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Sample records for plasma deposited heparin-like

  1. Dynamic properties of biologically active synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Hricovíni, Milos; Gairi, Margarida; Guerrini, Marco; de Paz, José Luis; Ojeda, Rafael; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2005-10-01

    A complete study of the dynamics of two synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides, D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (1) and -->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHAc-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (2), has been performed using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation parameters, T1, T2, and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effect (NOEs). Compound 1 is constituted from sequences corresponding to the major polysaccharide heparin region, while compound 2 contains a sequence never found in natural heparin. They differ from each other only in sulphation patterns, and are capable of stimulating fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-1 induced mitogenesis. Both oligosaccharides exhibit a remarkable anisotropic overall motion in solution as revealed by their anisotropic ratios (tau /tau||), 4.0 and 3.0 respectively. This is a characteristic behaviour of natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) which has also been observed for the antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcA-beta-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-(3,6-SO4)-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-1-->Me (3) (Hricovíni, M., Guerrini, M., Torri, G., Piani, S., and Ungarelli, F. (1995) Conformational analysis of heparin epoxide in aqueous solution. An NMR relaxation study. Carbohydr. Res., 277, 11-23). The motional properties observed for 1 and 2 provide additional support to the suitability of these compounds as heparin models in agreement with previous structural (de Paz, J.L., Angulo, J., Lassaletta, J.M., Nieto, P.M., Redondo-Horcajo, M., Lozano, R.M., Jiménez-Gallego, G., and Martín-Lomas, M. (2001) The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides. Chembiochem, 2, 673-685; Ojeda, R

  2. Dynamic properties of biologically active synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Hricovíni, Milos; Gairi, Margarida; Guerrini, Marco; de Paz, José Luis; Ojeda, Rafael; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2005-10-01

    A complete study of the dynamics of two synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides, D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (1) and -->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHAc-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (2), has been performed using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation parameters, T1, T2, and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effect (NOEs). Compound 1 is constituted from sequences corresponding to the major polysaccharide heparin region, while compound 2 contains a sequence never found in natural heparin. They differ from each other only in sulphation patterns, and are capable of stimulating fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-1 induced mitogenesis. Both oligosaccharides exhibit a remarkable anisotropic overall motion in solution as revealed by their anisotropic ratios (tau /tau||), 4.0 and 3.0 respectively. This is a characteristic behaviour of natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) which has also been observed for the antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcA-beta-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-(3,6-SO4)-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-1-->Me (3) (Hricovíni, M., Guerrini, M., Torri, G., Piani, S., and Ungarelli, F. (1995) Conformational analysis of heparin epoxide in aqueous solution. An NMR relaxation study. Carbohydr. Res., 277, 11-23). The motional properties observed for 1 and 2 provide additional support to the suitability of these compounds as heparin models in agreement with previous structural (de Paz, J.L., Angulo, J., Lassaletta, J.M., Nieto, P.M., Redondo-Horcajo, M., Lozano, R.M., Jiménez-Gallego, G., and Martín-Lomas, M. (2001) The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides. Chembiochem, 2, 673-685; Ojeda, R

  3. Synthesis of heparin-like oligosaccharides on polymer supports.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Rafael; Terentí, Olimpia; de Paz, José-Luis; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The biological functions of a variety of proteins are regulated by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In order to facilitate the elucidation of the molecular basis of glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions we have developed syntheses of heparin-like oligosaccharides on polymer supports. A completely stereoselective strategy previously developed by us for the synthesis of these oligosaccharides in solution has been extended to the solid phase using an acceptor-bound approach. Both a soluble polymer support and a polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene resin have been used and different strategies for the attachment of the acceptor to the support have been explored. The attachment of fully protected disaccharide building blocks to a soluble support through the carboxylic group of the uronic acid unit by a succinic ester linkage, the use of trichloroacetimidates as glycosylating agents and of a functionalized Merryfield type resin for the capping process allowed for the construction of hexasaccharide and octasaccharide fragments containing the structural motif of the regular region of heparin. This strategy may facilitate the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides by using the required building blocks in the glycosylation sequence. PMID:15486451

  4. Synthesis of heparin-like oligosaccharides on polymer supports.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Rafael; Terentí, Olimpia; de Paz, José-Luis; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The biological functions of a variety of proteins are regulated by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. In order to facilitate the elucidation of the molecular basis of glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions we have developed syntheses of heparin-like oligosaccharides on polymer supports. A completely stereoselective strategy previously developed by us for the synthesis of these oligosaccharides in solution has been extended to the solid phase using an acceptor-bound approach. Both a soluble polymer support and a polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene resin have been used and different strategies for the attachment of the acceptor to the support have been explored. The attachment of fully protected disaccharide building blocks to a soluble support through the carboxylic group of the uronic acid unit by a succinic ester linkage, the use of trichloroacetimidates as glycosylating agents and of a functionalized Merryfield type resin for the capping process allowed for the construction of hexasaccharide and octasaccharide fragments containing the structural motif of the regular region of heparin. This strategy may facilitate the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides by using the required building blocks in the glycosylation sequence.

  5. Synthesis and structural study of two new heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Angulo, Jesús; Nieto, Pedro M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2003-07-01

    Two new heparin-like hexasaccharides, 5 and 6, have been synthesised using a convergent block strategy and their solution conformations have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. Both hexasaccharides contain the basic structural motif of the regular region of heparin but with negative charge distributions which have been designed to get insight into the mechanism of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) activation.

  6. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  7. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  8. Synthesis and structural study of two new heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Angulo, Jesús; Nieto, Pedro M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2003-07-01

    Two new heparin-like hexasaccharides, 5 and 6, have been synthesised using a convergent block strategy and their solution conformations have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. Both hexasaccharides contain the basic structural motif of the regular region of heparin but with negative charge distributions which have been designed to get insight into the mechanism of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) activation. PMID:12945695

  9. Plasma deposited rider rings for hot displacer

    DOEpatents

    Kroebig, Helmut L.

    1976-01-01

    A hot cylinder for a cryogenic refrigerator having two plasma spray deposited rider rings of a corrosion and abrasion resistant material provided in the rider ring grooves, wherein the rider rings are machined to the desired diameter and width after deposition. The rider rings have gas flow flats machined on their outer surface.

  10. Plasma Deposition of Doped Amorphous Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calcote, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Pair of reports present further experimental details of investigation of plasma deposition of films of phosphorous-doped amosphous silicon. Probe measurements of electrical resistance of deposited films indicated films not uniform. In general, it appeared that resistance decreased with film thickness.

  11. On coating adhesion during impulse plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafal; Okrasa, Sebastian; Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Składnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The impulse plasma deposition (IPD) technique is the only method of plasma surface engineering (among plasma-based technologies) that allows a synthesis of layers upon a cold unheated substrate and which ensures a good adhesion. This paper presents a study of plasma impacts upon a copper substrate surface during the IPD process. The substrate was exposed to pulsed N2/Al plasma streams during the synthesis of AlN layers. For plasma-material interaction diagnostics, the optical emission spectroscopy method was used. Our results show that interactions of plasma lead to sputtering of the substrate material. It seems that the obtained adhesion of the layers is the result of a complex surface mechanism combined with the effects of pulsed plasma energy impacts upon the unheated substrate. An example of such a result is the value of the critical load for the Al2O3 layer, which was measured by the scratch-test method to be above 40 N.

  12. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

    1996-08-01

    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution.

  13. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hays, A.K.

    1979-07-18

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  14. Distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom: widespread occurrence of heparin-like compounds in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, G F; Mendes, A; Castro, R A; Baú, E C; Nader, H B; Dietrich, C P

    2000-07-26

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans were isolated from 23 species of 13 phyla of invertebrates and characterized by their electrophoretic migration in three different buffer systems coupled with enzymatic degradation using bacterial heparinase, heparitinases and chondroitinase AC. Heparan sulfate is a ubiquitous compound present in all species analyzed whereas chondroitin sulfate was present in 20 species and heparin-like compounds in 12 species of the invertebrates. The heparin-like compounds were purified from the echinoderm Mellita quinquisperforata (sand dollar) and the crustacean Ucides cordatus (crab) with anticoagulant activities of 60 and 52 IU/mg, respectively. Degradation of these heparins with heparinase produced significant amounts of the trisulfated disaccharide typical of mammalian heparins. This was confirmed by 13C-NMR spectroscopy of the crab heparin. An updated phylogenetic tree of the distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom is also presented. PMID:10913828

  15. ESCA characterization of heparin-like fluoropolymers obtained by functionalization after grafting induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapoz, Sylvie; Betz, Natacha; Guittet, Marie-Jo; Le Moël, Alain

    1995-11-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and the poly(hexafluoropropylene-vinylidene fluoride) (Viton) films are modified in order to produce heparin-like materials. This transformation is carried out on three steps: swift heavy ion irradiation (performed at the GANIL, Caen, France) of the polymer substrates, polystyrene (PS) grafting, functionalization of the PS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to analyze the modification of the surface chemical composition at the several steps.

  16. Angiopoietin-1 prevents severe bleeding complications induced by heparin-like drugs and fibroblast growth factor-2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jerebtsova, Marina; Das, Jharna R.; Tang, Pingtao; Wong, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill children can develop bleeding complications when treated with heparin-like drugs. These events are usually attributed to the anticoagulant activity of these drugs. However, previous studies showed that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a heparin-binding growth factor released in the circulation of these patients, could precipitate intestinal hemorrhages in mice treated with the heparin-like drug pentosan polysulfate (PPS). Yet very little is known about how FGF-2 induces bleeding complications in combination with heparin-like drugs. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which circulating FGF-2 induces intestinal hemorrhages in mice treated with PPS. We used a well-characterized mouse model of intestinal hemorrhages induced by FGF-2 plus PPS. Adult FVB/N mice were infected with adenovirus carrying Lac-Z or a secreted form of recombinant human FGF-2, and injected with PPS, at doses that do not induce bleeding complications per se. Mice treated with FGF-2 in combination with PPS developed an intestinal inflammatory reaction that increased the permeability and disrupted the integrity of submucosal intestinal vessels. These changes, together with the anticoagulant activity of PPS, induced lethal hemorrhages. Moreover, a genetically modified form of the endothelial ligand angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1*), which has powerful antipermeability and anti-inflammatory activity, prevented the lethal bleeding complications without correcting the anticoagulant status of these mice. These findings define new mechanisms through which FGF-2 and Ang-1* modulate the outcome of intestinal bleeding complications induced by PPS in mice and may have wider clinical implications for critically ill children treated with heparin-like drugs. PMID:26276817

  17. Tetrasaccharide iteration synthesis of a heparin-like dodecasaccharide and radiolabelling for in vivo tissue distribution studies

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steen U.; Miller, Gavin J.; Cole, Claire; Rushton, Graham; Avizienyte, Egle; Jayson, Gordon C.; Gardiner, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Heparin-like oligosaccharides mediate numerous important biological interactions, of which many are implicated in various diseases. Synthetic improvements are central to the development of such oligosaccharides as therapeutics and, in addition, there are no methods to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of structurally defined heparin-like oligosaccharides. Here we report an efficient two-cycle [4+4+4] tetrasaccharide-iteration-based approach for rapid chemical synthesis of a structurally defined heparin-related dodecasaccharide, combined with the incorporation of a latent aldehyde tag, unmasked in the final step of chemical synthesis, providing a generic end group for labelling/conjugation. We exploit this latent aldehyde tag for 3H radiolabelling to provide the first example of this kind of agent for monitoring in vivo tissue distribution and in vivo stability of a biologically active, structurally defined heparin related dodecasaccharide. Such studies are critical for the development of related saccharide therapeutics, and the data here establish that a biologically active, synthetic, heparin-like dodecasaccharide provides good organ distribution, and serum lifetimes relevant to developing future oligosaccharide therapeutics. PMID:23828390

  18. Effects of Ar plasma treatment for deposition of ruthenium film by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Taeyong; Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Lee, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Byung-Chul; Kim, Moo-Sung; Ahn, Heui-Bok

    2012-01-15

    Ruthenium thin films were deposited on argon plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} and untreated SiO{sub 2} substrates by remote plasma atomic layer deposition using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium [Ru(EtCp){sub 2}] as a Ru precursor and ammonia plasma as a reactant. The results of in situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicate that the initial transient region of Ru deposition was decreased by Ar plasma treatment at 400 deg. C, but did not change significantly at 300 deg. C The deposition rate exhibited linearity after continuous film formation and the deposition rates were about 1.7 A/cycle and 0.4 A/cycle at 400 deg. C and 300 deg. C, respectively. Changes of surface energy and polar and dispersive components were measured by the sessile drop test. The quantity of surface amine groups was measured from the surface nitrogen concentration with AES. Furthermore, the Ar plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} contained more amine groups and less hydroxyl groups on the surface than on untreated SiO{sub 2}. Auger spectra exhibited chemical shifts by Ru-O bonding, and larger shifts were observed on untreated substrates due to the strong adhesion of Ru films.

  19. Deposition of diamond-like films by ECR microwave plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor); Pool, Frederick S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon, diamond-like films are deposited using an electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma with a separate radio frequency power bias applied to a substrate stage. The electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma yields low deposition pressure and creates ion species otherwise unavailable. A magnetic mirror configuration extracts special ion species from a plasma chamber. Different levels of the radio frequency power bias accelerate the ion species of the ECR plasma impinging on a substrate to form different diamond-like films. During the deposition process, a sample stage is maintained at an ambient temperature of less than 100.degree. C. No external heating is applied to the sample stage. The deposition process enables diamond-like films to be deposited on heat-sensitive substrates.

  20. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  1. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  2. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV–VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  3. Surface conditioning of fusion devices plasma assisted thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.; Waelbroeck, F.; Weinhold, P.; Esser, H.G.; von Seggern, J.; Philipps, V.; Vietzke, E. )

    1990-02-05

    Conditioning of the plasma facing surfaces of a fusion device is a necessary prerequisite for the generaton of pure, hot and stable fusion plasmas. Thin layers of carbon or of boron containing carbon deposited plasmachemically on the entire inner surfaces of a tokamak have proven to be a very effective technique for wall prehandling.

  4. The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure, and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    de Paz, J L; Angulo, J; Lassaletta, J M; Nieto, P M; Redondo-Horcajo, M; Lozano, R M; Giménez-Gallego, G; Martín-Lomas, M

    2001-09-01

    An effective strategy has been designed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides of different sizes structurally related to the regular region of heparin; this is illustrated by the preparation of hexasaccharide 1 and octasaccharide 2. This synthetic strategy provides the oligosaccharide sequence containing a D-glucosamine unit at the nonreducing end that is not available either by enzymatic or chemical degradation of heparin. It may permit, after slight modifications, the preparation of oligosaccharide fragments with different charge distribution as well. NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the overall structure of 1 in solution is a stable right-hand helix with four residues per turn. Hexasaccharide 1 and, most likely, octasaccharide 2 are, therefore, chemically well-defined structural models of naturally occurring heparin-like oligosaccharides for use in binding and biological activity studies. Both compounds 1 and 2 induce the mitogenic activity of acid fibroblast growth factor (FGF1), with the half-maximum activating concentration of 2 being equivalent to that of heparin. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis with compound 2 suggests that heparin-induced FGF1 dimerization is not an absolute requirement for biological activity. PMID:11828504

  5. The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure, and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    de Paz, J L; Angulo, J; Lassaletta, J M; Nieto, P M; Redondo-Horcajo, M; Lozano, R M; Giménez-Gallego, G; Martín-Lomas, M

    2001-09-01

    An effective strategy has been designed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides of different sizes structurally related to the regular region of heparin; this is illustrated by the preparation of hexasaccharide 1 and octasaccharide 2. This synthetic strategy provides the oligosaccharide sequence containing a D-glucosamine unit at the nonreducing end that is not available either by enzymatic or chemical degradation of heparin. It may permit, after slight modifications, the preparation of oligosaccharide fragments with different charge distribution as well. NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the overall structure of 1 in solution is a stable right-hand helix with four residues per turn. Hexasaccharide 1 and, most likely, octasaccharide 2 are, therefore, chemically well-defined structural models of naturally occurring heparin-like oligosaccharides for use in binding and biological activity studies. Both compounds 1 and 2 induce the mitogenic activity of acid fibroblast growth factor (FGF1), with the half-maximum activating concentration of 2 being equivalent to that of heparin. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis with compound 2 suggests that heparin-induced FGF1 dimerization is not an absolute requirement for biological activity.

  6. Abnormal energy deposition on the wall through plasma disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G. L.

    1984-12-01

    The dissipation of plasma kinetic and magnetic energy during sawtooth oscillations and disruptions in tokamaks is analyzed using Kadomtsev's disruption model and the plasma-circuit equations. New simple scalings of several characteristic times are obtained for sawteeth and for thermal and magnetic energy quenches of disruptions. The abnormal energy deposition on the wall during major or minor disruptions, estimated from this analysis, is compared with bolometric measurements in the PDX tokamak. Especially, magnetic energy dissipation during the current termination period is shown to be reduced by the strong coupling of the plasma current with external circuits. These analyses are found to be useful to predict the phenomenological behavior of plasma disruptions in large future tokamaks, and to estimate abnormal heat deposition on the wall during plasma disruptions.

  7. Abnormal energy deposition on the wall through plasma disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G. L.

    1984-06-01

    The dissipation of plasma kinetic and magnetic energy during sawtooth oscillations and disruptions in Tokamaks is analyzed using Kadomtsev's disruption model and the plasma-circuit equations. New simple scalings of several characteristic times are obtained for sawteeth and for thermal and magnetic energy quenches of disruptions. The abnormal energy deposition on the wall during major or minor disruptions, estimated from this analysis, is compared with bolometric measurements in the PDX Tokamak. Especially, magnetic energy dissipation during the current termination period is shown to be reduced by the strong coupling of the plasma current with external circuits. These analyses are found to be useful to predict the phenomenological behavior of plasma disruptions in large future Tokamaks, and to estimate abnormal heat deposition on the wall during plasma disruptions.

  8. Synthesis of Diamond by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jan-Jue

    Diamond possesses many desirable properties, e.g. high thermal conductivity, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown voltage, high resistance to chemical and radiation damage, high transparency over a wide range of optical spectrum, and extreme hardness. Thus diamond have high potential applicability in the fields of semiconductors, optical emitting materials, optical coating materials, abrasion, and high power and high frequency devices. To extend the range of applications, large-area uniformity and low temperature growth of diamond thin films has to be achieved. Low pressure deposition is one solution to the small area and nonuniformity problems of current diamond deposition methods. By decreasing the pressure, the mean free path of electrons becomes larger and the plasma covers a larger area. Low temperature deposition gives a smaller crystalline size of diamond, and hence improves the surface morphology of deposited films. To satisfy the supersaturation condition of diamond crystallization, low temperature growth should be performed at low pressure. This study experimentally investigates optimization of diamond growth at low pressure and low temperature by comparing three deposition systems (i.e. hot filament assisted, microwave induced plasma, and electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition). The deposition system is designed to clearly show the effects of each experimental parameter on grown films. Thin diamond films were deposited on silicon substrates over a wide range of deposition parameters (e.g. CH _4 concentration 0-10%, substrate temperature 490-850^circC, total pressure 2-50 Torr, microwave power 0-1200 W). In addition, the effects of oxygen addition and substrate bias were studied. The diamond films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the plasma was characterized by optical emission spectroscopy. Crystalline diamond was successfully deposited on silicon wafers at pressures as low as 2

  9. Film synthesis on powders by cathodic arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Brown, I.G.; Ivanov, I.C.

    1995-04-01

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition was used to coat Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder (mesh size 60) with platinum. The power particles were moved during deposition using a mechanical system operating at a resonance frequency of 20 Hz. Scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron microscopy show that all particles are completely coated with a platinum film having a thickness of about 100 nm. The actual deposition time was only 20 s, thus the deposition rate was very high (5 nm/s).

  10. Deposition of Silicon-Based Dielectrics by Remote Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsu, David Vincent

    1989-03-01

    This thesis discusses the deposition of amorphous silicon-based thin-film dielectrics, including silicon dioxide (SiO_2), silicon nitride (Si_3N_4) and silicon oxynitride (SiO_{rm x}N_{rm y} ), by the remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor -deposition (Remote PECVD) technique. It is possible to deposit these films at low substrate temperatures (100 ^circC-500^ circC) without exposing the film and substrate to energetic plasma species. The oxides produced in this way have been shown to be of "gate" quality. Two issues are addressed, the atomic structure and composition of the deposited films, and the deposition mechanism. The thin films were analyzed by infrared and Auger electron spectroscopies, and the gas phase species during deposition were analyzed in a Deposition/Analysis System which includes mass spectrometry (MS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). A description of the deposition system is given as well as how this technique differs from the widely used Direct PECVD process. In the Direct process, all of the reactant gases are plasma excited and the substrate is exposed to the plasma. In the Remote process, the gases are selectively excited and the substrate is remote from the plasma region. We show that these differences in the Remote process, as compared to the Direct process, results in a significant increase in the ability to control both the film stoichiometry and the level of incorporated impurities, in particular bonded hydrogen. The Remote process is a four step process: (1) plasma excitation of a mixture of one of the reactant gases (e.g., either NH_3 or O _2, respectively, for nitrides and oxides) with He or Ar; (2) extraction of the activated species out of the plasma region into the deposition chamber; (3) mixing, or interacting, with the other reactant gas (SiH _4), which is injected into the chamber below the plasma region; and (4) deposition on a heated substrate. It had initially been proposed that in the mixing step, precursors were

  11. A high temperature, plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.M.; Britten, J.A.; Thorsness, C.B.; Scrivener, M.S.; Unites, W.G.; Campbell, J.H. ); Johnson, W.L. )

    1990-02-01

    We have designed and built a high-temperature, plasma-assisted, chemical vapor deposition system to deposit multilayer optical coatings of SiO{sub 2} and doped-SiO{sub 2} flat substrates. The coater concept and design is an outgrowth of our recent work with Schott Glasswerke demonstrating the use of plasma assisted CVD to prepare very high damage threshold optical coatings. The coater is designed to deposit up to several thousand alternating quarterwave layers of SiO{sub 2} and doped SiO{sub 2} substrate at deposition rates up to several microns per minute. The substrate is resistively heated to about 1000{degree}C during the deposition phase of the process. The plasma is driven by a 13.56 MHz RF unit capable of producing power densities of up to 140 W cm{sup {minus}3} in the reaction zone. The coater is designed to be adaptable to microwave generated plasmas, as well as RF. Reactant gas flow rates of up to 10 slm can be achieved at a 10 tar operating pressure. Reactants consist of O{sub 2}, SiCl{sub 4} and a volatile halogenated dopant. These gases react in the plasma volume producing SiO{sub 2} with dopant concentrations of up to a few percent. A variable dopant concentration is used to produce index differences between adjacent optical layers.

  12. Additive and synergistic effects of a low-molecular-weight, heparin-like molecule and low doses of cyclosporin in preventing arterial graft rejection in rats.

    PubMed

    Plissonnier, D; Amichot, G; Lecagneux, J; Duriez, M; Gentric, D; Michel, J B

    1993-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic intimal proliferation is one of the main long-term complications of organ transplantation. Low-molecular-weight, heparin-like molecules prevent myointimal proliferation in arterial wall injury and limit rejection in skin allografts. Cyclosporin limits rejection but has no major effect on intimal proliferation. Therefore, an experimental protocol was designed to test whether heparin-like molecules interacted with low doses of cyclosporin to prevent arterial wall immune system injury and response in a model of arterial graft rejection in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Aortic allografts were performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive control rats. Four groups of 10 allografted (SHR and WKY) rats were used: one group was treated with placebo, one with low doses of cyclosporin (2 mg/kg body wt per day), one with low-molecular-weight, heparin-like molecule (1 mg/kg body wt per hour), and one with low doses of cyclosporin plus low-molecular-weight, heparin-like molecule. Ten SHRs and 10 WKYs were isografted and served as the control groups. All rats were killed 8 weeks after aortic grafting. Structural parameters of the grafted segment were measured by morphometric analysis on formalin-fixed sections with specific stains. The classical signs of immune system injury and response were present in the untreated allografts in SHRs and WKYs: inflammatory infiltration of the adventitia, medial injury, and intimal proliferative response. Low doses of cyclosporin had a significant beneficial effect on immune medial injury by increasing medial thickness and the number of remaining smooth muscle cells and decreasing the extracellular matrix injury. Cyclosporin had no protective effect on intimal proliferation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Basic fibroblast growth factor binds to subendothelial extracellular matrix and is released by heparitinase and heparin-like molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkin, P.; Doctrow, S.; Klagsbrun, M.; Svahn, C.M.; Folkman, J.; Vlodavsky, I. )

    1989-02-21

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits specific binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured endothelial cells. Binding was saturable as a function both of time and of concentration of {sup 125}I-bFGF. Scatchard analysis of FGF binding revealed the presence of about 1.5 x 10{sup 12} binding sites/mm{sup 2} ECM with an apparent k{sub D} of 610 nM. FGF binds to heparan sulfate (HS) in ECM as evidenced by (i) inhibition of binding in the presence of heparin or HS at 0.1-1 {mu}g/mL, but not by chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid at 10 {mu}g/mL, (ii) lack of binding to ECM pretreated with heparitinase, but not with chondroitinase ABC, and (iii) rapid release of up to 90% of ECM-bound FGF by exposure to heparin, HS, or heparitinase, but not to chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, or chondroitinase ABC. Oligosaccharides derived from depolymerized heparin, and as small as the tetrasaccharide, released the ECM-bound FGF, but there was little or no release of FGF by modified nonanticoagulant heparins such as totally desulfated heparin, N-desulfated heparin, and N-acetylated heparin. FGF released from ECM was biologically active, as indicated by its stimulation of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells and 3T3 fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained in studies on release of endogenous FGF-like mitogenic activity from Descement's membranes of bovine corneas. It is suggested that ECM storage and release of bFGF provide a novel mechanism for regulation of capillary blood vessel growth. Whereas ECM-bound FGF may be prevented from acting on endothelial cells, its displacement by heparin-like molecules and/or HS-degrading enzymes may elicit a neovascular response.

  14. Effect of the substituents of the neighboring ring in the conformational equilibrium of iduronate in heparin-like trisaccharides.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-García, Juan Carlos; López-Prados, Javier; Angulo, Jesús; Díaz-Contreras, Irene; Reichardt, Niels; de Paz, José L; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2012-12-14

    Based on the structure of the regular heparin, we have prepared a smart library of heparin-like trisaccharides by incorporating some sulfate groups in the sequence α-D-GlcNS- (1-4)-α-L-Ido2S-(1-4)-α-D-GlcN. According to the 3D structure of heparin, which features one helix turn every four residues, this fragment corresponds to the minimum binding motif. We have performed a complete NMR study and found that the trisaccharides have a similar 3D structure to regular heparin itself, but their spectral properties are such that allow to extract very detailed information about distances and coupling constants as they are isotropic molecules. The characteristic conformational equilibrium of the central iduronate ring has been analyzed combining NMR and molecular dynamics and the populations of the conformers of the central iduronate ring have been calculated. We have found that in those compounds lacking the sulfate group at position 6 of the reducing end glucosamine, the population of (2)S(0) of the central iduronate residue is sensitive to the temperature decreasing to 19% at 278 K. On the contrary, the trisaccharides with 6-O-sulfate in the reducing end glucosamine keep the level of population constant with temperature circa 40% of (2)S(0) similar to that observed at room temperature. Another structural feature that has been revealed through this analysis is the larger flexibility of the L-IdoAS- D-GlcN glycosidic linkage, compared with the D-GlcNS-L-IdoA. We propose that this is the point where the heparin chain is bended to form structures far from the regular helix known as kink that have been proposed to play an important role in the specificity of the heparin-protein interaction.

  15. Laser/Plasma/Chemical-Vapor Deposition Of Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, George C.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed process for deposition of diamond films includes combination of plasma induced in hydrocarbon feed gas by microwave radiation and irradiation of plasma and substrate by lasers. Deposition of graphite suppressed. Reaction chamber irradiated at wavelength favoring polymerization of CH2 radical into powders filtered out of gas. CH3 radicals, having desired sp3 configuration, remains in gas to serve as precursors for deposition. Feed gas selected to favor formation of CH3 radicals; candidates include CH4, C2H4, C2H2, and C2H6. Plasma produced by applying sufficient power at frequency of 2.45 GHz and adjusting density of gas to obtain electron kinetic energies around 100 eV in low-pressure, low-temperature regime.

  16. Plasma deposited silicon nitride for indium phosphide encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valco, G. J.; Kapoor, V. J.; Biedenbender, M. D.; Williams, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    The composition and the annealing characteristics of plasma-deposited silicon-nitride encapsulating films on the ion-implanted InP substrates were investigated, using two different substrate-cleaning procedures (organic solvents and HF or HIO3 solutions) prior to encapsulation. The effect of plasma deposition of silicon nitride on the InP substrates was assessed through the current-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes. Results of XPS analyses showed that the cleaning procedure that employed HF solution left less oxygen on the InP surface than the procedure involving HIO3. No chemical interaction between the film and the substrate was observed before or after annealing.

  17. Modeling of Erosion and Deposition on Plasma Facing Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ohya, K.

    2010-05-20

    The unavoidable contact of plasmas with surrounding walls results in plasma-surface interactions (PSIs) that are strongly interlinked and cannot be studied separately. Computer modeling has become increasingly important in understanding mechanisms of PSIs in present devices, ITER and beyond. Modeling of erosion and deposition requires self-consistent calculations of (1) erosion of the wall surface, (2) transport of eroded impurities in the plasma above the surface, (3) redeposition of returning impurities on the surface and (4) resultant material mixing below the surface. In addition, it is necessary to use exact rate coefficients for collision reactions in the plasma and related data for the surface reactions on plasma-facing walls. This chapter describes modeling codes in terms of such PSI issues and the physical and chemical bases of the interactions.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Aaron; Bett, Dominic; Cunningham, Monisha; Sen, Sudip

    2015-04-01

    Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) is a process used to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapor) to a solid state on a substrate. Recent study from the X-ray diffraction spectra of SnO2 films deposited as a function of RF power apparently indicates that RF power is playing a stabilizing role and hence in the better deposition. The results show that the RF power results in smoother morphology, improved crystallinity, and lower sheet resistance value in the PECVD process. The PECVD processing allows deposition at lower temperatures, which is often critical in the manufacture of semiconductors. In this talk we will address two aspects of the problem, first to develop a model to study the mechanism of how the PECVD is effected by the RF power, and second to actually simulate the effect of RF power on PECVD. As the PECVD is a very important component of the plasma processing technology with many applications in the semiconductor technology and surface science, the research proposed here has the prospect to revolutionize the plasma processing technology through the stabilizing role of the RF power.

  19. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  20. Plasma deposition of polymer composite films incorporating nanocellulose whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samyn, P.; Airoudj, A.; Laborie, M.-P.; Mathew, A. P.; Roucoules, V.

    2011-11-01

    In a trend for sustainable engineering and functionalization of surfaces, we explore the possibilities of gas phase processes to deposit nanocomposite films. From an analysis of pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride in the presence of nanocellulose whiskers, it seems that thin nanocomposite films can be deposited with various patterns. By specifically modifying plasma parameters such as total power, duty cycle, and monomer gas pressure, the nanocellulose whiskers are either incorporated into a buckled polymer film or single nanocellulose whiskers are deposited on top of a polymeric film. The density of the latter can be controlled by modifying the exact positioning of the substrate in the reactor. The resulting morphologies are evaluated by optical microscopy, AFM, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry.

  1. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    SciTech Connect

    XIANGYANG,JIANG; MATEJICEK,JIRI; KULKARNI,ANAND; HERMAN,HERBERT; SAMPATH,SANJAY; GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A

    2000-03-28

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development.

  2. Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-02-28

    Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

  3. Enhanced surface functionality via plasma modification and plasma deposition techniques to create more biologically relevant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Jeffrey C.

    Functionalizing nanoparticles and other unusually shaped substrates to create more biologically relevant materials has become central to a wide range of research programs. One of the primary challenges in this field is creating highly functionalized surfaces without modifying the underlying bulk material. Traditional wet chemistry techniques utilize thin film depositions to functionalize nanomaterials with oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, such as --OH and --NHx. These functional groups can serve to create surfaces that are amenable to cell adhesion or can act as reactive groups for further attachment of larger structures, such as macromolecules or antiviral agents. Additional layers, such as SiO2, are often added between the nanomaterial and the functionalized coating to act as a barrier films, adhesion layers, and to increase overall hydrophilicity. However, some wet chemistry techniques can damage the bulk material during processing. This dissertation examines the use of plasma processing as an alternative method for producing these highly functionalized surfaces on nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds through the use of plasma modification and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Specifically, this dissertation will focus on (1) plasma deposition of SiO2 barrier films on nanoparticle substrates; (2) surface functionalization of amine and alcohol groups through (a) plasma co-polymerization and (b) plasma modification; and (3) the design and construction of plasma hardware to facilitate plasma processing of nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds. The body of work presented herein first examines the fabrication of composite nanoparticles by plasma processing. SiOxC y and hexylamine films were coated onto TiO2 nanoparticles to demonstrate enhanced water dispersion properties. Continuous wave and pulsed allyl alcohol plasmas were used to produce highly functionalized Fe2 O3 supported nanoparticles. Specifically, film composition was

  4. Caracterisation of Titanium Nitride Layers Deposited by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Popescu, Mihaela; Uţu, Dragoş

    2011-01-01

    Forming and cutting tools are subjected to the intense wear solicitations. Usually, they are either subject to superficial heat treatments or are covered with various materials with high mechanical properties. In recent years, thermal spraying is used increasingly in engineering area because of the large range of materials that can be used for the coatings. Titanium nitride is a ceramic material with high hardness which is used to cover the cutting tools increasing their lifetime. The paper presents the results obtained after deposition of titanium nitride layers by reactive plasma spraying (RPS). As deposition material was used titanium powder and as substratum was used titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) images of the deposited layers and the X ray diffraction of the coatings are presented. Demonstration program with layers deposited with thickness between 68,5 and 81,4 μm has been achieved and presented.

  5. Very high frequency plasma reactant for atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Il-Kwon; Yoo, Gilsang; Yoon, Chang Mo; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kangsik; Lee, Zonghoon; Jung, Hanearl; Lee, Chang Wan; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram

    2016-11-01

    Although plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) results in several benefits in the formation of high-k dielectrics, including a low processing temperature and improved film properties compared to conventional thermal ALD, energetic radicals and ions in the plasma cause damage to layer stacks, leading to the deterioration of electrical properties. In this study, the growth characteristics and film properties of PE-ALD Al2O3 were investigated using a very-high-frequency (VHF) plasma reactant. Because VHF plasma features a lower electron temperature and higher plasma density than conventional radio frequency (RF) plasma, it has a larger number of less energetic reaction species, such as radicals and ions. VHF PE-ALD Al2O3 shows superior physical and electrical properties over RF PE-ALD Al2O3, including high growth per cycle, excellent conformality, low roughness, high dielectric constant, low leakage current, and low interface trap density. In addition, interlayer-free Al2O3 on Si was achieved in VHF PE-ALD via a significant reduction in plasma damage. VHF PE-ALD will be an essential process to realize nanoscale devices that require precise control of interfaces and electrical properties.

  6. Deposition of nanocrystalline SiC films using helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wanbing; Yu, Wei; Ma, Luo; Wu, Liping; Fu, Guangsheng

    2008-11-01

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline SiC films have been deposited by using helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HW-PECVD) in H2, SiH4 and CH4 gas mixtures at different RF powers. Their structural and optical properties have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) transmission spectra. The results indicate that RF power has an important influence on properties of the deposited films. It is found that in a 300 °C low substrate temperature, only amorphous SiC can be deposited at the radio frequency (RF) power of lower than 400 W, while nanocrystalline SiC can be grown at the RF power of equal to or higher than 400 W. The analyses show that the high plasma density of helicon wave plasma source and the high hydrogen dilution condition are two key factors for depositing nanocrystalline SiC films at a low temperature.

  7. Synthesis and Deposition of Nanoparticles Using a Hypersonically Expanded Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hafiz, Jami; Wang Xiaoliang; Mukherjee, Rajesh; McMurry, Peter H.; Heberlein, Joachim V.R.; Girshick, Steven L.

    2005-10-31

    Si-Ti-N nanostructured coatings were synthesized by inertial impaction of nanoparticles using a process called hypersonic plasma particle deposition (HPPD). Transmission electron microscopy on samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling show TiN nanocrystallites in an amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the presence of amorphous Si3N4 in similar films. In-situ particle size distribution measurements show that particle size distributions peak around 14 nm under typical operating conditions.

  8. Plasma deposition and surface modification techniques for wear resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1982-01-01

    The ion-assisted or plasma coating technology is discussed as it applies to the deposition of hard, wear resistant refractory compound films. Of the many sputtering and ion plating modes and configurations the reactive magnetron sputtering and the reactive triode ion plating techniques are the preferred ones to deposit wear resistant coatings for tribological applications. Both of these techniques incorporate additional means to enhance the ionization efficiency and chemical reaction to precision tailor desirable tribological characteristics. Interrelationships between film formation, structure, and ribological properties are strictly controlled by the deposition parameters and the substrate condition. The enhanced ionization contributes to the excellent adherence and coherence, reduced internal stresses and improved structural growth to form dense, cohesive, equiaxed grain structure for improved wear resistance and control.

  9. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  10. Stress control of silicon nitride films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-ling; Feng, Xiao-fei; Wen, Zhi-yu; Shang, Zheng-guo; She, Yin

    2016-07-01

    Stress controllable silicon nitride (SiNx) films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are reported. Low stress SiNx films were deposited in both high frequency (HF) mode and dual frequency (HF/LF) mode. By optimizing process parameters, stress free (-0.27 MPa) SiNx films were obtained with the deposition rate of 45.5 nm/min and the refractive index of 2.06. Furthermore, at HF/LF mode, the stress is significantly influenced by LF ratio and LF power, and can be controlled to be 10 MPa with the LF ratio of 17% and LF power of 150 W. However, LF power has a little effect on the deposition rate due to the interaction between HF power and LF power. The deposited SiNx films have good mechanical and optical properties, low deposition temperature and controllable stress, and can be widely used in integrated circuit (IC), micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and bio-MEMS.

  11. Diagnostic for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Etch Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's requirements for the rapid development and validation of future generation electronic devices as well as associated materials and processes, enabling technologies ion the processing of semiconductor materials arising from understanding etch chemistries are being developed through a research collaboration between Stanford University and NASA-Ames Research Center, Although a great deal of laboratory-scale research has been performed on many of materials processing plasmas, little is known about the gas-phase and surface chemical reactions that are critical in many etch and deposition processes, and how these reactions are influenced by the variation in operating conditions. In addition, many plasma-based processes suffer from stability and reliability problems leading to a compromise in performance and a potentially increased cost for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Such a lack of understanding has hindered the development of process models that can aid in the scaling and improvement of plasma etch and deposition systems. The research described involves the study of plasmas used in semiconductor processes. An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source in place of the standard upper electrode assembly of the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) radio-frequency (RF) Reference Cell is used to investigate the discharge characteristics and chemistries. This ICP source generates plasmas with higher electron densities (approximately 10(exp 12)/cu cm) and lower operating pressures (approximately 7 mTorr) than obtainable with the original parallel-plate version of the GEC Cell. This expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma systems being used by the microelectronics industry. The motivation for this study is to develop an understanding of the physical phenomena involved in plasma processing and to measure much needed fundamental parameters, such as gas-phase and surface reaction rates. species

  12. Diverse Amorphous Carbonaceous Thin Films Obtained by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, R. M.; Turri, R.; Rangel, E. C.; da Cruz, N. C.; Schreiner, W.; Davanzo, C. U.; Durrant, S. F.

    Diverse amorphous hydrogenated carbon and similar films containing additional elements were produced by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (PIIID). Thus a-C:H, a-C:H:F, a-C:H:N, a-C:H:Cl and a-C:H:O:Si were obtained, starting from the same feed gases, using both techniques. The same deposition system supplied with radiofrequency (RF) power was used to produce all the films. A cylindrical stainless steel chamber equipped with circular electrodes mounted horizontally was employed. RF power was fed to the upper electrode; substrates were placed on the lower electrode. For PIIID negative high tension pulses were also applied to the lower electrode. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that all the films are amorphous. Chemical characterization of each pair of films was undertaken using Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The former revealed the presence of specific structures, such as C-H, C-O, O-H. The latter allowed calculation of the ratio of hetero-atoms to carbon atoms in the films, e.g. F:C, N:C, and Si:C. Only relatively small differences in elemental composition were detected between films produced by the two methods. The deposition rate in PIIID is generally reduced in relation to that of PECVD; for a-C:H:Cl films the reduction factor is almost four.

  13. Initial reaction of hafnium oxide deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Youngdo; Park, Sangwook; Koo, Jaehyoung; Kim, Seokhoon; Kim, Jinwoo; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2005-12-26

    A remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) method has been applied to grow a hafnium oxide thin film on the Si substrate. The deposition process was monitored by in situ XPS and the as-deposited structure and chemical bonding were examined by TEM and XPS. The in situ XPS measurement showed the presence of a hafnium silicate phase at the initial stage of the RPALD process up to the 20th cycle and indicated that no hafnium silicide was formed. The initial hafnium silicate was amorphous and grew to a thickness of approximately 2 nm. Based on these results and model reactions for silicate formation, we proposed an initial growth mechanism that includes adatom migration at nascent step edges. Density functional theory calculations on model compounds indicate that the hafnium silicate is thermodynamically favored over the hafnium silicide by as much as 250 kJ/mol.

