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Sample records for plasma coating formation

  1. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E.; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections. PMID:26369955

  2. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  3. Peculiarities of the structure formation of nanoscale coatings from the vacuum arc discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrin, D. K.; Pikus, M. I.; Smirnov, E. A.; Lisenkov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper features of the structure formation of nanoscale coatings (TiN)–(AlN)– (Ti–Al–N) in the vacuum arc discharge plasma are considered. The composition and structure of the formed nanoscale coatings are studied. The main factors influencing the quality of the formed coatings are shown.

  4. Column formation in suspension plasma-sprayed coatings and resultant thermal properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Every, K.; Krane, M. J. M.; Trice, R. W.; Wang, H.; Porter, W.; Besser, M.; Sordelet, D.; Ilavsky, J.; Almer, J.

    2011-06-01

    The suspension plasma spray (SPS) process was used to produce coatings from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders with median diameters of 15 {micro}m and 80 nm. The powder-ethanol suspensions made with 15-{micro}m diameter YSZ particles formed coatings with microstructures typical of the air plasma spray (APS) process, while suspensions made with 80-nm diameter YSZ powder yielded a coarse columnar microstructure not observed in APS coatings. To explain the formation mechanisms of these different microstructures, a hypothesis is presented which relates the dependence of YSZ droplet flight paths on droplet diameter to variations in deposition behavior. The thermal conductivity (k th) of columnar SPS coatings was measured as a function of temperature in the as-sprayed condition and after a 50 h, 1200 C heat treatment. Coatings produced from suspensions containing 80 nm YSZ particles at powder concentrations of 2, 8, and 11 wt.% exhibited significantly different k th values. These differences are connected to microstructural variations between the SPS coatings produced by the three suspension formulations. Heat treatment increased the k th of the coatings generated from suspensions containing 2 and 11 wt.% of 80 nm YSZ powder, but this k th increase was less than has been observed in APS coatings.

  5. Column Formation in Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coatings and Resultant Thermal Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Van Every, Kent; Krane, Matthew; Trice, Rodney; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Besser, Matthew; Sordelet, Daniel; Ilavsky, Dr. Jan; Almer, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The suspension plasma spray (SPS) process was used to produce coatings from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders with median diameters of 15 {micro}m and 80 nm. The powder-ethanol suspensions made with 15-{micro}m diameter YSZ particles formed coatings with microstructures typical of the air plasma spray (APS) process, while suspensions made with 80-nm diameter YSZ powder yielded a coarse columnar microstructure not observed in APS coatings. To explain the formation mechanisms of these different microstructures, a hypothesis is presented which relates the dependence of YSZ droplet flight paths on droplet diameter to variations in deposition behavior. The thermal conductivity (k th) of columnar SPS coatings was measured as a function of temperature in the as-sprayed condition and after a 50 h, 1200 C heat treatment. Coatings produced from suspensions containing 80 nm YSZ particles at powder concentrations of 2, 8, and 11 wt.% exhibited significantly different k th values. These differences are connected to microstructural variations between the SPS coatings produced by the three suspension formulations. Heat treatment increased the k th of the coatings generated from suspensions containing 2 and 11 wt.% of 80 nm YSZ powder, but this k th increase was less than has been observed in APS coatings.

  6. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  7. Latest Researches Advances of Plasma Spraying: From Splat to Coating Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Goutier, S.

    2016-12-01

    The plasma spray process with solid feedstock, mainly ceramics powders, studied since the sixties is now a mature technology. The plasma jet and particle in-flight characterizations are now well established. The use of computer-aided robot trajectory allows spraying on industrial parts with complex geometries. Works about splat formation have shown the importance of: the substrate preheating over the transition temperature to get rid of adsorbates and condensates, substrate chemistry, crystal structure and substrate temperature during the whole coating process. These studies showed that coating properties strongly depend on the splat formation and layering. The first part of this work deals with a summary of conventional plasma spraying key points. The second part presents the current knowledge in plasma spraying with liquid feedstock, technology developed for about two decades with suspensions of particles below micrometers or solutions of precursors that form particles a few micrometers sized through precipitation. Coatings are finely structured and even nanostructured with properties arousing the interest of researchers. However, the technology is by far more complex than the conventional ones. The main conclusions are that models should be developed further, plasma torches and injection setups adapted, and new measuring techniques to reliably characterize these small particles must be designed.

  8. In situ formation of low friction ceramic coatings on carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation in two types of electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunlong; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2009-04-01

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on Q235 carbon steel was achieved by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in carbonate electrolyte and silicate electrolyte, respectively. The surface and cross-section morphology, phase and elemental composition of PEO coatings were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The bond strength of the coating was determined using a direct pull-off test. The hardness as well as tribological properties of the ceramic coating was primarily studied. The results indicated that the coating obtained in carbonate electrolyte was Fe 3O 4, while the coating achieved from silicate electrolyte was proved to be amorphous. Both kinds of coatings showed coarse and porous surface. The Fe 3O 4 coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte showed a high bonding strength to the substrate up to 20 ± 2 MPa and the value was 15 ± 2 MPa for the amorphous coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte. The micro hardness of the amorphous coating and the Fe 3O 4 coating was 1001 Hv and 1413 Hv, respectively, which was more than two and three times as that of the Q235 alloy substrate (415 Hv). The friction coefficient exhibited by amorphous coating and Fe 3O 4 coating was 0.13 and 0.11, respectively, both lower than the uncoated Q235 substrate which ranged from 0.17 to 0.35.

  9. Characteristic Features of the Formation of a Combined Magnetron-Laser Plasma in the Processes of Deposition of Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmakov, A. P.; Kuleshov, V. N.; Prokopchik, K. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    A block diagram of a facility for combined magnetron-laser deposition of coatings and of the systems of controlling and managing this process is considered. The results of analysis of the influence of the gas medium and of laser radiation parameters on the emission-optical properties of laser plasma are considered. The influence of the laser plasma on the electric characteristics of a magnetron discharge is analyzed. The formation of the laser plasma-initiated pulse arc discharge has been established and the influence of the laser radiation parameters on the electric characteristics of this discharge has been determined. The emission optical spectra of the magnetron discharge plasma and of erosion laser plasma are compared separately and in combination.

  10. Formation process of in situ oxide coatings with high porosity using one-step plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiwen; Chen, Li; Qin, Honglei; Wu, Mingyue; Yan, Zongcheng

    2016-03-01

    Porous oxide films prepared via plasma electrolytic oxidation are ideal in situ catalysts. However, such films have low porosity. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a promising approach that controls discharge events. The treatments were performed in two kinds of alkaline-silicate solutions namely KOH-enriched solution and Na2SiO3-enriched solution. The coatings prepared in the former electrolyte exhibited superior growth behaviors and catalytic structures. Due to the strong corrosive of KOH-enriched electrolyte, the growth of the film was suppressed, and the sparks were maintained small and evenly distributed throughout the process. Such layers showed high porosity and were evenly covered by nanoparticles. The coating porosity increased with increasing time, and the film treated for 60 min exhibited a high porosity of 33.3 ± 1.7%. Moreover, an oxide film with an outer dendritic and inner porous structure was formed within 120 min. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations indicated that the coatings were mainly composed of aluminum oxide and that the doped iron oxide was enriched on the top surface of the coating. Finally, the formation mechanisms of the coating and nanoparticles were discussed with consideration of the dynamic equilibrium theory.

  11. Basic features of low-temperature plasma formation in the course of composite coating synthesis at the active faces of complex contoured hard tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzhozovsky, B. M.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Zinina, E. P.; Martynov, V. V.; Pleshakova, E. S.; Yuvchenko, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Basic features of combined-discharge low-temperature plasma formation around the surfaces of complex-contoured metal units are considered. It is shown that it makes the possibilities for synthesis of hardened high-durable coatings of hard tools appropriate for material processing in extreme load-temperature conditions. Experimental study of the coating formation was carried out in combination with the analysis of emission spectra of a low-temperature plasma cloud. Some practical examples of the coating applications are presented.

  12. Plasma-sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.

    1988-09-01

    Plasma spraying is one way to apply protective coatings. The hot, high-speed flame of a plasma gun can melt a powder of almost any ceramic or metal and spray it to form a coating for protection against corrosion, wear or high temperature. The technique carries much less risk of degrading the coating and substrate than many other high-temperature processes do, because the gas in the plasma flame is chemically inert and the target can be kept fairly cool. And yet a plasma gun can be only a little more cumbersome than a paint sprayer. Investigators are applying this technique to new materials. The General Electric Company is using vacuum plasma spraying to make freestanding components: intricate aircraft engine parts formed by plasma-spraying a superalloy on a removable substrate. Other workers spray ceramic particles or fibers and metal powder simulatious wrong, stiff composite materials: the ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix of metal. The author and colleagues at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have fabricated a thick film of high-temperature superconductor by plasma-spraying the compound in the form of a powder. 7 figs.

  13. Effects of the nozzle design on the properties of plasma jet and formation of YSZ coatings under low pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chengqi; Gao, Yang; Yang, Deming; Fu, Yingqing

    2016-09-01

    How to control the quality of the coatings has become a major problem during the plasma spraying. Because nozzle contour has a great influence on the characteristic of the plasma jet, two kinds of plasma torches equipped with a standard cylindrical nozzle and a converging-diverging nozzle are designed for low pressure plasma spraying(LPPS) and very low pressure plasma spraying(VLPPS). Yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) coatings are obtained in the reducing pressure environment. The properties of the plasma jet without or with powder injection are analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy, and the electron temperature is calculated based on the ratio of the relative intensity of two Ar I spectral lines. The results show that some of the YSZ powder can be vaporized in the low pressure enlarged plasma jet, and the long anode nozzle may improve the characteristics of the plasma jet. The coatings deposited by LPPS are mainly composed of the equiaxed grains and while the unmelted powder particles and large scalar pores appear in the coatings made by VLPPS. The long anode nozzle could improve the melting of the powders and deposition efficiency, and enhance the coatings' hardness. At the same time, the long anode nozzle could lead to a decrease in the overspray phenomenon. Through the comparison of the two different size's nozzle, the long anode is much more suitable for making the YSZ coatings.

  14. Formation of Expanded Austenite on a Cold-Sprayed AISI 316L Coating by Low-Temperature Plasma Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Shinichiro; Ueda, Nobuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Low-temperature plasma nitriding at temperatures below 450 °C is commonly applied to austenitic stainless steels to enhance wear resistance, while maintaining corrosion resistance, by forming expanded austenite (known as the S-phase). In this work, low-temperature plasma nitriding of cold-sprayed AISI 316L coatings was examined. A cold-spray technique was developed to produce metal coatings with less oxidation. However, the cold-sprayed AISI 316L coating obtained by use of nitrogen gas as propellant contained many interconnected pores and cracks, and was, consequently, unsuitable as an anticorrosive coating. Therefore, laser post-treatment was used to modify the coating and increase its density to similar to that of bulk steel. The anticorrosive performance of this coating on a carbon steel substrate in NaCl solution was substantially improved. Subsequent low-temperature plasma nitriding enhanced the wear resistance by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that cold-sprayed AISI 316L coatings treated by laser post-treatment and subsequent low-temperature plasma nitriding could be used as protective coatings under severe wear and corrosion conditions.

  15. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  16. Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, S.; Koenig, D. E.; Dardi, L. E.

    1981-10-01

    Recognizing the fundamental cost advantage, technical capabilities, and compositional flexibility of reduced pressure (vacuum) plasma spraying compared to other overlay coating methods, an advanced, second generation, closed chamber deposition process called VPX (a Howmet trademark) was developed. An automated experimental facility for coating gas turbine engine components was also constructed. This paper describes several important features of the process and equipment. It shows that the use of optimized spray parameters combined with an appropriate schedule of relative orientations between the gun and work-piece can be used to produce dense and highly reproducible coatings of either uniform or controlled thickness distributions. The chemical composition, microstructure, and interfacial characteristics of typical MCrAlY coatings are reported. Some effects of operating procedures and MCrAlY chemical composition on coating density are noted. The results of mechanical property and burner rig tests of coated material are also described.

  17. Formation of C-N-Si Film for Interlayer of Hard Material Coating by Pulsed Discharge Plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Mikio

    2013-03-01

    Carbon nitride (C-N) and Si added C-N (C-N-Si) films were deposited on SKD61 steel plate by pulsed discharge (PD) plasma chemical vapour deposition (CVD). When the films were deposited with N2 and H2 diluted CH4 source gases, the deposition rate increased and the hardness decreased with increasing CH4 concentration. By means of adding mono-methyl-silane (MMS) gas to the source gases, the C-N-Si film having high hardness of 10 GPa and low Yung's modulus of 80 GPa could be deposited. The FT-IR spectrum of the films showed a peak of graphitic ring and peaks of terminating with H and N were observed. Raman spectra showed D and G peaks at around 1350 and 1590 cm-1, respectively. The intensity of D peak compared to G peak decreased when MMS was added. Ball on disk test of the C-N-Si film against SUJ2 ball showed the friction coefficient was about 0.2. These results shows that the C-N-Si film having high hardness and low Young's modulus, which is suitable for interlayer of hard film coating, can deposit by the PD plasma CVD, and suggest that the film is composed of fullerene-like structure which forms resilient and fracture tough materials.

  18. Solid coatings deposited from liquid methyl methacrylate via Plasma Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurlitzer, Lisa; Maus-Friedrichs, Wolfgang; Dahle, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    The polymerization of methyl methacrylate via plasma discharges is well known today. Usually, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is used to deposit polymer coatings. Solid coatings are formed out of the liquid phase from methyl methacrylate via dielectric barrier discharge. The formation of the coating proceeds in the gas and the liquid phase. To learn more about the reactions in the two phases, the coatings from MMA monomer will be compared to those from MMA resin. Finally, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are employed to characterize the solid coatings. In conclusion, the plasma enhanced chemical solution deposition is compared to the classical thermal polymerization of MMA.

  19. The formation of tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Vasilić, Rastko; Radić, Nenad; Tadić, Nenad; Stefanov, Plamen; Grbić, Boško

    2016-07-01

    Tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na2WO4·2H2O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al2O3, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO3. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al2O3/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al2O3/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na2WO4·2H2O. Tungsten in Al2O3/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the coatings, indicating slower recombination of electron-hole pairs.

  20. Plasma-Spray Metal Coating On Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, J.

    1994-01-01

    Molds, forms, and other substrates made of foams coated with metals by plasma spraying. Foam might be ceramic, carbon, metallic, organic, or inorganic. After coat applied by plasma spraying, foam left intact or removed by acid leaching, conventional machining, water-jet cutting, or another suitable technique. Cores or vessels made of various foam materials plasma-coated with metals according to method useful as thermally insulating containers for foods, liquids, or gases, or as mandrels for making composite-material (matrix/fiber) parts, or making thermally insulating firewalls in automobiles.

  1. Vacuum application of thermal barrier plasma coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Mckechnie, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    Coatings are presently applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine blades for protection against the harsh environment realized in the engine during lift off-to-orbit. High performance nickel, chromium, aluminum, and yttrium (NiCrAlY) alloy coatings, which are applied by atmospheric plasma spraying, crack and spall off because of the severe thermal shock experienced during start-up and shut-down of the engine. Ceramic coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-Y2O3) were applied initially as a thermal barrier over coating to the NiCrAlY but were removed because of even greater spalling. Utilizing a vacuum plasma spraying process, bond coatings of NiCrAlY were applied in a low pressure atmosphere of argon/helium, producing significantly improved coating-to-blade bonding. The improved coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles, cycling between 1700 and -423 F. The current atmospheric plasma NiCrAlY coatings spalled during 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2-Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the vacuum plasma process. The improved thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles without spalling. Hot firing in an SSME turbine engine is scheduled for the blades. Tooling was installed in preparation for vacuum plasma spray coating other SSME hardware, e.g., the titanium main fuel valve housing (MFVH) and the fuel turbopump nozzle/stator.

  2. Vacuum plasma coatings for turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine blades, vacuum plasma spray coated with NiCrAlY, CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY/Cr2O3, were evaluated and rated superior to standard space shuttle main engine (SSME) coated blades. Ratings were based primarily on 25 thermal cycles in the MSFC Burner Rig Tester, cycling between 1700 F (gaseous H2) and -423 F (liquid H2). These tests showed no spalling on blades with improved vacuum plasma coatings, while standard blades spalled. Thermal barrier coatings of ZrO2, while superior to standard coatings, lacked the overall performance desired. Fatigue and tensile specimens, machined from MAR-M-246(Hf) test bars identical to the blades were vacuum plasma spray coated, diffusion bond treated, and tested to qualify the vacuum plasma spray process for flight hardware testing and application. While NiCrAlY/Cr2O3 offers significant improvement over standard coatings in durability and thermal protection, studies continue with an objective to develop coatings offering even greater improvements.

  3. Plasma-Sprayed Photocatalytic Zinc Oxide Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Kalantari, Y.; Salehi, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Amirnasr, M.; Rismanchian, M.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fabrication of semiconductor coatings with photocatalytic action for photodegradation of organic pollutants is highly desirable. In this research, pure zinc oxide, which is well known for its promising photocatalytic activity, was deposited on stainless-steel plates by plasma spraying. The phase composition and microstructure of the deposited films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Despite the low-energy conditions of the plasma spraying process, the zinc oxide coatings showed good mechanical integrity on the substrate. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using aqueous solution of methylene blue at concentration of 5 mg L-1. The results showed the potential of the plasma spraying technique to deposit zinc oxide coatings with photocatalytic action under ultraviolet illumination. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma spraying method could deposit zinc oxide films with higher photoabsorption ability relative to the initial powder.

  4. Ion-plasma processes of the production of diffusion aluminide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    A novel ion-plasma process for ecologically safe formation of diffusion aluminide coatings on a substrate made of a superalloy, which has advantages as compared to the well-known thermodiffusion processes of their production, is described. The ion-plasma process is shown to provide the formation of diffusion aluminide coatings on the surface of a superalloy substrate according to various technologies. Owing to alloying with one or several elements from the series Y, Si, Cr, Hf, B, Co, etc., ion-plasma diffusion coatings have higher protective properties than analogous coatings produced by the traditional methods of powder, slip, and gas-circulating aluminizing.

  5. Plasma process control for improved PEO coatings on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Riyad Omran

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a high voltage plasma-assisted oxidation process uses an environmentally-friendly aqueous electrolyte to oxidize the metal surfaces to form ceramic oxide coatings which impart a high corrosion and wear resistance. One of the main advantages of PEO process is that it can be applied to treat samples with complex shapes, and surfaces with different composition and microstructure. The PEO process of Mg alloys is strongly influenced by such parameters as electrolyte composition and concentration, current or voltage applied and substrate alloy. Generally, these parameters have a direct influence on the discharging behavior. The discharges play an essential role in the formation and resulting composition of the 3-layer oxide structure. A detailed knowledge of the coating mechanisms is extremely important in order to produce a desired coating quality to reach the best performance of the PEO coatings in terms of corrosion resistance and tribological properties (wear rate, COF). During PEO processing of magnesium, some of the metal cations are transferred outwards from the substrate and react with anions to form ceramic coatings. Also, due to the high electric field in the discharge channels, oxygen anions transfer towards the magnesium substrate and react with Mg2+ cations to form a ceramic coating. Although, in general, PEO coating of Mg alloys produces the three-layered structure, the relative proportions of the three-layers are strongly influenced by the PEO processing parameters. In PEO process, the ceramic coating grows inwards to the alloy substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. For the coating growth, there are three simultaneous processes taking place, namely the electrochemical, the plasma chemical reactions and thermal diffusion. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed for the discharge characterization by following the substrate and electrolyte element present in the plasma discharge during the

  6. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm by Trimethylsilane Plasma Coating

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yibao; Jones, John E.; Ritts, Andrew C.; Yu, Qingsong

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm formation on implantable medical devices is a major impediment to the treatment of nosocomial infections and promotes local progressive tissue destruction. Staphylococcus epidermidis infections are the leading cause of biofilm formation on indwelling devices. Bacteria in biofilms are highly resistant to antibiotic treatment, which in combination with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among human pathogens further complicates treatment of biofilm-related device infections. We have developed a novel plasma coating technology. Trimethylsilane (TMS) was used as a monomer to coat the surfaces of 316L stainless steel and grade 5 titanium alloy, which are widely used in implantable medical devices. The results of biofilm assays demonstrated that this TMS coating markedly decreased S. epidermidis biofilm formation by inhibiting the attachment of bacterial cells to the TMS-coated surfaces during the early phase of biofilm development. We also discovered that bacterial cells on the TMS-coated surfaces were more susceptible to antibiotic treatment than their counterparts in biofilms on uncoated surfaces. These findings suggested that TMS coating could result in a surface that is resistant to biofilm development and also in a bacterial community that is more sensitive to antibiotic therapy than typical biofilms. PMID:22964248

  7. Plasma Chemical Aspects Of Dust Formation In Hydrocarbon Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, J.; Kovacevic, E.; Stepanovic, O.; Stefanovic, I.; Winter, J.

    2008-09-07

    This contribution deals with some plasma chemical aspects of dust formation in hydrocarbon plasmas. The interplay between dust formation and plasma chemistry will be discussed by means of different experimental results. One specific example concerns the formation of benzene and the role of atomic hydrogen for plasma chemical processes and dust formation in hydrocarbon discharges.

  8. Characterisation of the TiO2 coatings deposited by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, L. P.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma spraying of materials such as ceramics and non-metals, which have high melting points, has become a well-established commercial process. Such coatings are increasingly used in aerospace, automobile, textile, medical, printing and electrical industries to impart proprieties such as corrosion resistance, thermal resistance, wear resistance, etc. One of the most important characteristics of thermal barrier coatings is the ability to undergo fast temperature changes without failing, the so called thermal shock resistance. The formation of residual stresses in plasma sprayed ceramic and metallic coatings is a very complex process. Several factors, such as substrate material, substrate thickness, physical properties of both the substrate and the coating material, deposition rate, relative velocity of the plasma torch, etc. determine the final residual stress state of the coating at room temperature. Our objective is to characterize the titanium oxide and aluminium oxide coatings deposited by plasma spraying in structural terms, the resistance to thermal shock and residual stresses.

  9. Application of Plasma Spraying as a Precursor in the Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, P.; Lu-Steffes, O.; Sakidja, R.; Perepezko, J. H.; Lenling, W.; Crawmer, D.; Beske, J.

    2013-08-01

    Thermal spray methods offer a versatile and flexible approach to the manufacture of coatings as a final product. A novel application of thermal spray coating is demonstrated by incorporating a plasma-sprayed Mo layer coating as a precursor step within an integrated costing design. The effectiveness of the two-step design is illustrated for aluminoborosilica coatings on SiC/C composites and W substrates based on the plasma-sprayed Mo precursor and subsequent codeposition of Si and B by a pack cementation method. Even with incomplete precursor coverage, an aluminoborosilica coating is developed because of the high initial fluidity of the as-pack coating. An effective oxidation resistance is observed following exposure at elevated temperatures (1373-1673 K) in ambient air and during torch testing at 1773 K, providing clear evidence that the plasma spraying of Mo is a viable precursor step in the formation of the oxidation-resistant Mo-Si-B-based coating.

  10. Sonochemical formation of intermetallic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.D.; Casadonte, D.J. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) study of the agglomerates produced during the sonication of a series of mixed-metal powders in decane indicates that metal particles are both fused by the action of ultrasound and develop coatings which are intermetallic in nature. The principal mechanism of these effects is believed to be interparticle collision caused by the rapid movement of particles of less than 50 {mu}m diameter which are propelled by shockwaves generated at cavitation sites. By examination of mixed-metal systems including Ni/Co, Al/Ni, Al/Co, Ni/Mg, and Cu/Mo with substantially different tribological characteristics, it has been determined that the coatings are generated by both adhesive wear and direct impact. The fusion of Cu and Mo is particularly intriguing, as these two metals are immiscible below 1000{degrees}C. This indicates the enormous impact temperatures produced in sonically induced collisions. The mechanisms of intermetallic coatings produced via ultrasound are discussed. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Characterization of plasma coated tungsten heavy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Kapoor, D.; Lankford, J. Jr.; Nicholls, A.E.

    1996-06-01

    The detrimental environmental impact of Depleted Uranium-based penetrators have led to tremendous development efforts in the area of tungsten heavy alloy based penetrators. One line of investigation involves the coating of tungsten heavy alloys with materials that are prone to shear localization. Plasma spraying of Inconel 718 and 4340 steel have been used to deposit dense coatings on tungsten heavy alloy substrates. The aim of the investigation was to characterize the coating primarily in terms of its microstructure and a special push-out test. The paper describes the results of the push-out tests and analyzes some of the possible failure mechanisms by carrying out microstructural characterization of the failed rings obtained from the push out tests.

  12. Electrospinning Yarn Formation and Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahbaee Bagherzadeh, Arash

    Electrospinning is a process by which nano polymer fibers can be produced using an electrostatically driven jet of polymer solution. Electrospinning seems to be a relatively simple process for producing nanofibers since it utilizes a few readily available components. On closer examination it is however clearly evident that successful electrospinning involves an understanding of the complex interaction of electrostatic fields, properties of polymer solutions and component design and system geometry. Using grounded plate as a collector causes the uniform electric field in all directions, so the electrostatic forces acting on the fiber have no preferential direction in the plane of the collector, results in a random deposition of the electrospun fibers leading to an isotropic web. For achieving their unique abilities to be useful in devices needs to deposit them in specific location and orientation. In this project a unique needle electrospinning process is described in which nanofibers are continuously fabricated, uniaxially oriented, and twisted to form of a yarn. It is shown that perfectly aligned nanofiber assemblies can be generated by manipulating the electric field. Twist insertion is accomplished by using two stepper motors and associated software. ANSYS/Emag.3-D is used to model the path of the electric field between the needle and the collector and the electrostatic forces acting on a charged nanofiber. The apparatus described, appears to offer advantages over other techniques. Nanofibers need not only be used as webs or yarn in order to attain the performance enhancement of high tech applications, but it is possible to introduce the benefit of nanofiber to regular yarn and other materials, by coating with nanofibers An addition advantage of the present setup is that it is possible to produce continuous fiber hybrid yarn coated with aligned nanofibers along the core yarn axis. With this method it is not only possible to coat regular yarn with aligned

  13. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  14. Crack-free surface sealing of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings using an excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia coatings are typically used in the aerospace industry as high-temperature thermal barriers. These coatings are normally applied by plasma thermal spray, which has an inherent problem of producing coatings containing a substantial amount of open or closed porosity. Surface sealing of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings with CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers is always associated with the problem of cracking on melted layers. Although some attempts such as pre-heating have been used to overcome the problem, formation of cracking is still not prevented, especially in zirconia-based ceramic coatings. The present work investigates an alternative method of surface sealing of plasma sprayed 8 wt.% Y 2O 3-ZrO 2 coatings using an excimer laser. The results show that smooth, crack-free and crater-free sealing can be obtained. Effects of laser operating parameters on the sealing quality and involved mechanism are also discussed.

  15. Plasma Formation Around Single Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duselis, Peter U.; Kusse, Bruce R.

    2002-12-01

    At Cornell's Laboratory of Plasma Studies, single wires of various metals were exploded using a ˜250 ns pulser with a rise time of ˜20 A/ns. It was found that the wires first experience a resistive heating phase that lasts 50-80 ns before a rapid collapse of voltage. From that point on, the voltage across the wire was negligible while the current through the wire continued to increase. We attribute this voltage collapse to the formation of plasma about the wire. Further confirmation of this explanation will be presented along with new experimental data describing preliminary spectroscopy results, the expansion rate of the plasma, and current flow along the wire as a function of radius. The resistance of the wire-electrode connection will be shown to significantly affect the energy deposition. Various diagnostics were used to obtain these experiments. Ultraviolet sensitive vacuum photodiodes and a framing camera with an 8 ns shutter were used to detect and measure the width of the visible light emitted by the plasma. A special wire holder was constructed that allowed the transfer of current from the wire to the surrounding plasma to be observed.

  16. Performance of coated columbium and tantalum alloys in plasma arc reentry simulation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Merutka, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The evaluation of coated refractory metals screened in stagnation model plasma arc tests is reported. Columbium alloys FS-85, C-129Y, and Cb-752 coated with Si-20Cr-20Fe (R512E) were tested at 1390 C. Three silicide coatings on Ta-10W were tested at 1470 C. Half-hour cycles and a 6500 N/sqm stagnation pressure were used. The best R512E coated columbium alloy was FS-85 with first local coating breakdowns occurring in 12 to 50 cycles. At coating defects, low metal recession rates (0.005 mm/min) were generally observed on coated columbium alloys while high rates (0.15 mm/min) were observed on coated Ta-10W. Coated columbium suffered large emittance losses (to below 0.7) due to surface refractory metal pentoxide formation.

  17. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  18. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  19. Cell adhesion to plasma-coated PVC.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Elidiane C; de Souza, Eduardo S; de Moraes, Francine S; Duek, Eliana A R; Lucchesi, Carolina; Schreiner, Wido H; Durrant, Steven F; Cruz, Nilson C

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, P(Ar), was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with P(Ar) between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing P(Ar), except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  20. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Elidiane C.; de Souza, Eduardo S.; de Moraes, Francine S.; Duek, Eliana A. R.; Lucchesi, Carolina; Schreiner, Wido H.; Durrant, Steven F.; Cruz, Nilson C.

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, PAr, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with PAr between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing PAr, except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices. PMID:25247202

  1. Plasma tests of sprayed coatings for rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N.; Love, W. K.

    1974-01-01

    Several plasma-sprayed coating systems were evaluated for structural stability in hydrogen plasma and in oxygen plasma mixed with hydrogen plasma. The principal test heat flux was 15 Btu per inch squared seconds. The system consisted of a number of thin 0.002 to 0.020 in. layers of metal oxides and/or metals. The principal materials included are molybdenum nichrome, alumina, and zirconia. The study identifies important factors in coating system fabrication and describes the durability of the coating systems in the test environments. Values of effective thermal conductivity for some of the systems are indicated.

  2. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface.

  3. Phase stability and biological property evaluation of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopedic and dental applications.

    PubMed

    Vahabzadeh, Sahar; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    In this work we have investigated the effects of strontium (Sr) dopant on in vitro protein release kinetics and in vivo osteogenic properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, along with their dissolution behavior. Plasma sprayed HA coatings are widely used in load-bearing implants. Apart from osseointegration, the new generation of HA coating is expected to deliver biomolecules and/or drugs that can induce osteoinduction. This paper reports the preparation of crystalline and amorphous HA coatings on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray, and their stability at different solution pH. Coatings prepared at 110 mm working distance from the nozzle showed an average Ca ion release of 18 and 90 ppm in neutral and acidic environments, respectively. Decreasing the working distance to 90 mm resulted in the formation of a coating with less crystalline HA and phases with higher solubility products, and consequently higher dissolution over 32 days. A 92% release of a model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer with pH of 7.4 was measured for Sr-doped HA (Sr-HA) coating, while only a 72% release could be measured for pure HA coating. Distortion of BSA during adsorption on coatings revealed a strong interaction between the protein and the coating, with an increase in α-helix content. Osteoid formation was found on Sr-HA implants as early as 7 weeks post implantation compared to HA coated and uncoated Ti implants. After 12 weeks post implantation, osteoid new bone was formed on HA implants; whereas, bone mineralization started on Sr-HA samples. While no osteoid was formed on bare Ti surfaces, bone was completely mineralized on HA and Sr-HA coatings after 16 weeks post implantation. Our results show that both phase stability and chemistry can have a significant influence toward in vitro and in vivo response of HA coatings on Ti implants.

  4. Structure and Properties of Modified Plasma-Sprayed Composite Coatings on a Titanium Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'tseva, S. V.; Mel'nikova, I. P.; Lyasnikova, A. V.; Zaharevich, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The structure and properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) plasma-sprayed coatings modified by Al2O3 and AlOOH nanoparticles have been investigated using different methods. It is found that the impregnation of HA particles before forming the coating ensures their most uniform distribution in the coating and increases its adhesion to 17.6 MPa. Agglomeration and milling of the powder mixture before spraying contribute to the formation of a uniform porous structure of the coating and a developed surface morphology with an increased adhesion from 10.4 to 17.8 MPa.

  5. Physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepeshev, A. A.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Fedorov, L. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of quasicrystalline coatings based on the Al65Cu23Fe12 alloy prepared by plasma spraying have been investigated. The specific features of the phase formation due to the competitive interactions of the icosahedral ψ and cubic β phases have been elucidated. A correlation between the microhardness and the content of the icosahedral phase in the coating has been determined. The decisive role of the quasicrystalline phase in the formation of high tribological characteristics of the coatings has been revealed and tested.

  6. Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

  7. Thin film coating process using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kniseley, Richard N.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Merkle, Brian D.

    1990-01-30

    Thin coatings of normally solid materials are applied to target substrates using an inductively coupled plasma. Particles of the coating material are vaporized by plasma heating, and pass through an orifice to a first vacuum zone in which the particles are accelerated to a velocity greater than Mach 1. The shock wave generated in the first vacuum zone is intercepted by the tip of a skimmer cone that provides a second orifice. The particles pass through the second orifice into a second zone maintained at a higher vacuum and impinge on the target to form the coating. Ultrapure coatings can be formed.

  8. Thermal Spray Formation of Polymer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coquill, Scott; Galbraith, Stephen L.; Tuss. Darren L.; Ivosevic, Milan

    2008-01-01

    This innovation forms a sprayable polymer film using powdered precursor materials and an in-process heating method. This device directly applies a powdered polymer onto a substrate to form an adherent, mechanically-sound, and thickness-regulated film. The process can be used to lay down both fully dense and porous, e.g., foam, coatings. This system is field-deployable and includes power distribution, heater controls, polymer constituent material bins, flow controls, material transportation functions, and a thermal spray apparatus. The only thing required for operation in the field is a power source. Because this method does not require solvents, it does not release the toxic, volatile organic compounds of previous methods. Also, the sprayed polymer material is not degraded because this method does not use hot combustion gas or hot plasma gas. This keeps the polymer from becoming rough, porous, or poorly bonded.

  9. Effect of preliminary vacuum plasma treatment on coating adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabodchikov, Vladimir A.; Borisov, Dmitry P.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research results on the adhesion properties of Si coatings synthesized by different methods and under different conditions of preliminary vacuum ion plasma treatment of substrates with subsequent magnetron sputtering. The substrate surface was pretreated with low-energy ion beams, high-energy ion beams, gas discharge plasma, and plasma produced by a magnetron sputtering system. The vacuum conditions (pump type, pressure, etc.), the ion current density, and the bias parameters (pulse repetition frequency and duration) were varied. The research results demonstrate a considerable effect of plasma immersion ion implantation on the adhesion of Si coatings to NiTi substrates.

  10. A plasma-sprayed valve coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, A.; Olmore, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Need to reduce wear on nickel alloy seats and poppets for Space Shuttle main engine led to fused cobalt/tungsten carbide coating. Coating, which is dense, wear-resistant, and nonporous, can be applied in controlled amounts to various substrate configurations. Ease of application to parts with intricate shapes and contours should make coating useful in automotive and aircraft manufacturing.

  11. X-ray Computed Tomographic Investigation of the Porosity and Morphology of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xun; Aliasghari, Sepideh; Němcová, Aneta; Burnett, Timothy L; Kuběna, Ivo; Šmíd, Miroslav; Thompson, George E; Skeldon, Peter; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-06

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is of increasing interest for the formation of ceramic coatings on metals for applications that require diverse coating properties, such as wear and corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility. Porosity in the coatings can have an important impact on the coating performance. However, the quantification of the porosity in coatings can be difficult due to the wide range of pore sizes and the complexity of the coating morphology. In this work, a PEO coating formed on titanium is examined using high resolution X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). The observations are validated by comparisons of surface views and cross-sectional views of specific coating features obtained using X-ray CT and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray CT technique is shown to be capable of resolving pores with volumes of at least 6 μm(3). Furthermore, the shapes of large pores are revealed and a correlation is demonstrated between the locations of the pores, nodules on the coating surface, and depressions in the titanium substrate. The locations and morphologies of the pores, which constitute 5.7% of the coating volume, indicate that they are generated by release of oxygen gas from the molten coating.

  12. Sea water corrosion behavior of plasma sprayed abradable coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Mishra, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    Aluminum based abradable coating is used for sealing purpose in compressor casing of aero engines to withstand up to a service temperature of 450°C. Al-BNSiO2 composite coating is deposited using thermal plasma spray technique. Coating thickness measured and porosity of the coating is evaluated.Coating morphology is observed and EDSanalysis is done with SEM (Jeol make). The effect of time on the sea water corrosion behavior of the coating is evaluated. It is observed that, there is a sharp increase in weight gain of the coating up to six weeks of immersion. This behavior is attributed to the adsorption/deposition of other elements/reactions taking place during interaction with sea water.

  13. Corrosion behavior of magnetic ferrite coating prepared by plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Wei, Shicheng Tong, Hui; Tian, Haoliang; Liu, Ming; Xu, Binshi

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the ferrite coating is 34.417 emu/g while the M{sub s} value of the ferrite powder is 71.916 emu/g. It can be seen that plasma spray process causes deterioration of the room temperature soft magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Spinel ferrite coatings have been prepared by plasma spraying. • The coating consists of nanocrystalline grains. • The saturation magnetization of the ferrite coating is 34.417 emu/g. • Corrosion behavior of the ferrite coating was examined in NaCl solution. - Abstract: In this study, spray dried spinel ferrite powders were deposited on the surface of mild steel substrate through plasma spraying. The structure and morphological studies on the ferrite coatings were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. It was showed that spray dried process was an effective method to prepare thermal spraying powders. The coating showed spinel structure with a second phase of LaFeO{sub 3}. The magnetic property of the ferrite samples were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the ferrite coating was 34.417 emu/g. The corrosion behavior of coating samples was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. EIS diagrams showed three corrosion processes as the coating immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results suggested that plasma spraying was a promising technology for the production of magnetic ferrite coatings.

  14. Plasma variables and tribological properties of coatings in low pressure (0.1 - 10.0 torr) plasma systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avni, R.; Spalvins, T.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed treatment is presented of the dialog known as plasma surface interactions (PSI) with respect to the coating process and its tribological behavior. Adsorption, morphological changes, defect formation, sputtering, chemical etching, and secondary electron emission are all discussed as promoting and enhancing the surface chemistry, thus influencing the tribological properties of the deposited flux. Phenomenological correlations of rate of deposition, flux composition, microhardness, and wear with the plasma layer variables give an insight to the formation of chemical bonding between the deposited flux and the substrate surface.

  15. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yuxuan; Coyle, Thomas W.; Azimi, Gisele; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature, chemical inertness, high temperature stability, and good mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The effects of various spraying conditions including standoff distance, torch power, number of torch passes, types of solvent and plasma velocity were investigated. The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured surface topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature. The water contact angle on the SPPS superhydrophobic coating was up to 65% higher than on smooth REO surfaces. PMID:27091306

  16. Formation Of Voids In Dusty Lorentzian Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bahamida, S.; Annou, K.; Annou, R.

    2008-09-07

    We study the possibility of formation of voids in Lorentzian plasmas containing of dust particles obeying to vortex-like velocity distribution. The size of the void is found to be ion spectral index dependent.

  17. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  18. Lithium Surface Coatings and Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, H. W.

    2007-11-01

    NSTX research on lithium-coated plasma facing components is the latest step in a decade-long, multi-institutional research program to develop lithium as a plasma-facing system that can withstand the high heat and neutron fluxes in a DT reactor. The NSTX research is also aimed towards sustaining the current non- inductively in H-mode plasmas which requires control of both wall recycling and impurity influxes. Employing several techniques to coat the plasma facing components (PFCs) with lithium, NSTX experiments have shown, for the first time, significant benefits in high-power divertor plasmas. Lithium pellet injection (LPI) uses the plasma itself to distribute lithium on the divertor or limiter surfaces. The multi-barrel LPI on NSTX can introduce either lithium pellets with masses 1 - 5 mg or powder during a discharge. This significantly lowered recycling and reduced the density in a subsequent NBI-heated, divertor plasma. Lithium coatings have also been applied with a LIThium EvaporatoR (LITER) that was installed on an upper vacuum vessel port to direct a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. The lithium was evaporated either before tokamak discharges, or continuously between and during them. By evaporating lithium into the helium glow discharge that typically precedes each tokamak discharge, a coating of the entire PFC area was achieved. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Among the effects observed in subsequent neutral-beam heated plasmas were decreases in oxygen impurities, plasma density, and the inductive flux consumption, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and DD neutron rate. In addition, a reduction in the ELM frequency, including their complete suppression, was achieved in H-mode plasmas. Additional observations, such as, the duration of the lithium coatings, increases in core metal impurity radiation, and

  19. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  20. Nano Structured Plasma Spray Coating for Wear and High Temperature Corrosion Resistance Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Shukla, A. K.; Roy, H.

    2014-04-01

    The nano structured coating is a major challenge today to improve the different mechanical properties, wear and high temperature corrosion resistance behaviour of different industrial alloys. This paper is a review on synthesis of nano powder, plasma spraying methods, techniques of nano structured coating by plasma spray method, mechanical properties, tribological properties and high temperature corrosion behaviour of nano structured coating. Nano structured coatings of ceramic powders/composites are being developed for wide variety of applications like boiler, turbine and aerospace industries, which requires the resistance against wear, corrosion, erosion etc. The nano sized powders are subjected to agglomeration by spray drying, after which nano structured coating can be successfully applied over the substrate. Nano structured coating shows improved mechanical wear resistance and high temperature corrosion resistance. The significant improvement of wear and corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to formation of semi molten nano zones in case of nano structured coatings. The future scope of application of nano structured coating has also been highlighted in this paper.

  1. On coating adhesion during impulse plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafal; Okrasa, Sebastian; Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Składnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The impulse plasma deposition (IPD) technique is the only method of plasma surface engineering (among plasma-based technologies) that allows a synthesis of layers upon a cold unheated substrate and which ensures a good adhesion. This paper presents a study of plasma impacts upon a copper substrate surface during the IPD process. The substrate was exposed to pulsed N2/Al plasma streams during the synthesis of AlN layers. For plasma-material interaction diagnostics, the optical emission spectroscopy method was used. Our results show that interactions of plasma lead to sputtering of the substrate material. It seems that the obtained adhesion of the layers is the result of a complex surface mechanism combined with the effects of pulsed plasma energy impacts upon the unheated substrate. An example of such a result is the value of the critical load for the Al2O3 layer, which was measured by the scratch-test method to be above 40 N.

  2. Deposition of Functional Coatings Based on Intermetallic Systems TiAl on the Steel Surface by Vacuum Arc Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budilov, V.; Vardanyan, E.; Ramazanov, K.

    2015-11-01

    Laws governing the formation of intermetallic phase by sequential deposition of nano-sized layers coatings from vacuum arc plasma were studied. Mathematical modeling process of deposition by vacuum arc plasma was performed. In order to identify the structural and phase composition of coatings and to explain their physical and chemical behaviour XRD studies were carried out. Production tests of the hardened punching tools were performed.

  3. Adherent diamond like carbon coatings on metals via plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Various techniques are currently used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on various materials. Many of these techniques use metallic interlayers, such as Ti or Si, to improve the adhesion of a DLC coating to a ferrous substrate. An alternative processing route would be to use plasma source ion implantation (PSII) to create a carbon composition gradient in the surface of the ferrous material to serve as the interface for a DLC coating. The need for interlayer deposition is eliminated by using a such a graded interfaces PSII approach has been used to form adherent DLC coatings on magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, brass, nickel, and tungsten. A PSII process tailored to create a graded interface allows deposition of adherent DLC coatings even on metals that exhibit a positive heat of formation with carbon, such as magnesium, iron, brass and nickel.

  4. Plasma technology for creation of protective and decorative coatings for building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, Oleg; Volokitin, Gennady; Skripnikova, Nelli; Shekhovtsov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    An experimental setup is developed to create a protective and decorative coating on the surface of building materials. Experimental study is conducted to create a protective coating using low-temperature plasma. The properties of the surface before and after the plasma treatment are investigated. At the increase of the plasma generator power (56-75 kW) the rate of the vitreous coating formation is significantly reduced, and the destruction of hydrous calcium silicates occurs at a lower depth (0.5-2.0 mm). In this case, the adhesive strength increases up to 2.34 MPa. At the increase of the exposure time at 56 kW (0.045 m/s melting rate) plasma generation power, the melt formation is observed not only at the surface but at depth of 0.7 mm and deeper. Also, a deep degradation of the material occurs and the adhesive strength decreases. The optimal heat flux density of plasma generator was established at 1.8-2.6 . 106 W/m2, which allows the achievement of the uniform layer formation on the wood surface that preserves its natural pattern visible.

  5. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coating of synthetic Al-Mg binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tarakci, Mehmet

    2011-12-15

    The binary Al-Mg synthetic alloys were prepared in a vacuum/atmosphere controlled furnace with the addition of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 15 wt.% pure Mg into pure aluminum as substrate material. The surfaces of the Al-Mg alloys and pure aluminum were coated for 120 min by plasma electrolytic oxidation in the same electrolyte of 12 g/L sodium silicate and 2 g/L KOH in distilled water. The coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and Vickers microhardness measurements. There regions of loose outer layer, dense inner layer with precipitate like particles of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a thin transition layer were identified for the coated samples. The coating thickness increases from 85 to 150 {mu}m with Mg contents in the alloys. The surface morphology becomes more porous and consequently surface roughness tends to increase with plasma electrolytic oxidation treatment and further with Mg content. The increase in magnesium content reduces the formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and crystalline mullite phases in the coating and decreases microhardness of coating. The Mg concentration is constant throughout the other loose and dense regions of coating though it gradually decreases in the thin inner region. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average thickness of PEO coating of Al-Mg alloys increases with Mg content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of Mg reduces and prevents the formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mullite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface roughness increases with Mg content in the Al-Mg alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness values of the coating decreases with the Mg amount in the substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Mg concentration is constant throughout the main regions of coating.

  6. Plasma-sprayed self-lubricating coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, H. H.; Logan, W. R.; Harada, Y.

    1982-01-01

    One of the most important criterion for acceptable commercial application of a multiple phase composition is uniformity and reproducibility. This means that the performance characteristics of the coat - e.g., its lubricating properties, bond strength to the substrate, and thermal properties - can be readily predicted to give a desired performance. The improvement of uniformity and reproducibility of the coats, the oxidation behavior at three temperature ranges, the effect of bond coat and the effect of preheat treatment as measured by adhesive strength tests, coating examination procedures, and physical property measurements were studied. The following modifications improved the uniformity and reproducibility: (1) changes and closer control in the particle size range of the raw materials used, (2) increasing the binder content from 3.2% to 4.1% (dried weight), and (3) analytical processing procedures using step by step checking to assure consistency.

  7. Comparison of Physical-chemical and Mechanical Properties of Chlorapatite and Hydroxyapatite Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Demnati, Imane; Grossin, David; Marsan, Olivier; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Collonges, Gérard; Combes, Christèle; Parco, Maria; Braceras, Inigo; Alexis, Joel; Balcaen, Yannick; Rey, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Chlorapatite can be considered a potential biomaterial for orthopaedic applications. Its use as plasma-sprayed coating could be of interest considering its thermal properties and particularly its ability to melt without decomposition unlike hydroxyapatite. Chlorapatite (ClA) was synthesized by a high-temperature ion exchange reaction starting from commercial stoichiometric hydroxyapatites (HA). The ClA powder showed similar characteristics as the original industrial HA powder, and was obtained in the monoclinic form. The HA and ClA powders were plasma-sprayed using a low-energy plasma spraying system with identical processing parameters. The coatings were characterized by physical-chemical methods, i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, including distribution mapping of the main phases detected such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), oxyapatite (OA), and HA or ClA. The unexpected formation of oxyapatite in ClA coatings was assigned to a side reaction with contaminating oxygenated species (O2, H2O). ClA coatings exhibited characteristics different from HA, showing a lower content of oxyapatite and amorphous phase. Although their adhesion strength was found to be lower than that of HA coatings, their application could be an interesting alternative, offering, in particular, a larger range of spraying conditions without formation of massive impurities. PMID:25893015

  8. Structure Formation in Complex Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-24

    electrically levitated above the wafer and fell on the wafer when the applied voltage on the wafer was turned off. The Coulomb lattice discovered...such an extreme condition as cryogenic temperature. We also developed an experimental device to study the flow effects of microparticles levitated at...dynamics of dust particles in the diffused plasma produced above the liquid helium. To study the effect of magnetic field on the behavior of

  9. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  10. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalvins, T.

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  11. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalvins, T.

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  12. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  13. Plasma Polymer Coatings to Prevent Pipeline Corrosion and Reduce Friction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-21

    34 praced on a coating surface. Using an Olympus zoom binocular * -5- - p ’. . . .,, v .t-. -\\ .’,’-’’’ "’ % , ’ --. microscope at lOx magnification, the... P ). The visual appearance further described the films as even or rainbow colored, peeled, or flaked. A particular sample (- could exhibit more than...and reasonable operating cost is an entirely feasible prospect. ( p :... -. -,.’ ! -10- RECOMMENI)ATIONS The investigation of plasma polymerized coatings

  14. Vapors and Droplets Mixture Deposition of Metallic Coatings by Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Bolot, R.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the very low pressure plasma-spraying (VLPPS) process has been intensely developed and implemented to manufacture thin, dense and finely structured ceramic coatings for various applications, such as Y2O3 for diffusion barriers, among other examples. This paper aims at presenting developments carried out on metallic coatings. Aluminum was chosen as a demonstrative material due to its "moderate" vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 38.23 KJ cm-3) compared to the one of copper (i.e., 55.33 KJ cm-3), cobalt (i.e., 75.03 KJ cm-3), or even tantalum (i.e., 87.18 KJ cm-3). The objective of this work is primarily to better understand the behavior of a solid precursor injected into the plasma jet leading to the formation of vapors and to better control the factors affecting the coating structure. Nearly dense aluminum coatings were successfully deposited by VLPPS at 100 Pa with an intermediate power plasma torch (i.e., Sulzer Metco F4 type gun with maximum power of 45 kW). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to study and analyze the vapor behavior into the plasma jet. Simplified CFD modeling allowed better understanding of some of the thermo-physical mechanisms. The effect of powder-size distribution, substrate temperature and spray distance were studied. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. Moreover, Vickers microhardness measurements were implemented.

  15. Reactive Plasma-Sprayed Aluminum Nitride-Based Coating Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro; Egota, Kazumi; Okamoto, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Recently, thick aluminum nitride/alumina (AlN/Al2O3) composite coatings were successfully fabricated through the reactive plasma spraying of fine Al2O3/AlN mixture in the N2/H2 atmospheric plasma. The coatings consist of AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and α-Al2O3 phases. This study will evaluate the thermal conductivity of these complicated plasma-sprayed coatings and optimize the controlling aspects. Furthermore, the influence of the process parameters on the coatings thermal conductivity will be investigated. The fabricated coatings showed very low thermal conductivity (2.43 W/m K) compared to the AlN sintered compacts. It is attributed to the phase composition of the fabricated coatings, oxide content, and porosity. The presence of Al2O3, Al5O6N and the high coating porosity decreased its thermal conductivity. The presence of oxygen in the AlN lattice creates Al vacancies which lead to phonon scattering and therefore suppressed the thermal conductivity. The formation of γ-Al2O3 phase in the coating leads to further decrease in its conductivity, due to its lower density compared to the α-phase. Moreover, the high porosity of the coating strongly suppressed the conductivity. This is due to the complicated microstructure of plasma spray coatings (splats, porosity, and interfaces, particularly in case of reactive spray process), which obviously lowered the conductivity. Furthermore, the measured coating density was lower than the AlN value and suppressed the coating conductivity. In addition, the spraying parameter showed a varied effect on the coating phase composition, porosity, density, and therefore on its conductivity. Although the N2 gas flow improved the nitride content, it suppressed the thermal conductivity gradually. It is attributed to the further increase in the porosity and further decrease in the density of the coatings with the N2 gas. Furthermore, increasing the arc did not show a significant change on the coating thermal conductivity. On the other hand

  16. Protective coatings of metal surfaces by cold plasma treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manory, R.; Grill, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cold plasma techniques for deposition of various types of protective coatings are reviewed. The main advantage of these techniques for deposition of ceramic films is the lower process temperature, which enables heat treating of the metal prior to deposition. In the field of surface hardening of steel, significant reduction of treatment time and energy consumption were obtained. A simple model for the plasma - surface reactions in a cold plasma system is presented, and the plasma deposition techniques are discussed in view of this model.

  17. Evaluation of hot corrosion of 8YSZ coatings elaborated by suspension plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Hernández, A. G.; Ageorges, H.; López-Gómez, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the evaluation microscopic of hot corrosion of 8mol% Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (8YSZ) coatings was studied in the presence of V2O5 and Na2SO4 as corrosive molten salt, for 40h at 1050°C. First, the substrates of Inconel 718 super-alloy were sprayed with a NiCrCoAl-Y2O3 bond coat by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Then this bond coat was polished for elaborated the 8YSZ layer by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The microstructure of the cross-section and surface of the coating was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After the hot corrosion test, the delamination of 8YSZ coatings was occurred in the ceramic layer due to the creation of stress resulting from the chemical reaction between the molten salts and the yttria (Y2O3) of 8YSZ coating at high temperature. According to EDS-SEM analysis, the evaluation of fractured sections of 8YSZ coating showed mainly the formation of crystals composed by Y, V, O and the surface was mainly composed by Zr and O. Those crystals can be related with the tetragonal phase of YVO4, which they were commonly found by other researchers in studies of hot corrosion of YSZ-based TBCs when its surface reacts with the corrosive salts.

