Razavi, H.

    2015-12-15

    The interaction of low temperature plasma with liquids is a relevant topic of study to the field of plasma medicine. This is because cells and tissues are normally surrounded or covered by biological fluids. Therefore, the chemistry induced by the plasma in the aqueous state becomes crucial and usually dictates the biological outcomes. This process became even more important after the discovery that plasma activated media can be useful in killing various cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the measurements of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a species known to have strong biological effects, produced by application of plasma to a minimum essential culture medium. The activated medium is then used to treat SCaBER cancer cells. Results indicate that the plasma activated medium can kill the cancer cells in a dose dependent manner, retain its killing effect for several hours, and is as effective as apoptosis inducing drugs.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of a plasma activated medium on cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohades, S.; Laroussi, M.; Sears, J.; Barekzi, N.; Razavi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of low temperature plasma with liquids is a relevant topic of study to the field of plasma medicine. This is because cells and tissues are normally surrounded or covered by biological fluids. Therefore, the chemistry induced by the plasma in the aqueous state becomes crucial and usually dictates the biological outcomes. This process became even more important after the discovery that plasma activated media can be useful in killing various cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the measurements of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a species known to have strong biological effects, produced by application of plasma to a minimum essential culture medium. The activated medium is then used to treat SCaBER cancer cells. Results indicate that the plasma activated medium can kill the cancer cells in a dose dependent manner, retain its killing effect for several hours, and is as effective as apoptosis inducing drugs.

  13. Solar cell modules for plasma interaction evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A plasma interaction analysis in support of the solar electric propulsion subsystem examined the effects of a large high voltage solar array interacting with an ion thruster produced plasma. Two solar array test modules consisting of 36 large area wraparound contact solar cells welded to a flexible Kapton integrated circuit substrate were abricated. The modules contained certain features of the effects of insulation, din-holes, and bonding of the cell to the substrate and a ground plane. The possibility of a significant power loss occurring due to the collection of charged particles on the solar array interconnects was the focus of the research.

  14. Treatment of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cells using low temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Deborah; Hirst, Adam; Frame, Fiona F.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms of cell death after plasma treatment of both benign and cancerous prostate epithelial cells are investigated. Prostate cancer tissue was obtained with patient consent from targeted needle core biopsies following radical prostatectomy. Primary cells were cultured from cancer tissue and plated onto a chamber slide at a density of 10,000 cells per well in 200 microliter of stem cell media (SCM). The treated sample was previously identified as Gleason grade 7 cancer through tissue histo-pathology. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet configuration, with helium as a carrier gas, and 0.3% O2 admixture was used for treating the cells. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) produced by the plasma are believed to be the main mediators of the plasma-cell interaction and response. We found the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced inside the cells increased with plasma exposure. Exposure to the plasma for >3 minutes showed high levels of DNA damage compared to untreated and hydrogen peroxide controls. Cell viability and cellular recovery are also investigated and will be presented. All findings were common to both cell lines, suggesting the potential of LTP therapy for both benign and malignant disease.

  15. Cell array fabrication by plasma nanotexturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontziampasis, Dimitrios; Bourkoula, Athanasia; Petrou, Panagiota; Tserepi, Angeliki; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2013-05-01

    Cell behavior (i.e. attachment, proliferation, etc.) on nanostructured surfaces is currently a hot topic throughout the scientific community. However, studies often show diverging results due to differences in cells, local surface chemistry, and nanotopography fabrication methods. In this study, we use Oxygen plasma etching to both randomly nanotexture a PMMA surface and change its surface chemistry. We find that 3T3 cells behave quite differently on flat PMMA surfaces as compared to nanotextured ones, showing an on-off attachment behavior. Work is under progress to exploit this effect allowing selective cell capturing, and creation of cell arrays in adjacent plasma-nanotextured/smooth areas using a stencil mask during etching.

  16. Lichen Planus With Predominate Plasma Cell Infiltrate: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Huyenlan; Seyffert, Jennifer; Lountzis, Nektarios I; Altman, Howard B; Oram, Christian; Purcell, Stephen M

    2017-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory dermatitis of idiopathic origin that can involve the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails. LP has an associated set of characteristic histopathologic findings which include hyperkeratosis, vacuolization of the basal layer, Civatte bodies, wedge-shaped hypergranulosis, band-like lymphocytic infiltrate at the dermal epidermal junction, eosinophilic colloid bodies in the papillary dermis, and pigment incontinence. The infiltrate is usually composed of lymphocytes with few histiocytes, mast cells, and macrophages. The presence of plasma cell predominant infiltrate in LP has only been reported in four previous cases and 2 other cases of lichen nitidus. The authors report another 2 cases of LP with predominate plasma cell infiltrate in 2 female patients on the legs. The differential includes a drug-induced lichenoid reaction with predominate plasma cell infiltrate. However, there have been no case reports of that type of reaction. Because plasma cells are seen commonly in certain infectious diseases, malignancy, and macroglobulinemia, it is prudent to rule out those entities. Our patients responded well with a class 1 topical steroid, with improvement of their lower leg lesions within 1 month of treatment.

  17. A proliferation-inducing ligand sustains the proliferation of human naïve (CD27⁻) B cells and mediates their differentiation into long-lived plasma cells in vitro via transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor and B-cell mature antigen.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiko; Haneda, Masataka; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2015-06-01

    Long-lived plasma cells (PCs) contribute to humoral immunity through an undefined mechanism. Memory B cells, but not human naïve B cells, can be induced to differentiate into long-lived PCs in vitro. Because evidence links a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), a tumor necrosis factor family member, to the ability of bone marrow to mediate long-term PC survival, we reasoned that APRIL influences the proliferation and differentiation of naïve B cells. We describe here the development of a simple cell culture system that allowed us to show that APRIL sustained the proliferation of naïve human B cells and induced them to differentiate into long-lived PCs. Blocking the transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor or B-cell mature antigen shows they were required for the differentiation of naïve B cells into long-lived PCs in vitro. Our in vitro culture system will reveal new insights into the biology of long-lived PCs.

  18. Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser induced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Xu; Xu Jingzhou; Dai Jianming; Zhang, X.-C.

    2007-04-02

    It is well known that air plasma induced by ultrashort laser pulses emits broadband terahertz waves. The authors report the study of terahertz wave generation from the laser induced plasma where there is a preexisting plasma background. When a laser beam from a Ti:sapphire amplifier is used to generate a terahertz wave, enhancement of the generation is observed if there is another laser beam creating a plasma background. The enhancement of the terahertz wave amplitude lasts hundreds of picoseconds after the preionized background is created, with a maximum enhancement up to 250% observed.

  19. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be considered a

  20. Helium Generated Cold Plasma Finely Regulates Activation of Human Fibroblast-Like Primary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Paola; Pathak, Surajit; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Palù, Giorgio; Brun, Paola; Zuin, Matteo; Cavazzana, Roberto; Martines, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine) cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and can be

  1. Multiple myeloma: Development of plasma cell sarcoma during apparently successful chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Holt, J. M.; Robb-Smith, A. H. T.

    1973-01-01

    Three patients with multiple myeloma who developed a plasma cell sarcoma during apparently successful chemothapy are described. It is postulated that the chemotherapy induced the sarcomatous change. Images PMID:4584727

  2. Non-thermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes by inducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    KIM, KI CHEON; PIAO, MEI JING; HEWAGE, SUSARA RUWAN KUMARA MADDUMA; HAN, XIA; KANG, KYOUNG AH; JO, JIN OH; MOK, YOUNG SUN; SHIN, JENNIFER H.; PARK, YEUNSOO; YOO, SUK JAE; HYUN, JIN WON

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) through the induction of oxidative stress. For this purpose, the cells were exposed to surface dielectric-barrier discharge plasma in 70% oxygen and 30% argon. We noted that cell viability was decreased following exposure of the cells to plasma in a time-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium was used to monitor superoxide anion production. Plasma induced the generation of ROS, including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, which is an antioxidant, prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by exposure to plasma. ROS generated by exposure to plasma resulted in damage to various cellular components, including lipid membrane peroxidation, DNA breaks and protein carbonylation, which was detected by measuring the levels of 8-isoprostane and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine assay, comet assay and protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that plasma exerts cytotoxic effects by causing oxidative stress-induced damage to cellular components. PMID:26573561

  3. Non-thermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Cheon; Piao, Mei Jing; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Jo, Jin Oh; Mok, Young Sun; Shin, Jennifer H; Park, Yeunsoo; Yoo, Suk Jae; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms through which dielectric-barrier discharge plasma damages human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) through the induction of oxidative stress. For this purpose, the cells were exposed to surface dielectric-barrier discharge plasma in 70% oxygen and 30% argon. We noted that cell viability was decreased following exposure of the cells to plasma in a time-dependent manner, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium was used to monitor superoxide anion production. Plasma induced the generation of ROS, including superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, which is an antioxidant, prevented the decrease in cell viability caused by exposure to plasma. ROS generated by exposure to plasma resulted in damage to various cellular components, including lipid membrane peroxidation, DNA breaks and protein carbonylation, which was detected by measuring the levels of 8-isoprostane and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine assay, comet assay and protein carbonyl formation. These results suggest that plasma exerts cytotoxic effects by causing oxidative stress-induced damage to cellular components.

  4. Plasma cell treatment device Plasma-on-Chip: Monitoring plasma-generated reactive species in microwells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Kojima, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kumagai, Shinya

    2017-02-08

    We have developed a plasma cell treatment device called Plasma-on-Chip that enables the real-time monitoring of a single cell culture during plasma treatment. The device consists of three parts: 1) microwells for cell culture, 2) a microplasma device for generating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) for use in cell treatment, and 3) through-holes (microchannels) that connect each microwell with the microplasma region for RONS delivery. Here, we analysed the delivery of the RONS to the liquid culture medium stored in the microwells. We developed a simple experimental set-up using a microdevice and applied in situ ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with high sensitivity for detecting RONS in liquid. The plasma-generated RONS were delivered into the liquid culture medium via the through-holes fabricated into the microdevice. The RONS concentrations were on the order of 10-100 μM depending on the size of the through-holes. In contrast, we found that the amount of dissolved oxygen was almost constant. To investigate the process of RONS generation, we numerically analysed the gas flow in the through-holes. We suggest that the circulating gas flow in the through-holes promotes the interaction between the plasma (ionised gas) and the liquid, resulting in enhanced RONS concentrations.

  5. Plasma cell treatment device Plasma-on-Chip: Monitoring plasma-generated reactive species in microwells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Kojima, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kumagai, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a plasma cell treatment device called Plasma-on-Chip that enables the real-time monitoring of a single cell culture during plasma treatment. The device consists of three parts: 1) microwells for cell culture, 2) a microplasma device for generating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) for use in cell treatment, and 3) through-holes (microchannels) that connect each microwell with the microplasma region for RONS delivery. Here, we analysed the delivery of the RONS to the liquid culture medium stored in the microwells. We developed a simple experimental set-up using a microdevice and applied in situ ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with high sensitivity for detecting RONS in liquid. The plasma-generated RONS were delivered into the liquid culture medium via the through-holes fabricated into the microdevice. The RONS concentrations were on the order of 10-100 μM depending on the size of the through-holes. In contrast, we found that the amount of dissolved oxygen was almost constant. To investigate the process of RONS generation, we numerically analysed the gas flow in the through-holes. We suggest that the circulating gas flow in the through-holes promotes the interaction between the plasma (ionised gas) and the liquid, resulting in enhanced RONS concentrations.

  6. Plasma cell treatment device Plasma-on-Chip: Monitoring plasma-generated reactive species in microwells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Kojima, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru; Hatta, Akimitsu; Kumagai, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a plasma cell treatment device called Plasma-on-Chip that enables the real-time monitoring of a single cell culture during plasma treatment. The device consists of three parts: 1) microwells for cell culture, 2) a microplasma device for generating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) for use in cell treatment, and 3) through-holes (microchannels) that connect each microwell with the microplasma region for RONS delivery. Here, we analysed the delivery of the RONS to the liquid culture medium stored in the microwells. We developed a simple experimental set-up using a microdevice and applied in situ ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy with high sensitivity for detecting RONS in liquid. The plasma-generated RONS were delivered into the liquid culture medium via the through-holes fabricated into the microdevice. The RONS concentrations were on the order of 10–100 μM depending on the size of the through-holes. In contrast, we found that the amount of dissolved oxygen was almost constant. To investigate the process of RONS generation, we numerically analysed the gas flow in the through-holes. We suggest that the circulating gas flow in the through-holes promotes the interaction between the plasma (ionised gas) and the liquid, resulting in enhanced RONS concentrations. PMID:28176800

  7. Protein kinase A induces recruitment of active Na+,K+-ATPase units to the plasma membrane of rat proximal convoluted tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Carranza, Maria Luisa; Rousselot, Martine; Chibalin, Alexander V; Bertorello, Alejandro M; Favre, Hervé; Féraille, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Na+-K+ pumps in the plasma membrane in proximal convoluted tubule cells. PMID:9679177

  8. 7-Ketocholesterol is increased in the plasma of X-ALD patients and induces peroxisomal modifications in microglial cells: Potential roles of 7-ketocholesterol in the pathophysiology of X-ALD.

    PubMed

    Nury, Thomas; Zarrouk, Amira; Ragot, Kévin; Debbabi, Meryam; Riedinger, Jean-Marc; Vejux, Anne; Aubourg, Patrick; Lizard, Gérard

    2017-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder induced by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene, which causes the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in tissue and plasma. Oxidative stress may be a hallmark of X-ALD. In the plasma of X-ALD patients with different forms of the disease, characterized by high levels of C24:0 and C26:0, we observed the presence of oxidative stress revealed by decreased levels of GSH, α-tocopherol, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We showed that oxidative stress caused the oxidation of cholesterol and linoleic acid, leading to the formation of cholesterol oxide derivatives oxidized at C7 (7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC), and 7α-hydroxycholesrol (7α-OHC)) and of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9-HODE, 13-HODE), respectively. High levels of 7KC, 7β-OHC, 7α-OHC, 9-HODE and 13-HODE were found. As 7KC induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death, which could play key roles in the development of X-ALD, the impact of 7KC on the peroxisomal status was determined in microglial BV-2 cells. Indeed, environmental stress factors such as 7KC could exacerbate peroxisomal dysfunctions in microglial cells and thus determine the progression of the disease. 7KC induces oxiapoptophagy in BV-2 cells: overproduction of H2O2 and O2(-), presence of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, nuclear condensation and/or fragmentation; elevated [LC3-II/LC3-I] ratio, increased p62 levels. 7KC also induces several peroxisomal modifications: decreased Abcd1, Abcd2, Abcd3, Acox1 and/or Mfp2 mRNA and protein levels, increased catalase activity and decreased Acox1-activity. However, the Pex14 level was unchanged. It is suggested that high levels of 7KC in X-ALD patients could foster generalized peroxisomal dysfunction in microglial cells, which could in turn intensify brain damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electromagnetically Induced Guiding of Counter-propagating Lasers in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = G. Shvets; A. Pukhov

    1998-05-01

    The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses in a plasma is considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order the plasma period) laser pulse can also be nonlinearly focused by a long counter-propagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. This phenomenon of electromagnetically induced guiding can be utilized in laser-driven plasma accelerators.

  10. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-12-15

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  11. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  12. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Lu, R.; Xian, Y.; Gan, L.; Lu, X.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-кB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  13. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.; Gan, L.; Yang, X. E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn; Lu, R.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X. E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-kB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  14. Characteristics of microwave plasma induced by lasers and sparks.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yuji; Tsuruoka, Ryoji

    2012-03-01

    Characteristics of the plasma light source of microwave (MW) plus laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS) were studied. The plasma was initially generated by laser- or spark-induced breakdown as a plasma seed. A plasma volume was then grown and sustained by MWs in air. This MW plasma had a long lifetime, large volume, strong emission intensity, and high stability with time. These characteristics are suitable for applications in the molecular analysis of gases such as OH or N(2). Because the plasma properties did not depend on laser or spark plasma seeds, the resulting plasma was easily controllable by the input power and duration of the MWs. Therefore, a significant improvement was achieved in the spectral intensity and signal-to-noise ratio. For example, the peak intensity of the Pb spectra of LIBS increased 15 times, and that of SIBS increased 880 times without increases in their background noise. A MW-enhanced plasma light source could be used to make the total system smaller and cheaper than a conventional LIBS system, which would be useful for real-time and in situ analysis of gas molecules in, for example, food processing, medical applications, chemical exposure, and gas turbine or automobile air-to-fuel ratio and exhaust gas measurement.

  15. Effect of Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimental Model of Radiation Induced Oral Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    El Kholy, Samar; El Rouby, Dalia; Rashed, Laila; Shouman, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat's tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N) and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C), irradiated + MSCs (S), irradiated + (PRP) (P), and combined group (PS). Animal scarification occurred in 3 and 7 days after radiation. Then, tongues were dissected and examined histologically and for expression of bcl-2 by RT-PCR. Histological examination of the treated groups (S), (P), and (PS) revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue, compared to group (C), in addition to upregulated expression of bcl-2, indicating decreased apoptotic activity. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and PRP have shown positive effect in minimizing the epithelial atrophy of normal oral mucosa after regional radiotherapy, which was emphasized by decreasing apoptotic activity in these tissues. Nevertheless, combined use of BM-MSCs and PRP did not reveal the assumed synergetic effect in oral tissue protection. PMID:28337218

  16. Effect of Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimental Model of Radiation Induced Oral Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Basma; El Kholy, Samar; El Rouby, Dalia; Rashed, Laila; Shouman, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat's tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N) and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C), irradiated + MSCs (S), irradiated + (PRP) (P), and combined group (PS). Animal scarification occurred in 3 and 7 days after radiation. Then, tongues were dissected and examined histologically and for expression of bcl-2 by RT-PCR. Histological examination of the treated groups (S), (P), and (PS) revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue, compared to group (C), in addition to upregulated expression of bcl-2, indicating decreased apoptotic activity. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and PRP have shown positive effect in minimizing the epithelial atrophy of normal oral mucosa after regional radiotherapy, which was emphasized by decreasing apoptotic activity in these tissues. Nevertheless, combined use of BM-MSCs and PRP did not reveal the assumed synergetic effect in oral tissue protection.

  17. Induction of Malignant Plasma Cell Proliferation by Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tina W.; Kita, Hirohito; Hanson, Curtis A.; Walters, Denise K.; Arendt, Bonnie K.; Jelinek, Diane F.

    2013-01-01

    The biology of the malignant plasma cells (PCs) in multiple myeloma (MM) is highly influenced by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in which they reside. More specifically, BM stromal cells (SCs) are known to interact with MM cells to promote MM cell survival and proliferation. By contrast, it is unclear if innate immune cells within this same space also actively participate in the pathology of MM. Our study shows for the first time that eosinophils (Eos) can contribute to the biology of MM by enhancing the proliferation of some malignant PCs. We first demonstrate that PCs and Eos can be found in close proximity in the BM. In culture, Eos were found to augment MM cell proliferation that is predominantly mediated through a soluble factor(s). Fractionation of cell-free supernatants and neutralization studies demonstrated that this activity is independent of Eos-derived microparticles and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), respectively. Using a multicellular in vitro system designed to resemble the native MM niche, SCs and Eos were shown to have non-redundant roles in their support of MM cell growth. Whereas SCs induce MM cell proliferation predominantly through the secretion of IL-6, Eos stimulate growth of these malignant cells via an IL-6-independent mechanism. Taken together, our study demonstrates for the first time a role for Eos in the pathology of MM and suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting these cells may be beneficial. PMID:23894671

  18. Plasma-induced polymerization for enhancing paper hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhaoping; Tang, Jiebin; Li, Junrong; Xiao, Huining

    2013-01-30

    Hydrophobic modification of cellulose fibers was conducted via plasma-induced polymerization in an attempt to graft the hydrophobic polymer chains on paper surface, this increasing the hydrophobicity of paper. Two hydrophobic monomers, butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), were grafted on cellulose fibers, induced by atmospheric cold plasma. Various influencing factors associated with the plasma-induced grafting were investigated. Contact-angle measurement, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the occurrence of the grafting and characterized the changes of the cellulose fiber after modification. The results showed that the hydrophobicity of the modified paper sheet was improved significantly after the plasma-induced grafting. The water contact angle on the paper surface reached up to 130°. The morphological differences between modified and unmodified samples were also revealed by SEM observation. The resulting paper is promising as a green-based packaging material.

  19. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: principles, methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lazic, Violeta; Colao, Francesco; Fantoni, Roberta; Spizzichino, Valeria; Jovicevic, Sonja

    2006-12-01

    Principles of the Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy and its advances are reported. Methods for obtaining quantitative analyses are described, together with discussion of some applications and the specific problems.

  20. Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2012-01-01

    Vascularization plays a key role in processes such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Non-thermal plasma, which primarily produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), has recently emerged as an efficient tool in medical applications including blood coagulation, sterilization and malignant cell apoptosis. Liquids and porcine aortic endothelial cells were treated with a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in vitro. Plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and serum-free medium increased ROS concentration in a dose-dependent manner, with a higher concentration observed in serum-free medium compared with PBS. Species concentration inside cells peaked 1 h after treatment, followed by a decrease 3 h post treatment. Endothelial cells treated with a plasma dose of 4.2 J cm–2 had 1.7 times more cells than untreated samples 5 days after plasma treatment. The 4.2 J cm–2 plasma dose increased two-dimensional migration distance by 40 per cent compared with untreated control, while the number of cells that migrated through a three-dimensional collagen gel increased by 15 per cent. Tube formation was also enhanced by plasma treatment, with tube lengths in plasma-treated samples measuring 2.6 times longer than control samples. A fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) neutralizing antibody and ROS scavengers abrogated these angiogenic effects. These data indicate that plasma enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation is due to FGF-2 release induced by plasma-produced ROS. Non-thermal plasma may be used as a potential tool for applying ROS in precise doses to enhance vascularization. PMID:21653568

  1. Plasma induced DNA damage: Comparison with the effects of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazović, S.; Maletić, D.; Leskovac, A.; Filipović, J.; Puač, N.; Malović, G.; Joksić, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    2014-09-01

    We use human primary fibroblasts for comparing plasma and gamma rays induced DNA damage. In both cases, DNA strand breaks occur, but of fundamentally different nature. Unlike gamma exposure, contact with plasma predominantly leads to single strand breaks and base-damages, while double strand breaks are mainly consequence of the cell repair mechanisms. Different cell signaling mechanisms are detected confirming this (ataxia telangiectasia mutated - ATM and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related - ATR, respectively). The effective plasma doses can be tuned to match the typical therapeutic doses of 2 Gy. Tailoring the effective dose through plasma power and duration of the treatment enables safety precautions mainly by inducing apoptosis and consequently reduced frequency of micronuclei.

  2. Plasma induced DNA damage: Comparison with the effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lazović, S.; Maletić, D.; Puač, N.; Malović, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; Leskovac, A.; Filipović, J.; Joksić, G.

    2014-09-22

    We use human primary fibroblasts for comparing plasma and gamma rays induced DNA damage. In both cases, DNA strand breaks occur, but of fundamentally different nature. Unlike gamma exposure, contact with plasma predominantly leads to single strand breaks and base-damages, while double strand breaks are mainly consequence of the cell repair mechanisms. Different cell signaling mechanisms are detected confirming this (ataxia telangiectasia mutated - ATM and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related - ATR, respectively). The effective plasma doses can be tuned to match the typical therapeutic doses of 2 Gy. Tailoring the effective dose through plasma power and duration of the treatment enables safety precautions mainly by inducing apoptosis and consequently reduced frequency of micronuclei.

  3. Plasma-induced flow instabilities in atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2017-09-01

    Pulsed plasma excitation of rare gases flowing into air has been shown to impact the stability of the flow in non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs). In this paper, the results from a numerical modeling investigation of the stability of a round He APPJ with a powered electrode exposed to the gas flow are discussed. Localized gas heating at the powered electrode occurs on the time scale of the voltage pulse, tens to 100 ns, which is short compared to the fluid timescales. An acoustic wave propagates from this heated, expanding gas and exits the jet. The wave disturbs the shear layer between the He and surrounding humid air, exciting a shear instability which grows downstream with the flow and increases the mixing of the humid air into the He. The effects of the eddy-dominated flow on ionization wave (IW) propagation in an APPJ were investigated. The IW followed the regions of the highest helium concentration, resulting in an increased production of NO, HO2, and NO2.

  4. Zinc reduces epithelial barrier compromise induced by human seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, James M.; Diguilio, Katherine M.; Valenzano, Mary C.; Deis, Rachael; Thomas, Sunil; Zurbach, E. Peter; Abdulhaqq, Shaheed; Montaner, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Human semen has the potential to modulate the epithelial mucosal tissues it contacts, as seminal plasma (SP) is recognized to contain both pro- and anti-barrier components, yet its effects on epithelial barrier function are largely unknown. We addressed the role of human SP when exposed to the basal-lateral epithelial surface, a situation that would occur clinically with prior mechanical or disease-related injury of the human epithelial mucosal cell layers in contact with semen. The action of SP on claudins-2, -4, -5, and -7 expression, as well as on a target epithelium whose basolateral surface has been made accessible to SP, showed upregulation of claudins-4 and -5 in CACO-2 human epithelial cell layers, despite broad variance in SP-induced modulation of transepithelial electrical resistance and mannitol permeability. Upregulation of claudin-2 by SP also exhibited such variance by SP sample. We characterize individual effects on CACO-2 barrier function of nine factors known to be present abundantly in seminal plasma (zinc, EGF, citrate, spermine, fructose, urea, TGF, histone, inflammatory cytokines) to establish that zinc, spermine and fructose had significant potential to raise CACO-2 transepithelial resistance, whereas inflammatory cytokines and EGF decreased this measure of barrier function. The role of zinc as a dominant factor in determining higher levels of transepithelial resistance and lower levels of paracellular leak were confirmed by zinc chelation and exogenous zinc addition. As expected, SP presentation to the basolateral cell surface also caused a very dramatic yet transient elevation of pErk levels. Results suggest that increased zinc content in SP can compete against the barrier-compromising effect of negative modulators in SP when SP gains access to that epithelium’s basolateral surface. Prophylactic elevation of zinc in an epithelial cell layer prior to contact by SP may help to protect an epithelial barrier from invasion by SP-containing STD

  5. Mechanisms Regulating Plasma Cell Persistence in Health and Autoimmunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    of lupus . Task 1: Determine whether RANKL expression accompanies the emergence of autoantibody-producing plasma cells. Approach: Infuse mice...Cell Memory." American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy Annual Meeting; Washington, DC May, 2010 "Commensal Cross-talk between Plasma Cells and...plasma cell survival. To explore this suggestion, we used a Transwell system that physically separates the two cell types, but presents no barrier

  6. Plasma Cell Gingivitis: An Occasional Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M B; Sharma, Swati; Sharma, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell gingivitis, an infrequently observed oral condition, has been clinically characterized by diffuse gingival enlargement, erythema and sometimes desquamation. These lesions are usually asymptomatic, but invariably the patient will complain of a burning sensation in the gingiva and bleeding from the mouth. The diagnosis requires hematological screening in addition to clinical and histopathological examinations. This case report outlines one such case of plasma cell gingivitis in a 15-year-old female caused by use of an herbal, homemade toothpowder. The case presented here highlights the adverse effects and irrational use of herbal agents in dentifrices. At the same time, it emphasizes the need for comprehensive history taking, careful clinical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests in order to arrive at a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan for gingival conditions that are refractory to conventional therapy and to exclude certain malignancies and oral manifestations of systemic diseases.