  14. Radio-frequency plasma chemical vapor deposition growth of diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Duane E.; Dillon, Rodney O.; Woollam, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 13.56 MHz has been used to produce diamond particles in two different inductively coupled systems with a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The effect of a diamondlike carbon (DLC) overcoating on silicon, niobium, and stainless-steel substrates has been investigated and in the case of silicon has been found to enhance particle formation as compared to uncoated polished silicon. In addition the use of carbon monoxide in hydrogen has been found to produce well-defined individual faceted particles as well as polycrystalline films on quartz and DLC coated silicon substrates. Plasma CVD is a competitive approach to production of diamond films. It has the advantage over microwave systems of being easily scaled to large volume and high power.

  15. Magnetically controlled deposition of metals using gas plasma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-02

    This is the first phase of a project that has the objective to develop a method of spraying materials on a substrate in a controlled manner to eliminate the waste and hazardous material generation inherent in present plating processes. The project is considering plasma spraying of metal on a substrate using magneto-hydrodynamics to control the plasma/metal stream. The process being developed is considering the use of commercially available plasma torches to generate the plasma/metal stream. The plasma stream is collimated, and directed using magnetic forces to the extent required for precise control of the deposition material. The project will be completed in phases. Phase one of the project, the subject of this grant, is the development of an analytical model that can be used to determine the feasibility of the process and to design a laboratory scale demonstration unit. The contracted time is complete, and the research is still continuing. This report provides the results obtained to date. As the model and calculations are completed those results will also be provided. This report contains the results of the computer code that have been completed to date. Results from a ASMEE Benchmark problem, flow over a backward step with heat transfer, Couette flow with magnetic forces, free jet flow are presented along with several other check calculations that are representative of the cases that were calculated in the course of the development process. The final cases that define a velocity field in the exit of a plasma spray torch with and without a magnetic field are in process. A separate program (SPRAY) has been developed that can track the plating material to the substrate and describe the distribution of the material on the substrate. When the jet calculations are complete SPRAY will be used to compare the distribution of material on the substrate with and without the effect of the magnetic focus.

  16. Effects of Plasma Treatment on Carbon Nanowalls Grown by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Ho; Kang, Hyunil; Choi, Won Seok; Joung, Yeun-Ho; Choi, Young-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effects of post-plasma treatment on synthesized carbon nanowalls (CNWs) grown with a microwave were investigated. CNWs were synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), employing a mixture of CH4 and H2 gases. The plasma treatment was done in different plasma environments (O2 and H2) but under the same condition of synthesized CNWs. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze the effects of the post-plasma treatment on the synthesized CNWs. After the H2 post-plasma treatment, no significant changes in the appearance and characteristics of the CNWs were observed. After the O2 post-plasma treatment, on the other hand, the CNWs were etched at a rate of 18.05 nm/sec. The Raman analysis confirmed, however, that the structural changes in the CNWs caused by the O2 post-plasma treatment were insignificant. PMID:27483917

  17. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of multiwalled carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Kristopher; Cruden, Brett A.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.; Delzeit, Lance

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is used to grow vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanofibers (MWNFs). The graphite basal planes in these nanofibers are not parallel as in nanotubes; instead they exhibit a small angle resembling a stacked cone arrangement. A parametric study with varying process parameters such as growth temperature, feedstock composition, and substrate power has been conducted, and these parameters are found to influence the growth rate, diameter, and morphology. The well-aligned MWNFs are suitable for fabricating electrode systems in sensor and device development.

  18. Formation of carbon deposits from coal in an arc plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, K.

    2007-07-01

    The issue of deposited carbon (DC) on a reactor wall during the production of acetylene by the coal/arc plasma process is a potential obstacle for the industrialization process. The formation mechanism of DC is very difficult to reveal because the high complexity of coal and the volatile matter. Combining with quenching technique, the methane, liquid petroleum gas and benzene were employed as the model materials to roughly act as the light gas, chain and aromatic subcomponents of volatile matter, and then the reasonable formation mechanism of DC was subtly speculated accordingly.

  19. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured ZnO coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tummala, Raghavender; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, Pravansu S.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The solution precursor route employed is an inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale coatings at fast rates on mass scale production. {yields} It is highly capable of developing tailorable nanostructures. {yields} This technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. {yields} The ZnO coatings developed via solution precursor plasma spray process have good electrical conductivity and reflectivity properties in spite of possessing large amount of particulate boundaries, porosity and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material that has various applications including optical, electronic, biomedical and corrosion protection. It is usually synthesized via processing routes, such as vapor deposition techniques, sol-gel, spray pyrolysis and thermal spray of pre-synthesized ZnO powders. Cheaper and faster synthesis techniques are of technological importance due to increased demand in alternative energy applications. Here, we report synthesis of nanostructured ZnO coatings directly from a solution precursor in a single step using plasma spray technique. Nanostructured ZnO coatings were deposited from the solution precursor prepared using zinc acetate and water/isopropanol. An axial liquid atomizer was employed in a DC plasma spray torch to create fine droplets of precursor for faster thermal treatment in the plasma plume to form ZnO. Microstructures of coatings revealed ultrafine particulate agglomerates. X-ray diffraction confirmed polycrystalline nature and hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure of the coatings. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed fine grains in the range of 10-40 nm. Observed optical transmittance ({approx}65-80%) and reflectivity ({approx}65-70%) in the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity (48.5-50.1 m{Omega} cm) of ZnO coatings are attributed to ultrafine particulate morphology of the coatings.

  20. The application of pulse modulated plasma to the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yu

    This dissertation work applied the pulse modulated plasma to the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of two types of dielectric materials: SiO2-like coatings and Teflon-like coatings. SiO2-like coatings were firstly implemented with continuous plasma. It was proven that three different precursors: hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), 1, 3, 5, 7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) can be used to generate hard, clear and high density SiO2 deposition with coupled high growth rate and low processing temperature via PECVD. Under similar conditions, HMDSO has the lowest growth rate, lowest hardness and highest carbon content; TMCTS has the highest growth rate and hardness, and lowest carbon content; and OMCTS has moderate rates of these deposition qualities, but the best corrosion resistance. Substrate bias seems to have no effect on any deposition quality. High chamber pressure can significantly lower the carbon content in the thin films but does not affect any other qualities; the O2/precursor ratio is the most influential factor among all variables considered in this experiment. The deposition hardness and O:Si ratio always increase with this ratio while the carbon content always decreases. However, different precursors require different optimal ratios to achieve the highest growth rate. Pulse modulation was introduced into PECVD of SiO2-like coatings and OMCTS was selected as the precursor. It was demonstrated that pulse frequency, duty ratio and peak power have significant effects on deposition qualities. The proper combination of the pulse parameters and other traditional plasma parameters can significantly lower the processing temperature while retaining or even improving other deposition qualities, such as growth rate, corrosion resistance and elemental composition. Hardness is the only sacrifice of the lower time-average power caused by pulsing. Therefore, pulse modulation can effectively expand the possible

  1. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  2. Effects of Deposition Plasma Power on Properties of Low Dielectric-Constant Plasma Polymer Films Deposited Using Hexamethyldisiloxane and 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butene Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Woo, Jihyung; Nam, Eunkyoung; Jung, Donggeun; Yang, Jaeyoung; Chae, Heeyeop; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the effects of deposition plasma power on the properties of plasma polymer films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene as the precursor, which are referred to as plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane:3,3-dimethyl-1-butene (PPHMDSO:DMB) films. As the deposition plasma power was increased from 15 to 60 W, the relative dielectric constants k of PPHMDSO:DMB films, increased from 2.67 to 3.19. After annealing at 450 °C, the films deposited at a deposition plasma power of 15-60 W showed k values of 2.27-2.64. With increased deposition plasma power, the as-deposited and annealed films showed increased values of hardness and Young's modulus. For as-deposited films, deposited at a plasma power of 15-60 W, the films showed a hardness of 0.13-2.0 GPa, and a modulus of 2.25-17.27 GPa. Annealed films, deposited at a plasma power of 15-60 W, showed a hardness of 0.05-2.07 GPa and a modulus of 1.66-14.4 GPa. The change in the k value and hardness of plasma polymer films as a function of deposition plasma power was correlated with fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption peaks of C-Hx, Si-CH3, and Si-O related groups. The as-deposited and annealed PPHMDSO:DMB films showed decreased intensities of C-Hx and Si-CH3 peaks as the deposition plasma power increased. The reduction in the dielectric constant after annealing is mainly due to hydrocarbon removal in the film. Deconvolution of Si-CH3 bending peaks of PPHMDSO:DMB films was performed to relate mechanical properties to chemical structures. The relative oxygen content in the O-Si-(CH3)x structure is analyzed in detail. Improvements in hardness and modulus of our films are attributed to an increased amount of O3Si-(CH3) in the Si-CH3 structure.

  3. Management of anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with allergy to heparin and heparin-like compounds: a case-report.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, Séverine; Watremez, Christine; Vigneault, Louise; Eeckhoudt, Stéphane; Pirson, Françoise; Hermans, Cédric

    2014-12-01

    Hypersensitivity to heparin and heparin-like compounds is a rare condition that represents therapeutic challenges for patients requiring a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We here report the case of a woman with a combined allergy to heparins (fractionated and unfractionated), danaparoid and fondaparinux. She underwent a mitral valve replacement under CBP using lepirudin for systemic anticoagulation. The use of lepirudin instead of unfractionated heparin (UFH) in this setting has many important implications. Lepirudin therapeutic index is narrow and so, overdosing can lead to catastrophic bleeding, whereas underdosing can result in clotting in the CPB tubing. Monitoring of lepirudin activity is essential. The usual activated clotting time monitoring is not a reliable method to monitor anticoagulation with lepirudin in the operating theater. Our experience suggests that the diluted thrombin time provides a valuable alternative during CPB. PMID:25004020

  4. Selective Plasma Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films on SAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, Mark M., III; Walsh, Kevin M.; Cohn, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    A dry plasma process has been demonstrated to be useful for the selective modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates. These SAMs are used, during the fabrication of semiconductor electronic devices, as etch masks on gold layers that are destined to be patterned and incorporated into the devices. The selective modification involves the formation of fluorocarbon films that render the SAMs more effective in protecting the masked areas of the gold against etching by a potassium iodide (KI) solution. This modification can be utilized, not only in the fabrication of single electronic devices but also in the fabrication of integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, and circuit boards. In the steps that precede the dry plasma process, a silicon mold in the desired pattern is fabricated by standard photolithographic techniques. A stamp is then made by casting polydimethylsiloxane (commonly known as silicone rubber) in the mold. The stamp is coated with an alkanethiol solution, then the stamp is pressed on the gold layer of a device to be fabricated in order to deposit the alkanethiol to form an alkanethiolate SAM in the desired pattern (see figure). Next, the workpiece is exposed to a radio-frequency plasma generated from a mixture of CF4 and H2 gases. After this plasma treatment, the SAM is found to be modified, while the exposed areas of gold remain unchanged. This dry plasma process offers the potential for forming masks superior to those formed in a prior wet etching process. Among the advantages over the wet etching process are greater selectivity, fewer pin holes in the masks, and less nonuniformity of the masks. The fluorocarbon films formed in this way may also be useful as intermediate layers for subsequent fabrication steps and as dielectric layers to be incorporated into finished products.

  5. Friction and wear of plasma-deposited diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1993-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding friction experiments in humid air and in dry nitrogen and unidirectional sliding friction experiments in ultrahigh vacuum were conducted with a natural diamond pin in contact with microwave-plasma-deposited diamond films. Diamond films with a surface roughness (R rms) ranging from 15 to 160 nm were produced by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In humid air and in dry nitrogen, abrasion occurred when the diamond pin made grooves in the surfaces of diamond films, and thus the initial coefficients of friction increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. In vacuum the friction for diamond films contacting a diamond pin arose primarily from adhesion between the sliding surfaces. In these cases, the initial and equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were 0.02 to 0.04 in humid air and in dry nitrogen, but 1.5 to 1.8 in vacuum. The wear factor of the diamond films depended on the initial surface roughness, regardless of environment; it increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The wear factors were considerably higher in vacuum than in humid air and in dry nitrogen.

  6. High-density plasma deposition manufacturing productivity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmer, Leonard J.; Hudson, Chris P.

    1999-09-01

    High Density Plasma (HDP) deposition provides a means to deposit high quality dielectrics meeting submicron gap fill requirements. But, compared to traditional PECVD processing, HDP is relatively expensive due to the higher capital cost of the equipment. In order to keep processing costs low, it became necessary to maximize the wafer throughput of HDP processing without degrading the film properties. The approach taken was to optimize the post deposition microwave in-situ clean efficiency. A regression model, based on actual data, indicated that number of wafers processed before a chamber clean was the dominant factor. Furthermore, a design change in the ceramic hardware, surrounding the electrostatic chuck, provided thermal isolation resulting in an enhanced clean rate of the chamber process kit. An infra-red detector located in the chamber exhaust line provided a means to endpoint the clean and in-film particle data confirmed the infra-red results. The combination of increased chamber clean frequency, optimized clean time and improved process.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes/Nanofibers by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teo, K. B. K.; Hash, D. B.; Bell, M. S.; Chhowalla, M.; Cruden, B. A.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.; Meyyappan, M.; Milne, W. I.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has been recently used for the production of vertically aligned carbon nanotubedfibers (CN) directly on substrates. These structures are potentially important technologically as electron field emitters (e.g. microguns, microwave amplifiers, displays), nanoelectrodes for sensors, filter media, superhydrophobic surfaces and thermal interface materials for microelectronics. A parametric study on the growth of CN grown by glow discharge dc-PECVD is presented. In this technique, a substrate containing thin film Ni catalyst is exposed to C2H2 and NH3 gases at 700 C. Without plasma, this process is essentially thermal CVD which produces curly spaghetti-like CN as seen in Fig. 1 (a). With the plasma generated by biasing the substrate at -6OOV, we observed that the CN align vertically during growth as shown in Fig. l(b), and that the magnitude of the applied substrate bias affects the degree of alignment. The thickness of the thin film Ni catalyst was found to determine the average diameter and inversely the length of the CN. The yield and density of the CN were controlled by the use of different diffusion barrier materials under the Ni catalyst. Patterned CN growth [Fig. l(c)], with la variation in CN diameter of 4.1% and 6.3% respectively, is achieved by lithographically defining the Ni thin film prior to growth. The shape of the structures could be varied from very straight nanotube-like to conical tip-like nanofibers by increasing the ratio of C2H2 in the gas flow. Due to the plasma decomposition of C2H2, amorphous carbon (a-C) is an undesirable byproduct which could coat the substrate during CN growth. Using a combination of depth profiled Auger electron spectroscopy to study the substrate and in-situ mass spectroscopy to examine gas phase neutrals and ions, the optimal conditions for a-C free growth of CN is determined.

  8. Mathematical modeling of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings-switched electrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Pustovalov, AS

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of simulation of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings in modulating the electrical parameters. Mathematical models are based on physical models of gas-dynamic mechanisms more dynamic and thermal processes of the plasma jet. As an example the modeling of dynamic processes of heterogeneous plasma jet, modulated current pulses indirect arc plasma torch.

  9. Coaxial carbon plasma gun deposition of amorphous carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, D. M.; Gulino, D. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique plasma gun employing coaxial carbon electrodes was used in an attempt to deposit thin films of amorphous diamond-like carbon. A number of different structural, compositional, and electrical characterization techniques were used to characterize these films. These included scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and absorption, spectrographic analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were also performed. The films were determined to be primarily amorphous, with poor adhesion to fused silica substrates. Many inclusions of particulates were found to be present as well. Analysis of these particulates revealed the presence of trace impurities, such as Fe and Cu, which were also found in the graphite electrode material. The electrodes were the source of these impurities. No evidence of diamond-like crystallite structure was found in any of the film samples. Details of the apparatus, experimental procedure, and film characteristics are presented.

  10. Modulated plasma deposition of super hydrophobic fluorinated coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favia, Pietro

    2002-10-01

    Modulated (pulsed) RF glow discharges fed with unsaturated fluorocarbons originate often films with superior characteristics and remarkable monomer structure retention degree. Properties such as low dielectric constant, low friction coefficient, high flexibility and high hydrophobic character can be granted by such coatings, as well as applications in textiles, packaging, biomaterials, microelectronics and other fields [1-4]. Albeit the surface chemistry of fluorinated films has been extensively analysed, very few works deal with the investigation of the plasma phase and of the material morphology and crystalline. We present our last results on the plasma deposition of coatings from modulated glow discharges fed with tetrafluoroethylene. Period and Duty Cycle (DC) have been changed in the range 20-200 ms and 2-100%, respectively. Chemical composition and structure of the coatings were determined by means of XPS, SIMS, FT-IR and XRD measurements; SEM and AFM allowed morphological investigations. The diagnostics of the gas phase was carried out by time resolved (TR) OES [5] and by IR-AS diagnostics [6]. At low DC (< 10%) a unique morphology is observed at the surface of the films, in form of ribbon-like features many microns long and hundreds of nanometers wide, whose surface density increases at lower DC values. XPS has been used to determine the surface fluorine to carbon ratio of the coatings; best-fitting procedures of the C1s signals have been also carried out. XPS and SIMS results show a high F/C ratio and a chemical structure close to conventional PTFE for samples with ribbon-like features. Due to the combined presence of structures and high fluorination degree, structured surfaces revealed very high hydrophobic character (Water Contact Angle > 150^o). XRD patterns of the structured coatings exhibited a diffraction peak at 2Θ = 18^o, characteristic of crystalline PTFE [4, 6]; this finding, and the presence of the structures, open questions about the

  11. Dielectric properties of 'diamondlike' carbon prepared by RF plasma deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, J. D.; Woollam, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Metal-carbon-metal structures were fabricated using either gold or aluminum evaporated electrodes and RF plasma (methane) deposited 'diamondlike' carbon films. Alternating-current conductance and capacitance versus voltage and frequency (10 Hz to 13 MHz) data were taken to determine the dielectric properties of these films. Conductance versus frequency data fit a generalized power law, consistent with both dc and hopping conduction components. The capacitance versus frequency data are well matched to the conductance versus frequency data, as predicted by a Kramers-Kronig analysis. The dielectric loss tangent is nearly constant at 0.5 to 1.0 percent over the frequency range from 1 to 100 kHz. The dc resistivity is above 10 to the 13th ohm cm, and the dc breakdown strength is above 8 x 10 to the 6th V/cm is properly prepared samples.

  12. Deposition of SiOx layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for the protection of silver (Ag) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarazi, Saad Al; Volpe, Luca; Antonelli, Luca; Jafer, Rashida; Batani, Dimitri; d'Esposito, Antonio; Vitobello, Marialuisa

    2014-03-01

    Silver surfaces have been treated with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to produce SiO2-like coatings for possible applications in the jewelry industry. Different experimental conditions have been tested in order to optimize the protective effectiveness of the deposited layers. Samples were analyzed with optical and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry.

  13. High growth rate homoepitaxial diamond film deposition at high temperatures by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vohra, Yogesh K. (Inventor); McCauley, Thomas S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The deposition of high quality diamond films at high linear growth rates and substrate temperatures for microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition is disclosed. The linear growth rate achieved for this process is generally greater than 50 .mu.m/hr for high quality films, as compared to rates of less than 5 .mu.m/hr generally reported for MPCVD processes.

  14. Plasma deposited stability enhancement coating for amorphous ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Bosselmann, Stephanie; Owens, Donald E; Kennedy, Rachel L; Herpin, Matthew J; Williams, Robert O

    2011-05-01

    A hydrophobic fluorocarbon coating deposited onto amorphous ketoprofen via pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) significantly prolonged the onset of recrystallization compared to uncoated drug. Rapid freezing (RF) employed to produce amorphous ketoprofen was followed by PPECVD of perfluorohexane. The effect of coating thickness on the recrystallization and dissolution behavior of ketoprofen was investigated. Samples were stored in open containers at 40°C and 75% relative humidity, and the onset of recrystallization was monitored by DSC. An increase in coating thickness provided enhanced stability against recrystallization for up to 6 months at accelerated storage conditions (longest time of observation) when compared to three days for uncoated ketoprofen. Results from XPS analysis demonstrated that an increase in coating thickness was associated with improved surface coverage thus enabling superior protection. Dissolution testing showed that at least 80% of ketoprofen was released in buffer pH 6.8 from all coated samples. Overall, an increase in coating thickness resulted in a more complete drug release due to decreased adhesion of the coating to the substrate.

  15. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  16. Electrical properties of DLC- (n, p)-Si heterojunctions fabricated by ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition and pulsed laser deposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panosyan, Zhosef R.; Voskanyan, Serjik S.; Yengibaryan, Yerem V.; Avjyan, Karapet E.; Khachatryan, Ashot M.; Matevosyan, Lenrik A.

    2010-10-01

    Electrical characteristics of DLC- (n, p)-Si heterojunctions fabricated by ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition and pulsed laser deposition methods were investigated. The mechanisms of carrier flow across the fabricated junctions were analyzed. Keywords: ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition, pulsed laser deposition, DLC- (n, p)-Si heterojunctions, currentvoltage & capacitance- voltage characteristics.

  17. Characteristics of silicon nitride deposited by VHF (162 MHz)-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a multi-tile push-pull plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Seok; Sirse, Nishant; Kim, Ki Hyun; Rogers Ellingboe, Albert; Kim, Kyong Nam; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-10-01

    To prevent moisture and oxygen permeation into flexible organic electronic devices formed on substrates, the deposition of an inorganic diffusion barrier material such as SiN x is important for thin film encapsulation. In this study, by a very high frequency (162 MHz) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) using a multi-tile push-pull plasma source, SiN x layers were deposited with a gas mixture of NH3/SiH4 with/without N2 and the characteristics of the plasma and the deposited SiN x film as the thin film barrier were investigated. Compared to a lower frequency (60 MHz) plasma, the VHF (162 MHz) multi-tile push-pull plasma showed a lower electron temperature, a higher vibrational temperature, and higher N2 dissociation for an N2 plasma. When a SiN x layer was deposited with a mixture of NH3/SiH4 with N2 at a low temperature of 100 °C, a stoichiometric amorphous Si3N4 layer with very low Si-H bonding could be deposited. The 300 nm thick SiN x film exhibited a low water vapor transmission rate of 1.18  ×  10-4 g (m2 · d)-1, in addition to an optical transmittance of higher than 90%.

  18. Practical silicon deposition rules derived from silane monitoring during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlome, Richard De Wolf, Stefaan; Demaurex, Bénédicte; Ballif, Christophe; Amanatides, Eleftherios; Mataras, Dimitrios

    2015-05-28

    We clarify the difference between the SiH{sub 4} consumption efficiency η and the SiH{sub 4} depletion fraction D, as measured in the pumping line and the actual reactor of an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In the absence of significant polysilane and powder formation, η is proportional to the film growth rate. Above a certain powder formation threshold, any additional amount of SiH{sub 4} consumed translates into increased powder formation rather than into a faster growing Si film. In order to discuss a zero-dimensional analytical model and a two-dimensional numerical model, we measure η as a function of the radio frequency (RF) power density coupled into the plasma, the total gas flow rate, the input SiH{sub 4} concentration, and the reactor pressure. The adjunction of a small trimethylboron flow rate increases η and reduces the formation of powder, while the adjunction of a small disilane flow rate decreases η and favors the formation of powder. Unlike η, D is a location-dependent quantity. It is related to the SiH{sub 4} concentration in the plasma c{sub p}, and to the phase of the growing Si film, whether the substrate is glass or a c-Si wafer. In order to investigate transient effects due to the RF matching, the precoating of reactor walls, or the introduction of a purifier in the gas line, we measure the gas residence time and acquire time-resolved SiH{sub 4} density measurements throughout the ignition and the termination of a plasma.

  19. Effect of plasma parameters on characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited by single and dual frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, B. B.; Yin, Yongyi; Han, Jeon G.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films using various low-temperature plasmas. Utilizing radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 320 MHz) powers, different plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes are conducted in the mixture of reactive N2/NH3/SiH4 gases. The processes are extensively characterized using different plasma diagnostic tools to study their plasma and radical generation capabilities. A typical transition of the electron energy distribution function from single- to bi-Maxwellian type is achieved by combining RF and ultra-high powers. Data analysis revealed that the RF/UHF dual frequency power enhances the plasma surface heating and produces hot electron population with relatively low electron temperature and high plasma density. Using various film analysis methods, we have investigated the role of plasma parameters on the compositional, structural, and optical properties of the deposited films to optimize the process conditions. The presented results show that the dual frequency power is effective for enhancing dissociation and ionization of neutrals, which in turn helps in enabling high deposition rate and improving film properties.

  20. Electrochromic Devices Deposited on Low-Temperature Plastics by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Joshua; Seman, Michael

    2005-09-20

    Electrochromic windows have been identified by the Basic energy Sciences Advisory committee as an important technology for the reduction of energy spent on heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. Electrochromic devices have the ability to reversibly alter their optical properties in response to a small electric field. By blocking ultraviolet and infrared radiation, while modulating the incoming visible radiation, electrochromics could reduce energy consumption by several Quads per year. This amounts to several percent of the total annual national energy expenditures. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate proof of concept for using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for depositing all five layers necessary for full electrochromic devices, as an alternative to sputtering techniques. The overall goal is to produce electrochromic devices on flexible polymer substrates using PECVD to significantly reduce the cost of the final product. We have successfully deposited all of the films necessary for a complete electrochromic devices using PECVD. The electrochromic layer, WO3, displayed excellent change in visible transmission with good switching times. The storage layer, V2O5, exhibited a high storage capacity and good clear state transmission. The electrolyte, Ta2O5, was shown to functional with good electrical resistivity to go along with the ability to transfer Li ions. There were issues with leakage over larger areas, which can be address with further process development. We developed a process to deposit ZnO:Ga with a sheet resistance of < 50 W/sq. with > 90% transmission. Although we were not able to deposit on polymers due to the temperatures required in combination with the inverted position of our substrates. Two types of full devices were produced. Devices with Ta2O5 were shown to be functional using small aluminum dots as the top contact. The polymer electrolyte devices were shown to have a clear state transmission of

  1. Optical emission study of a doped diamond deposition process by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayar, M.; Supiot, P.; Veis, P.; Gicquel, A.

    2008-08-01

    Standard H2/CH4/B2H6 plasmas (99% of H2 and 1% of CH4, with 0-100ppm of B2H6 added) used for doped diamond film growth are studied by optical emission spectroscopy in order to gain a better understanding of the influence of boron species on the gas phase chemistry. Only two boron species are detected under our experimental conditions (9/15/23Wcm-3 average microwave power density values), and the emission spectra used for studies reported here are B(S1/22-P1/2,3/202) and BH [AΠ1-XΣ+1(0,0)]. Variations of their respective emission intensities as a function of the ratio B /C, the boron to carbon ratio in the gas mixture, are reported. We confirmed that the plasma parameters (Tg, Te, and ne) are not affected by the introduction of diborane, and the number densities of B atoms and BH radical species were estimated from experimental measurements. The results are compared to those obtained from a zero-dimensional chemical kinetic model where two groups of reactions are considered: (1) BHx+H ↔BHx -1+H2 (x=1-3) by analogy with the well-known equilibrium CHx+H set of reactions, which occurs, in particular, in diamond deposition reactors; and (2) from conventional organic chemistry, the set of reactions involving boron species: BHx+C2H2 (x =0-1). The results clearly show that the model based on hydrogen and boron hydrides reactions alone is not consistent with the experimental results, while it is so when taking into account both sets of reactions. Once an upper limit for the boron species number densities has been estimated, axial profiles are calculated on the basis of the plasma model results obtained previously in Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Matériaux et des Hautes Pressions, and significant differences in trends for different boron species are found. At the plasma-to-substrate boundary, [BH] and [B] drop off in contrast to [BH2], which shows little decrease, and [BH3], which shows little increase, in this region.

  2. Microstructure and characterization of a novel cobalt coating prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Cheng; He, Yedong

    2015-10-01

    A novel cobalt coating was prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The kinetics of the electrode process in cathode plasma electrolytic deposition was studied. The composition and microstructure of the deposited coatings were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM. The novel cobalt coatings were dense and uniform, showing a typically molten morphology, and were deposited with a rather fast rate. Different from the coatings prepared by conventional electrodeposition or chemical plating, pure cobalt coatings with face center cubic (fcc) structure were obtained by CPED. The deposited coatings were nanocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 40-50 nm, exhibited high hardness, excellent adhesion with the stainless steels, and superior wear resistance. The properties of the novel cobalt coatings prepared by CPED have been improved significantly, as compared with that prepared by conventional methods. It reveals that cathode plasma electrolytic deposition is an effective way to prepare novel cobalt coatings with high quality.

  3. Experimental investigation on geometrical aspects of micro-plasma deposited tool steel for repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhavar, S.; Paul, C. P.; Jain, N. K.

    2014-08-01

    Recent advancement in direct material deposition processes found wide applications in rapid prototyping, manufacturing and tooling industry. Micro-plasma deposition is one of the recent developments in this domain. This paper reports the deployment of newly integrated micro-plasma deposition system for the deposition of AISI P-20 tool steel on the AISI P20 tool steel substrate. A number of test tracks for single track deposition were deposited at the various combination of processing parameters. The sets of parameters yielding good deposits were selected to deposit overlap tracks. The geometry of single and overlapped tracks was evaluated to understand the parametric dependence. The study indicates that the aspect ratio of track geometry (ratio of width to height of track) is dependent on the processing parameters and the discharge current is identified as the most dominating parameters (contribution = 44%), followed by scan speed (contribution = 26.68%) and wire feed rate (contribution = 26.98%) with almost same effect. The microscopic study of the deposits indicates that the material deposited at the optimum processing parameters is free from surface and bulk defects. The estimated material properties are found to be at par with conventional processed material. This feasibility study proved that the micro-plasma deposition can be used for the generation of surfaces and multi-featured material deposition. It paved a way for the application of the process in die/mold repairs.

  4. Plasma damage monitoring for PECVD deposition: a contact potential difference study and device yield analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Bencher, Christopher; Le, Maggie; Ngai, Chris

    1998-08-01

    A study was conducted to monitor plasma induced charging during a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. A contact potential difference (CPD) technique was used for the charge measurement on non-device blank wafers. In two TEOS based PECVD SiO2 deposition processes, one phosphorous doped and one undoped (USG), the plasma induced charging behavior was monitored while deposition conditions were varied. It was found that the process deposition pressure had a large effect on the plasma induced charging behavior. For both the PSG and the USG deposition processes, higher pressure process regimes offered significantly improved plasma charging performance than the conventional low pressure regimes. The CPD was reduced from -13.5V to 1.5V for the PSG process, and the CPD uniformity was reduced from 8.17V to 2.39V for the USG process. The improved deposition process conditions were tested on thin gate antenna test structures and correlated to significant improved device yield. Additionally, a plasma assisted de- chucking process was analyzed using the CPD technique and found to be an important source of plasma induced charging. When test were performed on thin gate antenna test structures the CPD again correlated well yield trends. In summary, the study demonstrated that CPD is a powerful, inexpensive, and rapid technique suitable for developing processes with improved gate oxide yield and for in-line monitoring of chamber performance.

  5. W and WC layers deposition by shielded inductively coupled plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpo, P.; Meziani, T.; Sauvageot, P.; Ceccone, G.; Gibson, P. N.; Rossi, F.; Monge-Cadet, P.

    2002-09-01

    Tungsten and carbon tungsten films have been deposited by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The plasma-assisted deposition was performed by inductively coupled plasma source (ICP). A Faraday shield was arranged within the plasma chamber to prevent electrically conductive film deposition on the dielectric chamber wall that would screen the electromagnetic field. External electrical parameters and ion densities of the shielded inductive plasma source are measured and compared to classical ICPs source characteristics. Tungsten deposition has been performed from WF6 diluted in argon and hydrogen. A deposition rate of 5 mum/h was obtained. Hardness measurements show that the tungsten hardness can be increased from 5 to 20 GPA by biasing the substrate. WC films were deposited by adding methane or acetylene to the WF6/H2 mixture. The hardness of the WC films depends strongly on the methane or acetylene flow rate, i.e., on the film carbon content. The WC hardness has been correlated to the crystallographic structure. The first hardness maximum peak corresponds to a solid solution of carbon in the tungsten. Correlation between the deposition parameters, such as the gas composition, dc bias and coating properties has been investigated by means of AES, XRD, and nanoindentation analysis. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  6. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Mark J.

    2014-01-15

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190 °C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

  7. Diamond deposition from fluorinated precursors using microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, C.A.; McMaster, M.C.; Hsu, W.L.; Kelly, M.A.; Hagstrom, S.B.

    1995-10-16

    Diamond thin films were grown using fluorinated precursors by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Using CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}F/H{sub 2}, and CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gas mixtures, films were grown at surface temperatures in the range 600--900 {degree}C at constant microwave power, carbon mole fraction, and pressure. Growth activation energies for the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}F/H{sub 2}, and CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixtures were 12.6{plus_minus}1.8, 13.7{plus_minus}1.2, and 12.4{plus_minus}1.1 kcal/mole, respectively. Argon ion etching in conjunction with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated negligible fluorine incorporation into the films. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that diamond is grown from the same intermediates, namely methyl radicals and atomic hydrogen, for all of these mixtures. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Helicon wave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films at low substrate temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Lu, Wanbing; Wang, Baozhu; Han, Li; Fu, Guangsheng

    2005-02-01

    Silicon carbide thin films have been deposited by helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HW-PECVD) technique under the conditions of variant deposition temperatures from 300 to 600°C. Silane, methane and hydrogen are used as reactive gas. The structural properties of the deposited films are characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scan electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible optical absorption techniques. Detailed analysis of the FTIR spectra indicates that the onset of growing nanocrystalline SiC films at low substrate temperature is closed related with the high plasma ionization rate of helicon wave plasma and the condition of low working gas pressure and strong hydrogen dilution in experiment. The SEM and TEM measurements confirm that the structure of the deposited films is nanocrystalline SiC grains embedded in amorphous matrix and the size of the crystalline gains increases with substrate temperature.

  9. Low loss Nb2O5 films deposited by novel remote plasma sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Bu, Yi-kun

    2013-03-01

    We report the deposition of Nb2O5 films on unheated BK-7 glass substrates using remote plasma sputtering system. The remote plasma geometry allows pseudo separation of plasma and target bias parameters, which offers complete deposition rate control. Using appropriate oxygen flow rates, high-density and low-loss Nb2O5 films are deposited with rates up to 0.49 nm/s. Lower deposition rates (˜0.026 nm/s) can also be obtained by working at low target current and voltage and at low pressure. Nb2O5 films deposited at different rates have the refractive index of about 2.3 and the extinction coefficient as low as 6.9×10-5.

  10. Low-pressure microwave plasma nucleation and deposition of diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Pool, F. S.; Rich, D. H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-pressure microwave plasma nucleation and deposition of diamond films were investigated in the pressure range 10-mtorr to 10 torr, at substrate temperatures 400-750 C and with CH4 and O2 concentrations in H2 plasma of 2-15 percent and 2-10 percent, respectively. The experiments were performed in a microwave plasma system consisting of a microwave plasma chamber, a downstream deposition chamber, and an RF induction heated sample stage. Scanning electron microscopy of diamond films deposited at 600 C with 5 percent CH4 and 5 percent O2 in H2 plasmas showed high-quality well faceted crystallites of 1/2 micron size. Cathodoluminescence measurements of these films showed very few nitrogen impurities and no detectable silicon impurities.

  11. The Role of Plasma in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition of Nanostructure Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David B.; Meyyappan, M.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Lacerda, Rodrigo G.; Rupesinghe, Nalin L.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) has become the preferred process for high yield growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres because of its ability to pattern growth through lithographic positioning of transition metal catalysts on substrates. Many potential applications of nanotubes such as field emitters [1] require not only patterned growth but also vertical alignment. Some degree of ali,ment in thermal CVD processes can be obtained when carbon nanotubes are grown closely together as a result of van der Waals interactions. The ali,onment however is marginal, and the van der Waals prerequisite makes growth of freestanding nanofibres with thermal CVD unrealizable. The application of electric fields as a means of ali,onment has been shown to overcome this limitation [2-5], and highly aligned nanostructures can be grown if electric fields on the order of 0.5 V/microns are employed. Plasma enhanced CVD in various configurations including dc, rf, microwave, inductive and electron cyclotron resonance has been pursued as a means of enabling alignment in the CVD process. However, the sheath fields for the non-dc sources are in general not sufficient for a high degree of ali,pment and an additional dc bias is usually applied to the growth substrate. This begs the question as to the actual role of the plasma. It is clear that the plasma itself is not required for aligned growth as references [3] and [4] employed fields through small applied voltages (3-20 V) across very small electrode spacings (10-100 microns) and thus avoided striking a discharge.

  12. Deposition of SiNx Thin Film Using μ-SLAN Surface Wave Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Yu, Xu; Takuya, Ogishima; Dariusz, Korzec; Yoichiro, Nakanishi; Yoshinori, Hatanaka

    1998-10-01

    Remote plasma CVD method has been used in fabrication of high quality thin films. It is a useful method in decreasing damage from ion bombardment and in analysis of film formation mechanism. In our research, as the film deposition rate depends on neutral radical density, hence high-density plasma is needed for high-speed deposition. In this research, a μ-SLAN (Slot ANtenna) microwave surface wave plasma source was adapted for thin film deposition. The μ-SLAN is an efficient plasma generator in which microwave power is coupled from a ring cavity with several slots around quartz discharge tube. We measured parameters of argon plasma along the discharge tube by a double Langmuir probe. The electron density was measured as about 10^11 cm-3 at an axial position of 43 cm from ring cavity, a microwave power of 500 W and a pressure of 0.5 torr. Using μ-SLAN, SiNx thin film was deposited and high deposition rate was obtained. The highest deposition rate of 280 nm/min was obtained for plasma gas containing 15% of hydrogen in nitrogen with the pressure and power of 1.5 torr and 500 W respectively.

  13. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    PubMed

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films.

  14. Method For Plasma Source Ion Implantation And Deposition For Cylindrical Surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Fetherston, Robert P. , Shamim, Muhammad M. , Conrad, John R.

    1997-12-02

    Uniform ion implantation and deposition onto cylindrical surfaces is achieved by placing a cylindrical electrode in coaxial and conformal relation to the target surface. For implantation and deposition of an inner bore surface the electrode is placed inside the target. For implantation and deposition on an outer cylindrical surface the electrode is placed around the outside of the target. A plasma is generated between the electrode and the target cylindrical surface. Applying a pulse of high voltage to the target causes ions from the plasma to be driven onto the cylindrical target surface. The plasma contained in the space between the target and the electrode is uniform, resulting in a uniform implantation or deposition of the target surface. Since the plasma is largely contained in the space between the target and the electrode, contamination of the vacuum chamber enclosing the target and electrodes by inadvertent ion deposition is reduced. The coaxial alignment of the target and the electrode may be employed for the ion assisted deposition of sputtered metals onto the target, resulting in a uniform coating of the cylindrical target surface by the sputtered material. The independently generated and contained plasmas associated with each cylindrical target/electrode pair allows for effective batch processing of multiple cylindrical targets within a single vacuum chamber, resulting in both uniform implantation or deposition, and reduced contamination of one target by adjacent target/electrode pairs.

  15. Electrowetting on plasma-deposited fluorocarbon hydrophobic films for biofluid transport in microfluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Bayiati, P.; Tserepi, A.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Misiakos, K.; Gogolides, E.

    2007-05-15

    The present work focuses on the plasma deposition of fluorocarbon (FC) films on surfaces and the electrostatic control of their wettability (electrowetting). Such films can be employed for actuation of fluid transport in microfluidic devices, when deposited over patterned electrodes. Here, the deposition was performed using C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and the plasma parameters that permit the creation of films with optimized properties desirable for electrowetting were established. The wettability of the plasma-deposited surfaces was characterized by means of contact angle measurements (in the static and dynamic mode). The thickness of the deposited films was probed in situ by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry, while the surface roughness was provided by atomic force microscopy. These plasma-deposited FC films in combination with silicon nitride, a material of high dielectric constant, were used to create a dielectric structure that requires reduced voltages for successful electrowetting. Electrowetting experiments using protein solutions were conducted on such optimized dielectric structures and were compared with similar structures bearing commercial spin-coated Teflon registered amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) film as the hydrophobic top layer. Our results show that plasma-deposited FC films have desirable electrowetting behavior and minimal protein adsorption, a requirement for successful transport of biological solutions in 'digital' microfluidics.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 Thin Films in Magnetized Radio Frequency Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhongwei; Wang, Zhenduo

    Self-limiting deposition of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films were accomplished by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and O2 as precursor and oxidant, respectively, where argon was kept flowing in whole deposition process as discharge and purge gas. In here we present a novel plasma source for the atomic layer deposition technology, magnetized radio frequency (RF) plasma. Difference from the commercial RF source, magnetic coils were amounted above the RF electrode, and the influence of the magnetic field strength on the deposition rate and morphology are investigated in detail. It concludes that a more than 3 Å/ purging cycle deposition rate and the good quality of ALD Al2O3 were achieved in this plasma source even without extra heating. The ultra-thin films were characterized by including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The high deposition rates obtained at ambient temperatures were analyzed after in-situ the diagnostic of plasmas by Langmuir probe.

  17. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    PubMed

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films. PMID:24245257

  18. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  19. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotubes by Slot-Excited Microwave Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Gyu Il; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kono, Satoshi; Ohno, Yutaka; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2008-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fabricated by adopting plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with a planar microwave plasma source. Plasma is produced by a slot antenna at 2.45-GHz microwave injection in CH4/H2 mixture. In this study, it is shown that avoiding the exposure of the substrate to the plasma drastically improves the CNT growth. Furthermore, it is found that the CNT quality can be controlled with the optimization of one of the steps in the catalyst treatment, such as the preheating procedure; the treated catalyst is considered to be unaffected by the heating in the high-density microwave plasma treatment during the CNT growth.