  18. Early apatite deposition and osteoblast growth on plasma-sprayed dicalcium silicate coating.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuanyong; Xie, Youtao; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K

    2005-09-01

    Dicalcium silicate coating was deposited onto a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using plasma-spraying technology. The coating was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h to investigate early apatite formation on the coating. Osteoblasts were also seeded onto the surface of the dicalcium silicate coating to evaluate its biocompatibility. Cold field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used to evaluate the morphologies and determine the chemical composition of the coatings. The surface structural changes caused by immersion in SBF were analyzed using thin-film X-ray diffraction. After the dicalcium silicate coating was soaked in SBF solution 1-6 h, two types of particles containing calcium and phosphorus were formed on the surface. One type consisted of relatively larger particles (P1) precipitated on the surface of the coating from the precursor cluster formed in the SBF solution. The second type was composed of particles (P2) nucleated on the surface of the coating. With increasing immersion time, the particles coalesced to form a surface Ca-P layer. The Ca-P layer was composed of amorphous calcium phosphate that was not transformed to crystalline apatite until the immersion time in SBF exceeded 24 h. The formation mechanism of the Ca-P layer and apatite on the surface of the coating is believed to be involved in the formation of the Si 3-ring active surface site with negative charge. The cell-seeding test revealed that osteoblasts grew and proliferated very well on the surface of the dicalcium silicate coating.

  19. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  20. Plasma formation and expansion in an electrothermal plasma injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.D.; Bourham, M.A.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    The experimental device SIRENS has been used to conduct studies on plasma formation and expansion in electrothermal launchers. The 1-D, time-dependent fluid dynamics code, ODIN, models the energy transport, particle transport, plasma resistivity, plasma viscosity, and the equation-of-state of the source and barrel of the SIRENS experiment. Because electrothermal plasmas are highly collisional (high-density, low-temperature), the plasma is modeled as a viscous fluid, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium for each cell. The viscous drag forces were varied according to the Reynolds number of each cell. As the Reynolds number increases the modeled drag forces change accordingly, going from laminar to smooth turbulent to rough turbulent. The measured mass loss of the ablating liner (Lexan) in the source section is in good agreement with that predicted by the code. Comparisons between the measured and predicted pressures inside the barrel are in good agreement. The pressure reaches its maximum inside the source at approximately 45 {mu}s, then decreases steadily due to the drop in temperature and density. The plasma flows into the barrel and the pressure profile begins to flatten out and drop as the plasma exits the barrel. The variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the energy input to the source have also been calculated and will be discussed.

  1. Investigation of electrode distance impact on PEO coating formation assisted by simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xun; Blawert, Carsten; Höche, Daniel; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Kainer, Karl U.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of electrode distance between anode and cathode during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the coating formation was investigated by combining experiments and simulation. Firstly a model was built to simulate the effect of electrode distance on the anodic current distribution using finite element analyses. Complementary, PEO coatings were fabricated on AM50 magnesium alloy in an alkaline electrolyte with different electrode distances applying constant voltage. Phase composition, coating morphology and thickness were studied for both the front and back sides of the PEO coating depending on the electrode distance. For paralleled plate-like electrodes, based on coating uniformity, an optimum electrode distance of 60-80 mm was identified under the chosen experimental conditions. Via correlation of simulation and experimental results, the influence of electrode distance on coating formation is explored. It is demonstrated that under constant voltage mode, PEO coating formation is affected by electrode distance on both front and back sides of magnesium substrates. This effect is ascribed to the influence of electrode distance on the current distribution in the bath and to the related average current density on the surfaces.

  2. Influence of Metal Properties on the Formation and Evolution of Metal Coatings During Mechanical Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liang; Lu, Yun; Sato, Hiromasa; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Guo, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Powders of Cu, Ti, Ni, Fe, and Zn metals were used to prepare coatings on the surfaces of Al2O3 balls by the mechanical coating technique. The coated Al2O3 balls were characterized with XRD and SEM. The results showed that all the metal powders except Ni formed continuous metal coatings. The evolution of metal coatings during mechanical coating was also investigated. The analysis indicates that as long as continuous metal coatings can be formed, the evolution can fall into the following stages: nucleation, formation and coalescence of discrete islands, formation and thickening of continuous coatings, and exfoliation of continuous coatings. Electronegativity of the metal was shown to have a major effect on the adhesion of the tiny metal particles on the surfaces of the Al2O3 balls during the initial stage of mechanical coating. The lower the electronegativity of the metal, the greater the coverage of the metal on the Al2O3 ball and the easier the adhesion of the tiny metal particles. Further, the better the plastic deformability of metal, the easier the cold welding among metal powder particles and the greater the thickness of the continuous metal coatings.

  3. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-03-11

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  4. Plasma sprayed rutile titania-nanosilver antibacterial coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinjin; Zhao, Chengjian; Zhou, Jingfang; Li, Chunxia; Shao, Yiran; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Rutile titania (TiO2) coatings have superior mechanical properties and excellent stability that make them preferential candidates for various applications. In order to prevent infection arising from bacteria, significant efforts have been focused on antibacterial TiO2 coatings. In the study, titania-nanosilver (TiO2/Ag) coatings with five different kinds of weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by plasma spray. The feedstock powders, which had a composition of rutile TiO2 powders containing 1-10,000 ppm AgNPs, were double sintered and deposited on stainless steel substrates with optimized spraying parameters. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to analysize the phase composition and surface morphology of TiO2/Ag powders and coatings. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were employed to examine the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared coatings by bacterial counting method. The results showed that silver existed homogeneously in the TiO2/Ag coatings and no crystalline changed happened in the TiO2 structure. The reduction ratios on the TiO2/Ag coatings with 10 ppm AgNPs were as high as 94.8% and 95.6% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, and the TiO2/Ag coatings with 100-1000 ppm AgNPs exhibited 100% bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus, which indicated the TiO2/Ag coatings with more than 10 ppm AgNPs had strong antibacterial activity. Moreover, the main factors influencing the antibacterial properties of TiO2/Ag coatings were discussed with grain size and the content of silver as well as the microstructure of the coatings.

  5. Formation of ZrO{sub 2} in coating on Mg–3 wt.%Al–1 wt.%Zn alloy via plasma electrolytic oxidation: Phase and structure of zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Min; Kim, Yeon Sung; Yang, Hae Woong; Park, Joo Hyun; Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Dong Hyuk

    2015-01-15

    An investigation of the coating structure formed on Mg–3 wt.%Al–1 wt.%Zn alloy sample subjected to plasma electrolytic oxidation was examined by field-emission transmission electron microscopy. The plasma electrolytic oxidation process was conducted in a phosphoric acid electrolyte containing K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} for 600 s. Microstructural observations showed that the coating consisting of MgO, MgF{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} phases was divided into three distinctive parts, the barrier, intermediate, and outer layers. Nanocrystalline MgO and MgF{sub 2} compounds were observed mainly in the barrier layer of ~ 1 μm thick near to the substrate. From the intermediate to outer layers, various ZrO{sub 2} polymorphs appeared due to the effects of the plasma arcing temperature on the phase transition of ZrO{sub 2} compounds during the plasma electrolytic oxidation process. In the outer layer, MgO compound grew in the form of a dendrite-like structure surrounded by cubic ZrO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • The barrier layer containing MgO and MgF{sub 2} was observed near to the Mg substrate. • In the intermediate layer, m-, t-, and o-ZrO{sub 2} compounds were additionally detected. • The outer layer contained MgO with the dendrite-like structure surrounded by c-ZrO{sub 2}. • The grain sizes of compounds in oxide layer increased from barrier to outer layer.

  6. Plasma sprayed coatings for containment of Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material

    DOE PAGES

    Withey, Elizabeth Ann; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Andraka, Charles E.; ...

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ), Y2O3, and Al2O3 plasma sprayed coatings are investigated for their ability to prevent attack of Haynes 230 by a near-eutectic Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material (PCM) in a closed environment at 820 °C. Areas where coatings failed were identified with optical and scanning electron microscopy, while chemical interactions were clarified through elemental mapping using electron microprobe analysis. Despite its susceptibility to reduction by Mg, the Al2O3 coating performed well while the YSZ and Y2O3 coating showed clear areas of attack. These results are attributed to the evolution of gaseous Mg atmore » 820 °C leading to the formation of MgO and MgAl2O4.« less

  7. Use of molecular beams to support microspheres during plasma coating

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, J.K.; Smith, R.D.; Johnson, W.L.; Jordan, C.W.; Letts, S.A.; Korbel, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.

    1980-08-26

    Spherical targets can be levitated on beams of Ar or other gas atoms. This is an especially useful technique for supporting microspheres during plasma coating and processing. Measurements of gas flow and pressure indicate that the levitation device operates in the regime of Knudsen's flow. This device is currently being used in the development of future generation laser targets.

  8. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  9. Failure analysis of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, C. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Thermally induced failure processes of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings are examined. Cracking processes give rise to noise which was monitored by acoustic emission (AE) techniques. The sequential failure of coatings was examined from samples which were thermally cycled. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia with and without a NiCrAlZr bond coat were plasma-sprayed onto U700 alloy rod. In some cases the substrate was intentionally overheated during deposition of the thermal protection system to check how this process variable influenced the AE response of the specimen. In this way a qualitative appraisal of how process variables affect coating integrity could be discerned in terms of cracking behavior. Results from up to seven consecutive thermal cycles are reported here. Coating failure was observed in all cases. Failure of the thermal protection system is progressive, since cracking and crack growth were observed prior to ultimate failure. Thus castastrophic failure occurs at some stage when there is a transformation from the microcrack to a macrocrack network.

  10. Characterization of the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, L. P.

    2015-06-01

    Tungsten monocarbide (WC) is deposited using a plasma jet on the martensitic noncorrosive steel support (Z12CNDV12), in three different thicknesses.The characteristics of the coatings are determined by: its chemical composition, optical microscopy, RX analysis, tensile adhesion strength, Vickers hardness, the nature and the processing degree of the substrate and the deposition conditions.The method used for determining the behaviour in a corrosive environment of the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying consists in measuring the electrochemical potential difference between the coating and the substrate, which are immersed in a solution containing NaCl as a corrosive agent. The experimental results are then mathematically processed in order to determine a law and the mechanisms involved.

  11. Cangrelor attenuates coated-platelet formation.

    PubMed

    Norgard, Nicholas B; Hann, Callie L; Dale, George L

    2009-01-01

    P2Y(12) inhibitors were introduced clinically as effective inhibitors of adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) mediated platelet activation and aggregation. This class of pharmacological agents has enjoyed considerable success. Cangrelor is a recently developed P2Y(12) inhibitor that has the advantage of being an active drug not requiring metabolic conversion, although it is not orally available. Coated-platelets are a subclass of activated platelets generated on dual agonist activation with collagen plus thrombin; the primary hallmark of coated-platelets is their ability to support prothrombinase activity. Interestingly, we recently observed that the relatively weak agonist ADP potentiates the production of coated-platelets by the very strong agonists collagen plus thrombin, a previously unknown role for ADP. The authors sought in this study to determine if P2Y(12) inhibitors, such as cangrelor, were capable of attenuating this augmentation of coated-platelet generation. Cangrelor, at physiologically relevant concentrations, was able to eliminate the ADP-dependent increase in coated-platelet production with an IC(50) of 1.4 nM. Cangrelor, however, had no effect on thrombin-dependent platelet activation as measured by P-selectin expression. Although this in vitro study does not address the question of whether the effectiveness of cangrelor in vivo is partially due to an attenuation of coated-platelet production in addition to its documented antiaggregatory effects, it does reveal an unexpected action of cangrelor. Additional studies will be required to determine if all P2Y(12) inhibitors are equally effective in attenuating coated-platelet production.

  12. Program for plasma-sprayed self-lubricating coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for preparing composite powders of the three coating components was developed and a procedure that can be used in applying uniform coatings of the composite powders was demonstrated. Composite powders were prepared by adjusting particle sizes of the components and employing a small amount of monoaluminum phosphate as an inorganic binder. Quantitative microscopy (image analysis) was found to be a convenient method of characterizing the composition of the multiphase plasma-sprayed coatings. Area percentages and distribution of the components were readily obtained by this method. The adhesive strength of the coating to a nickel-chromium alloy substrate was increased by about 40 percent by a heat treatment of 20 hours at 650 C.

  13. Effect of vacuum conditions and plasma concentration on the chemical composition and adhesion of vacuum-plasma coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D. P.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Slabodchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper reports on the chemical composition of titanium nitride (TiN) and silicon (Si) coatings deposited with a new technological vacuum plasma setup which comprises magnetron sputtering systems, arc evaporators, and an efficient plasma generator. It is shown that due to highly clean vacuum conditions and highly clean surface treatment in the gas discharge plasma, both the coating-substrate interface and the coatings as such are almost free from oxygen and carbon. It is found that the coating-substrate interface represents a layer of thickness ≥ 60 nm formed through vacuum plasma mixing of the coating and substrate materials. The TiN coatings obtained on the new equipment display a higher adhesion compared to brass coatings deposited by industrial technologies via intermediate titanium oxide layers. It is concluded that the designed vacuum plasma equipment allows efficient surface modification of materials and articles by vacuum plasma immersion processes.

  14. In situ fabrication of blue ceramic coatings on wrought Al Alloy 2024 by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhijiang; Nie Xueyuan; Hu, Henry; Hussein, Riyad O.

    2012-03-15

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on 2024 Al alloy with a blue color was successfully achieved using a plasma electrolytic oxidation process working at atmospheric pressure. This novel blue ceramic coating overcomes the shortcomings of surface treatments resulting from conventional dyeing processes by depositing organic dyes into the porous structure of anodic film, which has poor resistance to abrasion and rapid fading when exposed to sunlight. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of the blue ceramic coating. The fabricated ceramic coating was composed of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3.} By controlling the working parameters, the distribution of the CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase on the surface can be adjusted, and plays a key role in the appearance of the coating. Electrochemical testing, thermal cycling method, and pin-on-disk sliding wear testing were employed to evaluate corrosion, thermal cycling, and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings. The results indicate that the blue ceramic coating has a similar polarization resistance to that of conventional anodic film and can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy. There are no destructive horizontal cracks observed within the blue ceramic coating when subjected to 120 times of thermal cycling, which heats the samples up to 573 K and followed by submersion in water at room temperature for 10 min. Compared with the aluminum substrate as well as a conventional anodic film coated aluminum sample, the wear resistance of the blue ceramic coating coated sample was significantly increased while the coefficient of friction was decreased from 0.34 to 0.14.

  15. Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, K. E.; Lagedrost, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed materials were determined for the following plasma sprayed materials: CaO - stabilized ZrO2, Y2O3 - stabilized ZerO2, Al2O3, HfO2 Mo, nichrome, NiAl, Mo-ZrO2, and MoAl2O3 mixtures. In all cases the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed materials was found to be considerably lower than that of the bulk material. The flash-laser thermal diffusivity technique was used both for diffusivity determination of single-layer materials and to determine the thermal contact resistance at the interface of two-layer specimens.

  16. Improved adhesion of dense silica coatings on polymers by atmospheric plasma pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linying; Ranade, Alpana N; Matos, Marvi A; Dubois, Geraud; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2013-09-11

    Oxygen atmospheric plasma was used to pretreat polycarbonate (PC) and stretched poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces in order to enhance the adhesion of the dense silica coatings deposited by atmospheric plasma on the polymer substrates. The treatment time and chemical structure of the polymers were found to be important factors. For PC, a short treatment increased the adhesion energy, while longer treatment times decreased the adhesion. In contrast, plasma pretreatment monotonically decreased the adhesion of PMMA, and pristine PMMA exhibited much higher adhesion than the PC counterpart. We found that adhesion enhancement was achieved through improved chemical bonding, chain interdiffusion, and mechanical interlocking at the coating/substrate interface, after a short atmospheric plasma treatment. Decreased adhesion resulted from overoxidation and low-molecular-weight weak layer formation on the polymer surface by prolonged atmospheric plasma treatment. The dramatic differences in the behavior of PC and PMMA in relation to the plasma treatment time were due to their dissimilar resistance to atmospheric plasma exposure.

  17. Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-01-01

    Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (μ) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

  18. Study on Ceramic Interconnect Manufactured by Slurry Dip Coating and Plasma Spray Coating Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hee; Ryoo, Sung-Nam; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Shul, Yong-Gun; Shin, Dong-Ryul; Song, Rak-Hyun

    To get a stable and dense interconnect layer of anode-supported flat tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack, we have studied on the synthesis of precursors with a fine particle size and the ceramic interconnect coating technology. Coated interconnects by slurry dipping and air plasma spray processes were sintered by 2-step sintering method. Ca-doped LaCrO3 perovskites such as La0.75Ca0.27CrO3(LCC27), La0.6Ca0.41CrO3(LCC41), and La0.8Sr0.05Ca0.15CrO3(LSCC), were synthesized by Pechini process and their average particle sizes were about 1 μm. LSCC layer is a functional layer to prevent Ca migration and then LCC41 layer is coated onto it. The Ca migration in the LSCC layer did not occur. The LCC41 was coated on the air plasma spray-coated LCC27 layer by slurry dip coating process and sintered at 1200°C for 20hr. Its electrical conductivity indicated about 27 S/cm at 800°C and the bubble test showed that there is no gas permeation at pressure difference of 0.4 kgf/cm2 at room temperature.

  19. Investigation of mechanical properties of thermal coatings obtained during plasma spraying of powder zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, A. R.; Ilinkova, T. A.; Shafigullin, L. N.; Saifutdinov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal coatings of zirconia partially stabilized with yttrium, deposited by low-temperature plasma, are the basis for the thermal protection of aircraft engine. At the same time there is an actual problem of selection of coating systems “ceramic layer - underlayer” of great thickness, providing better thermal protection, but having low strength characteristics due to the accumulation of internal stresses. To determine the optimal thickness of the test method used in the 4-point bending to allow the surface coating to explore in the elastic-plastic behavior of the field of coatings and strength. Based on the experimental results established the role of underlayer in the formation of the complex mechanical properties of thermal barrier coatings. With a well formed underlayer (PVNH16U6) system becomes sensitive to a change in thickness of the coating, to optimize the response on the strength and deformation criteria. According to the results the optimum ratio of the thickness of the ceramic layer and the underlayer should be regarded as the ratio of 3-5 for which the highest strength values were obtained for all the test coating systems.

  20. Bioactivity and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic coatings on zirconium by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aktuğ, Salim Levent; Durdu, Salih; Yalçın, Emine; Çavuşoğlu, Kültigin; Usta, Metin

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, hydroxyapatite (HAP)-based plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO) coatings were produced on zirconium at different current densities in a solution containing calcium acetate and β-calcium glycerophosphate by a single step. The phase structure, surface morphology, functional groups, thickness and roughness of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), eddy current method and surface profilometer, respectively. The phases of cubic-zirconia, calcium zirconate and HAP were detected by XRD. The amount of HAP and calcium zirconate increased with increasing current density. The surface of the coatings was very porous and rough. Moreover, bioactivity and biocompatibility of the coatings were analyzed in vitro immersion simulated body fluid (SBF) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, hemolysis assay and bacterial formation. The apatite-forming ability of the coatings was evaluated after immersion in SBF up to 28days. After immersion, the bioactivity of HAP-based coatings on zirconium was greater than the ones of uncoated zirconium and zirconium oxide-based surface. The bioactivity of PEO surface on zirconium was significantly improved under SBF conditions. The bacterial adhesion of the coatings decreased with increasing current density. The bacterial adhesion of the coating produced at 0.370A/cm(2) was minimum compared to uncoated zirconium coated at 0.260 and 0.292A/cm(2). The hemocompatibility of HAP-based surfaces was improved by PEO. The cell attachment and proliferation of the PEO coatings were better than the one of uncoated zirconium according to MTT assay results.

  1. Comparison of nanowire pellicles for plasma membrane enrichment: coating nanowires on cell

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Rose, Rebecca; Choksawangkarn, Waeowalee; Graham, Lauren; Hu, Junkai; Fenselau, Catherine; Lee, Sang Bok

    2014-01-01

    A study is reported on the effect of nanowire density on the ease of pellicle formation and the enrichment of plasma membrane proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. An optimized synthesis is reported for iron silicate nanowires with a narrow size range of 900 ±400 nm in length and 200 nm diameter. The nanowires were coated with Al2O3 and used to form pellicles around suspended multiple myeloma cells, which acted as a model for cells recovered from tissue samples. Lighter alumina-coated silica nanowires were also synthesized (Kim et al. 2013), which allowed a comparison of the construction of the two pellicles and of the effect of nanowire density on plasma membrane enrichment. Evidence is offered that the dense nanowire pellicle does not crush or distort these mammalian cells. Finally, the pellicles were incorporated into a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic workflow to analyze transmembrane proteins in the plasma membrane. In contrast to a prior comparison of the effect of density with nanoparticles pellicles (Choksawangkarn et al. 2013), nanowire density was not found to significantly affect the enrichment of the plasma membrane. However, nanowires with a favorable aspect for pellicle formation are more easily and reliably produced with iron silicate than with silica. Additionally, the method for pellicle formation was optimized through the use of iron silicate nanowires (ISNW), which is crucial to the improvement of PM protein enrichment and analysis. PMID:24465155

  2. [Formation of microbial populations on the surface of protective coatings].

    PubMed

    Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Piliashenko-Novokhatnyĭ, A I; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

    2001-01-01

    Formation of microbial cenosis on the surface of polyethylene-, polyurethane- and oil-bitumen-based protective coatings was studied in dynamics during 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. It has been shown that the biofilm was formed on the protective materials during 14 days and consisted of ammonifying, denitrifying, hydrocarbon-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria referred to Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Kesulfovibrio genera. The bacteria which form the biofilm on coatings possess high denitrifying and sulphate-reducing activities. Corrosion inhibitors-biocydes, introduced in composition of oil-bitumen coatings suppressed growth and metabolic activity of corrosion-active bacteria.

  3. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. X.; Lv, J. C.; Ren, Y.; Zhi, T.; Chen, J. Y.; Zhou, Q. Q.; Lu, Z. Q.; Gao, D. W.; Jin, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O2 plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N2 or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics also increased with the increasing SWCNT concentration, curing time and curing temperature in the range studied. Plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters had signally influence on the antistatic property of plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics. Therefore, adequate parameters should be carefully selected for the optimum antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics.

  4. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  5. Ultrasmooth plasma polymerized coatings for laser-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Witt, L.A.

    1980-08-26

    Coatings for laser fusion targets were deposited up to 135 ..mu..m thick by plasma polymerization onto 140 ..mu..m diameter DT filled glass microspheres. Ultrasmooth surfaces (no defect higher than 0.1 ..mu..m) were achieved by eliminating particulate contamination. Process generated particles were eliminated by determining the optimum operating conditions of power, gas flow, and pressure, and maintaining these conditions through feedback control. From a study of coating defects grown over known surface irregularities, a quantitative relationship between irregularity size, film thickness, and defect size was determined. This relationship was used to set standards for the maximum microshell surface irregularity tolerable in the production of hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon coated laser fusion targets.

  6. Quasistatic formation of the spheromak plasma configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, M.; Furth, H.P.; Hsu, W.; Jardin, S.; Janos, A.; Okabayashi, M.; Sinnis, J.; Stix, T.H.; Yamazaki, K.

    1980-10-01

    A novel method for creating the spheromak configuration has been proposed and verified experimentally. The scheme is based on a transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes into a plasma from a flux core. In this paper we present the first experimental verification of this quasistatic (tau/sub Alf/ much less than tau/sub form/ < tau/sub diff/) formation scheme, which is suitable for future scale-up to fusion-reactor parameters.

  7. Preparation and Mechanism of Controllable Micropores on Bioceramic TiO2 Coatings by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Yuan; Zhu, Rui-Fu; Lu, Yu-Peng; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Ma, Jie; Yuan, Y. F.

    2013-09-01

    Porous titania coatings with Ca and P elements were synthesized by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The treatment was carried out in an electrolyte containing calcium acetate monohydrate and disodium phosphate dodecahydrate (Ca/P = 5), and 4-20 μm micropores were prepared on the coatings by applied pulse frequencies of 200-1000 Hz. The surface structure, chemical composition of the TiO2 coatings, and time-dependent variation of electric currents were studied. The result revealed that the coating micropores, which could be controlled in size, increased with higher frequency, and the coatings mainly consisted of anatase and rutile phases with varying fractions. Based on our experiment, the formation mechanism of micropores and phases of the PEO coatings was further discussed in details.

  8. A conformal oxidation-resistant, plasma-polymerized coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Lerner, Narcinda R.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the surface recession (etching) of thin films of plasma polymerized tetrafluoro ethylene (PPTFE), polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE), and ion-beam sputter deposited polytetrafluoro ethylene (SPTFE) exposed to ground-state atomic oxygen downstream from a nonequilibrium radio-frequency O2 plasma. At 22 C, the etch rates for PTFE, SPTFE, and PPTFE were in the ratio of 8.7:1.8:1.0. A thin, conformal coating of PPTFE (etch rate of 0.3 nm/h at 22 C) was found to protect an underlying cast film of a reactive polymer, cis-1,4 polybutadiene, against ground-state atomic oxygen attack for the time required to fully etch away the PPTFE coating. From ESCA analysis, PTFE exhibited only minor surface oxidation (uptake of 0.5 atom percent O) upon etching, its F/C ratio decreasing slightly from 2.00 to 1.97; PPTFE exhibited considerable surface oxidation (uptake of 5.9 atom percent O) intermediate between those of PTFE and PPTFE, with a decrease in F/C ratio from 1.73 to 1.67. A plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon coating such as PPTFE might be useful for space applications to protect polymers that are vulnerable to oxidation or degradation by oxygen atoms.

  9. Highly Segmented Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray: Effects of Spray Process on Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Honda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Araki, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Sakka, Yoshio

    2016-12-01

    Effects of the ceramic powder size used for suspension as well as several processing parameters in suspension plasma spraying of YSZ were investigated experimentally, aiming to fabricate highly segmented microstructures for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to observe the atomization process and the velocity distribution of atomized droplets and ceramic particles travelling toward the substrates. The tested parameters included the secondary plasma gas (He versus H2), suspension injection flow rate, and substrate surface roughness. Results indicated that a plasma jet with a relatively higher content of He or H2 as the secondary plasma gas was critical to produce highly segmented YSZ TBCs with a crack density up to 12 cracks/mm. The optimized suspension flow rate played an important role to realize coatings with a reduced porosity level and improved adhesion. An increased powder size and higher operation power level were beneficial for the formation of highly segmented coatings onto substrates with a wider range of surface roughness.

  10. Preparation and properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on sandblasted pure titanium by a combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yuan; Zhu, Rui-Fu; Lu, Yu-Peng; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Zhao, Xing-Chuan; He, Kun; Yuan, Y F; Li, Ying; Ma, Xiao-Ni

    2014-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is one of the most applicable methods to produce bioceramic coating on a dental implant and sandblasting is a primary technique to modify metal surface properties. This study aims to deposit bioceramic Ca- and P-containing coatings on sandblasted commercially pure titanium by PEO technique to improve its bioactive performance. The time-dependent modified surfaces are characterized in terms of their microstructure, phase, chemical composition, mechanical properties and bioactivities. The results show that the combination-treated coating exhibits better properties than the PEO-treated one, especially in bioactivities, as evidenced by the HA formation after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 5 days and the cell viability after seeding for 1 or 3 days. The enhancement of the modified surface is attributed to a combination of the mechanical sandblasting and the microplasma oxidation.

  11. Character of laser-glazed, plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings on stainless steel substrata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischman, G. S.; Chen, C. H.; Rigsbee, J. M.; Brown, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia was applied as coatings to 316L stainless steel substrata using an 80-kw arc-plasma unit. Some of these coating-substrate systems were subsequently glazed using a 10 kw CO2 continuous-wavelength laser. SEM was used to characterize the microstructures of the coatings and coating-substrate interfaces. Results are reported and discussed.

  12. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on γTiAl alloy for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lara Rodriguez, L; Sundaram, P A; Rosim-Fachini, E; Padovani, A M; Diffoot-Carlo, N

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to enhance the potential of gamma titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy as a biomaterial, its surface characteristics were successfully modified using a calcium and phosphorous rich electrolyte through the application of plasma electrolytic oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the morphology and topographical features of the resulting coating while X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to determine the surface oxide composition. The mechanical properties of the surface coating were characterized by nanoindentation studies. The results observed show the formation of a submicron scale porous structure and a concomitant increase in the surface roughness. The surface oxide was composed of rutile and anatase phases. Composition gradients of Ca and P were also present which can possibly enhance the biomaterial application potential of this treated surface. Nanoindentation measurements indicate the formation of a fairly compact oxide during the process.

  13. Hierarchical Formation of Intrasplat Cracks in Thermal Spray Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2016-06-01

    Intrasplat cracks, an essential feature of thermally sprayed ceramic coatings, play important roles in determining coating properties. However, final intrasplat crack patterns are always considered to be disordered and irregular, resulting from random cracking during splat cooling, since the detailed formation process of intrasplat cracks has scarcely been considered. In the present study, the primary formation mechanism for intrasplat cracking was explored based on both experimental observations and mechanical analysis. The results show that the intrasplat crack pattern in thermally sprayed ceramic splats presents a hierarchical structure with four sides and six neighbors, indicating that intrasplat crack patterns arise from successive domain divisions due to sequential cracking during splat cooling. The driving forces for intrasplat cracking are discussed, and the experimental data quantitatively agree well with theoretical results. This will provide insight for further coating structure designs and tailoring by tuning of intrasplat cracks.

  14. Influence of injected silver content on synthesis of silver coated nickel particles by DC thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Si Taek; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticle-coated spherical nickel particles were prepared from a mixture of micro-sized silver and nickel as raw materials by DC thermal plasma treatment. The mixture of micro-sized silver and nickel powders was injected into the high-temperature region of an argon thermal plasma jet. Although the silver, with its very high thermal conductivity and relatively low boiling point, was thoroughly evaporated by this process, nickel was not evaporated perfectly because of its comparatively low thermal conductivity and high boiling point. The rough nickel powder was spheroidized as it melted. Finally, silver evaporated by the thermal plasma quickly condensed into nanoparticles on the surfaces of the micro-sized spherical nickel particles, aided by the sharp temperature gradient of the thermal plasma jet. With varying the ratios of silver to nickel feedstock from 1:10 to 5:1, the products synthesized in each condition were examined by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM, and FE-TEM. More silver nanoparticles were attached on the nickel by increasing the injected feedstock to 9.8 at% silver. Meanwhile, a decrease of silver in the products was observed when larger amounts of silver were introduced to the thermal plasma jet. The exposed silver components decreased with greater proportions of silver feedstock because of the metal's dendritic structure and the formation of silver-coated silver particles.

  15. The effect of plasma-sprayed coatings on the fatigue of titanium alloy implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Todd

    1994-02-01

    The application of titanium plasma-spray coatings to Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic implants results in a dramatic decrease in high-cycle fatigue performance. The better bonding of the plasma sprayed and heat-treated implants results in a lower high-cycle fatigue strength. Therefore, the use of plasma-spray textured coatings on implants must be considered with caution.

  16. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

  17. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Amorphous Ceramic Coatings by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chraska, T.; Pala, Z.; Mušálek, R.; Medřický, J.; Vilémová, M.

    2015-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia ceramic material has been plasma sprayed using a water-stabilized plasma torch to produce free standing coatings. The as-sprayed coatings have very low porosity and are mostly amorphous. The amorphous material crystallizes at temperatures above 900 °C. A spark plasma sintering apparatus has been used to heat the as-sprayed samples to temperatures above 900 °C to induce crystallization, while at the same time, a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa has been applied to their surface. After such post-treatment, the ceramic samples are crystalline and have very low open porosity. The post-treated material exhibits high hardness and significantly increased flexural strength. The post-treated samples have a microstructure that is best described as nanocomposite with the very small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.

  18. Chlorine-rich plasma polymer coating for the prevention of attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamont-Friedrich, Stephanie J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Giles, Carla; Griesser, Hans J.; Coad, Bryan R.

    2016-07-01

    The attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces, which is often followed by biofilm formation, causes adverse consequences in a wide range of areas. Here we have investigated the ability of thin film coatings from chlorinated molecules to deter fungal colonization of solid materials by contact killing of fungal cells reaching the surface of the coating. Coatings were deposited onto various substrate materials via plasma polymerization, which is a substrate-independent process widely used for industrial coating applications, using 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the process vapour. XPS surface analysis showed that the coatings were characterized by a highly chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer nature, with only a very small amount of oxygen incorporated. The activity of these coatings against human fungal pathogens was quantified using a recently developed, modified yeast assay and excellent antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Plasma polymer surface coatings derived from chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules may therefore offer a promising solution to preventing yeast and mould biofilm formation on materials surfaces, for applications such as air conditioners, biomedical devices, food processing equipment, and others.

  19. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-07-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained.

  20. Graphene as a Coating for Plasma Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marcos; Rojas, Richard; Kulcisnki, Gerald; Lagally, Max; Santarius, John

    2016-10-01

    Graphene has been a source of interest for multiple applications because of its unusual electronic and mechanical properties. A number of experimental studies have established that defect-free graphene is an excellent chemical-barrier material, but there have been no reports of graphene proposed as a protective coating against ion and/or neutral interactions with material surfaces. In the presence of such irradiation, plasma facing components (PFC's) tend to develop ``fuzz/grass'' structures that lead to the sputtering of wall material, diminishing the lifetime of the PFC's and plasma performance. We have shown that graphene can reduce or eliminate changes on surface morphology due to energetic helium. In the case of graphene-covered tungsten, our results show that, compared to the uncovered W, graphene suppresses these morphologies that form on the surface of hot W. Using Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic, the graphene coating shows little sign of damage after being irradiated, indicating that there is little to no sputtering of carbon impurities from the surface. We have also determined that the mass losses in W have been reduced significantly. Both decreases in impurities can lead to an improved plasma performance and longer lifetimes for PFC's. This work has been supported by GERS and TEAM-Science at the UW-Madison.

  1. The ice repellency of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi Mobarakeh, L.; Jafari, R.; Farzaneh, M.

    2013-11-01

    A superhydrophobic thin film was deposited on an aluminium oxide substrate by low pressure plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO). The coating was determined to be superhydrophobic due to its high water contact angle (∼158°) and low contact angle hysteresis. The aim of this work is to verify the icephobic properties of the HMDSO thin films obtained under simulated atmospheric conditions in a wind tunnel at sub-zero temperature and subsequent centrifugal adhesion test. The results obtained showed that the ice adhesion strength of the superhydrophobic HMDSO coating was 3.5 times lower than that on an aluminium substrate as reference tests. Although ice adhesion strength of the surface increased after 15 times icing/de-icing cycles, the surface kept its icephobic properties (ice adhesion strength 1.4 times lower than untreated aluminium).

  2. Antifungal coatings by caspofungin immobilization onto biomaterials surfaces via a plasma polymer interlayer.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Stefani S; Jasieniak, Marek; Coad, Bryan R; Griesser, Hans J

    2015-12-14

    Not only bacteria but also fungal pathogens, particularly Candida species, can lead to biofilm infections on biomedical devices. By covalent grafting of the antifungal drug caspofungin, which targets the fungal cell wall, onto solid biomaterials, a surface layer can be created that might be able to provide long-term protection against fungal biofilm formation. Plasma polymerization of propionaldehyde (propanal) was used to deposit a thin (∼20 nm) interfacial bonding layer bearing aldehyde surface groups that can react with amine groups of caspofungin to form covalent interfacial bonds for immobilization. Surface analyses by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed the intended grafting and uniformity of the coatings, and durability upon extended washing. Testing for fungal cell attachment and ensuing biofilm formation showed that caspofungin retained activity when covalently bound onto surfaces, disrupting colonizing Candida cells. Mammalian cytotoxicity studies using human primary fibroblasts indicated that the caspofungin-grafted surfaces were selective in eliminating fungal cells while allowing attachment and spreading of mammalian cells. These in vitro data suggest promise for use as antifungal coatings, for example, on catheters, and the use of a plasma polymer interlayer enables facile transfer of the coating method onto a wide variety of biomaterials and biomedical devices.

  3. Very low pressure plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coating using a low-energy plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Bolot, Rodolphe; Planche, Marie-Pierre; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, a more economical low-energy plasma source was used to perform a very low pressure plasma-spray (VLPPS) process. The plasma-jet properties were analyzed by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Moreover, yttria-stabilized zirconia coating (YSZ) was elaborated by a F100 low-power plasma gun under working pressure of 1 mbar, and the substrate specimens were partially shadowed by a baffle-plate during plasma spraying for obtaining different coating microstructures. Based on the SEM observation, a column-like grain coating was deposited by pure vapor deposition at the shadowed region, whereas, in the unshadowed region, the coating exhibited a binary microstructure which was formed by a mixed deposition of melted particles and evaporated particles. The mechanical properties of the coating were also well under investigation.

  4. Induction plasma calcining of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Induction plasma heating techniques were studied for calcining zinc orthotitanate particles for use in thermal control coatings. Previous studies indicated that the optimum calcining temperature is between 1400 and 1750 C. An intermediate temperature (1670 C) was chosen as a reference point for running a temperature series at the reference point and 220 C on both sides. The effect of varying chamber temperature on the reflectance spectra, before and after vacuum UV irradiation, is presented. The correlation between Zn2Ti04 paramagnetic resonance activity and its susceptibility to vacuum UV damage is discussed.

  5. Microstructure and characterization of a novel cobalt coating prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Cheng; He, Yedong

    2015-10-01

    A novel cobalt coating was prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The kinetics of the electrode process in cathode plasma electrolytic deposition was studied. The composition and microstructure of the deposited coatings were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM. The novel cobalt coatings were dense and uniform, showing a typically molten morphology, and were deposited with a rather fast rate. Different from the coatings prepared by conventional electrodeposition or chemical plating, pure cobalt coatings with face center cubic (fcc) structure were obtained by CPED. The deposited coatings were nanocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 40-50 nm, exhibited high hardness, excellent adhesion with the stainless steels, and superior wear resistance. The properties of the novel cobalt coatings prepared by CPED have been improved significantly, as compared with that prepared by conventional methods. It reveals that cathode plasma electrolytic deposition is an effective way to prepare novel cobalt coatings with high quality.

  6. Plasma mediated collagen-I-coating of metal implant materials to improve biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Joerg; Koeller, Manfred; Bensch, Sebastian; Halfmann, Helmut; Awakowicz, Peter; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Esenwein, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    This study describes the collagen-I coating of titanium and steel implants via cold low-pressure gas plasma treatment. To analyze the coatings in terms of biocompatibility osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells and human leukocytes were cultivated on the metal surfaces. Two different implant materials were assessed (Ti6Al4V, X2CrNiMo18) and four different surface properties were evaluated: (a) plasma pretreated and collagen-I coated implant materials; (b) collagen-I dip-coated without plasma pretreatment; (c) plasma treated but not collagen-I coated; (d) standard implant materials served as control. The different coating characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For adhesion and viability tests calcein-AM staining of the cells and Alamar blue assays were performed. The quantitative analysis was conducted by computer assisted microfluorophotography and spectrometer measurements. SEM analysis revealed that stable collagen-I coatings could not be achieved on the dip-coated steel and titanium alloys. Only due to pretreatment with low-pressure gas plasma a robust deposition of collagen I on the surface could be achieved. The cell viability and cell attachment rate on the plasma pretreated, collagen coated surfaces was significantly (p < 0.017) increased compared to the non coated surfaces. Gas plasma treatment is a feasible method for the deposition of proteins on metal implant materials resulting in an improved biocompatibility in vitro. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  7. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Pan, D; Cheang, P

    2004-08-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings were developed. Ti-6Al-4V powders coated with fine YSZ and HA particles were prepared through a unique ceramic slurry mixing method. The so-formed composite powder was employed as feedstock for plasma spraying of the HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V coatings. The influence of net plasma energy, plasma spray standoff distance, and post-spray heat treatment on microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties were investigated. Results showed that coatings prepared with the optimum plasma sprayed condition showed a well-defined splat structure. HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V solid solution was formed during plasma spraying which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. There was no evidence of Ti oxidation from the successful processing of YSZ and HA coated Ti-6Al-4V composite powders. Small amount of CaO apart from HA, ZrO(2) and Ti was present in the composite coatings. The microhardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and bond strength increased significantly with the addition of YSZ. Post-spray heat treatment at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C for up to 12h was found to further improve the mechanical properties of coatings. After the post-spray heat treatment, 17.6% increment in Young's modulus (E) and 16.3% increment in Vicker's hardness were achieved. The strengthening mechanisms of HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings were related to the dispersion strengthening by homogeneous distribution of YSZ particles in the matrix, the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and the formation of solid solution among HA

  9. Nonlinear current sheet formation in ideal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voge, A.; Schindler, K.; Otto, A.

    1994-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the formation of current sheets in ideal plasmas. First we confirm the development of singular current sheets in a one-dimensional model. In a second step we extend the analysis to two-dimensional equilibria. Here it is found that the resulting structures are quiet insensitive to the boundary conditions. For the special case of a magnetotail like equilibrium it will be shown that the resulting current distribution provides a possibility to understand the onset of a localized anomalous resistivity from a macroscopic point of view. Furthermore, the resulting structures provide an explanation for the dramatic decrease of the thickness of the current sheet in the magnetotail prior to the onset of geomagnetic substorms.

  10. Thermodynamics and kinetics of pack aluminide coating formation on IN-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Caves, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of pack variables on the formation of aluminide coatings on nickel-base superalloy IN-100 was conducted. Also, the thermodynamics and kinetics of coating formation were analyzed. Observed coating weights were in good agreement with predictions made from the analysis. Pack temperature rather than pack aluminum activity controls the principal coating phase formed. Solid-state nickel diffusion controlled coating formation from sodium fluoride and chloride and ammonium fluoride activated packs. In other ammonium and sodium halide activated 1 weight percent aluminum packs, gaseous diffusion controlled coating formation.

  11. Thermodynamics and kinetics of pack aluminide coating formation on IN-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Caves, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of pack variables on the formation of aluminide coatings on nickel-base superalloy IN-100 was conducted. Also, the thermodynamics and kinetics of coating formation were analyzed. Observed coating weights were in good agreement with predictions made from the analysis. Pack temperature rather than pack aluminum activity controls the principal coating phase formed. In 1 weight percent aluminum packs, aluminum weight gains were related to the halide pack activator. Solid-state nickel diffusion controlled coating formation from sodium fluoride and chloride and ammonium fluoride activated packs. In other ammonium and sodium halide activated 1 weight percent aluminum packs, gaseous diffusion controlled coating formation.

  12. Chemical Stability and Biological Properties of Plasma-Sprayed CaO-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Youtao; Ji, Heng; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2010-12-01

    In this work, calcia-stabilized zirconia powders were coated by silica derived from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) hydrolysis. After calcining at 1400 °C, decalcification of calcia-stabilized zirconia by silica occurred and powders composed of Ca2SiO4, ZrO2, and CaZrO3 were prepared. We produced three kinds of powders with different Ca2SiO4 contents [20 wt.% (denoted as CZS2), 40 wt.% (denoted as CZS4), and 60 wt.% (denoted as CZS6)]. The obtained powders were sprayed onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates using atmospheric plasma spraying. The microstructure of the powders and coatings were analyzed. The dissolution rates of the coatings were assessed by monitoring the ions release and mass losses after immersion in Tris-HCl buffer solution. Results showed that the chemical stability of the coatings were significantly improved compared with pure calcium silicate coatings, and increased with the increase of Zr contents. The CZS4 coating showed not only good apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluid, but also well attachment and proliferation capability for the canine bone marrow stem cells. Results presented here indicate that plasma-sprayed CZS4 coating has medium dissolution rate and good biological properties, suggesting its potential use as bone implants.

  13. Physical processes and modeling of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings-switched electrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of simulation of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings in modulating the electrical parameters. Mathematical models are based on physical models of gas-dynamic mechanisms more dynamic and thermal processes of the plasma jet. As an example the modeling of dynamic processes of heterogeneous plasma jet, modulated current pulses indirect arc plasma torch.

  14. Improving the laser-induced damage threshold of 532-nm antireflection coating using plasma ion cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meiping; Xing, Huanbin; Chai, Yingjie; Yi, Kui; Sun, Jian; Wang, Jianguo; Shao, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    BK7 glass substrates were precleaned by different cleaning procedures before being loaded into a vacuum chamber, and then a series of plasma ion cleaning procedures were conducted at different bias voltages in the vacuum chamber, prior to the deposition of 532-nm antireflection (AR) coatings. The plasma ion cleaning process was implemented by the plasma ion bombardment from an advanced plasma source. The surface morphology of the plasma ion-cleaned substrate, as well as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the 532-nm AR coating was investigated. The results indicated that the LIDT of 532-nm AR coating can be greatly influenced by the plasma ion cleaning energy. The plasma ion cleaning with lower energy is an attractive method to improve the LIDT of the 532-nm AR coating, due to the removal of the adsorbed contaminations on the substrate surface, as well as the removal of part of the chemical impurities hidden in the surface layer.

  15. Oxygen post-treatment of plastic surface coated with plasma polymerized silicon-containing monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T. J.; Hollanhan, J. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The abrasion resistance of plastic surfaces coated with polymerized organosilanes can be significantly improved by post-treatment of the polymerized silane in an oxygen plasma. For optical purposes, the advantages of this post-treatment are developed with a transparent polycarbonate resin substrate coated with plasma polymerized vinyltrimethoxysilane.

  16. Technical note - Plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings for smooth intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Doychak, J.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach for plasma spray deposition of ceramic thermal barrier coatings directly to smooth substrates is described. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings were directly applied to substrates that had been coated with low-pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coats and then centerless ground to simulate a smooth oxidation-resistant substrate. As the high-temperature oxidation behavior of NiAl+Zr is superior to that of MCrALY alloy, the bond coat is not required for oxidation resistance.

  17. Oxidation and degradation of a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens consisting of single-crystal superalloy substrates, vacuum plasma-sprayed Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and air plasma-sprayed 7.5 wt.% yttria stabilized zirconia top coatings was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis at 1150{degrees}C for up to 200 hours. Coating durability was assessed by furnace cycling at 1150{degrees}C. Coatings and reaction products were identified by x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  18. Technical note - Plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings for smooth intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. A.; Doychak, J.

    1992-09-01

    A new approach for plasma spray deposition of ceramic thermal barrier coatings directly to smooth substrates is described. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings were directly applied to substrates that had been coated with low-pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coats and then centerless ground to simulate a smooth oxidation-resistant substrate. As the high-temperature oxidation behavior of NiAl+Zr is superior to that of MCrALY alloy, the bond coat is not required for oxidation resistance.

  19. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation of an air plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D.; Rigney, E.D.

    1996-08-01

    Thermogravimetric methods for evaluating bond coat oxidation in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were assessed by high-temperature testing of TBC systems with air plasma-sprayed (APS) Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and yttria-stabilized zirconia top coatings. High-mass thermogravimetric analysis (at 1150{sup degrees}C) was used to measure bond coat oxidation kinetics. Furnace cycling was used to evaluate APS TBC durability. This paper describes the experimental methods and relative oxidation kinetics of the various specimen types. Characterization of the APS TBCs and their reaction products is discussed.

  20. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  1. Hydrogen plasma tests of some insulating coating systems for the nuclear rocket thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Current, A. N.; Grisaffe, S. J.; Wycoff, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Several plasma-sprayed and slurry-coated insulating coating systems were evaluated for structural stability in a low-pressure hot hydrogen environment at a maximum heat flux of 19.6 million watts/sq meter. The heat was provided by an electric-arc plasma generator. The coating systems consisted of a number of thin layers of metal oxides and/or metals. The materials included molybdenum, nichrome, tungsten, alumina, zirconia, and chromia. The study indicates potential usefulness in this environment for some coatings, and points up the need for improved coating application techniques.

  2. Plasma sprayed coatings for containment of Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Withey, Elizabeth Ann; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Andraka, Charles E.; Gibbs, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ), Y2O3, and Al2O3 plasma sprayed coatings are investigated for their ability to prevent attack of Haynes 230 by a near-eutectic Cu-Mg-Si metallic phase change material (PCM) in a closed environment at 820 °C. Areas where coatings failed were identified with optical and scanning electron microscopy, while chemical interactions were clarified through elemental mapping using electron microprobe analysis. Despite its susceptibility to reduction by Mg, the Al2O3 coating performed well while the YSZ and Y2O3 coating showed clear areas of attack. These results are attributed to the evolution of gaseous Mg at 820 °C leading to the formation of MgO and MgAl2O4.

  3. Characteristics of yttrium fluoride and yttrium oxide coatings for plasma process equipment prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Ken; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Huang, Shih-Yung; Wang, Wei-Kai

    2016-12-01

    In this study, yttrium fluoride (YF3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) coatings were prepared by an atmospheric plasma spraying technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). YF3 powders were sprayed at various plasma spraying powers of 9, 15, and 21 kW. The XRD result indicates that the YF3 coating shows preferred orientations and was well crystallized. The XPS results revealed a strong Y-F bond on the YF3 coating surface. A porosity value analysis showed that the porosity of the YF3 coating was lower than that of the Y2O3 coating. Moreover, the dielectric strength of the YF3 coating (22.65 kV/mm) was higher than that of the Y2O3 coating (14.42 kV/mm). This confirms that the YF3 coating exhibits a breakdown voltage of 4.97 kV, which is more than 1.5 times higher than that observed for the Y2O3 coating (3.29 kV). These results indicate that the YF3 coating has better mechanical and dielectric properties than the Y2O3 coating, indicating that the YF3 coating is a very attractive novel antiplasma and corrosion-resistant material.

  4. Effect of spark plasma sintering on the microstructure and in vitro behavior of plasma sprayed HA coatings.

    PubMed

    Yu, L-G; Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2003-07-01

    The crystalline phases and degree of crystallinity in plasma sprayed calcium phosphate coatings on Ti substrates are crucial factors that influence the biological interactions of the materials in vivo. In this study, plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings underwent post-spray treatment by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique at 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C, and 700 degrees C for duration of 5 and 30 min. The activity of the HA coatings before and after SPS are evaluated in vitro in a simulated body fluid. The surface microstructure, crystallinity, and phase composition of each coating is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry before, and after in vitro incubation. Results show that the plasma sprayed coatings treated for 5 min in SPS demonstrated increased proportion of beta-TCP phase with a preferred-orientation in the (214) plane, and the content of beta-TCP phase corresponded to SPS temperature, up to 700 degrees C. SPS treatment at 700 degrees C for 30 min enhanced the HA content in the plasma spray coating as well. The HA coatings treated in SPS for 5 min revealed rapid surface morphological changes during in vitro incubation (up to 12 days), indicating that the surface activity is enhanced by the SPS treatment. The thickest apatite layer was found in the coating treated by SPS at 700 degrees C for 5 min.

  5. The effects of plasma inhomogeneity on the nanoparticle coating in a low pressure plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pourali, N.; Foroutan, G.

    2015-10-15

    A self-consistent model is used to study the surface coating of a collection of charged nanoparticles trapped in the sheath region of a low pressure plasma reactor. The model consists of multi-fluid plasma sheath module, including nanoparticle dynamics, as well as the surface deposition and particle heating modules. The simulation results show that the mean particle radius increases with time and the nanoparticle size distribution is broadened. The mean radius is a linear function of time, while the variance exhibits a quadratic dependence. The broadening in size distribution is attributed to the spatial inhomogeneity of the deposition rate which in turn depends on the plasma inhomogeneity. The spatial inhomogeneity of the ions has strong impact on the broadening of the size distribution, as the ions contribute both in the nanoparticle charging and in direct film deposition. The distribution width also increases with increasing of the pressure, gas temperature, and the ambient temperature gradient.

  6. The effects of plasma inhomogeneity on the nanoparticle coating in a low pressure plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourali, N.; Foroutan, G.

    2015-10-01

    A self-consistent model is used to study the surface coating of a collection of charged nanoparticles trapped in the sheath region of a low pressure plasma reactor. The model consists of multi-fluid plasma sheath module, including nanoparticle dynamics, as well as the surface deposition and particle heating modules. The simulation results show that the mean particle radius increases with time and the nanoparticle size distribution is broadened. The mean radius is a linear function of time, while the variance exhibits a quadratic dependence. The broadening in size distribution is attributed to the spatial inhomogeneity of the deposition rate which in turn depends on the plasma inhomogeneity. The spatial inhomogeneity of the ions has strong impact on the broadening of the size distribution, as the ions contribute both in the nanoparticle charging and in direct film deposition. The distribution width also increases with increasing of the pressure, gas temperature, and the ambient temperature gradient.

  7. Young's Moduli of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Pawlik, R.; Loewenthal, W.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic metallic copper alloy and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray (CS) or the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition processes. Dynamic elastic modulus property measurements were conducted on these monolithic coating specimens between 300 K and 1273 K using the impulse excitation technique. The Young's moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing temperature at all temperatures except in the case of the CS Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and VPS NiCrAlY, where deviations from linearity were observed above a critical temperature. It was observed that the Young's moduli for VPS Cu-8%Cr were larger than literature data compiled for Cu. The addition of 1%Al to Cu- 8%Cr significantly increased its Young's modulus by 12 to 17% presumably due to a solid solution effect. Comparisons of the Young s moduli data between two different measurements on the same CS Cu- 23%Cr-5%Al specimen revealed that the values measured in the first run were about 10% higher than those in the second run. It is suggested that this observation is due to annealing of the initial cold work microstructure resulting form the cold spray deposition process.