  7. Plasma cells in immunopathology: concepts and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Tiburzy, Benjamin; Kulkarni, Upasana; Hauser, Anja Erika; Abram, Melanie; Manz, Rudolf Armin

    2014-05-01

    Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B cells that secrete antibodies, important for immune protection, but also contribute to any allergic and autoimmune disease. There is increasing evidence that plasma cell populations exhibit a considerable degree of heterogeneity with respect to their immunophenotype, migration behavior, lifetime, and susceptibility to immunosuppressive drugs. Pathogenic long-lived plasma cells are refractory to existing therapies. In contrast, short-lived plasma cells can be depleted by steroids and cytostatic drugs. Therefore, long-lived plasma cells are responsible for therapy-resistant autoantibodies and resemble a challenge for the therapy of antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. Both lifetime and therapy resistance of plasma cells are supported by factors produced within their microenviromental niches. Current results suggest that plasma cell differentiation and survival factors such as IL-6 also signal via mammalian miRNAs within the plasma cell to modulate downstream transcription factors. Recent evidence also suggests that plasma cells and/or their immediate precursors (plasmablasts) can produce important cytokines and act as antigen-presenting cells, exhibiting so far underestimated roles in immune regulation and bone homeostasis. Here, we provide an overview on plasma cell biology and discuss exciting, experimental, and potential therapeutic approaches to eliminate pathogenic plasma cells.

  8. Treatment of oral cancer cells with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurkovich, James; Han, Xu; Coffey, Benjamin; Klas, Matej; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2012-10-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are specialized types of plasma that are proposed as a new agent to induce death in cancer cells. The experimental phase of this study will test the application of such plasma to SCC-25 oral cancer cells to determine if it is possible to induce apoptosis or necrosis. Different sources are used on the cells to find a configuration which kills cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells. The sources have been developed based on the dielectric barrier discharge between two external electrodes surrounding a dielectric tube; such a configuration has been shown to induce breaks in DNA strands. Each configuration is characterized using an optical emission spectrophotometer and iCCD camera to determine the optimal conditions for inducing cell death. The cells are incubated after irradiation with plasma, and cell death is determined using microscopy imaging to identify antibody interaction within the cells. These studies are important for better understanding of plasma species interactions with cancer cells and mechanisms of DNA damage and at latter stage they will be useful for the development of advanced cancer therapy.

  9. Laser-induced plasma emission: from atomic to molecular spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giacomo, Alessandro; Hermann, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the optical emission spectral features of the plasma produced by laser-matter interaction, from a fundamental point of view. The laser induced plasma emission spectra are discussed in connection with the basic mechanisms that take place in the plasma phase at different time delays from the laser pulse. The laser induced plasma being a dynamic system, the hierarchy of the elementary mechanisms changes continuously because the electron number density and the electron temperature decrease during the expansion. As a consequence of this, over the duration of the plasma’s persistence the prevailing emitting species changes from ions to atoms and from atoms to molecules. Both atomic and molecular emission spectroscopy are discussed, to convey a complete description of the temporal evolution of laser induced plasma. Current literature, as well as the traditional plasma theories, are presented and discussed in order to give to the reader a general idea of the potentialities and drawbacks of emission spectroscopy in the study of laser induced plasma and its various applications.

  10. The interplay between biological and physical scenarios of bacterial death induced by non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskii, Vitalii; Churpita, Olexander; Jäger, Ales; Polívka, Leoš; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2016-03-01

    Direct interactions of plasma matter with living cells and tissues can dramatically affect their functionality, initiating many important effects from cancer elimination to bacteria deactivation. However, the physical mechanisms and biochemical pathways underlying the effects of non-thermal plasma on bacteria and cell fate have still not been fully explored. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms of non-thermal plasma-induced bacteria inactivation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. We demonstrate that depending on the exposure time plasma induces either direct physical destruction of bacteria or triggers programmed cell death (PCD) that exhibits characteristic features of apoptosis. The interplay between physical disruption and PCD is on the one hand driven by physical plasma parameters, and on the other hand by biological and physical properties of bacteria. The explored possibilities of the tuneable bacteria deactivation provide a basis for the development of advanced plasma-based therapies. To a great extent, our study opens new possibilities for controlled non-thermal plasma interactions with living systems.

  11. Low-energy plasma immersion ion implantation to induce DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwijit, K.; Yu, L. D.; Sarapirom, S.; Pitakrattananukool, S.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at low energy was for the first time applied as a novel biotechnology to induce DNA transfer into bacterial cells. Argon or nitrogen PIII at low bias voltages of 2.5, 5 and 10 kV and fluences ranging from 1 × 1012 to 1 × 1017 ions/cm2 treated cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, DNA transfer was operated by mixing the PIII-treated cells with DNA. Successes in PIII-induced DNA transfer were demonstrated by marker gene expressions. The induction of DNA transfer was ion-energy, fluence and DNA-size dependent. The DNA transferred in the cells was confirmed functioning. Mechanisms of the PIII-induced DNA transfer were investigated and discussed in terms of the E. coli cell envelope anatomy. Compared with conventional ion-beam-induced DNA transfer, PIII-induced DNA transfer was simpler with lower cost but higher efficiency.

  12. Gas-liquid interfacial plasmas producing reactive species for cell membrane permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Toshiro; Sasaki, Shota; Takashima, Keisuke; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Gas-liquid interfacial atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (GLI-APPJ) are used medically for plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization. In an attempt to identify the dominant factors induced by GLI-APPJ responsible for enhancing cell-membrane permeability, the concentration and distribution of plasma-produced reactive species in the gas and liquid phase regions are measured. These reactive species are classified in terms of their life-span: long-lived (e.g., H2O2), short-lived (e.g., O2•−), and extremely-short-lived (e.g., •OH). The concentration of plasma-produced •OHaq in the liquid phase region decreases with an increase in solution thickness (<1 mm), and plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization is found to decay markedly as the thickness of the solution increases. Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of •OHaq, resulting from the center-peaked distribution of •OH in the gas phase region, corresponds with the distribution of the permeabilized cells upon APPJ irradiation, whereas the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species such as H2O2aq in solution exhibit a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that •OHaq is likely one of the dominant factors responsible for plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization. PMID:28163376

  13. Gas-liquid interfacial plasmas producing reactive species for cell membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshiro; Sasaki, Shota; Takashima, Keisuke; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Gas-liquid interfacial atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (GLI-APPJ) are used medically for plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization. In an attempt to identify the dominant factors induced by GLI-APPJ responsible for enhancing cell-membrane permeability, the concentration and distribution of plasma-produced reactive species in the gas and liquid phase regions are measured. These reactive species are classified in terms of their life-span: long-lived (e.g., H2O2), short-lived (e.g., O2(•-)), and extremely-short-lived (e.g., (•)OH). The concentration of plasma-produced (•)OHaq in the liquid phase region decreases with an increase in solution thickness (<1 mm), and plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization is found to decay markedly as the thickness of the solution increases. Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of (•)OHaq, resulting from the center-peaked distribution of (•)OH in the gas phase region, corresponds with the distribution of the permeabilized cells upon APPJ irradiation, whereas the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species such as H2O2aq in solution exhibit a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that (•)OHaq is likely one of the dominant factors responsible for plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization.

  14. Elevation of Plasma TGF-{beta}1 During Radiation Therapy Predicts Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Combined Analysis From Beijing and Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lujun; Wang Luhua Ji Wei; Wang Xiaozhen; Zhu Xiangzhi; Hayman, James A.; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Yang Weizhi; Brenner, Dean; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Kong, F.-M.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To test whether radiation-induced elevations of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) during radiation therapy (RT) correlate with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate the ability of mean lung dose (MLD) to improve the predictive power. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with Stage I-III NSCLC treated with RT with or without chemotherapy. Platelet-poor plasma was obtained pre-RT and at 4-5 weeks (40-50 Gy) during RT. TGF-{beta}1 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint was {>=} Grade 2 RILT. Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression, and chi-square were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 165 patients were enrolled in this study. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy, and the median MLD was 15.3 Gy. Twenty-nine patients (17.6%) experienced RILT. The incidence of RILT was 46.2% in patients with a TGF-{beta}1 ratio > 1 vs. 7.9% in patients with a TGF-{beta}1 ratio {<=} 1 (p < 0.001), and it was 42.9% if MLD > 20 Gy vs. 17.4% if MLD {<=} 20 Gy (p = 0.024). The incidence was 4.3% in patients with a TGF-{beta}1 ratio {<=} 1 and MLD {<=} 20 Gy, 47.4% in those with a TGF-{beta}1 ratio >1 or MLD > 20 Gy, and 66.7% in those with a TGF-{beta}1 ratio >1 and MLD > 20 Gy (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Radiation-induced elevation of plasma TGF-{beta}1 level during RT is predictive of RILT. The combination of TGF- {beta}1 and MLD may help stratify the patients for their risk of RILT.

  15. Interaction between clonal plasma cells and the immune system in plasma cell dyscrasias.

    PubMed

    Perez-Andres, M; Almeida, J; Martin-Ayuso, M; Moro, M J; Garcia-Marcos, M A; Moreno, I; Dominguez, M; Galende, J; Heras, N; Gonzalez, M I; San Miguel, J F; Orfao, A

    2004-01-01

    The term "monoclonal gammopathy" (MG) includes a group of clonal plasma cell disorders, which show heterogeneous clinical behavior. While multiple myeloma (MM) and plasma cell leukemia (PCL) are incurable malignant diseases, most patients with MG of undetermined significance (MGUS) show an indolent/benign clinical course. Evidence has accumulated which supports the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in MG. Accordingly, the survival, drug-resistance and proliferation of MM cells have been shown to be largely dependent on a supportive microenvironment. Among the different environment-associated parameters, those related to the status/activity of the immune system are particularly relevant. This review focuses on the different ways clonal plasma cells (PC) interact with the immune system in different models of MG, to characterize crucial events in the development and progression of MG. These advances may support the design of novel therapeutic approaches in patients with MG.

  16. Lipid signalling dynamics at the β-cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic β-cells are clustered in islets of Langerhans and secrete insulin in response to increased concentrations of circulating glucose. Insulin in turn acts on liver, muscle and fat tissue to store energy and normalize the blood glucose level. Inappropriate insulin release may lead to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. In addition to glucose, other nutrients, neural stimuli and hormonal stimuli control insulin secretion. Many of these signals are perceived at the plasma membrane, which is also the site where insulin granules undergo exocytosis. Therefore, it is not surprising that membrane lipids play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion. β-cells release insulin in a pulsatile fashion. Signalling lipids integrate the nutrient and neurohormonal inputs to fine-tune, shape and co-ordinate the pulsatility. An important group of signalling lipids are phosphoinositides and their downstream messengers. This MiniReview will discuss new insights into lipid signalling dynamics in β-cells obtained from live-cell imaging experiments with fluorescent translocation biosensors. The plasma membrane concentration of several phosphoinositides and of their downstream messengers changes rapidly upon nutrient or neurohormonal stimulation. Glucose induces the most complex spatio-temporal patterns, typically involving oscillations of messenger concentrations, which sometimes are locally restricted. The tightly controlled levels of lipid messengers can mediate specific binding of downstream effectors to the plasma membrane, contributing to the appropriate regulation of insulin secretion. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. Micromachining of polydimethylsiloxane induced by laser plasma EUV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, S.; Makimura, T.; Okazaki, K.; Nakamura, D.; Takahashi, A.; Okada, T.; Niino, H.; Murakami, K.

    2011-06-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is fundamental materials in the field of biotechnology. Because of its biocompatibility, microfabricated PDMS sheets are applied to micro-reactors and microchips for cell culture. Conventionally, the microstructures were fabricated by means of cast or imprint using molds, however it is difficult to fabricate the structures at high aspect ratios such as through-holes/vertical channels. The fabrication of the high-aspect structures would enable us to stack sheets to realize 3D fluidic circuits. In order to achieve the micromachining, direct photo-ablation by short wavelength light is promising. In the previous works, we investigated ablation of transparent materials such as silica glass and poly(methyl methacrylate) induced by irradiation with laser plasma EUV light. We achieved smooth and fine nanomachining. In this work, we applied our technique to PDMS micromachining. We condensed the EUV light onto PDMS surfaces at high power density up to 108 W/cm2 using a Au coated ellipsoidal mirror. We found that PDMS sheet was ablated at a rate up to 440 nm/shot. It should be emphasized that through hole with a diameter of 1 μm was fabricated in a PDMS sheet with a thickness of 4 μm. Thus we demonstrated the micromachining of PDMS sheets using laser plasma EUV light.

  18. Induction of Immunogenic Cell Death with Non-Thermal Plasma for Cancer Immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Abraham G.

    Even with the recent advancements in cancer immunotherapy, treatments are still associated with debilitating side effects and unacceptable fail rates. Induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in tumors is a promising approach to cancer treatment that may overcome these deficiencies. Cells undergoing ICD pathways enhance the interactions between cancerous cells and immune cells of the patient, resulting in the generation of anti-cancer immunity. The goal of this therapy relies on the engagement and reestablishment of the patient's natural immune processes to target and eliminate cancerous cells systemically. The main objective of this research was to determine if non-thermal plasma could be used to elicit immunogenic cancer cell death for cancer immunotherapy. My hypothesis was that plasma induces immunogenic cancer cell death through oxidative stress pathways, followed by development of a specific anti-tumor immune response. This was tested by investigating the interactions between plasma and multiple cancerous cells in vitro and validating anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. Following plasma treatment, two surrogate ICD markers, secreted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and surface exposed calreticulin (ecto-CRT), were emitted from all three cancerous cell lines tested: A549 lung carcinoma cell line, CNE-1 radiation-resistant nasopharyngeal cell line and CT26 colorectal cancer cell line. When these cells were co-cultured with macrophages, cells of the innate immune system, the tumoricidal activity of macrophages was enhanced, thus demonstrating the immunostimulatory activity of cells undergoing ICD. The underlying mechanisms of plasma-induced ICD were also evaluated. When plasma is generated, four major components are produced: electromagnetic fields, ultraviolet radiation, and charged and neutral reactive species. Of these, we determined that plasma-generated charged and short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) were the major effectors of ICD. Following plasma

  19. FLOCK cluster analysis of plasma cell flow cytometry data predicts bone marrow involvement by plasma cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, David M; LaPlante, Charlotte D; Li, Betty

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed plasma cell populations in bone marrow samples from 353 patients with possible bone marrow involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm, using FLOCK (FLOw Clustering without K), an unbiased, automated, computational approach to identify cell subsets in multidimensional flow cytometry data. FLOCK identified discrete plasma cell populations in the majority of bone marrow specimens found by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria to be involved by a plasma cell neoplasm (202/208 cases; 97%), including 34 cases that were negative by standard flow cytometric analysis that included clonality assessment. FLOCK identified discrete plasma cell populations in only a minority of cases negative for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria (38/145 cases; 26%). Interestingly, 55% of the cases negative by standard analysis, but containing a FLOCK-identified discrete plasma cell population, were positive for monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. FLOCK-identified and quantitated plasma cell populations accounted for 3.05% of total cells on average in cases positive for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria, and 0.27% of total cells on average in cases negative for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria (p<0.0001; area under the curve by ROC analysis=0.96). The presence of a FLOCK-identified discrete plasma cell population was predictive of the presence of plasma cell neoplasia with a sensitivity of 97%, compared with only 81% for standard flow cytometric analysis, and had specificity of 74%, PPV of 84% and NPV of 95%. FLOCK analysis, which has been shown to provide useful diagnostic information for evaluating patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis, is able to identify neoplastic plasma cell populations analyzed by flow cytometry, and may be helpful in the diagnostic

  20. Sepsis-induced elevation in plasma serotonin facilitates endothelial hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yicong; Hadden, Coedy; Cooper, Anthonya; Ahmed, Asli; Wu, Hong; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Mayeux, Philip R.; Kilic, Fusun

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpermeability of the endothelial barrier and resulting microvascular leakage are a hallmark of sepsis. Our studies describe the mechanism by which serotonin (5-HT) regulates the microvascular permeability during sepsis. The plasma 5-HT levels are significantly elevated in mice made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). 5-HT-induced permeability of endothelial cells was associated with the phosphorylation of p21 activating kinase (PAK1), PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of vimentin (P-vimentin) filaments, and a strong association between P-vimentin and ve-cadherin. These findings were in good agreement with the findings with the endothelial cells incubated in serum from CLP mice. In vivo, reducing the 5-HT uptake rates with the 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor, paroxetine blocked renal microvascular leakage and the decline in microvascular perfusion. Importantly, mice that lack SERT showed significantly less microvascular dysfunction after CLP. Based on these data, we propose that the increased endothelial 5-HT uptake together with 5-HT signaling disrupts the endothelial barrier function in sepsis. Therefore, regulating intracellular 5-HT levels in endothelial cells represents a novel approach in improving sepsis-associated microvascular dysfunction and leakage. These new findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to intracellular/extracellular 5-HT ratio in sepsis and refine current views of these signaling processes during sepsis. PMID:26956613

  1. Sepsis-induced elevation in plasma serotonin facilitates endothelial hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Li, Yicong; Hadden, Coedy; Cooper, Anthonya; Ahmed, Asli; Wu, Hong; Lupashin, Vladimir V; Mayeux, Philip R; Kilic, Fusun

    2016-03-09

    Hyperpermeability of the endothelial barrier and resulting microvascular leakage are a hallmark of sepsis. Our studies describe the mechanism by which serotonin (5-HT) regulates the microvascular permeability during sepsis. The plasma 5-HT levels are significantly elevated in mice made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). 5-HT-induced permeability of endothelial cells was associated with the phosphorylation of p21 activating kinase (PAK1), PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of vimentin (P-vimentin) filaments, and a strong association between P-vimentin and ve-cadherin. These findings were in good agreement with the findings with the endothelial cells incubated in serum from CLP mice. In vivo, reducing the 5-HT uptake rates with the 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor, paroxetine blocked renal microvascular leakage and the decline in microvascular perfusion. Importantly, mice that lack SERT showed significantly less microvascular dysfunction after CLP. Based on these data, we propose that the increased endothelial 5-HT uptake together with 5-HT signaling disrupts the endothelial barrier function in sepsis. Therefore, regulating intracellular 5-HT levels in endothelial cells represents a novel approach in improving sepsis-associated microvascular dysfunction and leakage. These new findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to intracellular/extracellular 5-HT ratio in sepsis and refine current views of these signaling processes during sepsis.

  2. Effects on plasma and electric field measurements induced by spacecraft-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, T.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Forest, J.; Marchand, R.

    2009-04-01

    The interaction between a moving spacecraft and the ambient plasma may induce significant disturbances on plasma and electric field measurements that need to be accurately taken into account in order to optimize the positioning of instruments and to correct the measurements. Two resulting effects are presented in this poster. The first one is related to bulk velocity measurements made onboard the DEMETER micro-satellite. Detailed calculation of the plasma sheath around the satellite have been made using the SPIS code developped under the responsibility of ESA in order to determine the possible effects of a non-plane ion sheath on the ion trajectories and the disturbance on their bulk velocity direction that is measured by the IAP ion analyzer. Results will be shown indicating that deviation of a few degree may be expected that need to be taken into account to interpret the observations. A second observation will be presented dealing with an unexpected effect of the distant wake of the satellite. An anomaly aligned along the dip equator in the pacific sector observed by the electric field instrument on board was found related to an anomalous potential increase in one of the 4 probe. The local magnetic field line passing through the probe intersects with the satellite's wake region at 30m behind, neglecting converging/diverging effects of ions' ram motion. A simple but fast 2D Particle-In-Cell code, with an FFT Poisson solver, is developed to estimate the distant wake effects on the electrons' motion along the magnetic field line through the affected probe. Results from the simulation will be presented and its effects on the anomalous potential increase on the probe will be discussed.

  3. Prognostic impact of circulating plasma cells in patients with multiple myeloma: implications for plasma cell leukaemia definition.

    PubMed

    Granell, Miquel; Calvo, Xavier; Garcia-Guiñón, Antoni; Escoda, Lourdes; Abella, Eugènia; Martínez, Clara M; Teixidó, Montserrat; Gimenez, Maria Teresa; Senín, Alicia; Sanz, Patricia; Campoy, Desirée; Vicent, Ana; Arenillas, Leonor; Rosiñol, Laura; Sierra, Jorge; Blade, Joan; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos

    2017-03-02

    The presence of circulating plasma cells in patients with multiple myeloma is considered a marker for highly proliferative disease. In the present study, the impact of circulating plasma cells assessed by cytology on survival of patients with multiple myeloma was analysed. Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears of 482 patients with newly diagnosed myeloma or plasma cell leukaemia were reviewed and patients were classified in four categories according to the percentage of circulating plasma cells: 0%, 1-4%, 5-20% and plasma cell leukemia with the following frequencies: 382 (79.2%), 83 (17.2%), 12 (2.5%) and 5 (1.0%) respectively. Median overall survival according to the circulating plasma cells group was 47, 50, 6 and 14 months, respectively. At multivariate analysis, presence of 5 to 20% circulating plasma cells was associated with a worse overall survival (relative risk 4.9, 95%CI 2.6-9.3) independently of age, creatinine, Durie-Salmon and international stage. Patients with ≥5% circulating plasma cells had lower platelet counts (median 86x109/L vs. 214x109/L, p<0.0001) and higher bone marrow plasma cells (median 53% vs. 36%, p=0.004). The presence of ≥5% circulating plasma cells in patients with multiple myeloma has similar adverse prognostic impact as plasma cell leukemia.

  4. Numerical simulations based on probe measurements in EUV-induced hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrikosov, Alex; Reshetnyak, Viktor; Astakhov, Dmitry; Dolgov, Alexandr; Yakushev, Oleg; Lopaev, Dmitry; Krivtsun, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    We use the two-dimensional particle-in-cell model with Monte Carlo collisions to study the plasma induced in hydrogen by short pulses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at wavelengths in the range 10–20 nm with a pulse duration of about 40 ns (FWHM). This plasma is formed via both photoionization by the high-energy EUV photons and by the secondary photoelectrons emitted from the hydrogen molecules and the irradiated surface. The latter process can be enhanced by the external electric field that accelerates the electrons. In order to establish a base for our model so as to obtain accurate results, we record a temporally-resolved series of current–voltage characteristics for a small probing electrode inserted into EUV-induced hydrogen plasma. We then resort to simulating this plasma in the same geometry with the probe in our model which we validate by matching its results to the experimentally measured dynamics of the probe current–voltage curves. Having validated the model this way, we use this model as an independent instrument capable of obtaining the spatiotemporal picture of EUV-induced plasma evolution. We use this instrument to study the plasma formation during the EUV pulse and point out the processes that take part in forming this plasma, such as impact ionization and direct ionization by EUV photons.

  5. T Regulatory Cells Support Plasma Cell Populations in the Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Glatman Zaretsky, Arielle; Konradt, Christoph; Dépis, Fabien; Wing, James B; Goenka, Radhika; Atria, Daniela Gomez; Silver, Jonathan S; Cho, Sunglim; Wolf, Amaya I; Quinn, William J; Engiles, Julie B; Brown, Dorothy C; Beiting, Daniel; Erikson, Jan; Allman, David; Cancro, Michael P; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Lu, Li-Fan; Benoist, Christophe O; Hunter, Christopher A

    2017-02-21

    Long-lived plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM) are a critical source of antibodies after infection or vaccination, but questions remain about the factors that control PCs. We found that systemic infection alters the BM, greatly reducing PCs and regulatory T (Treg) cells, a population that contributes to immune privilege in the BM. The use of intravital imaging revealed that BM Treg cells display a distinct behavior characterized by sustained co-localization with PCs and CD11c-YFP(+) cells. Gene expression profiling indicated that BM Treg cells express high levels of Treg effector molecules, and CTLA-4 deletion in these cells resulted in elevated PCs. Furthermore, preservation of Treg cells during systemic infection prevents PC loss, while Treg cell depletion in uninfected mice reduced PC populations. These studies suggest a role for Treg cells in PC biology and provide a potential target for the modulation of PCs during vaccine-induced humoral responses or autoimmunity.

  6. S-Equol Activates cAMP Signaling at the Plasma Membrane of INS-1 Pancreatic β-Cells and Protects against Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia by Increasing β-Cell Function in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Hiroko; Usami, Atsuko; Shirai, Rie; Harada, Naoki; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2017-09-01

    Background:S-equol, which is enantioselectively produced from daidzein by gut microbiota, has been suggested as a chemopreventive agent against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.Objective: We investigated the effects of S-equol on pancreatic β-cell function.Methods: β-Cell growth and insulin secretion were evaluated with male Institute of Cancer Research mice and isolated pancreatic islets from the mice, respectively. The mechanisms by which S-equol stimulated β-cell response were examined in INS-1 β-cells. The effect of S-equol treatment on β-cell function was assessed in low-dose streptozotocin-treated mice. S-equol was used at 10 μmol/L for in vitro and ex vivo studies and was administered by oral gavage (20 mg/kg, 2 times/d throughout the experimental period) for in vivo studies.Results:S-equol administration for 7 d increased Ki67-positive β-cells by 27% (P < 0.01) in mice. S-equol enantioselectively enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets by 41% (P < 0.001). In INS-1 cells, S-equol exerted stronger effects than daidzein on cell growth, insulin secretion, and cAMP-response element (CRE)-mediated transcription. These S-equol effects were diminished by inhibiting protein kinase A. The effective concentration of S-equol for stimulating cAMP production at the plasma membrane was lower than that for phosphodiesterase inhibition. S-equol-stimulated CRE activation was negatively controlled by the knockdown of G-protein α subunit group S (stimulatory) and positively controlled by that of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-3 and -6. Compared with vehicle-treated controls, S-equol gavage treatment resulted in an increase in β-cell mass of 104% (P < 0.05), a trend toward high plasma insulin concentrations (by 118%; P = 0.06), and resistance to hyperglycemia after streptozotocin treatment (78% of AUC after glucose challenge; P < 0.01). S-equol administration significantly increased the

  7. Plasma Induced Sputtered Exosphere of Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleger, Martin; Lammer, Helmut; Lindkvist, Jesper; Holmström, Mats; Vorburger, Audrey; Galli, André; Wurz, Peter; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Barabash, Stas

    2014-05-01

    A better understanding of particle release processes from the Gallilean satellites such as Callisto's surface is needed for planned exospheric and remote surface geochemical studies by the particle and plasma instruments of the PEP experiment on board of ESA's JUICE mission. We study the interaction between the Jovian magnetosphere plasma and Callisto's surface with a hybrid model and applied a geochemical surface composition model for the input of the surface sputter release. Then we apply a 3-D exospheric model for studying the feasibility of exospheric measurements. We model energy and ejection angle distributions of the released particles from the surface, with the emission process determining the actual distribution functions. Our model follows the trajectory of each particle by numerical integration until the particle hits Callisto's surface again or escapes from the calculation domain. Using a large set of these trajectories, bulk parameters of the exospheric gas are derived, e.g., particle densities for various species.