  20. Effect of Deposition Rate on the Stress Evolution of Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kentaro; Colmenares-Angulo, Jose; Valarezo, Alfredo; Sampath, Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    The deposition rate plays an important role in determining the thickness, stress state, and physical properties of plasma-sprayed coatings. In this article, the effect of the deposition rate on the stress evolution during the deposition (named evolving stress) of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings was systematically studied by varying the powder feed rate and the robot-scanning speed. The evolving stress during the deposition tends to increase with the increased deposition rate, and this tendency was less significant at a longer spray distance. In some cases, the powder feed rate had more significant influence on the evolving stress than the robot speed. This tendency can be associated with a deviation of a local deposition temperature at a place where sprayed particles are deposited from an average substrate temperature. At a further higher deposition rate, the evolving stress was relieved by introduction of macroscopic vertical cracks as well as horizontal branching cracks.

  1. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Ki-Moon; Shin, Jae-Su; Yun, Ju-Young; Jun Lee, Sang; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2014-05-15

    The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO{sub 2} thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr){sub 3}SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO{sub 2} films at temperatures as low as 50 °C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3 s and 10 s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO{sub 2} films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS.

  2. Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2007-07-15

    Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

  3. Plasma-deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon films and their tribological properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work on the properties of diamondlike carbon films and their dependence on preparation conditions are reviewed. The results of the study indicate that plasma deposition enables one to deposit a variety of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H ) films exhibiting more diamondlike behavior to more graphitic behavior. The plasma-deposited a-C:H can be effectively used as hard, wear-resistant, and protective lubricating films on ceramic materials such as Si(sub 3)N(sub 4) under a variety of environmental conditions such as moist air, dry nitrogrn, and vacuum.

  4. Plasma-deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon films and their tribological properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pouch, J. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work on the properties of diamondlike carbon films and their dependence on preparation conditions are reviewed. The results of the study indicate that plasma deposition enables one to deposit a variety of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films exhibiting more diamondlike behavior to more graphitic behavior. The plasma-deposited a-C:H can be effectively used as hard, wear-resistant, and protective lubricating films on ceramic materials such as Si(sub 3)N(sub 4) under a variety of environmental conditions such as moist air, dry nitrogen, and vacuum.

  5. Compositional study of silicon oxynitride thin films deposited using electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, H.; Sah, R.E.

    2005-05-01

    We have used backscattering spectrometry and {sup 15}N({sup 1}H,{alpha},{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction analysis techniques to study in detail the variation in the composition of silicon oxynitride films with deposition parameters. The films were deposited using 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique from mixtures of precursors argon, nitrous oxide, and silane at deposition temperature 90 deg. C. The deposition pressure and nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow rates ratio have been found to have a pronounced influence on the composition of the films. When the deposition pressure was varied for a given nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow ratio, the amount of silicon and nitrogen increased with the deposition pressure, while the amount of oxygen decreased. For a given deposition pressure, the amount of incorporated nitrogen and hydrogen decreased while that of oxygen increased with increasing nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow rates ratio. For nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow ratio of 5, we obtained films which contained neither chemically bonded nor nonbonded nitrogen atoms as revealed by the results of infrared spectroscopy, backscattering spectrometry, and nuclear reaction analysis. Our results demonstrate the nitrogen-free nearly stoichiometric silicon dioxide films can be prepared from a mixture of precursors argon, nitrous oxide, and silane at low substrate temperature using high-density PECVD technique. This avoids the use of a hazardous and an often forbidden pair of silane and oxygen gases in a plasma reactor.

  6. Control of interface nanoscale structure created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Peri, Someswara R; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil K; Jiang, Hao; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J; Foster, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Tailoring the structure of films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to specific applications requires a depth-resolved understanding of how the interface structures in such films are impacted by variations in deposition parameters such as feed position and plasma power. Analysis of complementary X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XR, NR) data provide a rich picture of changes in structure with feed position and plasma power, with those changes resolved on the nanoscale. For plasma-polymerized octafluorocyclobutane (PP-OFCB) films, a region of distinct chemical composition and lower cross-link density is found at the substrate interface for the range of processing conditions studied and a surface layer of lower cross-link density also appears when plasma power exceeds 40 W. Varying the distance of the feed from the plasma impacts the degree of cross-linking in the film center, thickness of the surface layer, and thickness of the transition region at the substrate. Deposition at the highest power, 65 W, both enhances cross-linking and creates loose fragments with fluorine content higher than the average. The thickness of the low cross-link density region at the air interface plays an important role in determining the width of the interface built with a layer subsequently deposited atop the first. PMID:21875044

  7. Control of interface nanoscale structure created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Peri, Someswara R; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil K; Jiang, Hao; Enlow, Jesse; Bunning, Timothy J; Foster, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Tailoring the structure of films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to specific applications requires a depth-resolved understanding of how the interface structures in such films are impacted by variations in deposition parameters such as feed position and plasma power. Analysis of complementary X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XR, NR) data provide a rich picture of changes in structure with feed position and plasma power, with those changes resolved on the nanoscale. For plasma-polymerized octafluorocyclobutane (PP-OFCB) films, a region of distinct chemical composition and lower cross-link density is found at the substrate interface for the range of processing conditions studied and a surface layer of lower cross-link density also appears when plasma power exceeds 40 W. Varying the distance of the feed from the plasma impacts the degree of cross-linking in the film center, thickness of the surface layer, and thickness of the transition region at the substrate. Deposition at the highest power, 65 W, both enhances cross-linking and creates loose fragments with fluorine content higher than the average. The thickness of the low cross-link density region at the air interface plays an important role in determining the width of the interface built with a layer subsequently deposited atop the first.

  8. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  9. Deposition of Hard Chrome Coating onto Heat Susceptible Substrates by Low Power Microwave Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redza, Ahmad; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Microwave plasma spray requires relatively low power, which is lower than 1 kW in comparison to other plasma spraying method. Until now, we are able to deposit Cu and Hydroxyapatite coating onto heat susceptible substrate, CFRP which are difficult for conventional plasma spray due to the excessive heat input. In this paper, a hard chromium coating was deposited onto SUS304 and CFRP by a low power microwave plasma spray technique. By controlling the working gas flow rate and spraying distance, a hard chrome coating with thickness of approximately 30 μm was successfully deposited onto CFRP substrate with hardness of 1110 Hv0.05. Furthermore, the coating produced here is higher than that produced by hard chrome plating.

  10. The effect of bias voltage on the morphology and wettability of plasma deposited titanium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Yan; Guo, Kai; Zhang, Jing

    2008-02-01

    Hydrophobic and hydrophilic films with titanium oxide inside were grown by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF--PECVD) on glass substrates. Bias voltage was used as an assistant for the deposition process. And a comparison was made between with and without the bias voltage. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP-Ti (OC 3H 7) 4) was used as the precursor compound. Film wettability was tested by water contact angle measurement (CAM). The water contact angle (WAC) of the film deposited in plasma without biased voltage was greater than 145°, while the WAC of the film deposited in plasma with biased voltage was less than 30°. The morphology of the deposited films was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that the films grown without bias voltage were covered with lots of nano grain and pores, but the surface of the films deposition with bias voltage was much dense. The chemical structure and property of the deposited films were analyzed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while the plasma phase was investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES).

  11. Plasma deposition of thin film multilayers for surface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-06-01

    Plasma surface Engineering for enhancing optical and tribological behaviour of a surface is discussed. Specifically, it is shown how optimized PECVD processing can produce sophisticated Rugate filters and AR coatings on plastic lenses. It is found that multilayer Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC), in a functionally graded geometry, obtained by a combination of plasma intensive processing, not only can impart high value of hardness to a surface but also wear protection at high contact loads.

  12. Modelling of plasma generation and thin film deposition by a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigeneger, F.; Becker, M. M.; Foest, R.; Loffhagen, D.

    2016-09-01

    The gas flow and plasma in a miniaturized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been investigated by means of hydrodynamic modelling. The investigation focuses on the interplay between the plasma generation in the active zone where the power is supplied by an rf voltage to the filaments, the transport of active plasma particles due to the gas flow into the effluent, their reactions with the thin film precursor molecules and the transport of precursor fragments towards the substrate. The main features of the spatially two-dimensional model used are given. The results of the numerical modelling show that most active particles of the argon plasma are mainly confined within the active volume in the outer capillary of the plasma jet, with the exception of molecular argon ions which are transported remarkably into the effluent together with slow electrons. A simplified model of the precursor kinetics yields radial profiles of precursor fragment fluxes onto the substrate, which agree qualitatively with the measured profiles of thin films obtained by static film deposition experiments.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of the plasmas formed during the deposition of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO films by plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Peipei; Cai, Hua; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Zhang, Wu; Xu, Ning; Sun, Jian; Wu, Jiada

    2016-11-01

    An oxygen-zinc plasma and an oxygen-zinc-aluminum plasma are formed by pulsed laser ablation of a Zn target or pulsed laser co-ablation of a Zn target and an Al target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge-generated oxygen plasma for the deposition of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films. The plasmas are characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. Both the oxygen-zinc plasma and the oxygen-zinc-aluminum plasma contain excited species originally present in the working O2 gas and energetic species ablated from the targets. The optical emission of the oxygen-zinc-aluminum plasma is abundant in the emission bands of oxygen molecular ions and the emission lines of mono-atomic oxygen, zinc and aluminum atoms and atomic ions. The time-integrated spectra as well as the time-resolved spectra of the plasma emission indicate that the oxygen species in the ECR oxygen plasma experience additional excitation by the expanding ablation plumes, and the ablated species are excited frequently when traveling accompanying the plume expansion in the oxygen plasma, making the formed plasma highly excited and very reactive, which plays an important role in the reactive growth of ZnO matrix and the in-situ doping of Al into the growing ZnO matrix. The deposited ZnO and AZO films were evaluated for composition analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, structure characterization by X-ray diffraction and optical transmission measurement. The deposited ZnO is slightly rich in O. The Al concentration of the AZO films can be controlled and varied simply by changing the repetition rate of the laser used for Al target ablation. Both the ZnO and the AZO films are featured with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and exhibit high optical transparency in a wide spectral region. Al doping results in an improvement in the ultraviolet transparency, a blue shift in the absorption edge and a widening of the band gap.

  14. Deuterium and helium release and microstructure of tungsten deposition layers formed by RF plasma sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, K.; Imaoka, K.; Tokitani, M.; Miyamoto, M.; Nishikawa, M.; Fukada, S.; Yoshida, N.

    2008-07-15

    It is important to evaluate tritium behavior in tungsten deposition layers considering a long-term plasma operation. In this study, tungsten deposition layers were formed by deuterium or helium RF plasma sputtering. The release behavior of deuterium or helium from the layers were observed by a thermal desorption method. When a tungsten deposition layer does not contain oxygen, the retained deuterium is mainly released as D{sub 2}. When oxygen exists in the layer, the majority of deuterium is released as water vapor. Tungsten deposition layers have an amorphous structure and consist offline grain with size of 2-3 nm. Numerous bubbles are observed in the layers. A formation of tungsten deposition layer in a fusion reactor may make tritium control more difficult. (authors)

  15. Meter-Scale Microwave Plasma Production and its Application to Silicon Thin Film Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Hirotaka; Takanishi, Yudai; Endo, Hirotaka; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2008-10-01

    There has been a great need for meter-scale plasma sources for giant materials processing, such as thin film transistor manufacturing for meter-size liquid crystal display (LCD), deposition of silicon thin films for photovoltaic power generation and so on. Recently, we have developed a new technology for production of surface wave excitation [1]. In this paper, we demonstrate production of meter-scale large-area plasma with multiple waveguide lines. In the experiment, microwave power (<30 kW) is coupled to the plasma through power divider, multiple waveguide lines and slot antennas. Optical and Langmuir probe measurements of Ar/H2 plasma show production of very uniform plasma at a plasma density of 3.4 x 10^11 cm-3 and a variance of 2% within an area of 0.9 m x 0.9 m. With use of carefully-designed gas manifold, microcrystalline silicon films are deposited on sample substrates. Deposition rate of ˜0.3 nm/s with a variance of less than 10 % is obtained within an area of 0.6 m x 0.7 m. Uniformity of film quality such as film crystallinity is also confirmed. [1] H. Sugai, Y. Nojiri, T. Ishijima and H. Toyoda, 6^th Int. Conf. on Reactive Plasmas and 23^rd Symp. on Plasma Processing, (Matsushima, 2006), p.17.

  16. Plasma-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc Oxide Films for Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition of ZnO films was performed for transparent conductive oxide formation of flexible electronics. In this study, ZnO films deposition using atmospheric-pressure He plasma generated by a micro-hollow cathode-type plasma source has been demonstrated. To obtain detail information according to generation of species in the plasma, the optical emission spectra of the atmospheric pressure He plasma with and without mist were measured. The result without mist shows considerable emissions of He lines, emissions attributed to the excitation and dissociation of air including N2 and O2 (N, O, and NO radials, and N2 molecule; N2 second positive band and first positive band), while the results with mist showed strong emissions attributed to the dissociation of H2O (OH and H radicals). The deposition of ZnO films was performed using atmospheric-pressure He plasma. The XRD patterns showed no crystallization of the ZnO films irradiated with pure He. On the other hand, the ZnO film crystallized with the irradiation with He/O2 mixture plasma. These results indicate that the atmospheric-pressure He/O2 mixture plasma has sufficient reactivity necessary for the crystallization of ZnO films at room temperature. This work was supported partly by The Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(C)) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  17. Effects of plasma power on the growth of carbon nanotubes in the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Y.; Arzi, E.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2008-11-01

    Effects of plasma power on the growth of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are reported. CNTs were grown on the silicon wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method using a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen at the temperature of 650°C. Plasma powers ranging from zero to 35W were applied on the samples and the effects of different magnitudes of the plasma power on the growth direction of the CNTs were investigated. Regular vertically aligned nanotubes were obtained at plasma power of 25W. In order to set on the plasma during the growth, electrical force was applied on the carbon ions. Nickel layer was used as a catalyst, and prior to the nanotubes growth step, it was treated by hydrogen plasma bombardment in order to obtain the Ni nano-islands. In this step, as the plasma power on the Ni layer was increased, the grain size of nickel nano-particles decreased, and hence, nanotubes of smaller diameter were obtained later on. At the last step some anomalous structures of agglomerated CNTs were obtained by controlling the plasma power. Samples were analyzed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. ZnO thin film deposition using colliding plasma plumes and single plasma plume: Structural and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shyam L. Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-12-14

    We report the comparative study on synthesis of thin films of ZnO on glass substrates using IR laser ablated colliding plasma plumes and conventional pulsed laser deposition using 355 nm in oxygen ambient. The optical properties of deposited films are characterized using optical transmission in the UV-visible range of spectrum and photoluminescence measurements. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy are used to investigate the surface morphology of synthesized ZnO films. The films synthesized using colliding plumes created with 1064 nm are non-polar a-plane ZnO with transmission in UV-visible (300–800 nm) region ∼60% compared to polycrystalline thin film deposited using single plume which has chunk deposition and poor optical response. However, deposition with 355 nm single plume shows polar c-axis oriented thin film with average roughness (∼thickness) of ∼86 nm (∼850 nm) compared to ∼2 nm (∼3 μm) for 1064 nm colliding plumes. These observed differences in the quality and properties of thin films are attributed to the flux of mono-energetic plasma species with almost uniform kinetic energy and higher thermal velocity reaching the substrate from interaction/stagnation zone of colliding plasma plumes.

  19. Effects of O2 plasma treatment of PDMS on the deposition of electrospun PVA nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Natsumi; Miki, Norihisa; Hishida, Koichi; Hotta, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    A new polymeric nanofiber-alignment technique with the selective deposition of the nanofibers using oxygen (O2) plasma treatment on a base material for the electrospinning was introduced. Generally, without any pretreatments, electrospun fibers are deposited randomly on the collector. In this work, we focused on the O2 plasma treatment of the surface of the base material to modify the surface morphology and to add polar groups to the surface. O2 plasma-treated and untreated surface of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was prepared by masking a part of PDMS film by another PDMS film. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers were then deposited onto the PDMS film. The surface structure of the PDMS film with PVA nanofibers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, and X-ray photon spectroscopy. Only a few PVA nanofibers were deposited randomly on the untreated area of the PDMS film, while a number of PVA nanofibers were selectively deposited onto the O2 plasma-treated area. Intriguingly, PVA nanofibers were neatly aligned along the border of the untreated and the treated areas. The contact angle of the plasma-treated surface of PDMS decreased from 105 to 22 degree and the atomic ratio of O/Si was 1.7 times higher than that of the untreated PDMS.

  20. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (< 10 microns) single layers to be deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  1. Mass spectrometric studies of SiO2 deposition in an indirect plasma enhanced LPCVD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.; Mcconica, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the low temperature deposition of SiO2 from silane and indirect plasma-excited oxygen-nitrogen mixtures are proposed based on experimental evidence gained from mass spectrometry in an indirect plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber. It was observed that about 80-85 percent of the silane was oxidized to byproduct hydrogen and only about 15-20 percent to water. Such conversion levels have led us to interpret that silanol (SiH3OH) could be the precursor for SiO2 film deposition, rather than siloxane /(SiH3)2O/ which has generally been cited in the literature. From mass spectrometry, we have also shown the effects of the plasma, and of mixing small amounts of N2 with the oxygen flow, in increasing the deposition rate of SiO2. Free radical reaction of nitric oxide, synthesized from the reaction of oxygen and nitrogen in the plasma chamber, and an *ncrease in atomic oxygen concentration, are believed to be the reasons for these SiO2 deposition rate increases. Through mass spectrometry we have, in addition, been able to identify products, presumably originating from terminating reactions, among a sequence of chemical reactions proposed for the deposition of SiO2.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance deposition and plasma diagnostics of a-Si:H and a-C:H films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition are discussed. It is shown that the ECR microwave plasma deposition technique can produce a-Si:H films with material qualities similar to and with a deposition rate one order of magnitude higher than for films deposited by radio-frequency glow discharge. The ECR-deposited a-C:H films are characterized by fluorescence, IR, and Raman spectroscopy. In situ optical emission spectroscopy plasma diagnostics indicates that ECR plasmas have a strong emission at 434 nm, which indicates a higher chemical reactivity than radio-frequency glow discharge plasmas. The radio frequency bias to the substrate is found to play a critical role in determining the film structure and the carbon bonding configuration of ECR-deposited a-C:H films.

  3. Effects of post-deposition argon implantation on the memory properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Q. A.; Brown, W. D.

    1989-10-01

    Post-deposition ion implantation has been used to introduce argon into plasma-enhanced chemically vapor deposited silicon nitride films in an attempt to influence the transfer, trapping, and emission of charge during write/erase exercising of the metal-silicon nitride-silicon oxide-silicon structure. Argon was implanted into the SiH4 -NH3 -N2 deposited films at energies ranging from 25 to 75 keV, current densities ranging from 0.1 to 75 μA/cm2 and fluences ranging from 1×1012 to 1×1016 ions/cm2. Physical properties of the films were studied by ellipsometry and infrared spectroscopy, while high frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves were used to obtain programming, retention, and endurance characteristics.

  4. Interaction of platelets, fibrinogen and endothelial cells with plasma deposited PEO-like films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhilu; Wang, Jin; Li, Xin; Tu, Qiufen; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2012-02-01

    For blood-contacting biomedical implants like retrievable vena cava filters, surface-based diagnostic devices or in vivo sensors, limiting thrombosis and cell adhesion is paramount, due to a decrease even failure in performance. Plasma deposited PEO-like films were investigated as surface modifications. In this work, mixed gas composed of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme) vapor and oxygen was used as precursor. It was revealed that plasma polymerization under high ratio of oxygen/tetraglyme led to deposition of the films that had high content of ether groups. This kind of PEO-like films had good stability in phosphate buffer solution. In vitro hemocompatibility and endothelial cell (EC) adhesion revealed low platelet adhesion, platelet activation, fibrinogen adhesion, EC adhesion and proliferation on such plasma deposited PEO-like films. This made it a potential candidate for the applications in anti-fouling surfaces of blood-contacting biomedical devices.

  5. Characterization of low dielectric constant plasma polymer films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using decamethyl-cyclopentasiloxane and cyclohexane as the precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sungwoo; Park, Hyoungsun; Jung, Donggeun; Chae, Heeyeop

    2006-01-15

    We investigated the properties of plasma polymer films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of decamethyl-cyclopentasiloxane (C{sub 10}H{sub 30}O{sub 5}Si{sub 5}) and cyclohexane (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}) as the precursors, which we refer to as plasma polymerized decamethyl-cyclopentasiloxane: cyclohexane (PPDMCPSO:CHex) films. The relative dielectric constants, k, of the plasma polymer films were correlated with the Fourier transform infrared absorption peaks of the C-Hx, Si-CH{sub 3}, and Si-O related groups. As the amount of the CHx species in the as-deposited plasma polymer films increased, the k value and the leakage current density of the thin films decreased. The subsequent annealing of the PPDMCPSO:CHex film at 400 deg. C for 1 h further reduced the k value to as low as k=2.05. This annealed PPDMCPSO:CHex thin film showed a leakage current density of the order of 4x10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at 1 MV/cm and a breakdown field of 6.5 MV/cm. Through the bias-temperature stress test, it was estimated that the PPDMCPSO:CHex film with a k value of 2.05 would retain its insulating properties for ten years at 167 deg. C under an electrical field of 1 MV/cm, when it is presented as a layer adjacent to Cu/TaN(10 nm)

  6. Characterisation of the TiO2 coatings deposited by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, L. P.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma spraying of materials such as ceramics and non-metals, which have high melting points, has become a well-established commercial process. Such coatings are increasingly used in aerospace, automobile, textile, medical, printing and electrical industries to impart proprieties such as corrosion resistance, thermal resistance, wear resistance, etc. One of the most important characteristics of thermal barrier coatings is the ability to undergo fast temperature changes without failing, the so called thermal shock resistance. The formation of residual stresses in plasma sprayed ceramic and metallic coatings is a very complex process. Several factors, such as substrate material, substrate thickness, physical properties of both the substrate and the coating material, deposition rate, relative velocity of the plasma torch, etc. determine the final residual stress state of the coating at room temperature. Our objective is to characterize the titanium oxide and aluminium oxide coatings deposited by plasma spraying in structural terms, the resistance to thermal shock and residual stresses.

  7. Suprathermal electron energy deposition in plasmas with the Fokker-Planck method

    SciTech Connect

    Wienke, B.R.

    1983-08-01

    A one-dimensional, multigroup, discrete-ordinates technique for computing electron energy deposition in plasmas is detailed. The Fokker-Planck collision operator is employed in the continuous approximation and electric fields (considered external) are included in the equation. Bremsstrahlung processes are not treated. Comparisons with analytic and Monte Carlo results are given. Fits to deposition and energy scaling are proposed and discussed for monoenergetic and Maxwellian sources in the rnge 0--150 keV, with and without uniform fields.

  8. Microwave engineering of plasma-assisted CVD reactors for diamond deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Hassouni, K.; Bonnin, X.; Gicquel, A.

    2009-09-01

    The unique properties of CVD diamond make it a compelling choice for high power electronics. In order to achieve industrial use of CVD diamond, one must simultaneously obtain an excellent control of the film purity, very low defect content and a sufficiently rapid growth rate. Currently, only microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPACVD) processes making use of resonant cavity systems provide enough atomic hydrogen to satisfy these requirements. We show in this paper that the use of high microwave power density (MWPD) plasmas is necessary to promote atomic hydrogen concentrations that are high enough to ensure the deposition of high purity diamond films at large growth rates. Moreover, the deposition of homogeneous films on large surfaces calls for the production of plasma with appropriate shapes and large volumes. The production of such plasmas needs generating a fairly high electric field over extended regions and requires a careful design of the MW coupling system, especially the cavity. As far as MW coupling efficiency is concerned, the presence of a plasma load represents a mismatching perturbation to the cavity. This perturbation is especially important at high MWPD where the reflected fraction of the input power may be quite high. This mismatch can lead to a pronounced heating of the reactor walls. It must therefore be taken into account from the very beginning of the reactor design. This requires the implementation of plasma modelling tools coupled to detailed electromagnetic simulations. This is discussed in section 3. We also briefly discuss the operating principles of the main commercial plasma reactors before introducing the reactor design methodology we have developed. Modelling results for a new generation of reactors developed at LIMHP, working at very high power density, will be presented. Lastly, we show that scaling up this type of reactor to lower frequencies (915 MHz) can result in high density plasmas allowing for fast and

  9. Plasma-induced surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane aimed at reducing salt and protein deposition.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Nele; Rymarczyk-Machal, Monika; Schacht, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an elastomer that is widely used in construction and for biological and biomedical applications. The biocompatibility of PDMS was improved by different surface treatment methods, i.e., plasma treatment or a combination of plasma treatment with UV-irradiation or redox initiator, to minimize the effects of deposition of salts and proteins. In this work we used the vinyl monomers sulfobetaine and AMPS which have good biocompatible properties. PMID:21176391

  10. Antibiofouling Properties of Plasma-Deposited Oxazoline-Based Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Alex A; Macgregor-Ramiasa, Melanie N; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by the bacterial colonization of medical devices are a substantial problem to patients and healthcare. Biopassive polyoxazoline coatings are attracting attention in the biomedical field as one of the potential solutions to this problem. Here, we present an original and swift way to produce plasma-deposited oxazoline-based films for antifouling applications. The films developed via the plasma deposition of 2-methyl-2-oxazoline and 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline have tunable thickness and surface properties. Diverse film chemistries were achieved by tuning and optimizing the deposition conditions. Human-derived fibroblasts were used to confirm the biocompatibility of oxazoline derived coatings. The capacity of the coatings to resist biofilm attachment was studied as a function of deposition power and mode (i.e., continuous wave or pulsed) and precursor flow rates for both 2-methyl-2-oxazoline and 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline. After careful tuning of the deposition parameters films having the capacity to resist biofilm formation by more than 90% were achieved. The substrate-independent and customizable properties of the new generation of plasma deposited oxazoline thin films developed in this work make them attractive candidates for the coating of medical devices and other applications where bacteria surface colonization and biofilm formation is an issue. PMID:26901823

  11. Deposition kinetics and characterization of stable ionomers from hexamethyldisiloxane and methacrylic acid by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urstöger, Georg; Resel, Roland; Koller, Georg; Coclite, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    A novel ionomer of hexamethyldisiloxane and methacrylic acid was synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The PECVD process, being solventless, allows mixing of monomers with very different solubilities, and for polymers formed at high deposition rates and with high structural stability (due to the high number of cross-links and covalent bonding to the substrate) to be obtained. A kinetic study over a large set of parameters was run with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for high stability and proton conductivity of the polymer layer. Copolymers with good stability over 6 months' time in air and water were obtained, as demonstrated by ellipsometry, X-Ray reflectivity, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Stable coatings showed also proton conductivity as high as 1.1 ± 0.1 mS cm-1. Chemical analysis showed that due to the high molecular weight of the chosen precursors, it was possible to keep the plasma energy-input-per-mass low. This allowed limited precursor fragmentation and the functional groups of both monomers to be retained during the plasma polymerization.

  12. Laser Plasma Vapour Deposition Of Photoconducting And High Tc Superconducting Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Mihai A.; Apostol, Ileana; Mihailescu, Ion N.; Botila, T.; Pentia, E.; Ciurea, M. L.; Dinescu, M.; Jaklovsky, J.; Aldica, Gheorghe V.; Miu, L.; Rusu, C.; Hening, Al. A.; Mihai, S.; Constantin, C.; Stoica, Mihaela; Pausescu, P.; Cruceanu, Eugen; Pompe, Wolfgang; Wuensch, R.; Richter, Asta; Scheibe, H. J.

    1989-05-01

    Device quality PbS photoconducting films were obtained by laser plasma vapour deposition on special glass substrates at room temperature and their structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. High Tc superconducting films of composition Dy0.2Y0.8Ba2Cu3O~7 and YBa2Cu3O~7 were deposited on sapphire substrate. It was shown for laser deposited YBa2Cu3O~7 that a buffer layer of the same composition predeposited by rf sputtering allows for getting high quality superconducting films.

  13. Microstructural modification of nc-Si/SiOx films during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. W.

    2005-07-01

    Nanocrystalline-silicon embedded silicon oxide films are prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 300 °C without post-heat treatment. Measurements of XPS, IR, XRD, and HREM are performed. Microstructural modifications are found occurring throughout the film deposition. The silica network with a high oxide state is suggested to be formed directly under the abduction of the former deposited layer, rather than processing repeatedly from the original low-oxide state of silica. Nanocrystalline silicon particles with a size of 6-10 nm are embedded in the SiOx film matrix, indicating the potential application in Si-based optoelectronic integrity.

  14. Plasma Diagnostics For The Investigation of Silane Based Glow Discharge Deposition Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataras, Dimitrios

    2001-10-01

    In this work is presented the study of microcrystalline silicon PECVD process through highly diluted silane in hydrogen discharges. The investigation is performed by applying different non intrusive plasma diagnostics (electrical, optical, mass spectrometric and laser interferometric measurements). Each of these measurements is related to different plasma sub-processes (gas physics, plasma chemistry and plasma surface interaction) and compose a complete set, proper for the investigation of the effect of external discharge parameters on the deposition processes. In the specific case these plasma diagnostics are applied for prospecting the optimal experimental conditions from the ic-Si:H deposition rate point of view. Namely, the main characteristics of the effect of frequency, discharge geometry, power consumption and total gas pressure on the deposition process are presented successively. Special attention is given to the study of the frequency effect (13.56 MHz 50 MHz) indicating that the correct way to compare results of different driving frequency discharges is by maintaining constant the total power dissipation in the discharge. The important role of frequency in the achievement of high deposition rates and on the optimization of all other parameters is underlined. Finally, the proper combination of experimental conditions that result from the optimal choice of each of the above-mentioned discharge parameters and lead to high microcrystalline silicon deposition rates (7.5 Å/sec) is presented. The increase of silane dissociation rate towards neutral radicals (frequency effect), the contribution of highly sticking to the surface radicals (discharge geometry optimum) and the controlled production of higher radicals through secondary gas phase reactions (total gas pressure), are presented as prerequisites for the achievement of high deposition rates.

  15. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  16. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    PubMed

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly.

  17. PIV analysis of the homogeneity of energy deposition during development of a plasma actuator channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazyrin, F. N.; Znamenskaya, I. A.; Mursenkova, I. V.; Naumov, D. S.; Sysoev, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    Nonstationary velocity fields that arise during the development of flows behind shock (blast) waves initiated by pulsed surface sliding discharge in air at a pressure of (2-4) × 104 Pa have been experimentally studied by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Plasma sheets (nanosecond discharges slipping over a dielectric surface) were initiated on walls of a rectangular chamber. Spatial analysis of the shape of shock-wave fronts and the distribution of flow velocities behind these waves showed that the pulsed energy deposition is homogeneous along discharge channels of a plasma sheet, while the integral visible plasma glow intensity decreases in the direction of channel propagation.

  18. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    PubMed

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly. PMID:12689203

  19. Energy deposition in parallel-plate plasma accelerators. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicapua, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    To appraise the ratio of energy deposition into kinetic and thermal modes in plasma accelerators, a parallel-plate plasma accelerator has been operated in the quasi-steady mode with current pulses in the range of 10 to 100 kilo-amperes (kA), durations of the order of one millisecond, and argon mass flows up to 100 grams/sec. From photographic observations, spectroscopic measurements of velocity and electron density, and pressure measurements with a fast-rise piezoelectric transducer it is found that, for currents between 50 and 90 kA, the accelerated argon plasma is supersonic with ion velocities of 5 to 6 kilometers/sec.

  20. A new modular multichamber plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, A.; Rava, P.; Schropp, R. E. I.; von Roedern, B.

    1993-06-01

    The present work reports on a new modular UHV multichamber PECVD system with characteristics which prevent both the incorporation of residual impurities and cross contamination between different layers. A wide range of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) materials have been produced and single junction pin solar cells with an efficiency greater than 10% have been readily obtained with little optimization. The system contains three UHV modular process zones (MPZ's); the MPZ's and a load lock chamber are located around a central isolation and transfer zone which contains the transport mechanism consisting of an arm with radial and linear movement. This configuration allows for introduction of the substrate into the MPZ's in any sequence so that any type of multilayer device can be produced. The interelectrode distance in the MPZ's can be adjusted between 1 and 5 cm. This has been found to be an important parameter in the optimisation of the deposition rate and of the uniformity. The multichamber concept also allows individually optimized deposition temperatures and interelectrode distances for the various layers. The system installed in Utrecht will be employed for further optimization of single junction solar cells and for research and development of stable a-Si:H tandem cells.

  1. From plasma immersion ion implantation to deposition: A historical perspective on principles and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2001-06-14

    Plasma immersion techniques of surface modification are known under a myriad of names. The family of techniques reaches from pure plasma ion implantation, to ion implantation and deposition hybrid modes, to modes that are essentially plasma film deposition with substrate bias. In the most general sense, all plasma immersion techniques have in common that the surface of a substrate (target) is exposed to plasma and that relatively high substrate bias is applied. The bias is usually pulsed. In this review, the roots of immersion techniques are explored, some going back to the 1800s, followed by a discussion of the groundbreaking works of Adler and Conrad in the 1980s. In the 1990s, plasma immersion techniques matured in theoretical understanding, scaling, and the range of applications. First commercial facilities are now operational. Various immersion concepts are compiled and explained in this review. While gas (often nitrogen) ion implantation dominated the early years, film-forming immersion techniques and semiconductor processing gained importance. In the 1980s and 1990s we have seen exponential growth of the field but signs of slowdown are clear since 1998. Nevertheless, plasma immersion techniques have found, and will continue to have, an important place among surface modification techniques.

  2. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  3. Correlations between plasma variables and the deposition process of Si films from chlorosilanes in low pressure RF plasma of argon and hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avni, R.; Carmi, U.; Grill, A.; Manory, R.; Grossman, E.

    1984-01-01

    The dissociation of chlorosilanes to silicon and its deposition on a solid substrate in a RF plasma of mixtures of argon and hydrogen were investigated as a function of the macrovariables of the plasma. The dissociation mechanism of chlorosilanes and HCl as well as the formation of Si in the plasma state were studied by sampling the plasma with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Macrovariables such as pressure, net RF power input and locations in the plasma reactor strongly influence the kinetics of dissociation. The deposition process of microcrystalline silicon films and its chlorine contamination were correlated to the dissociation mechanism of chlorosilanes and HCl.

  4. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M.; Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.; Mrad, O.

    2015-02-14

    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed.

  5. Controlled deposition of plasma activated coatings on zirconium substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Bilek, Marcela

    2015-12-01

    Zirconium-based alloys are promising materials for orthopedic prostheses due to their low toxicity, superb corrosion resistivity, and favorable mechanical properties. The integration of such bio-implantable devices with local host tissues can strongly be improved by the development of a plasma polymerized acetylene and nitrogen (PPAN) that immobilizes bio-active molecules. The surface chemistry of PPAN is critically important as it plays a key role in affecting the surface free energy that alters the functionality of bio-active molecules at the surface. The cross-linking degree of PPAN is another key property that directly influences the water-permeability and thus also the stability of films in aqueous media. In this study we demonstrate that by simply tuning the zirconium bias voltage, control over the surface chemistry and cross-linking degree of PANN is achieved.

  6. Optimization of a plasma focus device as an electron beam source for thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Lin, J.; Patran, A.; Wong, D.; Hassan, S. M.; Mahmood, S.; White, T.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    Electron beam emission characteristics from neon, argon, hydrogen and helium in an NX2 dense plasma focus (DPF) device were investigated in order to optimize the plasma focus device for deposition of thin films using energetic electron beams. A Rogowski coil and CCD based magnetic spectrometer were used to obtain temporal characteristics, total electron charge and energy distributions of electron emission from the NX2 DPF device. It is found that hydrogen should be the first choice for thin film deposition as it produces the highest electron beam charge and higher energy (from 50 to 200 keV) electrons. Neon is the next best choice as it gives the next highest electron beam charge with mid-energy (from 30 to 70 keV) electrons. The operation of NX2 with helium at voltages above 12 kV produces a mid-energy (from 30 to 70 keV) electron beam with low-electron beam charge, however, argon is not a good electron beam source for our NX2 DPF device. Preliminary results of the first ever thin film deposition using plasma focus assisted pulsed electron deposition using a hydrogen operated NX2 plasma focus device are presented.

  7. Plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles on ultrafiltration membranes: antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Ruano, Gustavo; Wolf, Marcus; Hecker, Dominic; Vidaurre, Elza Castro; Schmittgens, Ralph; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel and versatile plasma reactor was used to modify Polyethersulphone commercial membranes. The equipment was applied to: i) functionalize the membranes with low-temperature plasmas, ii) deposit a film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and, iii) deposit silver nanoparticles (SNP) by Gas Flow Sputtering. Each modification process was performed in the same reactor consecutively, without exposure of the membranes to atmospheric air. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the particles and modified membranes. SNP are evenly distributed on the membrane surface. Particle fixation and transport inside membranes were assessed before- and after-washing assays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. PMMA addition improved SNP fixation. Plasma-treated membranes showed higher hydrophilicity. Anti-biofouling activity was successfully achieved against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and -negative (Salmonella Typhimurium) bacteria. Therefore, disinfection by ultrafiltration showed substantial resistance to biofouling. The post-synthesis functionalization process developed provides a more efficient fabrication route for anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial membranes used in the water treatment field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gas phase condensation process combined with a PECVD procedure in order to deposit SNP on commercial membranes to inhibit biofouling formation. PMID:26166926

  8. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Gu; Wadley, H. N. G.

    2008-01-15

    A plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon) thin films. A Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} source was first evaporated using a high voltage electron beam and the resulting vapor entrained in a nitrogen-doped supersonic helium gas jet and deposited on a substrate at ambient temperature. This approach failed to incorporate significant concentrations of nitrogen in the films. A hollow cathode technique was then used to create an argon plasma that enabled partial ionization of both the Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} vapor and nitrogen gas just above the substrate surface. The plasma-enhanced deposition process greatly increased the gas phase and surface reactivity of the system and facilitated the synthesis and high rate deposition of amorphous Lipon films with the N/P ratios between 0.39 and 1.49. Manipulation of the plasma-enhanced process conditions also enabled control of the pore morphology and significantly affected the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium ion conductivities in the 10{sup -7}-10{sup -8} S/m range. They appear to be well suited for thin-film battery applications.

  9. Temperature-independent formation of Au nanoparticles in ionic liquids by arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Yoshikiyo; Kimura, Satoshi; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Agawa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Judai, Ken; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2016-08-01

    An effective preparation method of Au nanoparticles (NPs) is presented, wherein an arc plasma deposition technique is combined with ionic liquids (ILs) used as capture media. This method requires no chemical reaction. By selecting ILs, size-controlled Au NPs are produced easily and on a massive scale.

  10. Optical emission diagnostics of plasmas in chemical vapor deposition of single-crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hemawan, Kadek W. Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-11-15

    A key aspect of single crystal diamond growth via microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition is in-process control of the local plasma–substrate environment, that is, plasma gas phase concentrations of activated species at the plasma boundary layer near the substrate surface. Emission spectra of the plasma relative to the diamond substrate inside the microwave plasma reactor chamber have been analyzed via optical emission spectroscopy. The spectra of radical species such as CH, C{sub 2}, and H (Balmer series) important for diamond growth were identified and analyzed. The emission intensities of these electronically excited species were found to be more dependent on operating pressure than on microwave power. Plasma gas temperatures were calculated from measurements of the C{sub 2} Swan band (d{sup 3}Π → a{sup 3}Π transition) system. The plasma gas temperature ranges from 2800 to 3400 K depending on the spatial location of the plasma ball, microwave power and operating pressure. Addition of Ar into CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} plasma input gas mixture has little influence on the Hα, Hβ, and Hγ intensities and single-crystal diamond growth rates.

  11. Electron field emission characteristics of nano-catkin carbon films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guang-Rui; Wu, Bao-Jia; Jin, Zhe; Ito, Toshimichi

    2008-02-01

    This paper reported that the nano-catkin carbon films were prepared on Si substrates by means of electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition in a hydrogen and methane mixture. The surface morphology and the structure of the fabricated films were characterized by using scanning electron microscopes and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The stable field emission properties with a low threshold field of 5V/μm corresponding to a current density of about 1μA/cm2 and a current density of 3.2mA/cm2 at an electric field of 10V/μm were obtained from the carbon film deposited at CH4 concentration of 8%. The mechanism that the threshold field decreased with the increase of the CH4 concentration and the high emission current appeared at the high CH4 concentration was explained by using the Fowler-Nordheim theory.

  12. Deposition of SiNx Thin Film Using µ-SLAN Surface Wave Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying-Yu; Ogishima, Takuya; Korzec, Dariusz; Nakanishi, Yoichiro; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    1999-07-01

    A slot antenna (µ-SLAN) microwave surface wave plasma source was developed for SiNx thin film preparation. A µ-SLAN-produced argon plasma density up to 1011 cm-3 has been achieved at an axial position of about 43 cm from the ring cavity at a microwave power of 500 W and a chamber pressure of 0.5 Torr. High-speed deposition of SiNx thin film was performed using the µ-SLAN-assisted remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method incorporating tris(dimethylamino)silane (TDMAS) as a monomer source. The film deposition rate increased rapidly up to 270 nm/min when some hydrogen was mixed in the nitrogen gas and increased from 0 to 1%. A further increase of hydrogen content, however, only slightly increased the film deposition rate. A high deposition rate of 280 nm/min was obtained when 15% hydrogen was mixed in the nitrogen gas, with the chamber pressure and microwave power at 1.5 Torr and 500 W, respectively.