  8. Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm/sup 2/. Probe measurements reveal that within 30 ..mu..s an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column.

  9. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time.

  10. Primary Results of Lithium Coating for the Improvement of Plasma Performance in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Guizhong; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiangang; Luo, Nanchang; Hu, Liqun; Fu, Jia; Chen, Kaiyun; Ti, Ang; Zhang, Lili

    2010-12-01

    First lithium coating associated with ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) plasma was performed successfully in EAST. Results in reduction of both residual impurity and deuterium in the vacuum vessel were obtained. Particularly the partial pressure of deuterium after the lithium coating was reduced by about a factor of 5. Impurity radiation in the plasma was reduced and electron temperature increased by about 50%. Moreover, reproducible plasma discharges with high parameters, such as higher plasma current and density, could be easily obtained. These results showed that plasma performance was improved. Even though only 2 g of lithium were injected, the effective lifetime of the Li film was raised up to 40 shots.

  11. Oxidation and interdiffusion behavior of Niobium substrate coated MoSi2 coating prepared by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, JianHui; Wang, Yi; Liu, LongFei; Wang, Yueming

    2014-11-01

    In order to protect Niobium material from oxidation, MoSi2 coating was prepared on the Niobium substrate by spark plasma sintering. Oxidation behavior of MoSi2 coating was investigated in air over the temperature range of 1200-1500 °C. The interfacial diffusion between MoSi2 coating and Niobium substrate was also examined. Dense MoSi2 coating was successfully prepared using spark plasma sintering. The porosities of top and side coatings are about 5.5% and 6.4%, respectively. No cracks were present in the MoSi2 coating. Cracking and spallation of the SiO2 scale did not occur at test temperatures. Two intermediate phases-(Nb,Mo)5Si3 and Nb5Si3 phases, were detected in the boundary of MoSi2 coating and Nb substrate. The growth of the reaction layer was dominated by the diffusion of Si toward the Nb substrate and obeyed a parabolic rate law. A multi-layered structural coating formed on Nb substrate, which consisted of MoSi2, (Mo,Nb)5Si3 and Nb5Si3 in turn.

  12. Comparison of nanowire pellicles for plasma membrane enrichment: coating nanowires on cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Rose, Rebecca; Choksawangkarn, Waeowalee; Graham, Lauren M.; Hu, Junkai; Fenselau, Catherine; Lee, Sang Bok

    2013-12-01

    This study is reported on the effect of nanowire density on the ease of pellicle formation and the enrichment of plasma membrane (PM) proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. An optimized synthesis is reported for iron silicate nanowires (ISNW) with a narrow size range of 900 ± 400 nm in length and 200 nm diameter. The nanowires were coated with Al2O3 and used to form pellicles around suspended multiple myeloma cells, which acted as a model for cells recovered from tissue samples. Lighter alumina-coated silica nanowires were also synthesized (Kim et al., doi: 10.2217/NNM.13.96, 2013), which allowed a comparison of the construction of the two pellicles and of the effect of nanowire density on PM enrichment. Evidence is offered that the dense nanowire pellicle does not crush or distort these mammalian cells. Finally, the pellicles were incorporated into a mass spectrometry-based proteomic workflow to analyze transmembrane proteins in the PM. In contrast to a prior comparison of the effect of density with nanoparticles pellicles (Choksawangkarn et al. J Proteome Res 455 12:1134-1141, 2013), nanowire density was not found to significantly affect the enrichment of the PM. However, nanowires with a favorable aspect for pellicle formation are more easily and reliably produced with iron silicate than with silica. In addition, the method for pellicle formation was optimized through the use of ISNW, which is crucial to the improvement of PM protein enrichment and analysis.

  13. Effect of Porosity on Photocatalytic Activity of Plasma-Sprayed TiO2 Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Chaudhary, Ujwal; Das, Santanu; Godavarty, Anuradha; Agarwal, Arvind

    2013-10-01

    The effect of porosity on photocatalytic activity of plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating on steel substrate is studied by varying processing parameters viz. plasma power and powder feed rate. The relationship between porosity content and methylene blue (MB) dye decomposition rate was established to correlate coating microstructure and its photocatalytic activity. The coating with the highest porosity content exhibited best photocatalytic efficiency. The same processing parameters were used to deposit TiO2 coating on FTO glass. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coating on FTO was 2.5 times better than TiO2 coating on the steel substrate. TiO2 coating on FTO glass contains bimodal porosity distribution (micropores and submicron pores) which accelerated MB decomposition by accelerated diffusion of ionic species.

  14. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration.

  15. Porous Tantalum Coatings Prepared by Vacuum Plasma Spraying Enhance BMSCs Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Regeneration In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:23776648

  16. Preparation and Performance of Plasma/Polymer Composite Coatings on Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Hamzah, E.; Bagheriyan, S.; Daroonparvar, M.; Kasiri-Asgarani, M.; Shah, A. M.; Medraj, M.

    2016-09-01

    A triplex plasma (NiCoCrAlHfYSi/Al2O3·13%TiO2)/polycaprolactone composite coating was successfully deposited on a Mg-1.2Ca alloy by a combination of atmospheric plasma spraying and dip-coating techniques. The NiCoCrAlHfYSi (MCrAlHYS) coating, as the first layer, contained a large number of voids, globular porosities, and micro-cracks with a thickness of 40-50 μm, while the Al2O3·13%TiO2 coating, as the second layer, presented a unique bimodal microstructure with a thickness of 70-80 μm. The top layer was a hydrophobic polymer, which effectively sealed the porosities of plasma layers. The results of micro-hardness and bonding strength tests showed that the plasma coating presented excellent hardness (870 HV) and good bonding strength (14.8 MPa). However, the plasma/polymer coatings interface exhibited low bonding strength (8.6 MPa). The polymer coating formed thick layer (100-110 μm) that homogeneously covered the surface of the plasma layers. Contact angle measurement showed that polymer coating over plasma layers significantly decreased surface wettability. The corrosion current density ( i corr) of an uncoated sample (262.7 µA/cm2) decreased to 76.9 µA/cm2 after plasma coatings were applied. However, it was found that the i corr decreased significantly to 0.002 µA/cm2 after polymer sealing of the porous plasma layers.

  17. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloying Antibacterial Silver Coating on Pure Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Naiming; Guo, Junwen; Hang, Ruiqiang; Zou, Jiaojuan; Tang, Bin

    2014-03-01

    In order to endow the commercial pure titanium dental implant material with antibacterial property and aimed at avoiding the invalidation that is caused by bacterial adhesion on the surface, a silver coating was fabricated via double glow plasma surface alloying. The antibacterial property of the silver coating was assessed via in vitro estimation. The results showed that a continuous and compact coating was formed. The silver coating had absolute superiority in antibacterial property to raw commercial pure titanium. Double glow plasma surface alloying with silver on commercial pure titanium dental implant material could be considered as a potentially effective method for preventing bacterial adhesion.

  18. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloying Antibacterial Silver Coating on Pure Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Naiming; Guo, Junwen; Hang, Ruiqiang; Zou, Jiaojuan; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to endow the commercial pure titanium dental implant material with antibacterial property and aimed at avoiding the invalidation that is caused by bacterial adhesion on the surface, a silver coating was fabricated via double glow plasma surface alloying. The antibacterial property of the silver coating was assessed via in vitro estimation. The results showed that a continuous and compact coating was formed. The silver coating had absolute superiority in antibacterial property to raw commercial pure titanium. Double glow plasma surface alloying with silver on commercial pure titanium dental implant material could be considered as a potentially effective method for preventing bacterial adhesion.

  19. Dynamics of polymer film formation during spin coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mouhamad, Y.; Clarke, N.; Jones, R. A. L.; Geoghegan, M.; Mokarian-Tabari, P.

    2014-09-28

    Standard models explaining the spin coating of polymer solutions generally fail to describe the early stages of film formation, when hydrodynamic forces control the solution behavior. Using in situ light scattering alongside theoretical and semi-empirical models, it is shown that inertial forces (which initially cause a vertical gradient in the radial solvent velocity within the film) play a significant role in the rate of thinning of the solution. The development of thickness as a function of time of a solute-free liquid (toluene) and a blend of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) cast from toluene were fitted to different models as a function of toluene partial pressure. In the case of the formation of the polymer blend film, a concentration-dependent (Huggins) viscosity formula was used to account for changes in viscosity during spin coating. A semi-empirical model is introduced, which permits calculation of the solvent evaporation rate and the temporal evolution of the solute volume fraction and solution viscosity.

  20. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed MCrAlY-Cr2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Huang, Chuanbing; Lan, Hao; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of two atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 and CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coatings, which are primarily designed for wear applications at high temperature, were investigated in this study. The two coatings were exposed to air and molten salt (75%Na2SO4-25%NaCl) environment at 800 °C under cyclic conditions. Oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves were obtained by thermogravimetric technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry were employed to characterize the coatings' microstructure, surface oxides, and composition. The results showed that both coatings provided the necessary oxidation resistance with oxidation rates of about 1.03 × 10-2 and 1.36 × 10-2 mg/cm2 h, respectively. The excellent oxidation behavior of these two coatings is attributed to formation of protective (Ni,Co)Cr2O4 spinel on the surface, while as-deposited Cr2O3 in the coatings also acted as a barrier to diffusion of oxidative and corrosive substances. The greater presence of Co in the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating restrained internal diffusion of sulfur and slowed down the coating's degradation. Thus, the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating was found to be more protective than the NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating under hot corrosion condition.

  1. Morphological Evaluation of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings using Cavitation Erosion Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, Susumu; Tani, Kazumi; Sugasawa, Shinobu; Kawanami, Yasutaka; Namba, Yoshio; Takabatake, Tsuyoshi; Yoshioka, Masaru; Ishihara, Yasuaki

    The microstructure of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings is characterized by the existence of splats along with other morphological features such as interlamellar and globular pores, intrasplat microcracks and splat boundaries. These various process-dependant micro- defects extremely influence physical and mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity and elastic modulus and then influence coating behavior. In this approach, the process involved in the cavitation erosion of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings have been studied using the ultrasonic vibratory technique. The weight loss occurring during fifteen minute intervals of exposure to cavitational erosion was determined, the surface of specimens and the wear debris were examined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results suggest that the improvement in coating performance could be achieved by controlling the effective contact between lamellae of which the coating is made up using the plasma spray conditions, such as sufficient preheat, short standoff distance and slow gun traversing movement.

  2. The magnetic field application for the gas discharge plasma control in processes of surface coating and modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadullin, T. Ya; Galeev, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the method of magnetic field application to control the gas discharge plasma effect on the various surfaces in processes of surface coating and modification is considered. The magnetic field directed perpendicular to the direction of electric current in the gas discharge plasma channel is capable to reject this plasma channel due to action of Lorentz force on the moving electrically charged particles [1,2]. The three-dimensional spatial structure of magnetic field is created by system of necessary quantity of the magnets located perpendicular to the direction of course of electric current in the gas-discharge plasma channel. The formation of necessary spatial distribution of magnetic field makes possible to obtain a required distribution of plasma parameters near the processed surfaces. This way of the plasma channel parameters spatial distribution management is the most suitable for application in processes of plasma impact on a surface of irregular shape and in cases when the selective impact of plasma on a part of a surface of a product is required. It is necessary to apply automated computer management of the process parameters [3] to the most effective plasma impact.

  3. Processing-microstructure-properties relationships in small-particle plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawdsley, Jennifer Renee

    The objective of this study was to determine processing-microstructure-properties relationships for small-particle plasma-sprayed (SPPS) ceramic coatings. Plasma-sprayed yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, which are used to protect superalloys from heat and the environment in turbine engines, and plasma-sprayed alumina coatings, which are being investigated as a potential replacement for chrome in corrosion protection applications, were fabricated using SPPS technology and their microstructure and pertinent properties were examined. The properties of plasma-sprayed YSZ and alumina coatings were investigated with designed experiments. The parameters varied include power, spray distance, total plasma gas flow, percent hydrogen in the plasma gas, injector angle, injector offset and carrier gas flow. The variations in thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and hardness for the YSZ SPPS coatings were found to correlate to the variations in density, which were related to the processing variables. It was found that surface roughness was related to the amount of splashing and debris associated with the single splats. In four-point bending strain tolerance and fatigue tests, the SPPS YSZ coatings showed very little acoustic emission activity, except in the case of tensile fatigue of a coating without network cracks. Small angle X-ray scattering experiments revealed that SPPS YSZ coatings have significantly less submicron intersplat porosity than conventional plasma-sprayed coatings, and that the pore and microcrack scattering area decreases with heat treatment due to the sintering of microcracks and small pores. The SPPS alumina coatings were optimized to produce a coating with excellent corrosion protection capabilities. It was found that the hardest SPPS alumina coatings did not provide the best corrosion protection due to unique porosity defect structures associated with surface bumps in the coatings. The surface bumps were

  4. Formation and bioactivity of porous and nanostructured TiO2/beta-TCP coating on titanium.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongjie; Liu, Xuanyong; Meng, Fanhao; Ding, Chuanxian

    2011-12-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used as hard tissue implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their near bio-inertness and metallic ion release are still the problems with clinical uses. In this paper, porous and nanostructured TiO2/beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) composite coatings were prepared on titanium substrates by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in a Ca and P-containing electrolyte. The influence of PEO electric current density on phase composition and bioactivity of the coatings were studied. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the phase composition and microstructure of the coatings. Simulated body fluid immersion tests were employed on the coatings to evaluate their bioactivity. The results reveal that TiO2/beta-TCP composite coating with pores size less than 10 microm and grains of 50-100 nm in size was prepared. The electric current density of PEO is an important factor in the formation of the composite coating. The TiO2/beta-TCP composite coating shows good bioactivity, which are attributed to the incorporation of beta-TCP.

  5. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Wells, R.P.; Craven, G.E.

    1996-12-24

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ions because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile. 8 figs.

  6. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Wells, Russell P.; Craven, Glen E.

    1996-01-01

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ion because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile.

  7. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Modification of material properties and coating deposition using plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnyak, Alexander D.; Tyurin, Yu N.

    2005-05-01

    The review is concerned with the current status of research on the use of plasma jets for the modification of surface properties of metalware, as well as of investigations of doping and mass transfer of elements. The effect of thermal plasma parameters on the efficiency of surface processing of metal materials is discussed. The structure and properties of protective coatings produced by exposure to pulsed plasmas are analyzed. A new direction for the production of combined coatings is considered. Their structure and properties were studied by the example of Fe, Cu, steels, and alloys, including titanium alloys; the modification process was shown to be controllable by the action of pulsed plasma jets. The physical factors that affect the modification process and the coating deposition, and their effect on the structure and properties of metallic, ceramic - metal, and ceramic coatings were analyzed.

  8. Improving adhesion of powder coating on PEEK composite: Influence of atmospheric plasma parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Aurélie; Ho, Thu Huong; Fahs, Ahmad; Lafabrier, Aurore; Louarn, Guy; Bacharouche, Jalal; Airoudj, Aissam; Aragon, Emmanuel; Chailan, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    In aeronautic industries, powder coatings are increasingly used because of environmental considerations. During the deposition of such a coating on a substrate piece, the main objective is to obtain a good coating/substrate adhesion. In this study, the targeted substrate is a Poly-(Ether EtherKetone)-(PEEK) based composite material. Due to the poor surface energy of PEEK, a surface treatment is necessary in order to enhance its adhesion with the coating. In this purpose, atmospheric plasma treatment has been chosen and the influence of plasma parameters has been studied. Four scan speed nozzles and three gases (Air, N2 and Argon) plasma has been tested. The increase of adhesion with increasing wettability, polarity and nanoroughness has been evidenced. A particular study of the type of grafted polar functionalities according to gas nature allowed to better understand the plasma mechanism and the cross-impact of polarity and nanoroughness in adhesion enhancement.

  9. Deposition of Hard Chrome Coating onto Heat Susceptible Substrates by Low Power Microwave Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redza, Ahmad; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Microwave plasma spray requires relatively low power, which is lower than 1 kW in comparison to other plasma spraying method. Until now, we are able to deposit Cu and Hydroxyapatite coating onto heat susceptible substrate, CFRP which are difficult for conventional plasma spray due to the excessive heat input. In this paper, a hard chromium coating was deposited onto SUS304 and CFRP by a low power microwave plasma spray technique. By controlling the working gas flow rate and spraying distance, a hard chrome coating with thickness of approximately 30 μm was successfully deposited onto CFRP substrate with hardness of 1110 Hv0.05. Furthermore, the coating produced here is higher than that produced by hard chrome plating.

  10. Structural Analysis of Dusty Plasma Formations Based on Spatial Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Khakhaev, A. D.; Luizova, L. A.; Piskunov, A. A.; Podryadchikov, S. F.; Soloviev, A. V.

    2008-09-07

    Some advantages of studying the structure of dusty plasma formations using spatial spectra are illustrated by simulated experiments and by processing actual images of dusty structures in dc glow discharge in inert and molecular gases.

  11. Acoustic emission and fatigue damage induced in plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating layers.

    PubMed

    Laonapakul, Teerawat; Otsuka, Yuichi; Nimkerdphol, Achariya Rakngarm; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2012-04-01

    In order to improve the adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings, grit blasting with Al(2)O(3) powder and then wet blasting with HAp/Ti mixed powders was carried out on a commercially pure Ti (cp-Ti) substrate. Subsequently, an HAp/Ti bond coat layer and HAp top coat layer were deposited by plasma spraying. Fatigue tests of the HAp-coated specimens were carried out under four-point bending. Acoustic emission (AE) signals during the entire fatigue test were monitored to investigate the fatigue cracking behavior of the HAp-coated specimens. The HAp-coated specimens could survive up to 10(7) cycles without spallation of the HAp coating layers at the stress amplitude of 120 MPa. The HAp-coated specimens without HAp/Ti bond coat layer showed shorter fatigue life and easy crack nucleation compared to the HAp-coated specimens with HAp/Ti bond coat layer. The delamination and spallation of the HAp top coat with HAp/Ti bond coat on cp-Ti was not observed until the crack propagated into the cp-Ti during the final fracture stage of the fatigue cycle. Therefore, the HAp/Ti bond coat layer was found to greatly improve the fatigue damage resistance of the HAp coating layer. Three stages of the fatigue failure behavior of the HAp top coat with HAp/Ti bond coat on a cp-Ti substrate can be clearly estimated by the AE monitoring technique. These stages are cracks nucleating and propagating in the coating layer, cracks propagating in the substrate, and cracks propagating unstably to final fracture.

  12. Electrocatalytically Active Nickel-Based Electrode Coatings Formed by Atmospheric and Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghasibeig, M.; Mousavi, M.; Ben Ettouill, F.; Moreau, C.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based electrode coatings with enhanced surface areas, for hydrogen production, were developed using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes. The results revealed a larger electrochemical active surface area for the coatings produced by SPS compared to those produced by APS process. SEM micrographs showed that the surface microstructure of the sample with the largest surface area was composed of a large number of small cauliflower-like aggregates with an average diameter of 10 μm.

  13. Performance of Plasma Sprayed Al2O3 Coating in Bio-Simulated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, F.; Yetim, A. F.; Alsaran, A.; Çelik, A.

    2014-01-01

    Alumina coatings deposited on the surface of stainless steel 316L by the method of plasma spraying are studied. Tests for wear and corrosion are preformed in Ringer's solution simulating a human body environment. The structure, microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the steel are determined with and without a coating. Deposition of a coating onto the stainless steel is shown to be an effective means for protecting implants from corrosion and wear.

  14. Composite ion-plasma coatings with nanodisperse reinforced phase: scientific and practical aspects of synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzhozovskii, B.; Martynov, V.; Zinina, E.; Brovkova, M.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the main aspects of the synthesis of composite coatings in the surface layer of figurine-shaped product using low-temperature plasma of combined discharge. The example of cutting tools shows the benefits of using the coatings in extreme conditions that occur in machining of materials by cutting.

  15. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  16. Broadband Plasma-Sprayed Anti-reflection Coating for Millimeter-Wave Astrophysics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, O.; Lee, A.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a plasma-sprayed anti-reflection (AR) coating technology for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics which achieves minimal dissipative loss and broad bandwidth and is easily and accurately applied. Plasma spraying is a coating process through which melted or heated materials are sprayed onto a substrate. The dielectric constants of the plasma-sprayed coatings were tuned between 2.7 and 7.9 by mixing hollow ceramic microspheres with alumina powder as the base material and varying the plasma energy of the spray. By spraying low loss ceramic materials with a tunable dielectric constant, we can apply multiple layers of AR coating for broadband millimeter-wave detection. At 300 K, we achieved a fractional bandwidth of 106 over 90% transmission using a three-layer AR coating. Applying ceramic coatings on ceramic lenses offers an additional benefit of preventing cryogenic delamination of the coatings. We report on methodology of coating application and measurement of uniformity, repeatability, transmission property, and cryogenic adhesion performance.

  17. Induction plasma sprayed Sr and Mg doped nano hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for bone implant.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we report fabrication of strontium (Sr) and magnesium (Mg) doped hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) substrates using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray. HA powder was doped with 1 wt % Sr (Sr-HA) and 1 wt % Mg (Mg-HA), heat treated at 800°C for 6 h and then used for plasma spray coating. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis indicated that the coatings were primarily composed of phase pure crystalline HA. When compared to undoped HA coating, physical properties such as microstructure, grain size, and adhesive bond strength of the doped HA coatings did not change significantly. Microstructure of the coatings showed coherency in the structure with an average grain size of 200-280 μm HA particles, where each of the HA grains consisted of 20-30 nm sized particles. An average adhesive bond strength of 17 MPa ensured sufficient mechanical strength of the coatings. A chemistry dependent improvement in bone cell-coating interaction was noticed for doped coatings although it had minimal effect on physical properties of the coatings. In vitro cell-materials interactions using human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) showed better cell attachment and proliferation on Sr-HA coatings compared to HA or Mg-HA coatings. Presence of Sr in the coating also stimulated hFOB cell differentiation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Improvement in bioactivity of Sr doped HA coatings on Ti without compromising its mechanical properties makes it an excellent material of choice for coated implant.

  18. Tailored plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings for aircraft gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennisi, F. J.; Gupta, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Eighteen plasma sprayed coating systems, nine based on the NiCoCrAly chemistry and nine based on the CoCrAly composition, were evaluated to identify coating systems which provide equivalent or superior life to that shown by the electron beam physical vapor deposited NiCoCrAly and CoCrAly coatings respectively. NiCoCrAly type coatings were examined on a single crystal alloy and the CoCrAly based coatings were optimized on the B1900+ Hf alloy. Cyclic burner rig oxidation and hot corrosion and tensile ductility tests used to evaluate the various coating candidates. For the single crystal alloy, a low pressure chamber plasma sprayed NiCoCrAly + Si coating exhibited a 2x oxidation life improvement at 1394 K (2050 F) over the vapor deposited NiCoCrAly material while showing equivalent tensile ductility. A silicon modified low pressure chamber plasma sprayed CoCrAly coating was found to be more durable than the baseline vapor deposited CoCrAly coating on the B1900+ Hf alloy.

  19. A structural investigation of a plasma sprayed Ni--Cr based alloy coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, S.; Neiser, R.A.; Herman, H. ); Kirkland, J.P.; Elam, W.T. )

    1993-01-01

    A Ni--Cr based hardfacing alloy has been plasma sprayed in ambient and low pressure atmospheres onto mild steel substrates. These coatings exhibit excellent wear and corrosion resistance; however, the significance of microstructure on properties has not been reported. This study relates the structure of the sprayed coatings to the processing conditions. X-ray diffraction results indicate phase separation in air plasma sprayed deposits, while low pressure plasma sprayed deposits exhibit a single supersaturated solid solution. Annealing of the air plasma sprayed coating shows dissolution of the bcc chromium phase, confirming its metastable nature. These results were confirmed using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis, which further suggests a highly disordered structure, with partial oxidation of selected alloying elements, such as chromium. Transmission electron microscopy indicates a wide variety of microstructures in the air plasma sprayed deposit. In the case of low pressure sprayed deposit, the microstructures are homogeneous and uniform.

  20. Biofouling development on plasma treated samples versus layers coated samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Exnar, P.; Sabau, A.; Spatenka, P.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Ghita, S.

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling is the most important cause of naval corrosion. In order to reduce the Biofouling development on naval materials as steel or resin, different new methods have been tested. These methods could help to follow the new IMO environment reglementations and they could replace few classic operations before the painting of the small ships. The replacement of these operations means a reduction in maintenance costs. Their action must influence especially the first two steps of the Biofouling development, called Microfouling, that demand about 24 hours. This work presents the comparative results of the Biofouling development on two different classic naval materials, steel and resin, for three treated samples, immersed in sea water. Non-thermal plasma, produced by GlidArc technology, is applied to the first sample, called GD. The plasma treatment was set to 10 minutes. The last two samples, called AE9 and AE10 are covered by hydrophobic layers, prepared from a special organic-inorganic sol synthesized by sol-gel method. Theoretically, because of the hydrophobic properties, the Biofouling formation must be delayed for AE9 and AE10. The Biofouling development on each treated sample was compared with a witness non-treated sample. The microbiological analyses have been done for 24 hours by epifluorescence microscopy, available for one single layer.

  1. Formation and Stability of Impurity "snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    L. Delgado-Aparicio, et. al.

    2013-01-28

    New observations of the formation and dynamics of long-lived impurity-induced helical "snake" modes in tokamak plasmas have recently been carried-out on Alcator C-Mod. The snakes form as an asymmetry in the impurity ion density that undergoes a seamless transition from a small helically displaced density to a large crescent-shaped helical structure inside q < 1, with a regularly sawtoothing core. The observations show that the conditions for the formation and persistence of a snake cannot be explained by plasma pressure alone. Instead, many features arise naturally from nonlinear interactions in a 3D MHD model that separately evolves the plasma density and temperature

  2. Phase transformation and wear studies of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings containing various mol% of yttria

    SciTech Connect

    Aruna, S.T. Balaji, N.; Rajam, K.S.

    2011-07-15

    Plasma sprayable grade zirconia powders doped with various mol% of yttria (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mol%) were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation route. The coprecipitation conditions were adjusted such that the powders possessed good flowability in the as calcined condition and thus avoiding the agglomeration step like spray drying. Identical plasma spray parameters were used for plasma spraying all the powders on stainless steel plates. The powders and plasma sprayed coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Zirconia powders are susceptible to phase transformations when subjected to very high temperatures during plasma spraying and XRD is insensitive to the presence of some non crystalline phases and hence Raman spectroscopy was used as an important tool. The microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings showed a bimodal distribution containing fully melted and unmelted zones. The microhardness and wear resistance of the plasma sprayed coatings were determined. Among the plasma sprayed coatings, 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia coating containing pure tetragonal zirconia showed the highest wear resistance. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preparation plasma sprayable YSZ powders without any agglomeration process and plasma spraying {yields} Phase transformation studies of plasma sprayed YSZ coatings by XRD and Raman spectroscopy {yields} Microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings exhibited bimodal distribution {yields} Plasma sprayed 3 mol% YSZ coating exhibited the highest wear resistance {yields} Higher wear resistance is due to the higher fracture toughness of tetragonal 3 mol% YSZ phase.

  3. Wide-temperature-spectrum self-lubricating coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Self-lubricating, multicomponent coatings, which lubricate over a wide range of operating conditions, are described. The coatings were successfully applied by plasma-spraying mixed powders onto superalloy substrates. They were evaluated in friction and wear experiments, and in sliding contact bearing tests. These coatings are wear resistant by virtue of their self lubricating characteristics rather than because of extreme hardness; a further benefit is low friction. Experiments with simple pin on disk sliding specimens and oscillating plain cylindrical bearing tests were performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. It was shown that coatings of nichrome, glass and calcium fluoride are self-lubricating from about 500 to 900 C, but give high friction at the lower temperatures. The addition of silver to the coating composition improved the low temperature bearing properties and resulted in coatings which are self-lubricating from cryogenic temperatures to at least 870 C; they are therefore, wide temperature spectrum, self-lubricating compositions.

  4. Target Plasma Formation for Magnetic Compression/Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemuth, I. R.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Chrien, R. E.; Christian, J. M.; Ekdahl, C. A.; Goforth, J. H.; Haight, R. C.; Idzorek, G.; King, N. S.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Larson, R. E.; Morgan, G. L.; Olinger, B. W.; Oona, H.; Sheehey, P. T.; Shlachter, J. S.; Smith, R. C.; Veeser, L. R.; Warthen, B. J.; Younger, S. M.; Chernyshev, V. K.; Mokhov, V. N.; Demin, A. N.; Dolin, Y. N.; Garanin, S. F.; Ivanov, V. A.; Korchagin, V. P.; Mikhailov, O. D.; Morozov, I. V.; Pak, S. V.; Pavlovskii, E. S.; Seleznev, N. Y.; Skobelev, A. N.; Volkov, G. I.; Yakubov, V. A.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental observations of plasma behavior in a novel plasma formation chamber are reported. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations suggesting that the plasma could subsequently be adiabatically compressed by a magnetically driven pusher to yield 1 GJ of fusion energy. An explosively driven helical flux compression generator mated with a unique closing switch/opening switch combination delivered a 2.7 MA, 347 μs magnetization current and an additional 5 MA, 2.5 μs electrical pulse to the chamber. A hot plasma was produced and 1013 D-T fusion reactions were observed.

  5. Tailoring the heat transfer on the injection moulding cavity by plasma sprayed ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Hopmann, Ch; Öte, M.; Knoch, M. A.; Alkhasli, I.; Dornebusch, H.; Schmitz, M.

    2017-03-01

    Inhomogeneous material shrinkage in injection moulding can cause warpage in thermoplastic components. To minimise the deformations of the injection moulding parts, the heat transfer during the cooling phase can be adjusted according to the local cooling demand on the surface of the mould cavity by means of plasma sprayed coatings with locally variable thermal resistance over the surface of the mould. Thermal resistance is a function of thermal conductivity and thickness of the coatings, where thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings can be adjusted by altering the chemical composition and the microstructure, which is depending on the thickness. This work evaluates the application of plasma sprayed coatings with variable thickness as thermal barrier coatings in the mould cavity. The thermal resistance of the coating and thereby the heat transfer from the melt into the mould will be influenced locally by varying the coating thickness over the cavity area according to the local cooling demand. Using the laser flash method, the thermal conduction of coatings with different thicknesses will be determined. On the basis of the experimentally determined thermal conduction, the effect of the coatings on the temperature field of the mould cavity will be numerically calculated and the required thickness distribution of the coating for an optimal temperature gradient will be determined.

  6. Sintering and Interface Strain Tolerance of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Leissler, George W.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot section SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. A coating system consisting of a zirconia-based oxide topcoat (thermal barrier) and a mullite/BSAS silicate inner coat (environmental barrier) is often considered a model system for the CMC applications. However, the coating sintering, and thermal expansion mismatch between the zirconia oxide layer and the silicate environmental barrier/CMC substrate will be of major concern at high temperature and under thermal cycling conditions. In this study, the sintering behavior of plasma-sprayed freestanding zirconia-yttria-based thermal barrier coatings and mullite (and/or barium-strontium-aluminosilicate, i.e., BSAS) environmental barrier coatings was determined using a dilatometer in the temperature range of 1200-1500 C. The effects of test temperature on the coating sintering kinetics were systematically investigated. The plasma-sprayed zirconia-8wt.%yttria and mullite (BSAS) two-layer composite coating systems were also prepared to quantitatively evaluate the interface strain tolerance of the coating system under thermal cycling conditions based on the dilatomentry. The cyclic response of the coating strain tolerance behavior and interface degradation as a function of cycle number will also be discussed.

  7. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  8. New generation of plasma-sprayed mullite coatings on silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1995-01-01

    Mullite is promising as a protective coating for silicon-based ceramics in aggressive high-temperature environments. Conventionally plasma-sprayed mullite on SiC tends to crack and debond on thermal cycling. It is shown that this behavior is due to the presence of amorphous mullite in the conventionally sprayed mullite. Heating the SiC substrate during the plasma spraying eliminated the amorphous phase and produced coatings with dramatically improved properties. The new coating exhibits excellent adherence and crack resistance under thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 to 1400 C. Preliminary tests showed good resistance to Na2CO3-induced hot corrosion.

  9. Shock Formation in Electron-Ion Plasmas: Mechanism and Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret, Antoine; Stockem Novo, Anne; Ricardo, Fonseca; Luis, Silva

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the formation of a collisionless shock in electron-ion plasmas in theory and simulations. In initially un-magnetized relativistic plasmas, such shocks are triggered by the Weibel instability. While in pair plasmas the shock starts forming right after the instability saturates, it is not so in electron-ion plasmas because the Weibel filaments at saturation are too small. An additional merging phase is therefore necessary for them to efficiently stop the flow. We derive a theoretical model for the shock formation time, taking into account filament merging in the nonlinear phase of the Weibel instability. This process is much slower than in electron-positron pair shocks, and so the shock formation is longer by a factor proportional to √{mi /me } ln(mi /me).

  10. Thermal barrier coating life and isothermal oxidation of low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, W. J.; Miller, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper investigates the isothermal oxidation kinetics of Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y, Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y, and Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y low-pressure plasma-sprayed bond coat alloys and examines the effect of these alloys on the thermal barrier coating (TBC) cyclic life. TBC life was examined by cycling substrates coated with the different bond coats and a ZrO2-7 wt pct Y2O3 TBC in an air-rich burner rig flame between 1150 C and room temperature. The oxidation kinetics of the three bond coat alloys was examined by isothermal oxidation of monolithic NJiCrAlY coupons at 1083 C. The Ni-35Cr-6Al-0.95Y alloy exhibits comparatively high isothermal oxidation weight gains and provides the longest TBC life, whereas the Ni-16Cr-6Al-0.3Y alloy had the lowest weight gains and provided the shortest TBC life. The results show that, although bond coat oxidation is known to have a strong detrimental effect on TBC life, it is not the only bond coat factor that determines TBC life.

  11. Remaining Fatigue Life Assessment of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Philippe; Gitzhofer, François; Fauchais, Pierre; Boulos, Maher

    2010-09-01

    Ceramic functional coatings are frequently applied to structural materials, covering a wide range of thermomechanical and electrochemical applications. The main limiting feature is their reliability when subjected to cyclic transient thermal stresses. The study described in this article is a continuation of earlier research study focused on acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of the thermomechanical aging effects in ceramic coatings. Here, emphasis is placed on the usefulness of combining AE short-term monitoring with finite element modeling (FEM) to predict the performance of such coatings when subjected to cyclic thermal loads. The FEM study presented in this article is based on a three-dimensional, time-dependent approach, of the stress fields that developed within the coatings during the post-deposition cooling step and the thermal cycling. Experiments were conducted using yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Alumina (Al2O3) ceramic coatings combined with a NiCr-based intermetallic bond coat.

  12. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (< 10 microns) single layers to be deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  13. In vitro biological response of plasma electrolytically oxidized and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing Kiu; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Matthews, Allan; Yerokhin, Aleksey

    2013-08-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a relatively new surface modification process that may be used as an alternative to plasma spraying methods to confer bioactivity to Ti alloy implants. The aim of this study was to compare physical, chemical and biological surface characteristics of two coatings applied by PEO processes, containing different calcium phosphate (CaP) and titanium dioxide phases, with a plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Coating characteristics were examined by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry, and wettability tests. The biological properties were determined using the human osteoblastic cell line MG-63 to assess cell viability, calcium and collagen synthesis. The tests showed that PEO coatings are significantly more hydrophilic (6%) and have 78% lower surface roughness (Ra) than the plasma-sprayed coatings. Cell behavior was demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the phase composition and surface distribution of elements in the PEO coating. MG-63 viability for the TiO2 -based PEO coating containing amorphous CaPs was significantly lower than that for the PEO coating containing crystalline HA and the plasma-sprayed coating. However, collagen synthesis on both the CaP and the TiO2 PEO coatings was significantly higher (92% and 71%, respectively) than on the plasma-sprayed coating after 14 days. PEO has been demonstrated to be a promising method for coating of orthopedic implant surfaces.

  14. Use of plasma sprayed coatings as surface treatments for aluminum adherends

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.; Whisnant, P.L.; Groff, G.B.

    1996-12-31

    Surface treatments for metal adherends prior to adhesive bonding typically use chromates and/or strong acids and bases. Such materials are hazardous to personnel and harmful to the environment following disposal. To reduce release of these substances into the environment and lower disposal costs, plasma spray treatments are being developed as surface treatments for aluminum adherends. These treatments eliminate liquid and gaseous wastes and provide bond strength and durability comparable to that provided by the conventional chemical treatments. They have other potential advantages of being more suited for repair/refurbishment and less sensitive to metallurgical differences from alloy to alloy. Plasma sprayed coatings are used in a variety of applications where a coating tailored for specific properties is needed that may or may not be chemically or structurally similar to the base substrate. Plasma spraying has been shown to provide excellent high-temperature bond performance with titanium (unlike conventional oxidation treatments) and durability approaching that of phosphoric acid anodization for aluminum. Success has also been reported using other coatings on aluminum, titanium, and steel. Plasma spraying has the important advantage of versatility. A wide range of coatings (metals, ceramics, and polymers) can be deposited onto an equally wide range of substrates, and the coating properties can be optimized for a given application, independent of the substrate. Because of this versatility, plasma-sprayed coatings have been used for wear resistance, thermal barriers, EMI/RF shielding, corrosion resistance, slip/slide resistance, and biocompatibility in addition to adhesion.

  15. Development of a plasma coating system for induction melting zirconium in a graphite crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, E.L.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1993-05-26

    A plasma coating system has been developed for induction melting zirconium at 1900 C using a graphite crucible. This laminated coating system consists of plasma spraying the following materials onto the graphite: (1) molybdenum or tungsten, (2) a 50% blend by weight of the metal powder and calcia-stabilized zirconium oxide, and (3) calcia-stabilized zirconia followed by painting a final coating of nonstabilized zirconia on top of the plasma-sprayed coating system. Zirconium was melted in argon using both laminating systems without any degradation of the graphite crucible and with only a minimal amount of carbon absorption. This novel approach that is being proposed as an alternative method of melting zirconium alloys offers substantial cost savings over the standard practice of electric arc melting using a consumable electrode.

  16. Comparison of different hard, metal-like coatings sprayed by plasma and detonation gun processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vuoristo, P.; Niemi, K.; Maentylae, T.; Berger, L.M.; Nebelung, M.

    1995-12-31

    Structure and wear properties of atmospheric plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed coatings prepared from an experimental (Ti,Mo)C-28.4%NiCo powder were compared to coatings sprayed from commercially available WC-12%Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25%NiCr powders. All powders had an agglomerated (spray dried) and sintered structure and nearly the same content of the metallic binder of approximately 20 vol.-%. The powders were characterized by SEM (morphology and cross-sections) and X-ray diffraction (phase composition). The coatings were studied by optical microscope, microhardness measurements, X-ray diffraction analysis and by abrasion and erosion wear tests. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the coatings show that the (Ti,Mo)C-28.4%NiCo powder is characterized by high phase stability in both spray processes, whereas the WC-12%Co powder is prone to significant phase transformations during spraying. The results clearly show the high potential of the experimental (Ti,Mo)C-28.4%NiCo coatings in substituting the conventional systems in wear applications. For instance, it was found that plasma spraying of the (Ti,Mo)C-28.4%NiCo powder with an Ar-H{sub 2} plasma gas resulted in coatings with wear resistance comparable to WC-12%Co coatings. However, detonation gun sprayed WC-12%Co coatings showed somewhat better abrasion wear resistance.

  17. Advancements in predictive plasma formation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, Michael A.; Schafgans, Alexander; Brown, Daniel J. W.; Fomenkov, Igor; Rafac, Rob; Brown, Josh; Tao, Yezheng; Rokitski, Slava; Abraham, Mathew; Vargas, Mike; Rich, Spencer; Taylor, Ted; Brandt, David; Pirati, Alberto; Fisher, Aaron; Scott, Howard; Koniges, Alice; Eder, David; Wilks, Scott; Link, Anthony; Langer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    We present highlights from plasma simulations performed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Labs. This modeling is performed to advance the rate of learning about optimal EUV generation for laser produced plasmas and to provide insights where experimental results are not currently available. The goal is to identify key physical processes necessary for an accurate and predictive model capable of simulating a wide range of conditions. This modeling will help to drive source performance scaling in support of the EUV Lithography roadmap. The model simulates pre-pulse laser interaction with the tin droplet and follows the droplet expansion into the main pulse target zone. Next, the interaction of the expanded droplet with the main laser pulse is simulated. We demonstrate the predictive nature of the code and provide comparison with experimental results.

  18. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  19. Status of Plasma Physics Techniques for the Deposition of Tribological Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma physics deposition techniques of sputtering and ion-plating are reviewed. Their characteristics and potentials are discussed in terms of synthesis or deposition of tribological coatings. Since the glow discharge or plasma generated in the conventional sputtering and ion-plating techniques has a low ionization efficiency, rapid advances have been made in equipment design to further increase the ionization efficiency. The enhanced ionization favorably affects the nucleation and growth sequence of the coating. This leads to improved adherence and coherence, higher density, favorable morphological growth, and reduced internal stresses in the coatings. As a result, desirable coating characteristics can be precision tailored. Tribological coating characteristics of sputtered solid film lubricants such as MoS2, ion-plated soft gold and lead metallic films, and sputtered and ion-plated wear-resistant refractory compound films such as nitrides and carbides are discussed.

  20. A design of experiment study of plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Steeper, T.J.; Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Riggs, W.L. II; Rotolico, A.J.; Nerz, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    An experimental study of the plasma spraying of alumina-titania powder is presented in this paper. This powder system is being used to fabricate heater tubes that emulate nuclear fuel tubes for use in thermal-hydraulic testing. Coating experiments were conducted using a Taguchi fractional-factorial design parametric study. Operating parameters were varied around the typical spray parameters in a systematic design of experiments in order to display the range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating. The coatings were characterized by hardness and electrical tests, image analysis, and optical metallography. Coating qualities are discussed with respect to dielectric strength, hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. The attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters.

  1. Development of improved-durability plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Ruckle, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation is reported of improving the durability of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for the vane platforms in the JT9d turbofan engine. The program aims for reduced fuel consumption of commercial aircraft engines; the use of improved strain tolerant microstructures and control of the substrate temperature during coating application are being evaluated. The initial burner rig tests at temperatures up to 1010 C indicated that improvements in cyclic life greater than 20:1 over previous ceramic coatings were achieved. Three plasma sprayed coating systems applied to first stage vane platforms in the high pressure turbine were subjected to a 1000-cycle JT9D engine endurance test with only minor damage occurring to the coatings.

  2. Development of improved-durability plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Ruckle, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to reduce fuel consumption of current commercial aircraft engines, methods were investigated for improving the durability of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for use on vane platforms in the JT9D turbofan engine. Increased durability concepts under evaluation include use of improved strain tolerant microstructures and control of the substrate temperature during coating application. Initial burner rig tests conducted at temperatures of 1010 C (1850 F) indicate that improvements in cyclic life greater than 20:1 over previous ceramic coating systems were achieved. Three plasma sprayed coating systems applied to first stage vane platforms in the high pressure turbine were subjected to a 100-cycle JT9D engine endurance test with only minor damage occurring to the coatings.

  3. In vitro fatigue behaviour of vacuum plasma and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    2001-06-01

    The fatigue behaviour of vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) and detonation gun sprayed (DGUN) hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates has been compared in air and in buffered Ringer's solution. There was an increase in the surface microcracking and bulk porosity of both types of coating tested in air. After 1 million cycles in Ringer's solution the VPS coatings had completely delaminated from their substrates. In contrast the DGUN coatings retained their integrity when tested up to 10 million cycles but were beginning to show signs of delamination at the interface.

  4. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  5. Efficiency of surface cleaning by a glow discharge for plasma spraying coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Kashapov, N. F.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Fadeev, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies of the quality of cleaning steel surfaces by a glow discharge for plasma spraying. Shows the results of measurements of the angle of surface wetting and bond strength of the plasma coating to the surface treated. The dependence of the influence of the glow discharge power, chamber pressure, distance between the electrodes and the processing time of the surface on cleaning efficiency. Optimal fields of factors is found. It is shown increase joint strength coating and base by 30-80% as a result of cleaning the substrate surface by a glow discharge plasma spraying.

  6. Formation of Solution-derived Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Alloy in the Presence of Magnetron-sputtered Alumina Bond Coats.

    PubMed

    Zykova, Anna; Safonov, Vladimir; Yanovska, Anna; Sukhodub, Leonid; Rogovskaya, Renata; Smolik, Jerzy; Yakovin, Stas

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp) and calcium phosphate ceramic materials and coatings are widely used in medicine and dentistry because of their ability to enhance the tissue response to implant surfaces and promote bone ingrowth and osseoconduction processes. The deposition conditions have a great influence on the structure and biofunctionality of calcium phosphate coatings. Corrosion processes and poor adhesion to substrate material reduce the lifetime of implants with calcium phosphate coatings. The research has focused on the development of advanced methods to deposit double-layered ceramic oxide/calcium phosphate coatings by a hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and thermal methods. The thermal method can promote the crystallization and the formation of HAp coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V substrates at low temperature, based on the principle that the solubility of HAp in aqueous solutions decreases with increasing substrate temperature. By this method, hydroxyapatite directly coated the substrate without precipitation in the initial solution. Using a thermal substrate method, calcium phosphate coatings were prepared at substrate temperatures of 100-105 (o)C. The coated metallic implant surfaces with ceramic bond coats and calcium phosphate layers combine the excellent mechanical properties of metals with the chemical stability of ceramic materials. The corrosion test results show that the ceramic oxide (alumina) coatings and the double-layered alumina-calcium phosphate coatings improve the corrosion resistance compared with uncoated Ti6Al4V and single-layered Ti6Al4V/calcium phosphate substrates. In addition, the double-layered alumina/hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate the best biocompatibility during in vitro tests.

  7. Formation of Solution-derived Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Alloy in the Presence of Magnetron-sputtered Alumina Bond Coats

    PubMed Central

    Zykova, Anna; Safonov, Vladimir; Yanovska, Anna; Sukhodub, Leonid; Rogovskaya, Renata; Smolik, Jerzy; Yakovin, Stas

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp) and calcium phosphate ceramic materials and coatings are widely used in medicine and dentistry because of their ability to enhance the tissue response to implant surfaces and promote bone ingrowth and osseoconduction processes. The deposition conditions have a great influence on the structure and biofunctionality of calcium phosphate coatings. Corrosion processes and poor adhesion to substrate material reduce the lifetime of implants with calcium phosphate coatings. The research has focused on the development of advanced methods to deposit double-layered ceramic oxide/calcium phosphate coatings by a hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and thermal methods. The thermal method can promote the crystallization and the formation of HAp coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V substrates at low temperature, based on the principle that the solubility of HAp in aqueous solutions decreases with increasing substrate temperature. By this method, hydroxyapatite directly coated the substrate without precipitation in the initial solution. Using a thermal substrate method, calcium phosphate coatings were prepared at substrate temperatures of 100-105 oC. The coated metallic implant surfaces with ceramic bond coats and calcium phosphate layers combine the excellent mechanical properties of metals with the chemical stability of ceramic materials. The corrosion test results show that the ceramic oxide (alumina) coatings and the double-layered alumina-calcium phosphate coatings improve the corrosion resistance compared with uncoated Ti6Al4V and single-layered Ti6Al4V/calcium phosphate substrates. In addition, the double-layered alumina/hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate the best biocompatibility during in vitro tests. PMID:25893018

  8. Study of thermal and electrical parameters of workpieces during spray coating by electrolytic plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khafizov, A. A.; Shakirov, Yu I.; Valiev, R. A.; Valiev, R. I.; Khafizova, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of thermal and electrical parameters of products in the system bottom layer - intermediate layer when applying protective coatings of ferromagnetic powder by plasma spray produced in an electric discharge with a liquid cathode, on steel samples. Temperature distribution and gradients in coating and intermediate coating were examined. Detailed descriptions of spray coating with ferromagnetic powder by plasma jet obtained in electrical discharge with liquid cathode and the apparatus for obtaining thereof is provided. Problem has been solved by using of Fourier analysis. Initial data for calculations is provided. Results of numerical analysis are provided as temporal functions of temperature in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating as well as temporal function of the value Q=q-φ where q is density of heat current directed to the free surface of intermediate coating, φ is density of heat current in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating. The analysis of data given shows that in the systems of contact heat exchange bottom layer-intermediate layer with close values of the thermophysical characteristics of constituting materials is observed a slow increase of the temperature of the contact as a function of time.

  9. Fluorocarbon nano-coating of polyester fabrics by atmospheric air plasma with aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, F.; Campagne, C.; Perwuelz, A.; Gengembre, L.

    2008-04-01

    A fluorocarbon coating was deposited on polyester (PET) woven fabric using pulse discharge plasma treatment by injecting a fluoropolymer directly into the plasma dielectric barrier discharge. The objective of the treatment was to improve the hydrophobic properties as well as the repellent behaviour of the polyester fabric. Plasma treatment conditions were optimised to obtain optimal hydrophobic properties which were evaluated using water contact angle measurement as well as spray-test method at the polyester fabric surface. The study showed that adhesion of the fluoropolymer to the woven PET was greatly enhanced by the air plasma treatment. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed chemical surface modifications occurring after the plasma treatments.

  10. Plasma formation in diode pumped alkali lasers sustained in Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markosyan, Aram H.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-11-01

    In diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), lasing action occurs on the resonant lines of alkali atoms following pumping by broadband semiconductor lasers. The goal is to convert the efficient but usually poor optical quality of inexpensive diode lasers into the high optical quality of atomic vapor lasers. Resonant excitation of alkali vapor leads to plasma formation through the excitation transfer from the 2P states to upper lying states, which then are photoionized by the pump and intracavity radiation. A first principles global model was developed to investigate the operation of the He/Cs DPAL system and the consequences of plasma formation on the efficiency of the laser. Over a range of pump powers, cell temperatures, excitation frequency, and mole fraction of the collision mixing agent (N2 or C2H6), we found that sufficient plasma formation can occur that the Cs vapor is depleted. Although N2 is not a favored collisional mixing agent due to large rates of quenching of the 2P states, we found a range of pump parameters where laser oscillation may occur. The poor performance of N2 buffered systems may be explained in part by plasma formation. We found that during the operation of the DPAL system with N2 as the collisional mixing agent, plasma formation is in excess of 1014-1015 cm-3, which can degrade laser output intensity by both depletion of the neutral vapor and electron collisional mixing of the laser levels.

  11. Kinetic aspects of the formation of aluminium oxide by use of a microwave-induced plasma.

    PubMed

    Quade, A; Steffen, H; Hippler, R; Wulff, H

    2002-10-01

    The oxidation of thin aluminium layers in a microwave plasma has been investigated to determine the kinetics of oxide growth. Thin Al-coatings were oxidized by means of a variety of gas mixtures, characterized by different partial pressures of oxygen, in microwave-induced plasmas of different power. To study the whole kinetic process the Al-metal and the oxide formed were investigated by means of a combination of grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry (GIXR) and grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD). XPS and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of stoichiometric Al(2)O(3). The alumina formed is X-ray amorphous. Quantitative description of oxide formation was achieved indirectly by determination of the decrease in the integrated intensity of the Al(111)-peak and the total thickness of the whole coating. These values enabled calculation of kinetic data. It was found that oxide growth was a combination of two simultaneous processes - diffusion and sputter processes. The diffusion coefficient D (cm(2) s(-1)) and the sputter rate S (nm s(-1)) were determined. The effect of the composition of the gas mixture, microwave power, and concentration of activated oxygen species on the oxidation process will be discussed. For calculation of the activation energy, E(A), of this plasma-enhanced diffusion process the temperature-dependence of D was investigated.

  12. Permeation barrier coating and plasma sterilization of PET bottles and foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) offer various advantages over glass or metal containers. Beside this they only offer poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf-live of packaged food is reduced. Additionally, common sterilization methods like heat, hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid may not be applicable due to reduced heat or chemical resistance of the plastic packaging material. For the plasma sterilization and permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils, a microwave driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna. The dependencies of important plasma parameters, such as gas mixture, process pressure, power and pulse conditions on oxygen permeation through packaging foil are investigated. A residual permeation as low as J = 1.0 ±0.3 cm^3m-2day-1bar-1 for 60 nm thick silicon oxide (SiOx) coated PET foils is achieved. To discuss this residual permeation, coating defects are visualized by capacitively coupled atomic oxygen plasma etching of coated substrate. A defect density of 3000 mm-2 is revealed responsible for permeation. For plasma sterilization, optimized plasma parameters based on fundamental research of plasma sterilization mechanisms permit short treatment times of a few seconds.

  13. Microwave absorption property of plasma spray W-type hexagonal ferrite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shicheng; Liu, Yi; Tian, Haoliang; Tong, Hui; Liu, Yuxin; Xu, Binshi

    2015-03-01

    In order to enhance the adhesion strength of microwave absorbing materials, W-type hexagonal ferrite coating is fabricated by plasma spray. The feedstock of ferrite powders is synthesized by solid-state reaction and spray dried process. Microstructures of the coating are analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectra (EDS). Hexagonal ferrite coating is successfully deposited on the substrate with adhesion strength of 28 MPa. The magnetic property of ferrite samples is measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Saturation magnetization of the ferrite coating is lower than ferrite powder. Reflection loss of the hexagonal ferrite coating is measured in frequency of 2-18 GHz. The result shows that the coating is suitable for electromagnetic wave absorbers in Ku-band.