  8. Extreme ultraviolet-induced photoionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Fok, Tomasz; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Miroslaw

    2014-05-01

    In this work photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of He or Ne gases with a focused extreme ultraviolet (EUV) beam from one of two laser-plasma sources employing Nd:YAG laser systems. The first of them was a 10 Hz laser-plasma EUV source, based on a double-stream gas-puff target, irradiated with a 3 ns per 0.8 J laser pulse. EUV radiation in this case was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence ellipsoidal collector. The second source was based on a 10 ns per 10 J per 10 Hz laser system. In this case EUV radiation was focused using a gold-plated grazing incidence multifoil collector. Gases were injected into the interaction region, perpendicularly to an optical axis of the irradiation system, using an auxiliary gas puff valve. Spectral measurements in the EUV range were performed. In all cases the most intense emission lines were assigned to singly charged ions. The other emission lines belong to atoms or doubly charged ions.

  9. Ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane induces CD81 internalization and inhibits hepatitis C virus entry.

    PubMed

    Voisset, Cécile; Lavie, Muriel; Helle, François; Op De Beeck, Anne; Bilheu, Angéline; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Tercé, François; Cocquerel, Laurence; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Vu-Dac, Ngoc; Dubuisson, Jean

    2008-03-01

    Virus entry is a major step in which host-cell lipids can play an essential role. In this report, we investigated the importance of sphingolipids in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. For this purpose, sphingomyelin present in the plasma membrane of target cells was hydrolysed into ceramide by sphingomyelinase treatment. Interestingly, ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane strongly inhibited HCV entry. To understand how ceramide affected HCV entry, we analysed the effect of ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane on three cell-surface molecules identified as entry factors for HCV: CD81 tetraspanin, scavenger receptor BI and Claudin-1. These proteins, which we found to be mainly associated with detergent-soluble membranes in Huh-7 cells, were not relocated in detergent-resistant microdomains after sphingomyelin hydrolysis into ceramide. Importantly, ceramide enrichment of the plasma membrane led to a 50% decrease in cell-surface CD81, which was due to its ATP-independent internalization. Our results strongly suggest that the ceramide-induced internalization of CD81 is responsible for the inhibitory effect of ceramide on HCV entry. Together, these data indicate that some specific lipids of the plasma membrane are essential for HCV entry and highlight plasma membrane lipids as potential targets to block HCV entry.

  10. High-contrast plasma-electrode Pockels cell.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, B E; Kelly, J H; Shoup Iii, M J; Waxer, L J; Cost, E C; Green, E T; Hoyt, Z M; Taniguchi, J; Walker, T W

    2007-03-10

    A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) has been developed for use on the OMEGA extended performance (EP) laser system that can be used in a high-contrast optical switch, as required for isolation of the system from retroreflected pulses. Contrast ratios reliably exceeded 500:1 locally everywhere in the clear aperture. The key to achieving this improvement was the use of circular windows simply supported on compliant O rings, which is shown to produce very low stress-induced birefringence despite vacuum loading. Reliable operation was achieved operating at a relatively high operating pressure, low operating pressures being found to be strongly correlated to occurrences of local loss of plasma density.

  11. Plasma membrane reorganization induced by chemical transformation in cultura

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, B.S.

    1984-04-01

    Induction of increased rigidity in the plasma membrane paralleling properties associated with a transformed state was suggested by two experiments. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) indicated the induction of an environment in the plasma membrane where the synthetic fluorescent phospholipid collarein was immobile on the FRAP timescale. The other technique revealed the binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to a cryptic class of receptors which become accessible upon chemical transformation. These two lines of evidence are consistent with a reorganization of the plasma membrane induced by tumor promoters. 110 references, 38 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Femtosecond laser-induced electronic plasma at metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhaoyang; Mao, Samuel S.

    2008-08-04

    We develop a theoretical analysis to model plasma initiation at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of metal surfaces. The calculation reveals that there is a threshold intensity for the formation of a microscale electronic plasma at the laser-irradidated metal surface. As the full width at half maximum of a laser pulse increases from 15 to 200 fs, the plasma formation threshold decreases by merely about 20%. The dependence of the threshold intensity on laser pulse width can be attributed to laser-induced surface electron emission, in particular due to the effect of photoelectric effect.

  13. Nonlinearly induced radiation from an overdense plasma region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1983-09-01

    Consideration is given to a new mechanism for the nonlinear transparency of a bounded plasma. The expectation is that the incident electromagnetic wave will decay into quasistatic eigenmodes that can propagate around the overdense region. It is shown that most of the transformed energy can be reradiated in particular directions from the particular plasma surface regions where the plasma parameters have proper values. Attention is also given to the stationary state, which is established when the power of the induced radiation is equal to that of the incident.

  14. Visualization of jet development in laser-induced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Brieschenk, Stefan; O'Byrne, Sean; Kleine, Harald

    2013-03-01

    Laser-induced plasmas in gases are known to generate gaseous jets in the postplasma gas plume. The gaseous jet typically develops toward the laser source, and the experiments presented here show, for the first time to our knowledge, that, under certain conditions, these jets can develop in the opposite direction or may not form at all. The data suggest that this is related to the ratio between the energy absorbed in the plasma and the threshold breakdown energy, effectively leading to multiple plasma initiation sites in the focal waist.

  15. Cell adhesion to plasma-coated PVC.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Elidiane C; de Souza, Eduardo S; de Moraes, Francine S; Duek, Eliana A R; Lucchesi, Carolina; Schreiner, Wido H; Durrant, Steven F; Cruz, Nilson C

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, P(Ar), was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with P(Ar) between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing P(Ar), except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  16. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Elidiane C.; de Souza, Eduardo S.; de Moraes, Francine S.; Duek, Eliana A. R.; Lucchesi, Carolina; Schreiner, Wido H.; Durrant, Steven F.; Cruz, Nilson C.

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, PAr, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with PAr between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing PAr, except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices. PMID:25247202

  17. Computational modeling of process induced damage during plasma clean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, S.; Haggag, A.; Moosa, M.; Ventzek, P. L. G.

    2006-07-01

    When partially completed circuits come in contact with plasmas during integrated circuit fabrication, current from the plasma can potentially damage active devices on the wafer. A suite of computational models is used in this article to investigate damage to ultrathin (1.0-5.5nm) transistor gate dielectric (SiO2) during Ar /O2 based plasma cleaning in a capacitively coupled plasma reactor. This modeling infrastructure includes a two-dimensional plasma equipment model for relating process control parameters to ion and electron currents, a three-dimensional model for flux density calculation within a circular via, an electrostatic model for computing potential across the gate dielectric, and a percolation model to investigate dielectric damage characteristics. Computational results show that when the plasma current comes in contact with the gate dielectric, the gate dielectric rapidly charges up and the potential difference across the dielectric saturates at the level necessary to support the plasma induced current. The steady-state voltage across the dielectric determines the propensity of irreversible damage that can occur under this electrical stress. Gate dielectric damage was found to be most sensitively linked to dielectric thickness. As thin dielectrics (<2.0nm) are leaky, direct tunneling current flow ensures that the potential drop across the gate dielectric remains small. As a consequence, the dielectric is able to withstand the plasma current and the probability of damage is small. However, for thicker dielectrics where Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is dominant, a large voltage builds up across the gate dielectric due to the plasma induced current. The probability of thicker dielectrics getting damaged during the plasma process is therefore high. For given plasma conditions and gate dielectric thickness, current collection area (i.e., antenna size) determines the voltage buildup across the gate dielectric. Damage probability increases with the size of the

  18. Time-resolved aluminium laser-induced plasma temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, D. M.; Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    We seek to characterize the temperature decay of laser-induced plasma near the surface of an aluminium target from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of aluminium alloy sample. Laser-induced plasma are initiated by tightly focussing 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Temperatures are inferred from aluminium monoxide spectra viewed at systematically varied time delays by comparing experimental spectra to theoretical calculations with a Nelder Mead algorithm. The temperatures are found to decay from 5173 ± 270 to 3862 ± 46 Kelvin from 10 to 100 μs time delays following optical breakdown. The temperature profile along the plasma height is also inferred from spatially resolved spectral measurements and the electron number density is inferred from Stark broadened Hβ spectra.

  19. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy. PMID:28361987

  20. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-03-31

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy.

  1. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet induces DNA double-strand breaks that require a Rad51-mediated homologous recombination for repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Kangil; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jong-Soo; Yang, Sang Sik; Chung, Woo-Hyun

    2014-10-15

    Non-thermal plasma generated under atmospheric pressure produces a mixture of chemically reactive molecules and has been developed for a number of biomedical applications. Recently, plasma jet has been proposed as novel cancer therapies based on the observation that free radicals generated by plasma jet induce mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. We show here that air plasma jet induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in yeast chromosomes leading to genomic instability and loss of viability, which are alleviated by Rad51, the yeast homolog of Escherichiacoli RecA recombinase, through DNA damage repair by a homologous recombination (HR) process. Hypersensitivity of rad51 mutant to air plasma was not restored by antioxidant treatment unlike sod1 mutant that was highly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) challenge, suggesting that plasma jet induces DSB-mediated cell death independent of ROS generation. These results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of air plasma jet-induced cell death.

  2. Differential Epigenetic Effects of Atmospheric Cold Plasma on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Byungtak; Bae, Hansol; Lee, Hyunkyung; Lee, Seungyeon; Choi, Eun H.; Kim, Sun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (plasma) has emerged as a novel tool for a cancer treatment option, having been successfully applied to a few types of cancer cells, as well as tissues. However, to date, no studies have been performed to examine the effect of plasma on epigenetic alterations, including CpG methylation. In this study, the effects of plasma on DNA methylation changes in breast cancer cells were examined by treating cultured MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, representing estrogen-positive and estrogen-negative cancer cells, respectively, with plasma. A pyrosequencing analysis of Alu indicated that a specific CpG site was induced to be hypomethylated from 23.4 to 20.3% (p < 0.05) by plasma treatment in the estrogen-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only. A genome-wide methylation analysis identified “cellular movement, connective tissue development and function, tissue development” and “cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell death and survival, cellular development” as the top networks. Of the two cell types, the MDA-MB-231 cells underwent a higher rate of apoptosis and a decreased proliferation rate upon plasma treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that plasma induces epigenetic and cellular changes in a cell type-specific manner, suggesting that a careful screening of target cells and tissues is necessary for the potential application of plasma as a cancer treatment option. PMID:26042423

  3. Impact-Ionization Cooling in Laser-Induced Plasma Filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Filin, A.; Romanov, D. A.; Compton, R.; Levis, R. J.

    2009-04-17

    The ionization rates and subsequent electron dynamics for laser-induced plasma channels are measured for the noble gas series He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe at 1.0 atm. The cw fluorescence emission increases superlinearly in the series from He to Xe in agreement with Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunnel ionization calculations. The electron temperature after laser-induced plasma formation, measured by four-wave mixing, evolves from >20 eV to <1 eV kinetic energies with time constants ranging from 1 ns for He to 100 ps for Xe in agreement with an impact-ionization cooling model.

  4. Staying alive: regulation of plasma cell survival.

    PubMed

    Tangye, Stuart G

    2011-12-01

    On describing the catastrophic effect of the plague during the Peloponnesian War, Greek historian Thucydides (c ∼450 BC) made the prescient observation that the "same man was never attacked twice - never at least fatally". This is probably the first description of the mammalian immune systems' remarkable ability to elicit a pathogen-specific response that potentially protects the host for its lifetime. This protection is largely mediated by plasma cells (PCs) that produce copious quantities of antibodies for extended periods of time, even after pathogen clearance. Here, I review the requirements for PC longevity in mice and humans, in particular the roles of survival niches in bone marrow and other tissues, and the "dialogue" between PCs and other cells that are crucial for long-lived humoral immunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting Cancer Cells with Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Generated by Atmospheric-Pressure Air Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Hoan, Nguyen Ngoc; Kim, Churl Ho; Moon, Eunpyo; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) including H2O2, Ox, OH−, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells. PMID:24465942

  6. Targeting cancer cells with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by atmospheric-pressure air plasma.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hak Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hoan, Nguyen Ngoc; Kim, Churl Ho; Moon, Eunpyo; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) including H2O2, Ox, OH-, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells.

  7. Effects of platelet-rich plasma-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles in enhancing endothelial and smooth muscle cell growth and inducing collateral vessels in a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masanori; Horio, Takuya; Kishimoto, Satoko; Nakamura, Shingo; Takikawa, Megumi; Nakayama, Takefumi; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hattori, Hidemi; Tachibana, Shoichi; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of isogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) as a delivery system for proteins in PRP on growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro and as an alternative treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and critical limb ischemia. Frozen and thawed PRP contains high concentrations of growth factors that are adsorbed by F/P MPs. Human aorta endothelial cells (AECs) and SMCs were grown in a medium with PRP. Addition of F/P MPs significantly enhanced the proliferative effects of PRP on AECs and SMCs at 37 °C for >10 days. Intramuscular administration of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 2 mL, control), F/P MPs (12 mg in 2 mL PBS), PRP (2 mL), or PRP (2 mL) containing F/P MPs (12 mg) was then performed in a rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia prepared by resection of the left femoral artery. Blood flow and pressure were measured on days 0, 14, and 28, and angiography to assess arteriogenesis was performed on day 28. PRP-containing F/P MPs strongly induced functional collateral vessels in the rabbit model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating possible use of these microparticles in therapy for PAD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Leukemia Cutis Associated with Secondary Plasma Cell Leukemia.

    PubMed

    DeMartinis, Nicole C; Brown, Megan M; Hinds, Brian R; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-05-09

    Plasma cell leukemia is an uncommon, aggressive variant of leukemia that may occur de novo or in association with multiple myeloma. Leukemia cutis is the cutaneous manifestation of leukemia, and indicates an infiltration of the skin by malignant leukocytes or their precursors. Plasma cell leukemia cutis is a rare clinical presentation of leukemia. We present a man who developed plasma cell leukemia cutis in association with multiple myeloma. Cutaneous nodules developed on his arms and legs 50 days following an autologous stem cell transplant. Histopathologic examination showed CD138-positive nodular aggregates of atypical plasma cells with kappa light chain restriction, similar to the phenotype of his myeloma. In spite of systemic treatment of his underlying disease, he died 25 days after the presentation of leukemia cutis. Pub-Med was searched for the following terms: cutaneous plasmacytomas, leukemia cutis, plasma cell leukemia nodules, plasma cell leukemia cutis, and secondary cutaneous plasmacytoma. Papers were reviewed and appropriate references evaluated. Leukemia cutis in plasma cell leukemia patients is an infrequent occurrence. New skin lesions in patients with plasma cell leukemia should be biopsied for pathology and for tissue cultures to evaluate for cancer or infection, respectively. The diagnosis plasma cell leukemia cutis is associated with a very poor prognosis.

  9. Laser induced micro plasma processing of polymer substrates for biomedical implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, P. W.; Rosowski, A.; Murphy, M.; Irving, M.; Sharp, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of a new hybrid laser processing technique; Laser Induced Micro Plasma Processing (LIMP2). A transparent substrate is placed on top of a medium that will interact with the laser beam and create a plasma. The plasma and laser beam act in unison to ablate material and create micro-structuring on the "backside" of the substrate. We report the results of a series of experiments on a new laser processing technique that will use the same laser-plasma interaction to micromachining structures into glass and polymer substrates on the "topside" of the substrate and hence machine non-transparent material. This new laser processing technique is called Laser Induced Micro Plasma Processing (LIMP2). Micromachining of biomedical implants is proving an important enabling technology in controlling cell growth on a macro-scale. This paper discusses LIMP2 structuring of transparent substrate such as glasses and polymers for this application. Direct machining of these materials by lasers in the near infrared is at present impossible. Laser Induced Micro Plasma Processing (LIMP2) is a technique that allows laser operating at 1064 nm to machine microstructures directly these transparent substrates.

  10. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Plasma Pencil Against Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Razavi, Hamid; Laroussi, Mounir

    2014-10-01

    The plasma pencil generates low temperature and atmospheric pressure plasma. To generate the plasma, high voltage pulses with short width (from nanosecond to microsecond) are applied to a noble gas. The working gas can be helium, argon or a mixture of these with air or oxygen. Generating plasma with helium provides a tolerable temperature for biological cells and tissues. Diagnostic measurements on the plasma plume has revealed the presence of active agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen reactive species (RNS), which are known to have biological implications. Recently, low temperature plasma has drawn attention to its potential in cancer therapy. In our lab, the plasma pencil has been used to treat leukemia, prostate and epithelial cancer cells. The cancer cell line used here is the SCaBER (ATCC®HTB3™) cell line originating from a human bladder cancer. The results indicate that specific species induce the molecular mechanisms associated with cell death. The death of cells after plasma treatment will be studied using assays, such as DNA laddering and Caspase-3 activation, to elucidate the mechanism of the apoptotic or necrotic pathways.

  11. Laser induced plasma expansion and existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skočić, Miloš; Bukvić, Srdjan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present a simple model of the laser induced plasma (LIP) expansion in a low pressure surrounding atmosphere. The model is based on assumption that expansion process is dominantly governed by kinematics of the heavy particles. The model is accompanied with a simple, yet effective, Monte-Carlo simulation. Results of the simulation are compared with spectroscopic measurements of the laser induced copper plasma expanding in low pressure (200 Pa) hydrogen atmosphere. We found that characteristic expansion time of the LIP is proportional to the linear dimension of the initial volume heated up by the laser. For sufficiently large initial volume copper plasma remains in local thermodynamic equilibrium on the submicrosecond-microsecond scale. It is shown that diagnostics based on the spectral lines of the hydrogen atmosphere is not suitable for characterization of the core of the copper plasma. We have demonstrated importance of radially resolved spectroscopic measurements as a key step for correct diagnostics and understanding of laser induced plasma.

  12. Effect of BCD Plasma on a Bacteria Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrin, Navabsafa; Hamid, Ghomi; Maryam, Nikkhah; Soheila, Mohades; Hossein, Dabiri; Saeed, Ghasemi

    2013-07-01

    Abstract Cell membrane rupture is considered to be one of the probable mechanisms for bacterial inactivation using barrier corona discharge (BCD) plasma. In this paper, the effect of the BCD plasma on the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria cell wall was investigated through two analytical methods; Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) assay and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The ATP assay results indicate an increase in the ATP content of samples which were exposed to the BCD plasma. This implies the bacteria cell rupture. Moreover, AFM images confirm a serious damage of the bacteria cell wall under the influence of the bactericidal agents of the plasma.

  13. Development of plasma-on-chip: Plasma treatment for individual cells cultured in media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Shinya; Chang, Chun-Yao; Jeong, Jonghyeon; Kobayashi, Mime; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A device consisting of Si microwells and microplasma sources has been fabricated for plasma treatment of individual cells cultured in media. We named the device plasma-on-chip. The microwells have through-holes at the bottom where gas-liquid interfaces form when they are filled with media containing biological samples. The microplasma sources, which supply reactive species, are located on the back of each microwell. Through the gas-liquid interface, the reactive species are supplied to the cells. Chlorella cells were used to demonstrate the feasibility of the device and after three minutes of plasma treatment, the fluorescence intensity of Chlorella cells appeared to be decreased. Optical emission spectroscopy identified O and OH radicals in the plasma, which can affect the cells. In the analysis of biological samples such as human cells or tissues, this device raises the possibility of revealing the mechanisms of plasma medicine in more detail.

  14. Sintering of alumina in microwave-induced oxygen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Su, H.; Johnson, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    Small cylindrical tubes were sintered in a microwave-induced oxygen plasma, initiated and sustained inside a tunable, single-mode cavity. Temperature and shrinkage measurements of the specimens were achieved using an optical-fiber thermometer black-body sensor and a dilatometer, respectively. Sintering experiments at constant heating rate were accomplished to obtain the activation energy for sintering of alumina in the plasma and in a conventional rapid-heating furnace. Diffusion of aluminum interstitials along grain boundaries was believed to be the dominant sintering mechanism, with an estimated activation energy of 488 {+-} 20 kJ/mol for conventional sintering and an average activation energy of 468 {+-} 20 kJ/mol for plasma sintering. A comparison of specimens sintered in the plasma to those sintered in a conventional furnace under the same temperature-time excursions and oxygen pressures showed an athermal effect due to the plasma. To further explore this athermal effect, sintering experiments in plasmas of different oxygen pressure were conducted. The athermal effect was ascribed to an increase of aluminum interstitial concentration during plasma sintering. Sintering data were interpreted using the combined-stage sintering model.

  15. Visualization of plasma turbulence with laser-induced fluorescence (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, Fred M.; Trintchouk, Fedor

    2001-01-01

    Turbulence is a key factor limiting the performance of fusion devices. Plasma edge turbulence determines the boundary values of the plasma density and temperature, which in turn determine the internal gradients and controls global plasma transport. In recent years, significant progress has been made in modeling turbulence behavior in plasmas and its effect on transport. Progress has also been made in diagnostics for turbulence measurement; however, there is still a large gap in our understanding of it. An approach to improve this situation is to experimentally visualize the turbulence, that is, a high resolution 2-D image of the plasma density. Visualization of turbulence can improve the connection to theory and help validate theoretical models. One method that has been successfully developed to visualize turbulence in gases and fluids is planar laser-induced fluorescence. We have recently applied this technique to visualize turbulence and structures in a plasma. This was accomplished using an Alexandrite laser that is tunable between 700 and 800 nm, and from 350 to 400 nm with second harmonic generation. The fluorescence light from an argon ion transition has been imaged onto an intensified charged coupled device camera that is gated in synchronization with the laser. Images from the plasma show a rotating structure at 30 kHz in addition to small scale turbulence.

  16. Plasmid DNA damage induced by helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Cantrell, William A.; Escobar, Erika E.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    A helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is applied to induce damage to aqueous plasmid DNA. The resulting fractions of the DNA conformers, which indicate intact molecules or DNA with single- or double-strand breaks, are determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA strand breaks increase with a decrease in the distance between the APPJ and DNA samples under two working conditions of the plasma source with different parameters of applied electric pulses. The damage level induced in the plasmid DNA is also enhanced with increased plasma irradiation time. The reactive species generated in the APPJ are characterized by optical emission spectra, and their roles in possible DNA damage processes occurring in an aqueous environment are also discussed.

  17. Low-temperature atmospheric plasma increases the expression of anti-aging genes of skin cells without causing cellular damages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Jae-Koo; Hong, Jin-woo; Kim, Gyoo-cheon

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to employ various types of plasma in the field of skin care have increased consistently because it can regulate many biochemical reactions that are normally unaffected by light-based therapy. One method for skin rejuvenation adopted a high-temperature plasma generator to remove skin epithelial cells. In this case, the catalyzing effects of the plasma were rarely used due to the high temperature. Hence, the benefits of the plasma were not magnified. Recently, many types of low-temperature plasma devices have been developed for medical applications but their detailed functions and working mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined the effect of low-temperature microwave plasma on skin cells. Treatment with low-temperature plasma increased the expression of anti-aging genes in skin cells, including collagen, fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, the plasma treatment did not cause cell death, but only induced slight cell growth arrest at the G2 phase. Although the cells treated with low-temperature plasma showed moderate growth arrest, there were no signs of thermal or genetic damage of skin cells. Overall, this low-temperature microwave plasma device induces the expressions of some anti-aging-related genes in skin cells without causing damage.

  18. Regulation of plasma histamine levels by the mast cell clock and its modulation by stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuki; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2017-01-01

    At steady state, plasma histamine levels exhibit circadian variations with nocturnal peaks, which is implicated in the nighttime exacerbation of allergic symptoms. However, the regulatory mechanisms are largely unexplored. This study determined how steady-state plasma histamine levels are regulated and affected by environmental factors. We found that plasma histamine levels decreased in mast cell–deficient mice and their circadian variations were lost in mast cell–deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) harboring a mutation in the circadian gene Clock. Clock temporally regulates expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), which is involved in histamine transport, in mast cells; OCT inhibition abolished circadian variations in plasma histamine levels. Mice housed under aberrant light/dark conditions or suffering from restraint stress exhibited de-synchronization of the mast cell clockwork, concomitant with the loss of circadian variations in OCT3 expression and plasma histamine levels. The degree of compound 48/80–induced plasma extravasation in mice was correlated with plasma histamine levels. Collectively, the mast cell clock mediates circadian regulation of plasma histamine levels at steady state, in part by controlling OCT3 expression, which can be modulated by stress. Additionally, we propose that plasma histamine levels potentiate mast cell–mediated allergic reactions. PMID:28074918

  19. Plasma erosion rate diagnostics using laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaeta, C. J.; Turley, R. S.; Matossian, J. N.; Beattie, J. R.; Williamson, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    An optical technique for measuring the sputtering rate of a molybdenum surface immersed in a xenon plasma has been developed and demonstrated. This approach, which may be useful in real-time wear diagnostics for ion thrusters, relies on laser-induced fluorescence to determine the density of sputtered molybdenum atoms.

  20. Light-induced modification of plant plasma membrane ion transport.

    PubMed

    Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G

    2010-09-01

    Light is not only the driving force for electron and ion transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates ion transport in various other membranes of plant cells. Light-dependent changes in ion transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare light-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. Light-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general light-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional light-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these light-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.

  1. Correlation between helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) variables and plasma induced DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ek R.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2016-09-01

    A helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) source with a dielectric capillary and two tubular electrodes was used to induce damage in aqueous plasmid DNA. The fraction of different types of DNA damage (i.e., intact or undamaged, double strand breaks (DSBs), and single strand breaks (SSBs)) that occurred as the result of plasma irradiation was quantified through analysis of agarose gel electrophoresis images. The total DNA damage increased with an increase in both flow rate and duration of irradiation, but decreased with an increase in distance between the APPJ and sample. The average power of the plasma was calculated and the length of APPJ was measured for various flow rates and voltages applied. The possible effects of plasma power and reactive species on DNA damage are discussed.

  2. An evaluation of anti-oxidative protection for cells against atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Ruonan; Zhang Qian; Feng Hongqing; Liang Yongdong; Li Fangting; Zhu Weidong; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing; Becker, Kurt H.

    2012-03-19

    With the development of plasma medicine, safety issues are emerging as a serious concern. In this study, both intracellular (genetic engineering) and extracellular (scavengers) measures were tested in an effort to determine the best protection for cells against plasma-induced oxidative stress. All results of immediate reactive species detection, short term survival and long term proliferation, suggest that intracellular pathways are superior in reducing oxidative stress and cell death. This work provides a potential mechanism to enhance safety and identifies precautionary measures that should be taken in future clinical applications of plasmas.

  3. An evaluation of anti-oxidative protection for cells against atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruonan; Feng, Hongqing; Li, Fangting; Liang, Yongdong; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Weidong; Zhang, Jue; Becker, Kurt H.; Fang, Jing

    2012-03-01

    With the development of plasma medicine, safety issues are emerging as a serious concern. In this study, both intracellular (genetic engineering) and extracellular (scavengers) measures were tested in an effort to determine the best protection for cells against plasma-induced oxidative stress. All results of immediate reactive species detection, short term survival and long term proliferation, suggest that intracellular pathways are superior in reducing oxidative stress and cell death. This work provides a potential mechanism to enhance safety and identifies precautionary measures that should be taken in future clinical applications of plasmas.