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride from Bis(tert-butylamino)silane and N2 Plasma.

    PubMed

    Knoops, Harm C M; Braeken, Eline M J; de Peuter, Koen; Potts, Stephen E; Haukka, Suvi; Pore, Viljami; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-09-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiNx) is deemed essential for a variety of applications in nanoelectronics, such as gate spacer layers in transistors. In this work an ALD process using bis(tert-butylamino)silane (BTBAS) and N2 plasma was developed and studied. The process exhibited a wide temperature window starting from room temperature up to 500 °C. The material properties and wet-etch rates were investigated as a function of plasma exposure time, plasma pressure, and substrate table temperature. Table temperatures of 300-500 °C yielded a high material quality and a composition close to Si3N4 was obtained at 500 °C (N/Si=1.4±0.1, mass density=2.9±0.1 g/cm3, refractive index=1.96±0.03). Low wet-etch rates of ∼1 nm/min were obtained for films deposited at table temperatures of 400 °C and higher, similar to that achieved in the literature using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of SiNx at >700 °C. For novel applications requiring significantly lower temperatures, the temperature window from room temperature to 200 °C can be a solution, where relatively high material quality was obtained when operating at low plasma pressures or long plasma exposure times.

  14. Flexible system for multiple plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Anders, Andre; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin

    2003-12-01

    Multiple plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition offers better flexibility compared to other thin film deposition techniques with regard to process optimization. The plasmas may be based on either cathodic arc plasmas (metal ions) or gas plasmas (gas ions) or both of them. Processing parameters such as pulsing frequency, pulse duration, bias voltage amplitude, and so on, that critically affect the film structure, internal stress, surface morphology, and other surface properties can be adjusted relatively easily to optimize the process. The plasma density can be readily controlled via the input power to obtain the desirable gas-to-metal ion ratios in the films. The high-voltage pulses can be applied to the samples within (in-duration mode), before (before-duration mode), or after (after-duration mode) the firing of the cathodic arcs. Consequently, dynamic ion beam assisted deposition processes incorporating various mixes of gas and metal ions can be achieved to yield thin films with the desirable properties. The immersion configuration provides to a certain degree the ability to treat components that are large and possess irregular geometries without resorting to complex sample manipulation or beam scanning. In this article we describe the hardware functions of such a system, voltage-current behavior to satisfy the needs of different processes, as well as typical experimental results.

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride from Bis(tert-butylamino)silane and N2 Plasma.

    PubMed

    Knoops, Harm C M; Braeken, Eline M J; de Peuter, Koen; Potts, Stephen E; Haukka, Suvi; Pore, Viljami; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-09-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiNx) is deemed essential for a variety of applications in nanoelectronics, such as gate spacer layers in transistors. In this work an ALD process using bis(tert-butylamino)silane (BTBAS) and N2 plasma was developed and studied. The process exhibited a wide temperature window starting from room temperature up to 500 °C. The material properties and wet-etch rates were investigated as a function of plasma exposure time, plasma pressure, and substrate table temperature. Table temperatures of 300-500 °C yielded a high material quality and a composition close to Si3N4 was obtained at 500 °C (N/Si=1.4±0.1, mass density=2.9±0.1 g/cm3, refractive index=1.96±0.03). Low wet-etch rates of ∼1 nm/min were obtained for films deposited at table temperatures of 400 °C and higher, similar to that achieved in the literature using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of SiNx at >700 °C. For novel applications requiring significantly lower temperatures, the temperature window from room temperature to 200 °C can be a solution, where relatively high material quality was obtained when operating at low plasma pressures or long plasma exposure times. PMID:26305370

  16. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-11-01

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH4/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H2 into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C2, Ar, N2, CH, Hβ, and Hα were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T2g phonon at 1333 cm-1 peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit "coral" and "cauliflower-like" morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  17. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Woehrl, Nicolas Schulz, Stephan; Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven; Shibasaki, Kosuke

    2014-04-15

    A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  18. High rate epitaxy of silicon thick films by medium pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambara, M.; Yagi, H.; Sawayanagi, M.; Yoshida, T.

    2006-04-01

    Homoepitaxial silicon thick films have been produced by medium pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition at rates as fast as 60 nm/s and at a temperature of around 700 °C, with a silane gas partial pressure of 4 mTorr. The continuous transition of the film structures from agglomerated to faceted columnar and to epitaxial planar structure was observed with an increase in the plasma power. The calorimetric analysis during deposition has also confirmed that the thermal boundary layer thickness between the plasma and substrate reduced with the increasing power and became comparable to the mean free path of the vapors when epitaxy was achieved at high rates. In addition, the rate for epitaxial growth was observed to increase linearly with silane gas partial pressure. These potentially indicate that less coagulated silicon atom clusters formed in the reduced boundary thickness have contributed effectively to the high rate epitaxial growth.

  19. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of amorphous Si on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupina, G.; Strobel, C.; Dabrowski, J.; Lippert, G.; Kitzmann, J.; Krause, H. M.; Wenger, Ch.; Lukosius, M.; Wolff, A.; Albert, M.; Bartha, J. W.

    2016-05-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of thin a-Si:H layers on transferred large area graphene is investigated. Radio frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) and very high frequency (VHF, 140 MHz) plasma processes are compared. Both methods provide conformal coating of graphene with Si layers as thin as 20 nm without any additional seed layer. The RF plasma process results in amorphization of the graphene layer. In contrast, the VHF process keeps the high crystalline quality of the graphene layer almost intact. Correlation analysis of Raman 2D and G band positions indicates that Si deposition induces reduction of the initial doping in graphene and an increase of compressive strain. Upon rapid thermal annealing, the amorphous Si layer undergoes dehydrogenation and transformation into a polycrystalline film, whereby a high crystalline quality of graphene is preserved.

  20. Plasma Spray-PVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Deposit Out of the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, Konstantin; Gindrat, Malko

    2011-06-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland). Even though it is a thermal spray process, it can deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. The basis of PS-PVD is the low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology that has been well established in industry for several years. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), the new proposed process uses a high energy plasma gun operated at a reduced work pressure of 0.1 kPa (1 mbar). Owing to the high energy plasma and further reduced work pressure, PS-PVD is able to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings. In contrast to EB-PVD, PS-PVD incorporates the vaporized coating material into a supersonic plasma plume. Owing to the forced gas stream of the plasma jet, complex shaped parts such as multi-airfoil turbine vanes can be coated with columnar thermal barrier coatings using PS-PVD. Even shadowed areas and areas which are not in the line of sight of the coating source can be coated homogeneously. This article reports on the progress made by Sulzer Metco in developing a thermal spray process to produce coatings out of the vapor phase. Columnar thermal barrier coatings made of Yttria-stabilized Zircona (YSZ) are optimized to serve in a turbine engine. This process includes not only preferable coating properties such as strain tolerance and erosion

  1. Study on electrostatic and electromagnetic probes operated in ceramic and metallic depositing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styrnoll, T.; Bienholz, S.; Lapke, M.; Awakowicz, P.

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses plasma probe diagnostics, namely the multipole resonance probe (MRP) and Langmuir probe (LP), operated in depositing plasmas. The aim of this work is to show that the combination of both probes provides stable and robust measurements and clear determination of plasma parameters for metallic and ceramic coating processes. The probes use different approaches to determine plasma parameters, e.g. electron density ne and electron temperature Te. The LP is a well-established plasma diagnostic, and its applicability in technological plasmas is well documented. The LP is a dc probe that performs a voltage sweep and analyses the measured current, which makes it insensitive against conductive metallic coating. However, once the LP is dielectrically coated with a ceramic film, its functionality is constricted. In contrast, the MRP was recently presented as a monitoring tool, which is insensitive to coating with dielectric ceramics. It is a new plasma diagnostic based on the concept of active plasma resonance spectroscopy, which uses the universal characteristic of all plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency. The MRP emits a frequency sweep and the absorption of the signal, the |S11| parameter, is analysed. Since the MRP concept is based on electromagnetic waves, which are able to transmit dielectrics, it is insensitive to dielectric coatings. But once the MRP is metallized with a thin conductive film, no undisturbed RF-signal can be emitted into the plasma, which leads to falsified plasma parameter. In order to compare both systems, during metallic or dielectric coating, the probes are operated in a magnetron CCP, which is equipped with a titanium target. We present measurements in metallic and dielectric coating processes with both probes and elaborate advantages and problems of each probe operated in each coating environment.

  2. Transport and Deposition of 13c From Methane Injection into Detached H-Mode Plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, W R; McLean, A G; Allen, S L; Brooks, N H; Elder, J D; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Stangeby, P C; West, W P; Whyte, D G

    2006-06-01

    Experiments are described which examine the transport and deposition of carbon entering the main plasma scrape-off layer in DIII-D. {sup 13}CH{sub 4} was injected from a toroidally symmetric source into the crown of lower single-null detached ELMy H-mode plasmas. {sup 13}C deposition, mapped by nuclear reaction analysis of tiles, was high at the inner divertor but absent at the outer divertor, as found previously for low density L-mode plasmas. This asymmetry indicates that ionized carbon is swept towards the inner divertor by a fast flow in the scrape-off layer. In the private flux region between inner and outer strike points, carbon deposition was low for L-mode but high for the H-mode plasmas. OEDGE modeling reproduces observed deposition patterns and indicates that neutral carbon dominates deposition in the divertor from detached H-mode plasmas.

  3. Behavior of incorporated nitrogen in plasma-nitrided silicon oxide formed by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Nao; Itokawa, Hiroshi; Fujitsuka, Ryota; Sekine, Katsuyuki; Onoue, Seiji; Tonotani, Junichi

    2016-04-01

    The behavior of nitrogen (N) atoms in plasma-nitrided silicon oxide (SiO2) formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was characterized by physical analysis and from electrical properties. The changes in the chemical bonding and distribution of N in plasma-nitrided SiO2 were investigated for different subsequent processes. N-Si3, N-Si2O, and N2 are formed in a SiO2 film by plasma nitridation. N2 molecules diffuse out during annealing at temperatures higher than 900 °C. NH species are generated from N2 molecules and H in the SiO2 film with subsequent oxide deposition using O3 as an oxidant. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are obtained. The negative shift of the C-V curve is caused by the increase in the density of positive fix charge traps in CVD-SiO2 induced by plasma nitridation. The C-V curve of plasma-nitrided SiO2 subjected to annealing shifts to the positive direction and that subjected to the subsequent oxide deposition shifts markedly to the negative direction. It is clarified that the density of positive charge fixed traps in plasma-nitrided SiO2 films decrease because the amount of N2 molecules is decreased by annealing, and that the density of traps increases because NH species are generated and move to the interface between SiO2 and the Si substrate with the subsequent oxide deposition.

  4. Optical properties of metal oxynitride thin films grown with atmospheric plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovish, Michael Q.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of tantalum oxynitride (TaO x N y ) and titanium oxynitride (TiO x N y ) are deposited using atmospheric plasma deposition and a suite of optical properties are reported. Tantalum and titanium ethoxide are introduced into the afterglow of a radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma, facilitating the growth of oxynitride films on silicon and polycarbonate at temperatures below 180 °C. The plasma power and nitrogen flow within the plasma are varied between 60 and 120 W and between 0.1 and 0.3 LPM respectively. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that the optical properties of the metal oxynitride films grown in this study are comparable to those synthesized with sol-gel methods. Measurement of both the extinction coefficient and the transmission on polycarbonate substrates indicates good transparency in the visible wavelengths of light. Additionally, the refractive index increases when increasing the number of reactive nitrogen species within the discharge. We use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to correlate the higher indexes observed at large secondary gas flows to the presence of metal oxynitride bonding. Single layer anti-reflection coatings are deposited on silicon, with a five-fold and seven-fold reduction in reflection for TaO x N y and TiO x N y coatings, respectively. In total, we have found that the modulation of nitrogen concentration within the plasma discharge results in good control over optical constants. In addition, we observe similarities between films deposited with atmospheric plasma and those reported for sol-gel, indicating an alternative processing route where solution chemistries are currently applied.

  5. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: Influence of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study were polyimide film (Kapton), polyamide based nylon (PA2200), and silicone rubber. Schlieren measurements were carried out in quiescent air conditions in order to observe density gradients induced by energy deposited. Size of heated area was used to qualify the energy deposition coupled with electrical power measurements performed using the back-current shunt technique. Additionally, light intensity measurements showed a different nature of discharge based upon the material used for barrier, for a fixed thickness and frequency of discharge. Finally, a characterisation study was performed for the three tested materials. Dielectric constant, volume resistivity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Strong trends between the control parameters and the energy deposited into the fluid during the discharge were observed. Results indicate that efficiency of energy deposition mechanism relative to the thickness of the barrier strongly depends upon the material used for the dielectric barrier itself. In general, a high dielectric strength and a low volumetric resistivity are preferred for a barrier, together with a high heat capacitance and a low thermal conductivity coefficient in order to maximize the efficiency of the thermal energy deposition induced by an ns-DBD plasma actuator.

  6. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  7. Growth of diamond by RF plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Duane E.; Ianno, Natale J.; Woollam, John A.; Swartzlander, A. B.; Nelson, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    A system has been designed and constructed to produce diamond particles by inductively coupled radio-frequency, plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. This is a low-pressure, low-temperature process used in an attempt to deposit diamond on substrates of glass, quartz, silicon, nickel, and boron nitride. Several deposition parameters have been varied including substrate temperature, gas concentration, gas pressure, total gas flow rate, RF input power, and deposition time. Analytical methods employed to determine composition and structure of the deposits include scanning electron microscopy, absorption spectroscopy, scanning Auger microprobe spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis indicates that particles having a thin graphite surface, as well as diamond particles with no surface coatings, have been deposited. Deposits on quartz have exhibited optical bandgaps as high as 4.5 eV. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that particles are deposited on a pedestal which Auger spectroscopy indicates to be graphite. This is a phenomenon that has not been previously reported in the literature.

  8. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  9. Deposition of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes by solution precursor plasma spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang

    Porous La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM) perovskite cathodes and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ)-Nickel (Ni) anodes were successfully deposited by direct current arc solution precursor plasma spray (DC-SPPS), in which a solution precursor of the product material was injected into DC plasma jet. The deposition mechanisms, such as the changes in the solution precursor with the increase of temperature and the evolution of the droplet as it moved along the plasma jet, as well as the impact of the synthesized particles onto the substrate, were investigated. The effects of processing parameters on the microstructure and phase composition of the fabricated LSM cathode and Ni-YSZ anode were examined systematically using TGA/TDA, XRD and SEM. Coating deposition efficiencies and porosities as a function of processing parameters were analyzed by statistical experimental design techniques, based on which the deposition processes were optimized. In addition, the hardness and electrical resistance of the fabricated coatings were measured. From the theoretical and experimental analyses conducted, a comprehensive description of the DC-SPPS process was developed. The precursor solution droplets undergo breakup; solvent evaporation and precursor salt precipitation and crystallization; precursor salt melting and decomposition; nucleation and growth of particles of the product phase; agglomeration, sintering, and perhaps melting of these particles; and impact onto the substrate. The breakup of droplets can only occur in the short period of time after the droplets are injected into the plasma jet. Agglomeration of droplets or particles may occur at any point along the plasma plume. This work has clearly established: (a) the critical importance of droplet breakup and the agglomeration of precursors or synthesized particles in-flight in the plasma jet in determining the structure of the deposited coating, and (b) the basis of the low deposition efficiencies obtained in DC-SPPS. The microstructure and

  10. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  11. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  12. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  13. Relatively low temperature synthesis of graphene by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, J. L.; Zheng, W. T.; Zheng, X. H.; Wang, X.; Tian, H. W.

    2011-05-01

    We present a simple, low-cost and high-effective method for synthesizing high-quality, large-area graphene using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) on SiO 2/Si substrate covered with Ni thin film at relatively low temperatures (650 °C). During deposition, the trace amount of carbon (CH 4 gas flow rate of 2 sccm) is introduced into PECVD chamber and the deposition time is only 30 s, in which the carbon atoms diffuse into the Ni film and then segregate on its surface, forming single-layer or few-layer graphene. After deposition, Ni is removed by wet etching, and the obtained single continuous graphene film can easily be transferred to other substrates. This investigation provides a large-area, low temperature and low-cost synthesis method for graphene as a practical electronic material.

  14. Surface Study of Nb/Cu Films for Cavity Deposition by ECR Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Wu; R.C. Ike; H.L. Phillips; A-M. Valente; H. Wang; G. Wu

    2005-05-16

    Deposition of thin niobium (Nb) films on copper (Cu) cavities, using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma appears to be an attractive alternative technique for fabricating superconducting radio frequency cavities to be used in particle accelerators. The performance of these Nb/Cu cavities is expected to depend on the surface characteristics of the Nb films. In this paper, we report on an investigation of the influence of deposition energy on surface morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of Nb films deposited on small Cu disks employing a metallographic optical microscope, a 3-D profilometer, a scanning electron microscope, and a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometer. The results will be compared with those obtained on Nb surfaces treated by buffered chemical polishing, electropolishing, and buffered electropolishing. Possible implications from this study for Nb deposition on real Cu cavities will be discussed.

  15. Investigation of Microwave Surface-Wave Plasma Deposited SiOx Coatings on Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we reported nano-scale SiOx coatings deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) webs by microwave surface-wave assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for the purpose of improving their barrier properties. Oxygen (O2) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) were employed as oxidant gas and Si monomer during SiOx deposition, respectively. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) for chemical structure and observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for surface morphology of SiOx coatings demonstrated that both chemical compounds and surface feature of coatings have a remarkable influence on the coating barrier properties. It is noted that the processing parameters play a critical role in the barrier properties of coatings. After optimization of the SiOx coatings deposition conditions, i.e. the discharge power of 1500 W, 2:1 of O2 : HMDSO ratio and working pressure of 20 Pa, a better barrier property was achieved in this work.

  16. Drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma for the detection of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengpeng; Chen, Changshui; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Hua; Jin, Shaoqin

    2015-03-01

    We have recently applied the technique of drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection using blood plasma. The aim of this study was to develop a more convenient and stable method based on blood plasma for noninvasive CRC detection. Significant differences are observed in DCDR spectra between healthy (n=105) and cancer (n=75) plasma from 15 CRC patients and 21 volunteers, particularly in the spectra that are related to proteins, nucleic acids, and β-carotene. The multivariate analysis principal components analysis and the linear discriminate analysis, together with leave-one-out, cross validation were used on DCDR spectra and yielded a sensitivity of 100% (75/75) and specificity of 98.1% (103/105) for detection of CRC. This study demonstrates that DCDR spectroscopy of blood plasma associated with multivariate statistical algorithms has the potential for the noninvasive detection of CRC.

  17. Mass Spectrometry Investigation on Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma for SiCOH Film Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Yan; Ye, Chao; Ning, Zhao-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the fragmentation behaviour of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (DMCPS) plasma using a quadrupole mass spectrometry, which is used as the precursor to deposit SiCOH film in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system. The structure of DMCPS molecules comprises a fivefold Si-O ring and ten -CH3 groups bonded at five Si atoms. In ECR discharge plasma, the main fragmentation behaviour of DMCPS includes two stages. One is the breaking of fivefold Si-O rings and then the formation of threefold Si-O rings and Si-O chain species. The other is the decomposing of hydrocarbon groups from Si atoms and then the crosslink of hydrocarbon species. Combined with the bonding configuration of SiCOH films, the relation between species in ECR plasma and films structures is analysed.

  18. Drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma for the detection of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengpeng; Chen, Changshui; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Hua; Jin, Shaoqin

    2015-03-01

    We have recently applied the technique of drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection using blood plasma. The aim of this study was to develop a more convenient and stable method based on blood plasma for noninvasive CRC detection. Significant differences are observed in DCDR spectra between healthy (n = 105) and cancer (n = 75) plasma from 15 CRC patients and 21 volunteers, particularly in the spectra that are related to proteins, nucleic acids, and β-carotene. The multivariate analysis principal components analysis and the linear discriminate analysis, together with leave-one-out, cross validation were used on DCDR spectra and yielded a sensitivity of 100% (75/75) and specificity of 98.1% (103/105) for detection of CRC. This study demonstrates that DCDR spectroscopy of blood plasma associated with multivariate statistical algorithms has the potential for the noninvasive detection of CRC.

  19. Design of a Sputtering Cathode for Binary Alloys Deposition in Plasma Source Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Shamim; Breun, Robert; Fetherston, Paul; Sridharan, Kumar; Conrad, John

    1996-10-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII)1,2 a target is immersed in a plasma and pulse biased to a high negative voltage ( 50kV). Ions are injected into the near surface of target material under the influence of the electric field. In order to produce Ion Assisted Deposition (IAD) films in PSII, materials of interest are sputtered using DC or RF bias and up to 20 kV negative bias pulses are applied while depositing films. We have performed deposition of titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) films using a perforated aluminum cathode stacked on a planar titanium cathode. Design characteristics of the sputtering cathodes as a function of the ratio of material area, plasma parameters, and stoichiometric deposition rates have been evaluated. Analysis of these results will be presented. * This work was supported by NSF. No DMI-9528746, US-Army No. DAALH 03-94-G-0283 1 J. R. Conrad, et al. J. Appl. Phys.62, 4951 (1987). 2 M.M. Shamim et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (1994).

  20. New plasma technique for the deposition of silica layers for integrated optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciatichi, Cristina; Natascia De Leo, Maria C.

    2000-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma torch has been used for the synthesis of high-purity, low OH concentration, fused silica layers, for integrated optics applications. This technique is very versatile and the same apparatus can be used to deposit silica layers doped with different elements but this work is particularly devoted to the germanium-doped silica layers. The torch, designed and built in-house, operates at atmospheric pressure and is posed by a 13.56 MHz, 5.4 kW, RF generator. The gaseous reactants are injected in the plasma tail flame by a silica nozzle. Planar silica targets are suitably moved over the torch exit in order to obtain the desired deposition. The samples made by means of this chemical vapor deposition process have been chemically and physically analyzed using various techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffractometer, UV, visible and IR spectroscopy, to test their morphological, geometrical, chemical and optical characteristics. By this plasma- assisted technique it has been possible to achieve the deposition of pure and germanium doped silica layers with good optical and morphological characteristics. Preliminary direct UV photoinduction experiments are very promising: a high refractive index change has been measured.

  1. Effect of process parameters on properties of argon–nitrogen plasma for titanium nitride film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, Partha; Kakati, Bharat

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the effect of working pressure and input power on the physical properties and sputtering efficiencies of argon–nitrogen (Ar/N{sub 2}) plasma in direct current magnetron discharge is investigated. The discharge in Ar/N{sub 2} is used to deposit TiN films on high speed steel substrate. The physical plasma parameters are determined by using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. A prominent change of electron temperature, electron density, ion density, and degree of ionization of Ar is found as a function of working pressure and input power. The results also show that increasing working pressure exerts a negative effect on film deposition rate while increasing input power has a positive impact on the same. To confirm the observed physical properties and evaluate the texture growth as a function of deposition parameters, x-ray diffraction study of deposited TiN films is also done.

  2. Hydrogen-dominated plasma, due to silane depletion, for microcrystalline silicon deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Howling, A. A.; Sobbia, R.; Hollenstein, Ch.

    2010-07-15

    Plasma conditions for microcrystalline silicon deposition generally require a high flux of atomic hydrogen, relative to SiH{sub {alpha}=0{yields}3} radicals, on the growing film. The necessary dominant partial pressure of hydrogen in the plasma is conventionally obtained by hydrogen dilution of silane in the inlet flow. However, a hydrogen-dominated plasma environment can also be obtained due to plasma depletion of the silane in the gas mixture, even up to the limit of pure silane inlet flow, provided that the silane depletion is strong enough. At first sight, it may seem surprising that the composition of a strongly depleted pure silane plasma consists principally of molecular hydrogen, without significant contribution from the partial pressure of silane radicals. The aim here is to bring some physical insight by means of a zero-dimensional, analytical plasma chemistry model. The model is appropriate for uniform large-area showerhead reactors, as shown by comparison with a three-dimensional numerical simulations. The SiH{sub {alpha}} densities remain very low because of their rapid diffusion and surface reactivity, contributing to film growth which is the desired scenario for efficient silane utilization. Significant SiH{sub {alpha}} densities due to poor design of reactor and gas flow, on the other hand, would result in powder formation wasting silane. Conversely, hydrogen atoms are not deposited, but recombine on the film surface and reappear as molecular hydrogen in the plasma. Therefore, in the limit of extremely high silane depletion fraction (>99.9%), the silane density falls below the low SiH{sub {alpha}} densities, but only the H radical can eventually reach significant concentrations in the hydrogen-dominated plasma.

  3. Lattice Matched Iii-V IV Semiconductor Heterostructures: Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition and Remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungwoo

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes the growth and characterization of wide gap III-V compound semiconductors such as aluminum gallium arsenide (Al_{rm x} Ga_{rm 1-x}As), gallium nitride (GaN), and gallium phosphide (GaP), deposited by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (Remote PECVD). In the first part of the thesis, the optimization of GaAs and Al_{rm x}Ga _{rm 1-x}As hetero -epitaxial layers on Ge substrates is described in the context of the application in the construction of cascade solar cells. The emphasis on this study is on the trade-offs in the choice of the temperature related to increasing interdiffusion/autodoping and increasing perfection of the epilayer with increasing temperature. The structural, chemical, optical, and electrical properties of the heterostructures are characterized by x-ray rocking curve measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron beam induced current (EBIC), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). Based on the results of this work the optimum growth temperature is 720^circC. The second part of the thesis describes the growth of GaN and GaP layers on silicon and sapphire substrates and the homoepitaxy of GaP by remote PECVD. I have designed and built an ultra high vacuum (UHV) deposition system which includes: the gas supply system, the pumping system, the deposition chamber, the load-lock chamber, and the waste disposal system. The work on the deposition of GaN on Si and sapphire focuses onto the understanding of the growth kinetics. In addition, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) for surface analysis, x-ray diffraction methods and microscopic analyses using SEM and TEM for structural characterization, infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption measurements for optical characterization, and electrical characterization results

  4. Hard boron{endash}suboxide-based films deposited in a sputter-sourced, high-density plasma deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Tsui, T.Y.; Pharr, G.M.; Medlin, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    Boron{endash}suboxide-based thin films have been deposited on Si in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma using a radio frequency (rf) magnetron as a source of boron. Variations of the oxygen fraction in the deposition ambient and of the rf bias applied to the substrate were related to film tribology. The best films have hardnesses of {approximately}28GPa and moduli of {approximately}240GPa and were deposited in oxygen fractions {lt}1{percent} at substrate temperatures {lt}350{degree}C. The films contain 4{percent}{endash}15{percent} O and {approximately}15{percent}C, with carbon originating from the sputter target. They are amorphous and have surface roughnesses of {approximately}0.2nm. Boron{endash}oxide films may form a self-generating lubricating layer of B(OH){sub 3} in ambient atmosphere. Compositional depth profiling of these films reveals an oxygen-enriched surface of {approximately}10nm thickness. Initial nanoscratch test results indicate that these films fail at high critical loads and have low friction coefficients relative to other hard coatings. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  5. Influence of krypton atoms on the structure of hydrogenated amorphous carbon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. H.; Viana, G. A.; de Lima, M. M.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Marques, F. C.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methane (CH4) plus krypton (Kr) mixed atmosphere. The depositions were performed as function of the bias voltage and krypton partial pressure. The goal of this work was to study the influence of krypton gas on the physical properties of a-C:H films deposited on the cathode electrode. Krypton concentration up to 1.6 at. %, determined by Rutherford Back-Scattering, was obtained at high Kr partial pressure and bias of -120 V. The structure of the films was analyzed by means of optical transmission spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. It was verified that the structure of the films remains unchanged up to a concentration of Kr of about 1.0 at. %. A slight graphitization of the films occurs for higher concentration. The observed variation in the film structure, optical band gap, stress, and hydrogen concentration were associated mainly with the subplantation process of hydrocarbons radicals, rather than the krypton ion energy.

  6. Influence of krypton atoms on the structure of hydrogenated amorphous carbon deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, M. H. Jr.; Viana, G. A.; Marques, F. C.; Lima, M. M. Jr. de; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using methane (CH{sub 4}) plus krypton (Kr) mixed atmosphere. The depositions were performed as function of the bias voltage and krypton partial pressure. The goal of this work was to study the influence of krypton gas on the physical properties of a-C:H films deposited on the cathode electrode. Krypton concentration up to 1.6 at. %, determined by Rutherford Back-Scattering, was obtained at high Kr partial pressure and bias of -120 V. The structure of the films was analyzed by means of optical transmission spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. It was verified that the structure of the films remains unchanged up to a concentration of Kr of about 1.0 at. %. A slight graphitization of the films occurs for higher concentration. The observed variation in the film structure, optical band gap, stress, and hydrogen concentration were associated mainly with the subplantation process of hydrocarbons radicals, rather than the krypton ion energy.

  7. Determination of Electron and Ion Energy Distribution Functions in a Plasma Ion Assisted Deposition (PIAD) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harhausen, J.; Foest, R.; Ohl, A.

    2011-10-01

    High performance optical coatings are commonly produced by PIAD in order to achieve comparably high deposition rates. Here, the plasma source is a hot cathode direct current discharge with an auxiliary magnetic field (APS). Its design is such to generate a population of fast ions to be released into the deposition chamber. A detailed understanding of the plasma properties in the chamber is mandatory to increase the level of uniformity and reproducibility of the deposition process. In order to determine the electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDF, IEDF) the concepts of the Langmuir probe, the retarding field energy analyzer and optical emission spectroscopy are employed. Fundamental findings are that the EEDF can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation and that the degree of ionization inside the APS is close to unity. The shape of the IEDF and its evolution along the beam path can be described consistently by considering charge exchange reactions with the background neutral gas and the profile of the plasma potential. High performance optical coatings are commonly produced by PIAD in order to achieve comparably high deposition rates. Here, the plasma source is a hot cathode direct current discharge with an auxiliary magnetic field (APS). Its design is such to generate a population of fast ions to be released into the deposition chamber. A detailed understanding of the plasma properties in the chamber is mandatory to increase the level of uniformity and reproducibility of the deposition process. In order to determine the electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDF, IEDF) the concepts of the Langmuir probe, the retarding field energy analyzer and optical emission spectroscopy are employed. Fundamental findings are that the EEDF can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation and that the degree of ionization inside the APS is close to unity. The shape of the IEDF and its evolution along the beam path can be

  8. An Evaluation of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma for the Cost-Effective Deposition of Antireflection Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rob Sailer; Guruvenket Srinivasan; Kyle W. Johnson; Douglas L. Schulz

    2010-04-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma deposition (APPD) has previously been used to deposit various functional materials including polymeric surface modification layers, transparent conducting oxides, and photo catalytic materials. For many plasma polymerized coatings, reaction occurs via free radical mechanism where the high energy electrons from the plasma activate the olefinic carbon-carbon double bonds - a typical functional group in such precursors. The precursors for such systems are typically inexpensive and readily available and have been used in vacuum PECVD previously. The objectives are to investigate: (1) the effect of plasma power, gas composition and substrate temperature on the Si-based film properties using triethylsilane(TES) as the precursor; and (2) the chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of several experimental matrices based on Design of Experiment (DOE) principals. A simple APPD route has been utilized to deposit Si based films from an inexpensive precursor - Triethylsilane (TES). Preliminary results indicates formation of Si-C & Si-O and Si-O, Si-C & Si-N bonds with oxygen and nitrogen plasmas respectively. N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma showed mixed trend; however oxygen remains a significant portion of all films, despite attempts to minimize exposure to atmosphere. SiN, SiC, and SiO ratios can be modified by the reaction conditions resulting in differing film properties. SE studies revealed that films with SiN bond possess refractive index higher than coatings with Si-O/Si-C bonds. Variable angle reflectance studies showed that SiOCN coatings offer AR properties; however thickness and refractive index optimization of these coatings remains necessary for application as potential AR coatings.

  9. Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Cooper Seed Layers at Low Process Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jiajun

    In conventional Cu interconnect fabrication, a sputtered copper seed layer is deposited before the electrochemically deposited (ECD) copper plating step. However, as interconnect dimensions scale down, non-conformal seed layer growth and subsequent voiding of metallized structures is becoming a critical issue. With its established excellent thickness controllability and film conformality, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is becoming an attractive deposition approach for the sub-24nm fabrication regime. However, in order to achieve a smooth and continuous seed layer deposition, a low process temperature (below 100°C) is needed, given the tendency of Cu agglomeration at elevated temperature. In this research, plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) Cu processes at low process temperature are developed using two novel precursors: Cuprum and AbaCus. The volatility and thermal stability of these two precursors are presented. Self-limiting nature of the PEALD processes are demonstrated. Key film properties including purity, resistivity, conformality, adhesion and platability are evaluated using multiple characterization techniques. In addition, film nucleation and growth of PEALD Cu at room temperature on different liner materials are studied. Via structures are employed for the investigation of film continuity on side walls. It is also shown that film conformality and platability can be improved by over saturating the plasma reactions.

  10. Spoof-like plasmonic behavior of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition grown Ag thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Prokes, S. M.; Glembocki, O. J.; Cleveland, Erin; Caldwell, Josh D.; Foos, Edward; Niinistoe, Jaakko; Ritala, Mikko

    2012-01-30

    The plasmonic behavior of Ag thin films produced by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) has been investigated. We show that as-deposited flat PEALD Ag films exhibit unexpected plasmonic properties, and the plasmonic enhancement can differ markedly, depending on the microstructure of the Ag film. Electromagnetic field simulations indicate that this plasmonic behavior is due to air gaps that are an inherent property of the mosaic-like microstructure of the PEALD-grown Ag film, suggesting that this is a metamaterial with behavior very similar to what would be expected in spoof plasmonics where gaps are fabricated in films to create plasmonic-like resonances.

  11. Single crystal chemical vapor deposit diamond detector for energetic plasma measurement in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, K.; Broiles, T. W.; Coulter, K. E.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Livi, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Walther, B. C.

    2015-03-01

    This study reports the performance of single crystal chemical vapor deposit diamond detectors for measuring space plasma and energetic particles: ~7 keV energy resolution for protons with a 14 keV threshold level, and good response linearity for ions and electrons as expected from Monte-Carlo calculations of primary particle energy loss. We investigated that these diamond detectors are able to operate at high temperature (> 70 ° C) and have fast response times (< 1 ns rise time). While silicon detectors have proven capability over this energy range for space plasma measurements, diamond detectors offer a faster response, higher temperature operation, greater radiation tolerance, and immunity to light.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: A review of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyyappan, M.

    2009-11-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has been widely discussed in the literature for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs) in recent years. Advantages claimed include lower growth temperatures relative to thermal CVD and the ability to grow individual, free-standing, vertical CNFs instead of tower-like structures or ensembles. This paper reviews the current status of the technology including equipment, plasma chemistry, diagnostics and modelling, and mechanisms. Recent accomplishments include PECVD of single-walled CNTs and growth at low temperatures for handling delicate substrates such as glass.

  13. Influence of argon plasma on the deposition of Al2O3 film onto the PET surfaces by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with and without plasma pretreatment were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD). It demonstrates that the Al2O3 films are successfully deposited onto the surface of PET films. The cracks formed on the deposited Al2O3 films in the ALD, plasma pretreated ALD, and PA-ALD were attributed to the energetic ion bombardment in plasmas. The surface wettability in terms of water contact angle shows that the deposited Al2O3 layer can enhance the wetting property of modified PET surface. Further characterizations of the Al2O3 films suggest that the elevated density of hydroxyl -OH group improve the initial growth of ALD deposition. Chemical composition of the Al2O3-coated PET film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which shows that the content of C 1s reduces with the growing of O 1s in the Al2O3-coated PET films, and the introduction of plasma in the ALD process helps the normal growth of Al2O3 on PET in PA-ALD. PMID:23413804

  14. Plasma Membrane Factor XIIIA Transglutaminase Activity Regulates Osteoblast Matrix Secretion and Deposition by Affecting Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jallad, Hadil F.; Myneni, Vamsee D.; Piercy-Kotb, Sarah A.; Chabot, Nicolas; Mulani, Amina; Keillor, Jeffrey W.; Kaartinen, Mari T.

    2011-01-01

    Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA), has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to ‘block –and-track’ enzyme(s) targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics. PMID:21283799

  15. Nanofabrication using home-made RF plasma coupled chemical vapour deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Si Ci; Ilyas, Usman; Rawat, Rajdeep Singh

    2014-08-01

    Zinc oxide, ZnO, a popular semiconductor material with a wide band gap (3.37 eV) and high binding energy of the exciton (60 meV), has numerous applications such as in optoelectronics, chemical/biological sensors, and drug delivery. This project aims to (i) optimize the operating conditions for growth of ZnO nanostructures using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and (ii) investigate the effects of coupling radiofrequency (RF) plasma to the CVD method on the quality of ZnO nanostructures. First, ZnO nanowires were synthesized using a home-made reaction setup on gold-coated and non-coated Si (100) substrates at 950 °C. XRD, SEM, EDX, and PL measurements were used for characterizations and it was found that a deposition duration of 10 minutes produced the most well-defined ZnO nanowires. SEM analysis revealed that the nanowires had diameters ranging from 30-100 mm and lengths ranging from 1-4 µm. In addition, PL analysis showed strong UV emission at 380 nm, making it suitable for UV lasing. Next, RF plasma was introduced for 30 minutes. Both remote and in situ RF plasma produced less satisfactory ZnO nanostructures with poorer crystalline structure, surface morphology, and optical properties due to etching effect of energetic ions produced from plasma. However, a reduction in plasma discharge duration to 10 minutes produced thicker and shorter ZnO nanostructures. Based on experimentation conducted, it is insufficient to conclude that RF plasma cannot aid in producing well-defined ZnO nanostructures. It can be deduced that the etching effect of energetic ions outweighed the increased oxygen radical production in RF plasma nanofabrication.

  16. An investigation of plasma chemistry for dc plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hash, David B.; Bell, Martin S.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Cruden, Brett A.; Milne, William I.; Meyyappan, M.

    2005-06-01

    The role of plasma in plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is investigated with both experimental and computational diagnostic techniques. A residual gas analysis (RGA) of a 12 mbar dc discharge with a C2H2/NH3 gas mixture is conducted near the Ni catalyst surface employed for carbon nanofibre growth. The results are corroborated with a 1D dc discharge model that solves for species densities, ion momentum, and ion, electron and neutral gas thermal energies. The effect of varying the plasma power from 0 to 200 W on the gas composition is studied. The dissociation efficiency of the plasma is demonstrated where over 50% of the feedstock is converted to a mixture of hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrogen cyanide at 200 W. Finally, the important role that endothermic ion-molecule reactions play in this conversion is, for the first time, established. Of these reactions, dissociative proton abstraction and collision-induced dissociation are of the greatest significance.

  17. Plasma polymerization and deposition of linear, cyclic and aromatic fluorocarbons on (100)-oriented single crystal silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. H.; Oh, S. W.; Kang, E. T.; Neoh, K. G.

    2002-11-01

    Fluoropolymer films were deposited on the Ar plasma-pretreated Si(100) surfaces by plasma polymerization of perfluorohexane (PFH, a linear fluorocarbon), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane) (MCH, a cyclic fluorocarbon), and hexafluorobenzene (HFB, an aromatic fluorocarbon) under different glow discharge conditions. The effects of the radio-frequency plasma power on the chemical composition and structure of the plasma-polymerized fluoropolymer films were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and water contact angle measurements. The changes in structure and composition of the three types of the plasma-deposited films from those of the respective fluorocarbons were compared. Under similar glow discharge conditions: (i) the extent of defluorination was highest for the PFH polymer, (ii) the deposition rate was highest for the HFB polymer, (iii) the cyclic structure of MCH was less well preserved than the aromatic structure of HFB, (iv) aliphatic structures appeared in the plasma-deposited MCH polymer, and (v) the plasma-polymerized HFB has the highest thermal stability due to the preservation of the aromatic rings. The adhesive tape peel test results revealed that the plasma-polymerized and deposited fluoropolymer layers were strongly bonded to the Ar plasma-pretreated Si(100) surfaces.

  18. Characterization of TiO x film prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a multi-jet hollow cathode plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Korzec, Dariusz; Aoki, Toru; Engemann, Jurgen; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    2001-05-01

    The high rate deposition of TiO x film at low temperature was achieved by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a source material. The multi-jet hollow cathode plasma source was used to generate the high-density plasma, which was showered toward the substrate. The emission spectra suggest that oxygen radicals play an important role for dissociation of the source material and for yielding the precursors. The high deposition rate up to 50 nm/min was achieved by this process. The as-deposited films are completely amorphous. They consist of structures with complex bondings including both tetrahedral and octahedral components. Though they have such complex bondings, the hydrophilicity of the PECVD film is excellent comparing to that of the annealed crystalline anatase structure. It seems that the PECVD using the multi-jet plasma source is promising for fabrication of hydrophilic TiO x films in low-temperature process.