  14. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Coatings on an A356 Alloy for Improved Corrosion and Wear Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhijing

    Plasma electrolytic oxidizing (PEO) is an advanced technique that has been used to deposit thick and hard ceramic coatings on aluminium (Al) alloys. This work was however to use the PEO process to produce thin ceramic oxide coatings on an A356 Al alloy for improving corrosion and wear resistance of the alloy. Effects of current density and treatment time on surface morphologies and thickness of the PEO coatings were investigated. The improvement of galvanic corrosion properties of the coated A356 alloy vs. steel and carbon fibre were evaluated in E85 fuel or NaCl environments. Tribological properties of the coatings were studied with comparison to the uncoated A356 substrate and other commercially-used engine bore materials. The research results indicated that the PEO coatings could have excellent tribological and corrosion properties for aluminium engine applications.

  15. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  16. Plasma calcining of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Method utilizes an RF excited plasma to surface deactivate thermally stable powders at high temperatures. Utilization of this plasma heat treatment at high temperatures can be carried out without grain growth, calcination, or agglomeration.

  17. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    PubMed

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with

  18. Analysis of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings With Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Bond Coats Under Spatially Uniform Cyclic Thermal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Aboudi, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a numerical investigation into the spallation mechanism in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings observed under spatially-uniform cyclic thermal loading. The analysis focuses on the evolution of local stress and inelastic strain fields in the vicinity of the rough top/bond coat interface during thermal cycling, and how these fields are influenced by the presence of an oxide film and spatially uniform and graded distributions of alumina particles in the metallic bond coat aimed at reducing the top/bond coat thermal expansion mismatch. The impact of these factors on the potential growth of a local horizontal delamination at the rough interface's crest is included. The analysis is conducted using the Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials with creep/relaxation constituent modeling capabilities. For two-phase bond coat microstructures, both the actual and homogenized properties are employed in the analysis. The results reveal the important contributions of both the normal and shear stress components to the delamination growth potential in the presence of an oxide film, and suggest mixed-mode crack propagation. The use of bond coats with uniform or graded microstructures is shown to increase the potential for delamination growth by increasing the magnitude of the crack-tip shear stress component.

  19. PLASMA SPRAYED Ni-Al COATINGS FOR SAFE ENDING HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.; OTTERSON,D.; BERNDT,C.C.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed thermally conductive composite liners for corrosion and scale protection in heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The liners cannot withstand roller expansion to connect the tubes to the tubesheet. It is not possible to line the ends of the tubes with the same material after roller expansion due to the nature of the current liner application process. It was requested that BNL evaluate plasma sprayed Ni-Al coatings for safe ending heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The tubes of interest had an internal diameter of 0.875 inches. It is not typical to thermal spray small diameter components or use such small standoff distances. In this project a nozzle extension was developed by Zatorski Coating Company to spray the tube ends as well as flat coupons for testing. Four different Ni-Al coatings were investigated. One of these was a ductilized Ni-AIB material developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coatings were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and subjected to corrosion, tensile adhesion, microhardness and field tests in a volcanic pool in New Zealand. It was determined that the Ni-Al coatings could be applied to a depth of two inches on the tube ends. When sprayed on flat coupons the coatings exhibited relatively high adhesion strength and microhardness. Polarization curves showed that the coating performance was variable. Measured corrosion potentials indicated that the Ni-Al coatings are active towards steel coated with thermally conductive polymers, thereby suggesting preferential corrosion. Corrosion also occurred on the coated coupons tested in the volcanic pool. This may have been exacerbated by the difficulty in applying a uniform coating to the coupon edges. The Ni-Al coatings applied to the tubes had significant porosity and did not provide adequate corrosion protection. This is associated with

  20. Nanostructure protein repellant amphiphilic copolymer coatings with optimized surface energy by Inductively Excited Low Pressure Plasma.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Sudhir; Pulpytel, Jérome; Ceccone, Giacomo; Lisboa, Patricia; Rossi, François; Kumar, Virendra; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2011-12-06

    Statistically designed amphiphilic copolymer coatings were deposited onto Thermanox, Si wafer, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrates via Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate and diethylene glycol vinyl ether in an Inductively Excited Low Pressure Plasma reactor. Plasma deposited amphiphilic coatings were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Water Contact Angle techniques. The surface energy of the coatings can be adjusted between 12 and 70 mJ/m(2). The roughness of the coatings can be tailored depending on the plasma mode used. A very smooth coating was deposited with a CW (continuous wave) power, whereas a rougher surface with R(a) in the range of 2 to 12 nm was deposited with the PW (pulsed wave) mode. The nanometer scale roughness of amphiphilic PFDA-co-DEGVE coatings was found to be in the range of the size of the two proteins namely BSA and lysozyme used to examine for the antifouling properties of the surfaces. The results show that the statistically designed surfaces, presenting a surface energy around 25 mJ/m(2), present no adhesion with respect to both proteins measured by QCM.

  1. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  2. Effect of Zr on microstructure of metallic glass coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Kuroda, T; Kimura, H; Inoue, A

    2012-06-01

    Metallic glass is one of the most attractive advanced materials, and many researchers have conducted various developmental research works. Metallic glass is expected to be used as a functional material because of its excellent physical and chemical functions such as high strength and high corrosion resistance. However, the application for small size parts has been carried out only in some industrial fields. In order to widen the industrial application fields, a composite material is preferred for the cost performance. In the coating processes of metallic glass with the conventional deposition techniques, there is a difficulty to form thick coatings due to their low deposition rate. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential candidates to produce metallic glass composites. Metallic glass coatings can be applied to the longer parts and therefore the application field can be widened. The gas tunnel plasma spraying is one of the most important technologies for high quality ceramic coating and synthesizing functional materials. As the gas tunnel type plasma jet is superior to the properties of other conventional type plasma jets, this plasma has great possibilities for various applications in thermal processing. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying was used to form the metallic glass coatings on the stainless-steel substrate. The microstructure and surface morphology of the metallic glass coatings were examined using Fe-based metallic glass powder and Zr-based metallic glass powder as coating material. For the mechanical properties the Vickers hardness was measured on the cross section of both the coatings and the difference between the powders was compared.

  3. Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxylapatite-Based Coatings: Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructural, and Biomedical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2016-06-01

    This contribution discusses salient properties and functions of hydroxylapatite (HA)-based plasma-sprayed coatings, including the effect on biomedical efficacy of coating thickness, phase composition and distribution, amorphicity and crystallinity, porosity and surface roughness, cohesion and adhesion, micro- and nano-structured surface morphology, and residual coating stresses. In addition, it will provide details of the thermal alteration that HA particles undergo in the extremely hot plasma jet that leads to dehydroxylated phases such as oxyhydroxylapatite (OHA) and oxyapatite (OA) as well as thermal decomposition products such as tri-(TCP) and tetracalcium phosphates (TTCP), and quenched phases such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The contribution will further explain the role of ACP during the in vitro interaction of the as-deposited coatings with simulated body fluid resembling the composition of extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as the in vivo responses of coatings to the ECF and the host tissue, respectively. Finally, it will briefly describe performance profiles required to fulfill biological functions of osteoconductive bioceramic coatings designed to improve osseointegration of hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. In large parts, the content of this contribution is a targeted review of work done by the author and his students and coworkers over the last two decades. In addition, it is considered a stepping stone toward a standard operation procedure aimed at depositing plasma-sprayed bioceramic implant coatings with optimum properties.

  4. Preparation of chitosan-coated polyethylene packaging films by DBD plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Theapsak, Siriporn; Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2012-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) packaging films were coated with chitosan in order to introduce the antibacterial activity to the films. To augment the interaction between the two polymers, we modified the surfaces of the PE films by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma before chitosan coating. After that the plasma-treated PE films were immersed in chitosan acetate solutions with different concentrations of chitosan. The optimum plasma treatment time was 10 s as determined from contact angle measurement. Effect of the plasma treatment on the surface roughness of the PE films was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) while the occurrence of polar functional groups was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscope (FTIR). It was found that the surface roughness as well as the occurrence of oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., C═O, C-O, and -OH) of the plasma-treated PE films increased from those of the untreated one, indicating that the DBD plasma enhanced hydrophilicity of the PE films. The amounts of chitosan coated on the PE films were determined after washing the coated films in water for several number of washing cycles prior to detection of the chitosan content by the Kjaldahl method. The amounts of chitosan coated on the PE films were constant after washing for three times and the chitosan-coated PE films exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, the obtained chitosan-coated PE films could be a promising candidate for antibacterial food packaging.

  5. Halo Formation And Emittance Growth of Positron Beams in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, P.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.; Lu, W.; Mori, W.B.; O'Connell, C.L.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Zhou, M.; /UCLA

    2011-10-25

    An ultrarelativistic 28.5 GeV, 700-{micro}m-long positron bunch is focused near the entrance of a 1.4-m-long plasma with a density n{sub e} between {approx}10{sup 13} and {approx}5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}. Partial neutralization of the bunch space charge by the mobile plasma electrons results in a reduction in transverse size by a factor of {approx}3 in the high emittance plane of the beam {approx}1 m downstream from the plasma exit. As n{sub e} increases, the formation of a beam halo containing {approx}40% of the total charge is observed, indicating that the plasma focusing force is nonlinear. Numerical simulations confirm these observations. The bunch with an incoming transverse size ratio of {approx}3 and emittance ratio of {approx}5 suffers emittance growth and exits the plasma with approximately equal sizes and emittances.

  6. Nanoparticle formation and thin film deposition in aniline containing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Cedric; Dias, Ana; Hussain, Shahzad; Strunskus, Thomas; Stefanovic, Ilija; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Lecas, Thomas; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    This contribution deals with plasma based polymerization processes in mixtures of argon and aniline. The investigations are performed in a capacitively coupled RF discharge (in pulsed and continuous mode) and concern both the observed formation of nanoparticles in the plasma volume and the deposition of films. The latter process was used for the deposition of ultra-thin layers on different kind of nanocarbon materials (nanotubes and free standing graphene). The analysis of the plasma and the plasma chemistry (by means of mass spectroscopy and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy) is accompanied by several ex-situ diagnostics of the obtained materials which include NEXAFS and XPS measurements as well as Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The decisive point of the investigations concern the preservation of the original monomer structure during the plasma polymerization processes and the stability of the thin films on the different substrates.

  7. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting

    2014-06-16

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  8. Formation of pre-sheath boundary layers in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    In electronegative plasmas Coulomb scattering between positive and negative ions can lead to the formation of a pre-sheath boundary layer containing the bulk of the negative ions. The negative ion boundary layer forms when momentum transfer from positive to negative ions dominates the negative ion acceleration from the electric field. This condition is met in Inductively Coupled Plasma reactors that operate at low pressure and high plasma density. Simulations of the GEC reactor for Chlorine and Oxygen chemistries using the INDUCT95 2D model are presented showing the pre-sheath boundary layer structure as a function of applied power and neutral pressure.

  9. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density

    PubMed Central

    Balasundaram, Ganesan; Storey, Daniel M; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) and coat it on titanium (Ti) using molecular plasma deposition (MPD). NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA) were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. PMID:25609958

  10. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Ganesan; Storey, Daniel M; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) and coat it on titanium (Ti) using molecular plasma deposition (MPD). NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA) were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications.

  11. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 μm), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  12. Characterization of High-Velocity Single Particle Impacts on Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiilakoski, Jarkko; Lindroos, Matti; Apostol, Marian; Koivuluoto, Heli; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani; Vuoristo, Petri

    2016-08-01

    High-velocity impact wear can have a significant effect on the lifetime of thermally sprayed coatings in multiple applications, e.g., in the process and paper industries. Plasma-sprayed oxide coatings, such as Cr2O3- and TiO2-based coatings, are often used in these industries in wear and corrosion applications. An experimental impact study was performed on thermally sprayed ceramic coatings using the High-Velocity Particle Impactor (HVPI) at oblique angles to investigate the damage, failure, and deformation of the coated structures. The impact site was characterized by profilometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the connection between the microstructural details and impact behavior was studied in order to reveal the damage and failure characteristics at a more comprehensive level. Differences in the fracture behavior were found between the thermally sprayed Cr2O3 and TiO2 coatings, and a concept of critical impact energy is presented here. The superior cohesion of the TiO2 coating inhibited interlamellar cracking while the Cr2O3 coating suffered greater damage at high impact energies. The HVPI experiment has proven to be able to produce valuable information about the deformation behavior of coatings under high strain rates and could be utilized further in the development of wear-resistant coatings.

  13. Microstructural design of functionally graded coatings composed of suspension plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Cattini, Andrea; Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Pawłowski, Lech; Cannillo, Valeria

    2014-04-01

    Various bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite (HA) functional coatings were designed by the suspension plasma spraying (SPS) technique. Their microstructure, scratch resistance, and apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid (SBF) were compared. The functional coatings design included: (i) composite coating, that is, randomly distributed constituent phases; (ii) duplex coating with glass top layer onto HA layer; and (iii) graded coating with a gradual changing composition starting from pure HA at the interface with the metal substrate up to pure glass on the surface. The SPS was a suitable coating technique to produce all the coating designs. The SBF tests revealed that the presence of a pure glass layer on the working surface significantly improved the reactivity of the duplex and graded coatings, but the duplex coating suffered a relatively low scratch resistance because of residual stresses. The graded coating therefore provided the best compromise between mechanical reliability and apatite-forming ability in SBF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 551-560, 2014.

  14. Plasma-Etching of Spray-Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Biointerfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joon Hyub; Lee, Jun-Yong; Min, Nam Ki

    2012-08-01

    We present an effective method for the batch fabrication of miniaturized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrodes using oxygen plasma etching. We adopted the approach of spray-coating for good adhesion of the SWCNT film onto a pre-patterned Pt support and used O2 plasma patterning of the coated films to realize efficient biointerfaces between SWCNT surfaces and biomolecules. By these approaches, the SWCNT film can be easily integrated into miniaturized electrode systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes as biointerfaces, Legionella antibody was selected as analysis model owing to its considerable importance to electrochemical biosensors and was detected using plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes and a 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-benzidine dihydrochloride/horseradish peroxidase (TMB/HRP) catalytic system. The response currents increased with increasing concentration of Legionella antibody. This result indicates that antibodies were effectively immobilized on plasma-etched and activated SWCNT surfaces.

  15. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.

    1991-05-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time. 10 figures.

  16. Super-amphiphilic surface of nano silica/polyurethane hybrid coated PET film via a plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Bui, Van-Tien; Liu, Xuyan; Ko, Seung Hyeon; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-09-01

    This study first reports the fabrication of a super-amphiphilic surface using PET films with a silica-polyurethane hybrid top-coat layer through a non-thermal, one-atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. This surface displays contact angle close to zero with both aqueous and oily liquids, which has attracted enormous attention for a wide-range of practical applications. We systematically investigated the influence of the plasma treatment time on the wetting behavior of the silica-polyurethane coated PET surface. The changes in morphology and chemical composition of PET surfaces before and after a plasma treatment were analyzed. In order to gain an insight into the formation of a super-amphiphilic PET surface and optimize the conditions under which super-amphiphilicity can be realized, we used a hemi-wicking action as a theoretical model and experimentally verified it through determining the critical angle. We also proposed a guide for designing a nano-sphere patterned PDMS surface which can generate super-wetting properties after a plasma treatment.

  17. Fabrication and Wear Behavior of Nanostructured Plasma-Sprayed 6061Al-SiCp Composite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailor, Satish; Mohanty, R. M.; Sharma, V. K.; Soni, P. R.

    2014-10-01

    6061Al powder with 15 wt.% SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforcement was mechanically alloyed (MA) in a high-energy attrition mill. The MA powder was then plasma sprayed onto weathering steel (Cor-Ten A242) substrate using an atmospheric plasma spray process. Results of particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that the addition of SiC particles as the reinforcement influences on the matrix grain size and morphology. XRD studies revealed embedment of SiCp in the MA-processed composite powder, and nanocrystals in the MA powder and the coating. Microstructural studies showed a uniform distribution of reinforced SiC particles in the coating. The porosity level in the coating was as low as 2% while the coating hardness was increased to 232VHN. The adhesion strength of the coatings was high and this was attributed to higher degree of diffusion at the interface. The wear rate in the coatings was evaluated using a pin-on-disk type tribometer and found to decrease by 50% compared to the 6061Al matrix coating. The wear mechanism in the coating was delamination and oxidative type.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of plasma-sprayed HA/SiO(2) coatings for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Morks, M F

    2008-01-01

    Fused silica powder has been mixed with hydroxyapatite (HA) powder and plasma sprayed by using gas tunnel-type plasma jet. The influence of silica content (10 wt% and 20 wt%) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of HA-silica coatings was investigated. For investigating the microstructure and mechanical properties of HA-silica coatings, SUS 304 stainless steel was used as substrate material. The spraying was carried out on roughened substrate in an atmospheric chamber. Scanning electron microscope micrographs of cross-sectioned HA/SiO(2) coatings showed that the sprayed HA coatings with 10 and 20 wt% SiO(2) have dense structure with low porosity compared to the pure HA coatings. On the other hand, as the amount of silica was increased the coatings became denser, harder and exhibited high abrasive wear resistance. The presence of silica significantly improved the adhesive strength of HA/SiO(2) coatings mainly due to the increase in bonding strength of the coating at the interface.

  19. The effects of plasma spray parameters and atmosphere on the properties and microstructure of WC-Co coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Lamy, D.; Sopkow, T.; Smuga-Otto, I.

    Wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings deposited by plasma spray process are increasingly used in severe environments in resource industries, such as oil and gas, oil sands, mining, pulp and paper, etc. While there is a large volume of literature in the area of plasma spray coatings, comparatively few papers deal with the co-relation between coating properties and microstructure as a function of plasma spray processing parameters. In this study, the effect of some plasma spray processing variables and atmosphere (air or inert gas) on the microstructure and the properties of WC-Co coatings were studied. The properties of the coatings measured include: microhardness, porosity by image analysis, wear resistance by dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion test (ASTM G 65-91) and corrosion properties by AC impedance technique. Phase analyses of the coatings were also performed by X-ray diffraction. From the above, optimized coatings were developed for oil and gas industry applications.

  20. Nanocomposite Lanthanum Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaohui; Wang, You; Wang, Liang; Hao, Guangzhao; Sun, Xiaoguang; Shan, Fan; Zou, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    This work seeks to develop an innovative nanocomposite thermal barrier coating (TBC) exhibiting low thermal conductivity and high durability compared with that of current TBCs. To achieve this objective, nanosized lanthanum zirconate particles were selected for the topcoat of the TBC system, and a new process—suspension plasma spray—was employed to produce desirable microstructural features: the nanocomposite lanthanum zirconate TBC contains ultrafine splats and high volume porosity, for lower thermal conductivity, and better durability. The parameters of plasma spray experiment included two main variables: (i) spray distance varying from 40 to 80 mm and (ii) the concentration of suspension 20, 25, and 30 wt.%, respectively. The microstructure of obtained coatings was characterized with scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction. The porosity of coatings is in the range of 6-10%, and the single phase in the as-sprayed coatings was pyrochlore lanthanum zirconate.

  1. Preparation of germanium doped plasma polymerized coatings as ICF target ablators

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R M; Saculla, M D; Cook, R C

    1994-10-05

    Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilize an organic (CH) ablator coating prepared by plasma polymerization. Some of these experiments require a mid-Z dopant in the ablator coating to modify the opacity of the shell. Bromine had been used in the past, but the surface finish of brominated CH degrades rapidly with time upon exposure to air. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of plasma polymer layers containing germanium as a dopant at concentrations of between 1.25 and 2.25 atom percent. The coatings are stable in air and have an rms surface roughness of 7--9 nm (modes 10--1,000) which is similar to that obtained with undoped coatings. High levels of dopant result in cracking of the inner mandrel during target assembly. Possible explanations for the observed cracking behavior will be discussed.

  2. Pressure-Based Liquid Feed System for Suspension Plasma Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotler, Elliot M.; Chen, Dianying; Molz, Ronald J.

    2011-06-01

    Thermal spraying with liquid-based feedstocks demonstrated a potential to produce coatings with new and enhanced characteristics. A liquid delivery system prototype was developed and tested in this study. The feeder is based on the 5MPE platform and uses a pressure setup to optimally inject and atomize liquid feedstock into a plasma plume. A novel self-cleaning apparatus is incorporated into the system to greatly reduce problems associated with clogging and agglomeration of liquid suspensions. This approach also allows the liquid feedstock line to the gun to remain charged for quick on-off operation. Experiments on aqueous and ethanol-based suspensions of titania, alumina, and YSZ were performed through this liquid delivery system using a 9MB plasma gun. Coatings with ultrafine splat microstructures were obtained by plasma spraying of those suspensions. Phase composition and microstructure of the as-sprayed coatings were investigated.

  3. Plasma treatment of thin film coated with graphene flakes for the reduction of sheet resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hee; Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Kyong Nam; Seo, Jin Seok; Jeon, Min Hwan; Yang, Kyung Chae; Yeom, Geun Young

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of plasma treatment on the sheet resistance of thin films spray-coated with graphene flakes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Thin films coated with graphene flakes show high sheet resistance due to defects within graphene edges, domains, and residual oxygen content. Cl2 plasma treatment led to decreased sheet resistance when treatment time was increased, but when thin films were treated for too long the sheet resistance increased again. Optimum treatment time was related to film thickness. The reduction of sheet resistance may be explained by the donation of holes due to forming pi-type covalent bonds of Cl with carbon atoms on graphene surfaces, or by C--Cl bonding at the sites of graphene defects. However, due to radiation damage caused by plasma treatment, sheet resistance increased with increased treatment time. We found that the sheet resistance of PET film coated with graphene flakes could be decreased by 50% under optimum conditions.

  4. "Thunderstruck": Plasma-Polymer-Coated Porous Silicon Microparticles As a Controlled Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Steven J P; Michl, Thomas D; Delalat, Bahman; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Coad, Bryan R; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the release kinetics from a drug carrier is crucial to maintain a drug's therapeutic window. We report the use of biodegradable porous silicon microparticles (pSi MPs) loaded with the anticancer drug camphothecin, followed by a plasma polymer overcoating using a loudspeaker plasma reactor. Homogenous "Teflon-like" coatings were achieved by tumbling the particles by playing AC/DC's song "Thunderstruck". The overcoating resulted in a markedly slower release of the cytotoxic drug, and this effect correlated positively with the plasma polymer coating times, ranging from 2-fold up to more than 100-fold. Ultimately, upon characterizing and verifying pSi MP production, loading, and coating with analytical methods such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetry, water contact angle measurements, and fluorescence microscopy, human neuroblastoma cells were challenged with pSi MPs in an in vitro assay, revealing a significant time delay in cell death onset.

  5. Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of steam turbine K-25-0.6 GEO with ion-plasma coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Arkad'ev, D. A.; Temkin, S. G.; Senina, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of the fourth stage of the K-25-0.6 low pressure cylinder Geo steam turbine manufactured in the Kaluga Turbine Plant (hereinafter, KTP) with the ion-plasma coating were presented. Coating formation was carried out at the National Research University (MPEI) on the Gefest vacuum pilot plant by the magnetron sputtering method. Characteristics of the obtained coating were analyzed with the use of the scientific-research equipment of the National Research University (MPEI). Fatigue tests of the rotating blades and determination of the fatigue strength of the material with the ion-plasma coating were carried out on the electrodynamic vibration machines VEDS-400A in the KTP structural laboratory. The following characteristics were obtained after tests: Ti-TiN composition, 10-11 μm thickness, 1200 HV 0.05 microhardness. Fatigue tests showed that destruction, regardless of availability or nonavailability of the coating, took place by cross-section in the root zone both on the leading and trailing edges of the blade, i.e., in the most stressed zones. It was found out that the maximum stresses during tests were revealed in the root section along the trailing edge on the blade pressure side, and the less stresses were on the leading edge. Fatigue strength of the working blades after coating formation increased by 12% minimum. Results of the fatigue tests prove the previously obtained data concerning 10-12% increase of the fatigue strength of the blade steel with the ion-plasma coating and allow claiming that the process of their formation exerts the positive influence on the fatigue characteristics of the blade materials.

  6. The effects of RF plasma ashing on zinc orthotitanate/potassium silicate thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of YB-71, a white thermal control coating composed of zinc orthotitanate pigment in a potassium silicate binder, were exposed in air plasma and in oxygen plasma to determine optical property and surface chemistry changes. Results show that YB-71 undergoes a significant reflectance decrease upon exposure to the simulated LEO atomic oxygen environment provided by an air plasma asher. YB-71 samples exposed to the same effective fluence in oxygen plasma, or in a UV screening Faraday cage in air or oxygen, do not undergo as severe reflectance decreases as the samples exposed in the air plasma asher environment. The UV and VUV radiation present in the plasma ashers affects the YB-71 degradation. It is noted that, when using plasma ashers to determine LEO degradation, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of the material to the synergistic effects of atomic oxygen and accelerated UV radiation.

  7. Effect of plasma spraying regimes on structure and properties of Ni3Al coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornienko, E. E.; Mul', D. O.; Rubtsova, O. A.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuzmin, V. I.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Sergachev, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and tribological properties of coatings made of PN85YU15 powder were studied. The coatings were deposited on the mild steel blanks by the technology of air-plasma spraying using a unit of annular input and gas-dynamic powder focusing. Efficiency of heating and acceleration of powder particles was studied preliminarily. Measurement results on temperature and velocity distributions of particles at a certain spraying distance by the method of spectral pyrometry and time-of-flight method are presented. The effect of plasmatorch arc current and amount of propane-butane in the plasma flow on the structure and properties of coatings is analyzed in this paper. It is determined that the phase composition of coatings and initial powder is the same: the main phase is Ni3Al compound; moreover, the structure contains Ni5Al3 phase. It is shown that an increase in the amount of propane-butane increases coatings porosity. The densest coatings (5.77%) were obtained at the plasmatorch arc current of 200 A with the reduced amount of propane-butane. The coatings obtained at the minimal arc current of 100 A with an increased amount of propane-butane are characterized by maximal porosity (20.38%). The results of tribological testing of the coatings under the conditions of sliding friction with a lubricant by the disc-plane scheme are presented. From the standpoint of obtaining the densest coatings with high performance, the optimal regimes of plasma spraying of PN85YU15 powder are the current from 140 A to 200 and using the air and propane-butane mixture only as the shielding gas (anode curtain).

  8. Use of a nitrogen-argon plasma to improve adherence of sputtered titanium carbide coatings on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments on 440-C steel surfaces that had been RF-sputtered with titanium carbide when a small percentage of nitrogen was added to the plasma were conducted. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the resultant coatings. Results indicate that a small partial pressure of nitrogen (about 0.5%) markedly improves the adherence, friction, and wear properties when compared with coatings applied on sputter-etched oxidized surfaces or in the presence of a small oxygen partial pressure. The improvements are related to the formation of an interface containing a mixture of the nitrides of titanium and iron, which are harder than their corresponding oxides.

  9. Effect of nitrogen-containing plasma on adherence, friction, and wear of radiofrequency-sputtered titanium carbide coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments on 440C steel surfaces that were rf sputtered with titanium carbide when a small percentage of nitrogen was added to the plasma were conducted. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the resultant coatings. Results indicate that the small partial pressure of nitrogen (approximately 0.5 percent) markedly improves the adherence, friction, and wear properties when compared with coatings applied to sputter-etched surfaces, oxidized surfaces, or in the presence of a small oxygen partial pressure. The improvements are related to the formation of an interface containing a mixture of the nitrides of titanium and iron, which are harder than their corresponding oxides.

  10. Microstructure and thermal behaviour of plasma sprayed zirconia/alumina composite coating.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A; Ando, Y; Kurokawa, K; Hejwowski, T

    2011-10-01

    In thermal barrier coatings (TBC), failure occurs near or at the interface between the metallic bondcoat and topcoat. On high temperature conditions, an oxide scale which is named thermally grown oxide (TGO) occurs along the bond/topcoat interface. For diminishing the creation of TGO, a dense coating with low residual stress and thermal stress buffer layer was preferable. High hardness ceramic coatings could be obtained by gas tunnel type plasma spraying, and the deposited coating had superior property in comparison with those deposited by conventional type plasma spray method. In this study, the gas tunnel type plasma spraying system was utilized to produce a zirconia/alumina functionally graded thermal barrier coating and discussed its physical and mechanical properties, thermal behavior and high temperature oxidation resistance of the coating are discussed. Consequently, the proposed system exhibited superior mechanical properties and oxidation resistance at the expenses of a slightly lower thermal insulating effect. This interlayer is preferred in order to minimize the detrimental effect of the phase transformation of gamma-Al2O3 to alpha-Al2O3.

  11. Plasma formation in a double-gap vircator

    SciTech Connect

    Queller, T.; Shlapakovski, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2010-11-15

    Time-resolved light emission imaging was used to observe the plasma formation within the cavity of the double-gap vircator powered by a sub-microsecond generator ({approx}500 kV, {approx}10 kA, {approx}500 ns). The vircator generated well reproducible S-band microwave pulses of {approx}200 MW peak power and up to 200 ns full duration. The plasma light emission was observed {approx}30 ns prior to the ending of the generated microwave pulses at the surface of the aluminum foil separating the vircator cavity gaps, in the gap where the virtual cathode is formed. Estimations showed that the energy deposition into the foil by the high-current electron beam is sufficient for the surface plasma formation. The plasma ions accelerated toward the virtual cathode neutralize its electron space charge. The latter was confirmed by the increase in the electron current transmitted through the vircator cavity. In addition, the time of the plasma appearance was determined by comparing the measured transmitted current with that following from the one-dimensional model of a stationary un-neutralized two-stream electron flow. This time agrees with the maximum of the microwave power observed in the experiments, thus showing that the plasma ions cause the termination of the microwave generation.

  12. Effect of plasma pretreatment on adhesion and mechanical properties of UV-curable coatings on plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gururaj, T.; Subasri, R.; Raju, K. R. C. Soma; Padmanabham, G.

    2011-02-01

    An attempt was made to study the effect of plasma surface activation on the adhesion of UV-curable sol-gel coatings on polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates. The sol was synthesized by the hydrolysis and condensation of a UV-curable silane in combination with Zr-n-propoxide. Coatings deposited by dip coating were cured using UV-radiation followed by thermal curing between 80 °C and 130 °C. The effect of plasma surface treatment on the wettability of the polymer surface prior to coating deposition was followed up by measuring the water contact angle. The water contact angle on the surface of as-cleaned substrates was 80° ± 2° and that after plasma treatment was 43° ± 1° and 50° ± 2° for PC and PMMA respectively. Adhesion as well as mechanical properties like scratch resistance and taber abrasion resistance were evaluated for coatings deposited over plasma treated and untreated surfaces.

  13. In vivo stimulation of bone formation by aluminum and oxygen plasma surface-modified magnesium implants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Man; Zhao, Ying; Tam, Vivian; Wu, Shuilin; Chu, Paul K; Zheng, Yufeng; To, Michael Kai Tsun; Leung, Frankie K L; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2013-12-01

    A newly developed magnesium implant is used to stimulate bone formation in vivo. The magnesium implant after undergoing dual aluminum and oxygen plasma implantation is able to suppress rapid corrosion, leaching of magnesium ions, as well as hydrogen gas release from the biodegradable alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF). No released aluminum is detected from the SBF extract and enhanced corrosion resistance properties are confirmed by electrochemical tests. In vitro studies reveal enhanced growth of GFP mouse osteoblasts on the aluminum oxide coated sample, but not on the untreated sample. In addition to that a small amount (50 ppm) of magnesium ions can enhance osteogenic differentiation as reported previously, our present data show a low concentration of hydrogen can give rise to the same effect. To compare the bone volume change between the plasma-treated magnesium implant and untreated control, micro-computed tomography is performed and the plasma-treated implant is found to induce significant new bone formation adjacent to the implant from day 1 until the end of the animal study. On the contrary, bone loss is observed during the first week post-operation from the untreated magnesium sample. Owing to the protection offered by the Al2O3 layer, the plasma-treated implant degrades more slowly and the small amount of released magnesium ions stimulate new bone formation locally as revealed by histological analyses. Scanning electron microscopy discloses that the Al2O3 layer at the bone-implant interface is still present two months after implantation. In addition, no inflammation or tissue necrosis is observed from both treated and untreated implants. These promising results suggest that the plasma-treated magnesium implant can stimulate bone formation in vivo in a minimal invasive way and without causing post-operative complications.

  14. Material fundamentals and clinical performance of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings: a review.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Berndt, C C; Gross, K A; Kucuk, A

    2001-01-01

    The clinical use of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metal implants has aroused as many controversies as interests over the last decade. Although faster and stronger fixation and more bone growth have been revealed, the performance of HA-coated implants has been doubted. This article will initially address the fundamentals of the material selection, design, and processing of the HA coating and show how the coating microstructure and properties can be a good predictor of the expected behavior in the body. Further discussion will clarify the major concerns with the clinical use of HA coatings and introduce a comprehensive review concerning the outcomes experienced with respect to clinical practice over the past 5 years. A reflection on the results indicates that HA coatings can promote earlier and stronger fixation but exhibit a durability that can be related to the coating quality. Specific relationships between coating quality and clinical performance are being established as characterization methods disclose more information about the coating.

  15. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  16. Ablation Resistance of C/C Composites with Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed W Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Yuan; Gong, Jieming; Ge, Yicheng; Peng, Ke; Ran, Liping; Yi, Maozhong

    2016-12-01

    To improve the ablation resistance of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, tungsten (W) coating with thickness of 1.2 mm was applied by atmospheric plasma spraying. The antiablation property of the coated composites was evaluated by oxyacetylene flame ablation experiments. The phase composition of the coating was investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis. The ablation resistance of the coated C/C substrates was compared with that of uncoated C/C composites and C/C-CuZr composites after ablation for 30 s. The properties of the coated C/C composites after ablation time of 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 s were further studied. The results indicated that the mass and linear ablation rates of the W-coated C/C composites were lower than those of uncoated C/C or C/C-CuZr composites after ablation for 30 s. The coating exhibited heat stability after 120 s of ablation, with mass loss and linear ablation rates of 7.39 × 10-3 g/s and 3.50 × 10-3 mm/s, respectively. However, the W coating became ineffective and failed after ablation for 180 s. Three ablation regions could be identified, in which the ablation mechanism of the coating changed from thermochemical to thermophysical erosion to mechanical scouring with increasing ablation time.

  17. Study of Coating Growth Behavior During the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Magnesium Alloy ZK60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhaozhong; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yushen; Qu, Yunfei; Wu, Xiaohong

    2015-04-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation technique was used to coat ZK60 magnesium alloy in a silicate-based electrolyte. Effects of oxidation time on the morphology, phase structure, and corrosion resistance of the resulting coatings were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization. The main components of the inner and the outer coating layers were MgO and Mg2SiO4, respectively. It was also found that the oxidation time has a significant impact on the corrosion resistance properties of the coatings. The coating obtained within the oxidation time of 360 s exhibited a corrosion current of 7.6 × 10-8 A/cm2 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, which decreased significantly when comparing with the pristine magnesium alloy.

  18. Preparation of dielectric coating of variable dielectric constant by plasma polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudis, M.; Wydeven, T. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A plasma polymerization process for the deposition of a dielectric polymer coating on a substrate comprising disposing of the substrate in a closed reactor between two temperature controlled electrodes connected to a power supply is presented. A vacuum is maintained within the closed reactor, causing a monomer gas or gas mixture of a monomer and diluent to flow into the reactor, generating a plasma between the electrodes. The vacuum varies and controls the dielectric constant of the polymer coating being deposited by regulating the gas total and partial pressure, the electric field strength and frequency, and the current density.

  19. Contact potential induced enhancement of magnetization in polyaniline coated nanomagnetic iron oxides by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethulakshmi, N.; Sooraj, V.; Sajeev, U. S.; Nair, Swapna S.; Narayanan, T. N.; Joy, Lija K.; Joy, P. A.; Ajayan, P. M.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2013-10-01

    The present work derives motivation from the so called surface/interfacial magnetism in core shell structures and commercial samples of Fe3O4 and γ Fe2O3 with sizes ranging from 20 to 30 nm were coated with polyaniline using plasma polymerization and studied. The High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy images indicate a core shell structure after polyaniline coating and exhibited an increase in saturation magnetization by 2 emu/g. For confirmation, plasma polymerization was performed on maghemite nanoparticles which also exhibited an increase in saturation magnetization. This enhanced magnetization is rather surprising and the reason is found to be an interfacial phenomenon resulting from a contact potential.

  20. Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7 High Tc Superconducting Coatings by Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danroc, J.; Lacombe, J.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * THE COMPOUND YBa2Cu3O7-δ * Structure * Critical temperature * Critical current density * Phase equilibria in the YBaCuO system * PREPARATION OF YBa2Cu3O7 COATINGS * General organisation of the preparation process * The powder * Hot plasma spraying of YBa2Cu3O7 * The post-spraying thermal treatment * CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YBa2Cu3O7-δ COATINGS * Chemical composition * Crystalline structure * Morphology of the coatings * Electrical and magnetic characteristics * Conclusion * REFERENCES

  1. Process, properties, and environmental response of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that the properties of plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia are strongly influenced by the process parameters. Properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed condition are shown to be additionally influenced by environmental exposure. This behavior is dependent on raw material considerations and processing conditions as well as exposure time and temperature. Process control methodology is described which can take into consideration these complex interactions and help to produce thermal barrier coatings in a cost effective way while meeting coating technical requirements.

  2. Process, properties and environmental response of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that the properties of plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia are strongly influenced by the process parameters. Properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed condition are shown to be additionally influenced by environmental exposure. This behavior is dependent on raw material considerations and processing conditions as well as exposure time and temperature. Process control methodology is described which can take into consideration these complex interactions and help to produce thermal barrier coatings in a cost effective way while meeting coating technical requirements.

  3. Tribological Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN Abradable Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irissou, E.; Dadouche, A.; Lima, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The processing conditions, microstructural and tribological characterizations of plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN high temperature abradable coatings are reported in this manuscript. Plasma spray torch parameters were varied to produce a set of abradable coatings exhibiting a broad range of porosity levels (34-62%) and superficial Rockwell hardness values (0-78 HR15Y). Abradability tests have been performed using an abradable-seal test rig, capable of simulating operational wear at different rotor speeds and seal incursion rates (SIRs). These tests allowed determining the rubbing forces and quantifying the blade and seal wear characteristics for slow and fast SIRs. Erosion wear performance and ASTM C633 coating adhesion strength test results are also reported. For optimal abradability performance, it is shown that coating hardness needs to be lower than 70 and 50 HR15Y for slow and fast blade incursion rate conditions, respectively. It is shown that the erosion wear performance, as well as, the coating cohesive strength is a function of the coating hardness. The current results allow defining the coating specifications in terms of hardness and porosity for targeted applications.

  4. Semianalytical models of sprite formation from plasma inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkov, V. V.; Hayakawa, M.

    2016-11-01

    A spherical plasma inhomogeneity located at mesospheric altitudes in a thundercloud quasi-electrostatic field is considered as a possible cause of sprite formation. A simple semianalytical model of ionization instability in a quasi-electrostatic field, the value of which is larger than the air breakdown value, is developed on the assumption that plasma ball conductivity is controlled by impact ionization and electron attachment to neutrals. After several simplifications, the problem is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations for the average conductivity and plasma ball radius. The analytical estimates and numerical simulation indicate that the predicted expansion rate and acceleration of the plasma inhomogeneity boundary are close in magnitude to the values observed during high-speed imaging of sprite development.

  5. Space Plasma Testing of High-Voltage Thin-Film Solar Arrays with Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlomak, Pawel; Hausgen, Paul E.; Merrill, John; Senft, Donna; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the space plasma test program for thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) technologies developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The main objective of this program is to simulate the effects of space plasma characteristic of LEO and MEO environments on TFPV. Two types of TFPV, amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS), coated with two types of thin-film, multifunctional coatings were used for these studies. This paper reports the results of the first phase of this program, namely the results of preliminary electrostatic charging, arcing, dielectric breakdown, and collection current measurements carried out with a series of TFPV exposed to simulated space plasma at the NASA Glenn Plasma Interaction Facility. The experimental data demonstrate that multifunctional coatings developed for this program provide effective protection against the plasma environment while minimizing impact on power generation performance. This effort is part of an ongoing program led by the Space Vehicles Directorate at the AFRL devoted to the development and space qualification of TFPV and their protective coatings.

  6. Stability of magnetite nanoparticles with different coatings in a simulated blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Pérez-Robles, J. Francisco; García-Casillas, Perla E.; Godinez-Garcia, Andrés

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated to be a potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, magnetite is unstable at the blood plasma conditions. Therefore, to study their stability in a broad range of particle size, the MNPs were synthesized using two methods, the fast injection co-precipitation method (FIC) and the reflux co-precipitation method (RC). The MNPs obtained by the RC and the FIC methods have an average size of agglomerates of 200 and 45 nm respectively. They were dispersed using sodium citrate as surfactant and were coated with silica and chitosan. A total of four kind of coated MNPs were synthesized: magnetite/sodium citrate, magnetite/silica, magnetite/sodium citrate/silica and magnetite/sodium citrate/silica/chitosan. Different samples of the coated MNPs were immersed in a simulated blood plasma solution (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, PBS, Gibco®), for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was used to analyze the composition of the simulated plasma after those periods of time. The obtained results suggest that the uncoated samples showed an appreciable weight loss, and the iron composition in the simulated plasma increased. This last means that the used coatings avoid iron dissolution from the MNPs.

  7. A First-Principle Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers

    2015-11-01

    Every second millions of tiny meteoroids hit the Earth from space, vast majority too small to observe visually. However, radars detect the plasma they generate and use the collected data to characterize the incoming meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. This diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of formation of the meteor plasma. Fast-descending meteoroids become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently and start ablating. The ablated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from this plasma produces a localized signal called a head echo. Using first principles, we have developed a consistent collisional kinetic theory of the near-meteoroid plasma. This theory shows that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. The spatial distribution of the plasma density shows significant deviations from a Gaussian law usually employed in head-echo modeling. This analytical model will serve as a basis for more accurate quantitative interpretation of the head echo radar measurements. Work supported by NSF Grant 1244842.

  8. Plasma formation in water vapour layers in high conductivity liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, C. P.; Schaper, L.; Stalder, K. R.; Graham, W. G.

    2011-10-01

    The vapour layer development stage of relatively low voltage plasmas in conducting solutions has already been well explored. The nature of the discharges formed within the vapour layer however is still largely unexplored. Here we examine the nature of such discharges through a combination of fast imaging and spatially, temporally resolved spectroscopy and electrical characterisation. The experimental setup used is a pin-to-plate discharge configuration with a -350V, 200 μs pulse applied at a repetition rate of 2Hz. A lens, followed by beam splitter allows beams to one Andor ICCD camera to capture images of the plasma emission with a second camera at the exit of a high resolution spectrometer. Through synchronization of the camera images at specified times after plasma ignition (as determined from current-voltage characteristics) they can be correlated with the spectra features. Initial measurements reveal two apparently different plasma formations. Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer beta line indicate electron densities of 3 to 5 ×1020 m-3 for plasmas produced early in the voltage pulse and an order of magnitude less for the later plasmas. The vapour layer development stage of relatively low voltage plasmas in conducting solutions has already been well explored. The nature of the discharges formed within the vapour layer however is still largely unexplored. Here we examine the nature of such discharges through a combination of fast imaging and spatially, temporally resolved spectroscopy and electrical characterisation. The experimental setup used is a pin-to-plate discharge configuration with a -350V, 200 μs pulse applied at a repetition rate of 2Hz. A lens, followed by beam splitter allows beams to one Andor ICCD camera to capture images of the plasma emission with a second camera at the exit of a high resolution spectrometer. Through synchronization of the camera images at specified times after plasma ignition (as determined from current

  9. Leaky enteric coating on ranitidine hydrochloride beads: dissolution and prediction of plasma data.

    PubMed

    Bendas, Ehab R; Ayres, James W

    2008-08-01

    The present research is based on the hypothesis that leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations are able to provide sustained input for drugs that have an absorption window, such as ranitidine hydrochloride, without jeopardizing their bioavailability. Leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations are defined as enteric-coated pellets that allow some of the drug to be released from the formulation in gastric fluid. Different approaches to making leaky enteric-coated pellets were investigated using extrusion-spheronization followed by spray coating. Leaky enteric coats were formulated using a commonly used enteric polymer, Eudragit L 30 D-55, combined with soluble compounds including lactose, PEG 8000 and surfactants (Span 60 (hydrophobic) or Tween 80 (hydrophilic)). The rate of drug release from the formulations in simulated gastric fluid can be tailored by varying the additive's amount or type. All leaky enteric-coated formulations studied completely released the drugs within 30 min after changing dissolution medium to phosphate buffer, pH 6. Predictions of plasma concentration-time profiles of the model drug ranitidine hydrochloride from leaky enteric-coated pellets in fasted conditions and from immediate-release formulations were performed using computer simulations. Simulation results are consistent with a hypothesis that leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations provide sustained input for drugs shown to have an absorption window without decreasing bioavailability. The sustained input results from the combined effects of the formulation and GI transit effects on pellets. The present research demonstrates a new application of knowledge about gastrointestinal transit effects on drug formulations. It also shows that enteric-coating polymers have new applications in areas other than the usual enteric-coated formulations. The hypothesis that a leaky enteric-coated pellets formulation may maintain or increase the bioavailability of drugs that have a window of absorption

  10. Sintering and Fracture Behavior of Plasma-sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. There is a need to characterize the fundamental sintering and fracture behavior of the current ZrO2-(7 to 8)wt%Y2O3 coating, in order to fully take advantage of the coating capability. In addition, a thorough evaluation of the coating behavior and temperature limits will be useful for more accurately assessing the benefit gained from future advanced coating systems. In this study, the sintering behavior of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 coatings was systematically investigated as a function of temperature and time using a dilatometer in the temperature range of 1200-1500 C. The coating sintering kinetics obtained by dilatometry were compared with the coating thermal conductivity increase kinetics, determined by a steady-state laser heat-flux testing approach, under high temperature and thermal gradient sintering conditions. The mode I, mode II, and mixed mode I-mode II fracture behavior of as-processed and sintering-annealed coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at ambient and elevated temperatures in order to evaluate the coating sintering effects on the fracture envelope of K(sub I) versus K(sub II). The coating thermal conductivity cyclic response associated with the interface delamination of the coating systems under simulated engine heat-flux conditions will be discussed in conjunction with the sintering and fracture testing results.

  11. Plasma source ion implantation to increase the adhesion of subsequently deposited coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.P.; Walter, K.C.; Taylor, T.N.

    1997-10-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) an object is placed in a plasma and pulse biased to a high negative potential, so as to implant the plasma ions into the surface of the object. Although ion implantation, by itself, can yield desirable surface modification, it is even more useful as a method of creating a functionally graded interface between the substrate material and a subsequently deposited coating, which may be produced by altering operating conditions on the same plasma source. Although this interfacial region is very thin - as little as 20 nm - it can greatly increase the adhesion of the deposited coatings. We present here a description of this process, and compare a simulation of the graded interface with an XPS depth profile of the interfacial region for erbium metal implanted into steel.

  12. Development of barrier coatings for cellulosic-based materials by cold plasma methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, Agnes Reka

    Cellulose-based materials are ideal candidates for future industries that need to be based on environmentally safe technologies and renewable resources. Wood represents an important raw material and its application as construction material is well established. Cellophane is one of the most important cellulosic material and it is widely used as packaging material in the food industry. Outdoor exposure of wood causes a combination of physical and chemical degradation processes due to the combined effects of sunlight, moisture, fungi, and bacteria. Cold-plasma-induced surface modifications are an attractive way for tailoring the characteristics of lignocellulosic substrates to prevent weathering degradation. Plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) was deposited onto wood surfaces to create water repellent characteristics. The presence of a crosslinked macromolecular structure was detected. The plasma coated samples exhibited very high water contact angle values indicating the existence of hydrophobic surfaces. Reflective and electromagnetic radiation-absorbent substances were incorporated with a high-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxane polymer in liquid phase and deposited as thin layers on wood surfaces. The macromolecular films, containing the dispersed materials, were then converted into a three dimensional solid state network by exposure to a oxygen-plasma. It was demonstrated that both UV-absorbent and reflectant components incorporated into the plasma-generated PDMSO matrix protected the wood from weathering degradation. Reduced oxidation and less degradation was observed after simulated weathering. High water contact angle values indicated a strong hydrophobic character of the oxygen plasma-treated PDMSO-coated samples. Plasma-enhanced surface modifications and coatings were employed to create water-vapor barrier layers on cellophane substrate surfaces. HMDSO was selected as a plasma gas and oxygen was used to ablate amorphous regions. Oxygen plasma

  13. Life modeling of atmospheric and low pressure plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Argarwal, P.; Duderstadt, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The cycles-to-failure vs cycle duration data for three different thermal barrier coating systems, which consist of atmospheric pressure plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 percent Y2O3 over similarly deposited or low pressure plasma sprayed Ni-base alloys, are presently analyzed by means of the Miller (1980) oxidation-based life model. Specimens were tested at 1100 C for heating cycle lengths of 1, 6, and 20 h, yielding results supporting the model's value.

  14. Effects of real viscosity on plasma liner formation and implosion from supersonic plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillo, Kevin; Cassibry, Jason; Hsu, Scott; PLX-Alpha Team

    2015-11-01

    The PLX- α project endeavors to study plasma liner formation and implosion by merging of a spherical array of plasma jets as a candidate standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is being used to model the liner formation and implosion processes. SPH is a meshless Lagrangian method to simulate fluid flows by dividing a fluid into a set of particles and using a summation interpolant function to calculate the properties and gradients for each of these particles. The SPH code was used to simulate test cases in which the number of plasma guns and initial conditions for the plasma were varied. Linear stabilizations were observed, but the possibility exists that this stabilization was due to the implementation of artificial viscosity in the code. A real viscosity model was added to our SPHC model using the Braginskii ion viscosity. Preliminary results for test cases that incorporate real viscosity are presented.

  15. Effect of electrolyte components on the magnetic and magnetoresistive characteristics of Fe-containing plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnev, V. S.; Adigamova, M. V.; Tkachenko, I. A.; Sergienko, V. I.; Yanushkevich, K. I.; Aplesnin, S. S.; Lukiyanchuk, I. V.; Morozova, V. P.; Medkov, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    The effect replacing Na3PO4 with Na2HPO4 in aqueous phosphate-borate-tungstate electrolyte that additionally contains Fe2(C2O4)3 on the magnetic and magnetoresistive characteristics of oxide coating/ titanium composites formed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is investigated. It is established that PEO coatings with ferromagnetic characteristics form on titanium in an electrolyte containing Na3PO4 (pH 11) upon adding iron(III) oxalate, while replacing Na3PO4 with Na2HPO4 and the respective drop in the pH of the base electrolyte down to 9.8 results in the formation of coatings with different magnetic characteristics. The correlation between changes in the values of the charge carriers' activation energy and the magnetic susceptibility is demonstrated for the latter. An increase in the electric resistance of coatings in a magnetic field is observed, and the type of the magnetic resistance temperature dependence is established.

  16. Palladium-modified aluminide coatings: Mechanisms of formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamesle, P.; Steinmetz, P.; Steinmetz, J.; Alperine, S.

    1995-02-01

    The need to increase the efficiency of turbo engines has led manufacturers to increase the temperature of gases at the exhaust of the combustion chamber. Another limiting factor for the lifetime of blades or vanes used in gas turbines is hot corrosion due to the condensation of alkaline sulfate produced by the oxidation of sulfur contained in kerosene or fuels. To overcome these problems, the use of protective coatings has come into general use. A systematic investigation of the influence of Pd-Ni predeposit alloys on the microstructure and composition of aluminum diffusion coatings has been conducted on Ni base superalloys (mainly IN738). Their metallurgical structure has been studied with a special emphasis on the nature of the phases and distribution of the various elements throughout the coating section. A two-layer structure similar to that formed on simple aluminide coatings is observed whatever the type of aluminizing treatment (low and high aluminum activity, pack of vapor-phase coating). The superficial layer is, however, very different from that observed in simple aluminide coatings, since it is constituted with a ternary PdNi aluminide. Palladium concentration profiles, which significantly differ when using low or high activity cements, and the results of a study of the ternary Ni-Pd-Al phase diagram, provide qualitative indications concerning the coatings` growth processes. Palladium, if present at a sufficient level, enhances Al diffusion in the beta phase. In the case of low activity processes, a consequence of this increase of Al diffusion flux is the location of an NiAl reaction zone inside the coating.

  17. Refrigerated Wind Tunnel Tests on Surface Coatings for Preventing Ice Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Clay, William C

    1930-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of various surface coatings as a means for preventing ice formations on aircraft in flight. The substances used as coatings for these tests are divided into two groups: compounds soluble in water, and those which are insoluble in water. It was found that certain soluble compounds were apparently effective in preventing the formation of ice on an airfoil model, while all insoluble compounds which were tested were found to be ineffective.