  4. The interleukin-6 receptor alpha-chain (CD126) is expressed by neoplastic but not normal plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Rawstron, A C; Fenton, J A; Ashcroft, J; English, A; Jones, R A; Richards, S J; Pratt, G; Owen, R; Davies, F E; Child, J A; Jack, A S; Morgan, G

    2000-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is reported to be central to the pathogenesis of myeloma, inducing proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis in neoplastic plasma cells. Therefore, abrogating IL-6 signaling is of therapeutic interest, particularly with the development of humanized anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibodies. The use of such antibodies clinically requires an understanding of IL-6R expression on neoplastic cells, particularly in the cycling fraction. IL-6R expression levels were determined on plasma cells from patients with myeloma (n = 93) and with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or plasmacytoma (n = 66) and compared with the levels found on normal plasma cells (n = 11). In addition, 4-color flow cytometry was used to assess the differential expression by stage of differentiation and cell cycle status of the neoplastic plasma cells. IL-6R alpha chain (CD126) was not detectable in normal plasma cells, but was expressed in approximately 90% of patients with myeloma. In all groups, the expression levels showed a normal distribution. In patients with MGUS or plasmacytoma, neoplastic plasma cells expressed significantly higher levels of CD126 compared with phenotypically normal plasma cells from the same marrow. VLA-5(-) "immature" plasma cells showed the highest levels of CD126 expression, but "mature" VLA-5(+) myeloma plasma cells also overexpressed CD126 when compared with normal subjects. This study demonstrates that CD126 expression is restricted to neoplastic plasma cells, with little or no detectable expression by normal cells. Stromal cells in the bone marrow microenvironment do not induce the overexpression because neoplastic cells express higher levels of CD126 than normal plasma cells from the same bone marrow in individuals with MGUS. (Blood. 2000;96:3880-3886)

  5. Towards Stratified Medicine in Plasma Cell Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Philip; Drain, Stephen; Conway, Caroline; Bjourson, Anthony J.; Alexander, H. Denis

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell myeloma is a clinically heterogeneous malignancy accounting for approximately one to 2% of newly diagnosed cases of cancer worldwide. Treatment options, in addition to long-established cytotoxic drugs, include autologous stem cell transplant, immune modulators, proteasome inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, plus further targeted therapies currently in clinical trials. Whilst treatment decisions are mostly based on a patient’s age, fitness, including the presence of co-morbidities, and tumour burden, significant scope exists for better risk stratification, sub-classification of disease, and predictors of response to specific therapies. Clinical staging, recurring acquired cytogenetic aberrations, and serum biomarkers such as β-2 microglobulin, and free light chains are in widespread use but often fail to predict the disease progression or inform treatment decision making. Recent scientific advances have provided considerable insight into the biology of myeloma. For example, gene expression profiling is already making a contribution to enhanced understanding of the biology of the disease whilst Next Generation Sequencing has revealed great genomic complexity and heterogeneity. Pathways involved in the oncogenesis, proliferation of the tumour and its resistance to apoptosis are being unravelled. Furthermore, knowledge of the tumour cell surface and its interactions with bystander cells and the bone marrow stroma enhance this understanding and provide novel targets for cell and antibody-based therapies. This review will discuss the development in understanding of the biology of the tumour cell and its environment in the bone marrow, the implementation of new therapeutic options contributing to significantly improved outcomes, and the progression towards more personalised medicine in this disorder. PMID:27775669

  6. Towards Stratified Medicine in Plasma Cell Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Egan, Philip; Drain, Stephen; Conway, Caroline; Bjourson, Anthony J; Alexander, H Denis

    2016-10-21

    Plasma cell myeloma is a clinically heterogeneous malignancy accounting for approximately one to 2% of newly diagnosed cases of cancer worldwide. Treatment options, in addition to long-established cytotoxic drugs, include autologous stem cell transplant, immune modulators, proteasome inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, plus further targeted therapies currently in clinical trials. Whilst treatment decisions are mostly based on a patient's age, fitness, including the presence of co-morbidities, and tumour burden, significant scope exists for better risk stratification, sub-classification of disease, and predictors of response to specific therapies. Clinical staging, recurring acquired cytogenetic aberrations, and serum biomarkers such as β-2 microglobulin, and free light chains are in widespread use but often fail to predict the disease progression or inform treatment decision making. Recent scientific advances have provided considerable insight into the biology of myeloma. For example, gene expression profiling is already making a contribution to enhanced understanding of the biology of the disease whilst Next Generation Sequencing has revealed great genomic complexity and heterogeneity. Pathways involved in the oncogenesis, proliferation of the tumour and its resistance to apoptosis are being unravelled. Furthermore, knowledge of the tumour cell surface and its interactions with bystander cells and the bone marrow stroma enhance this understanding and provide novel targets for cell and antibody-based therapies. This review will discuss the development in understanding of the biology of the tumour cell and its environment in the bone marrow, the implementation of new therapeutic options contributing to significantly improved outcomes, and the progression towards more personalised medicine in this disorder.

  7. Development of motorized plasma lithography for cell patterning.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Shinji; Nagasawa, Yohei; Saito, Akira C; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Yokoyama, Sho; Sato, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    The micropatterning of cells, which restricts the adhesive regions on the substrate and thus controls cell geometry, is used to study mechanobiology-related cell functions. Plasma lithography is a means of providing such patterns and uses a spatially-selective plasma treatment. Conventional plasma lithography employs a positionally-fixed mask with which the geometry of the patterns is determined and thus is not suited for producing on-demand geometries of patterns. To overcome this, we have manufactured a new device with a motorized mask mounted in a vacuum chamber of a plasma generator, which we designate motorized plasma lithography. Our pilot tests indicate that various pattern geometries can be obtained with the control of a shielding mask during plasma treatment. Our approach can thus omit the laborious process of preparing photolithographically microfabricated masks required for the conventional plasma lithography.

  8. Mechanisms of interaction of non-thermal plasma with living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalghatgi, Sameer Ulhas

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been widely used in medicine to cut, ablate and cauterize tissues through heating; in contrast, non-thermal plasma produces various highly active molecules and atoms without heat. As a result, its effects on living cells and tissues could be selective and tunable. This makes non-thermal plasma very attractive for medical applications. However, despite several interesting demonstrations of non-thermal plasma in blood coagulation and tissue sterilization, the biological and physical mechanisms of its interaction with living cells are still poorly understood impeding further development of non-thermal plasma as a clinical tool. Although several possible mechanisms of interaction have been suggested, no systematic experimental work has been performed to verify these hypotheses. Using cells in culture, it is shown in this work that non-thermal plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has dose-dependent effects ranging from increasing cell proliferation to inducing apoptosis which are consistent with the effects of oxidative stress. DNA damage is chosen as a marker to assess the effects of oxidative stress in a quantitative manner. It is demonstrated here that plasma induced DNA damage as well as other effects ranging from cell proliferation to apoptosis are indeed due to production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that DNA damage is initiated primarily by plasma generated active neutral species which cannot be attributed to ozone alone. Moreover, it is found that extracellular media and its components play a critical role in the transfer of the non-thermal plasma initiated oxidative stress into cells. Specifically, it is found that the peroxidation efficiency of amino acids is the sole predictor of the ability of the medium to transfer the oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma. Phosphorylation of H2AX, a DNA damage marker, following plasma treatment is found to be ATR dependent and ATM

  9. Targeting protective catalase of tumor cells with cold atmospheric plasma-treated medium (PAM).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2017-08-01

    ● Background Application of cold atmospheric plasma to medium generates "plasma-activated medium" that induces apoptosis selectively in tumor cells and that has an antitumor effect in vivo. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. ● Objective Elucidation of potential chemical interactions within plasma-activated medium and of reactions of medium components with specific target structures of tumor cells should allow to define the active principle in plasma activated medium. ● Method Established knowledge of intercellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen/nitrogen species-dependent signaling and its control by membrane-associated catalase was reviewed. Model experiments using extracellular singlet oxygen were analyzed with respect to catalase inactivation and their relevance for the antitumor action of cold atmospheric plasma. Potential interactions of the tumor cell-specific control system with components of plasma-activated medium were discussed within the scope of the reviewed signaling principles. ● Result None of the long-lived species found in plasma-activated medium, such as nitrite and H2O2, nor OCl- or .NO seemed to have the potential to interfere with catalase-dependent control of apoptosis-inducing signaling of tumor cells when acting alone. However, the combination of H2O2 and nitrite might generate peroxynitrite. The protonation of peroxnitrite to peroxynitrous acid allows for the generation of hydroxyl radicals that react with H2O2, leading to the formation of hydroperoxide radicals. These allow for singlet oxygen generation and inactivation of membrane-associated catalase through an autoamplificatory mechanism, followed by intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. ● Conclusions Nitrite and H2O2 in plasma-activated medium establish singlet oxygen-dependent interference selectively with the control system of tumor cells. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Proliferation-Related Activity in Endothelial Cells Is Enhanced by Micropower Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma has received a lot of attention as a medical treatment technique in recent years. It can easily create various reactive chemical species (ROS) and is harmless to living body. Although plasma at gas-liquid interface has a potential for a biomedical application, the interactions between the gas-liquid plasma and living cells remain unclear. Here, we show characteristics of a micropower plasma with 0.018 W of the power input, generated at gas-liquid interface. We also provide the evidence of plasma-induced enhancement in proliferation activity of endothelial cells. The plasma produced H2O2, HNO2, and HNO3 in phosphate buffered saline containing Mg++ and Ca++ (PBS(+)), and their concentration increased linearly during 600-second discharge. The value of pH in PBS(+) against the plasma discharge time was stable at about 7.0. Temperature in PBS(+) rose monotonically, and its rise was up to 0.8°C at the bottom of a cell-cultured dish by the plasma discharge for 600 s. Short-time treatment of the plasma enhanced proliferation activity of endothelial cells. In contrast, the treatment of H2O2 does not enhance the cell proliferation. Thus, the ROS production and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation due to the plasma treatment might be related to enhancement of the cell proliferation. Our results may potentially provide the basis for developing the biomedical applications using the gas-liquid plasma. PMID:28058258

  11. Plasma temperature clamping in filamentation laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2015-10-19

    Ultrafast laser filament induced breakdown spectroscopy is a very promising method for remote material detection. We present characteristics of plasmas generated in a metal target by laser filaments in air. Our measurements show that the temperature of the ablation plasma is clamped along the filamentation channel due to intensity clamping in a filament. Nevertheless, significant changes in radiation intensity are noticeable, and this is essentially due to variation in the number density of emitting atoms. The present results also partly explains the reason for the occurrence of atomic plume during fs LIBS in air compared to long-pulse ns LIBS.

  12. Expansion of radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Sy-Bor; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Chunyi; Greif, Ralph; Russo,Richard

    2006-05-05

    To study the expansion and cooling process of the laser induced plasma generated by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation, experiments have been conducted which measure the position of the external shockwaves and the temperature of the vapor plumes. The positions of external shockwaves were determined by a femtosecond laser time-resolved imaging system. Vapor plume temperature was determined from spectroscopic measurements of the plasma emission lines. A model which considers the mass, momentum, and energy conservation of the region affected by the laser energy was developed. It shows good agreement to the experimental data.

  13. Plasma treatment of biomaterials to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Erik

    In this work, we explore how embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation patterns are affected by surface interactions with plasma-processed materials. We hypothesize that mouse embryonic stem-cell exposure to certain plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces will direct their differentiation into endothelial cells. R1 mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were plated on surfaces onto which tetraglyme was deposited by plasma polymerization. In addition, tissue-treated polystyrene and control glass cover slips were also examined. Some samples were fixed three days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with platelet endothelial-cell adhesion molecule, while the others were fixed seven days after plating and immunofluorescence stained with von Willebrand Factor. Positive results seen by ES cell derivatives precociously expressing the vWF and PECAM genetic markers on the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme treated surfaces suggest that the plasma-polymerized surfaces direct differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells. Research goals of this dissertation include: characterization of the material properties of the plasma-polymerized tetraglyme surfaces that induce directed differentiation of ES cells into endothelial cells, optimization of the plasma-polymerization process to maximize the number of endothelial cells derived from R1 ES cells, and biological experimentation to characterize properties of the mechanism of directed differentiation. A potential application of this work is in the design and construction of an artificial blood vessel. Current small-scale arterial substitutes have proved inadequate because of thrombogenicity and infection. Moreover, the lower blood flow velocities of smaller vessels pose a different set of design criteria and introduce new problems not encountered in large arterial substitutes. By utilizing a tissue engineering approach that incorporates embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells, the longevity of the prosthesis can be ensured.

  14. Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode Pockels cells

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, M.A.

    1995-04-25

    Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal. 5 figs.

  15. Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode pockels cells

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating. pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal.

  16. Improvement of early cell adhesion on Thai silk fibroin surface by low energy plasma.

    PubMed

    Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Mongkolnavin, Rattachat; Kanokpanont, Sorada; Panpranot, Joongjai; Wong, Chiow San; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn

    2013-11-01

    Low energy plasma has been introduced to treat the surface of Thai silk fibroin which should be enhanced for cell adhesion due to its native hydrophobic surface. Plasma surface treatment could introduce desirable hydrophilic functionalities on the surface without using any chemicals. In this work, nitrogen glow discharge plasma was generated by a low energy AC50Hz power supply system. The plasma operating conditions were optimized to reach the highest nitrogen active species by using optical emission spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that amine, hydroxyl, ether, and carboxyl groups were induced on Thai silk fibroin surface after plasma treatment. The results on Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma treated effects were only on the outermost layer since there was no change in the bulk chemistry. The surface topography was insignificantly changed from the detection with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The plasma-treated effects were the improved surface wettability and cell adhesion. After a 90-s treatment, the water contact angle was at 20°, while the untreated surface was at 70°. The early cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblast was accelerated. L929 cells only took 3h to reach 100% cell adhesion on 90 s N2 plasma-treated surface, while there was less than 50% cell adhesion on the untreated Thai silk fibroin surface after 6h of culture. The cell adhesion results were in agreement with the cytoskeleton development. L929 F-actin was more evident on 90 s N2 plasma-treated surface than others. It could be concluded that a lower energy AC50Hz plasma system enhanced early L929 mouse fibroblast adhesion on Thai silk fibroin surface without any significant change in surface topography and bulk chemistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma membrane redox system in the control of stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J M; Navas, P

    2000-01-01

    The plasma membrane of animal cells contains an electron transport system based on coenzyme Q (CoQ) reductases. Cytochrome b5 reductase is NADH-specific and reduces CoQ through a one-electron reaction mechanism. DT-diaphorase also reduces CoQ, although through a two-electron reaction mechanism using both NADH and NADPH, which may be particularly important under oxidative stress conditions. Because reduced CoQ protects membranes against peroxidations, and also maintains the reduced forms of exogenous antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate, this molecule can be considered a central component of the plasma membrane antioxidant system. Stress-induced apoptosis is mediated by the activation of plasma membrane-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, which releases ceramide to the cytosol. Ceramide-dependent caspase activation is part of the apoptosis pathway. The reduced components of the plasma membrane antioxidant system, mainly CoQ, prevent both lipid peroxidation and sphingomyelinase activation. This results in the prevention of ceramide accumulation and caspase 3 activation and, as consequence, apoptosis is inhibited. We propose the hypothesis that antioxidant protective function of the plasma membrane redox system can be enough to protect cells against the externally induced mild oxidative stress. If this system is overwhelmed, intracellular mechanisms of protection are required to avoid activation of the apoptosis pathway.

  18. Platelet-Rich Plasma Greatly Potentiates Insulin-Induced Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Through a Serine/Threonine Kinase Akt-Dependent Mechanism and Promotes Clinical Fat Graft Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, Valerio; Scioli, Maria G.; Gentile, Pietro; Doldo, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G.

    2012-01-01

    The potential plasticity and therapeutic utility in tissue regeneration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) isolated from adult adipose tissue have recently been highlighted. The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents an alternative strategy in regenerative medicine for the local release of multiple endogenous growth factors. Here we investigated the signaling pathways and effects of PRP and human recombinant insulin on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of ASCs in vitro. PRP stimulated proliferation (EC50 = 15.3 ± 1.3% vol/vol), whereas insulin's effect was the opposite (IC50 = 3.0 ± 0.5 μM). Although PRP alone did not increase adipogenesis, in association with insulin it prevented ASC proliferative arrest, greatly enhanced intracytoplasmic lipid accumulation, strongly increased serine/threonine kinase Akt phosphorylation and mouse monoclonal anti-sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 accumulation, and downregulated Erk-1 activity; adipogenic effects were markedly prevented by the Akt inhibitor wortmannin. PRP with insulin synergistically upregulated fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and downregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) expression; moreover, PRP in association prevented insulin-induced insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and insulin receptor downregulation. The inhibition of FGFR-1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ErbB2) activity reduced ASC proliferation, but only that of FGFR-1 reduced adipogenesis and Akt phosphorylation, whereas the ErbB2 inhibition effects were the opposite. However, EGFR activity was needed for ErbB2-mediated inhibition of ASC adipogenesis. Clinically, the injection of insulin further ameliorated patients' 1-year PRP-induced fat graft volume maintenance and contour restoring. Our results ascertain that PRP in association with insulin greatly potentiates adipogenesis in human ASCs through a FGFR-1 and ErbB2-regulated Akt

  19. Radiating plasma species density distribution in EUV-induced plasma in argon: a spatiotemporal experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; van de Ven, T. H. M.; Banine, V. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we experimentally study temporally and spatially resolved radiating plasma species density distribution in plasma induced by irradiating a low pressure argon gas with high energy photons with a wavelength of 13.5 nm, i.e. extreme ultraviolet (EUV). This is done by recording the optical emission spatially and temporally resolved by an iCCD camera as a function of the argon gas pressure. Our experimental results show that the emission intensity, i.e. density of radiating plasma species, depends quadratically on the gas pressure. The linear term is due to photoionization and simultaneous excitation by EUV photons, the quadratic term due to electron impact excitation by electrons generated by photoionization. The decay of radiating plasma species can be divided into two phases. At time scales shorter than 10 μs (first phase), the decay is governed by radiative decay of radiating plasma species. At longer time scales (second phase, >10 μs), the decay is dominated by diffusion and subsequent de-excitation at the wall. The experimental decay and expansion during this phase corresponds well with a simplified diffusion model. In order to gain more insight in this exotic type of plasma, we compare the electron density from previous measurements with the results obtained here.

  20. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  1. Skeletal cell differentiation is enhanced by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Marla J; Chernets, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide) and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide) were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing β-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS signaling to enhance

  2. Skeletal Cell Differentiation Is Enhanced by Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S.; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide) and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide) were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing β-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS signaling to enhance

  3. Amplification of 126 nm femtosecond seed pulses in optical-field-induced Ar plasma filamentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Deshimaru, Naoyuki; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito

    2014-10-01

    We have observed amplification of femtosecond (fs) VUV coherent seed beam at 126 nm by utilizing an optical-field-induced ionization (OFI) high-pressure Ar plasma filamentation. We have produced a low-temperature and high-density Ar plasma filamentation inside a high-pressure Ar cell by irradiating a high-intensity laser with an intensity of approximately 1014 W cm-2. Argon excimer molecules (Ar2*) as an amplifier medium were produced inside the high-pressure cell and were used to amplify a weak VUV ultrashort seed pulse at 126 nm, which was generated by harmonic generation of another short pulse infrared laser at 882 nm. We have measured the amplification characteristics and the OFI plasma diagnosis by utilizing the fs VUV pulses at 126 and 882 nm, respectively. The maximum optical gain value of 1.1 cm-1 was observed. Temporal behaviors of the plasma temperature and density in the nano-second time scale indicated a high-density and low-temperature plasma produced by using the OFI. These plasma behaviors were utilized to reproduce the optical amplification characteristics with our OFI excimer simulation code.

  4. The effects of non-thermal plasmas on selected mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Mathieu

    built a simple transfection device consisting of a straight glass capillary tube and a plastic support. Using three different gases and five different capillary diameters, we were able to relate the transfection efficiency to the dynamic pressure of the gas exiting the capillary tube. Finally, even though transfection of cells seem to depend more on the mechanical forces exerted by the gas flow than on the effects of the plasma, other applications of non-thermal plasma in the field of medicine are in development. However, published studies have focused on only the positive effects of non-thermal plasmas, neglecting the potentially induced adverse effects. Therefore, we studied if damage could be caused in cells following an indirect (APGD-t) or a direct (parallel electrodes DBD) plasma treatment. We found that a low power direct plasma treatment caused oxidative stress in HeLa cells. Both plasma sources were shown to produce DNA double-strand breaks but no lipid peroxidation. Also, the sequencing of plasma-treated naked plasmid DNA introduced in electrocompetent bacteria showed no evidence of mutations.

  5. Agyrotropic pressure tensor induced by the plasma velocity shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, Francesco; Del Sarto, Danele; Califano, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    We show that the spatial inhomogeneity of a shear flow in a fluid plasma is transferred to a pressure anisotropy that has both a gyrotropic and a non gyrotropic component. We investigate this process both analytically and numerically by including the full pressure tensor dynamics. We determine the time evolution of the pressure agyrotropy and in general of the pressure tensor anisotropization which arise from the action of both the magnetic eld and the flow strain tensor. This mechanism can affect the onset and development of shear-induced fluid instabilities in plasmas and is relevant to the understanding of the origin of some of the non-Maxwellian distribution functions evidenced both in Vlasov simulations and in space plasma measurements that exhibit pressure agyrotropy.

  6. Tokamak Plasma Flows Induced by Local RF Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    The tokamak plasma flows induced by the local radio frequency (RF) forces in the core region are analyzed. The effective components of local RF forces are composed of the momentum absorption term and the resonant parallel momentum transport term (i.e. the parallel component of the resonant ponderomotive forces). Different momentum balance relations are employed to calculate the plasma flows depending on different assumptions of momentum transport. With the RF fields solved from RF simulation codes, the toroidal and poloidal flows by these forces under the lower hybrid current drive and the mode conversion ion cyclotron resonance heating on EAST-like plasmas are evaluated. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405218, 11325524, 11375235 and 11261140327), in part by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB111002, 2013GB112001 and 2013GB112010), and the Program of Fusion Reactor Physics and Digital Tokamak with the CAS “One-Three-Five” Strategic Planning

  7. Low-temperature plasma-induced antiproliferative effects on multi-cellular tumor spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plewa, Joseph-Marie; Yousfi, Mohammed; Frongia, Céline; Eichwald, Olivier; Ducommun, Bernard; Merbahi, Nofel; Lobjois, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    Biomedical applications of low-temperature plasmas are of growing interest, especially in the field of plasma-induced anti-tumor effects. The present work is aimed at investigating the regionalized antiproliferative effects of low-temperature plasmas on a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics the 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. We report that a low-temperature plasma jet, using helium flow in open air, inhibits HCT116 colon carcinoma MCTS growth in a dose-dependent manner. This growth inhibition is associated with the loss of Ki67, and the regionalized accumulation of DNA damage detected by histone H2AX phosphorylation. This regionalized genotoxic effect leads to massive cell death and loss of the MCTS proliferative region. The use of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and plasma-conditioned media demonstrate that the ROS generated in the media after exposure to low-temperature plasma play a major role in these observed effects. These findings strengthen the interest in the use of MCTS for the evaluation of antiproliferative strategies, and open new perspectives for studies dedicated to demonstrate the potential of low-temperature plasma in cancer therapy.

  8. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  9. Tonsillar application of killed Streptococcus mutans induces specific antibodies in rabbit saliva and blood plasma without inducing a cross-reacting antibody to human cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuizumi, T; Inoue, H; Tsujisawa, T; Uchiyama, C

    1997-01-01

    When Streptococcus mutans cells are injected into the skeletal muscle of rabbits, an antibody against human cardiac muscle, as well as an anti-S. mutans antibody, is induced in blood plasma. Our previous study showed that when sheep erythrocytes are applied to palatine tonsils, an antibody against the applied cells is induced both in blood plasma and saliva. This antibody has no activity against cardiac muscle. It is not clear, however, if S. mutans application to the tonsils evokes an antibody response against cardiac muscle. In this study, we immunized rabbits against S. mutans or Streptococcus sobrinus by tonsillar application or by intramuscular injection every 3 days for 6 weeks. Tonsillar applications of formalin-killed cells of S. mutans induced saliva immunoglobulin A (IgA) and blood plasma IgG to the applied cells. In contrast, intramuscular injection of such cells induced only blood plasma IgG. When the route of immunization was intramuscular injection, antibodies in blood plasma cross-reacted with cardiac muscle. By enzyme-immunohistochemistry and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion tests, no cross-reaction to cardiac muscle was observed with the antibody in saliva or in blood plasma after the tonsillar applications. Western blotting of the S. mutans antigen showed that blood plasma from rabbits injected with S. mutans reacted with antigens of 46, 52, 62, and 85 kDa, while that from rabbits subjected to tonsillar application of S. mutans did not react with these bands. Similar results were obtained for S. sobrinus applications. Thus, tonsillar applications of mutants group streptococci induce antibodies differing in antigen specificity and do not induce any cross-reacting antibody to cardiac muscle. PMID:9353033

  10. Investigations of LHCD induced plasma rotation in Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouli, B.; Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Bourdelle, C.; Sarazin, Y.; Rice, J.; Aniel, T.; Artaud, J.-F.; Baiocchi, B.; Basiuk, V.; Cottier, P.; Decker, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Irishkin, M.; Mazon, D.; Schneider, M.; the Tore Supra Team

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical investigations are performed in order to explain the plasma rotation increments induced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in Tore Supra and the results are compared to the experimental observations. The intrinsic toroidal rotation is governed by several mechanisms in concert. The impact of the LHCD on each involved mechanism is analyzed. The neoclassical toroidal rotation is always in the counter-current direction. The toroidal diamagnetic velocity is of the order of the experimental toroidal velocity. At high plasma current the rotation evolution in the lower hybrid (LH) phase is controlled by the neoclassical friction force due to the trapped ions in banana trajectories through the toroidal diamagnetic velocity. This force results in the counter-current increment as observed in the experimental measurement of toroidal rotation. At low plasma current the rotation is dominated by momentum turbulent transport when the LH waves are applied. The Reynolds stress grows strongly compared to the high plasma current case and acts as a co-current force through its residual stress contribution. Momentum transport simulations are also performed with CRONOS (Artaud et al 2010) in order to assess the rotation increments induced by LHCD.

  11. Flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Surabhi; Bandyopadhyay, Pintu; Sen, Abhijit

    2015-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of particle flow induced large amplitude shock waves in a dusty plasma. These dust acoustic shocks (DAS) are observed for strongly supersonic flows and have been studied in a U-shaped Dusty Plasma Experimental (DPEx) device for charged kaolin dust in a background of Argon plasma. The strong flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change of the dust density near the potential hill is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks. The dynamics of the shocks are captured by fast video pictures of the structures that are illuminated by a laser sheet beam. The physical characteristics of the shock are delineated from a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of plasma parameters and flow speeds. Details of these observations and a physical explanation based on model calculations will be presented.

  12. Defect generation in electronic devices under plasma exposure: Plasma-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriguchi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    The increasing demand for higher performance of ULSI circuits requires aggressive shrinkage of device feature sizes in accordance with Moore’s law. Plasma processing plays an important role in achieving fine patterns with anisotropic features in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This article comprehensively addresses the negative aspect of plasma processing — plasma-induced damage (PID). PID naturally not only modifies the surface morphology of materials but also degrades the performance and reliability of MOSFETs as a result of defect generation in the materials. Three key mechanisms of PID, i.e., physical, electrical, and photon-irradiation interactions, are overviewed in terms of modeling, characterization techniques, and experimental evidence reported so far. In addition, some of the emerging topics — control of parameter variability in ULSI circuits caused by PID and recovery of PID — are discussed as future perspectives.