  19. Improved film quality of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition SiO{sub 2} using plasma treatment cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Haiwon; Chung, Ilsub; Kim, Seokyun; Shin, Seungwoo; Jung, Wooduck; Hwang, Ryong; Jeong, Choonsik; Hwang, Hanna

    2015-01-15

    Chemical, physical, and electrical characteristics of high quality silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films grown using low temperature plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) have been investigated as a buffer layer for three dimensional vertical NAND flash memory devices. The comparative angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies show the plasma treatment cycle causes to shift the core level binding energy (chemical shifts) in the SiO{sub 2} film. The wet etch rates with respect to plasma treatment cycle times were varied due to curing of the SiO{sub 2} network defects by Ar{sup +} ions and oxygen radicals. It is assumed that the angle between the bonds linking SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra is a critical point understanding the variation in wet etch rate of SiO{sub 2}. The features of wet etch rate of low temperature high quality SiO{sub 2} demonstrated lower than high temperature low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LP-CVD) SiO{sub 2} values. In addition, the better step-coverage compared to that of the LP-CVD SiO{sub 2} film was achieved from the deep trench structure having the 20:1 aspect ratio. PE-ALD SiO{sub 2} with plasma treatment cycle showed excellent I–V properties with higher breakdown voltage compared to LP-CVD SiO{sub 2} and similar to the thermal SiO{sub 2} carrier transport plot.

  20. Fast electron energy deposition in a magnetized plasma: Kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Robiche, J.; Rax, J.-M.; Bonnaud, G.; Gremillet, L.

    2010-03-15

    The collisional dynamics of a relativistic electron jet in a magnetized plasma are investigated within the framework of kinetic theory. The relativistic Fokker-Planck equation describing slowing down, pitch angle scattering, and cyclotron rotation is derived and solved. Based on the solution of this Fokker-Planck equation, an analytical formula for the root mean square spot size transverse to the magnetic field is derived and this result predicts a reduction in radial transport. Some comparisons with particle-in-cell simulation are made and confirm striking agreement between the theory and the simulation. For fast electron with 1 MeV typical kinetic energy interacting with a solid density hydrogen plasma, the energy deposition density in the transverse direction increases by a factor 2 for magnetic field of the order of 1 T. Along the magnetic field, the energy deposition profile is unaltered compared with the field-free case.

  1. Hard boron oxide thin-film deposition using electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatkin, S. M.; Rhoades, R. L.; Tsui, T. Y.; Oliver, W. C.

    1994-11-01

    Hard boron suboxide thin films were deposited in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma system at substrate temperatures below 300 °C. A high-temperature effusion cell, operated at 2200°-2250 °C, was used for injection of boron downstream of an Ar/O2 ECR plasma. B ion bombardment is estimated to have been up to 6% of the total boron flux, and Ar ion bombardment is estimated to have contributed ˜100 eV/deposited atom. Boron suboxide films with oxygen concentrations of 11% exhibited hardnesses up to 30 GPa, equal to sapphire and near that of pure boron. The hardness/modulus ratio was 0.1, significantly better than that of sapphire (0.067) or solid boron (0.074), indicating these films may be of interest for a variety of tribological applications.

  2. Hard boron oxide thin-film deposition using electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatkin, S.M.; Rhoades, R.L.; Tsui, T.Y.; Oliver, W.C. )

    1994-11-21

    Hard boron suboxide thin films were deposited in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma system at substrate temperatures below 300 [degree]C. A high-temperature effusion cell, operated at 2200[degree]--2250 [degree]C, was used for injection of boron downstream of an Ar/O[sub 2] ECR plasma. B ion bombardment is estimated to have been up to 6% of the total boron flux, and Ar ion bombardment is estimated to have contributed [similar to]100 eV/deposited atom. Boron suboxide films with oxygen concentrations of 11% exhibited hardnesses up to 30 GPa, equal to sapphire and near that of pure boron. The hardness/modulus ratio was 0.1, significantly better than that of sapphire (0.067) or solid boron (0.074), indicating these films may be of interest for a variety of tribological applications.

  3. Status of Plasma Physics Techniques for the Deposition of Tribological Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma physics deposition techniques of sputtering and ion-plating are reviewed. Their characteristics and potentials are discussed in terms of synthesis or deposition of tribological coatings. Since the glow discharge or plasma generated in the conventional sputtering and ion-plating techniques has a low ionization efficiency, rapid advances have been made in equipment design to further increase the ionization efficiency. The enhanced ionization favorably affects the nucleation and growth sequence of the coating. This leads to improved adherence and coherence, higher density, favorable morphological growth, and reduced internal stresses in the coatings. As a result, desirable coating characteristics can be precision tailored. Tribological coating characteristics of sputtered solid film lubricants such as MoS2, ion-plated soft gold and lead metallic films, and sputtered and ion-plated wear-resistant refractory compound films such as nitrides and carbides are discussed.

  4. Growth of aligned carbon nanotubes on carbon microfibers by dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L H.; AuBuchon, J F.; Chen, I C.; Daraio, C; Ye, X R.; Gapin, A; Jin, Sungho; Wang, Chong M.

    2006-01-16

    It is shown that unidirectionally aligned carbon nanotubes can be grown on electrically conductive network of carbon microfibers via control of buffer layer material and applied electric field during dc plasma chemical vapor deposition growth. Ni catalyst deposition on carbon microfiber produces relatively poorly aligned nanotubes with significantly varying diameters and lengths obtained. The insertion of Ti 5 nm thick underlayer between Ni catalyst layer and C microfiber substrate significantly alters the morphology of nanotubes, resulting in much better aligned, finer diameter, and longer array of nanotubes. This beneficial effect is attributed to the reduced reaction between Ni and carbon paper, as well as prevention of plasma etching of carbon paper by inserting a Ti buffer layer. Such a unidirectionally aligned nanotube structure on an open-pore conductive substrate structure may conveniently be utilized as a high-surface-area base electrodes for fuel cells, batteries, and other electrochemical and catalytic reactions.

  5. Deposition and characterization of molybdenum thin films using dc-plasma magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Majid; Islam, Mohammad

    2013-12-15

    Molebdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on well-cleaned soda-lime glass substrates using DC-plasma magnetron sputtering. In the design of experiment deposition was optimized for maximum beneficial characteristics by monitoring effect of process variables such as deposition power (100–200 W). Their electrical, structural and morphological properties were analyzed to study the effect of these variables. The electrical resistivity of Mo thin films could be reduced by increasing deposition power. Within the range of analyzed deposition power, Mo thin films showed a mono crystalline nature and the crystallites were found to have an orientation along [110] direction. The surface morphology of thin films showed that a highly dense micro structure has been obtained. The surface roughness of films increased with deposition power. The adhesion of Mo thin films could be improved by increasing the deposition power. Atomic force microscopy was used for the topographical study of the films and to determine the roughness of the films. X-ray diffractrometer and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to investigate the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. Hall effect measurement system was used to find resistivity, carrier mobility and carrier density of deposited films. The adhesion test was performed using scotch hatch tape adhesion test. Mo thin films prepared at deposition power of 200 W, substrate temperature of 23°C and Ar pressure of 0.0123 mbar exhibited a mono crystalline structure with an orientation along (110) direction, thickness of ∼550 nm and electrical resistivity value of 0.57 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm.

  6. Nanotransfer Printing Using Plasma Etched Silicon Stamps and Mediated by In-Situ Deposited Fluoropolyme

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    This communication describes a simple method that uses a thin film of octafluorocyclobutane (OFCB) polymer for efficient nanoscale transfer printing (nTP). Plasma polymerization of OFCB produces a Teflon-like fluoropolymer which strongly adheres and conformally covers 3-D inorganic stamp. The inherently low surface energy of in-situ deposited OFCB polymer on nanoscale silicon features is demonstrated as a unique nanocomposite stamp to fabricate various test structures with improved nTP feature resolution down to sub 100 nm.

  7. Process Development for Deposition of Chromium Oxide Using Plasma Source Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Shamim

    1997-10-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII)1,2 a substrate is immersed in a plasma and pulse biased to a high negative voltage ( 50kV). Ions are injected into the near surface of substrate material under the influence of the electric field. In order to produce Energetic Ion Assisted Mixing And Deposition (EIAMAD) of films in PSII, materials of interest are sputtered (using DC and RF power to the sputter target) onto a substrate and simultaneously negative bias pulses of upto 15 kV are applied to the substrate itself. We have performed deposition of chromium oxide inside hollow cylinder and on planar geometry. Chromium oxide forms various oxides with different colors and atomic composition. The process characteristics, plasma parameters, and deposition rates have been evaluated. Analysis of these results will be presented. * This work was supported by NSF. No DMI-9528746, US-Army No. DAALH 03-94-G-0283 1 J. R. Conrad, et al. J. Appl. Phys.62, 4951 (1987). 2 M.M. Shamim et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (1994).

  8. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-15

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  9. Surface Passivation of ZrO2 Artificial Dentures by Magnetized Coaxial Plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Soya; Kurumi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hara, Katsuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiko; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki; Nihon University Team

    2015-09-01

    Recent growth and fabrication technologies for functional materials have been greatly contributed to drastic development of oral surgery field. Zirconia based ceramics is expected to utilize artificial dentures because these ceramics have good biocompatibility, high hardness and aesthetic attractively. However, to apply these ceramics to artificial dentures, this denture is removed from a dental plate because of weakly bond. For improving this problem, synthesis an Al passivation-layer on the ceramics for bonding with these dental items is suitable. In order to deposit the passivation layer, we focused on a magnetized coaxial plasma deposition (MCPD). The greatest characteristic of MCPD is that high-melting point metal can be deposited on various substrates. Additionally, adhesion force between substrate and films deposited by the MCPD is superior to it of general deposition methods. In this study, we have reported on the growth techniques of Al films on ZrO2 for contributing to oral surgery by the MCPD. Surface of deposited films shows there were some droplets and thickness of it is about 200 nm. Thickness is increased to 500 nm with increasing applied voltage.

  10. Plasma-polymerization-deposited transparent protective coating for plastic display window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Daoyang; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1996-09-01

    The technique of mid-frequency plasma polymerization was employed to deposit scratch-resistant and anti-fogging films on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The input monomer used for depositing scratch-resistant coatings was tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO). Variation of oxygen-to-TMDSO ratio study indicated that the hardest film was formed using equal amount of oxygen and TMDSO. The typical deposition rate was about 3 micrometers /hr. Typical operation pressure, TMDSO flow and oxygen flow were 2 X 10-2 Torr, 30 sccm and 30 sccm, respectively. The deposited polysiloxane layer was characterized as a hard, highly transparent and durable against scratching and abrasion film. Further depositing a thin hydrophilic film on top of the polysiloxane layer significantly improved the surface wettability and therefore dramatically increased the anti-fogging capability. The monomer used for polymerization deposition of the anti- fogging film was vinyl acetate, and the typical flow for vinyl acetate monomer and oxygen were 15 sccm and 10 sccm, respectively.

  11. Deposition of wear-resistant steel surfaces by the plasma rotating electrode coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michael Robert

    A high-deposition rate thermal spray method was investigated for the purpose of coating aluminum cylinder bores with a wear resistant surface. This method, the plasma rotating electrode coating system (PROTEC) utilized transferred-arc melting of a rapidly rotating consumable electrode to create a droplet stream via centrifugal atomization. A cylindrical substrate was placed around the rotating rod, in the flight path of the droplets, to deposit a coating onto the internal surface of the cylinder. Selected coatings of 1045 steel deposited by the PROTEC coating method exhibited lower wear loss in lubricated sliding than wire-arc sprayed carbon steel coatings and gray cast iron. Splat cohesion was shown to be a significant factor in the wear resistance of PROTEC coatings. The relationship between deposition enthalpy and cooling rate of the coating was found to have the greatest effect on coating microstructure, and the coating cohesion. The most rapidly solidified coatings showed inferior splat cohesion in comparison to coatings that cooled more slowly. The increase in splat cohesion with decreased cooling rate was accompanied by the formation of a directionally oriented coating microstructure, likely formed during cellular solidification of the coating. A model describing the thermal state of the deposition process was used to predict the deposition conditions that would result in a cellular structure, and the level of splat cohesion required to produce a wear resistant coating.

  12. The evolution of carbon nanotubes during their growth by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hengzhi; Ren, Z. F.

    2011-10-01

    During the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), plasma etching is the crucial factor that determines the growth mode and alignment of the CNTs. Focusing on a thin catalyst coating (Ni = 5 nm), this study finds that the CNT growth by PECVD goes through three stages from randomly entangled (I-CNTs) to partially aligned (II-CNTs) to fully aligned (III-CNTs). The I-CNTs and II-CNTs are mostly etched away by the plasma as time goes by ending up with III-CNTs as the only product when growth time is long enough. However, with a thickness of the catalyst coating of 10 nm or more, neither I-CNTs nor II-CNTs are produced, but III-CNTs are the only type of CNTs grown during the whole growth process. During the growth of III-CNTs, the catalyst particles (Ni) stay on the tips of each of the aligned CNTs and act as a 'safety helmet' to protect the CNTs from plasma ion bombardment. On the other hand, it is also the plasma that limits the growth of III-CNTs, since the plasma eventually etches all the catalytic particles out and stops the growth.

  13. The evolution of carbon nanotubes during their growth by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengzhi; Ren, Z F

    2011-10-01

    During the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), plasma etching is the crucial factor that determines the growth mode and alignment of the CNTs. Focusing on a thin catalyst coating (Ni = 5 nm), this study finds that the CNT growth by PECVD goes through three stages from randomly entangled (I-CNTs) to partially aligned (II-CNTs) to fully aligned (III-CNTs). The I-CNTs and II-CNTs are mostly etched away by the plasma as time goes by ending up with III-CNTs as the only product when growth time is long enough. However, with a thickness of the catalyst coating of 10 nm or more, neither I-CNTs nor II-CNTs are produced, but III-CNTs are the only type of CNTs grown during the whole growth process. During the growth of III-CNTs, the catalyst particles (Ni) stay on the tips of each of the aligned CNTs and act as a 'safety helmet' to protect the CNTs from plasma ion bombardment. On the other hand, it is also the plasma that limits the growth of III-CNTs, since the plasma eventually etches all the catalytic particles out and stops the growth. PMID:21911923

  14. Plasma etch characteristics of aluminum nitride mask layers grown by low-temperature plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition in SF{sub 6} based plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Perros, Alexander; Bosund, Markus; Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Sainiemi, Lauri; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri

    2012-01-15

    The plasma etch characteristics of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited by low-temperature, 200 deg. C, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) was investigated for reactive ion etch (RIE) and inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etch (ICP-RIE) systems using various mixtures of SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} under different etch conditions. During RIE, the film exhibits good mask properties with etch rates below 10r nm/min. For ICP-RIE processes, the film exhibits exceptionally low etch rates in the subnanometer region with lower platen power. The AlN film's removal occurred through physical mechanisms; consequently, rf power and chamber pressure were the most significant parameters in PEALD AlN film removal because the film was inert to the SF{sub x}{sup +} and O{sup +} chemistries. The etch experiments showed the film to be a resilient masking material. This makes it an attractive candidate for use as an etch mask in demanding SF{sub 6} based plasma etch applications, such as through-wafer etching, or when oxide films are not suitable.

  15. Low-temperature deposition of transparent diamond films with a microwave cavity plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulczynski, Michael J.

    1998-10-01

    Low-temperature diamond deposition with Microwave Cavity Plasma Reactor (MCPR) technology was investigated for application to temperature sensitive substrates. The substrate temperature during most CVD diamond deposition processes is typically greater then 600 C; however, there are some applications where temperature sensitive materials are used and the deposition temperature must be maintained below 550 C. These applications include materials like boro-silicate glass, which has a relatively low strain-point temperature, and integrated circuits that contain low melting point components. Experiments were conducted in three areas. The first area was MCPR development, the second was benchmark deposition and characterization of diamond films on silicon substrates and the third was deposition and characterization of diamond films on boro-silicate glass substrates. MCPR development included an investigation of various MCPR configurations that were designed and adapted for uniform, low-temperature diamond deposition over areas as large as 80-cm2. Reactors were investigated with end-feed microwave excitation and side-feed microwave excitation for maximum deposition area and uniformity. Various substrate receptor configurations were also investigated including a substrate heater and cooler. From these investigations, deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, deposition rate, deposition area and deposition uniformity were characterized. The benchmark silicon diamond deposition experiments were conducted for comparison to previous high temperature, >550 C, MCPR research and growth models. Here deposition results such as deposition rate and film quality were compared with applications of diamond growth models by Harris-Goodwin and Bachmann. Additionally, characterization experiments were conducted to investigate film attributes that are critical to optical applications, such as film surface roughness and deposition uniformity. Included as variables in these

  16. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-05

    Low-temperature (≤ 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. As a result of our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

  17. One-step synthesis of chlorinated graphene by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liwei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Xuhui

    2015-08-01

    We developed an approach to synthesize the chlorinated single layer graphene (Cl-G) by one-step plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Copper foil was simply treated with hydrochloric acid and then CuCl2 formed on the surface was used as Cl source under the assistance of plasma treatment. Compared with other two-step methods by post plasma/photochemical treatment of CVD-grown single layer graphene (SLG), one-step Cl-G synthesis approach is quite straightforward and effective. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that ∼2.45 atom% Cl remained in SLG. Compared with the pristine SLG, the obvious blue shifts of G band and 2D band along with the appearance of D' band and D + G band in the Raman spectra indicate p-type doping of Cl-G.

  18. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Demaurex, Bénédicte Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin

    2014-08-07

    Low-temperature (≤200 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

  19. TiN Deposition and Process Diagnostics using Remote Plasma Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wonkyun; Kim, Gi-Taek; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Do-Geun; Kim, Jong-Kuk

    2013-08-01

    The discharge voltage-current characteristics and the optical diagnostics of a remote plasma sputtering system called by high density plasma assisted sputtering source (HiPASS) were investigated. The remote plasma was generated by the hollow cathode discharge (HCD) gun and was transported to the target surface by external electromagnet coils. This showed a wide process window because the sputtering voltage and current could be individually controlled. The ion density and energy distribution could be also controlled unlike the conventional magnetron sputtering. Titanium nitride films were deposited under different sputtering voltage. The high voltage mode induced the high ionization ratio of the sputtered atoms and the high ion energy toward the substrate. That resulted in the enlarged grain size, and the preferred orientation toward (220). Eventually, this optimized condition of HiPASS obtained the best hardness of TiN films to be about 48 GPa at the sputtering voltage of -800 V.

  20. Atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of antimicrobial coatings on non-woven textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, Anton Yu.; Deng, Xiaolong; Onyshchenko, Iuliia; Vujosevic, Danijela; Vuksanovic, Vineta; Cvelbar, Uros; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; Leys, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    A simple method for preparation of nanoparticle incorporated non-woven fabric with high antibacterial efficiency has been proposed based on atmospheric pressure plasma process. In this work direct current plasma jet stabilized by fast nitrogen flow was used as a plasma deposition source. Three different types of the nanoparticles (silver, copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles) were employed as antimicrobial agents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have shown a positive chemical shift observed for Ag 3d 5/2 (at 368.1 eV) suggests that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are partly oxidized during the deposition. The surface chemistry and the antibacterial activity of the samples against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were investigated and analyzed. It is shown that the samples loaded with nanoparticles of Ag and Cu and having the barrier layer of 10 nm characterized by almost 97% of bacterial reduction whereas the samples with ZnO nanoparticles provide 86% reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  1. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Langping; Huang Lei; Xie Zhiwen; Wang Xiaofeng; Tang Baoyin

    2008-02-15

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder.

  2. Disilane as a growth rate catalyst of plasma deposited microcrystalline silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakellis, P.; Kalampounias, A. G.; Spiliopoulos, N.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Lahootun, V.; Coeuret, F.; Madec, A.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of small disilane addition on the gas phase properties of silane-hydrogen plasmas and the microcrystalline silicon thin films growth is presented. The investigation was conducted in the high pressure regime and for constant power dissipation in the discharge with the support of plasma diagnostics, thin film studies and calculations of discharge microscopic parameters and gas dissociation rates. The experimental data and the calculations show a strong effect of disilane on the electrical properties of the discharge in the pressure window from 2 to 3 Torr that is followed by significant raise of the electron number density and the drop of the sheaths electric field intensity. Deposition rate measurements show an important four to six times increase even for disilane mole fractions as low as 0.3 %. The deposition rate enhancement was followed by a drop of the material crystalline volume fraction but films with crystallinity above 40 % were deposited with different combinations of total gas pressure, disilane and silane molar ratios. The enhancement was partly explained by the increase of the electron impact dissociation rate of silane which rises by 40% even for 0.1% disilane mole fraction. The calculations of the gas usage, the dissociation and the deposition efficiencies show that the beneficial effect on the growth rate is not just the result of the increase of Si-containing molecules density but significant changes on the species participating to the deposition and the mechanism of the film growth are caused by the disilane addition. The enhanced participation of the highly sticking to the surface radical such as disilylene, which is the main product of disilane dissociation, was considered as the most probable reason for the significant raise of the deposition efficiency. The catalytic effect of such type of radical on the surface reactivity of species with lower sticking probability is further discussed, while it is also used to explain the restricted

  3. Plasma parameters of pulsed-dc discharges in methane used to deposit diamondlike carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Corbella, C.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Bertran, E.; Andujar, J. L.

    2009-08-01

    Here we approximate the plasma kinetics responsible for diamondlike carbon (DLC) depositions that result from pulsed-dc discharges. The DLC films were deposited at room temperature by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a methane (CH{sub 4}) atmosphere at 10 Pa. We compared the plasma characteristics of asymmetric bipolar pulsed-dc discharges at 100 kHz to those produced by a radio frequency (rf) source. The electrical discharges were monitored by a computer-controlled Langmuir probe operating in time-resolved mode. The acquisition system provided the intensity-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a time resolution of 1 mus. This facilitated the discussion of the variation in plasma parameters within a pulse cycle as a function of the pulse waveform and the peak voltage. The electron distribution was clearly divided into high- and low-energy Maxwellian populations of electrons (a bi-Maxwellian population) at the beginning of the negative voltage region of the pulse. We ascribe this to intense stochastic heating due to the rapid advancing of the sheath edge. The hot population had an electron temperature T{sub e}{sup hot} of over 10 eV and an initial low density n{sub e}{sup hot} which decreased to zero. Cold electrons of temperature T{sub e}{sup cold}approx1 eV represented the majority of each discharge. The density of cold electrons n{sub e}{sup cold} showed a monotonic increase over time within the negative pulse, peaking at almost 7x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}, corresponding to the cooling of the hot electrons. The plasma potential V{sub p} of approx30 V underwent a smooth increase during the pulse and fell at the end of the negative region. Different rates of CH{sub 4} conversion were calculated from the DLC deposition rate. These were explained in terms of the specific activation energy E{sub a} and the conversion factor x{sub dep} associated with the plasma processes. The work deepens our understanding of the advantages of using pulsed power supplies

  4. Plasma-enhanced deposition of antifouling layers on silicone rubber surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan

    In food processing and medical environments, biofilms serve as potential sources of contamination, and lead to food spoilage, transmission of diseases or infections. Because of its ubiquitous and recalcitrant nature, Listeria monocytogenes biofilm is especially hard to control. Generating antimicrobial surfaces provide a method to control the bacterial attachment. The difficulty of silver deposition on polymeric surfaces has been overcome by using a unique two-step plasma-mediated method. First silicone rubber surfaces were plasma-functionalized to generate aldehyde groups. Then thin silver layers were deposited onto the functionalized surfaces according to Tollen's reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that silver particles were deposited. By exposing the silver coated surfaces to L. monocytogenes, it was demonstrated that they were bactericidal to L. monocytogenes. No viable bacteria were detected after 12 to 18 h on silver-coated silicone rubber surfaces. Another antifouling approach is to generate polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin layer instead of silver on polymer surfaces. Covalent bond of PEG structures of various molecular weights to cold-plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces, such as silicone rubber, opens up a novel way for the generation of PEG brush-like or PEG branch-like anti-fouling layers. In this study, plasma-generated surface free radicals can react efficiently with dichlorosilane right after plasma treatment. With the generation of halo-silane groups, this enables PEG molecules to be grafted onto the modified surfaces. XPS data clearly demonstrated the presence of PEG molecules on plasma-functionalized silicone rubber surfaces. AFM images showed the changed surface morphologies as a result of covalent attachment to the surface of PEG molecules. Biofilm experiment results suggest that the PEG brush-like films have the potential ability to be the next

  5. Low-Temperature Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Moisture Permeation Barrier Layers.

    PubMed

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Perrotta, Alberto; de Peuter, Koen; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-10-14

    Encapsulation of organic (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors, is required to minimize device degradation induced by moisture and oxygen ingress. SiNx moisture permeation barriers have been fabricated using a very recently developed low-temperature plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) approach, consisting of half-reactions of the substrate with the precursor SiH2(NH(t)Bu)2 and with N2-fed plasma. The deposited films have been characterized in terms of their refractive index and chemical composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SiNx thin-film refractive index ranges from 1.80 to 1.90 for films deposited at 80 °C up to 200 °C, respectively, and the C, O, and H impurity levels decrease when the deposition temperature increases. The relative open porosity content of the layers has been studied by means of multisolvent ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), adopting three solvents with different kinetic diameters: water (∼0.3 nm), ethanol (∼0.4 nm), and toluene (∼0.6 nm). Irrespective of the deposition temperature, and hence the impurity content in the SiNx films, no uptake of any adsorptive has been observed, pointing to the absence of open pores larger than 0.3 nm in diameter. Instead, multilayer development has been observed, leading to type II isotherms that, according to the IUPAC classification, are characteristic of nonporous layers. The calcium test has been performed in a climate chamber at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity to determine the intrinsic water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of SiNx barriers deposited at 120 °C. Intrinsic WVTR values in the range of 10(-6) g/m2/day indicate excellent barrier properties for ALD SiNx layers as thin as 10 nm, competing with that of state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposited SiNx layers of a few hundred

  6. Low-Temperature Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Moisture Permeation Barrier Layers.

    PubMed

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Perrotta, Alberto; de Peuter, Koen; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-10-14

    Encapsulation of organic (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors, is required to minimize device degradation induced by moisture and oxygen ingress. SiNx moisture permeation barriers have been fabricated using a very recently developed low-temperature plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) approach, consisting of half-reactions of the substrate with the precursor SiH2(NH(t)Bu)2 and with N2-fed plasma. The deposited films have been characterized in terms of their refractive index and chemical composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SiNx thin-film refractive index ranges from 1.80 to 1.90 for films deposited at 80 °C up to 200 °C, respectively, and the C, O, and H impurity levels decrease when the deposition temperature increases. The relative open porosity content of the layers has been studied by means of multisolvent ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), adopting three solvents with different kinetic diameters: water (∼0.3 nm), ethanol (∼0.4 nm), and toluene (∼0.6 nm). Irrespective of the deposition temperature, and hence the impurity content in the SiNx films, no uptake of any adsorptive has been observed, pointing to the absence of open pores larger than 0.3 nm in diameter. Instead, multilayer development has been observed, leading to type II isotherms that, according to the IUPAC classification, are characteristic of nonporous layers. The calcium test has been performed in a climate chamber at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity to determine the intrinsic water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of SiNx barriers deposited at 120 °C. Intrinsic WVTR values in the range of 10(-6) g/m2/day indicate excellent barrier properties for ALD SiNx layers as thin as 10 nm, competing with that of state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposited SiNx layers of a few hundred

  7. [Optical Spectroscopy for High-Pressure Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond Films].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Ma, Zhi-bin

    2015-11-01

    Polycrystalline diamond growth by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) at high-pressure (34.5 kPa) was investigated. The CH₄/H₂/O₂plasma was detected online by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and the spatial distribution of radicals in the CH₄/H₂/O₂plasma was studied. Raman spectroscopy was employed to analyze the properties of the diamond films deposited in different oxygen volume fraction. The uniformity of diamond films quality was researched. The results indicate that the spectrum intensities of C₂, CH and Hα decrease with the oxygen volume fraction increasing. While the intensity ratios of C₂, CH to Hα also reduced as a function of increasing oxygen volume fraction. It is shown that the decrease of the absolute concentration of carbon radicals is attributed to the rise volume fraction of oxygen, while the relative concentration of carbon radicals to hydrogen atom is also reducing, which depressing the growth rate but improving the quality of diamond film. Furthermore, the OH radicals, role of etching, its intensities increase with the increase of oxygen volume fraction. Indicated that the improvement of OH concentration is also beneficial to reduce the content of amorphous carbon in diamond films. The spectrum space diagnosis results show that under high deposition pressure the distribution of the radicals in the CH₄/H₂/O₂plasma is inhomogeneous, especially, that of radical C₂ gathered in the central region. And causing a rapid increase of non-diamond components in the central area, eventually enable the uneven distribution of diamond films quality.

  8. View factor modeling of sputter-deposition on micron-scale-architectured surfaces exposed to plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, C. E.; Matlock, T. S.; Wirz, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    The sputter-deposition on surfaces exposed to plasma plays an important role in the erosion behavior and overall performance of a wide range of plasma devices. Plasma models in the low density, low energy plasma regime typically neglect micron-scale surface feature effects on the net sputter yield and erosion rate. The model discussed in this paper captures such surface architecture effects via a computationally efficient view factor model. The model compares well with experimental measurements of argon ion sputter yield from a nickel surface with a triangle wave geometry with peak heights in the hundreds of microns range. Further analysis with the model shows that increasing the surface pitch angle beyond about 45° can lead to significant decreases in the normalized net sputter yield for all simulated ion incident energies (i.e., 75, 100, 200, and 400 eV) for both smooth and roughened surfaces. At higher incident energies, smooth triangular surfaces exhibit a nonmonotonic trend in the normalized net sputter yield with surface pitch angle with a maximum yield above unity over a range of intermediate angles. The resulting increased erosion rate occurs because increased sputter yield due to the local ion incidence angle outweighs increased deposition due to the sputterant angular distribution. The model also compares well with experimentally observed radial expansion of protuberances (measuring tens of microns) in a nano-rod field exposed to an argon beam. The model captures the coalescence of sputterants at the protuberance sites and accurately illustrates the structure's expansion due to deposition from surrounding sputtering surfaces; these capabilities will be used for future studies into more complex surface architectures.

  9. [Optical Spectroscopy for High-Pressure Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond Films].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Ma, Zhi-bin

    2015-11-01

    Polycrystalline diamond growth by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) at high-pressure (34.5 kPa) was investigated. The CH₄/H₂/O₂plasma was detected online by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and the spatial distribution of radicals in the CH₄/H₂/O₂plasma was studied. Raman spectroscopy was employed to analyze the properties of the diamond films deposited in different oxygen volume fraction. The uniformity of diamond films quality was researched. The results indicate that the spectrum intensities of C₂, CH and Hα decrease with the oxygen volume fraction increasing. While the intensity ratios of C₂, CH to Hα also reduced as a function of increasing oxygen volume fraction. It is shown that the decrease of the absolute concentration of carbon radicals is attributed to the rise volume fraction of oxygen, while the relative concentration of carbon radicals to hydrogen atom is also reducing, which depressing the growth rate but improving the quality of diamond film. Furthermore, the OH radicals, role of etching, its intensities increase with the increase of oxygen volume fraction. Indicated that the improvement of OH concentration is also beneficial to reduce the content of amorphous carbon in diamond films. The spectrum space diagnosis results show that under high deposition pressure the distribution of the radicals in the CH₄/H₂/O₂plasma is inhomogeneous, especially, that of radical C₂ gathered in the central region. And causing a rapid increase of non-diamond components in the central area, eventually enable the uneven distribution of diamond films quality. PMID:26978897

  10. Features of thermal processes of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings with external modulation parameters of the arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Maltsev, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    In the work on the basis of mathematical modeling analysis of processes of plasma deposition of coatings with modulation of the electrical parameters of the extension arc. The effect of modulation on the temperature field in the system "coating-basis" on a local scale, proportionate to the diameter of the spot attachment of the arc to the surface, and at the macrolevel of evaporation surface. It justifies the preconditions of the improvement of plasma deposition and hardening coatings.

  11. Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min; Bennett, Murray S.; Yang, Liyou

    1997-07-08

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  12. Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min; Bennett, Murray S.; Yang, Liyou

    1999-08-24

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  13. Plasma diagnostic approach for the low-temperature deposition of silicon quantum dots using dual frequency PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, B. B.; Yin, Y.; Lee, J. S.; Han, Jeon G.; Shiratani, M.

    2016-10-01

    Although studies of silicon (Si) quantum dots (QDs) were started just a few years ago, progress is noteworthy concerning unique film properties and their potential application for devices. In particular, relating to the Si QD process optimization, it is essential to control the deposition environment by studying the role of plasma parameters and atomic and molecular species in the process plasmas. In this work, we report on advanced material processes for the low-temperature deposition of Si QDs by utilizing radio frequency and ultrahigh frequency dual frequency (DF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. DF PECVD can generate a very high plasma density in the range ~9  ×  1010 cm-3 to 3.2  ×  1011 cm-3 at a very low electron temperature (T e) ~ 1.5 to 2.4 eV. The PECVD processes, using a reactive mixture of H2/SiH4/NH3 gases, are carefully studied to investigate the operating regime and to optimize the deposition parameters by utilizing different plasma diagnostic tools. The analysis reveals that a higher ion flux at a higher plasma density on the substrate is conducive to enhancing the overall crystallinity of the deposited film. Along with high-density plasmas, a high concentration of atomic H and N is simultaneously essential for the high growth rate deposition of Si QDs. Numerous plasma diagnostics methods and film analysis tools are used to correlate the effect of plasma- and atomic-radical parameters on the structural and chemical properties of the deposited Si QD films prepared in the reactive mixtures of H2/SiH4/NH3 at various pressures.

  14. Preparation and structure of porous dielectrics by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. M.; Neumayer, D. A.; Sherwood, M. H.; Grill, A.; Wang, X.; Sankarapandian, M.

    2007-05-01

    The preparation of ultralow dielectric constant porous silicon, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen alloy dielectrics, called "pSiCOH," using a production 200mm plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition tool and a thermal treatment is reported here. The effect of deposition temperature on the pSiCOH film is examined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dielectric constant (k), and film shrinkage measurements. For all deposition temperatures, carbon in the final porous film is shown to be predominantly Si -CH3 species, and lower k is shown to correlate with increased concentration of Si -CH3. NMR and FTIR spectroscopies clearly detect the loss of a removable, unstable, hydrocarbon (CHx) phase during the thermal treatment. Also detected are increased cross-linking of the Si-O skeleton, and concentration changes for three distinct structures of carbon. In the as deposited films, deposition temperature also affects the hydrocarbon (CHx) content and the presence of C O and C C functional groups.

  15. Differing morphologies of textured diamond films with electrical properties made with microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wen Chi; Wu, Yu-Shiang; Chang, Hou-Cheng; Lee, Yuan-Haun

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the orientation of textured diamond films produced through microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) at 1200 W, 110 Torr, CH 4/H 2 = 1/20, with depositions times of 0.5-4.0 h. After a growth period of 2.0-4.0 h, this particular morphology revealed a rectangular structure stacked regularly on the diamond film. The orientation on {1 1 1}-textured diamond films grew a preferred orientation of {1 1 0} on the surface, as measured by XRD. The formation of the diamond epitaxial film formed textured octahedrons in ball shaped (or cauliflower-like) diamonds in the early stages (0.5 h), and the surface of the diamond film extended to pile the rectangular structure at 4.0 h. The width of the tier was approximately 200 nm at the 3.0 h point of deposition, according to TEM images. The results revealed that the textured diamond films showed two different morphological structures (typical ball shaped and rectangular diamonds), at different stages of the deposition period. The I- V characteristics of the oriented diamond films after 4.0 h of deposition time showed good conformity with the ohmic contact.

  16. Chain Assemblies from Nanoparticles Synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition: The Computational View.

    PubMed

    Mishin, Maxim V; Zamotin, Kirill Y; Protopopova, Vera S; Alexandrov, Sergey E

    2015-12-01

    This article refers to the computational study of nanoparticle self-organization on the solid-state substrate surface with consideration of the experimental results, when nanoparticles were synthesised during atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD). The experimental study of silicon dioxide nanoparticle synthesis by AP-PECVD demonstrated that all deposit volume consists of tangled chains of nanoparticles. In certain cases, micron-sized fractals are formed from tangled chains due to deposit rearrangement. This work is focused on the study of tangled chain formation only. In order to reveal their formation mechanism, a physico-mathematical model was developed. The suggested model was based on the motion equation solution for charged and neutral nanoparticles in the potential fields with the use of the empirical interaction potentials. In addition, the computational simulation was carried out based on the suggested model. As a result, the influence of such experimental parameters as deposition duration, particle charge, gas flow velocity, and angle of gas flow was found. It was demonstrated that electrical charges carried by nanoparticles from the discharge area are not responsible for the formation of tangled chains from nanoparticles, whereas nanoparticle kinetic energy plays a crucial role in deposit morphology and density. The computational results were consistent with experimental results. PMID:26682441

  17. Plasma deposited composite coatings to control biological response of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keremidarska, M.; Radeva, E.; Eleršič, K.; Iglič, A.; Pramatarova, L.; Krasteva, N.

    2014-12-01

    The successful osseointegration of a bone implant is greatly dependent on its ability to support cellular adhesion and functions. Deposition of thin composite coatings onto the implant surface is a promising approach to improve interactions with cells without compromising implant bulk properties. In this work, we have developed composite coatings, based on hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) and detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles and have studied adhesion, growth and function of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. PPHMDS/DND composites are of interest for orthopedics because they combine superior mechanical properties and good biocompatibility of DND with high adherence of HMDS to different substrata including glass, metals and plastics. We have used two approaches of the implementation of DND particles into a polymer matrix: pre-mixture of both components followed by plasma polymerization and layer-by-layer deposition of HMDS and DND particles and found that the deposition approach affects significantly the surface properties of the resulting layers and cell behaviour. The composite, prepared by subsequent deposition of monomer and DND particles was hydrophilic, with a rougher surface and MG-63 cells demonstrated better spreading, growth and function compared to the other composite which was hydrophobic with a smooth surface similarly to unmodified polymer. Thus, by varying the deposition approach, different PPHMDS/DND composite coatings, enhancing or inhibiting osteoblast adhesion and functions, can be obtained. In addition, the effect of fibronectin pre-adsorption was studied and was found to increase greatly MG-63 cell spreading.

  18. Surface reaction mechanisms during ozone and oxygen plasma assisted atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vikrant R; Vandalon, Vincent; Agarwal, Sumit

    2010-09-01

    We have elucidated the reaction mechanism and the role of the reactive intermediates in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide from trimethyl aluminum in conjunction with O(3) and an O(2) plasma. In situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data show that both -OH groups and carbonates are formed on the surface during the oxidation cycle. These carbonates, once formed on the surface, are stable to prolonged O(3) exposure in the same cycle. However, in the case of plasma-assisted ALD, the carbonates decompose upon prolonged O(2) plasma exposure via a series reaction kinetics of the type, A (CH(3)) --> B (carbonates) --> C (Al(2)O(3)). The ratio of -OH groups to carbonates on the surface strongly depends on the oxidizing agent, and also the duration of the oxidation cycle in plasma-assisted ALD. However, in both O(3) and O(2) plasma cycles, carbonates are a small fraction of the total number of reactive sites compared to the hydroxyl groups.

  19. Control of carbon content in amorphous GeTe films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) for phase-change random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoukar, M.; Szkutnik, P. D.; Jourde, D.; Pelissier, B.; Michallon, P.; Noé, P.; Vallée, C.

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous and smooth GeTe thin films are deposited on 200 mm silicon substrates by plasma enhanced—metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) using the commercial organometallic precursors TDMAGe and DIPTe as Ge and Te precursors, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show a stoichiometric composition of the deposited GeTe films but with high carbon contamination. Using information collected by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and XPS, the origin of carbon contamination is determined and the dissociation mechanisms of Ge and Te precursors in H2 + Ar plasma are proposed. As a result, carbon level is properly controlled by varying operating parameters such as plasma radio frequency power, pressure and H2 rate. Finally, GeTe films with carbon level as low as 5 at. % are obtained.

  20. Long period gratings coated with hafnium oxide by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for refractive index measurements.

    PubMed

    Melo, Luis; Burton, Geoff; Kubik, Philip; Wild, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Long period gratings (LPGs) are coated with hafnium oxide using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to increase the sensitivity of these devices to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. PEALD allows deposition at low temperatures which reduces thermal degradation of UV-written LPGs. Depositions targeting three different coating thicknesses are investigated: 30 nm, 50 nm and 70 nm. Coating thickness measurements taken by scanning electron microscopy of the optical fibers confirm deposition of uniform coatings. The performance of the coated LPGs shows that deposition of hafnium oxide on LPGs induces two-step transition behavior of the cladding modes.

  1. Comparison between ZnO films grown by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using H{sub 2}O plasma and O{sub 2} plasma as oxidant

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Yumi; Hattori, Nozomu; Miyatake, Naomasa; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2013-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have attracted significant attention for application in thin film transistors (TFTs) due to their specific characteristics, such as high mobility and transparency. In this paper, the authors fabricated TFTs with ZnO thin films as channel layers deposited by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PAALD) at 100 Degree-Sign C using two different plasma sources, water (H{sub 2}O-plasma) and oxygen gas (O{sub 2}-plasma), as oxidants, and investigated the effects of the plasma sources on TFT performances. The TFT with ZnO channel layer deposited with H{sub 2}O-plasma indicated higher performances such as a field effect mobility ({mu}) of 1.1 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Analysis of the ZnO films revealed that the residual carbon in the film deposited with H{sub 2}O-plasma was lower than that of O{sub 2}-plasma. In addition, the c-axis preferred orientation was obtained in the case of the ZnO film deposited with H{sub 2}O-plasma. These results suggest that it is possible to fabricate high-performance ZnO TFTs at low temperatures by PAALD with H{sub 2}O-plasma.