  18. Microstructure and Thermal Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Yb2Si2O7 Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xin; Niu, Yaran; Huang, Liping; Li, Hong; Zheng, Xuebin; Ding, Chuanxian; Sun, Jinliang

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, Yb2Si2O7 powder was synthesized by solid-state reaction using Yb2O3 and SiO2 powders as starting materials. Atmospheric plasma spray technique was applied to fabricate Yb2Si2O7 coating. The phase composition and microstructure of the coating were characterized. The density, open porosity and Vickers hardness of the coating were investigated. Its thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the coating were measured. The results showed that the as-sprayed coating was mainly composed of crystalline Yb2Si2O7 with amorphous phase. The coating had a dense structure containing defects, such as pores, interfaces and microcracks. The TG-DTA results showed that there was almost no mass change from room temperature to 1200 °C, while a sharp exothermic peak appeared at around 1038 °C in DTA curve, which indicated that the amorphous phase crystallized. The thermal conductivity of the coating decreased with rise in temperature up to 600 °C and then followed by an increase at higher temperatures. The minimum value of the thermal conductivity of the Yb2Si2O7 coating was about 0.68 W/(m K).

  19. Bioactive plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings--the role of the composition, microstructure, and electrochemical stability.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, M; Guzman, R; Arrabal, R; López Lacomba, J-L; Matykina, E

    2013-11-01

    A Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to produce bioactive coatings on Ti. PEO coatings with Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.7 and 4.0 were fabricated and characterized with respect to their morphology, composition, and microstructure. AC and DC electrochemical tests were used to evaluate the effect of (i) organic additives (amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and antibiotics) in alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) on electrochemical stability of noncoated and PEO-coated Ti and (ii) coating composition, microstructure, and corrosion behavior on the cell response in α-MEM. PEO-coated Ti showed higher corrosion resistance than the noncoated Ti in MEM with and without organic additives by an order of magnitude. The corrosion resistance in α-MEM decreased with time for nonmodified Ti and increased for PEO-coated Ti; the latter was because of the adsorption of the proteins in the coating pores which increased the diffusion resistance. The presence of Ca and P in titanium oxide coating at the Ca/P ratio exceeding that of any stoichiometric Ca-P-O and Ca-P-O-H compounds facilitates faster osteoblast cell adhesion.

  20. Transmission electron microscopy of coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium.

    PubMed

    Matykina, E; Arrabal, R; Skeldon, P; Thompson, G E

    2009-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and supporting film analyses are used to investigate the changes in composition, morphology and structure of coatings formed on titanium during DC plasma electrolytic oxidation in a calcium- and phosphorus-containing electrolyte. The coatings are of potential interest as bioactive surfaces. The initial barrier film, of mixed amorphous and nanocrystalline structure, formed below the sparking voltage of 180 V, incorporates small amounts of phosphorus and calcium species, with phosphorus confined to the outer approximately 63% of the coating thickness. On commencement of sparking, calcium- and phosphorus-rich amorphous material forms at the coating surface, with local heating promoting crystallization in underlying and adjacent anodic titania. The amorphous material thickens with increased treatment time, comprising almost the whole of the approximately 5.7-microm-thick coating formed at 340 V. At this stage, the coating is approximately 4.4 times thicker than the oxidized titanium, with a near-surface composition of about 12 at.% Ti, 58 at.% O, 19 at.% P and 11 at.% Ca. Further, the amount of titanium consumed in forming the coating is similar to that calculated from the anodizing charge, although there may be non-Faradaic contributions to the coating growth.

  1. Formation of Imploding Plasma Liners for HEDP and MIF Application

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Brockington, Samuel; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Mike; Wu, Linchun; Elton, Ray

    2014-11-11

    /s for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initial work used existing computational and analytical tools to develop and refine a specific plasma gun concept having a novel tapered coaxial electromagnetic accelerator contour with an array of symmetric ablative plasma injectors. The profile is designed to suppress the main barrier to success in coaxial guns, namely the blow-by instability in which the arc slips past and outruns the bulk of the plasma mass. Efforts to begin developing a set of annular non-ablative plasma injectors for the coaxial gun, in order to accelerate pure gases, resulted in development of linear parallel-plate MiniRailguns that turned out to work well as plasma guns in their own right and we subsequently chose them for an initial plasma liner experiment on the PLX facility at LANL. This choice was mainly driven by cost and schedule for that particular experiment, while longer term goals still projected use of coaxial guns for reactor-relevant applications for reasons of better symmetry, lower impurities, more compact plasma jet formation, and higher gun efficiency. Our efforts have focused mainly on 1) developing various plasma injection systems for both coax and linear railguns and ensuring they work reliably with the accelerator section, 2) developing a suite of plasma and gun diagnostics, 3) performing computational modeling to design and refine the plasma guns, 4) establishing a research facility dedicated to plasma gun development, and finally, 5) developing plasma guns and associated pulse power systems capable of achieving these goals and installing and testing the first two gun sets on the PLX facility at LANL. During the second funding cycle for this program, HyperV joined in a collaborative effort with LANL, the University of Alabama at Huntsville, and the University of New Mexico to perform a plasma liner experiment (PLX) to investigate the physics and technology of forming spherically imploding

  2. Adhesive and cohesive properties by indentation method of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Z.; Ziaei-Moayyed, A. A.; Mesgar, A. Sheikh-Mehdi

    2007-03-01

    Adhesive and cohesive properties of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by varying the plasma power level and spray distance (SD), were evaluated by an indentation method. The crystallinity and the porosity decreased with increasing both of these two parameters. The microhardness value, Young's modulus ( E) and coating fracture toughness ( KC) were found to increase with a combinational increase in spray power and SD. The Knoop and Vickers indentation methods were used to estimate E and KC, respectively. The critical point at which no crack appears at the interface was determined by the interface indentation test. This was used to define the apparent interfacial toughness ( KCa) which is representative of the crack initiation resistance of the interface. It was found that KCa reaches to a maximum at a medium increase in both spray power and SD, while other mechanical properties of the coatings reaches to the highest value with further increase in these two plasma parameters. The tensile adhesion strength of the coatings, measure by the standard adhesion test, ISO 13779-4, was shown to alter in the same manner with KCa results. It was deduced that a combinational increase in spray power and SD which leads to a higher mechanical properties in the coatings, does not necessarily tends to a better mechanical properties at the interface.

  3. XPS and bioactivity study of the bisphosphonate pamidronate adsorbed onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kate; Kumar, Sunil; Smart, Roger St. C.; Dutta, Naba; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Anderson, Gail I.; Sekel, Ron

    2006-12-01

    This paper reports the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate bisphosphonate (BP) adsorption onto plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings commonly used for orthopaedic implants. BPs exhibit high binding affinity for the calcium present in HA and hence can be adsorbed onto HA-coated implants to exploit their beneficial properties for improved bone growth at the implant interface. A rigorous XPS analysis of pamidronate, a commonly used nitrogenous BP, adsorbed onto plasma sprayed HA-coated cobalt-chromium substrates has been carried out, aimed at: (a) confirming the adsorption of this BP onto HA; (b) studying the BP diffusion profile in the HA coating by employing the technique of XPS depth profiling; (c) confirming the bioactivity of the adsorbed BP. XPS spectra of plasma sprayed HA-coated discs exposed to a 10 mM aqueous BP solution (pamidronate) for periods of 1, 2 and 24 h showed nitrogen and phosphorous photoelectron signals corresponding to the BP, confirming its adsorption onto the HA substrate. XPS depth profiling of the 2 h BP-exposed HA discs showed penetration of the BP into the HA matrix to depths of at least 260 nm. The bioactivity of the adsorbed BP was confirmed by the observed inhibition of osteoclast (bone resorbing) cell activity. In comparison to the HA sample, the HA sample with adsorbed BP exhibited a 25-fold decrease in primary osteoclast cells.

  4. Improvements in Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coating by Laser-Remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chaoping; Chen, Hong; Wang, Gui; Chen, Yongnan; Xing, Yazhe; Zhang, Chunhua; Dargusch, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    Amorphous coating technology is an attractive way of taking advantage of the superior properties of amorphous alloys for structural applications. However, the limited bonds between splats within the plasma-sprayed coatings result in a typically lamellar and porous coating structure. To overcome these limitations, the as-sprayed coating was treated by a laser-remelting process. The microstructure and phase composition of two coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The wear resistance of the plasma-sprayed coating and laser-remelted coating was studied comparatively using a pin-on-disc wear test under dry friction conditions. It was revealed that the laser-remelted coating exhibited better wear resistance because of its defect-free and amorphous-nanocrystalline composited structure.

  5. Numerical study of plasma formation from current carrying conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Milena A.

    The problem of plasma formation from thick conductors driven by intense currents have practical applications in a number of high energy density (HED) fields of interest where complex interaction between conductor surfaces and megagauss magnetic fields is involved. These include: wire-array Z-pinches, magnetically accelerated flier plates, liner acceleration by magnetic field, ultrahigh magnetic field generators, high current fuses, magneto-inertial fusion (MIF), magnetically insulated transmission lines, as well as some astrophysical applications. Recent aluminum rod experiments driven by 1-MA Zebra generator at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) have provided a benchmark for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling. The innovative 'hourglass' and 'barbell' load geometries used in the experiments made it possible to distinguish between plasma formation due to Ohmic heating, which can be studied numerically utilizing MHD codes, and plasma formation due to high electric fields, by introducing a large-diameter contact with the electrodes. This prevents nonthermal formation of plasma from being caused early in the current pulse by plasma at contacts, as occurs in simple straight-rod explosion experiments. The UNR megagauss rod experiments were modeled by employing the state-of-the-art radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code MHRDR. Numerical simulations were performed for a wide range of rods, varying from 100 to 580 microns in radius. A "cold start" initiation was employed in order to create initial parameters close to the experimental conditions. Material properties of aluminum, crucial for such simulations, were modeled employing a set of well tested SESAME format equations-of-state (EOS), ionization, and thermal and electrical conductivity tables. The cold start initiation also allowed observation of the numerical phase transitions of the aluminum rod, from solid to liquid to vapor and finally to low density plasma as it is ohmically heated by the megaampere driving current

  6. Plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on valve metals and their activity in CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukiyanchuk, I. V.; Rudnev, V. S.; Tyrina, L. M.; Chernykh, I. V.

    2014-10-01

    Two approaches have been examined for obtaining titanium- or aluminum-supported catalysts with transition and noble metals using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique. Elemental compositions, distribution of active elements and catalytic activity in CO oxidation have been compared for composites formed by one-stage PEO technique and those obtained as a result of modification of PEO coatings by impregnation.

  7. Recent Trends in Newly Developed Plasma-Sprayed and Sintered Coatings for Implant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bsat, Suzan; Speirs, Andrew; Huang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    The current paper aims to review recent trends (2011 to 2015) in newly developed plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings for implant applications. Recent developments in plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings have focused on improving biological performance, bacterial growth resistance, and mechanical properties, predominantly of HA and glass ceramics. The majority of these improvements are attributed to the addition of dopants. To improve biological performance, trace elements, such as Zn and Mg, both of which are found in bone, were added to replicate the functions they provide for the skeletal system. Though bacterial growth resistance is traditionally improved by Ag dopant, the addition of new dopants such as CeO2 and Zn were explored as well. Great effort has also been made to improve coating adherence and reduce stresses by minimizing coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and substrate through the addition of elements such as Zn and Mg or the inclusion of a buffer layer. For sintering process in particular, there was an emphasis on reducing sintering temperature through modification of 45S5 Bioglass. New plasma spray and sintering technologies aimed at reducing high-temperature exposure are briefly introduced as well. These include microplasma spray and spark plasma sintering.

  8. Preparation of SrZrO3 Thermal Barrier Coating by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinhui; Ma, Wen; Wen, Jing; Bai, Yu; Sun, Li; Chen, Baodong; Dong, Hongying; Shuang, Yingchai

    2017-02-01

    The solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process is capable of depositing highly durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In this study, an aqueous chemical precursor feedstock was injected into the plasma jet to deposit SrZrO3 thermal barrier coating on metal substrate. Taguchi design of experiments was employed to optimize the SPPS process. The thermal characteristics and phase evolution of the SrZrO3 precursor, as well as the influence of various spray parameters on the coating deposition rate, microhardness, microstructure, and phase stability, were investigated. The experimental results showed that, at given spray distance, feedstock flow rate, and atomization pressure, the optimized spray parameters were arc current of 600 A, argon flow rate of 40 L/min, and hydrogen flow rate of 10 L/min. The SrZrO3 coating prepared using the optimized spray parameters had single-pass thickness of 6.0 μm, porosity of 18%, and microhardness of 6.8 ± 0.1 GPa. Phase stability studies indicated that the as-sprayed SrZrO3 coating had good phase stability in the temperature range from room temperature to 1400 °C, gradually exhibiting a phase transition from t'-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 in the SrZrO3 coating at 1450 °C with increasing time, while the SrZrO3 phase did not change.

  9. Ceramic coatings of LA141 alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation for corrosion protection.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Yuan, Yi; Sun, Pengpeng; Jing, Xiaoyan

    2011-09-01

    Superlight Mg-Li alloy is a promising structural materials in aerospace, automobile, and electronics because of its excellent properties such as low density, high ductility, superior strength-to-weight ratio, and good damping ability. The fabrication of compact plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings with excellent corrosion resistance is valuable for the widespread application of Mg-Li alloy. Here we present a ceramic coating on the surface of Mg-14Li-1Al (LA141) alloy for corrosion protection via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in an alkaline silicate electrolyte with tungstate as an additive. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thin film-X-ray diffraction analysis of coatings show that the surface coating is mainly comprised of Mg(2)SiO(4), MgO and WO(3). Scanning electron microscopy observations have revealed that the dense and compact coating formed in the presence of tungstate has less structural imperfections in comparison to the control one fabricated without use of tungstate. The effect of oxidation time on the morphology and phase composition of coatings is also examined in detail.

  10. Boron carbide-based coatings on graphite for plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, P.G.; Trester, P.W.; Winter, J.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Wallura, E.; Philipps, V.

    1994-01-01

    In the effort to evaluate boron-rich coatings as plasma facing surfaces in fusion devices, a new process for applying boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) coatings to graphite was developed. The process entails eutectic melting of the carbon (C) substrate surface with a precursor layer of B{sub 4}C particles. Adherent coatings were achieved which consisted of two layers: a surface layer and a graded penetration zone in the outer portion of the substrate. The surface-layer microstructure was multiphase and ranged from reaction-sintered structures of sintered B{sub 4}C particles in an eutectic-formed matrix to that of hypereutectic carbon particles in a B{sub 4}C-C eutectic matrix. Because of high surface energy, the coating generally developed a nonuniform thickness. Quantitative evaluations of the coating were performed with limiters in the TEXTOR fusion device and with coupons in electron beam tests. Test results revealed the following: good adherence of the coating even after remelting; and, during remelting, diagnostics detected a corresponding interaction of boron with the plasma.

  11. Characterization of Microstructure and Thermal Properties of YSZ Coatings Obtained by Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying (ASPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganvir, Ashish; Curry, Nicholas; Björklund, Stefan; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Nylén, Per

    2015-10-01

    The paper aims at demonstrating various microstructures which can be obtained using the suspension spraying technique and their respective significance in enhancing the thermal insulation property of a thermal barrier coating. Three different types of coating microstructures are discussed which were produced by the Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying. Detailed characterization of coatings was then performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were utilized for microstructure evaluations; x-ray diffraction for phase analysis; water impregnation, image analysis, and mercury intrusion porosimetry for porosity analysis, and laser flash analysis for thermal diffusivity measurements were used. The results showed that Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying can generate vertically cracked, porous, and feathery columnar-type microstructures. Pore size distribution was found in micron, submicron, and nanometer range. Higher overall porosity, the lower density of vertical cracks or inter-column spacing, and higher inter-pass porosity favored thermal insulation property of the coating. Significant increase in thermal diffusivity and conductivity was found at higher temperature, which is believed to be due to the pore rearrangement (sintering and pore coarsening). Thermal conductivity values for these coatings were also compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) thermal barrier coatings from the literature and found to be much lower.

  12. Suspension Plasma Spraying of Sub-micron Silicon Carbide Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarok, F.; Espallargas, N.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal spraying of silicon carbide (SiC) material is a challenging task since SiC tends to decompose during atmospheric spraying process. The addition of metal or ceramic binders is necessary to facilitate the bonding of SiC particles, allowing SiC composite coating to be deposited. In the conventional procedures, the binders are added through mechanical mixing of powder constituents, making it difficult to achieve homogeneous distribution. In the new procedure proposed in this work, the binder is delivered as a nano-film of the surface of the individual SiC particles through co-precipitation treatment. Suspension plasma spray (SPS) coating technique has been used with the aim at avoiding the decomposition of SiC typically expected with atmospheric techniques, such as atmospheric plasma spray. The deposited SiC coatings by SPS showed identical SiC phase peak as identified in the suspension feedstock, indicating that the nano-film binder was able to protect SiC particles from decomposition. Further analysis by XPS revealed that SiC particles underwent some minor oxidation. Unfortunately, all the SiC coatings exhibited poor mechanical performance due to low cohesive strength, high porosity, and powdery structure making the coatings vulnerable to grain pull-out. This was due to the absence of sintering process during the spraying process contributing to the low performance of SiC SPS coatings.

  13. Relationship Between the Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed ZrO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongzhe; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Xuebin; Zeng, Yi; Ding, Minju; Zhang, Chenggong

    2011-12-01

    Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings have a complex microstructure consisting of a variety of pores and cracks. These microstructure features which are determined by the spray process are known to influence the thermal conductivity of coatings. In this article, the microstructure features such as total porosity, large pores, and small pores were quantified by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis, and for each spray process, the particle velocity and particle temperature were measured prior to impact onto the substrate using the online monitoring system (Spray Watch 2i). Multiple linear regression was used to find the relationship between the particle state and the spray gun parameters. The linear regression models were also investigated between the particle state and the microstructure features, in addition, between the microstructure features and the thermal conductivity. The comprehensive correlation of spray process-microstructure-thermal conductivity was established for plasma-sprayed ZrO2 coatings.

  14. Effect of Gun Current on Electrical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Lanthanum Silicate Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Apatite-type lanthanum silicate (ATLS) electrolyte coatings for use in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Plasma-sprayed coatings with typical composition La10(SiO4)6O3 exhibiting good densification and high oxide ionic conductivity were obtained by properly adjusting the spraying parameters, particularly the gun current. The highest obtained ionic conductivity value of 3.3 mS/cm at 1,173 K in air is comparable to other ATLS conductors. This work demonstrated empirically that utilization of the APS technique is feasible to synthesize dense La10(SiO4)6O3 electrolyte coatings using gun currents within an unusually broad range.

  15. Hydrophobic Coatings on Cotton Obtained by in Situ Plasma Polymerization of a Fluorinated Monomer in Ethanol Solutions.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ricardo; Teixidó, Josep Maria; Kan, Chi-Wai; Jovančić, Petar

    2017-02-15

    Plasma polymerization using hydrophobic monomers in the gas phase is a well-known technology to generate hydrophobic coatings. However, synthesis of functional hydrophobic coatings using plasma technology in liquids has not yet been accomplished. This work is consequently focused on polymerization of a liquid fluorinated monomer on cotton fabric initiated by atmospheric plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. Functional hydrophobic coatings on cotton were successfully achieved using in situ atmospheric plasma-initiated polymerization of fluorinated monomer dissolved in ethanol. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the amount of polymer deposited on cotton substrates can be modulated with the concentration of monomer in ethanol solution, and cross-linking reactions occur during plasma polymerization of a fluorinated monomer even without the presence of a cross-linking agent. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the chemical composition of hydrophobic coatings and to get insights into the physicochemical processes involved in plasma treatment. SEM analysis reveals that at high monomer concentration, coatings possess a three-dimensional pattern with a characteristic interconnected porous network structure. EDX analysis reveals that plasma polymerization of fluorinated monomers takes place preferentially at the surface of cotton fabric and negligible polymerization takes place inside the cotton fabric. Wetting time measurements confirm the hydrophobicity of cotton coatings obtained although equilibrium moisture content was slightly decreased. Additionally, the abrasion behavior and resistance to washing of plasma-coated cotton has been evaluated.

  16. Modeling of plasma jet production from rail and coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner formation*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. J.; Faehl, R. J.; Kirikpatrick, R. C.; Witherspoon, D.; Cassibry, J.

    2010-11-01

    We study the generation of plasma jets for forming imploding plasma liners using an enhanced version of the ePLAS implicit/hybrid model.^1 Typically, the jets are partially ionized D or Ar gases, in initial 3-10 cm long slugs at 10^16-10^18 electron/cm^3, accelerated for microseconds along 15-30 cm rail or coaxial guns with a 1 cm inter-electrode gap and driven by magnetic fields of a few Tesla. We re-examine the B-field penetration mechanisms that can be active in such wall-connected plasmas,^2 including erosion and EMHD influences, which can subsequently impact plasma liner formation and implosion. For the background and emitted plasma components we discuss optimized PIC and fluid modeling techniques, and the use of implicit fields and hybridized electrons to speed simulation. The plasmas are relatively cold (˜3 eV), so results with fixed atomic Z are compared to those from a simple analytic EOS, and allowing radiative heat loss from the plasma. The use of PIC ions is explored to extract large mean-free-path kinetic effects. 1. R. J. Mason and C. Cranfill, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 45 (1986) 2. R. Mason, et al., Phys. Fluids B, 5, 1115 (1993). [4pt] *Research supported in part by USDOE Grant DE-SC0004207.

  17. Plasma polymerized allylamine coated quartz particles for humic acid removal.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Karyn L; Majewski, Peter

    2012-08-15

    Allylamine plasma polymerization has been used to modify the surface of quartz particles for humic acid removal via an inductively coupled rotating barrel plasma reactor. Plasma polymerized allylamine (ppAA) films were deposited at a power of 25 W, allylamine flow rate of 4.4 sccm and polymerization times of 5-60 min. The influence of polymerization time on surface chemistry was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and electrokinetic analysis. Acid orange 7 adsorption/desorption quantified the number of surface amine groups. Humic acid removal via ppAA quartz particles was examined by varying pH, removal time, humic acid concentration, and particle mass. Increasing the polymerization time increased the concentration of amine groups on the ppAA quartz surface, thus also increasing the isoelectric point. ToF-SIMS demonstrated uniform distribution of amine groups across the particle surface. Greatest humic acid removal was observed at pH 5 due to electrostatic attraction. At higher pH values, for longer polymerization times, humic acid removal was also observed due to hydrogen bonding. Increasing the initial humic acid concentration increased the mass of humic acid removed, with longer polymerization times exhibiting the greatest increases. Plasma polymerization using a rotating plasma reactor has shown to be a successful method for modifying quartz particles for the removal of humic acid. Further development of the plasma polymerization process and investigation of additional contaminants will aid in the development of a low cost water treatment system.

  18. Diagnostic studies of ion beam formation in inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jenee L.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies focused on the plasma and the ion beam in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ability to use ICP-MS for measurements of trace elements in samples requires the analytes to be efficiently ionized. Updated ionization efficiency tables are discussed for ionization temperatures of 6500 K and 7000 K with an electron density of 1 x 1015 cm-3. These values are reflective of the current operating parameters of ICP-MS instruments. Calculations are also discussed for doubly charged (M2+) ion formation, neutral metal oxide (MO) ionization, and metal oxide (MO+) ion dissociation for similar plasma temperature values. Ionization efficiency results for neutral MO molecules in the ICP have not been reported previously.

  19. The effect of thermal aging on the thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed and EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Beecher, S.C.; Porter, W.D.; Nagaraj, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBCs is of primary importance. Electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EV-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The density of the APS coatings was controlled by varying the spray parameters. The low density APS yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (yttria-PSZ) coatings yielded a thermal conductivity that is lower than both the high density APS coatings and the EB-PVD coatings. The thermal aging of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia are compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposure to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the EB-PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, results suggest that they typically have a higher thermal conductivity than APS coatings before thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia have been found to be less than for plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia coatings.

  20. Formation of Long-Lived Fireballs by Plasma Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, I.

    2001-10-01

    Results of the long-lived plasma structure and fireball formation (so called ``plasmoids") investigations in the atmosphere have been presented and discussed. Lifetimes of these objects considerably (by several orders of magnitude) exceed typical times of their generation by power sources and of plasma decay time. Experiments on the formation of these objects have been carried out by means of different types of pulse erosive plasma injectors in a wide range of energy (100 J - 100 kJ) putted into the plasmoid. Acrylic glass, fabric-based laminate, caprolon, and different organic materials (waxes, paraffines, resins with natural fillers, wood, lignin, etc.) have been used as plasma forming materials. Injection was made both into undisturbed air and into air saturated by organic vapors. It is shown that the formation of plasmoids of different forms (spherical, torus -type, cylindrical and others) with typical sizes 10-20 cm and their lifetime up to ~1 s takes place during pulse plasma injection into the air. In so doing the time of energy input ranged from 10 mcs to 10 ms. Typical temperature's value at the initial stage of the plasmoid existence is 7 - 10 kK. Initial value of the electron concentration reaches ten in (16-17) power per cubic cm. Obtained plasma radiation spectra and their temporary evolution is under the analysis. It is shown that at late stages of the existence of fireballs their radiation spectra correspond to the radiation of solid carbon and metallic oxide particles, and to spectra of burning of organic materials. It is shown that different structures have been formed at the application of the organic plasma forming materials and /or at the injection of plasma jet into the air saturated by organic vapors. One of them with typical sizes 10-20 cm and temperature ~2000 K has a lifetime up to 0.5 s. Undertaken experimental and theoretical investigations have shown a possibility of different ball lightning type realization in nature in the result of

  1. Influence of Laser Glazing on the Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Jiangwei; Liao, Hanlin; Darut, Geoffrey; Stella, Jorge; Poirier, Thierry; Planche, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia powder was deposited on the substrates by atmospheric plasma spray. The coatings were post-treated by laser glazing under different parameters in order to densify them. The characterization of the laser molten pools under different laser treatment conditions was studied. Preheating processes were also employed. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the surface and cross section of as-sprayed and laser-glazed coatings were carried out to investigate the influence of laser glazing on the microstructure on laser-glazed coatings. The results show that preheating processes improve the coating in terms of deepening the laser-glazed layer, reducing the number of vertical cracks and surface density of cracks and widening the molten pool. Finally, the influences of linear energy density on the characterization of the glazed layer are discussed.

  2. Thorium-Free Versus Thoriated Plasma Gun Electrodes: Statistical Evaluation of Coating Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenares-Angulo, Jose; Molz, Ronald; Hawley, David; Seshadri, Ramachandran Chidambaram

    2016-04-01

    Industries throughout the world today have an increased awareness of environmental, health, and safety issues. This, together with recent Nuclear Regulatory Commission changes concerning source material (e.g., thorium) has added complexity in the supply chain of thoriated tungsten commonly used in plasma spray gun spares. In the interest of a safer and more sustainable work environment, Oerlikon Metco has developed thorium-free material solutions proven to have longer service life than conventional thoriated spares. This work reports on the effect, if any, caused by tungsten compositional changes and extended service life in coating properties. Microstructure, coating efficiency parameters, hardness, particle state, in situ coating stress, and ex situ modulus are evaluated over the service life duration of the nozzle, comparing coatings with thoriated and non-thoriated nozzles and electrodes with the same spray parameters.

  3. Characterization of the adherence of plasma-sprayed ZrO/sub 2/ coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, P.F.; Rice, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of the microstructure and adherence of ZrO/sub 2/ coatings revealed that the adherence decreased with increasing coating thickness and could be increased by incorporating MgO as a second phase as well as by including noncubic ZrO/sub 2/ in the cubic ZrO/sub 2/ coating. Residual stresses from the plasma spraying process limit adherence (hence the coating thickness dependence) but these can be relieved by plastic flow in the MgO phase during post-spray cooling. Some degree of strength/toughening is also derived by the presence of microcracks and/or from transformation associated with the presence of tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/.

  4. Corrosion evaluation of zirconium doped oxide coatings on aluminum formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bajat, Jelena; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna; Vasilić, Rastko; Stojadinović, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of aluminum in sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O) and Na(2)WO(4) · (2)H(2)O doped with Zr was analyzed in order to obtain oxide coatings with improved corrosion resistance. The influence of current density in PEO process and anodization time was investigated, as well as the influence of Zr, with the aim to find out how they affect the chemical content, morphology, surface roughness, and corrosion stability of oxide coatings. It was shown that the presence of Zr increases the corrosion stability of oxide coatings for all investigated PEO times. Evolution of EIS spectra during the exposure to 3% NaCl, as a strong corrosive agent, indicated the highest corrosion stability for PEO coating formed on aluminum at 70 mA/cm(2) for 2 min in a zirconium containing electrolyte.

  5. Formation of titanium carbide coating with micro-porous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yong; Ge, Shirong; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2010-03-01

    Micro-porous titanium carbide coating was successfully synthesized in a vacuum gas carburizing furnace by using a sequential diffusion technology. The composition and structure of the as-synthesized TiC were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All of the XRD, XPS and GDMS analysis results indicate that carbon atoms effectively diffused into the titanium alloys and formed a uniform acicular TiC coating with micro-porous structure.

  6. Formation and Stability of Partially-Neutralized Plasma Clumps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    propagation in the vacuum region, to the extent studied in the experiments. The goal of that related work is the generation of nearly charge-neutral...A179 444 FORMATION AND STABILITY OF PARTIALLY-NEUTRALIZED PLOSMA Y CLUNPS(U) MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK LAS FOR PLASMA AND FUSION ENERGY STUDIES J...Energy Studies / Bldg 410 Energy Research 3ldg, College Park Md 20742 Bolling AFB, D.C. 20332-6448 Ga. NAME OF FUNOING;SPONSORINGB. OFFICE SYMBOL 9

  7. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings.

  8. Wide-temperature-spectrum self-lubricating coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Self-lubricating, multicomponent coatings, which lubricate over a wide range of operating conditions, are described. The coatings have been successfully applied by plasma-spraying mixed powders onto superalloy substrates. They have been evaluated in friction and wear experiments, and in sliding contact bearing tests. These coatings are wear resistant by virtue of their self-lubricating characteristics rather than because of extreme hardness; a further benefit is low friction. Experiments with simple pin on disk sliding specimens and oscillating plain cylindrical bearing tests were performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. It was shown that coatings of nichrome, glass and calcium fluoride are self-lubricating from about 500 to 900 C, but give high friction at the lower temperatures. The addition of silver to the coating composition improved the low temperature bearing properties and resulted in coatings which are self-lubricating from cryogenic temperatures to at least 870 C; they are therefore 'wide temperature spectrum,' self-lubricating compositions.

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminized steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenqiang; Xia, Yuan; Li, Guang; Xu, Fangtao

    2007-08-01

    Ceramic coatings were formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on aluminized steel. Characteristics of the average anodic voltages versus treatment time were observed during the PEO process. The micrographs, compositions and mechanical properties of ceramic coatings were investigated. The results show that the anodic voltage profile for processing of aluminized steel is similar to that for processing bulk Al alloy during early PEO stages and that the thickness of ceramic coating increases approximately linearly with the Al layer consumption. Once the Al layer is completely transformed, the FeAl intermetallic layer begins to participate in the PEO process. At this point, the anodic voltage of aluminized steel descends, and the thickness of ceramic coating grows more slowly. At the same time, some micro-cracks are observed at the Al 2O 3/FeAl interface. The final ceramic coating mainly consists of γ-Al 2O 3, mullite, and α-Al 2O 3 phases. PEO ceramic coatings have excellent elastic recovery and high load supporting performance. Nanohardness of ceramic coating reaches about 19.6 GPa.

  10. Failure of thick, low density air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helminiak, Michael Aaron

    This research was directed at developing fundamental understandings of the variables that influence the performance of air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Focus was placed on understanding how and why each variable influenced the performance of the TBC system along with how the individual variables interacted with one another. It includes research on the effect of surface roughness of NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying, the interdiffusion behavior of bond coats coupled to commercial superalloys, and the microstructural and compositional control of APS topcoats to maximize the coating thicknesses that can be applied without spallation. The specimens used for this research were prepared by Praxair Surface Technologies and have been evaluated using cyclic oxidation and thermal shock tests. TBC performance was sensitive to bond coat roughness with the rougher bond coats having improved cyclic performance than the smoother bond coats. The explanation being the rough bond coat surface hindered the propagation of the delamination cracks. The failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on a combination of the topcoat thickness, topcoat microstructure and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the superalloy and topcoat. Thinner topcoats tended to fail at the topcoat/TGO interface due to bond coat oxidation whereas thicker topcoats failed within the topcoat due to the strain energy release rate of the thicker coating exceeding the fracture strength of the topcoat. Properties of free-standing high and conventional purity YSZ topcoats of both a lowdensity (LD) and dense-vertically fissure (DVF) microstructures were evaluated. The densification rate and phase evolution were sensitive to the YSZ purity and the starting microstructure. Increasing the impurity content resulted in enhanced sintering and phase decomposition rates, with the exception of the

  11. Deposition and properties of high-velocity-oxygen-fuel and plasma-sprayed Mo-Mo2C composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prchlik, L.; Gutleber, J.; Sampath, S.

    2001-12-01

    Molybdenum thermal-spray coatings, dispersion strengthened by molybdenum oxides and molybdenum carbides, play an important role in industrial tribological applications. Traditionally, they have been prepared by plasma and wire flame spraying. High porosity and lower cohesion strength limit their application in situations where both galling and abrasion wear is involved. In this study, high-velocity-oxygen-fuel (HVOF) deposition of molybdenum and molybdenum carbide coatings was attempted. Deposition was achieved for all powders used. Composition, microstructure, mechanical, and wear properties of the HVOF synthesized coatings were evaluated and compared with plasma-sprayed counterparts. The HVOF coatings possessed a very good abrasion resistance, whereas plasma deposits performed better in dry sliding tests. Measurements showed a close relationship between the coating surface hardness and its abrasion resistance. Results also suggested correlation between molybdenum carbide distribution in the molybdenum matrix and the sliding friction response of Mo-Mo2C coatings.

  12. Fastest Formation Routes of Nanocarbons in Solution Plasma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Tetsunori; Ueno, Tomonaga; Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Hieda, Junko; Yoshida, Akihito; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-11-01

    Although solution-plasma processing enables room-temperature synthesis of nanocarbons, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the routes of solution-plasma-induced nanocarbon formation from hexane, hexadecane, cyclohexane, and benzene. The synthesis rate from benzene was the highest. However, the nanocarbons from linear molecules were more crystalline than those from ring molecules. Linear molecules decomposed into shorter olefins, whereas ring molecules were reconstructed in the plasma. In the saturated ring molecules, C–H dissociation proceeded, followed by conversion into unsaturated ring molecules. However, unsaturated ring molecules were directly polymerized through cation radicals, such as benzene radical cation, and were converted into two- and three-ring molecules at the plasma–solution interface. The nanocarbons from linear molecules were synthesized in plasma from small molecules such as C2 under heat; the obtained products were the same as those obtained via pyrolysis synthesis. Conversely, the nanocarbons obtained from ring molecules were directly synthesized through an intermediate, such as benzene radical cation, at the interface between plasma and solution, resulting in the same products as those obtained via polymerization. These two different reaction fields provide a reasonable explanation for the fastest synthesis rate observed in the case of benzene.

  13. Analysis of mechanisms for anode plasma formation in ion diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.A.; Brandenburg, J.E.; Gerber, R.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Hoffman, J.M.; Miller, P.A.; Quintenz, J.P.; Slutz, S.A.; Bieg, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding how anode plasma is formed in intense pulsed-power ion diodes by insulator breakdown is important in assessing the effect on ion beam quality. Formation of a passive flashover anode plasma source may involve one or more of the following: polarization of the anode dielectric, direct leakage electron bombardment, UV-stimulated desorption of excited gas in the gap or on the anode surface, ionization of desorbed neutrals in a surface plasma by electron return currents associated with ion extraction, or bombardment by low energy electrons or negative ions. At Sandia National Laboratories experiments have been done on Nereus, PI 110A, Proto I, Proto II, HydraMITE, and PBFA I using anodes with dielectric-filled surfaces. The experiments represent a variety of anode turn-on delays (2 to 15 ns), magnetic field strengths (7 to 30 kG), voltages (300 keV to 2 MeV), and anode configurations. Data include ion beam current from Faraday cups, holographic observation of plasma motion, the spatial and temporal character of visible light emitted from the plasma, and optical metallographic examination of the dielectric.

  14. A Quantitative Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers

    2014-10-01

    Every second millions of small meteoroids hit the Earth from space, the vast majority too small to observe visually. Radars easily detect the plasma they generate and use the data they gather to characterize the meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. These diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of the formation of the meteor plasma and how it interacts with the Earth's atmosphere. Meteors become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently that they begin to sublimate. The sublimated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around and behind the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from the plasma around the descending meteoroid produces a localized signal called a head echo. This research applies kinetic theory to show that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. This analytical model will serve as a basis for quantitative interpretation of the head echo radar measurements, the ionization efficiency (called the Beta parameter), and should help us calculate meteoroid and atmosphere parameters from radar head-echo observations. Work supported by NSF Grant AGS-1244842.

  15. Fastest Formation Routes of Nanocarbons in Solution Plasma Processes

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Tetsunori; Ueno, Tomonaga; Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Hieda, Junko; Yoshida, Akihito; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-01-01

    Although solution-plasma processing enables room-temperature synthesis of nanocarbons, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the routes of solution-plasma-induced nanocarbon formation from hexane, hexadecane, cyclohexane, and benzene. The synthesis rate from benzene was the highest. However, the nanocarbons from linear molecules were more crystalline than those from ring molecules. Linear molecules decomposed into shorter olefins, whereas ring molecules were reconstructed in the plasma. In the saturated ring molecules, C–H dissociation proceeded, followed by conversion into unsaturated ring molecules. However, unsaturated ring molecules were directly polymerized through cation radicals, such as benzene radical cation, and were converted into two- and three-ring molecules at the plasma–solution interface. The nanocarbons from linear molecules were synthesized in plasma from small molecules such as C2 under heat; the obtained products were the same as those obtained via pyrolysis synthesis. Conversely, the nanocarbons obtained from ring molecules were directly synthesized through an intermediate, such as benzene radical cation, at the interface between plasma and solution, resulting in the same products as those obtained via polymerization. These two different reaction fields provide a reasonable explanation for the fastest synthesis rate observed in the case of benzene. PMID:27841288

  16. Modification of the composite multi-layer oxide ceramic coating on meteoroid shielding element by compression plasma flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashinski, V. M.; Khramtsov, P. P.; Hryshchanka, U. M.; Chernik, M. Yu; Vasetskij, V. A.; Shikh, I. A.; Doroshko, M. V.; Makhnach, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is investigation of the influence of high-energy plasma impact on composite multi-layer coating (NiAl as a sublayer and Al2O3 as a top coat) on meteoroid shielding element. In order to reach this goal qausi-stationary plasma accelerator with impulse gas feeding was used. Experiments were conducted with use of helium and hydrogen gas mixture and nitrogen as plasma forming substance. Plasma accelerator generates plasma jet with electron temperature ≈ 150 kK and electron density (2.5-4) × 1016 cm-3. Visual examination, photography and spectral measurements were made through special vacuum chamber optical windows.

  17. Formation of High-Beta Plasma and Stable Confinement of Toroidal Electron Plasma in RT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Haruhiko

    2010-11-01

    The Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device is a laboratory magnetosphere generated by a levitated superconducting magnet. The goals of RT-1 are to realize stable formation of ultra high-beta plasma suitable for burning advanced fusion fuels, and confinement of toroidal non-neutral plasmas including antimatter particles. RT- 1 has produced high-beta plasma in the magnetospheric configuration. The effects of coil levitation and geomagnetic field compensation [Y. Yano et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 4, 039] resulted drastic improvements of the plasma properties, and a maximum local beta value exceeded 70%. Because plasma is generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in the present experiment, the plasma pressure is mainly due to hot electrons, whose bremsstrahlung was observed with an x-ray CCD camera. The pressure profiles have rather steep gradient near the superconducting coil in the strong field region. The decay rates of magnetic probe and interferometer signals have different time constants, suggesting multiple temperature components. The energy confinement time estimated from the input RF power and stored magnetic energy is on the order of 1s, which is comparable to the decay time constant of the density of hot electron component. Pure electron plasma experiments are also conducted in RT-1. Radial profiles of electrostatic potential and electron density showed that the plasma rigidly rotates in the toroidal direction in the stable confinement phase. Long time confinement of toroidal non- neutral plasma for more than 300s and inward particle diffusion to strong field regions, caused by the activation of the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability, have been realized [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 235004].

  18. Influence of Silver-hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite Coating on Biofilm Formation of Joint Prosthesis and Its Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, L; Ashraf, MA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The main reason for biomaterial related refractory infections is biofilm formation caused by bacterial adhesion on the surface of materials. Silver-hydroxyapatite (Ag/HA) nanocomposite coating can inhibit the formation of biofilm, but its mechanism is not clear. Material and Method: In order to clarify the mechanism, the amounts of biofilm on the Ag/HA composite coating and HA coating were determined, the release rates of silver nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) were detected by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the expression values of atlE, fbe, sap, iapB genes of Staphylococcus aureus were studied when they grew on Ag/HA composite coating and HA coating. Results: The amount of the biofilm on the Ag/HA composite coating was significantly less than that on the HA coating, and the bacterial adhesion was decreased. The silver nanoparticles were released continuously in SBF and the release rate decreased gradually with time. The expression values of atlE, fbe and sap were high in the initial stage of adhesion and the expression value of iapB was high in the colonies-gathering stage in the control group, but they were all significantly inhibited in the presence of Ag. Conclusion: These results indicated that the main antibacterial effect of Ag/HA composite coating was achieved by the release of silver nanoparticles. The addition of Ag inhibited the expression of genes related to biofilm formation, which in turn inhibited the formation of biofilms. This provided theoretical support for the clinical application of Ag/HA composite coating. PMID:27400164

  19. The durability of adhesively bonded titanium: Performance of plasma-sprayed polymeric coating pretreatments

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, F.; Dillard, J.; Dillard, D.

    1996-12-31

    The role of a surface treatment of an adherend is to promote highly stable adhesive-adherend interactions; high stability is accomplished by making the chemistry of the adherend and adhesive compatible. The common surface preparations used to enhance durability include grit blasting, chromic acid or sodium hydroxide anodization, and other chemical treatments for titanium. As interest has grown in the development of environmentally benign surface treatments, other methods have been explored. In this study, plasma-sprayed polymeric materials have been evaluated as a surface coating pretreatment for adhesively bonding titanium alloy. Polyimide and polyether powders were plasm-sprayed onto grit-blasted titanium-6Al-4V. The alloy was adhesively bonded using a high performance polyimide adhesive. The coating was characterized using surface sensitive analytical measurements. The durability performance of the plasma-sprayed adherends was compared to the performance for chromic acid anodized titanium. Among the plasma-sprayed coatings, a LaRC-TPI polyimide-based coating exhibited performance comparable to that for chromic acid anodized specimens.

  20. Columnar-Structured Mg-Al-Spinel Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Ebert, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2015-01-01

    The suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process has been developed to permit the feeding of sub-micrometer-sized powder into the plasma plume. In contrast to electron beam-physical vapor deposition and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition, SPS enables the cost-efficient deposition of columnar-structured coatings. Due to their strain tolerance, these coatings play an important role in the field of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In addition to the cost-efficient process, attention was turned to the TBC material. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as standard TBC material. However, its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C is problematic. At these high temperatures, phase transitions and sintering effects lead to the degradation of the TBC system. To overcome those deficits of YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel was chosen as TBC material. Even though it has a lower melting point (~2135 °C) and a higher thermal conductivity (~2.5 W/m/K) than YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel provides phase stability at high temperatures in contrast to YSZ. The Mg-Al-spinel deposition by SPS resulted in columnar-structured coatings, which have been tested for their thermal cycling lifetime. Furthermore, the influence of substrate cooling during the spraying process on thermal cycling behavior, phase composition, and stoichiometry of the Mg-Al-spinel has been investigated.

  1. Cell adhesion to plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) titania coatings, assessed using a centrifuging technique.

    PubMed

    Robinson, H J; Markaki, A E; Collier, C A; Clyne, T W

    2011-11-01

    The adhesion of bovine chondrocytes and human osteoblasts to three titania-based coatings, formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), was compared to that on uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrates, and some comparisons were also made with plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. This was done using a centrifuge, with accelerations of up to 160,000 g, so as to induce buoyancy forces that created normal or shear stresses at the interface. It is shown that, on all surfaces, it was easier to remove cells under normal loading than under shear loading. Cell adhesion to the PEO coatings was stronger than that on Ti-6Al-4V and similar to that on HA. Cell proliferation rates were relatively high on one of the PEO coatings, which was virtually free of aluminium, but low on the other two, which contained significant levels of aluminium. It is concluded that the Al-free PEO coating offers promise for application to prosthetic implants.

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Studies on Tribocorrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Chu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xueguang; Dong, Yanchun; Yang, Yong; Li, Yingzhen; Yan, Dianran

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the tribocorrosion of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings in simulated seawater was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique, complemented by scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphology of the tribocorrosion attack. Base on EIS of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings undergoing long-time immersion in simulated seawater, the corrosion process of Al2O3 coatings can be divided into the earlier stage of immersion (up to 20 h) and the later stage (beyond 20 h). Then, the wear tests were carried out on the surface of Al2O3 coating undergoing different times of immersion to investigate the influence of wear on corrosion at different stages. The coexistence of wear and corrosion condition had been created by a boron nitride grinding head rotating on the surface of coatings corroded in simulated seawater. The measured EIS and the values of the fitting circuit elements showed that wear accelerated corrosion at the later stage, meanwhile, corrosion accelerated wear with the immersion time increasing.

  3. PREFACE: Low temperature Plasma in the Processes of Functional Coating Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gali Yunusovich, Dautov; Kashapov Faikovich, Nail; Larionov, Viktor; Gerfanovich Zaripov, Renat; Galyautdinov Tagirovich, Raphael; Ilnaz, Fayrushin; Ramil Nailevich, Kashapov

    2013-12-01

    In November 2013 the V Republican Scientific Technical Conference 'Low-temperature plasma during the deposition of functional coatings' was held in Kazan. The Conference took place from 4-7 November at the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan and Kazan Federal University chaired by a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan Nail Kashapov, Professor, Doctor of Technical Science, and a member of the Scientific and Technical Council of the Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. At the conference, the participants were offered a wide range of issues affecting the theoretical and computational aspects of the research problems in the physics and technology of low-temperature plasma. There was also a whole series of works devoted to the study of thin films, obtained by low-temperature plasma. For the second year at this conference, work dedicated to the related field of pulsation combustion and low- temperature plasma was considered. In addition much interest is devoted to reports on the exploration of gas discharges with liquid electrolytic electron trodes and the study of dusty plasmas. The VI All-Russian Conference 'Low-temperature plasma during the deposition of functional coatings', an extended version with international participation, is scheduled to take place in November 2014. Nail Kashapov Editor

  4. Formation of coated vesicles from coated pits in broken A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Biochemical and morphological techniques were used to demonstrate the early steps in the endocytosis of transferrin in broken A431 cells. After binding 125I-transferrin, the cells were broken by scraping and then warmed. 125I-transferrin became inaccessible to exogenous anti- transferrin antibody providing a measure of the internalization process. Parallel morphological experiments using transferrin coupled to horseradish peroxidase confirmed internalization in broken cells. The process was characterized and compared with endocytosis in intact cells and showed many similar features. The system was used to show that both the appearance of new coated pits and the scission of coated pits to form coated vesicles were dependent on the addition of cytosol and ATP whereas invagination of pits was dependent on neither. PMID:2564003

  5. Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Barrier Coatings and Encapsulated Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report silicon oxide coatings deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology (PECVD) on 125 μm polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces for the purpose of the shelf lifetime extension of sealed polymer solar cells. After optimization of the processing parameters, we achieved a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of ca. 10-3 g/m2/day with the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) less than 0.05 cc/m2/day, and succeeded in extending the shelf lifetime to about 400 h in encapsulated solar cells. And then the chemical structure of coatings related to the properties of encapsulated cell was investigated in detail.

  6. Improvement of Coating Properties in Three-Cathode Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Kopp, N.; Warda, T.; Petković, I.; Zimmermann, S.; Hartz-Behrend, K.; Landes, K.; Forster, G.; Kirner, S.; Marqués, J.-L.; Schein, J.; Prehm, J.; Möhwald, K.; Bach, Fr.-W.

    2013-04-01

    The main aim of this study is to improve the coating properties of three-cathode atmospheric plasma-sprayed coatings with respect to porosity and residual stresses. This was done by means of numerical simulation coupled with advanced diagnostic methods. A numerical model for the triple injection of alumina feedstock, as well as acceleration and heating of the powder particles in the characteristic threefold symmetrical plasma jet cross section produced by a three-cathode-plasma torch, was developed. The modeling results for the standard injector's position "0" were calculated and experimentally verified by laser Doppler anemometry. Based on the criteria defined for the concentrated feedstock transport and homogeneous thermal treatment of powder particles in the plasma jet, the optimal injection position was found. In the next step, a previously developed, coupled CFD-FEM-simulation model was used for simulations of the coating build-up, describing flattening, solidification, and deformation due to shrinkage for alumina particles on a rough substrate surface.

  7. Characterization of PEG-Like Macromolecular Coatings on Plasma Modified NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Gao, Jiacheng; Chang, Peng; Wang, Jianhua

    2008-04-01

    A poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG-like) coating was developed to improve the biocompatibility of Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy implants. The PEG-like macromolecular coatings were deposited on NiTi substrates at a room temperature of 298 K through a ECR (electron-cyclotron resonance) cold-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method using tetraglyme (CH3-O-(CH2-CH2-O)4-CH3) as a precursor. A power supply with a frequency of 2.45 GHz was applied to ignite the plasma with Ar(argon) used as the carrier gas. Based on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies, a thin smooth coating on NiTi substrates with highly amorphous functional groups on the modified NiTi surfaces were mainly the same accumulated stoichiometric ratio of C and O with PEG. The vitro studies showed that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) adsorption on the modified NiTi alloy surface was significantly reduced. This study indicated that plasma surface modification changes the surface components of NiTi alloy and subsequently improves its biocompatibility.

  8. Demixing-stimulated lane formation in binary complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Du, C.-R.; Jiang, K.; Suetterlin, K. R.; Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-11-29

    Recently lane formation and phase separation have been reported for experiments with binary complex plasmas in the PK3-Plus laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Positive non-additivity of particle interactions is known to stimulate phase separation (demixing), but its effect on lane formation is unknown. In this work, we used Langevin dynamics (LD) simulation to probe the role of non-additivity interactions on lane formation. The competition between laning and demixing leads to thicker lanes. Analysis based on anisotropic scaling indices reveals a crossover from normal laning mode to a demixing-stimulated laning mode. Extensive numerical simulations enabled us to identify a critical value of the non-additivity parameter {Delta} for the crossover.

  9. Formation of intermetallic compound coating on magnesium AZ91 cast alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianping; Gao, Wei

    2009-08-01

    This study describes an intermetallic compound coating formed on AZ91 Mg cast alloy. The Al sputtered on AZ91 cast alloy reacted with substrate during a short period of heat treatment at 435°C, resulting in the formation of a continuous intermetallic compound layer. The short period treatment has the advantage of minimizing the negative effect on the microstructure of substrate and the mechanical properties, comparing with the reported diffusion coatings. DSC measurement and examination on the cross-section of Al sputtered samples show that local melting occurred along the Al/substrate interface at the temperature range between 430~435°C. The formation mechanism of intermetallic compound coating is proposed in terms of the local melting at Al/substrate interface. The salt water immersion test showed significant improvement in corrosion resistance of the intermetallic compound coated AZ91 cast alloy compared with the as-cast alloys.

  10. Testing the Role of Silicic Acid and Bioorganic Materials in the Formation of Rock Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, Vera; Philip, Ajish I.; Perry, Randall S.

    2004-12-01

    Silica, amino acids, and DNA were recently discovered in desert varnish. In this work we experimentally test the proposed role of silicic acid and bio-chemicals in the formation of desert varnish and other rock coatings. We have developed a protocol in which hte rocks were treated with a mixture of silicic acid, sugars, amino acids, metals and clays, under the influence of heat and UV light. This protocol reflects the proposed mechanism of hte polymerization of silicic acid with the bioorganic materials, and the laboratory model for the natural conditions under which the desert varnish is formed. Our experiments produced coatings with a hardness and morphology that resemble the nature ones. These results provide a support for the role of silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings. Since the hard silica-based coatings preserve organic compounds in them, they may serve as a biosignature for life, here or possibly Mars.

  11. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  12. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOEpatents

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; Antony, Leo V. M.; O'Dell, Scott; Power, Chris; Tabor, Terry

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  13. Sintering and Creep Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia and Hafnia Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The sintering and creep of plasma-sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coatings under high temperature conditions are complex phenomena. Changes in thermomechanical and thermophysical properties and in the stress response of these coating systems as a result of the sintering and creep processes are detrimental to coating thermal fatigue resistance and performance. In this paper, the sintering characteristics of ZrO2-8wt%y2O3, ZrO2-25wt%CeO2-2.5wt%Y2O3, ZrO2-6w%NiO- 9wt%Y2O3, ZrO2-6wt%Sc2O3-2wt%y2O3 and HfO2-27wt%y2O3 coating materials were investigated using dilatometry. It was found that the HfO2-Y2O3 and baseline ZrO2-Y2O3 exhibited the best sintering resistance, while the NiO-doped ZrO2-Y2O3 showed the highest shrinkage strain rates during the tests. Higher shrinkage strain rates of the coating materials were also observed when the specimens were tested in Ar+5%H2 as compared to in air. This phenomenon was attributed to an enhanced metal cation interstitial diffusion mechanism under the reducing conditions. It is proposed that increased chemical stability of coating materials will improve the material sintering resistance.