  13. Validating Laser-Induced Birefringence Theory with Plasma Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cecilia

    2015-09-02

    Intense laser beams crossing paths in plasma is theorized to induce birefringence in the medium, resulting from density and refractive index modulations that affect the polarization of incoming light. The goal of the associated experiment, conducted on Janus at Lawrence Livermore’s Jupiter Laser Facility, was to create a tunable laser-plasma waveplate to verify the relationship between dephasing angle and beam intensity, plasma density, plasma temperature, and interaction length. Interferometry analysis of the plasma channel was performed to obtain a density map and to constrain temperature measured from Thomson scattering. Various analysis techniques, including Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and two variations of fringe-counting, were tried because interferograms captured in this experiment contained unusual features such as fringe discontinuity at channel edges, saddle points, and islands. The chosen method is flexible, semi-automated, and uses a fringe tracking algorithm on a reduced image of pre-traced synthetic fringes. Ultimately, a maximum dephasing angle of 49.6° was achieved using a 1200 μm interaction length, and the experimental results appear to agree with predictions.

  14. Neutrophil adherence induced by lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Role of plasma component interaction with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Worthen, G S; Avdi, N; Vukajlovich, S; Tobias, P S

    1992-01-01

    Endotoxemia results in neutrophil localization within a number of microcirculatory beds, reflecting in part an adhesive interaction between neutrophils and the vascular endothelial cell. In previous studies, endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of rabbits resulted in neutrophil sequestration at LPS concentrations well below those effective at increasing neutrophil adherence in vitro. We hypothesized that LPS-induced neutrophil adherence involved a plasma component. In the absence of plasma, high concentrations of LPS (10 micrograms/ml) were required to increase human neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells in vitro. With the inclusion of as little as 1% plasma or serum, however, the LPS dose-response curve was markedly shifted, resulting in increments in adherence at 10 ng/ml, and the time course of enhanced adherence was accelerated. Pretreatment studies suggested that the effect of LPS was on the neutrophil rather than the endothelial cell. Immunoprecipitation of 0111:B4 LPS paralleled the loss of functional activity, suggesting that LPS was an integral part of the active complex, rather than altering a plasma component to make it active. The incubation of plasma with LPS decreased the apparent molecular mass of LPS from 500-1,000 kD to approximately 100 kD. The disaggregated 0111:B4 LPS eluted in the range of albumin and was able to increase adherence in the absence of additional plasma. Plasma depleted of lipoproteins or heat treated retained activity, suggesting that the interaction of LPS with HDL or complement did not account for the observed findings. An LPS-binding protein isolated from rabbit serum enhanced the adherence-inducing effects of both 0111:B4 and Re595 LPS. Furthermore, the activity of rabbit serum was abolished after incubation with an antibody directed against this LPS-binding protein (LBP). An antibody directed against CD14, the putative receptor of the LPS-LBP complex, prevented the adhesive response to LPS. These data suggest

  15. IgE-positive plasma cells are present in adenoids of atopic children.

    PubMed

    Papatziamos, Georgios; Van Hage-Hamsten, Marianne; Lundahl, Joachim; Hemlin, Claes

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrated the presence of IgE(+) plasma cells in the adenoids of atopic children. Our data suggest that adenoids are capable of local production of IgE and support the role of adenoids as an inductive site for allergic reactions. We have previously demonstrated increased numbers of IgE(+) cells in the adenoids of atopic children and also found support for an IL-4-induced class switch to IgE production in adenoids. In search of further evidence of adenoids being involved in IgE-mediated sensitization, we investigated the distribution of plasma cells and macrophages positive for IgE in adenoids. Adenoid tissue from atopic and non-atopic children was examined using immunohistochemical markers for IgE, plasma cells (CD138) and macrophages (CD68). The distribution of positive cells was determined in the extrafollicular area and in the follicles of adenoids. Co-localization of IgE and CD138(+) plasma cells and CD68(+) macrophages was examined using immunohistochemical double-staining methods. Non-atopic adenoids contained no or very few IgE(+) cells. In contrast, IgE(+) cells were found in high numbers in atopic adenoids, mainly in the extrafollicular area. Higher numbers of IgE(+) plasma cells and IgE(+) macrophages were also found in the adenoids of atopic children.

  16. Differential effects of lenalidomide during plasma cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jourdan, Michel; Cren, Maïlys; Schafer, Peter; Robert, Nicolas; Duperray, Christophe; Vincent, Laure; Ceballos, Patrice; Cartron, Guillaume; Rossi, Jean-François; Moreaux, Jérôme; Chopra, Rajesh; Klein, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide have greatly improved the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma. However, their effects on plasma cells, the healthy counterpart of myeloma cells, are unknown. Here, we investigated lenalidomide effects on normal human plasma cell generation using an in vitro model. Lenalidomide inhibited the generation of pre-plasmablasts and early plasma cells, while it moderately affected plasmablast production. It also reduced the expression level of Ikaros, Aiolos, and IRF4 transcription factors, in plasmablasts and early plasma cells. This suggests that their differential sensitivity to lenalidomide is not due to a difference in Ikaros or Aiolos degradation. Lenalidomide also inhibited long-lived plasma cell generation, but did not impair their long-term survival once generated. This last observation is in agreement with the finding that lenalidomide treatment for 3-18 months did not affect the bone marrow healthy plasma cell count in allografted patients with multiple myeloma. Our findings should prompt to investigate whether lenalidomide resistance in patients with multiple myeloma could be associated with the emergence of malignant plasmablasts or long-lived plasma cells that are less sensitive to lenalidomide. PMID:27057635

  17. Differential effects of lenalidomide during plasma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Michel; Cren, Maïlys; Schafer, Peter; Robert, Nicolas; Duperray, Christophe; Vincent, Laure; Ceballos, Patrice; Cartron, Guillaume; Rossi, Jean-François; Moreaux, Jérôme; Chopra, Rajesh; Klein, Bernard

    2016-05-10

    Thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide have greatly improved the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma. However, their effects on plasma cells, the healthy counterpart of myeloma cells, are unknown. Here, we investigated lenalidomide effects on normal human plasma cell generation using an in vitro model. Lenalidomide inhibited the generation of pre-plasmablasts and early plasma cells, while it moderately affected plasmablast production. It also reduced the expression level of Ikaros, Aiolos, and IRF4 transcription factors, in plasmablasts and early plasma cells. This suggests that their differential sensitivity to lenalidomide is not due to a difference in Ikaros or Aiolos degradation. Lenalidomide also inhibited long-lived plasma cell generation, but did not impair their long-term survival once generated. This last observation is in agreement with the finding that lenalidomide treatment for 3-18 months did not affect the bone marrow healthy plasma cell count in allografted patients with multiple myeloma. Our findings should prompt to investigate whether lenalidomide resistance in patients with multiple myeloma could be associated with the emergence of malignant plasmablasts or long-lived plasma cells that are less sensitive to lenalidomide.

  18. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Helps Diagnose Plasma Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Mattosian, J. N.; Gaeta, C. J.; Turley, R. S.; Williams, J. D.; Williamson, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Technique developed to provide in situ monitoring of rates of ion sputter erosion of accelerator electrodes in ion thrusters also used for ground-based applications to monitor, calibrate, and otherwise diagnose plasma processes in fabrication of electronic and optical devices. Involves use of laser-induced-fluorescence measurements, which provide information on rates of ion etching, inferred rates of sputter deposition, and concentrations of contaminants.

  19. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Helps Diagnose Plasma Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Mattosian, J. N.; Gaeta, C. J.; Turley, R. S.; Williams, J. D.; Williamson, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Technique developed to provide in situ monitoring of rates of ion sputter erosion of accelerator electrodes in ion thrusters also used for ground-based applications to monitor, calibrate, and otherwise diagnose plasma processes in fabrication of electronic and optical devices. Involves use of laser-induced-fluorescence measurements, which provide information on rates of ion etching, inferred rates of sputter deposition, and concentrations of contaminants.

  20. Development of plasma apparatus for plasma irradiation to living cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Ryo; Tanoue, Hideto; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tero, Ryugo

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma has been studied for the industrial applications of biotechnology and medical care. For the development of these fields, understanding the influence of atmospheric pressure plasma on living cell and the mechanism of cell death is necessary. We focus on a basic structure of cell membrane, called lipid bilayer. Lipid bilayer is composed of lipid molecules with an amphipathic property and can be formed on hydrophilic substrates. In this paper, we report the development of the plasma apparatus for the treatment of lipid bilayer. The plasma apparatus uses a typical dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system and employs parallel plate electrodes with a gap distance of 1 mm [1]. Each electrode is covered with a quartz plate and the substrate temperature is kept constant by cooling medium. The lower quartz electrode has a dimple, in which the substrate coated with a lipid bilayer and buffer fluid are mounted. [4pt] [1] Y. Sugioka, et al, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., in press

  1. Examination of the role of galectins in plasma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chih-Ming; Lin, Kuo-I

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cells are terminally differentiated B cells that develop via the stimulation of mature B cells with various agents such as antigens and mitogens. Recently, we found that plasma cell differentiation can be modulated by galectin-1 and galectin-8; these galectins appear to play additive and redundant roles in promoting the production of antibody. Here, we describe the protocols for how to investigate the roles of galectins in plasma cell differentiation. These methods include the preparation of recombinant galectins from Escherichia coli for exogenously treating primary B cells, generation of galectin_Fc(m) fusion proteins for determining their binding to B cells, introduction of ectopic galectins in primary B cells using retroviral vectors, and inhibition of the binding of galectins to B cells by synthetic disaccharides.

  2. Host Cell Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Regulates the Assembly and Budding of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Johnson, Kristen A.; Fraser, Mark E.; Scott, Jordan L.; Soni, Smita P.; Jones, Keaton R.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Tessier, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipid-enveloped viruses replicate and bud from the host cell where they acquire their lipid coat. Ebola virus, which buds from the plasma membrane of the host cell, causes viral hemorrhagic fever and has a high fatality rate. To date, little has been known about how budding and egress of Ebola virus are mediated at the plasma membrane. We have found that the lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) regulates the assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40. VP40 binds PS-containing membranes with nanomolar affinity, and binding of PS regulates VP40 localization and oligomerization on the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Further, alteration of PS levels in mammalian cells inhibits assembly and egress of VP40. Notably, interactions of VP40 with the plasma membrane induced exposure of PS on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane at sites of egress, whereas PS is typically found only on the inner leaflet. Taking the data together, we present a model accounting for the role of plasma membrane PS in assembly of Ebola virus-like particles. IMPORTANCE The lipid-enveloped Ebola virus causes severe infection with a high mortality rate and currently lacks FDA-approved therapeutics or vaccines. Ebola virus harbors just seven genes in its genome, and there is a critical requirement for acquisition of its lipid envelope from the plasma membrane of the human cell that it infects during the replication process. There is, however, a dearth of information available on the required contents of this envelope for egress and subsequent attachment and entry. Here we demonstrate that plasma membrane phosphatidylserine is critical for Ebola virus budding from the host cell plasma membrane. This report, to our knowledge, is the first to highlight the role of lipids in human cell membranes in the Ebola virus replication cycle and draws a clear link between selective binding and transport of a lipid across the membrane of the human cell and use of that lipid for subsequent viral entry. PMID

  3. Laser Induced Fluorescence Measurement of Plasma Hole in a Helium Plasma with Argon Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Okamoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masayoshi

    2008-11-01

    A singular vortex with density cavity in its center (plasma hole) has been observed in a magnetized helium plasma. The ion flow velocity field of the plasma hole measured with a directional Langmuir probe shows a monopole vortex with radial flow. In order to measure more precise ion flow velocity field, we have developed a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) Doppler spectroscopy system for the Hyper-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. Since a suitable LIF scheme at visible wavelength is available for argon ions, we employed it to determine the flow velocity field of the plasma hole in a helium plasma in which a small amount of argon gas is introduced as an impurity. An ArII metastable state is excited by a tunable dye laser operating at 611.5nm and the fluorescence decay at 461.0nm is observed by a photomultiplier tube with an optical filter. By sweeping the wavelength of the dye laser, we can obtain information about the Doppler-shifted velocity distribution function of the excited ions. By changing the path of laser beam and the position of collection optics, we can obtain both azimuthal and radial ion flow velocities.

  4. Microbe-dependent CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells mediate robust early-phase intestinal IgA responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Jun; Gohda, Masashi; Hashimoto, Eri; Ishikawa, Izumi; Higuchi, Morio; Suzuki, Yuji; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Panea, Casandra; Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Sumiya, Risa; Aayam, Lamichhane; Wake, Taichi; Tajiri, So; Kurashima, Yosuke; Shikata, Shiori; Akira, Shizuo; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal plasma cells predominantly produce immunoglobulin (Ig) A, however, their functional diversity remains poorly characterized. Here we show that murine intestinal IgA plasma cells can be newly classified into two populations on the basis of CD11b expression, which cannot be discriminated by currently known criteria such as general plasma cell markers, B cell origin and T cell dependence. CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells require the lymphoid structure of Peyer’s patches, produce more IgA than CD11b− IgA+ plasma cells, proliferate vigorously, and require microbial stimulation and IL-10 for their development and maintenance. These features allow CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells to mediate early-phase antigen-specific intestinal IgA responses induced by oral immunization with protein antigen. These findings reveal the functional diversity of IgA+ plasma cells in the murine intestine. PMID:23612313

  5. Prolonged Exposure of Primary Human Muscle Cells to Plasma Fatty Acids Associated with Obese Phenotype Induces Persistent Suppression of Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthase β Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lee; Hanavan, Paul D.; Campbell, Latoya E.; De Filippis, Elena; Lake, Douglas F.; Coletta, Dawn K.; Roust, Lori R.; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Carroll, Chad C.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m2) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m2) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h-1) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese subjects when compared to the lean controls (P<0.05). We then evaluated these same responses in a primary cell culture model, and tested the specific hypothesis that circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in obesity play a role in the responses observed in humans. The findings on total protein synthesis and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in primary myotubes cultured from a lean subject, and after exposure to NEFA extracted from serum of an obese subject, were similar to those obtained in humans. Among candidate microRNAs (i.e., non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression), we identified miR-127-5p in preventing the production of β-F1-ATPase. Muscle expression of miR-127-5p negatively correlated with β-F1-ATPase protein translation efficiency in humans (r = – 0.6744; P<0.01), and could be modeled in vitro by prolonged exposure of primary myotubes derived from the lean subject to NEFA extracted from the obese subject. On the other hand, locked nucleic acid inhibitor synthesized to target miR-127-5p significantly increased β-F1-ATPase translation efficiency in myotubes (0.6±0.1 vs 1.3±0.3, in control vs exposure to 50 nM inhibitor; P<0.05). Our experiments implicate circulating NEFA in obesity in suppressing muscle protein metabolism, and establish

  6. Application of atmospheric plasma sources in growth and differentiation of plant and mammalian stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puac, Nevena

    2014-10-01

    The expansion of the plasma medicine and its demand for in-vivo treatments resulted in fast development of various plasma devices that operate at atmospheric pressure. These sources have to fulfill all demands for application on biological samples. One of the sources that meet all the requirements needed for treatment of biological material is plasma needle. Previously, we have used this device for sterilization of planctonic samples of bacteria, MRSA biofilm, for improved differentiation of human periodontal stem cells into osteogenic line and for treatment of plant meristematic cells. It is well known that plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that strongly affect metabolism of living cells. One of the open issues is to correlate external plasma products (electrons, ions, RNS, ROS, photons, strong fields etc.) with the immediate internal response which triggers or induces effects in the living cell. For that purpose we have studied the kinetics of enzymes which are typical indicators of the identity of reactive species from the plasma created environment that can trigger signal transduction in the cell and ensue cell activity. In collaboration with Suzana Zivkovicm, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; Nenad Selakovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade; Milica Milutinovic, Jelena Boljevic, Institute for Biological Research ``Sinisa Stankovic,'' University of Belgrade; and Gordana Malovic, Zoran Lj. Petrovic, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade. Grants III41011, ON171037 and ON173024, MESTD, Serbia.

  7. Local cooling, plasma reheating and thermal pinching induced by single aerosol droplets injected into an inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-07-01

    The injection of a single micrometer-sized droplet into an analytical inductively coupled plasma (ICP) perturbs the plasma and involves three sequential effects: local cooling, thermal pinching and plasma reheating. Time-resolved two-dimensional monochromatic imaging of the load-coil region of an ICP was used to monitor this sequence of plasma perturbations. When a microdroplet enters the plasma, it acts as a local heat sink and cools the nearby plasma region. The cooling effect is considered local, although the cooling volume can be large and extends 6 mm from the physical location of the vaporizing droplet. The liberated hydrogen, from decomposition of water, causes a thermal pinch effect by increasing the thermal conductivity of the bulk plasma and accelerating heat loss at the plasma periphery. As a response to the heat loss, the plasma shrinks in size, which increases its power density. Plasma shrinkage starts around the same time when the microdroplet enters the plasma and lasts at least 2 ms after the droplet leaves the load-coil region. Once the vaporizing droplet passes through a particular plasma volume, that volume is reheated to an even higher temperature than under steady-state conditions. Because of the opposing effects of plasma cooling and reheating, the plasma conditions are different upstream (downward) and downstream (upward) from a vaporizing droplet - cooling dominates the downstream region whereas reheating controls in the upstream domain. The boundary between the local cooling and reheating zones is sharp and is only ~ 1 mm thick. The reheating effect persists a relatively long time in the plasma, at least up to 4 ms after the droplet moves out of the load-coil region. The restoration of plasma equilibrium after the perturbation induced by microdroplet injection is slow. Microdroplet injection also induces a momentary change in plasma impedance, and the impedance change was found to correlate qualitatively with the different stages of plasma

  8. Persistent Effectivity of Gas Plasma-Treated, Long Time-Stored Liquid on Epithelial Cell Adhesion Capacity and Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hoentsch, Maxi; Bussiahn, René; Rebl, Henrike; Bergemann, Claudia; Eggert, Martin; Frank, Marcus; von Woedtke, Thomas; Nebe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Research in plasma medicine includes a major interest in understanding gas plasma-cell interactions. The immediate application of gas plasma in vitro inhibits cell attachment, vitality and cell-cell contacts via the liquid. Interestingly, in our novel experiments described here we found that the liquid-mediated plasma effect is long-lasting after storage up to seven days; i. e. the liquid preserves the characteristics once induced by the argon plasma. Therefore, the complete Dulbecco's Modified Eagle cell culture medium was argon plasma-treated (atmospheric pressure, kINPen09) for 60 s, stored for several days (1, 4 and 7 d) at 37°C and added to a confluent mouse hepatocyte epithelial cell (mHepR1) monolayer. Impaired tight junction architecture as well as shortened microvilli on the cell membrane could be observed, which was accompanied by the loss of cell adhesion capacity. Online-monitoring of vital cells revealed a reduced cell respiration. Our first time-dependent analysis of plasma-treated medium revealed that temperature, hydrogen peroxide production, pH and oxygen content can be excluded as initiators of cell physiological and morphological changes. The here observed persisting biological effects in plasma-treated liquids could open new medical applications in dentistry and orthopaedics. PMID:25170906

  9. Gadolinium blocks membrane permeabilization induced by nanosecond electric pulses and reduces cell death

    PubMed Central

    André, Franck M.; Rassokhin, Mikhail A.; Bowman, Angela M.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) are distinguished from micro-and millisecond duration pulses by their ability to cause intracellular effects and cell death with reduced effects on the cell plasma membrane. However, we found that nsEP-induced cell death is most likely mediated by the plasma membrane disruption. We showed that nsEP can cause long-lasting (minutes) increase in plasma membrane electrical conductance and disrupt electrolyte balance, followed by water uptake, cell swelling and blebbing. These effects of plasma membrane permeabilization could be blocked by Gd3+ in a dose-dependent manner, with a threshold at sub-micromolar concentrations. Consequently, Gd3+ protected cells from nsEP-induced cell death, thereby pointing to plasma membrane permeabilization as a likely primary mechanism of lethal cell damage. PMID:20097138

  10. Phase imaging microscopy for the diagnostics of plasma-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohene, Yolanda; Marinov, Ilya; de Laulanié, Lucie; Dupuy, Corinne; Wattelier, Benoit; Starikovskaia, Svetlana

    2015-06-01

    Phase images of biological specimens were obtained by the method of Quadriwave Lateral Shearing Interferometry (QWLSI). The QWLSI technique produces, at high resolution, phase images of the cells having been exposed to a plasma treatment and enables the quantitative analysis of the changes in the surface area of the cells over time. Morphological changes in the HTori normal thyroid cells were demonstrated using this method. There was a comparison of the cell behaviour between control cells, cells treated by plasma of a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge, including cells pre-treated by catalase, and cells treated with an equivalent amount of H2O2. The major changes in the cell membrane morphology were observed at only 5 min after the plasma treatment. The primary role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this degradation is suggested. Deformation and condensation of the cell nucleus were observed 2-3 h after the treatment and are supposedly related to apoptosis induction. The coupling of the phase QWLSI with immunofluorescence imaging would give a deeper insight into the mechanisms of plasma induced cell death.

  11. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma

  12. New Treatment Options for Osteosarcoma - Inactivation of Osteosarcoma Cells by Cold Atmospheric Plasma.

    PubMed

    Gümbel, Denis; Gelbrich, Nadine; Weiss, Martin; Napp, Matthias; Daeschlein, Georg; Sckell, Axel; Ender, Stephan A; Kramer, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Stope, Matthias B

    2016-11-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma has been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth and induce tumor cell death. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric plasma treatment on proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells and to characterize the underlying cellular mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma cells (U2-OS and MNNG/HOS) were treated with cold atmospheric plasma and seeded in culture plates. Cell proliferation, p53 and phospho-p53 protein expression and nuclear morphology were assessed. The treated human osteosarcoma cell lines exhibited attenuated proliferation rates by up to 66%. The cells revealed an induction of p53, as well as phospho-p53 expression, by 2.3-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, compared to controls. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining demonstrated apoptotic nuclear condensation following cold atmospheric plasma treatment. Cold atmospheric plasma treatment significantly attenuated cell proliferation in a preclinical in vitro osteosarcoma model. The resulting increase in p53 expression and phospho-activation in combination with characteristic nuclear changes indicate this was through induction of apoptosis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. LPS-Induced Macrophage Activation and Plasma Membrane Fluidity Changes are Inhibited Under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    de la Haba, Carlos; Morros, Antoni; Martínez, Paz; Palacio, José R

    2016-12-01

    Macrophage activation is essential for a correct and efficient response of innate immunity. During oxidative stress membrane receptors and/or membrane lipid dynamics can be altered, leading to dysfunctional cell responses. Our aim is to analyze membrane fluidity modifications and cell function under oxidative stress in LPS-activated macrophages. Membrane fluidity of individual living THP-1 macrophages was evaluated by the technique two-photon microscopy. LPS-activated macrophage function was determined by TNFα secretion. It was shown that LPS activation causes fluidification of macrophage plasma membrane and production of TNFα. However, oxidative stress induces rigidification of macrophage plasma membrane and inhibition of cell activation, which is evidenced by a decrease of TNFα secretion. Thus, under oxidative conditions macrophage proinflammatory response might develop in an inefficient manner.

  14. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generated by NO-plasma treatment modulates osteoprogenitor cells early differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsaadany, Mostafa; Subramanian, Gayathri; Ayan, Halim; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) generated using a non-thermal plasma system can mediate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells without creating toxicity. Our objective was to create an NO delivery mechanism using NO-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma that can generate and transport NO with controlled concentration to the area of interest to regulate osteoprogenitor cell activity. We built a non-thermal atmospheric pressure DBD plasma nozzle system based on our previously published design and similar designs in the literature. The electrical and spectral analyses demonstrated that N2 dissociated into NO under typical DBD voltage-current characteristics. We treated osteoprogenitor cells (MC3T3-E1) using NO-plasma treatment system. Our results demonstrated that we could control NO concentration within cell culture media and could introduce NO into the intracellular space using NO-plasma treatment with various treatment times. We confirmed that NO-plasma treatment maintained cell viability and did not create any toxicity even with prolonged treatment durations. Finally, we demonstrated that NO-plasma treatment induced early osteogenic differentiation in the absence of pro-osteogenic growth factors/proteins. These findings suggest that through the NO-plasma treatment system we are able to generate and transport tissue-specific amounts of NO to an area of interest to mediate osteoprogenitor cell activity without subsequent toxicity. This opens up the possibility to develop DBD plasma-assisted tissue-specific NO delivery strategies for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of bone diseases.

  15. Progressively impaired proteasomal capacity during terminal plasma cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Simone; Mezghrani, Alexandre; Cascio, Paolo; Bianchi, Giada; Cerruti, Fulvia; Fra, Anna; Lelouard, Hugues; Masciarelli, Silvia; Mattioli, Laura; Oliva, Laura; Orsi, Andrea; Pasqualetto, Elena; Pierre, Philippe; Ruffato, Elena; Tagliavacca, Luigina; Sitia, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    After few days of intense immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion, most plasma cells undergo apoptosis, thus ending the humoral immune response. We asked whether intrinsic factors link plasma cell lifespan to Ig secretion. Here we show that in the late phases of plasmacytic differentiation, when antibody production becomes maximal, proteasomal activity decreases. The excessive load for the reduced proteolytic capacity correlates with accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, stabilization of endogenous proteasomal substrates (including Xbp1s, IκBα, and Bax), onset of apoptosis, and sensitization to proteasome inhibitors (PI). These events can be reproduced by expressing Ig-μ chain in nonlymphoid cells. Our results suggest that a developmental program links plasma cell death to protein production, and help explaining the peculiar sensitivity of normal and malignant plasma cells to PI. PMID:16498407

  16. The discovery of plasma cells: An historical note.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-08-01

    The name plasma cell was introduced by the anatomist Heinrich H. von Hartz-Waldeyer in 1875. Plasma cells derive from small B lymphocytes after their activation. A fully mature plasma cell lacks surface immunoglobulin expression. Its form is round or oval, with characteristic basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus that contains coarse heterochromatin. Antigen activation of mature B cells leads initially to germinal center development, the transient generation of plasmablasts that secrete antibody while still dividing, and short-lived extrafollicular plasma cells that secrete antigen-specific germ line-encoded antibodies. Plasma cells are characterized by the co-expression of CD138 and CD38, which allows their identification in flow cytometry in bone marrow, peripheral blood, or cell suspensions from tissues. The identification of plasma cells as antibody producers was a key discovery that paved the way for the development of monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma jet-induced tissue oxygenation: potentialities for new therapeutic strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, G.; Robert, E.; Lenoir, A.; Vandamme, M.; Darny, T.; Dozias, S.; Kieda, C.; Pouvesle, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The lack of oxygen is a major reason for the resistance of tumor cells to treatments such as radiotherapies. A large number of recent publications on non-thermal plasma applications in medicine report cell behavior modifications and modulation of soluble factors. This in vivo study tested whether such modifications can lead to vascular changes in response to plasma application. Two in situ optical-based methods were used simultaneously, in real time, to assess the effect of non-thermal plasma on tissue vasculature. Tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) was measured using a time-resolved luminescence-based optical probe, and the microvascular erythrocyte flow was determined by laser Doppler flowmetry. When plasma treatment was applied on mouse skin, a rapid pO2 increase (up to 4 times) was subcutaneously measured and correlated with blood flow improvement. Such short duration, i.e. 5 min, plasma-induced effects were shown to be locally restricted to the treated area and lasted over 120 min. Further investigations should elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these processes. However, improvement of oxygenation and perfusion open new opportunities for tumor treatments in combination with radiotherapy, and for tumor blood vessel normalization based strategies.