  2. Characteristics of Hf-silicate thin films synthesized by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiurong; Martin, Ryan M.; Chang, Jane P.

    2008-09-15

    Hafnium silicate films were grown by alternating the deposition cycles of hafnium oxide and silicon oxide using a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process. The as-deposited and 900 deg. C annealed hafnium silicate films were determined to be amorphous using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. This suggested that the formation of hafnium silicate suppressed the crystallization of HfO{sub 2} at high temperatures. The dielectric constants increased from {approx}5 to {approx}17 as the hafnium content increased from 9 to 17 at. % in the hafnium silicate films. The leakage currents through the Hf-rich Hf-silicate films were two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of SiO{sub 2} with the same equivalent oxide thickness in the range of 1.6-2.3 nm. The estimated band gap of Hf-silicate films from the O 1s plasma loss spectra increased with the increasing Si content due to the higher band gap of SiO{sub 2} than that of HfO{sub 2}.

  3. Friction and wear of plasma-deposited amorphous hydrogenated films on silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the friction and wear behavior of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films in sliding contact with silicon nitride pins in both dry nitrogen and humid air environments. Amorphous hydrogenated carbon films approximately 0.06 micron thick were deposited on silicon nitride flat substrates by using the 30 kHz ac glow discharge of a planar plasma reactor. The results indicate that an increase in plasma deposition power gives an increase in film density and hardness. The high-density a-C:H films deposited behaved tribologically much like bulk diamond. In the dry nitrogen environment, a tribochemical reaction produced a substance, probably a hydrocarbon-rich layer, that decreased the coefficient of friction. In the humid air environment, tribochemical interactions drastically reduced the wear life of a-C:H films and water vapor greatly increased the friction. Even in humid air, effective lubrication is possible with vacuum-annealed a-C:H films. The vacuum-annealed high-density a-C:H film formed an outermost superficial graphitic layer, which behaved like graphite, on the bulk a-C:H film. Like graphite, the annealed a-C:H film with the superficial graphitic layer showed low friction when adsorbed water vapor was present.

  4. High Anatase Rate Titanium Dioxide Coating Deposition by Low Power Microwave Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redza, Ahmad; Kondo, Toshiki; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide is a promising photocatalyst material because of the magnificent properties of this material where it is able to remove the air pollution substance and the deodorizing function. Generally, the deposition method of a titanium dioxide coating is carried out by an organic system binder but the powerful photocatalytic reaction will degrades the binder. Therefore, thermal spray is considered to be the alternative method but this method will induce crystallization transformation of titanium dioxide from anatase phase with high photocatalytic activity to rutile phase with low photocatalyst which caused by high heat input. Since our microwave plasma spraying device is operable at low power comparing with conventional high power plasma spray, the reduce effect of the heat input onto the particles at the time of spraying can be achieved and coating deposition with high rate of anatase phase is expected. Therefore, in this research, the coating deposition by controlling the heat input into the spray particle which can be resulted in high rate of anatase phase with high photocatalytic activity was conducted. By controlled condition, coating with optimum anatase rate of 83% is able to be fabricated by this method.

  5. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H{sub 2} into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH, H{sub β}, and H{sub α} were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T{sub 2g} phonon at 1333 cm{sup −1} peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  6. Characterisation of nano-crystalline titanium dioxide films grown by atmospheric pressure plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulmier, Thierry; Bell, John M.; Fredericks, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    A new atmospheric pressure plasma electrolytic process has been developed for the deposition of TiO II crystalline thin films on metal substrate. Contrary to the other deposition techniques, the process occurs in a liquid precursor, composed of titanium tetraisopropoxide and absolute ethanol. A plasma discharge is created and confined around the cathode in a superheated vapour sheath surrounded by the liquid phase, inducing the production of a thin TiO II coating at the surface of the cathode. Because of the flexibility of the operating parameters, this technology allows the rapid deposition of thin films with a wide range of structural and physical properties. This process enables therefore the production of nanocrystalline titania films with adjustable morphology and structure (anatase, rutile) by adjusting the operating voltage, current intensity, the treatment time and calcination temperature. The analysis of the structure and composition of these TiO II coatings have been carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. A thorough study has been performed to understand the influence of the operating parameters on the properties and structure of the coatings.

  7. Facile plasma-enhanced deposition of ultrathin crosslinked amino acid films for conformal biometallization.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle D; Slocik, Joseph M; McConney, Michael E; Enlow, Jesse O; Jakubiak, Rachel; Bunning, Timothy J; Naik, Rajesh R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2009-03-01

    A novel method for the facile fabrication of conformal, ultrathin, and uniform synthetic amino acid coatings on a variety of practical surfaces by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is introduced. Tyrosine, which is utilized as an agent to reduce gold nanoparticles from solution, is sublimed into the plasma field and directly deposited on a variety of substrates to form a homogeneous, conformal, and robust polyamino acid coating in a one-step, solvent-free process. This approach is applicable to many practical surfaces and allows surface-induced biometallization while avoiding multiple wet-chemistry treatments that can damage many soft materials. Moreover, by placing a mask over the substrate during deposition, the tyrosine coating can be micropatterned. Upon its exposure to a solution of gold chloride, a network of gold nanoparticles forms on the surface, replicating the initial micropattern. This method of templated biometallization is adaptable to a variety of practical inorganic and organic substrates, such as silicon, glass, nitrocellulose, polystyrene, polydimethylsiloxane, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, and woven silk fibers. No special pretreatment is necessary, and the technique results in a rapid, conformal amino acid coating that can be utilized for further biometallization.

  8. Formation of microchannels from low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon oxynitride

    DOEpatents

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Bridges, Monica M.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming one or more fluid microchannels on a substrate is disclosed that is compatible with the formation of integrated circuitry on the substrate. The microchannels can be formed below an upper surface of the substrate, above the upper surface, or both. The microchannels are formed by depositing a covering layer of silicon oxynitride over a mold formed of a sacrificial material such as photoresist which can later be removed. The silicon oxynitride is deposited at a low temperature (.ltoreq.100.degree. C.) and preferably near room temperature using a high-density plasma (e.g. an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma or an inductively-coupled plasma). In some embodiments of the present invention, the microchannels can be completely lined with silicon oxynitride to present a uniform material composition to a fluid therein. The present invention has applications for forming microchannels for use in chromatography and electrophoresis. Additionally, the microchannels can be used for electrokinetic pumping, or for localized or global substrate cooling.

  9. Time-resolved diagnostics of excimer laser-generated ablation plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Characteristics of laser plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films are examined with four in situ diagnostic techniques: Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, ion probe studies, and gated ICCD (intensified charge-coupled-device array) fast photography. These four techniques are complementary and permit simultaneous views of the transport of ions, excited states, ground state neutrals and ions, and hot particulates following KrF laser ablation of YBCO, BN, graphite and Si in vacuum and background gases. The implementation and advantages of the four techniques are first described in order to introduce the key features of laser plasmas for pulsed laser deposition. Aspects of the interaction of the ablation plume with background gases (i.e., thermalization, attenuation, shock formation) and the collision of the plasma plume with the substrate heater are then summarized. The techniques of fast ICCD photography and gated photon counting are then applied to investigate the temperature, velocity, and spatial distribution of hot particles generated during KrF ablation of YBCO, BN, Si and graphite. Finally, key features of fast imaging of the laser ablation of graphite into high pressure rare gases are presented in order to elucidate internal reflected shocks within the plume, redeposition of material on a surface, and formation of hot nanoparticles within the plume.

  10. Effect of buoyancy on power deposition in microwave cavity hydrogen plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, S.; Rond, C.; Michau, A.; Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2016-08-01

    A self-consistent model describing the coupling of resonant microwave radiation and plasma has been constructed. This model improves upon the models developed by Hassouni et al and Hagelaar et al, in 1999 and 2004, respectively with inclusion of hydrodynamic effects. The model has been used to study the effect of buoyancy on power deposition in microwave assisted hydrogen plasmas at different operating pressures over the range 25-300 mbar and power over the range 400 and 4000 W. Three cases viz. normal reactor (g  =  -9.81 m s-2, negative buoyancy), pure diffusion (g  =  0 m s-2) and the inverted case (g  =  9.81 m s-2, positive buoyancy) were considered. Buoyancy effects in the cavity become important at high power / pressure operating conditions. The formation of a secondary plasma zone is strongly increased in the presence of negative buoyancy, while positive buoyancy and diffusion cases are more stable. Also the density of atomic hydrogen close to the substrate is larger with a wider radial spread for the positive buoyancy case over normal operating conditions which augurs well for achieving good deposition of diamond.

  11. Effect of buoyancy on power deposition in microwave cavity hydrogen plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, S.; Rond, C.; Michau, A.; Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2016-08-01

    A self-consistent model describing the coupling of resonant microwave radiation and plasma has been constructed. This model improves upon the models developed by Hassouni et al and Hagelaar et al, in 1999 and 2004, respectively with inclusion of hydrodynamic effects. The model has been used to study the effect of buoyancy on power deposition in microwave assisted hydrogen plasmas at different operating pressures over the range 25–300 mbar and power over the range 400 and 4000 W. Three cases viz. normal reactor (g  =  ‑9.81 m s‑2, negative buoyancy), pure diffusion (g  =  0 m s‑2) and the inverted case (g  =  9.81 m s‑2, positive buoyancy) were considered. Buoyancy effects in the cavity become important at high power / pressure operating conditions. The formation of a secondary plasma zone is strongly increased in the presence of negative buoyancy, while positive buoyancy and diffusion cases are more stable. Also the density of atomic hydrogen close to the substrate is larger with a wider radial spread for the positive buoyancy case over normal operating conditions which augurs well for achieving good deposition of diamond.

  12. Surface-Wave Plasma Deposition of a-C:H Films for Field Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Toru; Nagatsu, Masaaki; Takada, Noriharu; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Sugai, Hideo; Guang, W. X.; Hirao, Takashi; Toyoda, Naoki

    2000-10-01

    Recently crystalline diamond or diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films prepared by the plasma enhanced CVD techniques have been widely studied as a new material of electron emitter for the next generation large-area field emission display. Among them, DLC films grown at low temperature are more attractive from an aspect of industrial manufacturing. In this study, we have carried out the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous carbon(a-C:H) films using a high density, low pressure surface-wave plasma (SWP). The SWP was produced in a 40cm-diameter vacuum chamber by introducing 2.45 GHz microwave through a quartz window via slot antennas. The a-C:H films were deposited on a silicon substrate immersed in He/CH4 plasma, under discharge conditions of 700 W microwave power and 200 mTorr total pressure. Excellent field emission characteristics were obtained: the threshold electric field defined at an emission current density of 1 μA/cm^2 was obtained to be 4 V/μm. Other film characteristics measured with the XPS and FT-IR are also presented. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Science Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan.

  13. The augmented saddle field discharge characteristics and its applications for plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Johnson; Yeghikyan, Davit; Kherani, Nazir P.

    2013-04-07

    A high ion flux parallel electrode plasma is proposed and studied in its DC configuration. By cascading a diode source region which supplies electrons and a saddle field region where these seed electrons are energized and amplified, the energy of ion bombardment on the substrate can be decoupled from the plasma density. The sufficiently large density of electrons and holes in the vicinity of the substrate raises the possibility to perform plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on insulating materials, at low sheath voltages (around 40 V in the configuration studied), at low temperatures in which the surface mobility of film growth species may be provided by the bombardment of moderate energy ions. As a benchmarking exercise, experiments are carried out on silane discharge characteristics and deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) on both silicon wafer and glass. The films grown at low anode voltages have excellent microstructures with predominantly monohydride bonds, sharp band tails, but relatively high integrated defect density in the mid 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3} range for the particular substrate temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C, indicating that further optimizations are necessary if the electrode configuration is to be used to create a-Si:H devices.

  14. Fluoropolymer Films Deposited by RF Plasma Sputtering of Polytetrafluoroethylene Using Inert Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), UV (Ultraviolet) and XPS (X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) spectra of fluoropolymer films (SPTFE) deposited by rf (radio frequency) plasma sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using Ne, Kr and Xe as sputtering gases, were obtained and compared with prior spectra for SPTFE formed using He and Ar. The F/C (fluorine / carbon) ratios for SPTFE films (1.44-1.55), obtained at a rf power of 10 W, were essentially the same for all five rare gases, there being no trend of decreasing fluorine content in the SPTFE product with increasing atomic weight of the sputtering gas - contrary to the momentum transfer notion advanced by M. E. Ryan, et al. Increasing rf power from 10 to 50 W resulted in successively lower F/C ratios for SPTFE (e.g., from 1.55 to 1.21 in the case of Xe plasma-sputtered PTFE), accompanied by sputtering of the glass reactor and deposition of fragments of sodium aluminum silicate occurring at 40 W and above. In order to achieve a "Teflon-like" SPTFE structure (i.e., products with as high a F/C ratio as possible) in a given plasma reactor, an optimum rf power must be found, which in the present case was approximately 10 W.

  15. Adhesion, friction, and wear of plasma-deposited thin silicon nitride films at temperatures to 700 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pouch, J. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Pantic, D. M.; Johnson, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of silicon nitride films deposited by low- and high-frequency plasmas (30 kHz and 13.56 MHz) at various temperatures to 700 C in vacuum were examined. The results of the investigation indicated that the Si/N ratios were much greater for the films deposited at 13.56 MHz than for those deposited at 30 kHz. Amorphous silicon was present in both low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited silicon nitride films. However, more amorphous silicon occurred in the films deposited at 13.56 MHz than in those deposited at 30 kHz. Temperature significantly influenced adhesion, friction, and wear of the silicon nitride films. Wear occurred in the contact area at high temperature. The wear correlated with the increase in adhesion and friction for the low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited films above 600 and 500 C, respectively. The low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited thin silicon nitride films exhibited a capability for lubrication (low adhesion and friction) in vacuum at temperatures to 500 and 400 C, respectively.

  16. Adhesion, friction, and wear of plasma-deposited thin silicon nitride films at temperatures to 700 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pouch, J. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Pantic, D. M.; Johnson, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of silicon nitride films deposited by low- and high-frequency plasmas (30 kHz and 13.56 MHz) at various temperatures to 700 C in vacuum were examined. The results of the investigation indicated that the Si/N ratios were much greater for the films deposited at 13.56 MHz than for those deposited at 30 kHz. Amorphous silicon was present in both low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited silicon nitride films. However, more amorphous silicon occurred in the films deposited at 13.56 MHz than in those deposited at 30 kHz. Temperature significantly influenced adhesion, friction, and wear of the silicon nitride films. Wear occurred in the contact area at high temperature. The wear correlated with the increase in adhesion and friction for the low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited films above 600 and 500 C, respectively. The low- and high-frequency plasma-deposited thin silicon nitride films exhibited a capability for lubrication (low adhesion and friction) in vacuum at temperatures to 500 and 400 C, respectively.

  17. Study on re-sputtering during CN{sub x} film deposition through spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Cai, Hua; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2015-10-15

    A nitrogen-carbon plasma was generated during the deposition of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) thin films by pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in a discharge nitrogen plasma, and the optical emission of the generated nitrogen-carbon plasma was measured for the diagnostics of the plasma and the characterization of the process of CN{sub x} film deposition. The nitrogen-carbon plasma was recognized to contain various species including nitrogen molecules and molecular ions excited in the ambient N{sub 2} gas, carbon atoms and atomic ions ablated from the graphite target and CN radicals. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the CN emission and their dependence on the substrate bias voltage show two groups of CN radicals flying in opposite directions. One represents the CN radicals formed as the products of the reactions occurring in the nitrogen-carbon plasma, revealing the reactive deposition of CN{sub x} film due to the reactive expansion of the ablation carbon plasma in the discharge nitrogen plasma and the effective formation of gaseous CN radicals as precursors for CN{sub x} film growth. The other one represents the CN radicals re-sputtered from the growing CN{sub x} film by energetic plasma species, evidencing the re-sputtering of the growing film accompanying film growth. And, the re-sputtering presents ion-induced sputtering features.

  18. Nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Wu, Yao; Chen, Jiyong; Wu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass-ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate solutions were mixed together to form a suspension after hydrolysis, and the liquid suspension was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying of P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings. The in vitro bioactivities of the as-deposited coatings were evaluated by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The as-deposited coating and its microstructure evolution behavior under SBF soaking were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructure had been successfully synthesized by the LPPS technique and the synthesized coatings showed quick formation of a nanostructured HCA layer after being soaked in SBF. Overall, our results indicate that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with good in vitro bioactivity.

  19. Ultralow-k dielectrics prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, A.; Patel, V.

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-doped oxide materials (SiCOH films) with ultralow dielectric constants have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from mixtures of SiCOH precursors with organic materials. The films have been characterized by Rutherford backscattering and forward recoil elastic scattering analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and index of refraction measurements, and measurement of step heights in the films. The electrical properties of the films have been measured on metal-insulator-silicon structures. By proper choice of the precursor and deposition conditions, the dielectric constants of the SiCOH films can be reduced to values below 2.1, demonstrating the extendibility of PECVD-prepared carbon-doped oxides as the interconnect dielectrics for future generation of very large scale integrated chips.

  20. Tungsten-doped tin oxide thin films prepared by pulsed plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yanwei; Zhang Qun Li Guifeng; Yang Ming

    2009-05-15

    Transparent conductive oxide tungsten-doped tin oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates from ceramic targets by the pulsed plasma deposition method. The structural, electrical and optical properties have been investigated as functions of tungsten doping content and oxygen partial pressure. The lowest resistivity of 2.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega}{center_dot}cm was reproducibly obtained, with carrier mobility of 30 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} and carrier concentration of 9.6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at the oxygen partial pressure of 1.8 Pa. The average optical transmission was in excess of 80% in the visible region from 400 to 700 nm, with the optical band gap ranging from 3.91 to 4.02 eV.

  1. Ground State and Excited State H-Atom Temperatures in a Microwave Plasma Diamond Deposition Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, A.; Chenevier, M.; Breton, Y.; Petiau, M.; Booth, J. P.; Hassouni, K.

    1996-09-01

    Ground electronic state and excited state H-atom temperatures are measured in a microwave plasma diamond deposition reactor as a function of a low percentage of methane introduced in the feed gas and the averaged input microwave power density. Ground state H-atom temperatures (T_H) and temperature of the H-atom in the n=3 excited state (T_{Hα}) are obtained from the measurements respectively of the excitation profile by Two-photon Allowed transition Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) and the Hα line broadening by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES). They are compared to gas temperatures calculated with a 1D diffusive non equilibrium H{2} plasma flow model and to ground electronic state rotational temperatures of molecular hydrogen measured previously by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy.

  2. Properties of AlN films deposited by reactive ion-plasma sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bert, N. A.; Bondarev, A. D.; Zolotarev, V. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Lubyanskiy, Ya. V.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Petrunov, A. N.; Pikhtin, N. A. Ayusheva, K. R.; Arsentyev, I. N.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2015-10-15

    The properties of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and AlN dielectric coatings deposited by reactive ion-plasma sputtering are studied. The refractive indices of the dielectric coatings are determined by optical ellipsometry. It is shown that aluminum nitride is the optimal material for achieving maximum illumination of the output mirror of a semiconductor laser. A crystalline phase with a hexagonal atomic lattice and oxygen content of up to 10 at % is found by transmission electron microscopy in the aluminum-nitride films. It is found that a decrease in the concentration of residual oxygen in the chamber of the reactive ion-plasma sputtering installation makes it possible to eliminate the appearance of vertical pores in the bulk of the aluminum-nitride film.

  3. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  4. Formation of Ru nanocrystals by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition for nonvolatile memory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Moon-Sang; Kim, Ki-Su; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2006-08-28

    The formation of Ru nanocrystals is demonstrated on a SiO{sub 2} substrate by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using diethylcyclopentadienyl ruthenium and NH{sub 3} plasma. The island growth of Ru was observed at the initial stages of the film formation up to a nominal thickness of 11.1 nm. A maximum Ru nanocrystal spatial density of 9.7x10{sup 11} /cm{sup 2} was achieved with an average size of 3.5 nm and standard deviation of the size of 20%. Electron charging/discharging effect in the Ru nanocrystals is demonstrated by measuring the flatband voltage shift in the capacitance-voltage measurement of metal-oxide-semiconductor memory capacitor structure.

  5. Photoluminescent Si/SiOx nanoparticle network by near atmospheric plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. Y.; Wang, D. X.; Guo, Y.; Ding, K.; Xu, J. Z.; Shi, J. J.; Zhang, J.

    2011-11-01

    A very fast and simple near atmospheric plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition method modulated by a pulsed negative bias voltage is newly developed to yield a Si/SiOx nanoparticle-linked network structure, which emitted enhanced 410 nm photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. Hydrogen dissociation, oxidation and polarization of the silane plasma-generated active particles could be tuned by the magnitude of bias voltage. The porosity and oxidation of this network structure and the intensity of its PL spectrum at 410 nm were observed to increase with the bias voltage. The large surface area of the Si/SiOx nanoparticle-linked network intensified the radiative recombination centre effect and caused the PL emission enhancement.

  6. Single-electron devices fabricated using double-angle deposition and plasma oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Barcikowski, Z. S.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Stewart, M. D., Jr.; Zimmerman, N. M.; Pomeroy, J. M.; Quantum Processes; Metrology Group Team

    We report on development of plasma oxidized, single-electron transistors (SETs) where we seek low-capacitance and small-area Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions with small charge offset drift. Performance of metal-based SET quantum devices and superconducting devices has suffered from long-term charge offset drift, high defect densities and charge noise. We use plasma oxidation to lower defect densities of the oxide layer, and adjustable deposition angles to control the overlapping areas for Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions. Current-voltage and charge offset drift measurements are planned for cryogenic temperatures. Other electrical properties will be measured at room temperature. We hope to see Coulomb blockade oscillations on these devices and better charge offset stability than typical Al/AlOx/Al SETs.

  7. Synthesis of carbon nanowall by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rulin; Chi, Yaqing; Fang, Liang; Tang, Zhensen; Yi, Xun

    2014-02-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is widely used for the synthesis of carbon materials, such as diamond-like carbons (DLCs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanowalls (CNWs). Advantages of PECVD are low synthesis temperature compared with thermal CVD and the ability to grow vertically, free-standing structures. Due to its self-supported property and high specific surface area, CNWs are a promising material for field emission devices and other chemical applications. This article reviews the recent process on the synthesis of CNW by the PECVD method. We briefly introduce the structure and properties of CNW with characterization techniques. Growth mechanism is also discussed to analyze the influence of plasma conditions, substrates, temperature, and other parameters to the final film, which will give a suggestion on parameter modulation for desired film. PMID:24749447

  8. Optimization of silicon oxynitrides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for an interferometric biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Sung Joong; Lee, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sang-Myung; Park, Jung Ho; Shin, Hyun-Joon

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, silicon oxynitride layers deposited with different plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) conditions were fabricated and optimized, in order to make an interferometric sensor for detecting biochemical reactions. For the optimization of PECVD silicon oxynitride layers, the influence of the N2O/SiH4 gas flow ratio was investigated. RF power in the PEVCD process was also adjusted under the optimized N2O/SiH4 gas flow ratio. The optimized silicon oxynitride layer was deposited with 15 W in chamber under 25/150 sccm of N2O/SiH4 gas flow rates. The clad layer was deposited with 20 W in chamber under 400/150 sccm of N2O/SiH4 gas flow condition. An integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensor based on optical waveguide technology was fabricated under the optimized PECVD conditions. The adsorption reaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the silicon oxynitride surface was performed and verified with this device.

  9. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 μm), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  10. Control of composition and crystallinity in hydroxyapatite films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering under a simultaneous flow of H2O vapor gas. Crystallization during sputter-deposition at elevated temperatures and solid-phase crystallization of amorphous films were compared in terms of film properties. When HAp films were deposited with Ar sputtering gas at temperatures above 460 °C, CaO byproducts precipitated with HAp crystallites. Using Xe instead of Ar resolved the compositional problem, yielding a single HAp phase. Preferentially c-axis-oriented HAp films were obtained at substrate temperatures between 460 and 500 °C and H2O pressures higher than 1×10-2 Pa. The absorption signal of the asymmetric stretching mode of the PO43- unit (ν3) in the Fourier-transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) spectra was the narrowest for films as-crystallized during deposition with Xe, but widest for solid-phase crystallized films. While the symmetric stretching mode of PO43- (ν1) is theoretically IR-inactive, this signal emerged in the FT-IR spectra of solid-phase crystallized films, but was absent for as-crystallized films, indicating superior crystallinity for the latter. The Raman scattering signal corresponding to ν1 PO43- sensitively reflected this crystallinity. The surface hardness of as-crystallized films evaluated by a pencil hardness test was higher than that of solid-phase crystallized films.

  11. Effect of Low-Energy Ions on Plasma-Enhanced Deposition of Cubic Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torigoe, M.; Fukui, S.; Teii, K.; Matsumoto, S.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of low-energy ions on deposition of cubic boron nitride (cBN) films in an inductively coupled plasma with the chemistry of fluorine is studied in terms of ion energy, ion flux, and ion to boron flux ratio onto the substrate. The ion energy and the ion to boron flux ratio are determined from the sheath potential and the ratio of incident ion flux to net deposited boron flux, respectively. For negative substrate biases where sp2-bonded BN phase only or no deposit is formed, both the ion energy and the ion to boron flux ratio are high. For positive substrate biases where cBN phase is formed, the ion energy and the ion to boron flux ratio are estimated in the range of a few eV to 35 eV and 100 to 130, respectively. The impact of negative ions is presumed to be negligible due to their low kinetic energy relative to the sheath potential over the substrate surface. The impact of positive ions with high ion to boron flux ratios is primarily responsible for reduction of the ion energy for cBN film deposition. Work supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), a Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers, and an Industrial Technology Research Grant Program 2008.

  12. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxide films with divinyldimethylsilane and tetravinylsilane

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Gyu; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2006-03-15

    Carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiCOH) low-k films were deposited with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using divinyldimethylsilane (DVDMS) with two vinyl groups and tetravinylsilane (TVS) with four vinyl groups compared with vinyltrimethylsilane (VTMS) with one vinyl group. With more vinyl groups in the precursor, due to the crosslinking of the vinyl groups, the film contains more of an organic phase and organic phase became less volatile. It was confirmed that the deposition rate, refractive index, and k value increase with more vinyl groups in the precursor molecule. After annealing, the SiCOH films deposited with DVDMS and TVS showed a low dielectric constant of 2.2 and 2.4 at optimum conditions, respectively. In both cases, the annealed film had low leakage current density (J=6.7x10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} for SiCOH film of DVDMS and J=1.18x10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} for SiCOH film of TVS at 1 MV/cm) and relatively high breakdown field strength (E>4.0 MV/cm at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is comparable to those of PECVD SiO{sub 2}.

  13. Deposition of titanium nitride on AISI-304 in a plasma focus environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, S.; Qayyum, A.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.

    2008-05-01

    Polycrystalline, smooth, and hard thin films of TiN are successfully deposited on AISI-304 substrates using a 1.5kJ Mather-type dense plasma focus device charged at 18kV. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and mechanical properties of the TiN thin films in terms of ion dose and substrate position to establish the optimum deposition conditions. The films are analyzed using XRD, SEM, electron microprobe and micro-hardness testing. XRD confirms the deposition of a polycrystalline TiN thin film together with the emergence of an iron chromium nickel phase. The surface hardness-in comparison to the unexposed substrate-is found to increase up to 250% when a film is deposited using 30 focus shots at an axial distance of 6cm. SEM micrographs show that the quality of the film is improved with an increasing number of focus shots. The constituent elements of the film are also confirmed by electron microprobe.

  14. Deposition of Amorphous Silicon and Silicon-Based Dielectrics by Remote Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition: Application to the Fabrication of Tft's and Mosfet's.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Soo

    1990-01-01

    This thesis discusses the deposition of device quality silicon dioxide (SiO_2), silicon nitride (Si_3N_4 ), and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) by the remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (Remote PECVD) technique at low substrate temperature (100 ^circC < T _{rm s} < 450^ circC). An ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) compatible, multi-chamber integrated processing system has been built and used for this study. This system provides: (1) in -situ substrate processing; (2) surface analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and reflected high energy electron diffraction (RHEED); and (3) thin film deposition by Remote PECVD. Six issues are addressed: (1) in-situ semiconductor surface cleaning for Si, Ge, GaAs, and CdTe; (2) substrate surface characterization by using RHEED and AES; (3) process gas-substrate interactions (subcutaneous oxidation) occurring during the thin film deposition; (4) the thin film deposition process for silicon-based dielectrics and for doped and intrinsic amorphous silicon; (5) physical properties of the thin films deposited by Remote PECVD using in-situ AES, and ex-situ infrared (ir) spectroscopy and ellipsometry; and (6) electrical performance of thin films in device structures including metal-oxide/or insulator-semiconductor (MOS or MIS) capacitors formed on silicon, and hydrogenated -amorphous silicon thin film transistors (a-Si:H TFT's). Atomically clean semiconductor surfaces are obtained by a remote hydrogen plasma treatment prior to thin film deposition. In the remote PECVD process the process gases are selectively excited, the silane reactant, the source of silicon atoms in the films is never directly plasma excited, and the substrate is also remote from the plasma discharge region. These differences between the remote PECVD process and the conventional direct PECVD process, result in improved control of the insulator stoichiometry, and a reduction in level of chemical impurities such as hydrogen. We find that the

  15. Mechanisms of degradation and failure in a plasma deposited thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi-Marcin, Jeanine T.; Sheffler, Keith D.; Bose, Sudhangshu

    1989-01-01

    Failure of a two layer plasma deposited thermal barrier coating is caused by cyclic thermal exposure and occurs by spallation of the outer ceramic layer. Spallation life is quantitatively predictable, based on the severity of cyclic thermal exposure. This paper describes and attempts to explain unusual constitutive behavior observed in the insulative ceramic coating layer, and presents details of the ceramic cracking damage accumulation process which is responsible for spallation failure. Comments also are offered to rationalize the previously documented influence of interfacial oxidation on ceramic damage accumulation and spallation life.

  16. Templated growth of diamond optical resonators via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Hu, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    We utilize plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition through a patterned silica mask for templated diamond growth to create optical resonators. The pyramid-shaped structures have quality factors Q up to 600, measured using confocal photoluminescence spectroscopy, and mode volumes V as small as 2.5 (λ/n) 3 for resonances at wavelengths λ between 550 and 650 nm, and refractive index n, obtained using finite-difference time-domain simulations. Bright luminescence from nitrogen-vacancy and silicon-vacancy centers in the grown diamond is observed. The resonator design and fabrication technique obviates any etching of diamond, which preserves emitter properties in a pristine host lattice.

  17. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and etching of high-k gadolinium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, Steven A.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Hodson, Chris J.

    2012-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality gadolinium oxide thin films is achieved using Gd(iPrCp){sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth is observed from 150 to 350 deg. C, though the optical properties of the film improve at higher temperature. True layer-by-layer ALD growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in a relatively narrow window of temperature and precursor dose. A saturated growth rate of 1.4 A/cycle was observed at 250 deg. C. As the temperature increases, high-quality films are deposited, but the growth mechanism appears to become CVD-like, indicating the onset of precursor decomposition. At 250 deg. C, the refractive index of the film is stable at {approx}1.80 regardless of other deposition conditions, and the measured dispersion characteristics are comparable to those of bulk Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XPS data show that the O/Gd ratio is oxygen deficient at 1.3, and that it is also very hygroscopic. The plasma etching rate of the ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film in a high-density helicon reactor is very low. Little difference is observed in etching rate between Cl{sub 2} and pure Ar plasmas, suggesting that physical sputtering dominates the etching. A threshold bias power exists below which etching does not occur; thus it may be possible to etch a metal gate material and stop easily on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a dielectric constant of about 16, exhibits low C-V hysteresis, and allows a 50 x reduction in gate leakage compared to SiO{sub 2}. However, the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process causes formation of an {approx}1.8 nm SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, and generates a fixed charge of -1.21 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, both of which may limit use of PE-ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric.

  18. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Cu doped ZnO nanorods via radio frequency plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z. F.; Wu, X. M.; Chen, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Zhuge, L. J.

    2008-07-14

    Well-aligned Cu doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized by simple radio frequency plasma deposition in the absence of extra catalysts. The synthesized nanorods having a typical average diameter of about 60 nm, were about 700 nm in length and well aligned along the normal direction of the substrate. Magnetic measurements indicate that the nanorods are ferromagnetic at room temperature. The presence of considerable oxygen vacancies in the nanorods does allow possible defect mediated mechanisms (e.g., bound magnetic polarons) for mediating exchange coupling of the dopant Cu ions resulting in room temperature ferromagnetism.

  19. Studies on non-oxide coating on carbon fibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Sharma, S.; Prajapati, K. K.; Vyas, M. M.; Batra, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    A new way of improving the oxidative behavior of carbon fibers coated with SiC through Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition technique. The complete study includes coating of SiC on glass slab and Stainless steel specimen as a starting test subjects but the major focus was to increase the oxidation temperature of carbon fibers by PECVD technique. This method uses relatively lower substrate temperature and guarantees better stoichiometry than other coating methods and hence the substrate shows higher resistance towards mechanical and thermal stresses along with increase in oxidation temperature.

  20. The reaction pathways of the oxygen plasma pulse in the hafnium oxide atomic layer deposition process

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Hyeongtag; Won, Youngdo

    2008-09-22

    The plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process for the HfO{sub 2} thin film is modeled as simple reactions between Hf(OH){sub 3}NH{sub 2} and reactive oxygen species. The density functional theory calculation was performed for plausible reaction pathways to construct the reaction profile. While the triplet molecular oxygen is unlikely to form a reactive complex, the singlet molecular oxygen forms the stable adduct that goes through the transition state and completes the reaction pathway to the products. Either two singlet or two triplet oxygen atoms make the singlet adduct complex, which follows the same pathway to the product as the singlet molecular oxygen reacts.

  1. Fabrication of transparent antifouling thin films with fractal structure by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Hayato; Yamauchi, Koji; Kim, Yoon-Kee; Ogawa, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Suzaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-21

    Antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency has been fabricated on glass substrate by forming fractal microstructure(s). The fractal microstructure was constituted by transparent silica particles of 100 nm diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition. The sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. We found that one sample has the superhydrophobic ability with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°, while another sample has a high transmittance of more than 85% in a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. PMID:23186100

  2. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors Using Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, Hirofumi; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Ohno, Yutaka; Mizutani, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes are grown using grid-inserted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The field effect transistor operation was confirmed using the PECVD grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The preferential growth of the semiconducting nanotubes was confirmed in the grid-inserted PECVD by measuring current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the devices. Based on the measurement of the electrical breakdown of the metallic CNTs, the probability of growing the semiconducting nanotubes has been estimated to be more than 90%.

  3. High T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by plasma aerosol mist deposition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X. W.; Vuong, K. D.; Leone, A.; Shen, C. Q.; Williams, J.; Coy, M.

    1995-01-01

    We report new results on high T(sub c) superconductors fabricated by a plasma aerosol mist deposition technique, in atmospheric environment. Materials fabricated are YBaCuO, BiPbSrCaCuO, BaCaCuO precursor films for TlBaCaCuO, and other buffers such as YSZ. Depending on processing conditions, sizes of crystallites and/or particles are between dozens of nano-meters and several micrometers. Superconductive properties and other material characteristics can also be tailored.

  4. Fabrication of transparent antifouling thin films with fractal structure by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Hayato; Yamauchi, Koji; Kim, Yoon-Kee; Ogawa, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Suzaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-21

    Antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency has been fabricated on glass substrate by forming fractal microstructure(s). The fractal microstructure was constituted by transparent silica particles of 100 nm diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition. The sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. We found that one sample has the superhydrophobic ability with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°, while another sample has a high transmittance of more than 85% in a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm.

  5. Plasma interactions determine the composition in pulsed laser deposited thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Conder, Kazimierz; Wokaun, Alexander; Schneider, Christof W.; Lippert, Thomas; Döbeli, Max

    2014-09-15

    Plasma chemistry and scattering strongly affect the congruent, elemental transfer during pulsed laser deposition of target metal species in an oxygen atmosphere. Studying the plasma properties of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}, we demonstrate for as grown La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3-δ} films that a congruent transfer of metallic species is achieved in two pressure windows: ∼10{sup −3} mbar and ∼2 × 10{sup −1} mbar. In the intermediate pressure range, La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3-δ} becomes cation deficient and simultaneously almost fully stoichiometric in oxygen. Important for thin film growth is the presence of negative atomic oxygen and under which conditions positive metal-oxygen ions are created in the plasma. This insight into the plasma chemistry shows why the pressure window to obtain films with a desired composition and crystalline structure is narrow and requires a careful adjustment of the process parameters.

  6. Morphological evolution of self-deposition Bi2Se3 nanosheets by oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guozhi; Wu, Zengna; Wang, Peng; Yao, Jianghong; Chang, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Bi2Se3 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted approach in the presence of polyvinylpyrroli done at a temperature of 180 °C for 2 h. The thin film was prepared on a silicon wafer via a self-deposition process in a Bi2Se3 nanosheet ink solution using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The highly uniform Bi2Se3 particles could be formed by controlling the oxygen plasma treatment time. After the plasma pretreatment from 10 to 20 s, the surface of Bi2Se3 film evolved from the worm-like structure to particles. The highly uniform thin film was formed on further increasing the plasma treatment time, which is consistent with the observed SEM results. Several important processes can result in the morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanosheets: (1) formation of Bi2Se3 oxide layer; (2) self-assembly of oxide nanoparticles under the action of high-energy oxygen plasma; and (3) electrostatic interaction and etching mechanism.

  7. Modeling of Sheath Ion-Molecule Reactions in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David B.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plasma simulations, ion-molecule reactions are modeled using ion energy independent reaction rate coefficients that are taken from low temperature selected-ion flow tube experiments. Only exothermic or nearly thermoneutral reactions are considered. This is appropriate for plasma applications such as high-density plasma sources in which sheaths are collisionless and ion temperatures 111 the bulk p!asma do not deviate significantly from the gas temperature. However, for applications at high pressure and large sheath voltages, this assumption does not hold as the sheaths are collisional and ions gain significant energy in the sheaths from Joule heating. Ion temperatures and thus reaction rates vary significantly across the discharge, and endothermic reactions become important in the sheaths. One such application is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes in which dc discharges are struck at pressures between 1-20 Torr with applied voltages in the range of 500-700 V. The present work investigates The importance of the inclusion of ion energy dependent ion-molecule reaction rates and the role of collision induced dissociation in generating radicals from the feedstock used in carbon nanotube growth.

  8. Hollow cathode sustained plasma microjets: Characterization and application to diamond deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, R. Mohan; Giapis, Konstantinos P.

    2002-09-01

    Extending the principle of operation of hollow cathode microdischarges to a tube geometry has allowed the formation of stable, high-pressure plasma microjets in a variety of gases including Ar, He, and H2. Direct current discharges are ignited between stainless steel capillary tubes (d=178 mum) which are operated as the cathode and a metal grid or plate that serves as the anode. Argon plasma microjets can be sustained in ambient air with plasma voltages as low as 260 V for cathode-anode gaps of 0.5 mm. At larger operating voltage, this gap can be extended up to several millimeters. Using a heated molybdenum substrate as the anode, plasma microjets in CH4/H2 mixtures have been used to deposit diamond crystals and polycrystalline films. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of these films shows mainly sp3 carbon content with slight shifting of the diamond peak due to internal stresses. Optical emission spectroscopy of the discharges used in the diamond growth experiments confirms the presence of atomic hydrogen and CH radicals.

  9. In situ Plasma Exposure for Improved Interfaces in Atomic Layer Deposited Dielectrics on GaSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppalt, Laura; Cleveland, Erin; Champlain, James; Boos, Brad; Prokes, Sharka; Bennett, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Among compound semiconductors, GaSb possesses one of the highest hole mobilities, making it a promising candidate for p-channel devices for III-V-based MOS technologies. However, the requirement of a low-defect interface between the GaSb device layer and gate dielectric represents a formidable hurdle to full MOS implementation. Native oxidation of the GaSb surface typically results in a highly defective interface, trapping charge and preventing free Fermi level movement. Wet chemical approaches to removing the native oxide often lead to mixed, irreproducible results and fail to prevent rapid reoxidation upon atmospheric exposure. As an alternative to wet chemical treatments, we have investigated the use of in-situ H2/Ar plasma for improving the interface between GaSb and atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectrics. We have found that by exposing the native-oxide-covered GaSb to mild H2/Ar plasma immediately prior to ALD of high-k dielectrics, one can decrease the density of interface states by two orders of magnitude, unpinning the Fermi level and enabling carrier modulation. The effectiveness of the treatment can be tuned by varying the RF plasma power, the plasma exposure time, or the substrate temperature during exposure, with higher powers, longer exposures, and higher temperatures (up to 300C) resulting in improved electrical interfaces.

  10. Vapors and Droplets Mixture Deposition of Metallic Coatings by Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Bolot, R.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the very low pressure plasma-spraying (VLPPS) process has been intensely developed and implemented to manufacture thin, dense and finely structured ceramic coatings for various applications, such as Y2O3 for diffusion barriers, among other examples. This paper aims at presenting developments carried out on metallic coatings. Aluminum was chosen as a demonstrative material due to its "moderate" vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 38.23 KJ cm-3) compared to the one of copper (i.e., 55.33 KJ cm-3), cobalt (i.e., 75.03 KJ cm-3), or even tantalum (i.e., 87.18 KJ cm-3). The objective of this work is primarily to better understand the behavior of a solid precursor injected into the plasma jet leading to the formation of vapors and to better control the factors affecting the coating structure. Nearly dense aluminum coatings were successfully deposited by VLPPS at 100 Pa with an intermediate power plasma torch (i.e., Sulzer Metco F4 type gun with maximum power of 45 kW). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to study and analyze the vapor behavior into the plasma jet. Simplified CFD modeling allowed better understanding of some of the thermo-physical mechanisms. The effect of powder-size distribution, substrate temperature and spray distance were studied. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. Moreover, Vickers microhardness measurements were implemented.