  14. The low cycle fatigue behavior of a plasma-sprayed coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Single crystal nickel-base superalloys employed in turbine blade applications are often used with a plasma spray coating for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. These coatings may also affect fatigue life of the superalloy substrate. As part of a large program to understand the fatigue behavior of coated single crystals, fully reversed, total strain controlled fatigue tests were run on a free standing NiCoCrAlY coating alloy, PWA 276, at 0.1 Hz. Fatigue tests were conducted at 650 C, where the NiCoCrAlY alloy has modest ductility, and at 1050 C, where it is extremely ductile, showing tensile elongation in excess of 100 percent. At the lower test temperature, deformation induced disordering softened the NiCoCrAlY alloy, while at the higher test temperature cyclic hardening was observed which was linked to gradual coarsening of the two phase microstructure. Fatigue life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was significantly longer at the higher temperature. Further, the life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy exceeds that of coated, /001/-oriented PWA 1480 single crystals at 1050 C, but at 650 C the life of the coated crystal is greater than that of the NiCoCrAlY alloy on a total strain basis.

  15. Plasma sprayed manganese-cobalt spinel coatings: Process sensitivity on phase, electrical and protective performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Su Jung; Pala, Zdenek; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Manganese cobalt spinel (Mn1.5Co1.5O4, MCO) coatings are prepared by the air plasma spray (APS) process to examine their efficacy in serving as protective coatings from Cr-poisoning of the cathode side in intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). These complex oxides are susceptible to process induced stoichiometric and phase changes which affect their functional performance. To critically examine these effects, MCO coatings are produced with deliberate modifications to the spray process parameters to explore relationship among process conditions, microstructure and functional properties. The resultant interplay among particle thermal and kinetic energies are captured through process maps, which serve to characterize the parametric effects on properties. The results show significant changes to the chemistry and phase composition of the deposited material resulting from preferential evaporation of oxygen. Post deposition annealing recovers oxygen in the coatings and allows partial recovery of the spinel phase, which is confirmed through thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and magnetic hysteresis measurements. In addition, coatings with high density after sintering show excellent electrical conductivity of 40 S cm-1 at 800 °C while simultaneously providing requisite protection characteristics against Cr-poisoning. This study provides a framework for optimal evaluation of MCO coatings in intermediate temperature SOFCs.

  16. Numerical model of the plasma formation at electron beam welding

    SciTech Connect

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Mladenov, G. M.

    2015-01-07

    The model of plasma formation in the keyhole in liquid metal as well as above the electron beam welding zone is described. The model is based on solution of two equations for the density of electrons and the mean electron energy. The mass transfer of heavy plasma particles (neutral atoms, excited atoms, and ions) is taken into account in the analysis by the diffusion equation for a multicomponent mixture. The electrostatic field is calculated using the Poisson equation. Thermionic electron emission is calculated for the keyhole wall. The ionization intensity of the vapors due to beam electrons and high-energy secondary and backscattered electrons is calibrated using the plasma parameters when there is no polarized collector electrode above the welding zone. The calculated data are in good agreement with experimental data. Results for the plasma parameters for excitation of a non-independent discharge are given. It is shown that there is a need to take into account the effect of a strong electric field near the keyhole walls on electron emission (the Schottky effect) in the calculation of the current for a non-independent discharge (hot cathode gas discharge). The calculated electron drift velocities are much bigger than the velocity at which current instabilities arise. This confirms the hypothesis for ion-acoustic instabilities, observed experimentally in previous research.

  17. Cathode Plasma Formation in High Intensity Electron Beam Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Oliver, Bryan; Bennett, Nichelle; Droemer, Darryl; Bernshtam, V.; Doron, R.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2013-10-01

    This talk will detail the experimental results and conclusions obtained for cathode plasma formation on the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (4-7.5 MeV) at Sandia National Laboratories. The SMP diode utilizes a hollowed metal cathode to produce high power (TW), focused electron beams (<3 mm diameter) which are used for flash x-ray radiography applications. Optical diagnostics include high speed (<10 ns) framing cameras, optical streak cameras, and spectroscopy. The cathode plasma in this high electric (MV/cm) and magnetic (>10 Tesla) field environment forms well-defined striations. These striations have been examined for a number of different cathode sizes, vacuum gap spacings, and diode voltages. Optical streak images have been taken to determine the time evolution of the plasma, and optical spectroscopy has been employed to determine its constituents as well as their densities and temperatures inferred from detailed time-dependent, collisional-radiative (CR) and radiation transport modelings. Comments will be made as to the overall effect of the cathode plasma in regards to the diode impedance and electron beam focusing. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Preventive effects of a phospholipid polymer coating on PMMA on biofilm formation by oral streptococci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Yukie; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-12-01

    The regulation of biofilm formation on dental materials such as denture bases is key to oral health. Recently, a biocompatible phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) coating, was reported to inhibit sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic bacterium, on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture bases. However, S. mutans is a minor component of the oral microbiome and does not play an important role in biofilm formation in the absence of sucrose. Other, more predominant oral streptococci must play an indispensable role in sucrose-independent biofilm formation. In the present study, the effect of PMB coating on PMMA was evaluated using various oral streptococci that are known to be initial colonizers during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. PMB coating on PMMA drastically reduced sucrose-dependent tight biofilm formation by two cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus), among seven tested oral streptococci, as described previously [N. Takahashi, F. Iwasa, Y. Inoue, H. Morisaki, K. Ishihara, K. Baba, J. Prosthet. Dent. 112 (2014) 194-203]. Streptococci other than S. mutans and S. sobrinus did not exhibit tight biofilm formation even in the presence of sucrose. On the other hand, all seven species of oral streptococci exhibited distinctly reduced glucose-dependent soft biofilm retention on PMB-coated PMMA. We conclude that PMB coating on PMMA surfaces inhibits biofilm attachment by initial colonizer oral streptococci, even in the absence of sucrose, indicating that PMB coating may help maintain clean conditions on PMMA surfaces in the oral cavity.

  19. Assessment of plasma sprayed coatings to modify surface friction for railroad applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Heidi Lynn

    For the past hundred years, railroads have been an important means of transportation for passengers and freight. Over the years train traffic, speeds, and loads have increased steadily leading to a more severe wheel/rail environment that exceeds the design limits of the steels thus causing increased wear, decreased rail life, and higher maintenance costs. The cost of controlling friction and the resulting damage is an area of ever-increasing concern. One potential method of modifying friction is by changing the surface properties of the rail. The work reported herein was carried out as part of a larger effort to modify surface friction of rails. The original focus of this research was to use high velocity air plasma spraying to develop friction enhancing coatings for the rail surface. Using the methodology developed at the Oregon Graduate Institute, the plasma spray parameters were optimized and the coatings were tested on the Amsler machine under rolling/sliding wear conditions to determine viability prior to full scale testing. Stainless steel and composite 1080 steel were investigated as potential materials for increasing friction. Poor results with these coatings shifted the research focus to understanding the durability of the coatings and to failure analysis of initial 1080 steel full scale samples tested by the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing that had failed prematurely. After re-optimization of parameters and preparation methodologies further full scale samples (1080 steel/nylon) were tested and failure analysis was performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of coatings from the tested samples. The laboratory scale Amsler test did not appear to be a good indicator of the performance of the coating in full scale tests, because variations in microstructure were caused by differences in sample size, geometry and spraying methods when scaling up from a small Amsler roller to a large rail sample. The

  20. Evidence that phospholipase D mediates ADP ribosylation factor- dependent formation of Golgi coated vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Formation of coatomer-coated vesicles from Golgi-enriched membranes requires the activation of a small GTP-binding protein, ADP ribosylation factor (ARF). ARF is also an efficacious activator of phospholipase D (PLD), an activity that is relatively abundant on Golgi- enriched membranes. It has been proposed that ARF, which is recruited onto membranes from cytosolic pools, acts directly to promote coatomer binding and is in a 3:1 stoichiometry with coatomer on coated vesicles. We present evidence that cytosolic ARF is not necessary for initiating coat assembly on Golgi membranes from cell lines with high constitutive PLD activity. Conditions are also described under which ARF is at most a minor component relative to coatomer in coated vesicles from all cell lines tested, including Chinese hamster ovary cells. Formation of coated vesicles was sensitive to ethanol at concentrations that inhibit the production of phosphatidic acid (PA) by PLD. When PA was produced in Golgi membranes by an exogenous bacterial PLD, rather than with ARF and endogenous PLD, coatomer bound to Golgi membranes. Purified coatomer also bound selectively to artificial lipid vesicles that contained PA and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2). We propose that activation of PLD and the subsequent production of PA are key early events for the formation of coatomer-coated vesicles. PMID:8707816

  1. Drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma for the detection of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengpeng; Chen, Changshui; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Hua; Jin, Shaoqin

    2015-03-01

    We have recently applied the technique of drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection using blood plasma. The aim of this study was to develop a more convenient and stable method based on blood plasma for noninvasive CRC detection. Significant differences are observed in DCDR spectra between healthy (n=105) and cancer (n=75) plasma from 15 CRC patients and 21 volunteers, particularly in the spectra that are related to proteins, nucleic acids, and β-carotene. The multivariate analysis principal components analysis and the linear discriminate analysis, together with leave-one-out, cross validation were used on DCDR spectra and yielded a sensitivity of 100% (75/75) and specificity of 98.1% (103/105) for detection of CRC. This study demonstrates that DCDR spectroscopy of blood plasma associated with multivariate statistical algorithms has the potential for the noninvasive detection of CRC.

  2. Drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma for the detection of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengpeng; Chen, Changshui; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Hua; Jin, Shaoqin

    2015-03-01

    We have recently applied the technique of drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection using blood plasma. The aim of this study was to develop a more convenient and stable method based on blood plasma for noninvasive CRC detection. Significant differences are observed in DCDR spectra between healthy (n = 105) and cancer (n = 75) plasma from 15 CRC patients and 21 volunteers, particularly in the spectra that are related to proteins, nucleic acids, and β-carotene. The multivariate analysis principal components analysis and the linear discriminate analysis, together with leave-one-out, cross validation were used on DCDR spectra and yielded a sensitivity of 100% (75/75) and specificity of 98.1% (103/105) for detection of CRC. This study demonstrates that DCDR spectroscopy of blood plasma associated with multivariate statistical algorithms has the potential for the noninvasive detection of CRC.

  3. Friction and wear of plasma-sprayed coatings containing cobalt alloys from 25 deg to 650 deg in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.

    1979-01-01

    Four different compositions of self-lubricating, plasma-sprayed, composite coatings with calcium fluoride dispersed throughout cobalt alloy-silver matrices were evaluated on a friction and wear apparatus. In addition, coatings of the cobalt alloys alone and one coating with a nickel alloy-silver matrix were evaluated for comparison. The wear specimens consisted of two, diametrically opposed, flat rub shoes sliding on the coated, cylindrical surface of a rotating disk. Two of the cobalt composite coatings gave a friction coefficient of about 0.25 and low wear at room temperature, 400 and 650 C. Wear rates were lower than those of the cobalt alloys alone or the nickel alloy composite coating. However, oxidation limited the maximum useful temperature of the cobalt composite coating to about 650 C compared to about 900 C for the nickel composite coating.

  4. A technique to reduce plasma armature formation voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, K.A. ); Littrell, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of a plasma armature by foil vaporization in a railgun is often accompanied by a large, fast, voltage transient appearing on both the breech and muzzle of the gun. For a railgun driven by an inductor/opening switch power supply, this voltage transient becomes a concern during current commutation from the switch to the railgun. To lessen the requirements on the opening switch, techniques must be found to reduce the armature formation voltage. This paper presents the experimental results from railgun firings at AFATL's Electromagnetic Launcher Basic Research Facility (Site A-15, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida) using different shapes of initiation foils. These foils have been designed to vaporize into a plasma armature with reduced transient voltages. A design criteria was developed to ensure that all portions of the foil vaporize at slightly different times.

  5. Formation and control of plasma potentials in TMX upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Porkolab, M.; Stallard, B.W.

    1981-05-06

    The methods to be employed to form and control plasma potentials in the TMX Upgrade tandem mirror with thermal barriers are described. ECRH-generated mirror -confined electron plasmas are used to establish a negative potential region to isolate the end-plug and central-cell celectrons. This thermal isolation will allow a higher end-plug electron temperature and an increased central-cell confining potential. Improved axial central-cell ion confinement results since higher temperature central-cell ions can be confined. This paper describes: (1) calculations of the sensitivity of barrier formation to vacuum conditions and to the presence of impurities in the neutral beams, (2) calculations of microwave penetration and absorption used to design the ECRH system, and (3) techniques to limit electron runaway to high energies by localized microwave beams and by relativistic detuning.

  6. Plasma Diagnostics for Plasma Polymer Coatings Used in Fabrication of Thin Wall CH Shells for Direct Drive OMEGA Cryogenic Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P.; Nikroo, A.; Czechowicz, D.; Dicken, M.

    2002-11-01

    High aspect ratio CH shells, 1 μm thick, 9001 μm diameter, are crucial for the success of the cryogenic direct drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the OMEGA laser facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Plasma polymer coatings are currently used in fabrication of such shells, which can be made substantially stronger by altering parameters. High strength is important for inherently fragile high aspect ratio shells. The plasma characteristics used in the deposition process were studied in order to determine a correlation between the plasma parameters and the strength of shells. Several plasma processing parameters such as deposition pressure, power and relative and absolute gas flow rates were varied. The plasma was studied using several techniques such as optical emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probe diagnostics, and mass spectrometry. These diagnostic results were then correlated with direct measurements of the target strength (burst testing and buckle testing) and permeability to determine the ideal parameters for creating the strongest and most permeable ICF targets.

  7. Effect of laser melting on plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Samant, Anoop; Balani, Kantesh; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Agarwal, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    The effect of laser melting on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide composite coating reinforced with 4 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reported. Laser-melted layer consists of dense, coarse columnar microstructure which is significantly different from plasma-sprayed coating that consists of splats and porosity. CNTs retained their original cylindrical graphitic structure after undergoing laser irradiation. Three dimensional heat flow model has been developed to estimate temperature variation in the laser-melted composite layer. Laser-melted layers show an increase in the microhardness at the expanse of degradation of fracture toughness. Nanoindentation study indicates an increase in the elastic modulus and yield strength of the laser-melted layer which is attributed to dense microstructure with absence of weak-bonding splats and porosity.

  8. Investigations of Local Corrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed FeCr Nanocomposite Coating by SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xi; Shu, Mingyong; Zhong, Qingdong; Zhang, Junliang; Zhou, Qiongyu; Bui, Quoc Binh

    2016-02-01

    FeCr alloy coating can be sprayed on low-carbon steel to improve the corrosion resistance because of FeCr alloy's high anti-corrosion capacity. In this paper, Fe microparticles/Cr nanoparticles coating (NFC) and FeCr microparticles coating (MFC) were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying and NFC was heat-treated under hydrogen atmosphere at 800 °C (HNFC). EDS mapping showed no penetration of Ni in MFC and NFC while penetration of Ni occurred in HNFC. X-ray diffraction results indicated the form of the NiCrFe (bcc) solid solution in HNFC. SECM testing in 3.5 (wt.%) NaCl revealed that the anti-corrosion capacity of NFC improved compared with MFC, while HNFC improved further.

  9. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  10. Reduced Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in the presence of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Si-feng; Jia, Jing-fu; Guo, Xiao-kui; Zhao, Ya-ping; Chen, De-sheng; Guo, Yong-yuan; Zhang, Xian-long

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can adhere to most foreign materials and form biofilm on the surface of medical devices. Biofilm infections are difficult to resolve. The goal of this in vitro study was to explore the use of chitosan-coated nanoparticles to prevent biofilm formation. For this purpose, S. aureus was seeded in 96-well plates to incubate with chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in order to study the efficiency of biofilm formation inhibition. The biofilm bacteria count was determined using the spread plate method; biomass formation was measured using the crystal violet staining method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the biofilm formation. The results showed decreased viable bacteria numbers and biomass formation when incubated with chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles at all test concentrations. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased dead bacteria and thinner biofilm when incubated with nanoparticles at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles inhibited biofilm formation in polystyrene plates. Future studies should be performed to study these nanoparticles for anti-infective use. PMID:27994455

  11. Reduced Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in the presence of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Si-Feng; Jia, Jing-Fu; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Chen, De-Sheng; Guo, Yong-Yuan; Zhang, Xian-Long

    Staphylococcus aureus can adhere to most foreign materials and form biofilm on the surface of medical devices. Biofilm infections are difficult to resolve. The goal of this in vitro study was to explore the use of chitosan-coated nanoparticles to prevent biofilm formation. For this purpose, S. aureus was seeded in 96-well plates to incubate with chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in order to study the efficiency of biofilm formation inhibition. The biofilm bacteria count was determined using the spread plate method; biomass formation was measured using the crystal violet staining method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the biofilm formation. The results showed decreased viable bacteria numbers and biomass formation when incubated with chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles at all test concentrations. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased dead bacteria and thinner biofilm when incubated with nanoparticles at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles inhibited biofilm formation in polystyrene plates. Future studies should be performed to study these nanoparticles for anti-infective use.

  12. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. I. Front formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics during plasma expansion are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation with a variable neutral gas density profile. The simulation is tailored to a radio frequency plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055207 (2014)]. The experiment has shown the existence of a propagating ion front. The ion front features a strong electric field and features a sharp plasma potential drop similar to a double layer. However, the presented results of a first principle simulation show that, in general, the ion front does not have to be entangled with an electric field. The propagating electric field reflects the downstream ions, which stream with velocities up to twice as high as that of the ion front propagation. The observed ion density peak forms due to the accumulation of the reflected ions. The simulation shows that the ion front formation strongly depends on the initial ion density profile and is subject to a wave-breaking phenomenon. Virtual diagnostics in the code allow for a direct comparison with experimental results. Using this technique, the plateau forming in the wake of the plasma front could be indirectly verified in the expansion experiment. Although the simulation considers profiles only in one spatial dimensional, its results are qualitatively in a very good agreement with the laboratory experiment. It can successfully reproduce findings obtained by independent numerical models and simulations. This indicates that the effects of magnetic field structures and tangential inhomogeneities are not essential for the general expansion dynamic. The presented simulation will be used for a detailed parameter study dealt with in Paper II [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasma 23, 013512 (2016)] of this series.

  13. Diffusion behavior of 3.2% Si-grain-oriented steel coated with Al by plasma vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Se Min; Lee, Jae Sang; Kim, Jae Su; Han, Kyu Seak; Koo, Yang Mo

    2015-05-01

    Diffusion annealing has been performed to investigate the influence of diffusion parameters on the diffusion behavior of 3.2% Si-grain-oriented steel coated with Al using plasma vapor deposition (PVD). When Fe-Si steel sheets coated with Al-PVD were annealed at 1373 K, a single-phase solution of Al with uniform concentration was formed in α-Fe without intermetallic phases. It was confirmed that Kirkendall voids nucleate during interdiffusion between solid Al and Fe in the annealing process and volume fraction of Kirkendall voids decreased as the heating rate increased. Rapid heating (55 K/s) can prevent the formation of Kirkendall voids, possibly by reducing the time available for interdiffusion between solid Al and Fe. The results show that the alloying of 2 wt% Al was achieved without the formation of interme-tallic phases and Kirkendall voids, and that this alloy can increase resistivity and reduce eddy current loss. This was found to results in reduced core loss by 10%.

  14. Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of VC and Columnar Structured Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Qi; Huang, Xiao; Tang, Zhaolin

    2015-08-01

    The effects of different thermal barrier coating (TBC) top coat structures and substrate alloys on the isothermal oxidation behaviors of TBC systems were investigated at 1080 °C in lab air. The tested TBC systems consisted of two nickel-based superalloy substrates (CMSX-4 and IN738LC), a platinum aluminide bond coat and two 8YSZ top coats (vertical cracked and columnar structured). Samples with IN738LC substrate demonstrated longer isothermal oxidation lives than the counterparts with CMSX-4 substrate. Outward refractory elemental diffusion in coating systems with CMSX-4 substrate and void formation at the interface between thermally grown oxide and bond coat was found to be responsible for the early failure of TBCs. Columnar structured YSZ top coat seemed to provide better protection of the bond coating and substrate, marginally delaying the failure of the both coating systems with IN738LC and CMSX-4.

  15. Asymmetry-driven structure formation in pair plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S. M.; Shatashvili, N. L.; Berezhiani, V. I.

    2009-12-15

    The nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in pair plasmas, in which the electrostatic potential plays a very important but subdominant role of a 'binding glue' is investigated. Several mechanisms for structure formation are investigated, in particular, the 'asymmetry' in the initial temperatures of the constituent species. It is shown that the temperature asymmetry leads to a (localizing) nonlinearity that is qualitatively different from the ones originating in ambient mass or density difference. The temperature-asymmetry-driven focusing-defocusing nonlinearity supports stable localized wave structures in 1-3 dimensions, which, for certain parameters, may have flat-top shapes.

  16. Thermal Shock Properties of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited Using Low-Energy Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Bolot, Rodolphe; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings have been frequently used as a thermal protective layer on the metal or alloy component surfaces. In the present study, ZrO2-7%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were successfully deposited by DC (direct current) plasma spray process under very low pressure conditions (less than 1 mbar) using low-energy plasma guns F4-VB and F100. The experiments were performed to evaluate the thermal shock resistance of different TBC specimens which were heated to 1373 K at a high-temperature cycling furnace and held for 0.5 h, followed by air cooling at room temperature for 0.2 h. For comparison, a corresponding atmospheric plasma spray (APS) counterpart was also elaborated to carry out the similar experiments. The results indicated that the very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS) coatings displayed better thermal shock resistance. Moreover, the failure mechanism of the coatings was elucidated.

  17. Neutron and X-ray diffraction of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Herman, H.; Singhal, S. P.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    ZrO2-7.8mol. pct. YO1.5, a fused powder, and ZrO2-8.7mol. pct. YO1.5, a prereacted powder, were plasma-sprayed onto steel substrates. Neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction of the as-received powder, the powder plasma sprayed into water, as-sprayed coatings, and coatings heat-treated for 10 and 100 h were carried out to study phase transformations and ordering of the oxygen ions on the oxygen sublattice. The as-received fused powder has a much lower monoclinic percentage than does the pre-reacted powder, this resulting in a much lower monoclinic percentage in the coating. Heat treatment increases the percentages of the cubic and monoclinic phases, while decreasing the tetragonal content. An ordered tetragonal phase is detected by the presence of extra neutron diffraction peaks. These phase transformations and ordering will result in volume changes. The implications of these transformations on the performance of partially stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings is discussed.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Yttria- and Ceria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Obtained by Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łatka, Leszek; Cattini, Andrea; Chicot, Didier; Pawłowski, Lech; Kozerski, Stefan; Petit, Fabrice; Denoirjean, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Plasma generated by the SG-100 torch was applied to spray suspension formulated with the use of ZrO2 + 8 wt.% Y2O3 (8YSZ) and ZrO2 + 24 wt.% CeO2 + 2.5 wt.% Y2O3 (24CeYSZ) as solid phases. The suspensions were formulated with the use of 20 wt.% solid phase, 40 wt.% water, and 40 wt.% ethanol. The plasma spray parameters were optimized by keeping constant: (a) the electric power of 40 kW and (b) the working gas compositions of 45 slpm for Ar and 5 slpm for H2. On the other hand, the spray distance was varied from 40 to 60 mm and the torch linear speed was varied from 300 to 500 mm/s. The coatings were sprayed onto stainless steel substrates, and their thicknesses were in the range from 70 to 110 μm. The coating microstructures were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Mechanical properties were tested with the different methods including the indentation and scratch tests. The indentation test, carried out with various loads ranging from 100 to 10,000 mN, enabled to determine elastic modulus and Martens microhardness. Young's modulus of the coatings was in the range of 71-107 GPa for 8YSZ and 68-130 GPa for 24CeYSZ coatings. The scratch test enabled the authors to find the scratch macrohardness.

  19. Antibacterial burst-release from minimal Ag-containing plasma polymer coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lischer, Stefanie; Körner, Enrico; Balazs, Dawn J.; Shen, Dakang; Wick, Peter; Grieder, Kathrin; Haas, Dieter; Heuberger, Manfred; Hegemann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials releasing silver (Ag) are of interest because of their ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria including antibiotic-resistant strains. In order to investigate the potential of nanometre-thick Ag polymer (Ag/amino-hydrocarbon) nanocomposite plasma coatings, we studied a comprehensive range of factors such as the plasma deposition process and Ag cation release as well as the antibacterial and cytocompatible properties. The nanocomposite coatings released most bound Ag within the first day of immersion in water yielding an antibacterial burst. The release kinetics correlated with the inhibitory effects on the pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus and on animal cells that were in contact with these coatings. We identified a unique range of Ag content that provided an effective antibacterial peak release, followed by cytocompatible conditions soon thereafter. The control of the in situ growth conditions for Ag nanoparticles in the polymer matrix offers the possibility to produce customized coatings that initially release sufficient quantities of Ag ions to produce a strong adjacent antibacterial effect, and at the same time exhibit a rapidly decaying Ag content to provide surface cytocompatibility within hours/days. This approach seems to be favourable with respect to implant surfaces and possible Ag-resistance/tolerance built-up. PMID:21247951

  20. Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of free standing, plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings, including strength, fracture toughness, fatigue, constitutive relation, elastic modulus, and directionality, has been determined under various loading-specimen configurations. This report presents and describes a summary of mechanical properties of the plasma-sprayed coating material to provide them as a design database.

  1. The properties and fracture behavior of ion plasma sprayed TiN coating on stainless steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, Dina V.; Goncharenko, Igor M.; Danilov, Vladimir I.; Lobach, Maxim I.; Danilova, Lidiya V.; Shlyakhova, Galina V.

    2015-10-01

    The wear resistance and fracture behavior of ion plasma sprayed TiN coating were studied; the results are presented. The coating was applied to the stainless steel substrate using a vacuum arc method. The samples were tested by active loading. With varying coating thickness, its characteristics were found to change. Multiple cracking would occur in the deformed sample, with fragment borders aligned normal to the extension axis.

  2. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Prasad, K. U. M.; Rao, D. S.; Joshi, S. V.

    1998-06-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, A12O3, and Cr3C2-MCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. The results from the above tests are discussed here. It is evident that the D-gun sprayed coatings consistently exhibit denser microstructures and higher hardness values than their plasma sprayed counterparts. The D-gun coatings are also found to unfailingly exhibit superior tribological performance superior to the corresponding plasma sprayed coatings in all wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12%Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al2O3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode.

  3. HMDSO-plasma coated electrospun fibers of poly(cyclodextrin)s for antifungal dressings.

    PubMed

    Costoya, Alejandro; Ballarin, Florencia Montini; Llovo, Jose; Concheiro, Angel; Abraham, Gustavo A; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-11-20

    Electrospun mats containing cyclodextrin polymers (poly-αCD or poly-βCD) were developed to act as wound dressings showing tunable release rate of the antifungal agent fluconazole incorporated forming inclusion complexes. Poly-αCD and poly-βCD were prepared via cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (EPI) as water-soluble large molecular weight polymers. Then, polyCDs forming complexes with fluconazole were mixed with poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) for electrospinning. Obtained bead-free fibers showed a random distribution, diameters in the 350-850nm range, and a variety of physical stability behaviors in aqueous environment. Mats were coated by hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) plasma polymerization to create a hydrophobic layer that prevented rapid drug diffusion. HMDSO coating was evidenced by the Si content of mat surface (EDX analysis) and by the increase in the water contact angle (up to 130°). In physiological-mimicking medium, non-treated mats showed burst release of fluconazole, whereas HMDSO-coated mats sustained the release and delayed disintegration of PVP-based mats. Antifungal tests evidenced that both coated and non-coated mats efficiently inhibited the growth of Candida albicans.

  4. Plasma Sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) Coatings for Corrosion Protection and Adhesion Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. D.; Groff, G. B.; Rooney, M.; Cooke, A. V.; Boothe, R.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) coatings are being developed under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program's (SPIP) Bondlines Package. These coatings are designed as a steel case preparation treatment prior to insulation lay-up. Other uses include the exterior of steel cases and bonding surfaces of nozzle components. They provide excellent bondability - rubber insulation and epoxy bonds fail cohesively within the polymer - for both fresh surfaces and surfaces having undergone natural and accelerated environmental aging. They have passed the MSFC requirements for protection of inland and sea coast environment. Because BOSS coatings are inherently corrosion resistant, they do not require preservation by greases or oils. The reduction/elimination of greases and oils, known bondline degraders, can increase SRM reliability, decrease costs by reducing the number of process steps, and decrease environmental pollution by reducing the amount of methyl chloroform used for degreasing and thus reduce release of the ozone-depleting chemical in accordance with the Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol. The coatings can potential extend the life of RSRM case segments and nozzle components by eliminating erosion due to multiple grit blasting during each use cycle and corrosion damage during marine recovery. Concurrent work for the Air Force show that other BOSS coatings give excellent bondline strength and durability for high-performance structures of aluminum and titanium.

  5. Plasma Sprayed Ni-Al Coatings for Safe Ending Heat Exchanger Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.L.; Berndt, C.C.; Otterson, D.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed thermally conductive composite liners for corrosion and scale protection in heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The liners cannot withstand roller expansion to connect the tubes to the tubesheet. It is not possible to line the ends of the tubes with the same material after roller expansion due to the nature of the current liner application process. It was requested that BNL evaluate plasma sprayed Ni-Al coatings for safe ending heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The tubes of interest had an internal diameter of 0.875 inches. It is not typical to thermal spray small diameter components or use such small standoff distances. In this project a nozzle extension was developed by Zatorski Coating Company to spray the tube ends as well as flat coupons for testing. Four different Ni-Al coatings were investigated. One of these was a ductilized Ni-AlB material developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coatings were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and subjected to corrosion, tensile adhesion, microhardness and field tests in a volcanic pool in New Zealand.

  6. X-ray line formation in radiation dominated astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, G.; Bailey, J. E.; Hansen, S. B.; Nagayama, T.; Rochau, G. A.; Liedahl, D.; Mancini, R.; Koepke, M.

    2014-10-01

    A remarkable opportunity to observe matter in a regime where the effects of General Relativity are significant has arisen through measurements of strongly red-shifted iron x-ray lines emitted from black hole accretion disks. A major uncertainty in the spectral formation models is the efficiency of Resonant Auger Destruction (RAD), in which fluorescent Ka photons are resonantly absorbed by neighbor ions. The absorbing ion preferentially decays by Auger ionization, thus reducing the emerging Ka intensity. If Ka lines from L-shell ions are not observed in iron spectral emission, why are such lines observed from silicon plasma surrounding other accretion powered objects? To help answer this question, we are investigating photoionized silicon plasmas produced using intense x-rays from the Z facility. For the first time in a terrestrial lab, we measured simultaneous absorption and emission spectra from these plasmas at high resolution. The charge state distribution, electron temperature, and electron density are determined through space-resolved absorption spectra. The emission spectra have been recorded at different column densities thus testing different radiative transport regime. These should allow us to answer quantitatively the original RAD hypothesis. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  8. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Fischer, W.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Poole, H. J.; Todd, R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  9. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A. Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J.

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  10. In-situ grown MgO-ZnO ceramic coating with high thermal emittance on Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Lu, Songtao; Qin, Wei; Wu, Xiaohong

    2017-07-01

    Intense solar radiation and internal heat generation determine the equilibrium temperature of an in-orbit spacecraft. Thermal control coatings with low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance effectively maintain the thermal equilibrium within safe operating limits for exposed, miniaturized and highly integrated components. A novel ceramic coating with high thermal emittance and good adhesion was directly prepared on the Mg substrate using an economical process of controlled plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the electrolyte containing ZnSO4. XRD and XPS results showed that this coating was mainly composed of the MgO phase as well as an unusual ZnO crystalline phase. The adhesive strength between the coating and substrate determined by a pull-off test revealed an excellent adhesion. Thermal and optical properties test revealed that the coating exhibited a high infrared emittance of 0.88 (2-16 μm) and low solar absorptance of 0.35 (200-2500 nm). The result indicated that the formation of ZnO during the PEO process played an important role in the improvement of the coating emittance. The process developed provides a simple surface method for improving the thermal emittance of Mg alloy, which presents a promising application prospect in the thermal management of the spacecraft.

  11. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  12. Formation of boron nitride coatings on silicon carbide fibers using trimethylborate vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengjiao; Zhou, Tong; He, Jing; Chen, Lifu

    2016-09-01

    High quality boron nitride (BN) coatings have been grown on silicon carbide (SiC) fibers by carbothermal nitridation and at atmospheric pressure. SiC fibers were first treated in chlorine gas to form CDC (carbide-derived carbon) film on the fiber surface. The CDC-coated SiC fibers were then reacted with trimethylborate vapor and ammonia vapor at high temperature, forming BN coatings by carbothermal reduction. The FT-IR, XPS, XRD, SEM, TEM and AES were used to investigate the formation of the obtained coatings. It has been found that the obtained coatings are composed of phase mixture of h-BN and amorphous carbon, very uniform in thickness, have smooth surface and adhere well with the SiC fiber substrates. The BN-coated SiC fibers retain ∼80% strength of the as-received SiC fibers and show an obvious interfacial debonding and fiber pullout in the SiCf/SiOC composites. This method may be useful for the large scale production of high quality BN coating on silicon carbide fiber.

  13. Thermodynamic aspects of the coating formation through mechanochemical synthesis in vibration technology systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtyn, S. U.; Lebedev, V. A.; Gorlenko, A. O.

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of thermodynamic concepts of the process, we proposed an energy model that reflects the mechanochemical essence of coating forming in terms of vibration technology systems, which takes into account the contribution to the formation of the coating, the increase of unavailable energy due to the growth of entropy, the increase in the energy of elastic-plastic crystal lattice distortion as a result of the mechanical influence of working environment indenters, surface layer internal energy change which occurs as a result of chemical interaction of the contacting media. We proposed adhesion strength of the local volume modified through processing as a criterion of the energy condition of the formed coating. We established analytical dependence which helps to obtain the coating strength of the material required by operating conditions.

  14. N-trimethylchitosan/Alginate Layer-by-Layer Self Assembly Coatings Act as “Fungal Repellents” to Prevent Biofilm Formation on Healthcare Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fuguang; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Wen, Jianchuan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal biofilm formation on healthcare materials is a significant clinical concern, often leading to medical device related infections, which are difficult to treat. A novel fungal repellent strategy is developed to control fungal biofilm formation. Methylacrylic acid (MAA) is grated onto poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based biomaterials via plasma initiated grafting polymerization. A cationic polymer, trimethylchitosan (TMC), is synthesized by reacting chitosan with methyl iodide. Sodium alginate (SA) is used as an anionic polymer. TMC/SA multilayers are coated onto the MAA-grafted PMMA via layer-by-layer self-assembly. The TMC/SA multilayer coatings significantly reduce fungal initial adhesion, and effectively prevent fungal biofilm formation. It is concluded that the anti-adhesive property of the surface is due to its hydrophilicity, and that the biofilm-inhibiting action is attributed to the antifungal activity of TMC as well as the chelating function of TMC and SA, which may have acted as fungal repellents. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-immersion tests show that the biofilm-modulating effect of the multilayer coatings is stable for more than 4 weeks. Furthermore, the presence of TMC/SA multilayer coatings improve the biocompatibility of the original PMMA, offering a simple, yet effective, strategy for controlling fungal biofilm-formation. PMID:25295485

  15. Ice Nucleation and Droplet Formation by Bare and Coated Soot Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth J.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Beranek, Josef; Zelenyuk, Alla; Thornton, Joel A.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2011-09-13

    We have studied ice formation at temperatures relevant to homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, as well as droplet activation and hygroscopicity, of soot particles of variable size and composition. Coatings of adipic, malic, and oleic acid were applied to span an atmospherically relevant range of solubility, and both uncoated and oleic acid coated soot particles were exposed to ozone to simulate atmospheric oxidation. The results are interpreted in terms of onset ice nucleation, with a comparison to a mineral dust particle that acts as an efficient ice nucleus, and particle hygroscopicity. At 253K and 243K, we found no evidence of heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring above the level of detection for our experimental conditions. Above water saturation, only droplet formation was observed. At 233K, we observe the occurrence of homogeneous ice nucleation for all particles studied. Coatings also did not significantly alter the ice nucleation behavior of soot particles, but aided in the uptake of water. Hygroscopicity studies confirmed that pure soot particles were hydrophobic, and coated soot particles activated as droplets at high water supersaturations. A small amount of heterogeneous ice nucleation either below the detection limit of our instrument or concurrent with droplet formation and/or homogeneous freezing cannot be precluded, but we are able to set limits for its frequency. We conclude that both uncoated and coated soot particles representative of those generated in our studies are unlikely to significantly contribute to the global budget of heterogeneous ice nuclei at temperatures between 233K and 253K.

  16. Ice Nucleation and Droplet Formation by Bare and Coated Black Carbon Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth J.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Beranek, Josef; Zelenyuk, Alla; Thornton, Joel A.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2011-10-13

    We have studied the ice formation at heterogeneous and homogeneous temperatures, as well as droplet activation and hygroscopicity of soot particles of variable size and composition. Coatings of adipic, malic, and oleic acid were applied to span a relevant range of solubility, and both uncoated and oleic acid coated soot particles were exposed to ozone to simulate atmospheric oxidation. The results are interpreted in terms of onset ice nucleation with a comparison to a well characterized mineral dust particle that acts as an efficient ice nucleus, as well as particle hygroscopicity. At 253K and 243K, we found no evidence of heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring above the level of detection for our experimental conditions. Above water saturation, droplet formation was observed. At 233K, we observe the occurrence of homogeneous ice nucleation for all particles studied. Coatings also did not significantly alter the ice nucleation behavior of soot particles, but aided in the uptake of water. Hygroscopicity studies confirmed that pure soot particles were hydrophobic, and coated soot particles activated as droplets at high water supersaturations. A small amount of heterogeneous ice nucleation either below the detection limit of our instrument or concurrent with droplet formation and/or homogeneous freezing cannot be precluded, but we are able to set limits for its frequency. We conclude from our studies that both uncoated and coated soot particles are unlikely to contribute to the global budget of heterogeneous ice nuclei at temperatures between 233K and 253K.

  17. Effect of Solid Shield on Coating Properties in Atmospheric Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Zheng, Lili; Zhang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of shrouded shield structure on plasma spray processes and the selection of optimal shield structure. Response of plasma flame characteristics to solid shield structures is studied first, and experimental investigations are then performed for both atmospheric (APS) and shrouded (SPS) plasma spray processes. It is found that the usage of conical shield (divergence angle 5.5°) with 90 mm in length is effective to form a low-oxygen (<2%) and high-temperature (>3000 K) region in the plasma flame and this region can cover the majority area for particles passing by. The average particle temperature is higher in SPS than in APS with the given conditions, and such behavior is intensified as solid shield length increases. Using the SPS process, more disk-shaped splats are obtained, and the oxygen concentration in coating is significantly reduced. The degree of the oxidation in the coatings is further reduced as the length of the solid shield increases from 50 to 90 mm. Applying solid shield will lead to high flame temperature and low oxidation; however, the substrate overheating and velocity reduction may occur. For the cases studied, the optimal shield length is around 90 mm.

  18. Preparation of biomedical Ag incorporated hydroxyapatite/titania coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Lü, Guo-Hua; Mao, Fei-Fei; Yang, Si-Ze

    2014-03-01

    Nano-Ag incorporated hydroxyapatite/titania (HA/TiO2) coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by the plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Compared with the substrate, the deposited coatings display attractive mechanical and biomedical properties. First, the coatings have stronger wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Second, they show a strong antibacterial ability. The mean vitality of the P. gingivalis on the coating surfaces is reduced to about 21%. Third, the coatings have good biocompatibility. The mean viability of the fibroblast cells on the coating surface is increased to about 130%. With these attractive properties, Ag incorporated HA/TiO2 coatings may be useful in the biomedical field.

  19. Effect of Particle Size on the Micro-cracking of Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings During Thermal Cycle Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jibo; Wang, Weize; Yu, Jingye; Wu, Liangmin; Feng, Zhengqu

    2017-03-01

    The failure of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during service or thermal cycle testing usually results from internal cracking in the top coat, erosion and CMAS (calcium-magnesium-alumina-silicate)-induced damage, etc. The microstructure of ceramic coatings affects their durability and other properties of TBCs. In the present study, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) using feedstocks with different particle sizes. In addition, the effect of particle size on damage evolution in the top coat was investigated. It is found that the coatings deposited using coarse particles show the higher thermal cycle life. Crack length grew with increasing numbers of thermal cycles. The faster crack growth rate can be found for the coatings deposited from fine particles. The porosity of the coating made from the coarse powder is larger than the porosity of the coating made from fine powder both in the as-sprayed condition and after thermal cycling. The changes in crack growth rate and the porosity are related to the effect of sintering and stress evolution in coatings during the thermal cyclic tests.

  20. Mathematical analysis of thermoelastic characteristics in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings.

    PubMed

    Go, Jaegwi; Jungo, Yeon-Gil; Kim, Seokchan; Ali, Md Afsar; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-02-01

    The thermoelastic characteristics of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been analyzed using mathematical modeling. Two types of TBC model, cylinder and circular disk which are commercial plasma-sprayed TBCs, subjecting to symmetric temperature distribution to the radial and longitudinal directions, respectively, were taken into consideration. Based on the thermoelastic theories, a second order ordinary differential equation was derived for the cylinder model and a pair of partial differential equations were set up for the circular disk model. The analytic solution was obtained from the ordinary differential equation, while a finite volume method was developed for numerical solutions to the pair of partial differential equations due to the complexity of governing equations. The thermoelastic characteristics of TBC models, such as temperature distributions, displacements, and stresses, were displayed according to the obtained solutions. The rate of heat conduction in the section of the top coat is relatively slow in comparison with the substrate, and no profound difference appears in the temperature distribution between two TBC models. The highest longitudinal tensile stress is expressed at the bond coat of both models, and the substrate is under the compressive stresses to the circumferential direction. While the cylinder expands to the positive longitudinal direction only, the expansion in the circular disk occurs to both the positive and negative longitudinal directions. Relatively large displacement and stresses exhibit in the cylinder as compared with the circular disk. In the circular disk, the stresses to the radial direction undulate at each section, and the displacement profile displays that the width of the circular disk is slightly narrowed. The results demonstrate that the mechanical and thermal properties of the top and bond coats are the crucial factors to be considered in controlling the thermoelastic characteristics of plasma

  1. Chemical Phase and Valence Studies of Plasma Sprayed Coatings: EDXRD and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Versatile XAS micro-(NSLS)/nano(NSLS-II)- probe: local mapping of structure chemistry Rare Earth (RE) 4f -localized atomic, core states** Ce Problem and Ce-L3...powder • Ce3+ n-PS coating Ce4+O2 Ce 3+ !!!!!! PS Plasma Spray Chemical reduction of Ce Average Ce-O distance estimate Rare Earth continuum...local ligand coordination - structure EDXRD: plasma sprayed alumina-titania coatings (on Ti-6-4) • nATCZ → nano composite alumina-titania coating

  2. PREFACE: VII Conference on Low Temperature Plasma in the Processes of Functional Coating Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nail, Kashapov

    2016-01-01

    The VII All-Russian (with international participation) Scientific Technical Conference "Low-temperature plasma during the deposition of functional coatings" took place from 4-7 November 2015 at the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Kazan Federal University. The conference was attended by over 150 people from Russia and abroad. The participants proposed a wide range of issues affecting the theoretical and experimental aspects of the problems of the physics of low-temperature plasma. We heard the reports of experts from leading universities and research organizations in the field of plasma physics: Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, MEPhI, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, etc. A series of works were devoted to the study of thin films obtained by low-temperature plasma. This year, work dedicated to the related field of heat mass transfer in multiphase media and low-temperature plasma was also presented. Of special interest were reports on the exploration of gas discharges with liquid electrolytic electrodes and the study of dusty plasmas. Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., professor (Kazan Federal University)

  3. Effect of Initial Powder Morphology and Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Stand-Alone Plasma-Sprayed 7 wt%Y2O3-ZrO2 Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ercan, Batur; Bowman, Keith; Trice, Rodney; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D

    2006-01-01

    The effects of starting powder morphology on the thermal and mechanical properties of stand-alone plasma-sprayed 7 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}(YSZ) coatings were studied. Two powder morphologies were investigated: an agglomerated and sintered powder (referred to presently as 'AS') and a powder manufactured using plasma spheroidization to create hollow spheres (referred to presently as 'HS'). Coatings made from AS powders contained 0.21 wt.% SiO{sub 2} impurity, twice as much as observed in coatings made from HS powders. Properties of coatings made from each powder type were compared in the as-sprayed state and after 50 h heat treatments at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1400 C. SEM microstructural investigations revealed significant differences in the porosity and distribution of pores in the coatings. In coatings made with AS powders the majority of the high aspect ratio pores were located between lamella (interlamellar porosity). In addition to interlamellar pores, coatings made with HS powders demonstrated 1.5 times more spherical-shaped globular pores by number located within lamella. Globular pores were shown to still exist in coatings made with HS powders after 50 h heat treatments at 1400 C. Archimedes porosity measurements showed that coatings made with AS powders typically contained 4-5% less total porosity than coatings made with HS powders. Thermal conductivity experiments using laser flash showed that there was no difference in the thermal conductivity of coatings made from either powder type in the as-sprayed state despite higher porosity in the coatings made from HS powders. After a 50 h heat treatment at 1000 and 1200 C, coatings made from both powder types still demonstrated statistically similar thermal conductivities. However, after a 50 h heat treatment at 1400 C the thermal conductivity of coatings made from AS powders was found to be 0.3 W/m/K higher than coatings made from HS powders. Microstructural differences in the coatings made

  4. Dynamics of coalescence and spreading of liquid polymeric particles during coating formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyaev, V. L.; Galimov, E. R.; Galimova, N. Ya; Gimranov, I. R.; Siraev, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Processes of agglutination, coalescence and spreading of polymeric powder particles during coating formation are considered using methods of mathematical modeling. The relationships to evaluate time of particles agglutination, velocity of coalescence and spreading of material on the surface of a treated body are given. Recommendations on intensification of the given technological stages are presented.

  5. Single-step plasma synthesis of carbon-coated silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chaukulkar, Rohan P; de Peuter, Koen; Stradins, Paul; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Bell, Jacob P; Yang, Yongan; Agarwal, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a novel single-step technique based on nonthermal, radio frequency (rf) plasmas to synthesize sub-10 nm, core-shell, carbon-coated crystalline Si (c-Si) nanoparticles (NPs) for potential application in Li(+) batteries and as fluorescent markers. Hydrogen-terminated c-Si NPs nucleate and grow in a SiH4-containing, low-temperature plasma in the upstream section of a tubular quartz reactor. The c-Si NPs are then transported downstream by gas flow, and are coated with amorphous carbon (a-C) in a second C2H2-containing plasma. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that a thin, < 1 nm, 3C-SiC layer forms at the c-Si/a-C interface. By varying the downstream C2H2 plasma rf power, we can alter the nature of the a-C coating as well as the thickness of the interfacial 3C-SiC layer. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis is in agreement with the Si NP core size determined by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. The size of the c-Si NP core, and the corresponding light emission from these NPs, was directly controlled by varying the thickness of the interfacial 3C-SiC layer. This size tunable emission thus also demonstrates the versatility of this technique for synthesizing c-Si NPs for potential applications in light emitting diodes, biological markers, and nanocrystal inks.

  6. MISSE Results Used for RF Plasma Ground Testing-To-Space-Exposure Correlation for Coated Kapton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Tollis, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The ability to predict the durability of materials in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment by exposing them in ground-based facilities is important because one can achieve test results sooner, expose more types of materials, and do it much more cost effectively than to test them in flight. However, flight experiments to determine the durability of groups or classes of materials that behave similarly are needed in order to provide correlations of how much time in ground-based facilities represents certain durations in LEO for the material type of interest. An experiment was designed and flown on the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 2 (3.95 yr in LEO) and MISSE 4 (1.04 yr in LEO) in order to develop this type of correlation between ground-based RF plasma exposure and LEO exposure for coated Kapton. The experiment consisted of a sample of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide coated with 1300 of silicon dioxide by Sheldahl, Inc. The samples were exposed to atomic oxygen in a radio frequency (RF) generated atomic oxygen plasma. Mass change was measured for the samples and then the same samples were exposed in flight on MISSE and the mass change was again recorded post-flight. After documentation, the samples were exposed again in the ground-based RF plasma in order to determine if the erosion would be the same as it had been in the same facility pre-flight which would indicate whether or not the sample had been damaged during flight and if the defects on the surface were those that were there preflight. The slopes of the mass change versus fluence plots were then used to develop a correlation factor that can be used to help predict the durability of coated Kapton in ground-based isotropic atomic oxygen plasma systems. This paper describes the experiment and presents the correlation factor results.

  7. Development of high reflectivity coatings for large format Fabry-Perot etalons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigwarth, M.; Baumgartner, J.; Bell, A.; Cagnoli, G.; Fischer, A.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Kentischer, Th. J.; Kestner, B.; Kuschnir, P.; von der Lühe, O.; Pinard, L.; Michel, Ch.; Reichman, W. J.; Sassolas, B.; Scheiffelen, Th.; Schmidt, W.

    2016-08-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a diffraction-limited narrowband tunable instrument for imaging spectropolarimetry in the wavelength range between 520 and 860 nm. It is based on large-format Fabry Perot. The instrument will be one of the first-light instruments of the 4m aperture Daniel K. Inoue Solar Telescope (DKIST). To provide a field of view of 1 arcmin and a spectral resolution λ/Δλ of about 100.000, the required free aperture of the Fabry Perot is 250mm. The high reflectivity coatings for the Etalon plates need to meet the specifications for the reflectivity over the entire wavelength range and preserve the plate figure specifications of better λ/300, and a micro roughness of < 0.4 nm rms. Coated surfaces with similar specifications have successfully been made for reflecting mirrors on thick substrates but not for larger format Fabry-Perot systems. Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) based coatings provide stable, homogeneous, and smooth coatings. But IBS coatings also introduce stresses to the substrate that influence the plate figure in our case at the nm level. In a joint effort with an industry partner and a French CNRS research laboratory, we developed and tested processes on small and full size substrates, to provide coated Etalon plates to the required specifications. Zygo Extreme Precision Optics, Richmond, CA, USA, is polishing and figuring the substrates, doing the metrology and FE analysis. LMA (Laboratoire Matériaux Avancés, Lyon, France) is designing and making the IBS coatings and investigating the detailed behavior of the coatings and related processes. Both partners provide experience from manufacturing coated plane optics for gravitational wave detection experiments and EUV optics. The Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany is designing and building the VTF instrument and is leading the coating development. We present the characteristics of the coatings and the substrate processing concept, as well as results from tests on

  8. Structure Formation in Planetary Disk and Laboratory Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Koichi; Tajima, Toshiki; Horton, Wendell

    2000-10-01

    The shear flow instabilities under the presence of magnetic fields in the protoplanetary disk can greatly facilitate the formation of density structures that serve prior to the onset of the gravitational Jeans instability as a seed for the faster formation of planetesimals. Such a process may explain several puzzles in the planetary genesis. We evaluate the effects of the Parker, magnetorotational, and kinematic dynamo instabilities, and calculate the mass spectra of coagulated density structures by the above mechanism in the radial direction for two typical models. The mass spectrum of the magnetorotational instability may describe the origin of giant planets away from central star. Our local three-dimentional MHD simulation indicates that the coupling of those instabilities creates spiral arms and gas blobs in the accretion disk, reinforcing our theory. Such a mechanism for the early structure formation may be tested in a laboratory. The recent progress in experiments invloving shear flows in tokamak and laser plasmas may become a key in this regard. * The work is supported by NSF and DoE.

  9. High-temperature thermo-mechanical behavior of functionally graded materials produced by plasma sprayed coating: Experimental and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kang Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Park, Chang Hyun; Kim, Gon-Ho; Baik, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are widely used in aerospace industries to protect exterior surfaces from harsh environments. In this study, functionally graded materials (FGMs) were investigated with the aim to optimize their high temperature resistance and strength characteristics. NiCrAlY bond coats were deposited on Inconel-617 superalloy substrate specimens by the low vacuum plasma spraying technique. Functionally graded Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with gradually varying amounts of YSZ (20%-100%) were fabricated from composite powders by vacuum plasma spraying. Heat shield performance tests were conducted using a high- temperature plasma torch. The temperature distributions were measured using thermocouples at the interfaces of the FGM layers during the tests. A model for predicting the temperature at the bond coating-substrate interface was established. The temperature distributions simulated using the finite element method agreed well with the experimental results.

  10. An Assessment of the Residual Stresses in Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Coatings on an Advanced Copper Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Agarwal, A.; Lachtrupp, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling studies were conducted on low pressure plasma sprayed (LPPS) NiAl top coat applied to an advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy (GRCop-84) substrate using Ni as a bond coat. A thermal analysis suggested that the NiAl and Ni top and bond coats, respectively, would provide adequate thermal protection to the GRCop-84 substrate in a rocket engine operating under high heat flux conditions. Residual stress measurements were conducted at different depths from the free surface on coated and uncoated GRCop-84 specimens by x-ray diffraction. These data are compared with theoretically estimated values assessed by a finite element analysis simulating the development of these stresses as the coated substrate cools down from the plasma spraying temperature to room temperature.