  18. Particle simulation of fluctuation-induced anomalous plasma diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sydora, R.D.

    1995-04-01

    In present toroidal magnetic confinement devices for fusion such as the tokamak, classical transport theory and Monte Carlo simulations both predict energy and particle confinement times longer than those measured by factors of about 30-50 for electrons and about 3-10 for the ions. Fluctuation-induced anomalous transport mechanisms can fully account for these collisionless losses and a detailed study of microinstabilities and plasma turbulence in the core plasma region requires a kinetic treatment. In this talk recent progress in particle-based simulation models using finite-gyroradius modified drift equations of motion coupled to Maxwell`s equations is outlined. Two classes of models are described; local models designed to simulate annular slice regions of the plasma and global models which include the full thermal and density inhomogeneity profiles. Results of turbulence calculations are presented from current topics of active theoretical and experimental interest, namely, the Bohm versus gyroradius-reduced Bohm thermal diffusivity scaling based on long wavelength microinstabilities, spatial intermittency development in core plasma turbulence, and mean flow generation and damping from long wavelength fluctuations. The impact of massive parallel computers on this area of research is also addressed as well as the future outlook.

  19. Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by short-lived reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively short-lived unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine. PMID:27169489

  20. Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by short-lived reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively short-lived unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine.

  1. Mechanistic insights into the impact of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events. PMID:28120925

  2. Mechanistic insights into the impact of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events.

  3. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq

    2013-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  4. Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Production by Normal and Disease-Associated Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David A.; Elsawa, Sherine F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are molecules produced by activated B cells and plasma cells in response to exposure to antigens. Upon antigen exposure, these molecules are secreted allowing the immune system to recognize and effectively respond to a myriad of pathogens. Immunoglobulin or antibody secreting cells are the mature form of B lymphocytes, which during their development undergo gene rearrangements and selection in the bone marrow ultimately leading to the generation of B cells, each expressing a single antigen-specific receptor/immunoglobulin molecule. Each individual immunoglobulin molecule has an affinity for a unique motif, or epitope, found on a given antigen. When presented with an antigen, activated B cells differentiate into either plasma cells (which secrete large amounts of antibody that is specific for the inducing antigen), or memory B cells (which are long-lived and elicit a stronger and faster response if the host is re-exposed to the same antigen). The secreted form of immunoglobulin, when bound to an antigen, serves as an effector molecule that directs other cells of the immune system to facilitate the neutralization of soluble antigen or the eradication of the antigen-expressing pathogen. This review will focus on the regulation of secreted immunoglobulin by long-lived normal or disease-associated plasma cells. Specifically, the focus will be on signaling and transcriptional events that regulate the development and homeostasis of long-lived immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells. PMID:25615546

  5. Cold atmospheric plasma jet effects on V79-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Lupu, Andreea-Roxana; Georgescu, N

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cold plasmas are due to charged particles, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), UV photons, and intense electric field. In order to obtain a more efficient action on mammalian cells (useful for cancer therapy), we used in our studies chemically activated cold plasma (He and O2 gas mixture). V79-4 cells were exposed to plasma jet for different time periods (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150s), using different combinations of helium and oxygen inputs (He:2.5l/min + 02:12.5ml/min; He:2.51/min + O2:25ml/min; He:2.51/min + O2:37.5 ml/min). Using MTT test we demonstrated that plasma jet induced cell viability decrease in all cases. The effect of chemically activated cold plasma--apoptosis or necrosis--depends on gas mixture and treatment period. Taking into account that ROS density in cell microenvironment is related to O2 percent in the gas mixture and treatment period, we can presume that cell death is due to ROS produced in plasma jet.

  6. At the border: the plasma membrane-cell wall continuum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengyu; Persson, Staffan; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara

    2015-03-01

    Plant cells rely on their cell walls for directed growth and environmental adaptation. Synthesis and remodelling of the cell walls are membrane-related processes. During cell growth and exposure to external stimuli, there is a constant exchange of lipids, proteins, and other cell wall components between the cytosol and the plasma membrane/apoplast. This exchange of material and the localization of cell wall proteins at certain spots in the plasma membrane seem to rely on a particular membrane composition. In addition, sensors at the plasma membrane detect changes in the cell wall architecture, and activate cytoplasmic signalling schemes and ultimately cell wall remodelling. The apoplastic polysaccharide matrix is, on the other hand, crucial for preventing proteins diffusing uncontrollably in the membrane. Therefore, the cell wall-plasma membrane link is essential for plant development and responses to external stimuli. This review focuses on the relationship between the cell wall and plasma membrane, and its importance for plant tissue organization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Ultrafast laser-collision-induced fluorescence in atmospheric pressure plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Barnat, E. V.; Fierro, A.

    2017-03-07

    The implementation and demonstration of laser-collision-induced fluorescence (LCIF) generated in atmospheric pressure helium environments is presented in this communication. As collision times are observed to be fast (~10 ns), ultrashort pulse laser excitation (<100 fs) of the 23S to 33P (388.9 nm) is utilized to initiate the LCIF process. Both neutral-induced and electron-induced components of the LCIF are observed in the helium afterglow plasma as the reduced electric field (E/N) is tuned from <0.1 Td to over 5 Td. Under the discharge conditions presented in this study (640 Torr He), the lower limit of electron density detection is ~1012 emore » cm-3. Lastly, the spatial profiles of the 23S helium metastable and electrons are presented as functions of E/N to demonstrate the spatial resolving capabilities of the LCIF method.« less

  8. Ultrafast laser-collision-induced fluorescence in atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, E. V.; Fierro, A.

    2017-04-01

    The implementation and demonstration of laser-collision-induced fluorescence (LCIF) generated in atmospheric pressure helium environments is presented in this communication. As collision times are observed to be fast (~10 ns), ultrashort pulse laser excitation (<100 fs) of the 23S to 33P (388.9 nm) is utilized to initiate the LCIF process. Both neutral-induced and electron-induced components of the LCIF are observed in the helium afterglow plasma as the reduced electric field (E/N) is tuned from  <0.1 Td to over 5 Td. Under the discharge conditions presented in this study (640 Torr He), the lower limit of electron density detection is ~1012 e cm-3. The spatial profiles of the 23S helium metastable and electrons are presented as functions of E/N to demonstrate the spatial resolving capabilities of the LCIF method.

  9. Plasma needle: treatment of living cells and tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, Eva

    2003-10-01

    Non-thermal plasmas are capable of refined treatment of heat sensitive surfaces. Recently, many non-thermal sources working under atmospheric pressure have been constructed. Their main applications are various surface treatments: cleaning, etching, changing the wettability/adhesion, and bacterial decontamination. A new research at the Eindhoven University of Technology focuses on in vivo treatment by means of a novel non-thermal plasma source (the plasma needle). At present, a fundamental study has been undertaken to identify all possible responses of living objects exposed to the plasma. Plasma treatment does not lead to cell death (necrosis), which is a cause of inflammation. On the contrary, we observe various sophisticated reactions of mammalian cells, e.g. cell detachment (loss of cell contact) and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Moreover, under certain conditions the plasma is capable of killing bacteria, while eukaryotic cells remain unharmed. These findings may result in development of new techniques, like bacterial sterilization of infected (living) tissues or removal of cells without inflammatory response, and on a longer time scale to new methods in the health care. Possible applications include treatment of skin ailments, aiding wound healing and sterilization of dental cavities.

  10. Chirality-induced negative refraction in magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, B.

    2013-09-15

    Characteristic equations in magnetized plasma with chirality are derived in simple formulations and the dispersion relations for propagation parallel and perpendicular to the external magnetic field are studied in detail. With the help of the dispersion relations of each eigenwave, the author explores chirality-induced negative refraction in magnetized plasma and investigates the effects of parameters (i.e., chirality degree, external magnetic field, etc.) on the negative refraction. The results show that the chirality is the necessary and only one factor which leads to negative refraction without manipulating electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Both increasing the degree of chirality and reducing the external magnetic field can result in greater range negative refraction. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed.

  11. Slurry sample introduction with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    1993-04-01

    The successful direct introduction of aqueous slurry samples into a highly efficient TE 101 microwave plasma has been demonstrated. Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the cavity with no desolvation apparatus. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer was evaluated for use with high solids content solutions. Slurry concentrations up to 10% m/v were used for the microwave induced plasma work with calibration by the standard additions method. Results are presented for the analysis of two NRCC Standard Reference Materials, i.e. TORT-1 (Lobster Hepatopancreas) and PACS-21 (Marine Sediment). Agreement between analytical results and certified values for the test elements Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn (in the range of 28-850 μg/g) was good. No memory effects were evident and the nebulizer system had a rapid clean-out time.

  12. ULTRASTRUCTURAL LOCALIZATION OF ANTIBODY IN DIFFERENTIATING PLASMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Avrameas, Stratis; Bouteille, Michel

    1968-01-01

    Antibody was localized by electron microscopy within differentiating and mature plasma cells of the spleens of hyperimmunized rabbits. Horseradish peroxidase was used as antigen. Intracellular antibody to peroxidase was revealed in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue by coupling it with its antigen and then revealing the sites of peroxidase activity cytochemically. Antibody first appears in the perinuclear space of hemocytoblasts where it persists through differentiation into immature plasma cells, but it disappears from this site in mature plasma cells. Concomitant with the development of the ergastoplasm, antibody accumulates in many but not all of its cisternae. Antibody is present in the lamellar portion of the Golgi apparatus in all phases of plasmacytic differentiation. Mature plasma cells exhibit two types of antibody distribution, a concentration into large spherical intracisternal granules or an overflowing into all parts of the cytoplasm. PMID:5635036

  13. Plasma cell mucositis with gingival enlargement and severe periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shalini R.; Gupta, Rajiva; Saran, Ravindra K.; Krishnan, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell mucositis (PCM) is a very rare, chronic, multifocal, idiopathic, non-neoplastic plasma cell proliferative disorder of the upper aerodigestive tract. The classic clinical presentation is an intensely erythematous mucosa with surface changes described variously as papillomatous, cobblestone, nodular or velvety. It is a very rare condition <50 cases reported in literature. A 72-year-old male patient complained of sore throat, stomatodynia, dysphagia, multiple oral ulcers, enlarged swollen bleeding gums and mobile teeth. There was chronic inflammatory enlargement of the gingiva and palate with severe periodontitis. Histopathological examination revealed a hyperplastic epithelium with a dense infiltrate of mature polyclonal plasma cells in the superficial layer of the lamina propria. PCM is a diagnosis of exclusion, to be differentiated from other infective, reactive, autoimmune, allergic and neoplastic disorders with plasma cell infiltrates. Management with surgical and immunosuppressive therapy is mostly ineffective with short remissions and frequent relapses. PMID:25024555

  14. Study of plasma heating induced by fast electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Morace, A.; Batani, D.; Redaelli, R.; Magunov, A.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Malka, G.; Boscheron, A.; Nazarov, W.; Vinci, T.; Okano, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Flacco, A.; Spindloe, C.; Tolley, M.

    2009-12-15

    We studied the induced plasma heating in three different kinds of targets: mass limited, foam targets, and large mass targets. The experiment was performed at Alise Laser Facility of CEA/CESTA. The laser system emitted a approx1 ps pulse with approx10 J energy at a wavelength of approx1 {mu}m. Mass limited targets had three layers with thicknesses of 10 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 8}, 1 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 7}Cl, and 10 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 8} with size of 100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of x rays emitted from the Cl tracer showed that it was possible to heat up the plasma from mass limited targets to a temperature of approx250 eV with density of approx10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. The plasma heating is only produced by fast electron transport in the target, being the 10 {mu}m C{sub 8}H{sub 8} overcoating thick enough to prevent any possible direct irradiation of the tracer layer even taking into account mass-ablation due to the prepulse. These results demonstrate that with mass limited targets, it is possible to generate a plasma heated up to several hundreds eV. It is also very important for research concerning high energy density phenomena and for fast ignition (in particular for the study of fast electrons transport and induced heating).

  15. Cold plasma interactions with plants: Morphing and movements of Venus flytrap and Mimosa pudica induced by argon plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Xu, Kunning G; Kolobov, Vladimir I

    2017-12-01

    Low temperature (cold) plasma finds an increasing number of applications in biology, medicine and agriculture. In this paper, we report a new effect of plasma induced morphing and movements of Venus flytrap and Mimosa pudica. We have experimentally observed plasma activation of sensitive plant movements and morphing structures in these plants similar to stimulation of their mechanosensors in vivo. Application of an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet to the inside or outside of a lobe, midrib, or cilia in Dionaea muscipula Ellis induces trap closing. Treatment of Mimosa pudica by plasma induces movements of pinnules and petioles similar to the effects of mechanical stimulation. We have conducted control experiments and simulations to illustrate that gas flow and UV radiation associated with plasma are not the primary reasons for the observed effects. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) produced by cold plasma in atmospheric air appear to be the primary reason of plasma-induced activation of phytoactuators in plants. Some of these RONS are known to be signaling molecules, which control plants' developmental processes. Understanding these mechanisms could promote plasma-based technology for plant developmental control and future use for plant protection from pathogens. Our work offers new insight into mechanisms which trigger plant morphing and movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo direct patulin-induced fluidization of the plasma membrane of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Eszter; Papp, Gábor; Belágyi, József; Gazdag, Zoltán; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Pesti, Miklós

    2010-07-01

    Patulin is a toxic metabolite produced by various species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In the present study, its effects on the plasma membrane of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe were investigated. The phase-transition temperature (G) of untreated cells, measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry proved to be 14.1 degrees C. Treatment of cells for 20 min with 50, 500, or 1000 microM patulin resulted in a decrease of the G value of the plasma membrane to 13.9, 10.1 or 8.7 degrees C, respectively. This change in the transition temperature was accompanied by the loss of compounds absorbing light at 260 nm. Treatment of cells with 50, 500 or 1000 microM patulin for 20 min induced the efflux of 25%, 30.5% or 34%, respectively, of these compounds. Besides its cytotoxic effects an adaptation process was observed. This is the first study to describe the direct interaction of patulin with the plasma membrane, a process which could definitely contribute to the adverse toxic effects induced by patulin.

  17. Dusty plasma cavities: Probe-induced and natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, B. J.; Matthews, L. S.; Hyde, T. W.

    2015-06-01

    A comprehensive exploration of regional dust evacuation in complex plasma crystals is presented. Voids created in three-dimensional crystals on the International Space Station have provided a rich foundation for experiments, but cavities in dust crystals formed in ground-based experiments have not received as much attention. Inside a modified Gaseous Electronics Conference rf cell, a powered vertical probe was used to clear the central area of a dust crystal, producing a cavity with high cylindrical symmetry. Cavities generated by three mechanisms are examined. First, repulsion of micrometer-sized particles by a negatively charged probe is investigated. A model of this effect developed for a dc plasma is modified and applied to explain experimental data in rf plasma. Second, the formation of natural cavities is surveyed; a radial ion drag proposed to occur due to a curved sheath is considered in conjunction with thermophoresis and a flattened confinement potential above the center of the electrode. Finally, cavity formation upon increasing the probe potential above the plasma floating potential is justified by a combination of ion drag and sheath edge modification. The cavities produced by these methods appear similar, but each is shown to be facilitated by fundamentally different processes.

  18. Dusty plasma cavities: Probe-induced and natural.

    PubMed

    Harris, B J; Matthews, L S; Hyde, T W

    2015-06-01

    A comprehensive exploration of regional dust evacuation in complex plasma crystals is presented. Voids created in three-dimensional crystals on the International Space Station have provided a rich foundation for experiments, but cavities in dust crystals formed in ground-based experiments have not received as much attention. Inside a modified Gaseous Electronics Conference rf cell, a powered vertical probe was used to clear the central area of a dust crystal, producing a cavity with high cylindrical symmetry. Cavities generated by three mechanisms are examined. First, repulsion of micrometer-sized particles by a negatively charged probe is investigated. A model of this effect developed for a dc plasma is modified and applied to explain experimental data in rf plasma. Second, the formation of natural cavities is surveyed; a radial ion drag proposed to occur due to a curved sheath is considered in conjunction with thermophoresis and a flattened confinement potential above the center of the electrode. Finally, cavity formation upon increasing the probe potential above the plasma floating potential is justified by a combination of ion drag and sheath edge modification. The cavities produced by these methods appear similar, but each is shown to be facilitated by fundamentally different processes.

  19. Development of a laser-induced plasma probe to measure gas phase plasma signals at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounder, J. D.; Kutne, P.; Meier, W.

    2012-08-01

    The ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for on line simultaneous measurement of elemental concentrations has led to its application in a wide number of processes. The simplicity of the technique allows its application to harsh environments such as present in boilers, furnaces and gasifiers. This paper presents the design of a probe using a custom optic which transforms a round beam into a ring (Donut) beam, which is used for forming a plasma in an atmosphere of nitrogen at high pressure (20 bar) and temperature (200 °C). The LIBS experiments were performed using a high pressure cell to characterize and test the effectiveness of the donut beam transmitted through the LIBS probe and collect plasma signal in back scatter mode. The first tests used the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, pulse width 7 ns, to form a plasma in nitrogen gas at five different pressures (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 bar) and three different gas temperatures (25, 100 and 200 °C). The uniqueness of this probe is the custom made optic used for reshaping the round laser beam into a ring (Donut) shaped laser beam, which is fed into the probe and focused to form a plasma at the measurement point. The plasma signal is collected and collimated using the laser focusing lens and is reflected from the laser beam axis onto an achromatic lens by a high reflection mirror mounted in the center section of the donut laser beam. The effect of gas pressure and temperature on N(I) lines in the high pressure cell experiment shows that the line intensity decreases with pressure and increases with temperature. Mean plasma temperature was calculated using the ratios of N(I) line intensities ranging from 7400 K to 8900 K at 1 bar and 2400 K to 3200 K at 20 bar for the three different gas temperatures. The results show that as a proof of principle the donut beam optics in combination with the LIBS probe can be used for performing extensive LIBS measurements in well controlled laboratory

  20. Factors regulating immunoglobulin production by normal and disease-associated plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David A; Elsawa, Sherine F

    2015-01-21

    Immunoglobulins are molecules produced by activated B cells and plasma cells in response to exposure to antigens. Upon antigen exposure, these molecules are secreted allowing the immune system to recognize and effectively respond to a myriad of pathogens. Immunoglobulin or antibody secreting cells are the mature form of B lymphocytes, which during their development undergo gene rearrangements and selection in the bone marrow ultimately leading to the generation of B cells, each expressing a single antigen-specific receptor/immunoglobulin molecule. Each individual immunoglobulin molecule has an affinity for a unique motif, or epitope, found on a given antigen. When presented with an antigen, activated B cells differentiate into either plasma cells (which secrete large amounts of antibody that is specific for the inducing antigen), or memory B cells (which are long-lived and elicit a stronger and faster response if the host is re-exposed to the same antigen). The secreted form of immunoglobulin, when bound to an antigen, serves as an effector molecule that directs other cells of the immune system to facilitate the neutralization of soluble antigen or the eradication of the antigen-expressing pathogen. This review will focus on the regulation of secreted immunoglobulin by long-lived normal or disease-associated plasma. Specifically, the focus will be on signaling and transcriptional events that regulate the development and homeostasis of long-lived immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi subverts the sphingomyelinase-mediated plasma membrane repair pathway for cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Cecilia; Cortez, Mauro; Flannery, Andrew R.; Tam, Christina; Mortara, Renato A.

    2011-01-01

    Upon host cell contact, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi triggers cytosolic Ca2+ transients that induce exocytosis of lysosomes, a process required for cell invasion. However, the exact mechanism by which lysosomal exocytosis mediates T. cruzi internalization remains unclear. We show that host cell entry by T. cruzi mimics a process of plasma membrane injury and repair that involves Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of lysosomes, delivery of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, and a rapid form of endocytosis that internalizes membrane lesions. Host cells incubated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes are transiently wounded, show increased levels of endocytosis, and become more susceptible to infection when injured with pore-forming toxins. Inhibition or depletion of lysosomal ASM, which blocks plasma membrane repair, markedly reduces the susceptibility of host cells to T. cruzi invasion. Notably, extracellular addition of sphingomyelinase stimulates host cell endocytosis, enhances T. cruzi invasion, and restores normal invasion levels in ASM-depleted cells. Ceramide, the product of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, is detected in newly formed parasitophorous vacuoles containing trypomastigotes but not in the few parasite-containing vacuoles formed in ASM-depleted cells. Thus, T. cruzi subverts the ASM-dependent ceramide-enriched endosomes that function in plasma membrane repair to infect host cells. PMID:21536739

  2. Citrinin-induced fluidization of the plasma membrane of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Blaskó, Ágnes; Mike, Nóra; Gróf, Pál; Gazdag, Zoltán; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Lívia; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Pesti, Miklós

    2013-09-01

    Citrinin (CTN) is a toxic fungal metabolite that is a hazardous contaminant of foods and feeds. In the present study, its acute toxicity and effects on the plasma membrane of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CTN against the yeast cells proved to be 500 μM. Treatment with 0, 250, 500 or 1000 μM CTN for 60 min resulted in a 0%, 2%, 21% or 100% decrease, respectively, in the survival rate of the cell population. Treatment of cells with 0, 100, 500 or 1000 μM CTN for 20 min induced decrease in the phase-transition temperature of the 5-doxylstearic acid-labeled plasma membrane to 16.51, 16.04, 14.18 or 13.98°C, respectively as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. This perturbation was accompanied by the efflux of essential K⁺ from the cells. The existence of an interaction between CTN and glutathione was detected for the first time by spectrofluorometry. Our observations may suggest a direct interaction of CTN with the free sulfhydryl groups of the integral proteins of the plasma membrane, leading to dose-dependent membrane fluidization. The change in fluidity disturbed the ionic homeostasis, contributing to the death of the cells, which is a novel aspect of CTN cytotoxicity.

  3. Beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces plasma lipid peroxidation induced by haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2011-07-01

    Since oxidative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics, the aim of the study was to establish the effects of beta-d-glucan, polysaccharide derived from the yeast cell walls of species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the antipsychotics (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA) - haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA) - amisulpride) action on plasma lipid peroxidation in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with haloperidol or amisulpride in the presence of beta-glucan (4 μg/ml). The action of beta-d-glucan was also compared with the properties of a well characterized commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, the final concentration - 4 μg/ml). The two-way analysis variance showed that the differences in TBARS levels were depended on the type of tested drugs (p=7.9 × 10(-6)). We observed a statistically increase of the level of biomarker of lipid peroxidation such as TBARS after 1 and 24h incubation of plasma with haloperidol compared to the control samples (p<0.01, p<0.02, respectively). Amisulpride, contrary to haloperidol (after 1 and 24h) did not cause plasma lipid peroxidation (p>0.05). We showed that in the presence of beta-glucan, lipid peroxidation in plasma samples treated with haloperidol was significantly decreased. Moreover, we did not observe the synergistic action of beta-glucan and amisulpride on the inhibition of plasma lipid peroxidation. However, the beta-d-glucan was found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. The presented results indicate that beta-glucan seems to have distinctly protective effects against the impairment of plasma lipid molecules induced by haloperidol.

  4. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Ar/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  5. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying; Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-05-20

    Ar/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  6. Electrical Diagnostics of a Macroscopic rf Plasma Display Panel Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    display panel cell B. Caillier, Ph. Guillot, J. Galy, L.C. Pitchford , J.P. Boeuf. Centre de Physique des Plasmas et Applications de Toulouse...Universitd Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France 1. Introduction Although Plasma Display Panels (PDPs) are now produced...these experiments. [4] L.C. Pitchford , J. Kang, C. Punset, and J.P. Boeuf, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6990 (2002) [5] B. Caillier, et al, "Plasma Display Cell Operating in a RF Regime" ,ESCAMPIG 2002, 1-355. 130

  7. Transient disruptions of aortic endothelial cell plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q C; McNeil, P L

    1992-12-01

    Cells of gut, skin, and muscle frequently suffer transient survivable plasma membrane disruptions ("wounds") under physiological conditions, but it is not known whether endothelial cells of the aorta, which are constantly exposed to hemodynamically generated mechanical forces, similarly are injured in vivo. We have used serum albumin as a molecular probe for identifying endothelial cells of the rat aorta that incurred and survived transient plasma membrane wounds in vivo. Such wounded endothelial cells were in fact observed in the aortas of all rats examined. However, the percentage of wounded cells in the total aortic endothelial population varied remarkably between individuals ranging from 1.4% to 17.9% with a mean of 6.5% (+/- 4.6% SD). Wounded endothelial cells were heterogeneously distributed, being found in distinct clusters often in the shape of streaks aligned with the long axis of the vessel, or in the shape of partial or complete rims surrounding bifurcation openings, such as the ostia of the intercostal arteries. Physical exercise (running) did not increase the frequency of aortic endothelial cell membrane wounding, nor did spontaneous hypertension. Surprisingly, 80% of mitotic endothelial cell figures were identified as wounded. This article identified a previously unrecognized form of endothelial cell injury, survivable disruptions of the plasma membrane, and shows that injury to the endothelial cells of the normal aorta is far more commonplace than previously suspected. Plasma membrane wounding of endothelial cells could be linked to the initiation of atherosclerosis.

  8. Wake-induced bending of two-dimensional plasma crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Röcker, T. B. Ivlev, A. V. Zhdanov, S. K.; Morfill, G. E.; Couëdel, L.

    2014-07-15

    It is shown that the wake-mediated interactions between microparticles in a two-dimensional plasma crystal affect the shape of the monolayer, making it non-flat. The equilibrium shape is calculated for various distributions of the particle number density in the monolayer. For typical experimental conditions, the levitation height of particles in the center of the crystal can be noticeably smaller than at the periphery. It is suggested that the effect of wake-induced bending can be utilized in experiments, to deduce important characteristics of the interparticle interaction.

  9. How turbulence fronts induce plasma spin-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.; Diamond, P. H.; Itoh, K.

    2017-03-01

    A calculation which describes the spin-up of toroidal plasmas by the radial propagation of turbulence fronts with broken parallel symmetry is presented. The associated flux of parallel momentum is calculated by using a two-scale direct-interaction approximation in the weak turbulence limit. We show that fluctuation momentum spreads faster than mean flow momentum. Specifically, the turbulent flux of wave momentum is stronger than the momentum pinch. The scattering of fluctuation momentum can induce edge-core coupling of toroidal flows, as observed in experiments.

  10. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation.

    PubMed

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA - improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds - is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts.

  11. Suppression of plasma-induced damage on GaN etched by a Cl2 plasma at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zecheng; Pan, Jialin; Kako, Takashi; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Oda, Osamu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Plasma-induced damage (PID) during plasma-etching processes was suppressed by the application of Cl2 plasma etching at an optimal temperature of 400 °C, based on results of evaluations of photoluminescence (PL), stoichiometric composition, and surface roughness. The effects of ions, photons, and radicals on damage formation were separated from the effects of plasma using the pallet for plasma evaluation (PAPE) method. The PID was induced primarily by energetic ion bombardments at temperatures lower than 400 °C and decreased with increasing temperature. Irradiations by photons and radicals were enhanced to form the PID and to develop surface roughness at temperatures higher than 400 °C. Consequently, Cl2 plasma etching at 400 °C resulted optimally in low damage and a stoichiometric and smooth GaN surface.