  11. Morphological evolution of self-deposition Bi2Se3 nanosheets by oxygen plasma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guozhi; Wu, Zengna; Wang, Peng; Yao, Jianghong; Chang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Bi2Se3 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted approach in the presence of polyvinylpyrroli done at a temperature of 180 °C for 2 h. The thin film was prepared on a silicon wafer via a self-deposition process in a Bi2Se3 nanosheet ink solution using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The highly uniform Bi2Se3 particles could be formed by controlling the oxygen plasma treatment time. After the plasma pretreatment from 10 to 20 s, the surface of Bi2Se3 film evolved from the worm-like structure to particles. The highly uniform thin film was formed on further increasing the plasma treatment time, which is consistent with the observed SEM results. Several important processes can result in the morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanosheets: (1) formation of Bi2Se3 oxide layer; (2) self-assembly of oxide nanoparticles under the action of high-energy oxygen plasma; and (3) electrostatic interaction and etching mechanism. PMID:26923325

  12. Effects of Plasma Polymer Films and Their Deposition Powers on the Barrier Characteristics of the Multilayer Encapsulation for Organic Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoonbae; Ban, Wonjin; Kwon, Sungruel; Yong, Sanghyun; Chae, Heeyeop; Jung, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Organic electronic devices (OEDs) are quite suitable for use in flexible devices due to their ruggedness and flexibility. A number of researchers have studied the use of OEDs on flexible substrates in transparent, flexible devices in the near future. However, water and oxygen can permeate through the flexible substrates and can reduce the longevity of OEDs made from organic materials, which are weak to moisture and oxygen. In order to prevent the degradation of the OEDs, researchers have applied an encapsulation layer to the flexible substrates. In this study, Al2O3/plasma polymer film/Al2O3 multi-layers were deposited on polyethylene-naphthalate substrates through a combination of atomic layer deposition and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The plasma polymer film, which is located between the Al2O3 films, is deposited via PECVD with the use of a tetrakis(trimethylsilyloxy)silane precursor. The power of the plasma deposition varied from 10 to 50 W. The hydrophobicity of the plasma polymer film surfaces was investigated by measuring the water contact angle. The chemical structures of the plasma polymer films were measured via ex-situ Fourier transform infrared analysis. The permeation curves of the various films were analyzed by performing a calcium (Ca)-test. PMID:27483936

  13. Deposition of nanostructured photocatalytic zinc ferrite films using solution precursor plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Dom, Rekha; Sivakumar, G.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Joshi, Shrikant V.; Borse, Pramod H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly economic solution precursor route capable of producing films/coating even for mass scale production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure spinel phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} porous, immobilized films deposited in single step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameter optimization yields access to nanostructuring in SPPS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ecofriendly immobilized ferrite films were active under solar radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such magnetic system display advantage w.r.t. recyclability after photocatalyst extraction. -- Abstract: Deposition of pure spinel phase, photocatalytic zinc ferrite films on SS-304 substrates by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) has been demonstrated for the first time. Deposition parameters such as precursor solution pH, concentration, film thickness, plasma power and gun-substrate distance were found to control physico-chemical properties of the film, with respect to their crystallinity, phase purity, and morphology. Alkaline precursor conditions (7 < pH {<=} 10) were found to favor oxide film formation. The nanostructured films produced under optimized conditions, with 500 mM solution at pH {approx} 8.0, yielded pure cubic phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film. Very high/low precursor concentrations yielded mixed phase, less adherent, and highly inhomogeneous thin films. Desired spinel phase was achieved in as-deposited condition under appropriately controlled spray conditions and exhibited a band gap of {approx}1.9 eV. The highly porous nature of the films favored its photocatalytic performance as indicated by methylene blue de-coloration under solar radiation. These immobilized films display good potential for visible light photocatalytic applications.

  14. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method of forming vanadium oxide films and vanadium oxide thin-films prepared thereby

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Turner, John A.; Liu, Ping

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize the final properties of the vanadium oxide film An rf plasma is generated within the reaction chamber to chemically react the precursor gas with the hydrogen and the oxygen to cause deposition of a vanadium oxide film on the substrate while the chamber deposition pressure is maintained at about one torr or less. Finally, the byproduct gases are removed from the plasma reaction chamber.

  15. Influence of atomic layer deposition valve temperature on ZrN plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition growth

    SciTech Connect

    Muneshwar, Triratna Cadien, Ken

    2015-11-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) relies on a sequence of self-limiting surface reactions for thin film growth. The effect of non-ALD side reactions, from insufficient purging between pulses and from precursor self-decomposition, on film growth is well known. In this article, precursor condensation within an ALD valve is described, and the effect of the continuous precursor source from condensate evaporation on ALD growth is discussed. The influence of the ALD valve temperature on growth and electrical resistivity of ZrN plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) films is reported. Increasing ALD valve temperature from 75 to 95 °C, with other process parameters being identical, decreased both the growth per cycle and electrical resistivity (ρ) of ZrN PEALD films from 0.10 to 0.07 nm/cycle and from 560 to 350 μΩ cm, respectively. Our results show that the non-ALD growth resulting from condensate accumulation is eliminated at valve temperatures close to the pressure corrected boiling point of precursor.

  16. Photocatalytic Functional Coating of TiO2 Thin Film Deposited by Cyclic Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jung-Dae; Rha, Jong-Joo; Nam, Kee-Seok; Park, Jin-Seong

    2011-08-01

    Photocatalytic TiO2 thin films were prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using cyclic plasma chemical vapor deposition (CPCVD) at atmospheric pressure. The CPCVD TiO2 films contain carbon-free impurities up to 100 °C and polycrystalline anatase phases up to 200 °C, due to the radicals and ion-bombardments. The CPCVD TiO2 films have high transparency in the visible wavelength region and absorb wavelengths below 400 nm (>3.2 eV). The photocatalytic effects of the CPCVD TiO2 and commercial sprayed TiO2 films were measured by decomposing methylene blue (MB) solution under UV irradiation. The smooth CPCVD TiO2 films showed a relatively lower photocatalytic efficiency, but superior catalyst-recycling efficiency, due to their high adhesion strength on the substrates. This CPCVD technique may provide the means to produce photocatalytic thin films with low cost and high efficiency, which would be a reasonable candidate for practical photocatalytic applications, because of the reliability and stability of their photocatalytic efficiency in a practical environment.

  17. Low-Temperature Silicon Epitaxy by Remote, Plasma - Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, Scott Dwight

    The dynamics of low temperature Si homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth, by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, RPECVD, have been investigated. For the critical step of pre-deposition surface preparation of Si(100) surfaces, the attributes of remote plasma generated atomic H are compared to results obtained with a rapid thermal desorption, RTD, technique and a hybrid H-plasma/RTD technique. Auger electron spectroscopy, AES, and electron diffraction analysis indicate the hybrid technique to be very effective at surface passivation, while the RTD process promotes the formation of SiC precipitates, which induce defective epitaxial growth. For GaP and GaAs substrates, the use of atomic H exposure is investigated as a surface passivation technique. AES shows this technique to be effective at producing atomically clean surfaces. For processing at 400^circrm C, the GaAs(100) surface is observed to reconstruct to a c(8 x 2)Ga symmetry while, at 530^ circrm C the vicinal GaP(100) surface, miscut 10^circ , is observed to reconstruct to a (1 x n) type symmetry; an unreconstructed (1 x 1) symmetry is observed for GaP(111). Differences in the efficiency with which native oxides are removed from the surface are attributed to variations in the local atomic bonding order of group V oxides. The microstructure of homoepitaxial Si films, deposited at temperatures of 25-450^circ rm C and pressures of 50-500 mTorr, is catalogued. Optimized conditions for the deposition of low defect, single crystal films are identified. The existence of two pressure dependent regimes for process activation are observed. In-situ mass spectral analysis indicates that the plasma afterglow is dominated by monosilane ions below 200 mTorr, while above 200 mTorr, low mass rm H_{x} ^+ (x = 1,2,3) and rm HHe^+ ions dominate. Consideration of the growth rate data indicates that downstream dissociative silane ionization, in the lower pressure regime, is responsible for an enhanced surface H

  18. Effects of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the carrier lifetime of Al2O3 passivation stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk-Hyun; Cho, Young Joon; Chang, Hyo Sik; Kim, Kyung-Joong; Song, Hee Eun

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect on the minority carrier lifetime of atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 passivation by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiON layer in Si/Al2O3/SiON-passivated structure. The lifetime variation of the Al2O3/SiON stack layer was found to depend on both the plasma power and the deposition temperature during the PECVD SiON process and to show better thermal stability than the Al2O3/SiNx:H stack under the same deposition conditions. The lifetime after a high-temperature firing process was improved dramatically at the PECVD deposition temperature of 200 °C. Our results provide a significant clue to reason for the improvement of the passivation performance for passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) silicon solar cells.

  19. High photoelectron emission from Co-diffused MgO deposited using arc plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Kosuga, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    MgO has several advantageous characteristics and has been applied in various fields. In this study, we deposited Co nanoparticles in an island pattern on a Si substrate using an arc plasma gun (APG). We subsequently formed a MgO thin film on this substrate by metal-organic decomposition (MOD), which enables the formation of films in the atmosphere, thereby yielding a double-layer structure. The MgO thin film formed on Co nanoparticles deposited using the APG with 500 pulses of arc discharge exhibited improved crystallinity and photoelectron emission at least threefold higher than that of a MgO thin film formed directly without depositing Co nanoparticles. Although the transmittance of the specimen formed by depositing Co nanoparticles was initially 30% or lower, it increased to greater than 90% after the formation of the MgO thin film and the dispersion of the Co nanoparticles in the MgO thin film during heat treatment at 900 °C. Our results clarify that the characteristics of MgO thin films are markedly improved by depositing Co nanoparticles before forming the films. The results of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) indicate that the outermost surface of the Co material had become CoO (cobalt oxide) with the dispersion of Co nanoparticles in the MgO thin film. The lattice parameter of CoO nanoparticles (an-axis lattice parameter of 4.2615 Å) after heating matches well with that of MgO (4.2126 Å). The MgO thin films that grew in conjunction with the CoO nanoparticles were highly crystallized. We successfully established a high-performance, cost-effective bottom-up process that requires no ion injection by dispersing Co nanoparticles in a MgO thin film through heat treatment.

  20. Temperature dependence of the biaxial modulus, intrinsic stress and composition of plasma deposited silicon oxynitride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David R.; Ogbuji, Linus U. T.; Freeman, Mathieu J.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. The elemental composition was varied between silicon nitride and silicon dioxide: SiO(0.3)N(1.0), SiO(0.7)N(1.6), SiO(0.7)N(1.1), and SiO(1.7)N(0.%). These films were annealed in air, at temperatures of 40-240 C above the deposition temperature (260 C), to determine the stability and behavior or each composition. the biaxial modulus, biaxial intrinsic stress, and elemental composition were measured at discrete intervals within the annealing cycle. Films deposited from primarily ammonia possessed considerable hydrogen (up to 38 at.%) and lost nitrogen and hydrogen at anneal temperatures (260-300 C) only marginally higher than the deposition temperature. As the initial oxygen content increased a different mechanism controlled the behavior or the film: The temperature threshold for change rose to approximately equal to 350 C and the loss of nitrogen was compensated by an equivalent rise in the oxygen content. The transformation from silicon oxynitride to silica was completed after 50 h at 400 C. The initial biaxial modulus of all compositions was 21-3- GPa and the intrinsic stress was -30 to 85 MPa. Increasing the oxygen content raised the temperature threshold where cracking first occurred; the two film compositions with the highest initial oxygen content did not crack, even at the highest temperature (450 C) investigated. At 450 C the biaxial modulus increased to approximately equal to 100 GPa and the intrinsic stress was approximately equal to 200 MPa. These increases could be correlated with the observed change in the film's composition. When nitrogen was replaced by oxygen, the induced stress remained lower than the biaxial strength of the material, but, when nitrogen and hydrogen were lost, stress-relieving microcracking occurred.

  1. In situ process diagnostics of silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Perry, J. W.; Hermann, A. M.

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been applied to in situ process diagnostics of a silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H film deposition. Silane depletion was directly measured by CARS and is linearly dependent on RF power in the region of 4-12 W with a slope of 0.5 percent/mW-sq cm. The depletion is also dependent on SiH4 flow rate starting with a 50 percent depletion at a low flow rate of 5.6 sccm and asymptotically approaching an 8 percent depletion at a flow rate of 80 sccm. The mass spectral line signal intensity of disilane increases with RF power and shows an apparent transition at 6 W. Disilane formation in silane plasma, film deposition rate, and silane depletion ratio as a function of the RF power indicate that the film growth mechanism in the low-power region of 3.5-6.5 W is substantially different from that in the high-power region of 6.5-12 W.

  2. Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-07-15

    Cost effective and a very simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for thin film deposition and mass spectroscopic analysis of organic gas mixture has been described. The interesting features of the apparatus are the construction of the dielectric electrodes made of aluminum oxide or alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and glass and the generation of high ignition voltage from the spark plug transformer taken from car. Metal capacitor is introduced in between ground and oscilloscope to measure the executing power during the discharge and the average electron density in the plasma region. The organic polymer films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate using several organic gas compositions. The experimental setup provides a unique drainage system from the reaction chamber controlled by a membrane pump to suck out and remove the poisonous gases or residuals (cyanogens, H-CN, CH{sub x}NH{sub 2}, etc.) which have been produced during the discharge of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} mixture.

  3. Plasma Processing of Functional Thin Films by Sputtering Deposition Using Metal-Based Powder Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Ihara, Takeshi; Arafune, Kento; Taniyama, Daichi; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2013-11-01

    Titanium-based functional thin films were prepared by a sputtering deposition method using a metal powder target, and the electron density and temperature of the processing plasma were investigated. The electron density of the plasma, measured by a probe method, when using a powder target was higher than that when using a bulk target. The deposition rate when using a powder target was also higher than that in the case of a bulk target. These results may be due to the net-cathode area of the powder target being larger than that of the bulk target. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, and atomic force microscopy images of the films prepared using the Ti powder target indicated nearly the same properties as those of films prepared using a Ti bulk target, and the prepared films are oxide. These results suggest that TiO2 thin films can be prepared using a Ti powder target and that the quality is almost the same as those of films prepared using a Ti bulk target.

  4. Properties of amorphous carbon-silicon alloys deposited by a high plasma density source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, B.; Ferrari, A. C.; Morrison, N. A.; Hutchings, I.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.

    2001-11-01

    The addition of silicon to hydrogenated amorphous carbon can have the advantageous effect of lowering the compressive stress, improving the thermal stability of its hydrogen, and maintaining a low friction coefficient up to high humidity. Most experiments to date have been on hydrogenated amorphous carbon-silicon alloys (a-C1-xSix:H) deposited by rf plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. This method gives alloys with sizeable hydrogen content and only moderate hardness. Here we use a high plasma density source known as the electron cyclotron wave resonance source to prepare films with higher sp3 content and lower hydrogen content. The composition and bonding in the alloys is determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis, visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectivity. We find that it is possible to produce relatively hard, low stress, low friction, almost humidity insensitive a-C1-xSix:H alloys with a good optical transparency and a band gap well over 2.5 eV. The friction behavior and friction mechanism of these alloys are studied and compared with that of a-C:H, ta-C:H, and ta-C. We show how UV Raman spectroscopy allows the direct detection of Si-C, Si-Hx, and C-Hx vibrations, not seen in visible Raman spectra.

  5. Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Saperstein, Robert E; Alic, Nikola; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2008-08-18

    We introduce and present experimental evaluations of loss and nonlinear optical response in a waveguide and an optical resonator, both implemented with a silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide material platform prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with dual frequency reactors that significantly reduce the stress and the consequent loss of the devices. We measure a relatively small loss of approximately 4dB/cm in the waveguides. The fabricated ring resonators in add-drop and all-pass arrangements demonstrate quality factors of Q=12,900 and 35,600. The resonators are used to measure both the thermal and ultrafast Kerr nonlinearities. The measured thermal nonlinearity is larger than expected, which is attributed to slower heat dissipation in the plasma-deposited silicon dioxide film. The n2 for silicon nitride that is unknown in the literature is measured, for the first time, as 2.4 x 10(-15)cm(2)/W, which is 10 times larger than that for silicon dioxide.

  6. Forming strengthening nanoparticles in the metal matrix of plasma deposited powder alloys coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alontseva, D. L.; Prokhorenkova, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the generalized results of investigation of the structure-phase compositions of thick coatings on the base of Ni and Co deposited by plasma-jet on steel substrates. Research methodology included transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis, X-ray structure phase analysis, mechanical testing. The phase structures and morphology of precipitation of strengthening nanoparticles from solid solution are defined; factor k is defined in the Hall-Petch equation for the coating materials; the coating structure model was developed. It was found that the exposure to plasma jet during the coating deposition leads to the evolution of the structural-phase state and to substantial improvement of microhardness of modified surfaces. The reason of doing this research is the necessity of the study of the structural and phase structure of these coatings and understanding what phase changes exactly are desirable in order to improve the structural behavior of the coatings at modifying treatment. Based on the experimental study, we plan to develop a scheme of the coating structure for the further use it in modeling processes taking place during additional irradiation treatment, and eventually to give evidence-based recommendations on the selection of modes of further processing.

  7. A mathematical model and simulation results of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride thin films from SiH4-NH3-N2-Ar mixture, an important application in modern materials science. Our multiphysics model describes gas dynamics, chemical physics, plasma physics and electrodynamics. The PECVD technology is inherently multiscale, from macroscale processes in the chemical reactor to atomic-scale surface chemistry. Our macroscale model is based on Navier-Stokes equations for a transient laminar flow of a compressible chemically reacting gas mixture, together with the mass transfer and energy balance equations, Poisson equation for electric potential, electrons and ions balance equations. The chemical kinetics model includes 24 species and 58 reactions: 37 in the gas phase and 21 on the surface. A deposition model consists of three stages: adsorption to the surface, diffusion along the surface and embedding of products into the substrate. A new model has been validated on experimental results obtained with the "Plasmalab System 100" reactor. We present the mathematical model and simulation results investigating the influence of flow rate and source gas proportion on silicon nitride film growth rate and chemical composition.

  8. In situ process diagnostics of silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Perry, J. W.; Hermann, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and mass spectrometry (MS) have been applied to in situ process diagnostics of a silane plasma for device-quality a-Si:H film deposition. Silane depletion was directly measured by CARS and is linearly dependent on RF power in the region of 4-12 W with a slope of 0.5 percent/mW-sq cm. The depletion is also dependent on SiH4 flow rate starting with a 50 percent depletion at a low flow rate of 5.6 sccm and asymptotically approaching an 8 percent depletion at a flow rate of 80 sccm. The mass spectral line signal intensity of disilane increases with RF power and shows an apparent transition at 6 W. Disilane formation in silane plasma, film deposition rate, and silane depletion ratio as a function of the RF power indicate that the film growth mechanism in the low-power region of 3.5-6.5 W is substantially different from that in the high-power region of 6.5-12 W.

  9. Characterization and performance of carbon films deposited by plasma and ion beam based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Kung, H.; Levine, T.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma and ion beam based techniques have been used to deposit carbon-based films. The ion beam based method, a cathodic arc process, used a magnetically mass analyzed beam and is inherently a line-of-sight process. Two hydrocarbon plasma-based, non-line-of-sight techniques were also used and have the advantage of being capable of coating complicated geometries. The self-bias technique can produce hard carbon films, but is dependent on rf power and the surface area of the target. The pulsed-bias technique can also produce hard carbon films but has the additional advantage of being independent of rf power and target surface area. Tribological results indicated the coefficient of friction is nearly the same for carbon films from each deposition process, but the wear rate of the cathodic arc film was five times less than for the self-bias or pulsed-bias films. Although the cathodic arc film was the hardest, contained the highest fraction of sp{sup 3} bonds and exhibited the lowest wear rate, the cathodic arc film also produced the highest wear on the 440C stainless steel counterface during tribological testing. Thus, for tribological applications requiring low wear rates for both counterfaces, coating one surface with a very hard, wear resistant film may detrimentally affect the tribological behavior of the counterface.

  10. Characterization of low frequency plasma waves and their energy deposition in the Martian magnetosphere with MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhunusiri, S.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; McFadden, J. P.; Larson, D. E.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C. X.; Jakosky, B. M.; Brain, D. A.; Harada, Y.; Livi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Mars has one of the unique environments in the solar system for the exploration of plasma waves. Mars does not have an intrinsic magnetosphere, but it has an induced magnetosphere due to the interaction of the solar wind with its ionosphere. Mars also possesses an extended exosphere, which spans beyond its bow shock. The interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere and the exosphere leads to excitation of low frequency waves that have frequencies near or below the proton gyro-frequency. MAVEN has been orbiting Mars since the late September of 2014, traversing through various regions of the Martian magnetosphere and the upstream region. MAVEN has a number of particle and field instruments for performing plasma diagnostics. Thus, for the first time at Mars, we have a complete set of plasma instruments for characterizing these low frequency plasma waves. The goal of this work is to distinguish the observed waves as one of the four low frequency wave modes (Alfven, fast, slow, and mirror) and to characterize their occurrence ratios and energy deposition in the various regions of the Martian magnetosphere and in the upstream region. To identify these waves, we use ratios and phase differences among the ion moment fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations. To measure the ion moment fluctuations, in particular, we use two of the MAVEN ion instruments, solar wind ion analyzer (SWIA) and suprathermal and thermal ion composition instrument (STATIC). We use the MAVEN magnetometer for obtaining the magnetic field fluctuations. SWIA and STATIC have sampling cadence of 4s, much higher than that of their predecessors flown to Mars, and this is often adequate to detect the low frequency waves at Mars. We find that the Alfven waves are the most dominant waves in the upstream region and in the Martian magnetosphere. Fast waves, on the other hand, have the second highest occurrence ratio and they are found frequently near the bow shock and near the magnetic pileup boundary

  11. Effect of hydrogen addition on the deposition of titanium nitride thin films in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, P.; Bhuyan, H.; Diaz-Droguett, D. E.; Guzman, F.; Mändl, S.; Saikia, B. K.; Favre, M.; Maze, J. R.; Wyndham, E.

    2016-06-01

    The properties and performance of thin films deposited by plasma assisted processes are closely related to their manufacturing techniques and processes. The objective of the current study is to investigate the modification of plasma parameters occurring during hydrogen addition in N2  +  Ar magnetron plasma used for titanium nitride thin film deposition, and to correlate the measured properties of the deposited thin film with the bulk plasma parameters of the magnetron discharge. From the Langmuir probe measurements, it was observed that the addition of hydrogen led to a decrease of electron density from 8.6 to 6.2  ×  (1014 m-3) and a corresponding increase of electron temperature from 6.30 to 6.74 eV. The optical emission spectroscopy study reveals that with addition of hydrogen, the density of argon ions decreases. The various positive ion species involving hydrogen are found to increase with increase of hydrogen partial pressure in the chamber. The thin films deposited were characterized using standard surface diagnostic tools such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Although it was possible to deposit thin films of titanium nitride with hydrogen addition in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma, the quality of the thin films deteriorates with higher hydrogen partial pressures.

  12. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of n-heptane and methyl methacrylate for potential cell alignment applications.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Annina; Tautzenberger, Andrea; Schaller, Andreas; Kalytta-Mewes, Andreas; Tränkle, Sebastian; Ignatius, Anita; Volkmer, Dirk

    2012-10-24

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymers (plasma polymers) are promising candidates for biomaterials applications. In the present study, plasma deposition as a fast and easily scalable method was adapted to deposit coatings from n-heptane and methyl methacrylate monomers onto glass substrates. Linear patterns with line and groove widths between 1.25 and 160 μm were introduced by degrative UV-lithography for cell alignment. Differential interference contrast optical microscopy, profilometry and atomic force microscopy revealed that the patterned surfaces had a smooth, homogeneous appearance and a pattern height of 8 and 45 nm for plasma deposited n-heptane and methyl methacrylate, respectively. UV-lithography increased the oxygen content on the surface drastically as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After immersion in simulated body fluid for 21 days, the pattern was still intact, and the ester groups were also maintained for the most part as shown by infrared spectroscopy. To test the coatings' potential applicability for biomaterial surfaces in a preliminary experiment, we cultured murine preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells on these coatings. Light and electron microscopically, a normal spindle-shaped and aligned cell morphology was observed. At the mRNA level, cells showed no signs of diminished proliferation or elevated expression of apoptosis markers. In conclusion, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited polymers can be patterned with a fast and feasible method and might be suitable materials to guide cell alignment. PMID:22992135

  13. Characterization of Plasma Jet in Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of YSZ Using a <80 kW Shrouded Torch Based on Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qing-Yu; Peng, Xiao-Zhuang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2015-08-01

    During plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, evaporation of the YSZ powder is essential, but quite difficult when using a commercial <80 kW plasma torch. In this study, a shrouded plasma torch was examined to improve the YSZ evaporation. The plasma characteristics were diagnosed using optical emission spectroscopy. Results showed that the electron number density in the plasma jet was maintained at an order of magnitude of 1014 cm-3, indicating local thermal equilibrium of the plasma jet. Compared with a conventional torch, the shrouded torch resulted in much higher plasma temperature and much lower electron number density. With the shrouded torch, more energy of the plasma was transferred to the YSZ material, leading to more evaporation of the YSZ powder and thereby a much higher deposition rate of the YSZ coating. These results show that use of a shrouded torch is a simple and effective approach to improve the evaporation of feedstock material during PS-PVD.

  14. Plasma-Assisted Laser Deposition of High T(c) Oxide Superconducting Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witanachchi, Sarath

    1990-01-01

    Since the discovery of the high T_ {rm c} oxide superconductor YBa _2Cu_3O _7 a great deal of attention has been given to the fabrication of superconducting thin films of this material. Thin films of the new superconductor have an immense importance in scientific research, such as microwave, infrared and critical current studies, and also in applications, such as Josephson junction based digital computer circuits, SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices), transmission lines, and interconnectors. Integration of these films with semiconductors and multilayer capabilities are important for future practical uses. For most of these applications, a low temperature in-situ fabrication process is designed to obtain smooth surfaces and sharp interfaces. Less than 500^circC growth temperatures would be compatible with the existing semiconductor technology. At the beginning of this research project, the lowest deposition temperature reported for the fabrication of in-situ superconducting films was about 650^circC. Our goal was to develop a technique that would enable us to fabricate in-situ high T_{ rm c} superconducting films at a substrate temperature lower than 650^circC. By incorporating a weak oxygen plasma in the laser evaporation zone, we have been able to develop a novel plasma assisted laser deposition (PLD) technique to grow YBaCuO films that are superconducting in the as-deposited state. Using this technique, good quality superconducting films with mirror -like surfaces have been grown at substrate temperatures as low as 500^circC. YBaCuO films were deposited on single crystal substrates, SrTiO_3, ZrO _2, MgO, sapphire and Si, and also on flexible stainless steel substrates. Films deposited on SrTiO _3 at 500^circC showed a critical temperature of 86K and a critical current of 10^5 A/cm^2 at 80K and 5 times 10^6 A/cm^2 at 4.3K. The possibility of improving the superconducting properties of the films deposited on sapphire, Si, and stainless steel by

  15. Organo-Chlorinated Thin Films Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Adhesion Enhancement between Rubber and Zinc-Plated Steel Monofilaments.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, Cédric; Bulou, Simon; Maurau, Rémy; Siffer, Frederic; Belmonte, Thierry; Choquet, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    A continuous-flow plasma process working at atmospheric pressure is developed to enhance the adhesion between a rubber compound and a zinc-plated steel monofilament, with the long-term objective to find a potential alternative to the electrolytic brass plating process, which is currently used in tire industry. For this purpose, a highly efficient tubular dielectric barrier discharge reactor is built to allow the continuous treatment of "endless" cylindrical substrates. The best treatment conditions found regarding adhesion are Ar/O2 plasma pretreatment, followed by the deposition from dichloromethane of a 75 nm-thick organo-chlorinated plasma polymerized thin film. Ar/O2 pretreatment allows the removal of organic residues, coming from drawing lubricants, and induces external growth of zinc oxide. The plasma layer has to be preferably deposited at low power to conserve sufficient hydrocarbon moieties. Surface analyses reveal the complex chemical mechanism behind the establishment of strong adhesion levels, more than five times higher after the plasma treatment. During the vulcanization step, superficial ZnO reacts with the chlorinated species of the thin film and is converted into porous and granular bump-shaped ZnwOxHyClz nanostructures. Together, rubber additives diffuse through the plasma layer and lead to the formation of zinc sulfide on the substrate surface. Hence, two distinct interfaces, rubber/thin film and thin film/substrate, are established. On the basis of these observations, hypotheses explaining the high bonding strength results are formulated. PMID:26069994

  16. Organo-Chlorinated Thin Films Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Adhesion Enhancement between Rubber and Zinc-Plated Steel Monofilaments.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, Cédric; Bulou, Simon; Maurau, Rémy; Siffer, Frederic; Belmonte, Thierry; Choquet, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    A continuous-flow plasma process working at atmospheric pressure is developed to enhance the adhesion between a rubber compound and a zinc-plated steel monofilament, with the long-term objective to find a potential alternative to the electrolytic brass plating process, which is currently used in tire industry. For this purpose, a highly efficient tubular dielectric barrier discharge reactor is built to allow the continuous treatment of "endless" cylindrical substrates. The best treatment conditions found regarding adhesion are Ar/O2 plasma pretreatment, followed by the deposition from dichloromethane of a 75 nm-thick organo-chlorinated plasma polymerized thin film. Ar/O2 pretreatment allows the removal of organic residues, coming from drawing lubricants, and induces external growth of zinc oxide. The plasma layer has to be preferably deposited at low power to conserve sufficient hydrocarbon moieties. Surface analyses reveal the complex chemical mechanism behind the establishment of strong adhesion levels, more than five times higher after the plasma treatment. During the vulcanization step, superficial ZnO reacts with the chlorinated species of the thin film and is converted into porous and granular bump-shaped ZnwOxHyClz nanostructures. Together, rubber additives diffuse through the plasma layer and lead to the formation of zinc sulfide on the substrate surface. Hence, two distinct interfaces, rubber/thin film and thin film/substrate, are established. On the basis of these observations, hypotheses explaining the high bonding strength results are formulated.

  17. Uniform GaN thin films grown on (100) silicon by remote plasma atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chen, Liang-Yih; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-01-01

    The growth of uniform gallium nitride (GaN) thin films was reported on (100) Si substrate by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium (TEG) and NH3 as the precursors. The self-limiting growth of GaN was manifested by the saturation of the deposition rate with the doses of TEG and NH3. The increase in the growth temperature leads to the rise of nitrogen content and improved crystallinity of GaN thin films, from amorphous at a low deposition temperature of 200 °C to polycrystalline hexagonal structures at a high growth temperature of 500 °C. No melting-back etching was observed at the GaN/Si interface. The excellent uniformity and almost atomic flat surface of the GaN thin films also infer the surface control mode of the GaN thin films grown by the RP-ALD technique. The GaN thin films grown by RP-ALD will be further applied in the light-emitting diodes and high electron mobility transistors on (100) Si substrate.

  18. Current transport mechanisms in plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Altuntas, Halit E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-04-21

    Here, we report on the current transport mechanisms in AlN thin films deposited at a low temperature (i.e., 200 °C) on p-type Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. Structural characterization of the deposited AlN was carried out using grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, revealing polycrystalline films with a wurtzite (hexagonal) structure. Al/AlN/ p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structures were fabricated and investigated under negative bias by performing current-voltage measurements. As a function of the applied electric field, different types of current transport mechanisms were observed; i.e., ohmic conduction (15.2–21.5 MV/m), Schottky emission (23.6–39.5 MV/m), Frenkel-Poole emission (63.8–211.8 MV/m), trap-assisted tunneling (226–280 MV/m), and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (290–447 MV/m). Electrical properties of the insulating AlN layer and the fabricated Al/AlN/p-Si MIS capacitor structure such as dielectric constant, flat-band voltage, effective charge density, and threshold voltage were also determined from the capacitance-voltage measurements.

  19. Wettability of modified silica layers deposited on glass support activated by plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpiłowski, Konrad; Rymuszka, Diana; Goncharuk, Olena V.; Sulym, Iryna Ya.; Gun'ko, Vladimir M.

    2015-10-01

    Fumed silica modified by hexamethyldisilazane [HDMS] and polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS] was dispersed in a polystyrene/chloroform solution. To increase adhesion between deposited silica layers and a glass surface, the latter was pretreated with air plasma for 30 s. The silica/polystyrene dispersion was deposited on the glass support using a spin coater. After deposition, the plates were dried in a desiccator for 24 h. Water advancing and receding contact angles were measured using the tilted plate method. The apparent surface free energy (γS) was evaluated using the contact angle hysteresis approach. The surface topography was determined using the optical profilometry method. Contact angles changed from 59.7° ± 4.4 (at surface coverage with trimethylsilyl groups Θ = 0.14) to 155° ± 3.1 at Θ = 1. The value of γS decreased from 51.3 ± 2.8 mJ/m2 (for the sample at the lowest value of Θ) to 1.0 ± 0.4 mJ/m2 for the most hydrophobic sample. Thus, some systems with a high degree of modification by HDMS showed superhydrophobicity, and the sliding angle amounted to about 16° ± 2.1.

  20. Defect analysis and mechanical performance of plasma-deposited thin films on flexible polycarbonate substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakhi P.; Wolden, Colin A.

    2013-03-01

    A simple solvent-etch based technique is developed to visualize and quantify defects in transparent thin films deposited on flexible polymer substrates. This approach is used to characterize defects in as-deposited films and to monitor their evolution as a function of applied and repetitive bending. Thin films investigated include sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and alumina-silicone nanolaminates fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It is shown that the use of nanolaminate architectures reduces the defect density by two orders of magnitude relative to a single alumina layer. The pinhole density increases when nanolaminates are subjected to applied stress, and at a critical density of ˜10/mm2 the isolated defects coalesce into macroscopic cracks. In the case of ITO an optimum film thickness is identified that balances electronic performance with mechanical integrity. Conductivity correlates with defect density, and the films displayed very similar performance under tensile and compressive strain. A critical radius of curvature of 0.75 in. was identified, but films cycled below the threshold strain demonstrated robust performance, with only negligible changes in resistivity through 2000 bending cycles. The strong performance under strain is attributed to the amorphous nature of the sputtered ITO.

  1. Supported plasma sputtering apparatus for high deposition rate over large area

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Jr., Edwin D.; Laegreid, Nils

    1977-01-01

    A supported plasma sputtering apparatus is described having shaped electrical fields in the electron discharge region between the cathode and anode and the sputter region between the target and substrate while such regions are free of any externally applied magnetic field to provide a high deposition rate which is substantially uniform over a wide area. Plasma shaping electrodes separate from the anode and target shape the electrical fields in the electron discharge region and the sputter region to provide a high density plasma. The anode surrounds the target to cause substantially uniform sputtering over a large target area. In one embodiment the anode is in the form of an annular ring surrounding a flat target surface, such anode being provided with a ribbed upper surface which shields portions of the anode from exposure to sputtered material to maintain the electron discharge for a long stable operation. Several other embodiments accomplish the same result by using different anodes which either shield the anode from sputtered material, remove the sputtered coating on the anode by heating, or simultaneously mix sputtered metal from the auxiliary target with sputtered insulator from the main target so the resultant coating is conductive. A radio frequency potential alone or together with a D.C. potential, may be applied to the target for a greater sputtering rate.

  2. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    DOE PAGES

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-05

    Low-temperature (≤ 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems notmore » only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. As a result of our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.« less

  3. Plasma restructuring of catalysts for chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cantoro, M.; Hofmann, S.; Pisana, S.; Parvez, A.; Fasoli, A.; Scardaci, V.; Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J.; Mattevi, C.; Ducati, C.

    2009-03-15

    The growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers by catalytic chemical vapor deposition at lower temperatures is found to be aided by a separate catalyst pretreatment step in which the catalyst thin film is restructured into a series of nanoparticles with a more active surface. The restructuring is particularly effective when carried out by an ammonia plasma. The nature of the restructuring is studied by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman. We find that as the growth temperature decreases, there is a limiting maximum catalyst thickness, which gives any nanotube growth. Plasmas are found to restructure the catalyst by a combination of physical etching and chemical modification. Large plasma powers can lead to complete etching of thin catalyst films, and hence loss of activity. Ni is found to be the better catalyst at low temperatures because it easily reduced from any oxide form to the catalytically active metallic state. On the other hand, Fe gives the largest nanotube length and density yield at moderate temperatures because it is less easy to reduce at low temperatures and it is more easily poisoned at high temperatures.

  4. Vacuum arc plasma generation and thin film deposition from a TiB{sub 2} cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhirkov, Igor Petruhins, Andrejs; Naslund, Lars-Ake; Rosen, Johanna; Kolozsvári, Szilard; Polcik, Peter

    2015-11-02

    We have studied the utilization of TiB{sub 2} cathodes for thin film deposition in a DC vacuum arc system. We present a route for attaining a stable, reproducible, and fully ionized plasma flux of Ti and B by removal of the external magnetic field, which leads to dissipation of the vacuum arc discharge and an increased active surface area of the cathode. Applying a magnetic field resulted in instability and cracking, consistent with the previous reports. Plasma analysis shows average energies of 115 and 26 eV, average ion charge states of 2.1 and 1.1 for Ti and B, respectively, and a plasma ion composition of approximately 50% Ti and 50% B. This is consistent with measured resulting film composition from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting a negligible contribution of neutrals and macroparticles to the film growth. Also, despite the observations of macroparticle generation, the film surface is very smooth. These results are of importance for the utilization of cathodic arc as a method for synthesis of metal borides.

  5. Plasma restructuring of catalysts for chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoro, M.; Hofmann, S.; Mattevi, C.; Pisana, S.; Parvez, A.; Fasoli, A.; Ducati, C.; Scardaci, V.; Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J.

    2009-03-01

    The growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers by catalytic chemical vapor deposition at lower temperatures is found to be aided by a separate catalyst pretreatment step in which the catalyst thin film is restructured into a series of nanoparticles with a more active surface. The restructuring is particularly effective when carried out by an ammonia plasma. The nature of the restructuring is studied by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman. We find that as the growth temperature decreases, there is a limiting maximum catalyst thickness, which gives any nanotube growth. Plasmas are found to restructure the catalyst by a combination of physical etching and chemical modification. Large plasma powers can lead to complete etching of thin catalyst films, and hence loss of activity. Ni is found to be the better catalyst at low temperatures because it easily reduced from any oxide form to the catalytically active metallic state. On the other hand, Fe gives the largest nanotube length and density yield at moderate temperatures because it is less easy to reduce at low temperatures and it is more easily poisoned at high temperatures.

  6. The deposition of chromium by the use of an inductively-coupled radio-frequency plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, L.; Chumbley, L.S.

    1997-11-15

    This paper discusses attempts to deposit a layer of hard Cr metal, with properties similar to those of layers currently obtained by electrolytic methods, onto a metallic substrate using an inductively-coupled, radio-frequency plasma torch (ICP-RF) torch. Preliminary studies indicated that it might be possible to produce a suitable layer using a number of chromium-based compounds. For this study, Cr powders and a chromium precursor were injected into the high temperature region of the plasma plume, where thermal decomposition of the feed material produced Cr atoms that deposited onto the surface of metal substrates placed below the plasma torch. The films produced were examined to determine thickness, chemical compositions, and adherence. Since the goal of the project was to develop a coating method that was not only industrially suitable but also environmentally safe, care was taken to monitor the emissions produced by the system during deposition.

  7. Silicon oxide barrier films deposited on PET foils in pulsed plasmas: influence of substrate bias on deposition process and film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steves, S.; Ozkaya, B.; Liu, C.-N.; Ozcan, O.; Bibinov, N.; Grundmeier, G.; Awakowicz, P.

    2013-02-01

    A widely used plastic for packaging, polyethylene terephtalate (PET) offers limited barrier properties against gas permeation. For many applications of PET (from food packaging to micro electronics) improved barrier properties are essential. A silicon oxide barrier coating of PET foils is applied by means of a pulsed microwave driven low-pressure plasma. While the adjustment of the microwave power allows for a control of the ion production during the plasma pulse, a substrate bias controls the energy of ions impinging on the substrate. Detailed analysis of deposited films applying oxygen permeation measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are correlated with results from plasma diagnostics describing the deposition process. The influence of a change in process parameters such as gas mixture and substrate bias on the gas temperature, electron density, mean electron energy, ion energy and the atomic oxygen density is studied. An additional substrate bias results in an increase in atomic oxygen density up to a factor of 6, although plasma parameter such as electron density of ne = 3.8 ± 0.8 × 1017 m-3 and electron temperature of kBTe = 1.7 ± 0.1 eV are unmodified. It is shown that atomic oxygen densities measured during deposition process higher than nO = 1.8 × 1021 m-3 yield in barrier films with a barrier improvement factor up to 150. Good barrier films are highly cross-linked and show a smooth morphology.