  11. Ion-viscosity effects on plasma-liner formation and implosion via merging supersonic plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillo, Kevin; Cassibry, Jason; Samulyak, Roman; Shih, Wen; Hsu, Scott; PLX-Alpha Team

    2016-10-01

    The PLX- α project endeavors to study plasma-liner formation and implosion by merging a spherical array of plasma jets as a candidate standoff driver for MIF. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is used to model the liner formation and implosion processes. SPH is a meshless Lagrangian method to simulate fluid flows by dividing a fluid into a set of particles and using a summation interpolant function to calculate the properties and gradients for each of these particles. Ion viscosity is anticipated to be an important mechanism for momentum transport during liner formation, implosion, and stagnation. To study this, ion viscosity was incorporated into the code. To provide confidence in the numerical output and to help identify the difference between numerical and physical diffusion, a series of test cases were performed, consisting of Couette flow, Gresho vortex, and a Taylor-Green vortex. An L2-norm analysis was performed to measure the error and convergence. Simulations of conical (6 jets) and 4 π (60 jets) liners with and without ion viscosity reveal potential effects of viscosity on ram pressure, Mach-number degradation, and evolution of liner perturbations during jet merging and liner implosion.

  12. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  13. Simulation of surface roughness during the formation of thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kanouff, M.P.

    1996-07-01

    The formation of a thermal spray coating was analyzed to identify methods to reduce the surface roughness of the coating. A new methodology was developed which uses a string of equally spaced node points to define the shape of the coating surface and to track the shape change as the thermal spray mass is deposited. This allows the calculation of arbitrary shapes for the coating surface which may be very complex. The model simulates the stochastic deposition of a large number of thermal spray droplets, where experimental data is used for the mass flux distribution on the target surface. This data shows that when the thermal spray mass impinges on the target surface, a large fraction of it (over-spray) splashes off the target and is re-deposited with a small spray angle, resulting in a large coating roughness. This analysis was used in a parameter study to identify methods for reducing the coating roughness. Effect of the shape of the profile for the pre-roughened substrate was found to be small. Decreasing the droplet size by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 13%. Increasing the spray angle for the over-spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 50%, and decreasing the amount of over- spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 51%.

  14. Formation and Oxidation Performance of Low-Temperature Pack Aluminide Coatings on Ferritic-Martensitic Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Brian; Wang, Y. Q.; Zhang, Ying; Pint, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    A pack cementation process was developed to coat commercial 9% Cr ferritic-martensitic steel T91 at temperatures below its normal tempering temperature to avoid any potential detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the coated alloy. In order to prevent the formation of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} coatings, the Al activity in the pack cementation process was reduced by substituting the pure Al masteralloy with binary Cr-Al masteralloys containing either 15 or 25 wt.% Al. When the Cr-25Al masteralloy was used, a duplex coating was formed at 700 C, consisting of a thin Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} outer layer and an inner layer of FeAl. With the Cr-15Al masteralloy, an FeAl coating of {approx} 12 {micro}m thick was achieved at 700 C. The pack aluminide coatings fabricated at 700 C are being evaluated in air + 10 vol.% H{sub 2}O at 650 C and 700 C to determine their long-term oxidation performance.

  15. Apparatus for coating powders

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Kerns, John A.; Alford, Craig S.; McKernan, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  16. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  17. Formation of current singularity in a topologically constrained plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao; Huang, Yi-Min; Qin, Hong; Bhattacharjee, A

    2016-02-01

    Recently a variational integrator for ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Lagrangian labeling has been developed. Its built-in frozen-in equation makes it optimal for studying current sheet formation. We use this scheme to study the Hahm-Kulsrud-Taylor problem, which considers the response of a 2D plasma magnetized by a sheared field under sinusoidal boundary forcing. We obtain an equilibrium solution that preserves the magnetic topology of the initial field exactly, with a fluid mapping that is non-differentiable. Unlike previous studies that examine the current density output, we identify a singular current sheet from the fluid mapping. These results are benchmarked with a constrained Grad-Shafranov solver. The same signature of current singularity can be found in other cases with more complex magnetic topologies.

  18. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jia; Feng, Fan; Liu, Fucheng; Dong, Lifang; He, Yafeng

    2016-09-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2011201006 and A2012201015), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. Y2012009), the Program for Young Principal Investigators of Hebei Province, China, and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project, China.

  19. Formation of current singularity in a topologically constrained plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yao; Huang, Yi-Min; Qin, Hong; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recently a variational integrator for ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Lagrangian labeling has been developed. Its built-in frozen-in equation makes it optimal for studying current sheet formation. We use this scheme to study the Hahm-Kulsrud-Taylor problem, which considers the response of a 2D plasma magnetized by a sheared field under sinusoidal boundary forcing. We obtain an equilibrium solution that preserves the magnetic topology of the initial field exactly, with a fluid mapping that is non-differentiable. Unlike previous studies that examine the current density output, we identify a singular current sheet from the fluid mapping. These results are benchmarked with a constrained Grad-Shafranov solver. The same signature of current singularity can be found in other cases with more complex magnetic topologies.

  20. Understanding the dynamics of the inductive plasma formation and its application to create doublet shaped plasma in the TCV tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Joyeeta; Coda, Stefano; Duval, Basil Paul; Galperti, Cristian; Moret, Jean-Marc; Reimerdes, Holger

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of the plasma formation in TCV are revisited with the goal of improving reliability and developing new scenarios such as the creation of doublet configurations. A database for the plasma formation scenarios in TCV reveals that 15% of the attempts to form a plasma fail during the burn-through phase. Plasma formation dynamics are greatly affected by the difference between programmed and obtained plasma current ramp rates that can lead to oscillations in IP when the IP feedback control is activated. This mismatch in IP also propagates into the radial position control. Failed burn-throughs occur when the Ohmic heating power is insufficient either since IP rises too slow or due to a combined effect of the IP feedback oscillations and a regularly occurring MHD instability. Several strategies to improve the present plasma formation scenario have been implemented. Based on the improved understanding of the plasma formation dynamics, a strategy has been developed to create and control a doublet configuration by merging of two droplet-shaped plasma requiring simultaneous breakdown at two locations.

  1. Creep of plasma-sprayed-ZrO2 thermal-barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.; Bill, R. C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed-zirconia thermal-barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 6900, 13,800, and 24,100 kPa (1000, 2000, and 3500 psi) and temperatures of 1100, 1250, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, MgO, and two different concentrations of Y2O3. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate while the stress, particle size, and porosity had a lesser effect. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and physical properties of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline plasma sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Sordelet

    1995-11-09

    Our lab has been working with plasma spraying of both high pressure gas atomized (HPGA) and cast and crushed quasicrystal powders. A major component of this research includes comparative studies of PAS coatings formed with starting powders prepared by both techniques. In addition, a thorough investigation of the effects of starting powder particle size on coating microstructure is included. During the course of the overall research, an interest developed in forming Al-Cu-Fe materials with finer grain sizes. Therefore, a brief study was performed to characterize the effect of adding boron to Al-Cu-Fe materials prepared by different techniques. In addition to characterizing the microstructural features of the above materials, oxidation and wear behavior was also examined.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Air Plasma Sprayed Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Bradley; Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis; Wadley, Haydn

    2015-01-01

    Development work in Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) has focused considerably on the identification of materials systems and coating architectures to meet application needs. The evolution of these systems has occurred so quickly that modeling efforts and requisite data for modeling lag considerably behind development. Materials property data exists for many systems in the bulk form, but the effects of deposition on the critical properties of strength and fracture behavior are not well studied. We have plasma sprayed bulk samples of baseline EBC materials (silicon, ytterbium disilicate) and tested the mechanical properties of these materials to elicit differences in strength and toughness. We have also endeavored to assess the mixed-mode fracture resistance, Gc, of silicon in a baseline EBC applied to SiCSiC CMC via four point bend test. These results are compared to previously determined properties of the comparable bulk material.

  4. Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion of Plasma-Sprayed Ni-Al Nanocomposite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Zhong, Q. D.

    2016-06-01

    Ni-Al nanoparticles coating (NAN) was manufactured via atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and thermal treated under hydrogen atmosphere at 1300∘C (TNAN) remained 1 h, and NiAl microparticles coating (NAM) was manufactured as a reference. Nanoscale particles were observed in NAN by TEM, and these nanoscale particles disappeared in TNAN. Many pores and cracks were observed in NAM. Few pores and cracks were observed in NAN, and no pores and cracks were found in TNAN with SEM. A scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) testing in 3.5% (wt.) NaCl solution for 3 h revealed that NAM underwent several pitting corrosion, NAN pitting corrosion was relatively minor, and TNAN had no pitting corrosion.

  5. Characterization and refinement of carbide coating formation rates and dissolution kinetics in the Ta-C system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Patrick James

    1996-10-01

    The interaction between carbide coating formation rates and dissolution kinetics in the tantalum-carbon system was investigated. The research was driven by the need to characterize carbide coating formation rates. The characterization of the carbide coating formation rates was required to engineer an optimum processing scheme for the fabrication of the ultracorrosion-resistant composite, carbon-saturated tantalum. A packed-bed carburization process was successfully engineered and employed. The packed-bed carburization process produced consistent, predictable, and repeatable carbide coatings. A digital imaging analysis measurement process for accurate and consistent measurement of carbide coating thicknesses was developed. A process for removing the chemically stable and extremely hard tantalum-carbide coatings was also developed in this work.

  6. PREFACE: VI Scientific Technical Conference on "Low-temperature plasma during the deposition of functional coatings"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The VI Republican Scientific Technical Conference "Low-temperature plasma during the deposition of functional coatings" took place from 4 to 7 November 2014 at the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Kazan Federal University. The conference was chaired by a Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan Nail Kashapov -Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences- a member of the Scientific and Technical Council of the Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. At the conference, the participants discussed a wide range of issues affecting the theoretical and computational aspects of research problems in the physics and technology of low-temperature plasma. A series of works were devoted to the study of thin films obtained by low-temperature plasma. This year work dedicated to the related field of heat mass transfer in multiphase media and low-temperature plasma was also presented. Of special interest were reports on the exploration of gas discharges with liquid electrolytic electrotrodes and the study of dusty plasmas. Kashapov Nail, D.Sc., Professor (Kazan Federal University)

  7. Secondary Reaction Zone Formations in coated Ni-base Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Rae, C. M. F.

    2009-05-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) has been added to the latest 4th Generation Ni-base superalloys to improve phase stability and modify creep life. Various coatings are routinely applied to these advanced alloys to protect the turbine blade at elevated temperature, however, this creates several problems such as the precipitation of brittle Topologically Close-Packed (TCP) phases and the formation of Secondary Reaction Zones (SRZ). The SRZ forms under the plat-aluminized coating of turbine blades and consists of γ, γ and TCP phases growing into substrate by the migration of high-angle grain boundaries. Surface residual stress and chemical super-saturation of alloying elements are associated to SRZ formation. In the thin sections of high-pressure turbine blades this is critical in determining blade performance and longevity. It is essential to know how Ru additions affect coating and SRZ morphologies during exposure. In this study, we focus on the effects of three variables on the SRZ formation: Ru concentration, alloy composition in Ru-containing alloys and surface finish. A series of Platinum-Aluminised superalloys containing 2-5wt% Ru and having various surface finishes was studied after isothermal exposure at 1100°C for up to 500h. The alloys were classified into two groups by their distinctive SRZ morphology. At the lowest Ru levels sporadic formation of SRZ was observed, whilst a continuous SRZ was formed in the higher Ru alloys. EBSD analysis revealed that the latter group have a higher nucleation rate of individual SRZ grains and also showed more rapid SRZ growth. The precipitation of TCPs in the substrate also inhibited the growth of the SRZ towards the end of the exposure further reducing the penetration of the SRZ into the substrate. It is concluded that Ru-additions to Ni-base superalloys are effective in impeding TCP phase formation in the substrate, but increase both the extent and the rate of SRZ formation beneath coating.

  8. High-temperature frictional wear behavior of MCrAlY-based coatings deposited by atmosphere plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chong; Wang, Lei; Song, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    Al2O3-Cr2O3/NiCoCrAlYTa coatings were prepared via atmosphere plasma spraying (APS). The microstructure and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser confocal scanning microscopy (LSCM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dry frictional wear behavior of the coatings at 500°C in static air was investigated and compared with that of 0Cr25Ni20 steel. The results show that the coatings comprise the slatted layers of oxide phases, unmelted particles, and pores. The hot abrasive resistance of the coatings is enhanced compared to that of 0Cr25Ni20, and their mass loss is approximately one-fifteenth that of 0Cr25Ni20 steel. The main wear failure mechanisms of the coatings are abrasive wear, fatigue wear, and adhesive wear.

  9. Effect of additive on electrochemical corrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on CP Ti under different processing frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Mahdi; Dehghanian, Changiz; Vanaki, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating containing zirconium oxide was fabricated on CP Ti at different processing frequencies viz., 100 Hz and 1000 Hz in a (Na2ZrO3, Na2SiO3)-additive containing NaH2PO4-based solution, and long-term electrochemical corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Electrochemical degradation behavior of two-layered coatings formed at different frequencies was turned out to be governed by concentration of electrolyte additive. With increasing additive concentration, the coating obtained at frequency of 1000 Hz exhibited enhanced corrosion resistance. However, corrosion resistance of the coating prepared at 100 Hz was found to decrease with increased additive, which was attributed to intensified microdischarges damaging the protective effect of inner layer. Nevertheless, the electrolyte additive was found to mitigate the long-term degradation of the coatings to a significant extent.

  10. A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study of post-plasma reactions in organosilicone microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings.

    PubMed

    Hall, Colin J; Ponnusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Murphy, Peter J; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-06-11

    Plasma-polymerized organosilicone coatings can be used to impart abrasion resistance and barrier properties to plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. Coating rates suitable for industrial-scale deposition, up to 100 nm/s, can be achieved through the use of microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), with optimal process vapors such as tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) and oxygen. However, it has been found that under certain deposition conditions, such coatings are subject to post-plasma changes; crazing or cracking can occur anytime from days to months after deposition. To understand the cause of the crazing and its dependence on processing plasma parameters, the effects of post-plasma reactions on the chemical bonding structure of coatings deposited with varying TMDSO-to-O2 ratios was studied with (29)Si and (13)C solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) using both single-pulse and cross-polarization techniques. The coatings showed complex chemical compositions significantly altered from the parent monomer. (29)Si MAS NMR spectra revealed four main groups of resonance lines, which correspond to four siloxane moieties (i.e., mono (M), di (D), tri (T), and quaternary (Q)) and how they are bound to oxygen. Quantitative measurements showed that the ratio of TMDSO to oxygen could shift the chemical structure of the coating from 39% to 55% in Q-type bonds and from 28% to 16% for D-type bonds. Post-plasma reactions were found to produce changes in relative intensities of (29)Si resonance lines. The NMR data were complemented by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Together, these techniques have shown that the bonding environment of Si is drastically altered by varying the TMDSO-to-O2 ratio during PECVD, and that post-plasma reactions increase the cross-link density of the silicon-oxygen network. It appears that Si-H and Si-OH chemical groups are the most susceptible to post-plasma reactions. Coatings produced at a

  11. Development of Ca-doped LaCr03 feed material and its plasma coating for SOFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, R. D.; Nair, Sathi R.; Prakash, Deep; Sinha, P. K.; Sharma, B. P.; Sreekumar, K. P.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Das, A. K.; Gantayet, L. M.

    2010-02-01

    In order to realize SOFC as power generating devices, multiple cells are connected in series through an interconnect material to accumulate the voltage output. The interconnect should have very low permeability for the gases used. A novel solution combustion process has been developed for producing the phase pure, well-sinterable powders of Ca-doped LaCrO3 interconnect material. A process has been developed to produce the coarse granules as a feed material using combustion-synthesized powder for plasma spray through (a) preparation of granules through cold iso-static pressing followed by breaking and sieving (b) sintering of the green granules followed by sieving. The flow ability and deposition efficiency studies on +45-75 and 75-125 μm powders suggested that +45-75 powder is more suitable for the plasma spray coating. The plasma process parameters; plasma power, flow rate of carrier gases and distance between substrate and plasma gun have been optimized to achieve required coating characteristics. The as-produced coating using 20 kW power plasma gun on the porous Sr-doped LaMnO3 cathode substrates has been examined by SEM. An adherent coating of about 100 μm has been observed in the micrographs. No large cracks were observed throughout the coating. However, the coating was not found to be impervious in nature. Also the micrographs showed incomplete melting of the plasma-coated material. The similar experiments were performed using a higher power (approx 60 Kw) plasma gun. The coated coupons were tested for leakage by checking water penetration. It was found that water did not penetrate for quite a long time. Therefore, the coupon was further tested for leakage by keeping it over a port connected to vacuum pump. The vacuum attained was 7×10-3 mbar and it was maintained for four consecutive days. The SEM studies on the coated sample showed a quite dense coating along with a very few small local pores.

  12. Microstructure and properties of in-flight rare-earth doped thermal barrier coatings prepared by suspension plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Stephanie

    Thermal barrier coatings with lower thermal conductivity improve the efficiency of gas turbine engines by allowing higher operating temperatures. Recent studies were shown that coatings containing a pair of rare-earth oxides with equal molar ratio have lower thermal conductivity and improved sintering resistance compared to the undoped 4-4.5 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In the present work, rare-earth doped coatings were fabricated via suspension plasma spray by spraying YSZ powder-ethanol suspensions that contained dissolved rare-earth nitrates. The compositions of the coatings determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy verified that 68 +/- 8% of the rare-earth nitrates added into the suspension was incorporated into the coatings. Two coatings containing different concentrations of the same dopant pair (Nd2O3/Yb2O3), and three coatings having similar concentrations of different dopant pairs (Nd 2O3/Yb2O3, Nd2O3/Gd 2O3, and Gd2O3/Yb2O 3) were produced and compared. The effect of dopant concentration and dopant pair type on the microstructure and properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed and heat treated conditions were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, STEM-EDX, and the laser flash method. The cross-sectional morphology of all coatings displayed columnar structure. The porosity content of the coating was found to increase with increasing dopant concentration, but did not significantly change with dopant pairs. Similarly, increasing the Nd2O3/Yb2O 3 concentration lowered the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed coatings. Although the effect of changing dopant pair type is not as significant as increasing the dopant concentration, the coating that contained Gd2O 3/Yb2O3 exhibited the lowest conductivity compared to coatings that had other dopant pairs. Thermal conductivity measurement performed on the heat treated coatings indicated a larger conductivity increase for the rare-earth doped coatings. A detailed study on the

  13. High-temperature tribological properties of NiCoCrAlY-WSe2-BaF2·CaF2 solid lubricant coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. H.; Yuan, X. J.; Xia, J.; Yu, Z. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, NiCoCrAlY-WSe2-BaF2·CaF2 solid lubricant coatings were produced on a substrate by plasma spray and investigated at the high temperature, such as 500 °C and 800 °C. The structure of the coatings was characterized using XRD pattern and scanning electron microscopy. The TC1 (83wt% NiCoCrAlY) coating has a low friction coefficient at 500C, where the WSe2 is a good solid lubricant. The TC2 (65wt% NiCoCrAlY) coating has the low friction coefficient (0.279) at 800°C, due to the formation of BaCrO4 on the surfaces. As a result, the TC2 coating has the optimal tribological property in the wide temperature.

  14. Sheath formation criterion in magnetized electronegative plasmas with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hatami, M. M.; Shokri, B.

    2013-03-15

    Taking into account the effect of collisions and positive ion temperatures, the sheath formation criterion is investigated in a weakly magnetized electronegative plasma consisting of electrons, negative and positive ions by using the hydrodynamics equations. It is assumed that the electron and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with two different temperatures. Also, it is assumed that the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall (oblique entrance). Our results show that a sheath region will be formed when the initial velocity of positive ions or the ion Mach number M lies in a specific interval with particular upper and lower limits. Also, it is shown that the presence of the magnetic field affects both of these limits. Moreover, as an practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for an allowable value of M, and it is seen that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when M lies between two above mentioned limits.

  15. Plasma-deposited beryllium carbide coatings for application to inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wu-Sheng

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative energy source for the future energy needs in the next century. The materials of the microsphere which confines the D-T fuel inside require high energy transparency (low atomic number, Z), smooth surface, and permeability to Hsb2. Plasma-deposited Be polymer composite coatings with over 50 atomic % of Be and low O content (<5 atomic %) would meet these requirements. Several films with a Be to C atomic ratio of close to 2 to 1 which corresponds to Besb2C with a surface roughness < 100 A and acceptable permeability to Hsb2 were prepared. The coatings were prepared in a rf-induced cylindrical plasma reactor. Diethylberyllium (DEB) was introduced into the reactor as the precursor. Hsb2 was used as the co-reactant for the purpose of reducing internal/compressional stress of the coatings. These coatings were made at substrate temperatures in the range of ambient temperature to 325sp°C with various Hsb2 to DEB flow rate ratios. These coatings have been characterized by AES, XRD, XPS, SEM, AFM, FTIR, electrical resistivity, and TGA. Permeability to Hsb2 through ˜1 mum and ˜5 mum films was also measured. This is the first successful attempt to prepare Besb2C at 250sp°C by PECVD at low pressure as compare to prepare bulk Besb2C at over 1500sp°C by sintering process in a vacuum furnace (<10sp{-4} mmHg). It has been found that the Be content decreases along the distance from the DEB inlet. It has also been confirmed that Besb2C is the dominant phase in these coatings. The Besb2C in these films is resistant to hydrolysis and/or oxidation to dry and moist air in the temperature range of 30sp°C to 250sp°C. It was found that internal/compressional stress is somewhat reduced by introducing Hsb2 into the reactor as a co-reacting gas.

  16. Kinetics of the process of formation and high-temperature oxidation of electrospark coatings on steel

    SciTech Connect

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Chiplik, V.N.; Egorov, F.F.; Lavrenko, V.A.; Podchernyaeva, I.A.; Shemet, V.Z.

    1986-10-01

    This work is a study of the kinetics of formation and of the heat resistance of electrospark coatings based on the composite TiB/sub 2/-Mo with varying molybdenum content. In the process of electrospark alloying they measured the specific erosion of the anode and the increase in weight of the cathode with an accuracy not worse than 5%. Electrospark coatings of TiB/sub 2/-Mo on steel 45 are marked by improved scaling resistance at temperatures above 900 C. Their scaling resistance and also the effectiveness of the process of electrospark alloying increase with increasing content of the phase B-MoB in the coating because molybdenum borate forms during its high-temperature oxidation. Illustrations and table are included.

  17. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates. Part 1: Mechanical properties and residual stress levels.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Y C; Doyle, C; Clyne, T W

    1998-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been sprayed on to substrates of Ti-6Al-4V, using a range of input power levels and plasma gas mixtures. Coatings have also been produced on substrates of mild steel and tungsten, in order to explore certain aspects of the mechanical behaviour of HA without the complication of yielding or creep in the substrate. Studies have been made of the phase constitution, porosity, degree of crystallinity, OH ion content, microstructure and surface roughness of the HA coatings. The Young's moduli in tension and in compression were evaluated by the cantilever beam bend test using a tungsten/HA composite beam. The flexural Young's modulus was determined using a free-standing deposit under the same test. Adhesion was characterised using the single-edge notch-bend test; this is considered superior to the tensile bond strength test in common use. Measured interfacial fracture energies were of the order 1-10 J m(-2). Stress levels were investigated using specimen curvature measurements in conjunction with a numerical process model. The quenching stress for HA was measured to be about 10-25 MPa and the residual stress level in HA coatings at room temperature are predicted to lie in the approximate range of 20-40 MPa (tensile). These residual stresses could be reduced in magnitude by maintaining the substrate at a low temperature (possibly below room temperature) during spraying and it may be worthwhile to explore this. Ideally, the HA coating should have low porosity, high cohesive strength, good adhesion to the substrate, a high degree of crystallinity and high chemical purity and phase stability. In practice, such combinations are rather difficult to achieve by just varying the spraying parameters.

  18. Atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) coatings of Al2O3-TiO2 system for photocatalytic application.

    PubMed

    Stengl, V; Ageorges, H; Ctibor, P; Murafa, N

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the photocatalytic ability of coatings produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The plasma gun used is a common gas-stabilized plasma gun (GSP) working with a d.c. current and a mixture of argon and hydrogen as plasma-forming gas. The TiO(2) powders are particles of about 100 nm which were agglomerated to a mean size of about 55 mum, suitable for spraying. Composition of the commercial powder is 13 wt% of TiO(2) in Al(2)O(3), whereas also in-house prepared powder with the same nominal composition but with agglomerated TiO(2) and conventional fused and crushed Al(2)O(3) was sprayed. The feedstock materials used for this purpose are alpha-alumina and anatase titanium dioxide. The coatings are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion probe (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Photocatalytic degradation of acetone is quantified for various coatings. All plasma sprayed coatings show a lamellar structure on cross section, as typical for this process. Anatase titania from feedstock powder is converted into rutile titania and alpha-alumina partly to gamma-alumina. Coatings are proven to catalyse the acetone decomposition when irradiated by UV rays.

  19. Oxygen Plasma Modification of Poss-Coated Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, C. J.; Belcher, M. A.; Ghose, S.; Connell, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The surface energy of a material depends on both surface composition and topographic features. In an effort to modify the surface topography of Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film, organic solutions of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, octakis(dimethylsilyloxy)silsesquioxane (POSS), were spray-coated onto the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN surface. Prior to POSS application, the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film was activated by exposure to radio frequency (RF)-generated oxygen plasma. After POSS deposition and solvent evaporation, the films were exposed to various durations of RF-generated oxygen plasma to create a topographically rich surface. The modified films were characterized using optical microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The physical properties of the modified films will be presented.

  20. Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings onto Carbon/carbon Composites in Simulated Body Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Jin-Ling; Bo, Wu; Hai, Zhou; Cao, Ning; Li, Mu-Sen

    Two types of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings onto carbon/carbon composite (C/C composites) substrates, deposited by plasma spraying technique, were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to determine their behavior in conditions similar to the human blood plasma. Calcium ion concentration, pH value, microstructure, and phase compositions were analyzed. Results demonstrated that both the crystal Ca-P phases or the amorphous HA do dissolve slightly, and the dissolution of CaO phases in SBF was evident after 1 day of soaking. The calcium-ion concentration was decreased and the pH value of SBF was increased with the increasing of the immersing time. The precipitation was mainly composed of HA, which was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron-probe microanalyzer.

  1. Serum albumin coating of demineralized bone matrix results in stronger new bone formation.

    PubMed

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Szabó, Tamás; Szigyártó, Imola C; Toró, Ildikó; Vámos, Boglárka; Hornyák, István; Renner, Károly; Klára, Tamás; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-01-01

    Blood serum fractions are hotly debated adjuvants in bone replacement therapies. In the present experiment, we coated demineralized bone matrices (DBM) with serum albumin and investigated stem cell attachment in vitro and bone formation in a rat calvaria defect model. In the in vitro experiments, we observed that significantly more cells adhere to the serum albumin coated DBMs at every time point. In vivo bone formation with albumin coated and uncoated DBM was monitored biweekly by computed tomography until 11 weeks postoperatively while empty defects served as controls. By the seventh week, the bone defect in the albumin group was almost completely closed (remaining defect 3.0 ± 2.3%), while uncoated DBM and unfilled control groups still had significant defects (uncoated: 40.2 ± 9.1%, control: 52.4 ± 8.9%). Higher density values were also observed in the albumin coated DBM group. In addition, the serum albumin enhanced group showed significantly higher volume of newly formed bone in the microCT analysis and produced significantly higher breaking force and stiffness compared to the uncoated grafts (peak breaking force: uncoated: 15.7 ± 4 N, albumin 46.1 ± 11 N). In conclusion, this investigation shows that implanting serum albumin coated DBM significantly reduces healing period in nonhealing defects and results in mechanically stronger bone. These results also support the idea that serum albumin coating provides a convenient milieu for stem cell function, and a much improved bone grafting success can be achieved without the use of exogenous stem cells.

  2. Monitoring Delamination of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings by Reflectance-Enhanced Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Highly scattering plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) present a challenge for optical diagnostic methods to monitor TBC delamination because scattering attenuates light transmitted through the TBC and usually degrades contrast between attached and delaminated regions of the TBC. This paper presents a new approach where reflectance-enhanced luminescence from a luminescent sublayer incorporated along the bottom of the TBC is used to identify regions of TBC delamination. Because of the higher survival rate of luminescence reflecting off the back surface of a delaminated TBC, the strong scattering exhibited by plasma-sprayed TBCs actually accentuates contrast between attached and delaminated regions by making it more likely that multiple reflections of luminescence off the back surface occur before exiting the top surface of the TBC. A freestanding coating containing sections designed to model an attached or delaminated TBC was prepared by depositing a luminescent Eu-doped or Er-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) luminescent layer below a plasma-sprayed undoped YSZ layer and utilizing a NiCr backing layer to represent an attached substrate. For specimens with a Eu-doped YSZ luminescent sublayer, luminescence intensity maps showed excellent contrast between unbacked and NiCr-backed sections even at a plasma-sprayed overlayer thickness of 300 m. Discernable contrast between unbacked and NiCr-backed sections was not observed for specimens with a Er-doped YSZ luminescent sublayer because luminescence from Er impurities in the undoped YSZ layer overwhelmed luminescence originating form the Er-doped YSZ sublayer.

  3. Microscopic, crystallographic and adherence properties of plasma-sprayed calcium phosphate coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufekci, Eser

    Recently, plasma-spayed titanium implants have become very popular in the dentistry because of their biocompatibility and ability of providing osseointegration with the surrounding bone. Although there are numerous published studies on these materials, information and standards are still lacking. This study investigated the miscrostructural, crystallographic and adherence properties of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrates. The microstructures of the coatings and the elemental interdiffusion near the coating/substrate interface were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction analyses performed on Ti-6Al-4V coupons prepared with different percent crystallinities have provided structural information such as degree of crystallinity, phases present, average crystallite size, as well as the residual stresses within the coating. For evaluation of the adherence of the coatings to the substrates, experimental rods were subjected to torsion. The fracture surfaces were analyzed using SEM/EDS to develop a new methodology to determine the percent adherence of the coatings. SEM studies indicated that the surface microstructures of commercial dental implants were consistent with the plasma-spraying. In cross-section, coatings exhibited minimal porosity and limited interdiffusion of titanium and calcium at the coating/substrate interface. X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the highest crystallinity coatings consisted of almost entirely HA and an amorphous calcium phosphate phase. As the coating crystallinity decreased, increasing amounts of alpha- and beta-tricalcium phosphate and tetracalcium phosphate were detected. The mean percent crystallinity for the three sets of coatings ranged from 50-60%. The mean HA crystallite size for the three sets of coatings ranged from about 0.02-0.04 mum. Differences in mean interplanar spacings for three selected

  4. Ice nucleation and droplet formation by bare and coated soot particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Beth; Kulkarni, Gourihar; BeráNek, Josef; Zelenyuk, Alla; Thornton, Joel A.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2011-09-01

    We have studied ice formation at temperatures relevant to homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, as well as droplet activation and hygroscopicity, of soot particles of variable size and composition. Coatings of adipic, malic, and oleic acid were applied in order to span an atmospherically relevant range of solubility, and both uncoated and oleic acid coated soot particles were exposed to ozone in order to simulate atmospheric oxidation. The results are interpreted in terms of onset ice nucleation, with a comparison to a mineral dust particle that acts as an efficient ice nucleus, and particle hygroscopicity. At 253 K and 243 K, we found no evidence of heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring above the level of detection for our experimental conditions. Above water saturation, only droplet formation was observed. At 233 K, we observe the occurrence of homogeneous ice nucleation for all particles studied. Coatings also did not significantly alter the ice nucleation behavior of soot particles but aided in the uptake of water. Hygroscopicity studies confirmed that pure soot particles were hydrophobic, and coated soot particles activated as droplets at high water supersaturations. A small amount of heterogeneous ice nucleation either below the detection limit of our instrument or concurrent with droplet formation and/or homogeneous freezing cannot be precluded, but we are able to set limits for its frequency. We conclude that both uncoated and coated soot particles comparable to those generated in our studies are unlikely to significantly contribute to the global budget of heterogeneous ice nuclei at temperatures between 233 K and 253 K.

  5. Inhibition of biofilm formation and antibacterial properties of a silver nano-coating on human dentine.

    PubMed

    Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy; Handy, Richard D

    2014-11-01

    The survival of pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity depends on their successful adhesion to dental surfaces and their ability to develop into biofilms, known as dental plaque. Bacteria from the dental plaque are responsible for the development of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, stomatitis and peri-implantitis. Certain metal nanoparticles have been suggested for infection control and the management of the oral biofilm. Here, it is shown that application of a silver nano-coating directly on dentine can successfully prevent the biofilm formation on dentine surfaces as well as inhibit bacterial growth in the surrounding media. This silver nano-coating was found to be stable (>98.8%) and to maintain its integrity in biological fluids. Its antibacterial activity was compared to silver nitrate and the widely used clinical antiseptic, chlorhexidine. The bacterial growth and cell viability were quantitatively assessed by measuring the turbidity, proportion of live and dead cells and lactate production. All three bioassays showed that silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate dentine coatings were equally highly bactericidal (>99.5%), while inhibiting bacterial adhesion. However, the latter caused significant dentine discolouration (ΔE* = 50.3). The chlorhexidine coating showed no antibacterial effect. Thus, silver nanoparticles may be a viable alternative to both chlorhexidine and silver nitrate, protecting from dental plaque and secondary caries when applied as a dentine coating, while they may provide the platform for creating anti-biofilm surfaces in medical devices and other biomedical applications.

  6. Rapidly-deposited polydopamine coating via high temperature and vigorous stirring: formation, characterization and biofunctional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Deng, Yi; Lyu, Beier; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Hai; Ma, Hongwei; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) coating provides a promising approach for immobilization of biomolecules onto almost all kinds of solid substrates. However, the deposition kinetics of PDA coating as a function of temperature and reaction method is not well elucidated. Since dopamine self-polymerization usually takes a long time, therefore, rapid-formation of PDA film becomes imperative for surface modification of biomaterials and medical devices. In the present study, a practical method for preparation of rapidly-deposited PDA coating was developed using a uniquely designed device, and the kinetics of dopamine self-polymerization was investigated by QCM sensor system. It was found that high temperature and vigorous stirring could dramatically speed up the formation of PDA film on QCM chip surface. Surface characterization, BSA binding study, cell viability assay and antibacterial test demonstrates that the polydopamine coating after polymerization for 30 min by our approach exhibits similar properties to those of 24 h counterpart. The method has a great potential for rapid-deposition of polydopamine films to modify biomaterial surfaces.

  7. Molecular formation in the stagnation region of colliding laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Hassan, S. M.; Harilal, S. S.

    2016-10-27

    The laser-produced colliding plasmas have numerous attractive applications and stagnation layer formed during collisions between plasmas is a useful system for understanding particle collisions and molecular formation in a controlled way. In this article, we explore carbon dimer formation and its evolutionary paths in a stagnation layer formed during the interaction of two laser-produced plasmas. Colliding laser produced plasmas are generated by splitting a laser beam into two sub-beams and then focus them into either a single flat (laterally colliding plasmas) or a V-shaped graphite targets (orthogonally colliding plasmas). The C2 formation in the stagnation region of both colliding plasma schemes is investigated using optical spectroscopic means and compared with emission features from single seed plasma. Our results show that the collisions among the plasmas followed by the stagnation layer formation lead to rapid cooling causing enhanced carbon dimer formation. In addition, plasma electron temperature, density and C2 molecular temperature were measured for the stagnation zone and compared with seed plasma.

  8. ''Runaway'' electron current and formation of spatial structures in excimer laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dresvyannikov, V.G.; Fisun, O.I.

    1983-10-01

    Results are presented of a nonlinear analysis of runaway plasma current observed in KrF( electrodischarge laser plasmas maintained by an electron beam. It is shown that under these conditions, a uniform plasma is unstable with respect to pinching, which results in arc formation.

  9. Interactions of chlorine plasmas with silicon chloride-coated reactor walls during and after silicon etching

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Rohit; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2012-09-15

    The interplay between chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) and reactor walls coated with silicon etching products has been studied in situ by Auger electron spectroscopy and line-of-sight mass spectrometry using the spinning wall method. A bare silicon wafer mounted on a radio frequency powered electrode (-108 V dc self-bias) was etched in a 13.56 MHz, 400 W ICP. Etching products, along with some oxygen due to erosion of the discharge tube, deposit a Si-oxychloride layer on the plasma reactor walls, including the rotating substrate surface. Without Si-substrate bias, the layer that was previously deposited on the walls with Si-substrate bias reacts with Cl-atoms in the chlorine plasma, forming products that desorb, fragment in the plasma, stick on the spinning wall and sometimes react, and then desorb and are detected by the mass spectrometer. In addition to mass-to-charge (m/e) signals at 63, 98, 133, and 168, corresponding to SiCl{sub x} (x = 1 - 4), many Si-oxychloride fragments with m/e = 107, 177, 196, 212, 231, 247, 275, 291, 294, 307, 329, 345, 361, and 392 were also observed from what appear to be major products desorbing from the spinning wall. It is shown that the evolution of etching products is a complex 'recycling' process in which these species deposit and desorb from the walls many times, and repeatedly fragment in the plasma before being detected by the mass spectrometer. SiCl{sub 3} sticks on the walls and appears to desorb for at least milliseconds after exposure to the chlorine plasma. Notably absent are signals at m/e = 70 and 72, indicating little or no Langmuir-Hinshelwood recombination of Cl on this surface, in contrast to previous studies done in the absence of Si etching.

  10. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  11. Analysis of tungsten carbide coatings by UV laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanicky, V.; Otruba, V.; Mermet, J.-M.

    2000-06-01

    Tungsten carbide coatings (thickness 0.1-0.2 mm) containing 8.0, 12.2, 17.2 and 22.9% Co were studied with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES). Composition of these plasma sprayed deposits on steel disks was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and electron microprobe energy/wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The coatings were ablated by means of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm (10 Hz, 10 mJ per shot) coupled to an ICP echelle-based spectrometer equipped with a segmented charge-coupled device detector. Non-linear dependences of cobalt lines intensities on the Co percentage were observed both at a single spot ablation and at a sample translation. This behaviour could be attributed to a complex phase composition of the system W-C-Co. However, employing tungsten as internal standard the linear calibration was obtained for studied analytical lines Co II 228.616 nm, Co II 230.786 nm, Co II 236.379 nm and Co II 238.892 nm.

  12. Compositional changes of lithium coatings on TZM molybdenum during plasma bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; de Temmerman, G.; Gleeson, M. A.; Lof, A. R.; Scholten, J.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2012-10-01

    The Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy TZM has previously been used as a metallic plasma-facing component in Alcator C-Mod is being considered for use in NSTX-Upgrade. The time evolution of lithium (Li) coatings on TZM are studied in Magnum-PSI, a linear plasma device capable of ion fluxes up to 10^25 m-2s-1 at electron temperatures < 5 eV. A series of 5 s exposures were run on a bare TZM sample then repeated after an evaporation of 100 nm of Li. The temporal and spatial variation of neutral Li and oxygen (O) radiation were monitored using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and a fast camera with a Li-I (671 nm) filter. The O-I (777 nm) line intensity decreased during discharges while the Li-I line intensity increased. The ionization mean free path (MFP) of Li was calculated and validations against the ADAS collisional-radiative model (CRM) will be reported. Separate measurements with a 100-1000 eV D^+ ion beam incident on Li-coated TZM were also obtained and compared with theoretical predictions of physical sputtering rates.

  13. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    H.W.Kugel, M.G.Bell, H.Schneider, J.P.Allain, R.E.Bell, R Kaita, J.Kallman, S. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Nygen, R. Maingi, J. Menard, D. Mueller, M. Ono, S. Paul, S.Gerhardt, R.Raman, S.Sabbagh, C.H.Skinner, V.Soukhanovskii, J.Timberlake, L.E.Zakharov, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-25

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  14. Surface characteristics of HA coating and micro-pore formation on the Ti-25Nb-xHf alloys for dental materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2014-10-01

    Micro-pore formation on titanium surface can increase the adhesion strength with increment of surface area, and hydroxyapatite is effective coating materials as a main chemical constituent of bone tissue for biomedical field. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface characteristics of HA coating and micro-pore formation on the Ti-25Nb-xHf alloys for dental materials. The Ti-25Nb-xHf alloys consisted of (0 and 7) wt.% Hf contents which were manufactured by vacuum arc-melting furnace. The homogenization was performed at 1000 degrees C for 12 h and water quenched. Anodization was carried out using an electrochemical method in 1 M H3PO4 electrolyte. The HA films were deposited by plasma sputtering method. The microstructures of alloys were transformed from α" phase to β phase by addition of Hf element, and needle-like structures were translated to an equiaxed structure as Hf content increased. The peaks of anatase and rutile showed on the anodized surface of these alloys. The number of micro-pore decreased, with presence of Hf content increased, whereas size of micro-pore increased. Anodized surface was covered with HA particles at surface and in holes. Contact angle value of HA coating on anodized surface was lower than that of non-coating surface.

  15. Electric breakdowns of the "plasma capacitors" occurs on insulation coating of the ISS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homin, Taras; Korsun, Anatolii

    High electric fields and currents are occurred in the spacecrafts plasma environment by onboard electric generators. Thus the high voltage solar array (SA) of the American segment of International Space Station (ISS) generates potential 160 V. Its negative pole is shorted to the frames of all the ISS segments. There is electric current between the SA and the frame through the plasma environment, i.e. electric discharge occurs. As a result a potential drop exists between the frames of all the ISS segments and the environmental plasma [1], which is cathode drop potential varphi _{c} defined. When ISS orbiting, the φc varies greatly in the range 0-100 V. A large area of the ISS frames and SA surface is coated with a thin dielectric film. Because of cathode drop potential the frame surfaces accumulate ion charges and the SA surfaces accumulate electron charges. These surfaces become plasma capacitors, which accumulate much charge and energy. Micrometeorite impacts or buildup of potential drop in excess of breakdown threshold varphi_{b} (varphi _{c} > varphi _{b} = 60 V) may cause breakdowns of these capacitors. Following a breakdown, the charge collected at the surfaces disperses and transforms into a layer of dense plasma [2]. This plasma environment of the spacecraft produces great pulsed electric fields E at the frame surfaces as well as heavy currents between construction elements which in turn induce great magnetic fields H. Therefore the conductive frame and the environmental plasma is plasma inductors. We have calculated that the densities of these pulsing and high-frequency fields E and H generated in the plasma environment of the spacecraft may exceed values hazardous to human. Besides, these fields must induce large electromagnetic impulses in the space-suit and in the power supply and control circuits of onboard systems. During astronaut’s space-suit activity, these fields will penetrate the space-suit and the human body with possible hazardous effects

  16. Blood compatibility of titanium-based coatings prepared by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, I.; Maitz, M. F.; Wieser, E.

    2004-07-01

    Titanium with its natural oxide is known to be generally good biocompatible; and therefore, the suitability of some Ti-based coatings as coating for blood-contacting implants is analyzed. Layers of pure Ti, Ti oxynitrides (TiN 1- xO x with x=0.25, 0.50, and 0.75), and Ti oxides were deposited on oxidized Si from a plasma produced by cathodic arc evaporation under addition of N 2 and/or O 2 to the ambient near the substrate. The oxynitrides are crystalline with the fcc structure of TiN up to x=0.25. For x=0.5, a two-phase system of fcc TiN and fcc TiO has been found. In dependence on the deposition parameters, amorphous and crystalline layers (anatase + brookite or rutile) of TiO 2 have been obtained. The rutile layers were doped by implantation of P. The amorphous TiO 2 layers were implanted with Cr. To study the correlation between structure of the coating and blood compatibility, the clotting time of blood plasma as well as the adhesion and activation of blood platelets on the surface was investigated. TiN and oxynitrides showed the longest clotting time compared to rutile. Minimum platelet adhesion has been observed for pure TiO 2. Contrasting tendencies in the dependence of clotting time and platelet adhesion on the microstructure have been stated. However, for P +-doped rutile, both enhanced clotting time and improved platelet adhesion were observed. Platelet adherence and activation always showed similar trends.

  17. Alleviation of capsular formations on silicone implants in rats using biomembrane-mimicking coatings.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Ung; Ham, Jiyeon; Kim, Sukwha; Seo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Seonju; Min, Hye Jeong; Choi, Sunghyun; Choi, Ra Mi; Kim, Heejin; Oh, Sohee; Hur, Ji An; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Despite their popular use in breast augmentation and reconstruction surgeries, the limited biocompatibility of silicone implants can induce severe side effects, including capsular contracture - an excessive foreign body reaction that forms a tight and hard fibrous capsule around the implant. This study examines the effects of using biomembrane-mimicking surface coatings to prevent capsular formations on silicone implants. The covalently attached biomembrane-mimicking polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), prevented nonspecific protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion on the silicone surface. More importantly, in vivo capsule formations around PMPC-grafted silicone implants in rats were significantly thinner and exhibited lower collagen densities and more regular collagen alignments than bare silicone implants. The observed decrease in α-smooth muscle actin also supported the alleviation of capsular formations by the biomembrane-mimicking coating. Decreases in inflammation-related cells, myeloperoxidase and transforming growth factor-β resulted in reduced inflammation in the capsular tissue. The biomembrane-mimicking coatings used on these silicone implants demonstrate great potential for preventing capsular contracture and developing biocompatible materials for various biomedical applications.

  18. Tapetal oleosins play an essential role in tapetosome formation and protein relocation to the pollen coat.

    PubMed

    Lévesque-Lemay, Madeleine; Chabot, Denise; Hubbard, Keith; Chan, John K; Miller, Shea; Robert, Laurian S

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis pollen grain is covered by a lipidic pollen coat representing select constituents released upon the programmed cell death of the anther secretory tapetum. These constituents originate primarily from two specialized tapetal organelles, elaioplasts and tapetosomes. Tapetosomes are distinctive Brassicaceae organelles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum that store triacylglycerols, flavonoids, alkanes, and proteins. The tapetosome triacylglycerols are found within lipid droplets surrounded by the highly variable tapetal oleosins that eventually generate the most abundant proteins of the pollen coat. Many questions remain regarding the sub-cellular targeting of tapetal oleosins as well as their role in tapetosome formation. Translational fusions of different tapetal oleosins or their derived domains to marker proteins were introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate their localization, processing and function. Arabidopsis tapetal oleosins were shown to be proteolytically cleaved following tapetum degeneration and different protein domains were targeted to the pollen coat despite vast differences in composition and size. Importantly, specific fusions were discovered to affect distinct aspects of tapetosome formation. This report not only highlighted the critical role of individual tapetal oleosin domains in Arabidopsis tapetosome formation, but revealed translational fusions to be a valuable tool in deciphering this evidently complex developmental process.

  19. Double layer formation at the interface of complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroshenko, V. V.; Thoma, M. H.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-08-15

    Necessary conditions are formulated for the generation of a double layer at the interface of a complex plasma and a particle-free electron-ion plasma in a weakly collisional discharge. Examples are calculated for realistic observed complex plasmas, and it is shown that situations of both ''smooth'' transitions and 'sharp' transitions can exist. The model can explain the abrupt boundaries observed.

  20. Process for the formation of wear- and scuff-resistant carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    Malaczynski, Gerard W.; Qiu, Xiaohong; Mantese, Joseph V.; Elmoursi, Alaa A.; Hamdi, Aboud H.; Wood, Blake P.; Walter, Kevin C.; Nastasi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A process for forming an adherent diamond-like carbon coating on a workpiece of suitable material such as an aluminum alloy is disclosed. The workpiece is successively immersed in different plasma atmospheres and subjected to short duration, high voltage, negative electrical potential pulses or constant negative electrical potentials or the like so as to clean the surface of oxygen atoms, implant carbon atoms into the surface of the alloy to form carbide compounds while codepositing a carbonaceous layer on the surface, bombard and remove the carbonaceous layer, and to thereafter deposit a generally amorphous hydrogen-containing carbon layer on the surface of the article.

  1. Disoriented chiral condensate formation from tubes of hot quark plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, A.; Birse, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of a system of quarks interacting with {sigma} and pion fields starting from an initial configuration consisting of a tube of hot quark plasma undergoing a boost-invariant longitudinal expansion. We work within the framework of the linear sigma model using classical transport equations for the quarks coupled to the mean-field equations for the meson fields. In certain cases we find strong amplifications of any initial pion fields. For large-radius tubes, starting from quark densities that are very close to critical, we find that a disoriented chiral condensate can form in the center of the tube. Eventually the collapse of the tube drives this state back to the true vacuum. This process converts the disoriented condensate, dominated by long-wavelength pion modes, into a coherent excitation of the pion field that includes significant components with transverse momenta of around 400 MeV. In contrast, for narrow tubes or larger initial temperatures, amplification occurs only via the pion-laser-like mechanism found previously for spherical systems. In addition, we find that explicit chiral symmetry breaking significantly suppresses the formation of disoriented condensates. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Peng; Peng, Feng; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating was fabricated on biodegradable AZ31 alloy. The surface morphologies and phases were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effect of fluoride incorporation in coatings on corrosion behaviour was investigated in simulated body fluid and in vitro cytocompatibility of the coatings was also studied by evaluating cytotoxicity, adhesion, proliferation and live–dead stain of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1). Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies in vivo were examined. The results showed that the fluoride could be incorporated into the coating to form MgF2 phase. In vitro and in vivo degradation tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the coating could be improved by the incorporation of fluoride, which may attribute to the chemical stability of MgF2 phase. Moreover, good cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated coating was confirmed with no obvious cytotoxicity, enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. However, when the fluoride content was high, a slight inhibition of cell growth was observed. The results indicate that although fluoride incorporation can enhance the corrosion resistance of the coatings, thus resulting a more suitable environment for cells, the high content of fluoride in the coating also kill cells ascribed to the high released of fluorine. If the content of fluoride is well controlled, the PEO coating with MgF2 phase is a promising surface modification of Mg alloys. PMID:28149524

  3. Corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on biodegradable AZ31 alloy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Peng, Feng; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong

    2017-02-01

    Fluoride-incorporated plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating was fabricated on biodegradable AZ31 alloy. The surface morphologies and phases were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effect of fluoride incorporation in coatings on corrosion behaviour was investigated in simulated body fluid and in vitro cytocompatibility of the coatings was also studied by evaluating cytotoxicity, adhesion, proliferation and live-dead stain of osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1). Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies in vivo were examined. The results showed that the fluoride could be incorporated into the coating to form MgF2 phase. In vitro and in vivo degradation tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the coating could be improved by the incorporation of fluoride, which may attribute to the chemical stability of MgF2 phase. Moreover, good cytocompatibility of fluoride-incorporated coating was confirmed with no obvious cytotoxicity, enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. However, when the fluoride content was high, a slight inhibition of cell growth was observed. The results indicate that although fluoride incorporation can enhance the corrosion resistance of the coatings, thus resulting a more suitable environment for cells, the high content of fluoride in the coating also kill cells ascribed to the high released of fluorine. If the content of fluoride is well controlled, the PEO coating with MgF2 phase is a promising surface modification of Mg alloys.

  4. Enhanced wear and fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy modified by plasma carburizing/CrN coating.

    PubMed

    Park, Y G; Wey, M Y; Hong, S I

    2007-05-01

    In this study, a newly developed duplex coating method incorporating plasma carburization and CrN coating was applied to Ti-6Al-4V and its effects on the wear resistance and fatigue life were investigated. The carburized layer with approximately150 microm in depth and CrN coating film with 7.5 microm in thickness were formed after duplex coating. Hard carbide particles such as TiC And V(4)C(3) were formed in the carburized layer. XRD diffraction pattern analysis revealed that CrN film had predominant [111] and [200] textures. The hardness (Hv) was significantly improved up to about 1,960 after duplex coating while the hardness value of original Ti-6Al-4V was 402. The threshold load for the modification and/or failure of CrN coating was measured to be 32 N using the acoustic emission technique. The wear resistance and fatigue life of duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V improved significantly compared to those of un-treated specimen. The enhanced wear resistance can be attributed to the excellent adhesion and improved hardness of CrN coating film for the duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V. The initiation of fatigue cracks is likely to be retarded by the presence of hard and strong layers on the surface, resulting in the enhanced fatigue life.

  5. Microstructures and Abrasive Properties of the Oxide Coatings on Al6061 Alloys Prepared by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Different Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Byun, Sangsik; Lee, Chan Gyu; Koo, Bon Heun; Wang, Yi Qi; Song, Jung Il

    Al2O3 coatings were prepared on T6-tempered Al6061 alloys substrate under a hybrid voltage (AC 200 V-60 Hz and DC 260 V value) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in 30 min. The effects of different electrolytes on the abrasive behaviors of the coatings were studied by conducting dry ball-on-disk wear tests. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to investigate the coating microstructure. XRD analysis results show that the coatings mainly consist of α- and γ-Al2O3, and some mullite and AlPO4 phase in Na2SiO3 and Na3PO4 containing electrolytes, respectively. The wear test results show that the coatings which were PEO-treated in Na3PO4 containing electrolyte presented the most excellent abrasive resistance property.