  12. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Kuligina, Elena V.; Bariakin, Dmitry N.; Kozlov, Vadim V.; Richter, Vladimir A.; Semenov, Dmitry V.

    2017-01-01

    Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs' fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches. PMID:28127559

  13. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions.

    PubMed

    Savelyeva, Anna V; Kuligina, Elena V; Bariakin, Dmitry N; Kozlov, Vadim V; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Richter, Vladimir A; Semenov, Dmitry V

    2017-01-01

    Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs' fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches.

  14. Small unilamellar liposomes as a membrane model for cell inactivation by cold atmospheric plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheux, S.; Frache, G.; Thomann, J. S.; Clément, F.; Penny, C.; Belmonte, T.; Duday, D.

    2016-09-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is thought to be a promising tool for numerous biomedical applications due to its ability to generate a large diversity of reactive species in a controlled way. In some cases, it can also generate pulsed electric fields at the zone of treatment, which can induce processes such as electroporation in cell membranes. However, the interaction of these reactive species and the pulse electric field with cells in a physiological medium is very complex, and we still need a better understanding in order to be useful for future applications. A way to reach this goal is to work with model cell membranes such as liposomes, with the simplest physiological liquid and in a controlled atmosphere in order to limit the number of parallel reactions and processes. In this paper, where this approach has been chosen, 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) have been synthesized in a phosphate buffered aqueous solution, and this solution has been treated by a nanosecond pulsed plasma jet under a pure nitrogen atmosphere. It is only the composition of the plasma gas that has been changed in order to generate different cocktails of reactive species. After the quantification of the main plasma reactive species in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, structural, surface charge state, and chemical modifications generated on the plasma treated liposomes, due to the interaction with the plasma reactive species, have been carefully characterized. These results allow us to further understand the effect of plasma reactive species on model cell membranes in physiological liquids. The permeation through the liposomal membrane and the reaction of plasma reactive species with molecules encapsulated inside the liposomes have also been evaluated. New processes of degradation are finally presented and discussed, which come from the specific conditions of plasma treatment under the pure nitrogen atmosphere.

  15. Study of plasma coagulation induced by contact with calcium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Shida, Natsumi; Kurasawa, Ryuta; Maki, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Yoshiharu; Dobashi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takao

    2016-11-28

    Blood coagulation capability is one of the most important factors for the diagnosis of patients with thrombosis. Regarding the blood coagulation as an example of gelation of soft matter, we can apply an analytical method to this phenomenon and pick up some relevant parameters. In various systems, gelation dynamics induced by contact between a polymer solution and a crosslinker solution are well explained by the "moving boundary picture" (Yamamoto et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2010, 114, 10002-10009). The aim of this paper is to clarify whether this picture can be applied to a clinically important biological system used for blood coagulation tests. We have measured the time course of the thickness of a plasma gel layer formed when plasma comes in contact with calcium chloride solution in a rectangular cell and analyzed theoretically on the basis of the moving boundary picture. The entire process was well expressed using a scaled equation involving three parameters characterizing the plasma, k, Kin, and β, where k is the time required to reach the incipient stage of three-dimensional network formation, the parameter Kin is proportional to calcium chloride concentration and β is a constant. These results indicate the direct applicability of the general theory of gelation dynamics induced by contact between two solutions to the in vitro coagulation (gelation) of plasma, and the fitting parameters may be used for diagnosis.

  16. Measurements of laser-induced plasma temperature field in deep penetration laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Genyu; Zhang, Mingjun; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Li, Shichun

    2013-02-01

    Laser-induced plasma in deep penetration laser welding is located inside or outside the keyhole, namely, keyhole plasma or plasma plume, respectively. The emergence of laser-induced plasma in laser welding reveals important information of the welding technological process. Generally, electron temperature and electron density are two important characteristic parameters of plasma. In this paper, spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature and electron density of the keyhole plasma and plasma plume in deep penetration laser welding conditions were carried out. To receive spectra from several points separately and simultaneously, an Optical Multi-channel Analyser (OMA) was developed. On the assumption that the plasma was in local thermal equilibrium, the temperature was calculated with the spectral relative intensity method. The spectra collected were processed with Abel inversion method to obtain the temperature fields of keyhole plasma and plasma plume.

  17. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi; Xia, Liansheng; Zhang, Huang; Liu, Xingguang; Yang, Anmin; Shi, Jinshui; Zhang, Linwen; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Yue

    2011-10-01

    An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE) properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9-127.8A/cm2 are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06-0.49Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170-350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO2, N2(CO), and H2 gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  18. Spacecraft-induced plasma energization and its role in flow phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Smith, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma instabilities induced by orbiting vehicles can cause many important phenomena ranging from electron and ion heating and suprathermal electron tail energization, to enhanced ionization and optical emissions. We outline the basic collective processes leading to plasma energization near plasma sheaths and in regions of neutral gas streaming through plasma, and discuss the role of the induced collective effects in producing the optical emission spectra.

  19. Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet with floating electrode on murine melanoma and fibroblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Liu, J.; Yao, C.; Chen, S.; Lin, F.; Li, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma jets have been recently shown as a highly promising tool in certain cancer therapies. In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with a one inner floating and two outer electrode configuration using helium gas for medical applications is developed. Subjected to a range of applied voltages with a frequency of 19.8 kHz at a fixed rate of gas flow (i.e., 3 l/min), electrical and optical characteristics of the APPJ are investigated. Compared with the device only with two outer electrodes, higher discharge current, longer jet, and more active species in the plasma plume at the same applied voltage together with the lower gas breakdown voltage can be achieved through embedding a floating inner electrode. Employing the APPJ with a floating electrode, the effects of identical plasma treatment time durations on murine melanoma cancer and normal fibroblast cells cultured in vitro are evaluated. The results of cell viability, cell apoptosis, and DNA damage detection show that the plasma can inactivate melanoma cells in a time-dependent manner from 10 s to 60 s compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, for fibroblast cells compared with their control group, the plasma with treatment time from 30 s to 60 s can induce significant changes (p < 0.05), showing a less cytotoxic effect than that on melanoma cells at the same treatment time. The different basal reactive oxygen species level and antioxidant superoxide dismutase level of two kinds of cells may account for their different responses towards the identical plasma exposure.

  20. Tubulointerstitial Nephritis with IgM-Positive Plasma Cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoki; Saeki, Takako; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Munemura, Chishio; Fukui, Takeaki; Imai, Naofumi; Homma, Noriyuki; Hatta, Tsuguru; Samejima, Ken-Ichi; Fujimoto, Takashi; Omori, Hiroki; Ito, Yumi; Nishikawa, Yudai; Kobayashi, Mamiko; Morikawa, Yukie; Fukushima, Sachiko; Yokoi, Seiji; Mikami, Daisuke; Kasuno, Kenji; Kimura, Hideki; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Sada, Kiyonao; Sugai, Manabu; Naiki, Hironobu; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Narita, Ichiei; Saito, Yoshihiko; Iwano, Masayuki

    2017-08-09

    Infiltration by IgG-positive plasma cells is a common finding in tubulointerstitial nephritis. Indeed, it has been thought that CD138-positive mature plasma cells secrete mainly IgG, and the occurrence of tubulointerstitial nephritis with CD138-positive plasma cells secreting IgM has rarely been reported. Routine immunofluorescence of fresh frozen sections is considered the gold standard for detection of immune deposits. However, the immunoenzyme method with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections is superior for detecting IgM- or IgG-positive cells within the renal interstitium, thus histologic variants may often go undetected. We recently discovered a case of tubulointerstitial nephritis showing IgM-positive plasma cell accumulation within the interstitium. To further explore the morphologic and clinical features of such cases, we performed a nationwide search for patients with biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial nephritis and high serum IgM levels. We identified 13 patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgM-positive plasma cell infiltration confirmed with the immunoenzyme method. The clinical findings for these patients included a high prevalence of distal renal tubular acidosis (100%), Fanconi syndrome (92%), and anti-mitochondrial antibodies (82%). The pathologic findings were interstitial nephritis with diffusely distributed CD3-positive T lymphocytes and colocalized IgM-positive plasma cells, as well as tubulitis with CD3-positive T lymphocytes in the proximal tubules and collecting ducts. Additionally, levels of H(+)-ATPase, H(+), K(+)-ATPase, and the HCO3(-)-Cl(-) anion exchanger were markedly decreased in the collecting ducts. We propose to designate this group of cases, which have a common histologic and clinical form, as IgM-positive plasma cell-tubulointerstitial nephritis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Plasma-ion-induced Sputtering And Heating Of Titan'S Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Orenthal J.

    2006-09-01

    Plasma-ion-induced sputtering and heating of Titan's atmosphere O.J. Tucker (1), R.E. Johnson (1), M. Michael (1), V.I. Shematovich (1,2) J.H. Luhmann (3), S.A. Ledvina (3) (1) University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA (2) Institute of Astronomy RAS, Moscow 109017, Russia, (3) University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Titan is unique among the outer solar system icy satellites in having an atmosphere with a column density about ten times that of the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheres equivalent in size similar to that at Titan would have been removed from the icy Galilean satellites by the plasma trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere (Johnson 2004). In this paper we describe the deposition of energy, the erosion and the expansion of the upper atmosphere of Titan using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models (Shematovich et al. 2003; Michael et al. 2005). These calculations are used to calibrate semi-empirical models of atmospheric sputtering (Johnson 1994) that can be employed in interpreting Cassini data at Titan. It is shown that the globally averaged flux of magnetospheric and pickup ions deposit more energy in Titan's upper atmosphere than solar radiation. Using a number of plasma conditions, the temperature and density vs. altitude above the exobase and the rate of escape are calculated and compared to available Cassini data. References: Johnson, R.E. "Plasma-induced Sputtering of an Atmosphere" in Space Science Reviews 69 215-253 (1994). Johnson. R.E., “ The magnetospheric plasma-driven evolution of satellite atmospheres” Astrophys. J. 609, L99-L102 (2004). Michael M., R.E. Johnson, F. Leblanc, M. Liu, J.G. Luhmann, and V.I. Shematovich, "Ejection of nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere by magnetospheric ions and pick-up ions", Icarus 175, 263-267 (2005). Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael, and J.G. Luhmann,"Nitrogen loss from Titan", JGR 108, No. E8, 5087, doi:10.1029/2003JE002094 (2003). 1

  2. Mechanism of plasma-induced damage to low-k SiOCH films during plasma ashing of organic resists

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Keigo; Miyawaki, Yudai; Takashima, Seigo; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Oshima, Keiji; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Hori, Masaru

    2011-02-01

    Plasma-induced damage to porous SiOCH (p-SiOCH) films during organic resist film ashing using dual-frequency capacitively coupled O{sub 2} plasmas was investigated using the pallet for plasma evaluation method developed by our group. The damage was characterized by ellipsometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Individual and synergetic damage associated with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and UV radiation, radicals, and ions in the O{sub 2} plasma were clarified. It was found that the damage was caused not only by radicals but also by synergetic reactions of radicals with VUV and UV radiation emitted by the plasmas. It is noteworthy that the damage induced by plasma exposure without ion bombardment was larger than the damage with ion bombardment. These results differed from those obtained using an H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma for resist ashing. Finally, the mechanism of damage to p-SiOCH caused by O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma ashing of organic resist films is discussed. These results are very important in understanding the mechanism of plasma-induced damage to p-SiOCH films.

  3. Ultrastructural Alteration of Plant Plasma Membranes Induced by Auxin and Calcium Ions 1

    PubMed Central

    Morré, D. James; Bracker, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in isolated and in situ plasma membranes of etiolated soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max L. cv. Wayne) were induced by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), other auxins, and calcium chloride. Fixed and embedded preparations were stained by a phosphotungstate-chromate procedure to identify and accentuate plasma membrane. Measurements were on micrographs obtained with an electron optical system calibrated and corrected for reproducible and accurate size measurements. Plasma membranes treated for 20 minutes with 1 μm IAA were 10 to 15% thinner than controls. The response to IAA was rapid, reproducible, auxin-specific, temperature-dependent, and reversible. Comparable responses were obtained with isolated and in situ membranes. Membranes treated with 0.5 m calcium chloride for 20 minutes were 15 to 20% thicker than controls. Multiple cycles of alternating calcium and IAA treatments yielded membranes with dimensions that reflected the last treatment of the series. The findings show a direct response of plasma membranes to growth regulating agents and provide evidence for a cell-free response of isolated plasma membranes to a hormone. Images PMID:16659714

  4. Molecular characterization of a cold-induced plasma membrane protein gene from wheat.

    PubMed

    Koike, Michiya; Sutoh, Keita; Kawakami, Akira; Torada, Atsushi; Oono, Kiyoharu; Imai, Ryozo

    2005-12-01

    As a means to study the function of plasma membrane proteins during cold acclimation, we have isolated a cDNA clone for wpi6 which encodes a putative plasma membrane protein from cold-acclimated winter wheat. The wpi6 gene encodes a putative 5.9 kDa polypeptide with two predicted membrane-spanning domains, the sequence of which shows high sequence similarity with BLT101-family proteins from plants and yeast. Strong induction of wpi6 mRNA was observed during an early stage of cold acclimation in root and shoot tissues of both winter and spring wheat cultivars. In contrast to blt101 in barley, wpi6 mRNA was also induced by drought and salinity stresses, and exogenous application of ABA. Expression of wpi6 in a Deltapmp3 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is disturbed in plasma membrane potential due to the lack of a BLT101-family protein, partially complemented NaCl sensitivity of the mutant. Transient expression analysis of a WPI6::GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells revealed that WPI6 is localized in the plasma membrane. Taken together, these data suggested that WPI6 may have a protective role in maintaining plasma membrane function during cold acclimation in wheat.

  5. Plasma-induced Escape and Alterations of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Tucker, O. J.; Ewrin, J.; Cassidy, T. A.; Leblanc, F.

    2009-12-01

    The atmospheres of planets and planetary satellites are typically imbedded in space plasmas. Depending on the interaction with the induced or intrinsic fields energetic ions can have access to the thermosphere and the corona affecting their composition and thermal structure and causing loss to space. These processes are often lumped together as ‘atmospheric sputtering’ (Johnson 1994). In this talk I will review the results of simulations of the plasma bombardment at a number of solar system bodies and use those data to describe the effect on the upper atmosphere and on escape. Of considerable recent interest is the modeling of escape from Titan. Prior to Cassini’s tour of the Saturnian system, plasma-induced escape was suggested to be the dominant loss process, but recent models of enhanced thermal escape, often referred to as ‘slow hydrodynamic’ escape, have been suggested to lead to much larger Titan atmospheric loss rates (Strobel 2008; Cui et al. 2008). Such a process has been suggested to be active at some point in time on a number of solar system bodies. I will present hybrid fluid/ kinetic models of the upper atmosphere of certain bodies in order to test both the plasma-induced and thermal escape processes. Preliminary results suggest that the loss rates estimated using the ‘slow hydrodynamic’ escape process can be orders of magnitude too large. The implications for Mars, Titan and Pluto will be discussed. Background for this talk is contained in the following papers (Johnson 2004; 2009; Chaufray et al. 2007; Johnson et al. 2008; 2009; Tucker and Johnson 2009). References: Chaufray, J.Y., R. Modolo, F. Leblanc, G. Chanteur, R.E. Johnson, and J.G. Luhmann, Mars Solar Wind interaction: formation of the Martian corona and atmosphric loss to space, JGR 112, E09009, doi:10.1029/2007JE002915 (2007) Cui, J., Yelle, R. V., Volk, K. Distribution and escape of molecular hydrogen in Titan's thermosphere and exosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10

  6. Control of the Proliferation of Mammalian Cells by the Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hae June; Ha, Chang Seung; Ma, Yonghao; Lee, Jungyeol; Song, Kiwon

    2012-10-01

    Recent development of the atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs) reported dramatic achievement on the applications to sterilization, wound healing, blood coagulation, and so on. These effects are coming from the abundant electrons, various ions, radicals, and neutral atoms which cause specific interactions with cells. However, the application of APPs to human cells has been mainly focused on cell death, but not so much on cell proliferation. In this study, the effects of a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were investigated for three different human cell lines. It was observed that the exposure of APP to human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and the primary lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells induced increased cell proliferation in a specific condition. On the other hand, the same exposure of APP to HeLa cells dramatically decreased their viability. These observations suggest that different types of human cells differentially respond to the exposure of APP.

  7. Infrared laser induced plasma diagnostics of silver target

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmat, L. Nadeem, Ali; Ahmed, I.

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, the optical emission spectra of silver (Ag) plasma have been recorded and analyzed using the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The emission line intensities and plasma parameters were investigated as a function of lens to sample distance, laser irradiance, and distance from the target surface. The electron number density (n{sub e}) and electron temperature (T{sub e}) were determined using the Stark broadened line profile and Boltzmann plot method, respectively. A gradual increase in the spectral line intensities and the plasma parameters, n{sub e} from 2.89 × 10{sup 17} to 3.92 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} and T{sub e} from 4662 to 8967 K, was observed as the laser irradiance was increased 2.29 × 10{sup 10}–1.06 × 10{sup 11} W cm{sup −2}. The spatial variations in n{sub e} and T{sub e} were investigated from 0 to 5.25 mm from the target surface, yielding the electron number density from 4.78 × 10{sup 17} to 1.72 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} and electron temperature as 9869–3789 K. In addition, the emission intensities and the plasma parameters of silver were investigated by varying the ambient pressure from 0.36 to 1000 mbars.

  8. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  9. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargus, W. A.; Azarnia, G. M.; Nakles, M. R.

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d4D7/2 to the 5p ^4P^circ _{5/2} state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d4D7/2-5p ^4P^circ _{5/2} transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  10. Viscous and Induced Current Heating in Plasma Focus Plasmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaei, Ahmad; Lerner, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Recently, Abolhasani et al, proposed that the high ion energies observed in plasmoids formed in the plasma focus could be explained by viscous heating. We here elaborate this proposal, demonstrating that during plasmoid formation, ion motion along magnetic field lines can be rapidly converted, at least in part, to thermal energy through viscous diffusion. This effect is strongly enhanced by higher-z ions. We compare the theoretical predictions with the recent observation by Lerner et al, of trapped ion energies of 160 keV. In addition, we propose a second source of heating. The mildly relativistic electron beam emitted by the plasmoid, generates an induced current within the plasmoid comparable to the beam current and confined to approximately the same region. The induced current electrons, with drift velocity vde<plasma flows in and near the emitted electron beam.

  11. On the Toroidal Plasma Rotations Induced by Lower Hybrid Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyin; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2012-11-14

    A theoretical model is developed to explain the plasma rotations induced by lower hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod. In this model, torodial rotations are driven by the Lorentz force on the bulk electron flow across flux surfaces, which is a response of the plasma to the resonant-electron flow across flux surfaces induced by the lower hybrid waves. The flow across flux surfaces of the resonant electrons and the bulk electrons are coupled through the radial electric fi eld initiated by the resonant electrons, and the friction between ions and electrons transfers the toroidal momentum to ions from electrons. An improved quasilinear theory with gyrophase dependent distribution function is developed to calculate the perpendicular resonant-electron flow. Toroidal rotations are determined using a set of fluid equations for bulk electrons and ions, which are solved numerically by a fi nite- difference method. Numerical results agree well with the experimental observations in terms of flow pro file and amplitude. The model explains the strong correlation between torodial flow and internal inductance observed experimentally, and predicts both counter-current and co-current flows, depending on the perpendicular wave vectors of the lower hybrid waves. __________________________________________________

  12. Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletić, M.; Mojsilović, S.; Okić Đorđević, I.; Maletić, D.; Puač, N.; Lazović, S.; Malović, G.; Milenković, P.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Bugarski, D.

    2013-08-01

    Here we investigate the influences of non-thermal atmospheric plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament (hPDL-MSCs). A specially redesigned plasma needle was used as the source of low-temperature plasma and its effects on different hPDL-MSC functions were investigated. Cell cultures were obtained from extracted normal impacted third molars and characterized for their phenotype and multi-potential differentiation. The hPDL-MSCs possessed all the typical MSC properties, including clonogenic ability, high proliferation rate, specific phenotype and multilineage differentiation. The data regarding the interaction of plasma with hPDL-MSCs demonstrated that plasma treatment inhibited the migration of hPDL-MSCs and induced some detachment, while not affecting their viability. Additionally, plasma significantly attenuated hPDL-MSCs' proliferation, but promoted their osteogenic differentiation. The results of this study indicated that a non-thermal plasma offers specific activity with non-destructive properties that can be advantageous for future dental applications.

  13. Biomedical Applications of the Cold Atmospheric Plasma: Cell Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, Olga

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. Depending on the configuration the cold plasma sources can be used in the following areas: wound healing, skin diseases, hospital hygiene, sterilization, antifungal treatments, dental care, cosmetics targeted cell/tissue removal, and cancer treatments. This dissertation is focused on the studies of biomedical applications of cold atmospheric plasma jet based on helium flow and resultant cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. The studies were carried out on extra-cellular and intra-cellular levels in vitro. The main practical applications are wound healing and alternative to existing cancer therapy methods, areas of great interest and significant challenges. The CAP jet was built in the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory of Dr. Michael Keidar, as a part of multidisciplinary collaboration with the GW Medical School (Dr. M.A. Stepp) concerned with plasma medicine and bioengineering studies. Normal and cancer cells have two fundamental behavioral properties, proliferation and motility, which can be evaluated through cell migration rates and cell cycle progression. Various microscopic, spectroscopic and flow cytometry techniques were used to characterize cell responses to the cold plasma treatment. It was found that CAP effect on the cells is localized within the area of the treatment (of around ˜ 5mm in diameter). The migration rates of the normal skin cells can be reduced up to ˜ 40%. However, depending on the cell type the required treatment time is different, thus differential treatment of various cells presented in tissue is possible. The CAP effect on the migration was explained through the changes of the cell surface proteins/integrins. It was also found that normal and cancer cells respond differently to the CAP treatment under the same

  14. Low Temperature Plasma Kills SCaBER Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barekzi, Nazir; van Way, Lucas; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer that forms as a result of chronic irritation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. The cell line used in this study is SCaBER (ATCC® HTB-3™) derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. Current treatments of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the cost of these treatments, the potential toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents and the systemic side-effects warrant an alternative to current cancer treatment. This paper represents preliminary studies to determine the effects of biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) on a cell line of human bladder cancer cells. Previous work by our group using the plasma pencil revealed the efficacy of BTP on leukemia cells suspended in solution. Based on these earlier findings we hypothesized that the plasma exposure would elicit a similar programmed cell death in the SCaBER cells. Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays revealed the cell killing after exposure to BTP. Our study indicates that low temperature plasma generated by ionizing helium gas and the reactive species may be a suitable and safe alternative for cancer therapy.

  15. ISOLATION OF PLASMA MEMBRANE FRAGMENTS FROM HELA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Charles W.; Ford, Lincoln E.; Bond, Howard E.; Stuart, Donald C.; Lorenz, Dianne

    1969-01-01

    A method for isolating plasma membrane fragments from HeLa cells is described. The procedure starts with the preparation of cell membrane "ghosts," obtained by gentle rupture of hypotonically swollen cells, evacuation of most of the cell contents by repeated washing, and isolation of the ghosts on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. The ghosts are then treated by minimal sonication (5 sec) at pH 8.6, which causes the ghost membranes to pinch off into small vesicles but leaves any remaining larger intracellular particulates intact and separable by differential centrifugation. The ghost membrane vesicles are then subjected to isopycnic centrifugation on a 20–50% w/w continuous sucrose gradient in tris-magnesium buffer, pH 8.6. A band of morphologically homogeneous smooth vesicles, derived principally from plasma membrane, is recovered at 30–33% (peak density = 1.137). The plasma membrane fraction contained a Na-K-activated ATPase activity of 1.5 µmole Pi/hr per mg, 3% RNA, and 13.8% of the NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity of a heavier fraction from the same gradient which contained mitochondria and rough endoplasmic vesicles. The plasma membranes of viable HeLa cells were marked with 125I-labeled horse antibody and followed through the isolation procedure. The specific antibody binding of the plasma membrane vesicle fraction was increased 49-fold over that of the original whole cells. PMID:4239370

  16. Cysteine aggravates palmitate-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhigang; Yao, Tong; Song, Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Aims Lipotoxicity, defined as cell death induced by excessive fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, is critically involved in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent studies report that plasma cysteine concentrations is elevated in the subjects with either alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) or NASH than normal subjects. The present study was conducted to determine if elevation of cysteine could be a deleterious factor in palmitate-induced hepatocyte cell death. Main methods HepG2 and Hep3B cells were treated with palmitate with/without the inclusion of cysteine in the media for 24 hours. The effects of cysteine inclusion on palmitate induced cell death were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assay. Oxidative stress was evaluated by intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DCFH-DA assay. Western blotting was performed to detect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress markers: C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP), GRP-78, and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Key findings Elevated intracellular cysteine aggravates hepatocytes to palmitate-induced cell death. Enhancement of ER stress, specifically increased activation of JNK pathway, contributed to this cell death process. Significance Increase of plasma cysteine levels, as observed in both ASH and NASH patients, may play a pathological role in the development of the liver diseases. Manipulation of dietary amino acids supplementation could be a therapeutic choice. PMID:22008477

  17. PAI1: a novel PP1-interacting protein that mediates human plasma's anti-apoptotic effect in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; He, Guangchun; Chen, Chao; Yan, Shichao; Lu, Lu; Song, Liujiang; Vijayan, K Vinod; Li, Qinglong; Xiong, Li; Miao, Xiongying; Deng, Xiyun

    2017-03-11

    Activation of apoptotic signalling in endothelial cells contributes to the detrimental effects of a variety of pathological stimuli. In investigating the molecular events underlying the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma in cultured human endothelial cells, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel mechanism of apoptosis suppression by human plasma through an interaction between two previously unrelated proteins. Human plasma inhibited hypoxia-serum deprivation-induced apoptosis and stimulated BAD(S136) and Akt(S473) phosphorylation. Akt1 silencing reversed part (~52%) of the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms mediating the anti-apoptotic effect other than Akt signalling. Human plasma disrupted the interaction of BAD with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Mass spectrometry identified fourteen PP1-interacting proteins induced by human plasma. Notably, a group of serine protease inhibitors including plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, were involved. Silencing of PAI1 attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma. Furthermore, combined Akt1 and PAI1 silencing attenuated the majority of the anti-apoptotic effect of human plasma. We conclude that human plasma protects against endothelial cell apoptosis through sustained BAD phosphorylation, which is achieved by, at least in part, a novel interaction between PP1 with PAI1.