  6. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  7. Human plasma enhances the expression of Staphylococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules promoting biofilm formation and increases antimicrobial tolerance In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microbial biofilms have been associated with the development of chronic human infections and represent a clinical challenge given their increased antimicrobial tolerance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing a diverse range of diseases, of which biofilms are often involved. Staphylococcal attachment and the formation of biofilms have been shown to be facilitated by host factors that accumulate on surfaces. To better understand how host factors enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation, we evaluated the effect of whole human plasma on biofilm formation in clinical isolates of S. aureus and the expression of seven microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) known to be involved in biofilm formation by quantitative real-time PCR. We also evaluated whether plasma augmented changes in S. aureus biofilm morphology and antimicrobial resistance. Results Exposure of clinical isolates of S. aureus to human plasma (10%) within media, and to a lesser extent when coated onto plates, significantly enhanced biofilm formation in all of the clinical isolates tested. Compared to biofilms grown under non-supplemented conditions, plasma-augmented biofilms displayed significant changes in both the biofilm phenotype and cell morphology as determined by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Exposure of bacteria to plasma resulted in a significant fold-increase in MSCRAMM expression in both a time and isolate-dependent manner. Additionally, plasma-augmented biofilms displayed an increased tolerance to vancomycin compared to biofilms grown in non-supplemented media. Conclusions Collectively, these studies support previous findings demonstrating a role for host factors in biofilm formation and provide further insight into how plasma, a preferred growth medium for staphylococcal biofilm formation enhances as well as augments other intrinsic properties of S. aureus biofilms

  8. Stabilization of the high-temperature phases in ceramic coatings on zirconium alloy produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelfeld, A. V.; Betsofen, S. Y.; Borisov, A. M.; Vladimirov, B. V.; Savushkina, S. V.; Knyazev, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The composition and structure of ceramic coatings obtained on Zr-1%Nb alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in aqueous electrolyte comprising 2 g/L KOH, 6 g/L NaAlO2 and 2 g/L Na2SiO3 with addition of yttria nanopowder, have been studied. The PEO coatings of thickness ∼⃒20 μm were studied using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and X-ray phase analysis. Additives in the electrolyte of yttria nanopowder allowed stabilizing the high-temperature tetragonal and cubic zirconia in the coating.

  9. Dross formation mechanism and development of wear resistant scraper in aluminum-silicon-zinc coating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadarajan, Ashok

    Steel sheet manufacturers across the globe, face a huge loss of production due to the molten metal corrosion of the pot hardware in continuous galvanizing lines. The development of steel sheet with corrosion resistant for more than 30 years using a high aluminum content zinc coating has made an impact in the construction industry. High aluminum content bath (55 wt%) causes severe corrosion of the pot hardware and causes huge repair and replacement cost with frequent stoppages. One of the main reasons for stoppages is the severe dross formation over the submerged hardware (sink roll), which results in poor coating layer over the steel sheet. Complete understanding of the mechanism of the dross formation over the submerged hardware has not yet been completely achieved. In order to establish the dross formation mechanism, an array of tests was performed. Initial inhibition of Al attack by the silicon rich layer and further formation of Fe2Al 5 layer hindering the diffusion of the Al into the substrate were observed. Also, the effect of the hydrodynamic motion of the bathe in the dross formation mechanism was established. A series of tests for efficient removal of the dross formed over the sink roll using high hardness, corrosion resistant materials were conducted at 600°C. After these tests, an efficient scraping process with a potential for energy and cost savings was developed with a better scraper material, resulting in a reduction of 75% in line stoppages.

  10. Shock formation in magnetised electron-positron plasmas: mechanism and timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockem Novo, A.; Bret, A.; Sinha, U.

    2016-10-01

    The shock formation process in electron-positron pair plasmas is investigated in the presence of an ambient perpendicular magnetic field. In initially unmagnetised plasmas, which are dominated by the Weibel or filamentation instability, the shock formation time is a multiple of the saturation time of the linear instability. While in weakly magnetised plasmas the mechanism is still the same, higher magnetisations induce synchrotron maser modes such that the shock formation is dominated by magnetic reflection. As a consequence the formation times are reduced. The focus is on the detailed picture of the particle kinetics, in which the transition between Weibel and magneto-hydrodynamic shocks can be clearly identified.

  11. Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on carbon/carbon composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and related tests in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ning; Dong, Jianwen; Wang, Qiangxiu; Ma, Quansheng; Wang, Feng; Chen, Huaying; Xue, Chengqian; Li, Musen

    2010-03-01

    The bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were successfully prepared on carbon/carbon composites (C/C) by means of sand-blasting pretreatment and plasma-spraying technology. X-ray diffraction was employed to analyze the phase constitute of the coatings. Meanwhile, the bond strength between the HA coatings and C/C substrates was determined via shear test. Experimental results show that the coatings constitute HA, CaO, and other amorphous phosphates. The post heat treatment could effectively increase crystallization and purity of the coatings. Through observation and analysis by electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy, it is concluded that the bond strength of the plasma-sprayed HA coatings on C/C is mainly determined by the interface structure and can be further improved by the post heat treatment. Meanwhile, the implantation in vivo was carried out in hybrid goats. The histological observation revealed that the osteoplaque gradually grew on the surface of the HA coatings and the pure C/C surface was covered by the fibrous tissues. No inflammation symptoms were found in the bone tissue around the implants.

  12. Transient Shock Formation of Pulsed Electrothermal Plasma Discharge Confined in an Extended Bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungjin; Kwak, Ho Sang; Park, Joong-Youn

    An electrothermal gun possesses a great potential to be an efficient source of pulsed plasma discharge for nanomaterials production or thermal plasma spray coatings. A plasma discharge by intense pulsed power is numerically studied utilizing time-dependent gas dynamics equations which are solved by FCT (flux-corrected transport) algorithm in two-dimensional domain of the interior capillary bore region and the external region of extended bore. Plasma conditions at the bore exit, mass ablation of polycarbonate bore wall, and degree of ionization are determined at different levels of transient arc current profile. As a way to controlling the plasma discharge, the extended bore at the capillary exit is considered and the flow pattern of pulsed plasma discharge in the extended bore exhibit complex shock structure from slightly to highly underexpanded jet depending on the level of arc current profiles. Flow instability of oscillating Mach disk is found at higher level of arc current profile cases.

  13. EXTENDED STORAGE OF BUFFY-COAT PLATELET CONCENTRATES IN PLASMA OR A PLATELET ADDITIVE SOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Bolgiano, Doug; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Bailey, S. Lawrence; Pellham, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet concentrates prepared from whole blood in the U.S. are made using the platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) method. The platelet concentrates must be made within 8 hours of blood collection and stored for only 5 days. In Europe and Canada, platelet concentrates are made using the buffy-coat (BC) method from whole blood held overnight at 22°C and storage times may be up to 7 days. Our studies were designed to determine how long BC platelets can be stored in plasma or Plasmalyte while meeting the FDA’s post-storage viability criteria. Study Design, Materials, And Methods Normal subjects donated whole blood that was stored at 22°C for 22 ± 2 hours prior to preparation of BC platelets. Platelets were stored for 5 to 8 days in either plasma or Plasmalyte concentrations of 65% or 80%. Radiolabeled autologous stored versus fresh platelet recoveries and survivals were assessed as well as post-storage in vitro assays. Results BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte met FDA post-storage platelet recovery criteria for 7 days but survivals for only 6 days, while storage in 80% Plasmalyte gave very poor results. Both stored platelet recoveries and survivals correlated with the same donor’s fresh results, but the correlation was much stronger between recoveries than survivals. In vitro measures of extent of shape change, morphology score, and pH best predicted post-storage platelet recoveries, while annexin V binding best predicted platelet survivals. Conclusion BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte meet FDA’s post-storage viability criteria for 6 days. PMID:24673482

  14. Mesoporous silica coated silica-titania spherical particles: from impregnation to core-shell formation.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kota; Takei, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Makoto

    2016-11-22

    The coating of solid surfaces with inorganic materials is a promising approach not only to impart various functionalities but also to modify physicochemical properties that are affected by the geometry/structure of the coating. In this study, a silica-hexadecyltrimethylammonium (silica-CTA) hybrid layer was deposited on monodispersed spherical particles composed of titania and octadecylamine (titania-ODA) by a sol-gel reaction of tetraethoxysilane in aqueous CTA/ammonia/methanol solution. The formation of the coating was confirmed by SEM and TEM observations. The coating thickness varied from a few nm to 100 nm depending on the Si/Ti ratio. We found that Si/Ti = 0.68 resulted in the formation of microporous silica-titania particles with the pore size of 0.7 nm as revealed by nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. Because the titania-ODA particles can be converted to mesoporous titania particles after removing ODA by acid/base treatment, the silica species can be impregnated into the titania particles and replace ODA under basic conditions. By increasing the Si/Ti molar ratio up to 1.4, silica-titania particles with non-porous structures were obtained. An amorphous to anatase transition occurred at around 800 °C, indicating the complete impregnation of silica inside the titania particles. Further increases of the Si/Ti molar ratio (to 3.4 and 6.8) led to the formation of the silica-CTA shell on the core particles, and the shell was converted to mesoporous silica layers with a pore size of 2 nm after calcination at 550 °C for 5 h. Non-linear control of the pore size/structure is presented for the first time; this will be useful for the precise design of diverse hybrid materials for optical, catalytic and biomedical applications.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Transport and Structural Formation in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagaraja, A.

    1999-06-01

    The book under review is one of a series of monographs on plasma physics published by the Institute of Physics under the editorship of Peter Stott and Hans Wilhelmsson. It is nicely produced and is aimed at research workers and advanced students of both laboratory (i.e. tokamak plasmas) and astrophysical plasma physics. The authors are prolific contributors to the subject of plasma turbulence and transport with a well-defined message: ``The authors' view is that the plasma structure, fluctuations and turbulent transport are continually regulating each other and, in addition, that the structural formation and structural transition of plasmas are typical of the physics of far from equilibrium systems. The book presents and explains why the plasma inhomogeneity is the ordering parameter governing transport and how self-sustained fluctuations can be driven through subcritical excitation even beyond linear instability''. This point of view is expounded in 24 chapters, including topics such as transport phenomena in toroidal plasmas (Chapters 2-4), low frequency modes and instabilities of confined systems (Chapters 5-7), renormalization (Chapter 8), self-sustained turbulence due to the current diffusive mode and resistive effects (Chapters 9-11), subcritical turbulence and numerical simulations (Chapters 12-14), scale invariance arguments (Chapter 15), electric field effects (Chapters 17-21) and self-organized dynamics (Chapter 22). The material is essentially drawn from the authors' many and varied original contributions to the plasma turbulence and transport literature. Whatever view one might have about the merits of this work, there is little doubt in this reviewer's mind that it is indeed thought-provoking and presents a worthy intellectual challenge to plasma theorists and experimentalists alike. The authors take a consistent stance and discuss the issues from their own standpoint. They observe that the plasmas one encounters in practice (for definiteness, the

  16. Processing-structure-property relationships of thermal barrier coatings deposited using the solution precursor plasma spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Liangde

    This research is intended to develop a novel process, solution-precursor plasma-spray (SPPS), for the deposition of highly durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In the SPPS process a solution precursor feedstock, that results in ZrO2-7 wt% Y2O3 ceramic, is injected into the plasma jet and the coating is deposited on a metal substrate. The formed coating has the following novel microstructural features: (i) ultra-fine splats, (ii) through-thickness cracks, (iii) micrometer and nanometer porosity, and (iv) interpass boundaries. The deposition mechanisms of the solution precursor droplets injected into the different regions of the plasma jet were found to be different due to large temperature variation across the plasma jet. The solution precursor droplets injected into the core of the plasma jet are deposited on the substrate as ultra-fine splats that account for around 65 volume% of the coating. The other 35 volume% of the coating includes porosity and deposits formed from the solution precursor droplets injected into other regions of the plasma jet. The optimum processing condition for highly durable TBCs was determined using Taguchi design of experiments. Meanwhile, the relationship of the microstructural features and processing parameters was revealed. During thermal cycling, the unmelted particles in the coating were observed to pyloyze and/or sinter, while no sign of sintering was observed for the ultra-fine splats. The spacing of through-thickness cracks remains in the range of 160 to 190 mum throughout the thermal cycling test. Three stages of oxidation of the bond coat were observed. Failure of the SPPS TBC starts with the crack nucleation along the unmelted particles in the top coat and the Ni, Cr, Co-rich oxides of large thickness. These cracks propagate and coalesce with thermal cycling. The extensive cracking of the rapidly formed Ni, Cr, Co-rich oxides resulting from the depletion of aluminum in the bond coat leads to the development of large

  17. Influence of the Substrate on the Formation of Metallic Glass Coatings by Cold Gas Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, John; Concustell, Amadeu; Dosta, Sergi; Cinca, Núria; Cano, Irene G.; Guilemany, Josep M.

    2016-06-01

    Cold gas spray technology has been used to build up coatings of Fe-base metallic glass onto different metallic substrates. In this work, the effect of the substrate properties on the viscoplastic response of metallic glass particles during their impact has been studied. Thick coatings with high deposition efficiencies have been built-up in conditions of homogeneous flow on substrates such as Mild Steel AISI 1040, Stainless Steel 316L, Inconel 625, Aluminum 7075-T6, and Copper (99.9%). Properties of the substrate have been identified to play an important role in the viscoplastic response of the metallic glass particles at impact. Depending on the process gas conditions, the impact morphologies show not only inhomogeneous deformation but also homogeneous plastic flow despite the high strain rates, 108 to 109 s-1, involved in the technique. Interestingly, homogenous deformation of metallic glass particles is promoted depending on the hardness and the thermal diffusivity of the substrate and it is not exclusively a function of the kinetic energy and the temperature of the particle at impact. Coating formation is discussed in terms of fundamentals of dynamics of undercooled liquids, viscoplastic flow mechanisms of metallic glasses, and substrate properties. The findings presented in this work have been used to build up a detailed scheme of the deposition mechanism of metallic glass coatings by the cold gas spraying technology.

  18. Efficient Large-Scale Coating Microstructure Formation Using Realistic CFD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederkehr, Thomas; Müller, Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    For the understanding of physical effects during the formation of thermally sprayed coating layers and the deduction of the macroscopic properties of a coating, microstructure modeling and simulation techniques play an important role. In this contribution, a coupled simulation framework consisting of a detailed, CFD-based single splat simulation, and a large-scale coating build-up simulation is presented that is capable to compute large-scale, three-dimensional, porous microstructures by sequential drop impingement of more than 10,000 individual particles on multicore workstation hardware. Due to the geometry-based coupling of the two simulations, the deformation, cooling, and solidification of every particle is sensitive to the hit surface area and thereby pores develop naturally in the model. The single splat simulation employs the highly parallel Lattice-Boltzmann method, which is well suited for GPU-acceleration. In order to save splat calculations, the coating simulation includes a database-driven approach that re-uses already computed splats for similar underground shapes at the randomly chosen impact sites. For a fast database search, three different methods of efficient pre-selection of candidates are described and compared against each other.

  19. Effect of the silicon content in steel on the hot-dip zinc coating microstructure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondareva, O. S.; Melnikov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the silicon content in steel on the structure of hot-dip galvanized zinc coating. It was found that in steel samples containing the silicon in an amount of about 0.1% and 0.5% the increased thickness coating was formed. This fact was associated with structural features of the ζ-phase. Energy dispersive microanalysis had shown the maximum concentration of silicon in the coating was observed in ζ-phase on St3 steel (Si = 0.1%) and in the fine mixture of δ and ζ-phase on 09G2S steel (Si>0.5%). This phenomenon was analyzed using a Zn-Fe-Si system diagram and its polytermic sections. It was found that there were eutectic reactions of decomposition the liquid to mixture (ζ+η+ FeSi) phases at the content of silicon in steel about 0.1% and more than 0.5%. Particles of FeSi-phase were involved in the dissolution of Г and δ phases, which led to a direct contact of the melt and the steel substrate. This process was accompanied by the intensive ζ-phase formation and the rapid growth of coating thickness.

  20. Simulation study of nanoparticle coating in a low pressure plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pourali, N.; Foroutan, G.

    2015-02-15

    A self-consistent combination of plasma fluid model, nanoparticle heating model, and surface deposition model is used to investigate the coating of nanosize particles by amorphous carbon layers in a low pressure plasma reactor. The numerical results show that, owing to the net heat release in the surface reactions, the particle temperature increases and its equilibrium value remains always 50 K above the background gas temperature. The deposition rate decreases with increasing of the particle temperature and the corresponding time scale is of the order of 10 ms. The deposition rate is also strongly affected by the change in plasma parameters. When the electron temperature is increased, the deposition rate first increases due to the enhanced ion and radical generation, shows a maximum and then declines as the particle temperature rises above the gas temperature. An enhancement in the background gas pressure and/or temperature leads to a reduction in the deposition rate, which can be explained in terms of the enhanced etching by atomic hydrogen and particle heating by the background gas.

  1. Cluster model of amorphized particles formation by plasma spraying of metallic powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakhtin, Boris K.; Nesterova, E. V.

    1999-05-01

    Multifunctional coatings from materials with amorphized microcrystalline or nano-phase structure cause a considerable scientific and practical interest. With their help it is to manufacture heat resistant neutralizers of harmful ejections, to produce ecologically clean sources of electric current, to design electromagnetic protective shields and to fabricate a lot of other technical products. The variety of application and a unique complex of operating characteristics (ductility, strength, magnetic and chemical properties) are governed by the basic peculiarity of material in amorphized state - its thermodynamic instability. In comparison with traditional thermodynamically equilibrium metallic alloys, the kinetics of structure changes in amorphous materials is quite different. Thus, it is suggested, that they have peculiar defects (phasonics) which are not typical of materials in crystalline state, they have no translational symmetry and elementary cells. In the process of coatings forming with non-equilibrium structure states can be realized in them, which are characterized by a fluctuation type of origin, entropy export, appearance of space or temporary symmetry uncertainty of the transition direction 'order $ARLR disorder' in bifurcation points. The aforesaid explains a great scientific (not only practical) interest in the structure study of disordered medium. Functional coatings with amorphized, nano- and microcrystalline structure components formed on copper substrate by plasma spraying of dispersed (to 50 mcm) Ni-Al powder. According to the constitutional diagram it was expected to obtain a mixture from equilibrium intermetallide phases NiAl3 + Ni2Al3. The experimental results and investigations performed by X-ray structure, X-ray spectrum and electron microscopy techniques have shown it is possible to obtain phases of variable composition (Ni)m(Al)n with Ni content from 25 to 75 vol.%, including NiAl. It turned out that in the process of spraying the

  2. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  3. Method and apparatus for the formation of a spheromak plasma

    DOEpatents

    Yamada, Masaaki; Furth, Harold P.; Stix, Thomas H.; Todd, Alan M. M.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming a detached, compact toroidally shaped spheromak plasma by an inductive mechanism. A generally spheroidal vacuum vessel (1) houses a toroidally shaped flux ring or core (2) which contains poloidal and toroidal field generating coils. A plasma discharge occurs with the pulsing of the toroidal field coil, and the plasma is caused to expand away from the core (2) and toward the center of the vacuum vessel (1). When the plasma is in an expanded state, a portion of it is pinched off in order to form a separate, detached spheromak plasma configuration. The detached plasma is supported by a magnetic field generated by externally arranged equilibrium field coils (5).

  4. Water-repellent coating: formation of polymeric self-assembled monolayers on nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Woo Kyung; Park, Sangjin; Jon, Sangyong; Choi, Insung S.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we suggest a facile and effective method for water-repellent coating of oxide surfaces. As a coating material, we synthesized a new random copolymer, referred to as poly(TMSMA-r-fluoroMA), by the radical polymerization of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSMA) and a fluoromonomer® bearing methacrylate moiety (fluoroMA). The random copolymer was designed to consist of a 'surface-reactive part' (trimethoxysilyl group) for anchoring onto oxide-based surfaces and a 'functional part' (perfluoro group) for water repellency. The polymeric self-assembled monolayers (pSAMs) of poly(TMSMA-r-fluoroMA) were constructed on three different aluminum oxide substrates, such as flat, concave-textured, and nanoporous plates, and the static water contact angle of each surface before and after the formation of pSAMs was measured. The formation of pSAMs resulted in significantly enhanced hydrophobicity compared with the corresponding bare surfaces. In particular, among three poly(TMSMA-r-fluoroMA)-coated surfaces, the nanoporous plate showed the highest water-repellent property, with a static contact angle of ~163°, which is indicative of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Double-Layer and Graded Composite Coatings of YSZ Obtained by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpio, Pablo; Rayón, Emilio; Salvador, María Dolores; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sánchez, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Double-layer and graded composite coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia were sprayed on metallic substrates by atmospheric plasma spray. The coating architecture was built up by combining two different feedstocks: one micro- and one nanostructured. Microstructural features and mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) of the coatings were determined by FE-SEM microscopy and nanoindentation technique, respectively. Additional adherence and scratch tests were carried out in order to assess the failure mechanisms occurring between the layers comprising the composites. Microstructural inspection of the coatings confirms the two-zone microstructure. This bimodal microstructure which is exclusive of the layer obtained from the nanostructured feedstock negatively affects the mechanical properties of the whole composite. Nanoindentation tests suitably reproduce the evolution of mechanical properties through coatings thickness on the basis of the position and/or amount of nanostructured feedstock used in the depositing layer. Adhesion and scratch tests show the negative effect on the coating adhesion of layer obtained from the nanostructured feedstock when this layer is deposited on the bond coat. Thus, the poor integrity of this layer results in lower normal stresses required to delaminate the coating in the adhesion test as well as minor critical load registered by using the scratch test.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of different preparations of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ricardo M; Lemus, M Mercedes; Reis, Rui L

    2004-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of four different preparations of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates in static Hank's balanced salt solution was investigated using dc potentiodynamic and ac impedance techniques. Two different nominal thicknesses, 50 microm and 200 microm, and two different spraying conditions, were considered. The electrochemical impedance experiments proved this technique to be very suitable for the investigation of the electrochemical behavior of surgical implant alloys when they are coated with HA, which is characterized by the dissolution and passivation characteristics of the underlying metal substrate. Because the coatings are porous, ionic paths between the electrolytic medium and the base material can eventually be produced, resulting in the corrosion of the coated metal. Differences in the corrosion resistance of the coated materials were detected, and a relevant model for the description of the coating degradation in the biosimulating solution was proposed. The model consisted of the description of the coated system in terms of a two-layer model of the surface film. Significant differences in electrochemical behavior for similar nominal thicknesses of HA coatings obtained under different spraying conditions were found.

  7. The effect of UV radiation from oxygen and argon plasma on the adhesion of organosilicon coatings on polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaritz, M.; Behm, H.; Hopmann, Ch; Kirchheim, D.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Dahlmann, R.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from oxygen and argon pretreatment plasmas on a plastic substrate has not been fully understood yet. In particular, its influence on the adhesion properties has not been sufficiently researched so far. This paper addresses this issue by comparing the bond strength of a plasmapolymerized silicon organic coating (SiO x C y H z ) on polypropylene (PP) after oxygen and argon plasma pretreatment and pretreatment by UV radiation emitted by the same plasmas. The UV radiation is isolated from the other species from the plasma by means of a magnesium fluoride (MgF2) optical filter. It could be shown that UV radiation originating from an oxygen plasma has a significant impact on both substrate surface chemistry and coating adhesion. The same maximum bond strength enhancement can be reached by pretreating the polypropylene surface either with pulsed oxygen plasma, or with only the UV radiation from this oxygen plasma. Also, similar surface chemistry and topography modifications are induced. For argon plasma no significant influence of its UV radiation on the substrate could be observed in this study.

  8. Bone formation in transforming growth factor beta-1-coated porous poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Vehof, Johan W M; Fisher, John P; Dean, David; van der Waerden, Jan-Paul C M; Spauwen, Paul H M; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A

    2002-05-01

    This study determined the bone growth into pretreated poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) scaffolds implanted into a subcritical size, rabbit cranial defect. PPF scaffolds were constructed by using a photocrosslinking-porogen leaching technique. These scaffolds were then either prewetted (PPF-Pw), treated with RF glow-discharge (PPF-Gd), coated with fibronectin (PPF-Fn), or coated with rhTGF-beta1 (PPF-TGF-beta1). One of each scaffold type was then placed into the cranium of nine rabbits. The rabbits were sacrificed after 8 weeks, and the scaffolds were retrieved for histological analysis. The most bone formation was present in the PPF-TGF-beta1 implants; the newly formed bone had a trabecular appearance together with bone marrow-like tissue. Little or no bone formation was observed in implants without rhTGF-beta1. These histological findings were confirmed by image analysis. Bone surface area, bone area percentage, pore fill percentage, and pore area percentage were significantly higher in the rhTGF-beta1-coated implants than in the noncoated implants. No statistical difference was seen between the PPF-Fn, PPF-Pw, or PPF-Gd scaffolds for these parameters. Quadruple fluorochrome labeling showed that in PPF-TGF-beta1 implants bone formation mainly started in the interior of a pore and proceeded toward the scaffold. We conclude that (a) PPF-TGF-beta1 scaffolds can indeed adequately induce bone formation in porous PPF, and (b) PPF scaffolds prepared by the photocrosslinking-porogen leaching technique are good candidates for the creation of bone graft substitutes.

  9. Microstructure, bonding strength and thermal shock resistance of ceramic coatings on steels prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunlong; Jiang, Zhaohua; Yao, Zhongping

    2009-11-01

    Ceramic coatings were successfully prepared on steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in aluminate electrolyte and silicate electrolyte, respectively. The microstructure of the coatings including surface morphology, phase and element composition were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The bonding strength between the ceramic coating and the substrate was tested using different methods including tensile tests and shearing tests. The thermal shock resistance of the coatings was also evaluated. The results indicated that coatings obtained in both electrolytes were porous and coarse. The average diameters of the pores were below 10 μm. PEO coatings obtained in aluminate electrolyte were composed of Fe 3O 4 and FeAl 2O 4, while those obtained in silicate electrolyte were in a noncrystal state. PEO coatings obtained in aluminate electrolyte showed similar change trend of tensile strength and shearing strength with increasing treating time, namely, a relatively high values with middle time treating and low value with short and long time treating. The best coating was the samples treated with 30 min, whose tensile strength was 20.6 MPa and shearing strength was 16 MPa. The tensile strength and shearing strength of coatings obtained in silicate electrolyte were not strongly influenced by the treating time, the values of which were range in 14 ± 2 MPa and 11 ± 2 MPa, respectively. Coatings obtained in both electrolytes showed the best thermal shock resistance with middle time treating. Coatings obtained in silicate electrolyte show a little better thermal shock resistance than those obtained in aluminate electrolyte.

  10. Numerical simulation of zirconia splat formation and cooling during plasma spray deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, YeMeng; Zheng, YunZhai; Zheng, ZhengHuan; Li, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The adhesion/cohesion of plasma-sprayed coatings depends strongly on the flattening and solidification of individual splat, taking place in a few microseconds. Such a short time makes it difficult to thoroughly study the splat formation. A three-dimensional numerical model incorporating the substrate melting and solidification was developed using CFD method to simulate the flattening and cooling of zirconia splat involving the influence of interface thermal contact resistance. On smooth substrate where the thermal contact resistance is zero, the splat has a cooling rate of 1.7 × 108 K/s, resulting in substrate melting, and a disk-like splat is formed with a spread factor of approximately 3.5. While on substrate with thermal contact resistance of 10-7 m2 K/W, corresponding cooling rate is 3.17 × 108 K/s and a central splat surrounded by satellite droplets is formed due to the rapid solidification of the splat edges.

  11. Electrical conditioning of diamond-like carbon films for the formation of coated field emission cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, M.; Okrepka, G.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2010-11-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on different substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were investigated. Bonding states and film quality were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of the power of plasma and the deposition time on the sp2/sp3 ratio as well as the concentration of CHn bonds was studied. The influence of sp2/sp3 ratio on the formation process of conducting channels in diamond-like carbon films as a result of electrical breakdown was determined. Reproducible increase of diamond-like carbon film conductivity, with initial sp2/sp3 ratio larger than 0.16, was observed after electrical breakdown.

  12. Detection of segmentation cracks in top coat of thermal barrier coatings during plasma spraying by non-contact acoustic emission method.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kaita; Kuriki, Hitoshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Enoki, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Numerous cracks can be observed in the top coat of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) method. These cracks can be classified into vertical and horizontal ones and they have opposite impact on the properties of TBCs. Vertical cracks reduce the residual stress in the top coat and provide strain tolerance. On the contrary, horizontal cracks trigger delamination of the top coat. However, monitoring methods of cracks generation during APS are rare even though they are strongly desired. Therefore, an in situ, non-contact and non-destructive evaluation method for this objective was developed in this study with the laser acoustic emission (AE) technique by using laser interferometers as a sensor. More AE events could be detected by introducing an improved noise reduction filter and AE event detection procedures with multiple thresholds. Generation of vertical cracks was successfully separated from horizontal cracks by a newly introduced scanning pattern of a plasma torch. Thus, generation of vertical cracks was detected with certainty by this monitoring method because AE events were detected only during spraying and a positive correlation was observed between the development degree of vertical cracks and the total AE energy in one experiment.

  13. Detection of segmentation cracks in top coat of thermal barrier coatings during plasma spraying by non-contact acoustic emission method

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kaita; Kuriki, Hitoshi; Araki, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Enoki, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cracks can be observed in the top coat of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited by the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) method. These cracks can be classified into vertical and horizontal ones and they have opposite impact on the properties of TBCs. Vertical cracks reduce the residual stress in the top coat and provide strain tolerance. On the contrary, horizontal cracks trigger delamination of the top coat. However, monitoring methods of cracks generation during APS are rare even though they are strongly desired. Therefore, an in situ, non-contact and non-destructive evaluation method for this objective was developed in this study with the laser acoustic emission (AE) technique by using laser interferometers as a sensor. More AE events could be detected by introducing an improved noise reduction filter and AE event detection procedures with multiple thresholds. Generation of vertical cracks was successfully separated from horizontal cracks by a newly introduced scanning pattern of a plasma torch. Thus, generation of vertical cracks was detected with certainty by this monitoring method because AE events were detected only during spraying and a positive correlation was observed between the development degree of vertical cracks and the total AE energy in one experiment. PMID:27877683

  14. Collapse of a lipid-coated nanobubble and subsequent liposome formation

    PubMed Central

    Koshiyama, Kenichiro; Wada, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the collapse of a lipid-coated nanobubble and subsequent formation of a lipid vesicle by coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations. A spherical nanobubble coated with a phospholipid monolayer in water is a model of an aqueous dispersion of phospholipids under negative pressure during sonication. When subjected to a positive pressure, the bubble shape deforms into an irregular spherical shape and the monolayer starts to buckle and fold locally. The local folds grow rapidly in multiple directions and forming a discoidal membrane with folds of various amplitudes. Folds of small amplitude disappear in due course and the membrane develops into a unilamellar vesicle via a bowl shape. Folds with large amplitude develop into a bowl shape and a multivesicular shape forms. The membrane shape due to bubble collapse can be an important factor governing the vesicular shape during sonication. PMID:27306704

  15. Interaction of field-aligned cold plasma flows with an equatorially-trapped hot plasma - Electrostatic shock formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1993-01-01

    Effects of equatorially trapped hot plasma on the highly supersonic cold-plasma flow occurring during early stage plasmaspheric refilling are studied by means of numerical simulations. It is shown that the equatorially trapped hot ions set up a potential barrier for the cold ion beams and facilitate formation of electrostatic shocks by reflecting them from the equatorial region. Simulations with and without the hot plasma show different flow properties; the formation of electrostatic shocks occur only in the former case. The simulation with the hot plasma also reveals that the magnetic trapping in conjunction with the evolution of the electrostatic potential barrier produces ion velocity distribution functions consisting of a cold core and a hot ring in the perpendicular velocity. Such a distribution function provides a source of free energy for equatorial waves. The corresponding electron population is warm and field-aligned.

  16. Modification of polypropylene foils by low pressure oxygen plasma and its influence on the formation of titanium dioxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Rafal; Macyk, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    Commercially available polypropylene foils were pre-treated with low pressure, room temperature radio frequency (RF) oxygen plasma at constant power and pressure. Various durations of pre-treatment process were applied. Afterwards the samples were covered with titanium dioxide thin film by dip-coating technique and photosensitized by titanium(IV) surface complexes formed upon impregnation with catechol-like ligands. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements were used for determining plasma species. The surface properties before and after plasma treatment were characterized by contact angle measurements, FTIR-ATR, UV-Vis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Titanium dioxide thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photoactivity of TiO2 films was tested by photocurrent measurements. It was shown that plasma pre-treatment is essential for oxygen groups formation which contribute to titanium dioxide binding to polymer surface. The support from National Science Centre within the DEC-2012/05/N/ST5/01497 grant is highly acknowledged.

  17. In situ pH measurement during the formation of conversion coatings on an aluminum alloy (AA2024).

    PubMed

    Li, Liangliang; Desouza, Annika Laura; Swain, Greg M

    2013-08-07

    The measurement of interfacial pH change is important for understanding the formation mechanism of conversion coatings that are used to protect metals from corrosion. In this work, we used a tungsten microelectrode to measure the interfacial pH change near the surface of an aluminium alloy (AA2024) during the formation of two conversion coatings: (i) a trivalent chromium pretreatment (TCP) and (ii) a Ti-based, non-chromium-containing coating. The tungsten microelectrode exhibited an open circuit potential (OCP) that changed linearly as a function of the solution pH with a slope of -64 mV per pH. The microelectrode was positioned near the AA2024-T3 surface and its potential was measured as a function of time along with the OCP of the alloy sample during formation of the two coatings. The microelectrode exhibited a negative shift in potential immediately upon initiation of the coating formation, consistent with a significant increase in the interfacial pH of 2-6 units depending on the coating system. The pH increase is attributed to proton-consuming cathodic reactions that occur on the alloy surface once the passivating oxide layer is dissolved: hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction. The increased pH causes the hydrolysis of the soluble fluorometalate precursor species in the baths, which precipitate forming a hydrated metal oxide coating (e.g., ZrO2·nH2O).

  18. Shock wave mediated plume chemistry for molecular formation in laser ablation plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-02-16

    Laser ablation is used in a variety of applications albeit formation mechanisms of molecules and nanoclusters are not well understood. We investigated the formation mechanisms of AlO molecules during complex interactions between an Al laser plume expanding into ambient air at atmospheric pressure levels. To produce the plasma a high-purity Al target was ablated using 1064 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Our results show that the plasma chemistry leading to the formation of AlO is mediated by shock waves. During the early times of plasma expansion, the generated shock waves at the plume edges act as a barrier for the combustion process and the molecular formation is prevalent after the shockwave collapse. The temporally and spatially resolved contour mapping of Al and AlO highlight the formation routes and persistence of species in the plasma and its relation to plume hydrodynamics.

  19. Formation of Jet Propulsion Near Dust Particle in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyak, L. M.; Vysykailo, F. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Molotkov, V. I.; Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.

    2011-11-29

    Processes of asymmetric ionization and cumulation of electric field and electron and ion flows can develop near the surface of charged dust particles in plasma. In the region of cumulation asymmetry on heating, the particle surface and ion momentum transfer arises; as a result, the dust particle moves in the plasma with high velocity.

  20. Plasma polymerized thin coating as a protective layer of carbon nanotubes grafted on carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einig, A.; Rumeau, P.; Desrousseaux, S.; Magga, Y.; Bai, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles addition is widely studied to improve properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites. Here, hybrid carbon fiber results from grafting of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the carbon fiber for mechanical reinforcement and conductive properties. Both tows and woven fabrics made of the hybrid fibers are added to the matrix for composite processing. However handling hybrid fibers may induce unwilling health risk due to eventual CNT release and a protective layer is required. A thin coating layer is deposited homogeneously by low pressure plasma polymerization of an organic monomer without modifying the morphology and the organization of grafted CNTs. The polymeric layer effect on the electrical behavior of hybrid fiber is assessed by conductivity measurements. Its influence on the mechanical properties is also studied regarding the interface adhesion between fiber and matrix. The protective role of layer is demonstrated by means of friction constraints applied to the hybrid fiber.

  1. Development of a radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet for diamond-like carbon coatings on stainless steel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Samadi, O.; Siadati, S. N.; Etaati, G. R.; Asadi, E.; Safari, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was developed for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel substrates. The plasma jet was generated by argon-methane mixture and its physical parameters were investigated. Relation between the plasma jet length and width of the powered electrode was discussed. Optical and electrical characteristics were studied by optical emission spectroscopy, voltage and current probes, respectively. The evolutions of various species like ArI, C2 and CH along the jet axis were investigated. Electron temperature and density were estimated by Boltzmann plot method and Saha-Boltzmann equation, respectively. Finally, a diamond-like carbon coating was deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates by the atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma jet in ambient air. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to study the deposited films. The length of the jet was increased by increasing the width of the powered electrode. The estimated electron temperature and density were 1.43 eV and 1.39 × 1015 cm-3, respectively. Averaged Vicker's hardness of the coated sample was three times greater than that of the substrate. The SEM images of the deposited thin films revealed a 4.5 μm DLC coated for 20 min.

  2. Roll-to-roll DBD plasma pretreated polyethylene web for enhancement of Al coating adhesion and barrier property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibao; Li, Hua; Fang, Ming; Wang, Zhengduo; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper the roll-to-roll atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to pre-treat polyethylene (PE) web surface before the conventional thermal evaporation aluminum (Al) was performed as a barrier layer. We emphasized the plasma environment effect based on the inlet three kinds of reactive monomers. The cross hatch test was employed to assess the Al coating adhesion; and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was used to evaluate gas barrier property. The results showed that after roll-to-roll DBD plasma treatment all Al coatings adhered strongly on PE films and were free from pinhole defects with mirror morphology. The OTR was reduced from 2673 cm3/m2 day for Al-coated original PE to 138 cm3/m2 day for Al-coated allyamine (C3H7N) modified PE. To well understand the mechanism the chemical compositions of the untreated and DBD plasma pretreated PE films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the property of surface energy the water contact angle measurement was also carried out in the DBD plasma treated samples with deionized water.

  3. Pericellular hyaluronan coat visualized in live cells with a fluorescent probe is scaffolded by plasma membrane protrusions.

    PubMed

    Rilla, Kirsi; Tiihonen, Riikka; Kultti, Anne; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija

    2008-10-01

    Many cell types wear up to 20-mum-wide hyaluronidase-sensitive surface coats, detected by exclusion of sedimenting particles like fixed erythrocytes. The structure of the coat is enigmatic, being apparently too thick to be accounted by random coils or even extended chains of just hyaluronan attached to cell surface. We have shown that hyaluronan synthesis enforced by green fluorescent protein-hyaluronan synthase transfection creates microvillous protrusions. The idea that the plasma membrane protrusions rather than hyaluronan alone is responsible for the exclusion space was studied with a fluorescent probe for hyaluronan and a dye with membrane affinity, applied to live cell cultures. Mesothelial and smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and chondrocytes, all known for their endogenously active hyaluronan synthesis, showed hyaluronan-coated plasma membrane protrusions, barely visible in phase contrast microscopy. Treatment with hyaluronidase and inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis caused retraction of the protrusions unless they were attached to substratum. Hyaluronan and the exclusion space were reduced, but did not disappear, by purified hyaluronan hexasaccharides that compete with hyaluronan attached to CD44. The results suggest that slender plasma membrane protrusions are an inherent feature of hyaluronan coats, form their scaffold, and largely result from ongoing hyaluronan synthesis in their plasma membrane. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.

  4. Nano-composite Si particle formation by plasma spraying for negative electrode of Li ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambara, M.; Kitayama, A.; Homma, K.; Hideshima, T.; Kaga, M.; Sheem, K.-Y.; Ishida, S.; Yoshida, T.

    2014-04-01

    Nano-composite silicon powders have been produced at a maximum process throughput of 6 g/min by plasma spraying with metallurgical grade silicon powder as raw material. The obtained powders are found to be fundamentally composed of crystalline silicon particles of 20-40 nm in diameter, and are coated with an ˜5-nm-thick amorphous carbonous layer when methane gas is additionally introduced during plasma spraying. The performance of half-cell batteries containing the powders as negative electrodes has shown that the capacity decay observed for the raw Si coarse particles is significantly improved by plasma treatment. The carbonous coating potentially contributes to an improvement in capacity retention, although coexisting SiC particles that inevitably form during high-temperature processing reduce the overall capacity.

  5. Effect of Sulfur Acid Corrosion on the Luminescent Intensity of Plasma-Sprayed YAG:Ce Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weize; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Hehui; Yu, Jingye; Wu, Liangmin

    2017-01-01

    In order to monitor the corrosion condition of components, plasma-sprayed YAG:Ce coating was prepared for the detection, which could develop the application of plasma spraying. The effect of sulfuric acid corrosion on the microstructure, phase composition and luminescence intensity of coatings was studied. The powder was synthesized by the high-temperature solid-state method. Microstructure and phases were characterized through using SEM and XRD, respectively. Effect of immersion time in the acid was studied on the luminescence intensity. It was found that the phase composition of the powder was dominated by YAG (Y3Al5O12). More pores could be observed in coatings with the increase in immersion time. Sprayed coatings mainly included phases of YAG and YAP (YAlO3). The position of the XRD peaks of coatings was changing during the immersion. The luminescence intensity showed the fluctuation tendency with the immersion time, which related to the coating porosity, phase composition and the migration of the diffract peak.

  6. Electron ranaway and ion-ion plasma formation in afterglow low-pressure plasma of oxygen-containing gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Kosykh, Nikolay; Gutsev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    Experimental investigation of temporal evolution of charged plasma species in afterglow plasma of oxygen-containing mixtures have been investigated. The probe VAC and the time dependence of the saturation positive and negative particles currents to a probe in a fixed bias voltage were performed. The decay of afterglow low-pressure electronegative gas plasmas take place in two distinct stages (the electron-ion stage, and the ion-ion stage) as it was shown in [1] for pure oxygen. In the first stage, the negative ions are locked within a discharge volume and plasma is depleted of electrons and positive ions. The electron density decay is faster, than exponential, and practically all electrons leave plasma volume during finite time followed by the ion--ion (electron-free) plasma formation. The decay of the ion-ion plasma depends on the presence of detachment. With a large content of electronegative gas (oxygen) in a mixture, when there is a ``detachment particles,'' a small fraction of the electrons appearing as a result of the detachment continue to hold all negative ions in the discharge volume. In this case, the densities of all charged plasma components decay according to the same exponential law with a characteristic detachment time. At a low oxygen content in the gas mixture there is no detachment and plasma decays by an ion--ion ambipolar diffusion mechanism.[4pt][1]. S.A.Gutsev, A.A.Kudryavtsev, V.A.Romanenko. Tech.Phys. 40, 1131, (1995).

  7. Numerical study of Si nanoparticle formation by SiCl4 hydrogenation in RF plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmet, Christophe; Cao, Tengfei; Cheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) is a promising material for many applications related to electronics and optoelectronics. This work performs numerical simulations in order to understand a new process with high deposition rate production of nc-Si in a radio-frequency plasma reactor. Inductive plasma formation, reaction kinetics and nanoparticle formation have been considered in a sophisticated model. Results show that the plasma parameters could be adjusted in order to improve selectivity between nanoparticle and molecule formation and, thus, the deposition rate. Also, a parametric study helps to optimize the system with appropriate operating conditions.

  8. Laser scattered images observed from carbon plasma stagnation and following molecular formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K.; Shibata, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Sunahara, A.

    2014-06-16

    Two carbon targets were irradiated to create plasma plumes to collide at right angle with two UV laser pulses each other at 10 J/cm{sup 2}/pulse. The collision results in carbon plasma stagnation. Laser scattered imaging indicates that the carbon large molecular formation takes place much later in time after the laser irradiation and stagnation. Compared with the temporal history of electron density (n{sub e}), ion density (n{sub i}), and plasma self-emission dominated by carbon Swan band, it is estimated that the carbon large molecular formation has been initiated with the ion collision followed by the C{sub 2} formation.

  9. Thermal behavior of Ni- and Cu-containing plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnev, V. S.; Wybornov, S.; Lukiyanchuk, I. V.; Staedler, T.; Jiang, X.; Ustinov, A. Yu.; Vasilyeva, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this work the effect of thermal annealing on the surface composition, structure and catalytic activity in CO oxidation of NiO + CuO/TiO2/Ti composites is studied. The composites have been obtained by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique, followed by impregnation in a solution of nickel (II) and copper (II) salts and air annealing. The structures contain ˜20 at% Ni and ˜12 at% Cu. It has been shown that the additional air annealing of such structures at temperature above 750 °C results in phosphate crystallization in the coatings and decreasing of Cu concentration in the surface layers. A growth of filiform nanocrystals containing mainly oxygen compounds of nickel and titanium on the coating surface takes place at the temperatures above 700 °C. The nanocrystals have a diameter of 50-200 nm and lengths below 10 μm. Such changes result in decreasing of catalytic activity of the composites in CO oxidation. At the same time the ascertained regularities may be of interest for obtaining the Ni-containing oxide catalysts with an extended surface, perspective for usage in organic catalysis or for preparing oxide nanofibers.

  10. Hemocompatibility of titanium-based coatings prepared by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, I. A.; Maitz, M. F.; Richter, E.; Reuther, H.; Mashina, A. I.; Rustichelli, F.

    2007-04-01

    Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIIID) has been proved to be an effective approach to enhance surface properties of various types of materials. In this work structure, phase composition, microhardness and surface properties, such as wettability and surface energy of layers of the ternary system Ti-N-O produced by MePIIID were investigated. To study the correlation between structure of coating and hemocompatibility the thrombocyte adhesion as well as the fibrinogen adsorption on the surface were measured. The blood compatibility of Ti oxide can be improved by the addition of nitrogen into the layer. The thrombocyte adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption were lower for TiNxOy than for TiO2. This correlates with a lower hydrophobicity and higher polar component of the surface energy for TiNxOy. The best hemocompatibility as well as the maximal microhardness have been found for the coating TiN0.4O1.6.

  11. Functional metal oxide coatings by molecule-based thermal and plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Ruegamer, T; Donia, N; Shen, H

    2008-05-01

    Deposition of thin films through vaccum processes plays an important role in industrial processing of decorative and functional coatings. Many metal oxides have been prepared as thin films using different techniques, however obtaining compositionally uniform phases with a control over grain size and distribution remains an enduring challenge. The difficulties are largely related to complex compositions of functional oxide materials, which makes a control over kinetics of nucleation and growth processes rather difficult to control thus resulting in non-uniform material and inhomogeneous grain size distribution. Application of tailor-made molecular precursors in low pressure or plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques offers a viable solution for overcoming thermodynamic impediments involved in thin film growth. In this paper molecule-based CVD of functional coatings is demonstrated for iron oxide (Fe2O3, Fe3O4), vanadium oxide (V2O5, VO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2) phases followed by the characterization of their microstructural, compositional and functional properties which support the advantages of chemical design in simplifying deposition processes and optimizing functional behavior.

  12. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Zia Ur; Shabib, Ishraq; Haider, Waseem

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility.

  13. Isothermal oxidation behavior and microstructure of plasma surface Ta coating on γ-TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jian; Zhang, Ping-Ze Wei, Dong-Bo; Wei, Xiang-Fei; Wang, Ya

    2014-12-15

    The oxidation behavior of γ-TiAl with Ta surface coating fabricated by double glow plasma surface alloying technology was investigated by thermogravimetric method. Oxidation experiments were carried out at 750 °C and 850 °C in air for 100 h. The modification layer was comprised of deposition layer and diffusion layer, which metallurgically adhered to the substrate. Tantalum element decreased with the case depth. The oxidation morphology was studied by a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results highlighted that in the oxidizing process of the oxidation, the phase containing Ta-richer may restrain diffusing outward of the element Al in the matrix. Ti diffused outward, and formed the TiO{sub 2} scales, while the middle layer was rich in Al, and formed the continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales after oxidation, which was effective to prevent further infiltration of oxygen atoms, and as a result the oxidation resistance increased immensely. - Highlights: • A Ta modified coating was prepared on γ-TiAl using DGP surface alloying technology. • The modification layer metallurgically adhered to the substrate. • The bonding force is about 60 N, satisfying the demands of practical use. • The oxidation resistance increased immensely at 750 °C and 850 °C.

  14. Electrochemical and biological characterization of coatings formed on Ti-15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Simka, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    β-Type titanium alloys are considered the future materials for bone implants. To improve the bioactivity of Ti-15Mo, the surface was modified using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP, Ca3PO4), wollastonite (CaSiO3) and silica (SiO2) were selected as additives in the anodizing bath to enhance the bioactivity of the coatings formed during the PEO process. Electrochemical analysis of the samples was performed in Ringer's solution at 37°C. The open-circuit potential (EOCP) as a function of time, corrosion potential (ECORR), corrosion current density (jCORR) and polarization resistance (Rp) of the samples were determined. Surface modification improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo in Ringer's solution. In vitro studies with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were performed for 1, 3 and 7 days. After 24h, the cells were well adhered on the entire surfaces, and their number increased with increasing culture time. The coatings formed in basic solution with wollastonite exhibited better biological performance compared with the as-ground sample.

  15. Quasistatic vs. Dynamic Modulus Measurements Of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Morscher, G. N.; Choi, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been demonstrated to exhibit nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior by quasistatic cyclic compression and cylindrical punch indentation measurements. In particular, the instantaneous (tangential) elastic modulus increases with applied stress and exhibits significant hysteresis during cycling. Sound velocity (dynamic) measurements also show an increase in TBC modulus with applied compressive stress, but in contrast show no significant hysteresis for the modulus during cycling. The nonlinear elastic behavior of the TBCs evidenced by these tests is attributed to coating compaction and internal sliding. The differences between the quasistatic and dynamic measurements are explained by the relative absence of the effect of internal sliding in the dynamic modulus measurements. By incorporating short load reversals into the larger loading cycle and measuring the instantaneous modulus at the start of each load reversal, the effects of internal sliding can be substantially reduced in the quasistatic measurements, and the resulting modulus values show good agreement with the modulus values determined by dynamic sound velocity measurements.

  16. Effect of Nano-Si3N4 Additives and Plasma Treatment on the Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Al2O3-8YSZ Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Junfeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Qiwen; Wang, You; Wang, Chaohui

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of nano-Si3N4 additives and plasma treatment on the wear behavior of Al2O3-8YSZ ceramic coatings was studied. Nano-Al2O3, nano-8YSZ (8 wt.% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) and nano-Si3N4 powders were used as raw materials to fabricate four types of sprayable feedstocks. Plasma treatment was used to improve the properties of the feedstocks. The surface morphologies of the ceramic coatings were observed. The mechanical properties of the ceramic coatings were measured. The dry sliding wear behavior of the Al2O3-8YSZ coatings with and without Si3N4 additives was studied. Nano-Si3N4 additives and plasma treatment can improve the morphologies of the coatings by prohibiting the initiation of micro-cracks and reducing the unmelted particles. The hardness and bonding strength of AZSP (Al2O3-18 wt.% 8YSZ-10 wt.% Si3N4-plasma treatment) coating increased by 79.2 and 44% compared to those of AZ (Al2O3-20 wt.% 8YSZ) coating. The porosity of AZSP coating decreased by 85.4% compared to that of AZ coating. The wear test results showed that the addition of nano-Si3N4 and plasma treatment could improve the wear resistance of Al2O3-8YSZ coatings.

  17. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2- 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of K(sub I)/K(sub II) were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  18. Combined Mode I and Mode II Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The mode I, mode II, and combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of ZrO2 - 8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Precracks were introduced in test specimens using the single-edge-v-notched beam (SEVNB) method incorporated with final diamond polishing to achieve sharp crack tips. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of KI/KII were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behaviors of the coating material were compared with those of monolithic advanced ceramics determined previously. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the plasma- sprayed thermal barrier coating material was predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  19. Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings with dispersed Pt particles prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; He, Ye-dong; Deng, Shun-jie; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) containing dispersed Pt particles were prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The influence of the Pt particles on the microstructure of the coatings and the CPED process were studied. The prepared coatings were mainly composed of α-Al2O3. The average thickness of the coatings was approximately 100 μm. Such single-layer TBCs exhibited not only excellent high-temperature cyclic oxidation and spallation resistance, but also good thermal insulation properties. Porous α-Al2O3 TBCs inhibit further oxidation of alloy substrates because of their extremely low oxygen diffusion rate, provide good thermal insulation because of their porous structure, and exhibit excellent mechanical properties because of the toughening effect of the Pt particles and because of stress relaxation induced by deformation of the porous structure.

  20. The interplay of plasma treatment and gold coating and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: On the cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Zdenka; Rimpelová, Silvie; Juřík, Petr; Veselý, Martin; Kolská, Zdenka; Hubáček, Tomáš; Ruml, Tomáš; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the application of Ar plasma for creation of nanostructured ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) surface in order to enhance adhesion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (L929). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the interface between plasma-treated and gold-coated PE on adhesion and spreading of cells. The surface properties of pristine samples and its modified counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques (gravimetry, goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrokinetic analysis), which were used for characterization of treated and sputtered layers, polarity and surface chemical structure, respectively. Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the surface morphology and roughness. Biological responses of cells seeded on PE samples were evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, morphology and proliferation. Detailed cell morphology and intercellular connections were followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As it was expected the thickness of a deposited gold film was an increasing function of the sputtering time. Despite the fact that plasma treatment proceeded in inert plasma, oxidized degradation products were formed on the PE surface which would contribute to increased hydrophilicity (wettability) of the plasma treated polymer. The XPS method showed a decrease in carbon concentration with increasing plasma treatment. Cell adhesion measured on the interface between plasma treated and gold coated PE was inversely proportional to the thickness of a gold layer on a sample.