  18. Expression of a constitutively activated plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells results in cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Niczyj, Marta; Champagne, Antoine; Alam, Iftekhar; Nader, Joseph; Boutry, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Increased acidification of the external medium by an activated H (+) -ATPase results in cell expansion, in the absence of upstream activating signaling. The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase couples ATP hydrolysis with proton transport outside the cell, and thus creates an electrochemical gradient, which energizes secondary transporters. According to the acid growth theory, this enzyme is also proposed to play a major role in cell expansion, by acidifying the external medium and so activating enzymes that are involved in cell wall-loosening. However, this theory is still debated. To challenge it, we made use of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase isoform from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia truncated from its C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain (ΔCPMA4), and thus constitutively activated. This protein was expressed in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells using a heat shock inducible promoter. The characterization of several independent transgenic lines showed that the expression of activated ΔCPMA4 resulted in a reduced external pH by 0.3-1.2 units, as well as in an increased H(+)-ATPase activity by 77-155 % (ATP hydrolysis), or 70-306 % (proton pumping) of isolated plasma membranes. In addition, ΔCPMA4-expressing cells were 17-57 % larger than the wild-type cells and displayed abnormal shapes. A proteomic comparison of plasma membranes isolated from ΔCPMA4-expressing and wild-type cells revealed the altered abundance of several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis, transport, and signal transduction. In conclusion, the data obtained in this work showed that H(+)-ATPase activation is sufficient to induce cell expansion and identified possible actors which intervene in this process.

  19. Osteoblastlike cell adhesion on titanium surfaces modified by plasma nitriding.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jose Sandro Pereira; Amico, Sandro Campos; Rodrigues, Almir Olegario Neves; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvao; Alves, Clodomiro; Croci, Alberto Tesconi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of various titanium surfaces modified by cold plasma nitriding in terms of adhesion and proliferation of rat osteoblastlike cells. Samples of grade 2 titanium were subjected to three different surface modification processes: polishing, nitriding by plasma direct current, and nitriding by cathodic cage discharge. To evaluate the effect of the surface treatment on the cellular response, the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastlike cells (MC3T3) were quantified and the results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman statistical tests. Cellular morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. There was more MC3T3 cell attachment on the rougher surfaces produced by cathodic cage discharge compared with polished samples (P < .05). Plasma nitriding improves titanium surface roughness and wettability, leading to osteoblastlike cell adhesion.

  20. CD138-negative clonogenic cells are plasma cells but not B cells in some multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Hosen, N; Matsuoka, Y; Kishida, S; Nakata, J; Mizutani, Y; Hasegawa, K; Mugitani, A; Ichihara, H; Aoyama, Y; Nishida, S; Tsuboi, A; Fujiki, F; Tatsumi, N; Nakajima, H; Hino, M; Kimura, T; Yata, K; Abe, M; Oka, Y; Oji, Y; Kumanogoh, A; Sugiyama, H

    2012-09-01

    Clonogenic multiple myeloma (MM) cells reportedly lacked expression of plasma cell marker CD138. It was also shown that CD19(+) clonotypic B cells can serve as MM progenitor cells in some patients. However, it is unclear whether CD138-negative clonogenic MM plasma cells are identical to clonotypic CD19(+) B cells. We found that in vitro MM colony-forming cells were enriched in CD138(-)CD19(-)CD38(++) plasma cells, while CD19(+) B cells never formed MM colonies in 16 samples examined in this study. We next used the SCID-rab model, which enables engraftment of human MM in vivo. CD138(-)CD19(-)CD38(++) plasma cells engrafted in this model rapidly propagated MM in 3 out of 9 cases, while no engraftment of CD19(+) B cells was detected. In 4 out of 9 cases, CD138(+) plasma cells propagated MM, although more slowly than CD138(-) cells. Finally, we transplanted CD19(+) B cells from 13 MM patients into NOD/SCID IL2Rγc(-/-) mice, but MM did not develop. These results suggest that at least in some MM patients CD138-negative clonogenic cells are plasma cells rather than B cells, and that MM plasma cells including CD138(-) and CD138(+) cells have the potential to propagate MM clones in vivo in the absence of CD19(+) B cells.

  1. Mast cells enhance proliferation of B lymphocytes and drive their differentiation toward IgA-secreting plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Frossi, Barbara; Gri, Giorgia; Parusso, Serena; Tripodo, Claudio; Pucillo, Carlo

    2010-04-08

    The evidence of a tight spatial interaction between mast cells (MCs) and B lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs, along with the data regarding the abundance of MCs in several B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders prompted us to investigate whether MCs could affect the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. To this aim, we performed coculture assays using mouse splenic B cells and bone marrow-derived MCs. Both nonsensitized and activated MCs proved able to induce a significant inhibition of cell death and an increase in proliferation of naive B cells. Such proliferation was further enhanced in activated B cells. This effect relied on cell-cell contact and MC-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6). Activated MCs could regulate CD40 surface expression on unstimulated B cells and the interaction between CD40 with CD40 ligand (CD40L) on MCs, together with MC-derived cytokines, was involved in the differentiation of B cells into CD138(+) plasma cells and in selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion. These data were corroborated by in vivo evidence of infiltrating MCs in close contact with IgA-expressing plasma cells within inflamed tissues. In conclusion, we reported here a novel role for MCs in sustaining B-cell expansion and driving the development of IgA-oriented humoral immune responses.

  2. Helical modulation of the electrostatic plasma potential due to edge magnetic islands induced by resonant magnetic perturbation fields at TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaccio, G. Spizzo, G.; Schmitz, O. Frerichs, H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Evans, T. E.; White, R. B.

    2015-10-15

    The electrostatic response of the edge plasma to a magnetic island induced by resonant magnetic perturbations to the plasma edge of the circular limiter tokamak TEXTOR is analyzed. Measurements of plasma potential are interpreted by simulations with the Hamiltonian guiding center code ORBIT. We find a strong correlation between the magnetic field topology and the poloidal modulation of the measured plasma potential. The ion and electron drifts yield a predominantly electron driven radial diffusion when approaching the island X-point while ion diffusivities are generally an order of magnitude smaller. This causes a strong radial electric field structure pointing outward from the island O-point. The good agreement found between measured and modeled plasma potential connected to the enhanced radial particle diffusivities supports that a magnetic island in the edge of a tokamak plasma can act as convective cell. We show in detail that the particular, non-ambipolar drifts of electrons and ions in a 3D magnetic topology account for these effects. An analytical model for the plasma potential is implemented in the code ORBIT, and analyses of ion and electron radial diffusion show that both ion- and electron-dominated transport regimes can exist, which are known as ion and electron root solutions in stellarators. This finding and comparison with reversed field pinch studies and stellarator literature suggest that the role of magnetic islands as convective cells and hence as major radial particle transport drivers could be a generic mechanism in 3D plasma boundary layers.

  3. Exercise-induced increments in plasma levels of propranolol and noradrenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, G A; Webb, J G; Walle, T; Bai, S A; Daniell, H B; Gourley, L; Boyd Loadholt, C; Gaffney, T E

    1983-01-01

    Exercise-induced changes in the plasma levels of propranolol and noradrenaline were determined in nine volunteers. Total plasma propranolol levels were increased during submaximal treadmill exercise, with exercise-induced increments of 13 +/- 4% at 4 h after the last dose, 18 +/- 7% at 9 h and 41 +/- 5% at 16 h. Exercise-induced increments in plasma propranolol were observed after single as well as repeated doses. During exercise, increments in plasma propranolol were correlated temporally with changes in plasma noradrenaline. Exercise-induced increments in plasma noradrenaline were greater during propranolol administration than during placebo periods. The changes in plasma propranolol concentration during exercise may reflect a redistribution of propranolol at its site(s) of action. PMID:6661342

  4. Schlieren High Speed Imaging on Fluid Flow in Liquid Induced by Plasma-driven Interfacial Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Janis; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    Effective plasma-based water purification depends heavily on the transport of plasma-derived reactive species from the plasma into the liquid. Plasma interactions at the liquid-gas boundary are known to drive circulation in the bulk liquid. This forced circulation is not well understood. A 2-D plasma- in-liquid water apparatus is currently being investigated as a means to study the plasma-liquid interface to understand not only reactive species flows but to also understand plasma- driven fluid dynamic effects in the bulk fluid. Using Schlieren high speed imaging, plasma-induced density gradients near the interfacial region and into the bulk solution are measured to investigate the nature of these interfacial forces. Plasma-induced flow was also measured using particle imaging velocimetry. NSF CBET 1336375 and DOE DE-SC0001939.

  5. Laser-induced plasma generation and evolution in a transient spray.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Tsuboi, Kazuya; Tomita, Eiji

    2014-01-13

    The behaviors of laser-induced plasma and fuel spray were investigated by visualizing images with an ultra-high-speed camera. Time-series images of laser-induced plasma in a transient spray were visualized using a high-speed color camera. The effects of a shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma on the evaporated spray behavior were investigated. The interaction between a single droplet and the laser-induced plasma was investigated using a single droplet levitated by an ultrasonic levitator. Two main conclusions were drawn from these experiments: (1) the fuel droplets in the spray were dispersed by the shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma; and (2) the plasma position may have shifted due to breakdown of the droplet surface and the lens effect of droplets.

  6. Cell-to-cell binding induced by different lectins.

    PubMed

    Rutishauser, U; Sachs, L

    1975-05-01

    The cell-to-cell binding induced by concanavalin A (Con A) and the lectins from wheatgerm, soybean, and waxbean has been analyzed by measuring the ability of single cells to bind to lectin-coated cells immobilized on nylon fibers. The cells used were lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and normal fibroblast cells. With all lectins, cell-to-cell binding was inhibited if both cells were prefixed with glutaraldehyde. However, in most cases cell-to-cell binding was enhanced when only the lectin-coated cell was prefixed. With normal fibroblasts, treatment of either one or both cells with trypsin enhanced the cell-to-cell binding induced by Con A and the wheatgerm lectin. Neuraminidase, which increases the number of receptors for soybean agglutinin, increased cell-to-cell binding only if both cells were treated. Although cell-to-cell binding induced by the lectins from soybean and wheatgerm could be partially reversed by the appropriate competitive saccharide inhibitor, binding induced by Con A could not be reversed. The experiments indicate that cell-to-cell binding induced by a lectin can be prevented by an insufficient density of receptors for the lectin, insufficient receptor mobility, or induced clustering of receptors. These effects can explain the differences in cell-to-cell binding and agglutination observed with different cell types and lectins. They also suggest that cell-to-cell binding induced by different lectins with a variety of cell types is initiated by a mechanism involving the alignment of complementary receptors on the colliding cells for the formation of multiple cell-to-lectin-to-cell bridges.

  7. Bone marrow plasma cells are a primary source of serum HIV-1-specific antibodies in chronically infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M; Moir, Susan; Kardava, Lela; Buckner, Clarisa M; Louie, Aaron; Kim, Leo J Y; Santich, Brian H; Wang, Wei; Fankuchen, Olivia R; Diaz, Gabriella; Daub, Janine R; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Chun, Tae-Wook; Li, Yuxing; Braylan, Raul C; Calvo, Katherine R; Fauci, Anthony S

    2015-03-15

    Several potent and broadly neutralizing Abs to HIV-1 have been isolated recently from peripheral blood B cells of infected individuals, based on prescreening of Ab activity in the serum. However, little is known regarding the cells that make the Abs that circulate in the blood. Accordingly, we investigated the most likely source, the bone marrow, of chronically HIV-1-infected individuals who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Increased frequencies of plasma cells, as well as B cell precursors, namely preB-I and preB-II, and decreased frequencies of mature B cells were observed in bone marrow aspirates of these individuals compared with HIV-negative counterparts. Increased frequencies of bone marrow plasma cells are consistent with known hallmarks of HIV-1 infection, namely hypergammaglobulinemia and increased frequencies of peripheral blood plasmablasts. Levels of HIV-1 envelope (Env)-binding and HIV-1-neutralizing Abs were measured in serum, and corresponding frequencies of Ab-secreting or Env-binding cells were measured in the blood (plasmablasts and memory B cells) and in the bone marrow (plasma cells). A strong correlation was observed between serum HIV-1-specific Abs and Env-specific bone marrow-derived plasma cells, but not circulating plasmablasts or memory B cells. These findings demonstrate that, despite HIV-1-induced phenotypic and functional B cell dysregulation in the peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid tissues, bone marrow plasma cells remain a primary source for circulating HIV-1-specific Abs in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  8. Intrinsic noise induced coherence resonance in a glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Pankaj Kumar; Saha, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Sabuj; Janaki, M. S.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar

    2015-04-01

    Experimental evidence of intrinsic noise induced coherence resonance in a glow discharge plasma is being reported. Initially the system is started at a discharge voltage (DV) where it exhibited fixed point dynamics, and then with the subsequent increase in the DV spikes were excited which were few in number and with further increase of DV the number of spikes as well as their regularity increased. The regularity in the interspike interval of the spikes is estimated using normalized variance. Coherence resonance was determined using normalized variance curve and also corroborated by Hurst exponent and power spectrum plots. We show that the regularity of the excitable spikes in the floating potential fluctuation increases with the increase in the DV, up to a particular value of DV. Using a Wiener filter, we separated the noise component which was observed to increase with DV and hence conjectured that noise can play an important role in the generation of the coherence resonance. From an anharmonic oscillator equation describing ion acoustic oscillations, we have been able to obtain a FitzHugh-Nagumo like model which has been used to understand the excitable dynamics of glow discharge plasma in the presence of noise. The numerical results agree quite well with the experimental results.

  9. Laser-induced incandescence applied to dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on the laser heating of nanoparticles (diameters ≤slant 1 μm) confined in a reactive plasma by short (150 ps) and intense (˜ 63 mJ) UV (355 nm) laser pulses (laser-induced incandescence, LII). Important parameters such as the particle temperature and radius follow from analysis of the emission spectrum of the heated nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are not ideal black bodies, which is taken into account by calculating their emissivity using a light-scattering theory relevant to our conditions (Mie theory). Three sets of refractive index data from the literature serve as model input. The obtained radii range between 100 and 165 nm, depending on the choice of refractive index data set. By fitting the temperature decay of the particles to a heat exchange model, the product of their mass density and specific heat is determined as (1.3+/- 0.5) J K-1 cm-3, which is considerably smaller than the value for bulk graphite at the temperature our particles attain (3000 K): 4.8 J K-1 cm-3. The particle sizes obtained in situ with LII are compared with ex situ scanning electron microscopy analysis of collected particles. Quantitative assessment of the LII measurements is hampered by transport of particles in the plasma volume and the fact that LII probes locally, whereas the samples with collected particles have a more global character.

  10. Global particle-in-cell simulations of plasma pressure effects on Alfvenic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Koenies, Axel; Hatzky, Roman

    2011-01-15

    Global linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of electromagnetic modes in realistic tokamak geometry are reported. The effect of plasma pressure on Alfvenic modes is studied. It is shown that the fast-particle pressure can considerably affect the shear Alfven wave continuum structure and hence the toroidicity-induced gap in the continuum. It is also found that the energetic ions can substantially reduce the growth rate of the ballooning modes (and perhaps completely stabilize them in a certain parameter range). Ballooning modes are found to be the dominant instabilities if the bulk-plasma pressure gradient is large enough.

  11. Zinc and magnesium concentrations in plasma and red blood cells in patients on digitalis medication

    SciTech Connect

    Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Vetter, H.; Zidek, W.; Wessels, F.

    1981-06-01

    Determinations of zinc, sodium, potassium and magnesium in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) were performed in 31 controls and 63 patients treated with digitalis. In digitalized patients Na and Zn concentrations in RBC were significantly increased, whereas the intraerythrocyte Mg concentration was only slightly elevated. Plasma concentrations of all investigated electrolytes as well as of Zn remained within the normal range. There was a close relationship between the increase of Na and Zn content in RBC indicating alterations in transmembrane transport mechanisms induced by digitalis therapy.

  12. Plasma perturbations HF-induced in the topside ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemin; Frolov, Vladimir; Zhou, Chen; Zhao, Shufan; Ruzhin, Yury; Shen, Xuhui; Zhima, Zeren; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Three plasma perturbations induced by SURA HF (high-frequency) heating have been selected and analyzed in detail with the DEMETER satellite observing data by instruments of Langmuir probe and ion analyzer. Some common features are revealed, such as (1) electron density and electron temperature both increased during the heating period; (2) both O+ density and ion temperature also increased generally, while H+ varied negatively with O+ density; (3) the ions were accelerated in upward and northward directions, resulting from the thermal pressure gradient, which also caused the variations in ULF (ultralow-frequency) electric field due to V>⇀×B>⇀ effects; and (4) the simulation results verify the electron density and temperature enhancement at the topside ionosphere due to the ohmic heating process and thermal self-focusing instability over the heating region, which is consistent with the observing phenomena by the DEMETER satellite.

  13. Quantification of Depletion-Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, P.; Verdier, C.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. The formation of rouleaux can also be induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC suspension. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly originate from indirect measurements such as flow chamber experiments, but data is lacking at the single cell level. Here, we present measurements on the dextran-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy. The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs were determined. The results on adhesion energy are in excellent agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and previous experimental studies. Furthermore, our method allowed to determine the adhesion force, a quantity that is needed in theoretical investigations on blood flow.

  14. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Steffen, P; Verdier, C; Wagner, C

    2013-01-04

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. The formation of rouleaux can also be induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC suspension. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly originate from indirect measurements such as flow chamber experiments, but data is lacking at the single cell level. Here, we present measurements on the dextran-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy. The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs were determined. The results on adhesion energy are in excellent agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and previous experimental studies. Furthermore, our method allowed to determine the adhesion force, a quantity that is needed in theoretical investigations on blood flow.

  15. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-10-15

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2} to the 5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2}-5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  16. Mast Cell Hyperplasia and Eosinophilia Induced by Ascaris Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Archer, G. T.; Binet, J.-L.

    1971-01-01

    Daily i.p. injections of dilute Ascaris body fluid into rats induced peritoneal eosinophilia and the formation of pin-point follicles in the omentum. The follicles comprised plasma cells, macrophages and fibroblasts together with large numbers of eosinophils and mast cells. Electron microscopy of eosinophils in the follicles revealed loss of cytoplasmic granules and numerous vesicular and tubular structures in the cytoplasm. The mast cells showed clear areas round the granules, suggesting dissolution of granule components. ImagesFigs. 4-6Figs. 7-8Figs. 13-14Figs. 9-10Figs. 1-3Figs. 11-12 PMID:5135540

  17. Plasma treatment for improving cell biocompatibility of a biodegradable polymer scaffold for vascular graft applications.

    PubMed

    Valence, Sarra de; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Chaabane, Chiraz; Gurny, Robert; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Walpoth, Beat H; Möller, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic scaffolds are being evaluated by many groups for the application of vascular tissue engineering. In addition to the choice of the material and the structure of the scaffold, tailoring the surface properties can have an important effect on promoting adequate tissue regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an increased hydrophilicity of a polycaprolactone vascular graft by treatment with a cold air plasma. To this end, treated and untreated scaffolds were characterized, evaluated in vitro with smooth muscle cells, and implanted in vivo in the rat model for 3 weeks, both in the subcutaneous location and as an aortic replacement. The plasma treatment significantly increased the hydrophilicity of the scaffold, with complete wetting after a treatment of 60 sec, but did not change fiber morphology or mechanical properties. Smooth muscle cells cultured on plasma treated patches adopt a spread out morphology compared to a small, rounded morphology on untreated patches. Subcutaneous implantation revealed a low foreign body reaction for both types of scaffolds and a more extended and dense cellular infiltrate in the plasma treated scaffolds. In the vascular position, the plasma treatment induced a better cellularization of the graft wall, while it did not affect endothelialization rate or intimal hyperplasia. Plasma treatment is therefore an accessible tool to easily increase the biocompatibility of a scaffold and accelerate tissue regeneration without compromising mechanical strength, which are valuable advantages for vascular tissue engineering.

  18. Probing cell migration in confined environments by plasma lithography.

    PubMed

    Junkin, Michael; Wong, Pak Kin

    2011-03-01

    Cellular processes are regulated by various mechanical and physical factors in their local microenvironment such as geometric confinements, cell-substrate interactions, and cell-cell contact. Systematic elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms is crucial for fundamental understanding of cell biology and for rational design of biomedical devices and regenerative medicine. Here, we report a generally applicable plasma lithography technique, which performs selective surface functionalization on large substrate areas, for achieving long-term, stable confinements with length scales from 100 nm to 1 cm toward the investigation of cell-microenvironment interactions. In particular, we applied plasma lithography for cellular confinement of neuroblastomas, myoblasts, endothelial cells, and mammary gland epithelial cells, and examined the motion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in directionality-confined environments for studying the effect of confinements on migratory behavior. In conjunction with live cell imaging, the distance traveled, velocity, and angular motion of individual cells and collective cell migration behaviors were measured in confined environments with dimensions comparable to a cell. A critical length scale that a cell could conceivably occupy and migrate to was also identified by investigating the behaviors of cells using confined environments with subcellular length scales. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Probing cell migration in confined environments by plasma lithography

    PubMed Central

    Junkin, Michael; Wong, Pak Kin

    2010-01-01

    Cellular processes are regulated by various mechanical and physical factors in their local microenvironment such as geometric confinements, cell-substrate interactions, and cell-cell contact. Systematic elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms is crucial for fundamental understanding of cell biology and for rational design of biomedical devices and regenerative medicine. Here, we report a generally applicable plasma lithography technique, which performs selective surface functionalization on large substrate areas, for achieving long-term, stable confinements with length scales from 100 nm to 1 cm toward the investigation of cell-microenvironment interactions. In particular, we applied plasma lithography for cellular confinement of neuroblastomas, myoblasts, endothelial cells, and mammary gland epithelial cells, and examined the motion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in directionality-confined environments for studying the effect of confinements on migratory behavior. In conjunction with live cell imaging, the distance traveled, velocity, and angular motion of individual cells and collective cell migration behaviors were measured in confined environments with dimensions comparable to a cell. A critical length scale that a cell could conceivably occupy and migrate to was also identified by investigating the behaviors of cells using confined environments with subcellular length scales. PMID:21134692

  20. Dynamic two-photon imaging of cerebral microcirculation using fluorescently labeled red blood cells and plasma.

    PubMed

    Masamoto, Kazuto; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    To explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma flow in three-dimensional (3D) microvascular networks of the cerebral cortex, we performed two-photon microscopic imaging of the cortical microvasculature in genetically engineered rats in which the RBCs endogenously express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Water-soluble quantum dots (Qdots) were injected intravenously into the animals to label the plasma, and concurrent imaging was performed for GFP-RBCs and Qdot plasma. The RBC and plasma distributions were compared between resting state and forepaw stimulation-induced neural activation. The RBC and plasma images showed detectable signals up to a depth of 0.4 and 0.6 mm from the cortical surface, respectively. A thicker plasma layer (2-5 μm) was seen in venous vessels relative to the arterial vessels. In response to neural activation, the RBCs were redistributed among the parenchymal capillary networks. In addition, individual capillaries showed a variable ratio of RBC and plasma distributions before and after activation, indicative of dynamic changes of hematocrit in single capillaries. These results demonstrate that this transgenic animal model may be useful in further investigating the mechanism that controls dynamic RBC flow in single capillaries and among multiple capillary networks of the cerebral microcirculation.

  1. Seminal Plasma Enhances Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation and Tumour Growth In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jason R.; Sales, Kurt J.; Jabbour, Henry N.; Katz, Arieh A.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP) induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2), cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A(VEGF-A). To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway. PMID:22442729

  2. Plasma Treatment of Single-Cell Niobium SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    J. Upadhyay, M. Nikolić, S. Popović, L. Vušković, H.L. Phillips, A-M. Valente-Feliciano

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities of bulk Niobium are integral components of particle accelerators based on superconducting technology. Wet chemical processing is the commonly used procedure for impurities and surface defects removal and surface roughness improvement , both required to improve the RF performance of the cavity. We are studying plasma etching as an alternate technique to process these cavities. The uniformity of the plasma sheath at the inner wall of the cavity is one prerequisite for its uniform etching. We are developing electro-optic diagnostic techniques to assess the plasma uniformity. Multiple electro-optical probes are placed at different locations of the single cell cavity to diagnose the electrical and optical properties of the plasma. The electrical parameters are required to understand the kinetic nature of the plasma and the optical emission spectroscopy provides the spatial distribution of radicals in the plasma. The spatial variation of the plasma parameters inside the cavity and their effect on the etching of niobium samples placed at different locations in the cavity will be presented.

  3. Distinct T helper cell dependence of memory B-cell proliferation versus plasma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Franziska; Fettelschoss, Antonia; Vogel, Monique; Johansen, Pål; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2017-03-01

    Several memory B-cell subclasses with distinct functions have been described, of which the most effective is the class-switched (CS) memory B-cell population. We have previously shown, using virus-like particles (VLPs), that the proliferative potential of these CS memory B cells is limited and they fail to re-enter germinal centres (GCs). However, VLP-specific memory B cells quickly differentiated into secondary plasma cells (PCs) with the virtue of elevated antibody production compared with primary PCs. Whereas the induction of VLP(+) memory B cells was strongly dependent on T helper cells, we were wondering whether re-stimulation of VLP(+) memory B cells and their differentiation into secondary PCs would also require T helper cells. Global absence of T helper cells led to strongly impaired memory B cell proliferation and PC differentiation. In contrast, lack of interleukin-21 receptor-dependent follicular T helper cells or CD40 ligand signalling strongly affected proliferation of memory B cells, but differentiation into mature secondary PCs exhibiting increased antibody production was essentially normal. This contrasts with primary B-cell responses, where a strong dependence on CD40 ligand but limited importance of interleukin-21 receptor was seen. Hence, T helper cell dependence differs between primary and secondary B-cell responses as well as between memory B-cell proliferation and PC differentiation.

  4. The assessment of cold atmospheric plasma treatment of DNA in synthetic models of tissue fluid, tissue and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szili, Endre J.; Gaur, Nishtha; Hong, Sung-Ha; Kurita, Hirofumi; Oh, Jun-Seok; Ito, Masafumi; Mizuno, Akira; Hatta, Akimitsu; Cowin, Allison J.; Graves, David B.; Short, Robert D.

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing literature database that demonstrates the therapeutic potential of cold atmospheric plasma (herein referred to as plasma). Given the breadth of proposed applications (e.g. from teeth whitening to cancer therapy) and vast gamut of plasma devices being researched, it is timely to consider plasma interactions with specific components of the cell in more detail. Plasma can produce highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) such as the hydroxyl radical (OH•), peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and superoxide (\\text{O}2- ) that would readily modify essential biomolecules such as DNA. These modifications could in principle drive a wide range of biological processes. Against this possibility, the reported therapeutic action of plasmas are not underpinned by a particularly deep knowledge of the potential plasma-tissue, -cell or -biomolecule interactions. In this study, we aim to partly address this issue by developing simple models to study plasma interactions with DNA, in the form of DNA-strand breaks. This is carried out using synthetic models of tissue fluid, tissue and cells. We argue that this approach makes experimentation simpler, more cost-effective and faster than compared to working with real biological materials and cells. Herein, a helium plasma jet source was utilised for these experiments. We show that the plasma jet readily induced DNA-strand breaks in the tissue fluid model and in the cell model, surprisingly without any significant poration or rupture of the phospholipid membrane. In the plasma jet treatment of the tissue model, DNA-strand breaks were detected in the tissue mass after pro-longed treatment (on the time-scale of minutes) with no DNA-strand breaks being detected in the tissue fluid model underneath the tissue model. These data are discussed in the context of the therapeutic potential of plasma.

  5. Imaging of the Staphylococcus aureus Inactivation Process Induced by a Multigas Plasma Jet.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Toshihiro; Kawano, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yota; Uehara, Kodai; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Yuriko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Azuma, Takeshi; Okino, Akitoshi

    2016-12-01

    To identify mechanisms underlying the bacterial inactivation process by atmospheric nonthermal plasma using a unique plasma jet that can generate various gas plasmas, S