  8. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured CdS thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tummala, Raghavender; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, Pravansu S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale nanostructured coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS coatings developed have good electrical conductivity and optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings possess large amount of particulate boundaries and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are used in solar cells, sensors and microelectronics. A variety of techniques, such as vapor based techniques, wet chemical methods and spray pyrolysis are frequently employed to develop adherent CdS films. In the present study, rapid deposition of CdS thin films via plasma spray route using a solution precursor was investigated, for the first time. Solution precursor comprising cadmium chloride, thiourea and distilled water was fed into a DC plasma jet via an axial atomizer to create ultrafine droplets for instantaneous and accelerated thermal decomposition in the plasma plume. The resulting molten/semi-molten ultrafine/nanoparticles of CdS eventually propel toward the substrate to form continuous CdS films. The chemistry of the solution precursor was found to be critical in plasma pyrolysis to control the stoichiometry and composition of the films. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed hexagonal {alpha}-CdS structure. Surface morphology and microstructures were investigated to compare with other synthesis techniques in terms of process mechanism and structural features. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed nanostructures in the atomized particulates. Optical measurements indicated a decreasing transmittance in the visible light with increasing the film thickness and band gap was calculated to be {approx}2.5 eV. The electrical resistivity of the films (0.243 {+-} 0.188 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm) was comparable with the literature

  9. Effect Of The Plasma Deposition Parameters On The Properties Of Ti/TiN Multilayers For Hard Coatings Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saoula, N.; Henda, K.; Kesri, R.

    2008-09-23

    In this study, we present the effect of the plasma deposition parameters on the mechanical properties of Ti/TiN multilayers. The elaboration of our films has been carried out by RF-Magnetron Sputtering (13.56 MHz) under nitrogen and argon reactive plasma at low pressure. The film depositions have been done on steel substrates. The first step of our study was the optimization of the depositions conditions in order to obtain good quality films. The amount of nitrogen in the sputtering gases being fixed at 10%. The total pressure was set between 2mTorr to 10mTorr. The deposited multilayers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-indentation.

  10. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition zinc oixde flexible thin film electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dalong

    This thesis demonstrates high performance flexible thin film electronics fabricated by low temperature process. A novel process for forming high quality stable oxide films using weak oxidant plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) has been used to achieve fastest flexible oxide integrated circuits reported to date. In addition, a unique approach based on plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) encapsulation at low temperature (<70 °C) is also reported. Among several low temperature deposition approaches PEALD process provides highly crystalline and dense ZnO thin films which are uniform and conformal at 200 ºC. Crossover measurement results also demonstrate the advantage of PEALD process in thin film deposition on flexible substrates. PEALD ZnO flexible TFTs have high field-effect mobility (˜ 20 cm2/V˙s) and excellent bias stress stability with ALD Al2O3 passivation. 15-stage ring oscillators with propagation delay of <20 nsec/stage have been successfully fabricated on flexible substrates. To the best of our knowledge, these are the fastest oxide-semiconductor circuits on flexible substrates reported to date, and they are about 20 times faster than the best previous report. This thesis also presents the investigation of ZnO device physics by modeling. Non-ideal ZnO device characteristics, including passivation, contacts, and output conductance, have been well modeled and verified with experimental results. Two different approaches were also proposed to extract device parameters for compact models and form the foundation for later circuit design and simulations. A TCAD ZnO model is established and can well describe the operation physics from single transistor to simple circuits. This model is verified by reasonable agreement with experimental data. Building on the results of ZnO TFTs and circuits, several ZnO based applications have been demonstrated. Microsensors with ZnO pyroFETs have

  11. On the low-temperature growth mechanism of single walled carbon nanotubes in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariat, M.; Shokri, B.; Neyts, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite significant progress in single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) production by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), the growth mechanism in this method is not clearly understood. We employ reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate how plasma-based deposition allows growth at low temperature. We first investigate the SWCNT growth mechanism at low and high temperatures under conditions similar to thermal CVD and PECVD. We then show how ion bombardment during the nucleation stage increases the carbon solubility in the catalyst at low temperature. Finally, we demonstrate how moderate energy ions sputter amorphous carbon allowing for SWCNT growth at 500 K.

  12. In Situ Nanocalorimetric Investigations of Plasma Assisted Deposited Poly(ethylene oxide)-like Films by Specific Heat Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Madkou, Sherif; Melnichu, Iurii; Choukourov, Andrei; Krakovsky, Ivan; Biederman, Hynek; Schönhals, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    In recent years, highly cross-linked plasma polymers have started to unveil their potential in numerous biomedical applications in thin-film form. However, conventional diagnostic methods often fail due to their diverse molecular dynamics conformations. Here, glassy dynamics and the melting transition of thin PEO-like plasma assisted deposited (ppPEO) films (thickness 100 nm) were in situ studied by a combination of specific heat spectroscopy, utilizing a pJ/K sensitive ac-calorimeter chip, and composition analytical techniques. Different cross-linking densities were obtained by different plasma powers during the deposition of the films. Glassy dynamics were observed for all values of the plasma power. It was found that the glassy dynamics slows down with increasing the plasma power. Moreover, the underlying relaxation time spectra broaden indicating that the molecular motions become more heterogeneous with increasing plasma power. In a second set of the experiment, the melting behavior of the ppPEO films was studied. The melting temperature of ppPEO was found to decrease with increasing plasma power. This was explained by a decrease of the order in the crystals due to formation of chemical defects during the plasma process. PMID:27055060

  13. Deposition of TiN and HfO{sub 2} in a commercial 200 mm remote plasma atomic layer deposition reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Heil, S. B. S.; Hemmen, J. L. van; Hodson, C. J.; Singh, N.; Klootwijk, J. H.; Roozeboom, F.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2007-09-15

    The authors describe a remote plasma atomic layer deposition reactor (Oxford Instruments FlexAL trade mark sign ) that includes an inductively coupled plasma source and a load lock capable of handling substrates up to 200 mm in diameter. The deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) is described for the combination of the metal-halide precursor TiCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasma and the combination of the metallorganic precursor Hf[N(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 4} and O{sub 2} plasma, respectively. The influence of the plasma exposure time and substrate temperature has been studied and compositional, structural, and electrical properties are reported. TiN films with a low Cl impurity content were obtained at 350 deg. C at a growth rate of 0.35 A /cycle with an electrical resistivity as low as 150 {mu}{omega} cm. Carbon-free (detection limit <2 at. %) HfO{sub 2} films were obtained at a growth rate of 1.0 A /cycle at 290 deg. C. The thickness and resisitivity nonuniformity was <5% for the TiN and the thickness uniformality was <2% for the HfO{sub 2} films as determined over 200 mm wafers.

  14. Nitrogen Plasma Instabilities and the Growth of Silicon Nitride by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, F. S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen plasma instabilities have been identified through fluctuations in the ion current density and substrate floating potential. The plasma characteristics for both nitrogen and silane-nitrogen plasmas are consistent with a transition from an underdense to overdense plasma at 0.9 and 1.0 mTorr respectively.

  15. Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F Javier; López-Santos, Maria C; Guillén, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2014-04-14

    ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. PMID:24643984

  16. Plasma-Enhanced Pulsed Laser Deposition of Wide Bandgap Nitrides for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triplett, G. E., Jr.; Durbin, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    The need for a reliable, inexpensive technology for small-scale space power applications where photovoltaic or chemical battery approaches are not feasible has prompted renewed interest in radioisotope-based energy conversion devices. Although a number of devices have been developed using a variety of semiconductors, the single most limiting factor remains the overall lifetime of the radioisotope battery. Recent advances in growth techniques for ultra-wide bandgap III-nitride semiconductors provide the means to explore a new group of materials with the promise of significant radiation resistance. Additional benefits resulting from the use of ultra-wide bandgap materials include a reduction in leakage current and higher operating voltage without a loss of energy transfer efficiency. This paper describes the development of a novel plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition system for the growth of cubic boron nitride semiconducting thin films, which will be used to construct pn junction devices for alphavoltaic applications.

  17. High Current Emission from Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Linfan; Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Bingjun; Jiao, Tifeng

    2015-12-01

    Vertically, carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were successfully fabricated on hexagon patterned Si substrates through radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using gas mixtures of acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen (H2) with Fe/Al2O3 catalysts. The CNTs were found to be graphitized with multi-walled structures. Different H2/C2H2 gas flow rate ratio was used to investigate the effect on CNT growth, and the field emission properties were optimized. The CNT emitters exhibited excellent field emission performance (the turn-on and threshold fields were 2.1 and 2.4 V/μm, respectively). The largest emission current could reach 70 mA/cm2. The emission current was stable, and no obvious deterioration was observed during the long-term stability test of 50 h. The results were relevant for practical applications based on CNTs.

  18. High Current Emission from Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linfan; Chen, Jiangtao; Yang, Bingjun; Jiao, Tifeng

    2015-12-01

    Vertically, carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were successfully fabricated on hexagon patterned Si substrates through radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using gas mixtures of acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen (H2) with Fe/Al2O3 catalysts. The CNTs were found to be graphitized with multi-walled structures. Different H2/C2H2 gas flow rate ratio was used to investigate the effect on CNT growth, and the field emission properties were optimized. The CNT emitters exhibited excellent field emission performance (the turn-on and threshold fields were 2.1 and 2.4 V/μm, respectively). The largest emission current could reach 70 mA/cm(2). The emission current was stable, and no obvious deterioration was observed during the long-term stability test of 50 h. The results were relevant for practical applications based on CNTs. PMID:26666912

  19. Carbon nanowalls grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition during the carbonization of polyacrylonitrile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Zhou, Lei; Kundrát, Vojtěch; Abbot, Andrew M.; Mushtaq, Fajer; Ouyang, Defang; James, David; Roberts, Darren; Ye, Haitao

    2013-01-01

    We used microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) to carbonize an electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor to form carbon fibers. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the fibers at different evolution stages. It was found that MPECVD-carbonized PAN fibers do not exhibit any significant change in the fiber diameter, whilst conventionally carbonized PAN fibers show a 33% reduction in the fiber diameter. An additional coating of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) was formed on the surface of the carbonized PAN fibers during the MPECVD process without the assistance of any metallic catalysts. The result presented here may have a potential to develop a novel, economical, and straightforward approach towards the mass production of carbon fibrous materials containing CNWs.

  20. In situ nitrogen-doped graphene grown from polydimethylsiloxane by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chundong; Zhou, Yungang; He, Lifang; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Hong, Guo; Wu, Qi-Hui; Gao, Fei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

    2013-01-21

    Due to its unique electronic properties and wide spectrum of promising applications, graphene has attracted much attention from scientists in various fields. Control and engineering of graphene’s semiconducting properties is considered to be the key of its applications in electronic devices. Here, we report a novel method to prepare in situ nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a solid carbon source. Based on this approach, the concentration of nitrogen-doping can be easily controlled via the flow rate of nitrogen during the CVD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen atoms doped into graphene lattice were mainly in the forms of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures. Moreover, first-principles calculations show that the incorporated nitrogen atoms can lead to p-type doping of graphene. This in situ approach provides a promising strategy to prepare graphene with controlled electronic properties.

  1. Carbon nanowalls grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition during the carbonization of polyacrylonitrile fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jiangling; Su Shi; Kundrat, Vojtech; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao; Zhou Lei; Mushtaq, Fajer; Ouyang Defang; James, David; Roberts, Darren

    2013-01-14

    We used microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) to carbonize an electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor to form carbon fibers. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the fibers at different evolution stages. It was found that MPECVD-carbonized PAN fibers do not exhibit any significant change in the fiber diameter, whilst conventionally carbonized PAN fibers show a 33% reduction in the fiber diameter. An additional coating of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) was formed on the surface of the carbonized PAN fibers during the MPECVD process without the assistance of any metallic catalysts. The result presented here may have a potential to develop a novel, economical, and straightforward approach towards the mass production of carbon fibrous materials containing CNWs.

  2. Antifouling Transparent ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Du, Jinlong; Yuji, Toshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ogawa, Kazufumi

    2015-09-01

    One problem with outdoor-mounted solar panels is that power generation efficiency is reduced by face plate dirt; a problem with electronic touch panels is the deterioration of screen visibility caused by finger grease stains. To solve these problems, we should fabricate antifouling surfaces which have superhydrophobic and oil-repellent properties without spoiling the transparency of the transparent substrate. In this study, an antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency was fabricated on a glass substrate by forming a fractal microstructure. The fractal microstructure was constituted of transparent silica particles 100 nm in diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles through atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition; the sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. Samples were obtained which had a superhydrophobic property (with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°) and a high average transmittance of about 90% (with wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 780 nm).

  3. [Coating with plasma-deposited functionalized diamond-like carbon to decrease encrustations on urological implants].

    PubMed

    Laube, N; Kleinen, L; Böde, U; Fisang, C; Meissner, A; Bradenahl, J; Syring, I; Busch, H; Pinkowski, W; Müller, S C

    2007-09-01

    The double-J stents used today for palliative artificial urinary diversion very often show extreme formation of encrustations, even a short time after implantation. Despite increased scientific material development, the complication rate has not really been strongly influenced. Grant-aided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we chose a new interdisciplinary and translational approach by coating standard stent materials with plasma-deposited amorphous diamond-like carbon. These stents show clearly reduced rates of encrustation in vitro. Ongoing clinical trials demonstrate a further enhancement of this effect in vivo. The underlying mechanisms are being investigated by extending the established in vitro model, thereby pushing research in this field to a new level.

  4. Structural and mechanical properties of Al-C-N films deposited at room temperature by plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, A. Umar; R, Ahmad; R, S. Rawat; M, A. Baig; J, Siddiqui; T, Hussain

    2016-07-01

    The Al-C-N films are deposited on Si substrates by using a dense plasma focus (DPF) device with aluminum fitted central electrode (anode) and by operating the device with CH4/N2 gas admixture ratio of 1:1. XRD results verify the crystalline AlN (111) and Al3CON (110) phase formation of the films deposited using multiple shots. The elemental compositions as well as chemical states of the deposited Al-C-N films are studied using XPS analysis, which affirm Al-N, C-C, and C-N bonding. The FESEM analysis reveals that the deposited films are composed of nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates. The size of the agglomerates increases at a higher number of focus deposition shots for multiple shot depositions. Nanoindentation results reveal the variation in mechanical properties (nanohardness and elastic modulus) of Al-C-N films deposited with multiple shots. The highest values of nanohardness and elastic modulus are found to be about 11 and 185 GPa, respectively, for the film deposited with 30 focus deposition shots. The mechanical properties of the films deposited using multiple shots are related to the Al content and C-N bonding.

  5. Argon–germane in situ plasma clean for reduced temperature Ge on Si epitaxy by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sheng, Josephine J.; Verley, Jason C.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-06-04

    We found that the demand for integration of near infrared optoelectronic functionality with silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has for many years motivated the investigation of low temperature germanium on silicon deposition processes. Our work describes the development of a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process that uses a low temperature (<460 °C) in situ germane/argon plasma surface preparation step for epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon. It is shown that the germane/argon plasma treatment sufficiently removes SiOx and carbon at the surface to enable germanium epitaxy. Finally, the use of this surface preparation step demonstrates an alternative way to produce germanium epitaxy at reduced temperatures, a key enabler for increased flexibility of integration with CMOS back-end-of-line fabrication.

  6. Argon–germane in situ plasma clean for reduced temperature Ge on Si epitaxy by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Douglas, Erica A.; Sheng, Josephine J.; Verley, Jason C.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2015-06-04

    We found that the demand for integration of near infrared optoelectronic functionality with silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has for many years motivated the investigation of low temperature germanium on silicon deposition processes. Our work describes the development of a high density plasma chemical vapor deposition process that uses a low temperature (<460 °C) in situ germane/argon plasma surface preparation step for epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon. It is shown that the germane/argon plasma treatment sufficiently removes SiOx and carbon at the surface to enable germanium epitaxy. Finally, the use of this surface preparation step demonstrates anmore » alternative way to produce germanium epitaxy at reduced temperatures, a key enabler for increased flexibility of integration with CMOS back-end-of-line fabrication.« less

  7. A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study of post-plasma reactions in organosilicone microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings.

    PubMed

    Hall, Colin J; Ponnusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Murphy, Peter J; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-06-11

    Plasma-polymerized organosilicone coatings can be used to impart abrasion resistance and barrier properties to plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. Coating rates suitable for industrial-scale deposition, up to 100 nm/s, can be achieved through the use of microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), with optimal process vapors such as tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) and oxygen. However, it has been found that under certain deposition conditions, such coatings are subject to post-plasma changes; crazing or cracking can occur anytime from days to months after deposition. To understand the cause of the crazing and its dependence on processing plasma parameters, the effects of post-plasma reactions on the chemical bonding structure of coatings deposited with varying TMDSO-to-O2 ratios was studied with (29)Si and (13)C solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) using both single-pulse and cross-polarization techniques. The coatings showed complex chemical compositions significantly altered from the parent monomer. (29)Si MAS NMR spectra revealed four main groups of resonance lines, which correspond to four siloxane moieties (i.e., mono (M), di (D), tri (T), and quaternary (Q)) and how they are bound to oxygen. Quantitative measurements showed that the ratio of TMDSO to oxygen could shift the chemical structure of the coating from 39% to 55% in Q-type bonds and from 28% to 16% for D-type bonds. Post-plasma reactions were found to produce changes in relative intensities of (29)Si resonance lines. The NMR data were complemented by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Together, these techniques have shown that the bonding environment of Si is drastically altered by varying the TMDSO-to-O2 ratio during PECVD, and that post-plasma reactions increase the cross-link density of the silicon-oxygen network. It appears that Si-H and Si-OH chemical groups are the most susceptible to post-plasma reactions. Coatings produced at a

  8. Diamond thin films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leksono, M.

    1991-09-05

    Undoped and boron doped diamond thin films have been successfully grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The films were characterized using x- ray diffraction techniques, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and various electrical measurements. The deposition rates of the diamond films were found to increase with the CH{sub 4} concentration, substrate temperature, and/or pressure, and at 1.0% methane, 900{degrees}C, and 35 Torr, the value was measured to be 0.87 {mu}m/hour. The deposition rate for boron doped diamond films, decreases as the diborane concentration increases. The morphologies of the undoped diamond films are strongly related to the deposition parameters. As the temperature increases from 840 to 925 C, the film morphology changes from cubo-octahedron to cubic structures, while as the CH{sub 4} concentration increases from 0.5 to 1.0%, the morphology changes from triangular (111) faces with a weak preferred orientation to square (100) faces. At 2.0% Ch{sub 4} or higher the films become microcrystalline with cauliflower structures. Scanning electron microscopy analyses also demonstrate that selective deposition of undoped diamond films has been successfully achieved using a lift-off process with a resolution of at least 2 {mu}m. The x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra demonstrate that high quality diamond films have been achieved. The concentration of the nondiamond phases in the films grown at 1.0% CH{sub 4} can be estimated from the Raman spectra to be at less than 0.2% and increases with the CH{sub 4} concentration. The Raman spectra of the boron doped diamond films also indicate that the presence of boron tends to suppress the nondiamond phases in the films. Infrared spectra of the undoped diamond films show very weak CH stretch peaks which suggest that the hydrogen concentration is very low.

  9. Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films prepared by pulsed plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Runlai; Yang Ming; Zhou Qianfei; Zhang Qun

    2012-11-15

    Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films were prepared by pulsed plasma deposition from a ceramic target (90 wt. % In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 10 wt. % ZnO). The dependences of film properties upon the substrate temperature was investigated using characterization methods including x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, Hall measurement, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The films grown at room temperature had a rather smooth surface due to the amorphous structure, with a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm. The atomic ratio of Zn/(Zn + In) in these films is 15.3 at. %, which is close to that in the target, and the chemical states of indium and zinc atoms were In{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. The films deposited on a substrate with a temperature of 200 Degree-Sign C exhibited polycrystalline structure and a preferred growth orientation along the (222) plane. Here the electrical properties were improved due to the better crystallinity, with the films exhibiting a minimum resistivity value of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm, a maximum carrier mobility of 45 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and an optical transmittance over 80% in the visible region.

  10. Plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition surface treatments for tribological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1990-01-01

    In any mechanical or engineering system where contacting surfaces are in relative motion, adhesion, wear, and friction affect reliability and performance. With the advancement of space age transportation systems, the tribological requirements have dramatically increased. This is due to the optimized design, precision tolerance requirements, and high reliability expected for solid lubricating films in order to withstand hostile operating conditions (vacuum, high-low temperatures, high loads, and space radiation). For these problem areas the ion-assisted deposition/modification processes (plasma-based and ion beam techniques) offer the greatest potential for the synthesis of thin films and the tailoring of adherence and chemical and structural properties for optimized tribological performance. The present practices and new approaches of applying soft solid lubricant and hard wear resistant films to engineering substrates are reviewed. The ion bombardment treatments have increased film adherence, lowered friction coefficients, and enhanced wear life of the solid lubricating films such as the dichalcogenides (MoS2) and the soft metals (Au, Ag, Pb). Currently, sputtering is the preferred method of applying MoS2 films; and ion plating, the soft metallic films. Ultralow friction coefficients (less than 0.01) were achieved with sputtered MoS2. Further, new diamond-like carbon and BN lubricating films are being developed by using the ion assisted deposition techniques.

  11. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  12. Electrical performance of low cost cathodes prepared by plasma sputtering deposition in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Tang, Zhe; Fung, Martin P H; Chua, Daniel H C; Chang, In Seop; Ng, How Y

    2012-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could potentially be utilized for a variety of applications in the future from biosensors to wastewater treatment. However, the amount of costly platinum (Pt) used as a catalyst should be minimized via innovative deposition methods such as sputtering. In addition, alternative and low-cost catalysts, such as cobalt (Co), should be sought. In this study, ultra low Pt or Co cathodes (0.1 mg cm(-2)) were manufactured by plasma sputtering deposition and scanning electron micrographs revealed nano-clusters of metal catalyst in a porous structure favorable to the three-phase heterogeneous catalytic reaction. When operated in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs, sputtered-Co cathodes generated on average the same power as sputtered-Pt cathodes (0.27 mW cell(-1)) and only 27% less than conventional Pt-ink cathodes with a catalyst load 5 times higher (0.5 mg cm(-2)). Finally, microscopy and molecular analyses showed evidence of biocatalysis activity on metal-free cathodes.

  13. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Using a Novel Silylamine Precursor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Yusup, Luchana L; Lee, Won-Jun; Lee, Sang-Ick

    2016-08-17

    We report the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silicon nitride thin film using a silylamine compound as the silicon precursor. A series of silylamine compounds were designed by replacing SiH3 groups in trisilylamine by dimethylaminomethylsilyl or trimethylsilyl groups to obtain sufficient thermal stability. The silylamine compounds were synthesized through redistribution, amino-substitution, lithiation, and silylation reactions. Among them, bis(dimethylaminomethylsilyl)trimethylsilyl amine (C9H29N3Si3, DTDN2-H2) was selected as the silicon precursor because of the lowest bond dissociation energy and sufficient vapor pressures. The energies for adsorption and reaction of DTDN2-H2 with the silicon nitride surface were also calculated by density functional theory. PEALD silicon nitride thin films were prepared using DTDN2-H2 and N2 plasma. The PEALD process window was between 250 and 400 °C with a growth rate of 0.36 Å/cycle. The best film quality was obtained at 400 °C with a RF power of 100 W. The PEALD film prepared showed good bottom and sidewall coverages of ∼80% and ∼73%, respectively, on a trench-patterned wafer with an aspect ratio of 5.5. PMID:27447839

  14. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Using a Novel Silylamine Precursor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Yusup, Luchana L; Lee, Won-Jun; Lee, Sang-Ick

    2016-08-17

    We report the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of silicon nitride thin film using a silylamine compound as the silicon precursor. A series of silylamine compounds were designed by replacing SiH3 groups in trisilylamine by dimethylaminomethylsilyl or trimethylsilyl groups to obtain sufficient thermal stability. The silylamine compounds were synthesized through redistribution, amino-substitution, lithiation, and silylation reactions. Among them, bis(dimethylaminomethylsilyl)trimethylsilyl amine (C9H29N3Si3, DTDN2-H2) was selected as the silicon precursor because of the lowest bond dissociation energy and sufficient vapor pressures. The energies for adsorption and reaction of DTDN2-H2 with the silicon nitride surface were also calculated by density functional theory. PEALD silicon nitride thin films were prepared using DTDN2-H2 and N2 plasma. The PEALD process window was between 250 and 400 °C with a growth rate of 0.36 Å/cycle. The best film quality was obtained at 400 °C with a RF power of 100 W. The PEALD film prepared showed good bottom and sidewall coverages of ∼80% and ∼73%, respectively, on a trench-patterned wafer with an aspect ratio of 5.5.

  15. Epithelial cell morphology and adhesion on diamond films deposited and chemically modified by plasma processes.

    PubMed

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Ukraintsev, Egor; Krátká, Marie; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, Frantisek; Mandys, Vaclav

    2014-09-01

    The authors show that nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with a linear antenna delivery system are well compatible with epithelial cells (5637 human bladder carcinoma) and significantly improve the cell adhesion compared to reference glass substrates. This is attributed to better adhesion of adsorbed layers to diamond as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) beneath the cells. Moreover, the cell morphology can be adjusted by appropriate surface treatment of diamond by using hydrogen and oxygen plasma. Cell bodies, cytoplasmic rims, and filopodia were characterized by Peakforce AFM. Oxidized NCD films perform better than other substrates under all conditions (96% of cells adhered well). A thin adsorbed layer formed from culture medium and supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) covered the diamond surface and played an important role in the cell adhesion. Nevertheless, 50-100 nm large aggregates formed from the RPMI medium without FBS facilitated cell adhesion also on hydrophobic hydrogenated NCD (increase from 23% to 61%). The authors discuss applicability for biomedical uses.

  16. Thermal stability studies of plasma sprayed yttrium oxide coatings deposited on pure tantalum substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, A.; Anupama, P.; Mukherjee, Jaya; Sreekumar, K. P.; Satpute, R. U.; Padmanabhan, P. V. A.; Gantayet, L. M.

    2010-02-01

    Plasma sprayed Yttrium oxide is used for coating of crucibles and moulds that are used at high temperature to handle highly reactive molten metals like uranium, titanium, chromium, and beryllium. The alloy bond layer is severely attacked by the molten metal. This commonly used layer contributes to the impurity addition to the pure liquid metal. Yttrium oxide was deposited on tantalum substrates (25 mm × 10mm × 1mm thk and 40 mm × 8mm × 1mm thk) by atmospheric plasma spray technique with out any bond coat using optimized coating parameters. Resistance to thermal shock was evaluated by subjecting the coated specimens, to controlled heating and cooling cycles between 300K to 1600K in an induction furnace in argon atmosphere having <= 0.1ppm of oxygen. The experiments were designed to examine the sample tokens by both destructive and non-destructive techniques, after a predetermined number of thermal cycles. The results upto 24 thermal cycles of 25 mm × 10mm × 1mm thk coupons and upto 6 cycles of 40 mm × 8mm × 1mm thk coupons are discussed. The coatings produced with the optimized parameters were found to exhibit excellent thermal shock resistance.

  17. Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Low-Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peng-jiang; Yin, Shuo; Song, Chen; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Liao, Han-lin

    2016-02-01

    The research presented here aimed to apply plasma spraying at a low pressure of 100 Pa for fabricating the columnar structure or dense coatings. These coatings with different structures were elaborated from the vapor condensation and molten droplets, respectively, using the agglomerated YSZ powders and a relatively low power commercial F4-VB torch. It was shown that the crystallite size of coating deposited from the vapor condensation at a spraying distance of 200 mm was reduced to 17.1 nm from 43.7 nm of the feedstock. Observations indicated that a thin columnar structured coating was produced out of the line of sight of projection. In the line of sight of projection, the hybrid structured coating was obtained. The relatively dense coating was fabricated using a specifically designed extended nozzle. Investigations by means of optical emission spectroscopy were performed to analyze the nature of the plasma jet with YSZ powders. The Vickers microhardness was also conducted. It was found that the relatively dense coating showed a higher value in comparison to the hybrid structure coating, up to 1273 ± 56 Hv100g.

  18. Growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond film by DC Arcjet plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. C.; Li, B.; Yan, Z. Q.; Liu, J.; Lu, F. X.; Ye, H.

    2012-06-01

    Self-standing diamond films were grown by DC Arcjet plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The feed gasses were Ar/H2/CH4, in which the flow ratio of CH4 to H2 (F/F) was varied from 5% to 20%. Two distinct morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), i.e. the "pineapple-like" morphology and the "cauliflower-like" morphology. It was found that the morphologies of the as-grown films are strongly dependent on the flow ratio of CH4 to H2 in the feed gasses. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) survey results revealed that there were nanocrystalline grains within the "pineapple-like" films whilst there were ultrananocrystalline grains within "cauliflower-like" films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results suggested that (110) crystalline plane was the dominant surface in the "cauliflower-like" films whilst (100) crystalline plane was the dominant surface in the "pineapple-like" films. Raman spectroscopy revealed that nanostructured carbon features could be observed in both types of films. Plasma diagnosis was carried out in order to understand the morphology dependent growth mechanism. It could be concluded that the film morphology was strongly influenced by the density of gas phases. The gradient of C2 radical was found to be different along the growth direction under the different growth conditions.

  19. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition synthesis of vertically oriented graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Bo, Zheng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Junhong; Yu, Kehan; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2013-06-21

    Vertically oriented graphene (VG) nanosheets have attracted growing interest for a wide range of applications, from energy storage, catalysis and field emission to gas sensing, due to their unique orientation, exposed sharp edges, non-stacking morphology, and huge surface-to-volume ratio. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) has emerged as a key method for VG synthesis; however, controllable growth of VG with desirable characteristics for specific applications remains a challenge. This paper attempts to summarize the state-of-the-art research on PECVD growth of VG nanosheets to provide guidelines on the design of plasma sources and operation parameters, and to offer a perspective on outstanding challenges that need to be overcome to enable commercial applications of VG. The review starts with an overview of various types of existing PECVD processes for VG growth, and then moves on to research on the influences of feedstock gas, temperature, and pressure on VG growth, substrate pretreatment, the growth of VG patterns on planar substrates, and VG growth on cylindrical and carbon nanotube (CNT) substrates. The review ends with a discussion on challenges and future directions for PECVD growth of VG. PMID:23670071

  20. Bioactivity of titanium following sodium plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition.

    PubMed

    Maitz, M F; Poon, R W Y; Liu, X Y; Pham, M-T; Chu, Paul K

    2005-09-01

    Bio-activation of titanium surface by Na plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) is illustrated by precipitation of calcium phosphate and cell culture. The bioactivity of the plasma-implanted titanium is compared to that of the untreated, Na beam-line implanted and NaOH-treated titanium samples. Our data show that the samples can be classified into two groups: non-bioactive (untreated titanium and beam-line Na implanted titanium) and bioactive (Na-PIII and D and NaOH-treated titanium). None of the four types of surfaces exhibited major cell toxicity as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. However, the LDH release was higher on the more bioactive PIII and NaOH-treated surfaces. From a morphological point of view, cell adherence on the NaOH-treated titanium is the best. On the other hand, the cell activity and protein production were higher on the non-bioactive surfaces. The high alkaline phosphatase activity per cell suggests that the active surfaces support an osteogenic differentiation of the bone marrow cells at the expense of lower proliferation. The use of Na-PIII and D provides an environmentally cleaner technology to improve the bioactivity of Ti compared to conventional wet chemical processes. The technique is also particularly useful for the uniform and conforming treatment of medical implants that typically possess an irregular shape and are difficult to treat by conventional ion beam techniques.

  1. Rapid deposition of transparent super-hydrophobic layers on various surfaces using microwave plasma.

    PubMed

    Irzh, Alexander; Ghindes, Lee; Gedanken, Aharon

    2011-12-01

    We report herein on a very fast and simple process for the fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by using microwave (MW) plasma. It was found that the reaction of various organic liquids in MW argon plasma yields hydrophobic polymeric layers on a large assortment of surfaces, including glass, polymeric surfaces, ceramics, metals, and even paper. In most cases, these polymers are deposited as a rough layer composed of 10-15 nm nanoparticles (NPs). This roughness, together with the chemical hydrophobic nature of the coated materials, is responsible for the superhydrophobic nature of the surface. The typical reaction time of the coating procedure was 1-10 s. The stability of these superhydrophobic surfaces was examined outdoors, and was found to last 2-5 days under direct exposure to the environment and to last 2 months when the sample was protected by a quartz cover. A detailed characterization study of the chemical composition of the layers followed using XPS, solid-state NMR, and IR measurements. Modifications were introduced in the products leading to a substantial improvement in the stability of the products outdoors.

  2. Effect of energy deposition rate on plasma expansion characteristics and nanoparticle generation by electrical explosion of conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Somanand; Saxena, Alok K.; Kaushik, Trilok C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2015-12-01

    The process of electrical explosion of metal conductors has been used to produce nano particles under normal atmospheric conditions. The impact of average rate of energy deposition, overheat factor on size distribution of particles and expansion characteristics of plasma generated from exploding conductors have been experimentally investigated. The particle size was characterized by TEM and XRD while expansion rate was measured using streak photography.The geometric mean diameter of size distribution was found to be influenced by rate of energy deposition in the conductors. It is observed that higher the rate of energy deposition, higher will be the expansion velocity, and smaller will be the size of particles formed.

  3. Rutile-structured TiO{sub 2} deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor on in-situ oxidized Ru electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Pointet, John; Gonon, Patrice; Latu-Romain, Lawrence; Bsiesy, Ahmad Vallée, Christophe

    2014-01-15

    In this work, tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor as well as in-situ oxidized ruthenium bottom electrode were used to grow rutile-structured titanium dioxide thin layers by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Metal–insulator–metal capacitors have been elaborated in order to study the electrical properties of the device. It is shown that this process leads to devices exhibiting excellent results in terms of dielectric constant and leakage current.

  4. Hydrophobicity enhancement of Al2O3 thin films deposited on polymeric substrates by atomic layer deposition with perfluoropropane plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Chang Young; Doh, Yang Hoi; Jo, Jeongdai

    2014-06-01

    The optoelectronics devices such as organic light emitting diodes are greatly vulnerable to moisture, which reduces their functionality and life cycle. The Al2O3 thin films are mostly used as barrier coatings in such electronic devices to protect them from water vapors. The performance of the Al2O3 barrier films can be improved by enhancing their hydrophobicity. Greater the hydrophobicity of the barrier films, greater will be their protection against water vapors. This paper reports on the enhancement of hydrophobicity of Al2O3 thin films through perfluoropropane (C3F8) plasma treatment. Firstly, good quality Al2O3 films have been fabricated through atomic layer deposition (ALD) on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates at different temperatures. The fabricated films are then plasma treated with C3F8 to enhance their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic Al2O3 thin films have shown good morphological and optical properties. Low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 1.90 nm, 0.93 nm and 0.88 nm have been recorded for the C3F8 plasma treated films deposited at room temperature (RT), 50 °C and 150 °C, respectively. Optical transmittance of more than 90% has been achieved for the C3F8 plasma treated films grown at 50 °C and 150 °C. The contact angle has been increased from 48° ± 3 to 158° ± 3 for the films deposited at RT and increased from 41° ± 3 to 148° ± 3 for the films deposited at 150 °C.

  5. Fabrication of metallic single electron transistors featuring plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of tunnel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbasian, Golnaz

    The continuing increase of the device density in integrated circuits (ICs) gives rise to the high level of power that is dissipated per unit area and consequently a high temperature in the circuits. Since temperature affects the performance and reliability of the circuits, minimization of the energy consumption in logic devices is now the center of attention. According to the International Technology Roadmaps for Semiconductors (ITRS), single electron transistors (SETs) hold the promise of achieving the lowest power of any known logic device, as low as 1x10-18 J per switching event. Moreover, SETs are the most sensitive electrometers to date, and are capable of detecting a fraction of an electron charge. Despite their low power consumption and high sensitivity for charge detection, room temperature operation of these devices is quite challenging mainly due to lithographical constraints in fabricating structures with the required dimensions of less than 10 nm. Silicon based SETs have been reported to operate at room temperature. However, they all suffer from significant variation in batch-to-batch performance, low fabrication yield, and temperature-dependent tunnel barrier height. In this project, we explored the fabrication of SETs featuring metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions. While Si-based SETs suffer from undesirable effect of dopants that result in irregularities in the device behavior, in metal-based SETs the device components (tunnel barrier, island, and the leads) are well-defined. Therefore, metal SETs are potentially more predictable in behavior, making them easier to incorporate into circuits, and easier to check against theoretical models. Here, the proposed fabrication method takes advantage of unique properties of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Chemical mechanical polishing provides a path for tuning the dimensions of the tunnel junctions, surpassing the limits imposed by electron beam

  6. Atomic layer deposition precursor step repetition and surface plasma pretreatment influence on semiconductor–insulator–semiconductor heterojunction solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Talkenberg, Florian Illhardt, Stefan; Schmidl, Gabriele; Schleusener, Alexander; Sivakov, Vladimir; Radnóczi, György Zoltán; Pécz, Béla; Dikhanbayev, Kadyrjan; Mussabek, Gauhar; Gudovskikh, Alexander

    2015-07-15

    Semiconductor–insulator–semiconductor heterojunction solar cells were prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The silicon surface was treated with oxygen and hydrogen plasma in different orders before dielectric layer deposition. A plasma-enhanced ALD process was applied to deposit dielectric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the plasma pretreated n-type Si(100) substrate. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO or AZO) was deposited by thermal ALD and serves as transparent conductive oxide. Based on transmission electron microscopy studies the presence of thin silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) layer was detected at the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. The SiO{sub x} formation depends on the initial growth behavior of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and has significant influence on solar cell parameters. The authors demonstrate that a hydrogen plasma pretreatment and a precursor dose step repetition of a single precursor improve the initial growth behavior of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and avoid the SiO{sub x} generation. Furthermore, it improves the solar cell performance, which indicates a change of the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface states.

  7. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of SiN{sub x}:H and SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W.

    2011-07-15

    As the nanoelectronics industry looks to transition to both three dimensional transistor and interconnect technologies at the <22 nm node, highly conformal dielectric coatings with precise thickness control are increasingly being demanded. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) currently fills this role for most applications requiring low temperature processing but does not always meet step coverage and thickness precision requirements. The authors present results for a hybrid technique, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), which utilizes typical PECVD process gases and tooling while delivering improved topography coverage and thickness control. Specifically, the authors show that alternating SiH{sub 4} gas/N{sub 2} plasma exposures applied in an atomic layer deposition sequence can be used to deposit SiN{sub x}:H films in a self-limiting fashion with improved conformality and superior performance as a moisture barrier. PEALD of SiO{sub 2} using alternating SiH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} plasma exposures is further demonstrated.

  8. Characteristics of indium oxide plasma filters deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, E.; Murthy, S.D.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.; Brown, E.; Dziendziel, R.; Freeman, M.; Choudhury, N.

    1995-07-01

    Thin films of undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} are being investigated for use as plasma filters in spectral control applications for thermal photovoltaic cells. These films are required to exhibit high reflectance at wavelengths longer than the plasma wavelength {lambda}{sub p}, high transmittance at wavelengths shorter than {lambda}{sub p} and low absorption throughout the spectrum. Both types of films were grown via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on Si (100) and fused silica substrates using trimethylindium (TMI), tetraethyltin (TET), and oxygen as the precursors. Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure the filter transmittance and reflectance between 1.8--20 {micro}m. Nominal conditions used during the growth of undoped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were a substrate temperature of 450 C and partial pressures of 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} atm. and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} atm. for TMI and O{sub 2} respectively. The O{sub 2}/TMI partial pressure ratio and substrate temperature were systematically varied to control the filter characteristics. The plasma wavelength {lambda}{sub p} was found to be a sensitive function of these parameters. Post-growth annealing of the films was done in inert as well as air ambient at elevated temperatures, but was found to have no beneficial effect. Tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was grown under similar conditions as above, with a typical TET partial pressure of 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} atm. Here also, the material properties and consequently the optical response were found to be strongly dependent on growth conditions such as O{sub 2} and TET partial pressures. Both undoped and tin-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on fused silica exhibited enhanced transmittance due to the close matching of refractive indices of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and silica. X-ray diffractometer measurements indicated that all these films were polycrystalline and highly textured towards the (111) direction. The best

  9. Substrate bias effect on preparation of nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films in helicon wave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Lu, Wanbing; Wang, Chunsheng; Ding, Wenge; Fu, Guangsheng

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide thin films are prepared by helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HW-PECVD) using a gas mixture of silane, methane, and hydrogen at a constant gas flow ratio under varying negative DC bias voltage. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films are investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) transmission spectra, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that by applying the moderate bias on the substrates to accelerate the energetic ions, nanocrystalline silicon carbide can be deposited at lower onset temperature than without bias, and the crystalline grain size of the films is smaller and more uniform. The mechanism about the enhancing effect of the bias is discussed on the performance of positive ions in the plasma.

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor for 100 mm wafers, optimized for minimum contamination at low gas flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Venu; Nair, Aswathi R.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Mohan Rao, G.

    2015-08-01

    Gas discharge plasmas used for thinfilm deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) must be devoid of contaminants, like dust or active species which disturb the intended chemical reaction. In atmospheric pressure plasma systems employing an inert gas, the main source of such contamination is the residual air inside the system. To enable the construction of an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) system with minimal contamination, we have carried out fluid dynamic simulation of the APP chamber into which an inert gas is injected at different mass flow rates. On the basis of the simulation results, we have designed and built a simple, scaled APP system, which is capable of holding a 100 mm substrate wafer, so that the presence of air (contamination) in the APP chamber is minimized with as low a flow rate of argon as possible. This is examined systematically by examining optical emission from the plasma as a function of inert gas flow rate. It is found that optical emission from the plasma shows the presence of atmospheric air, if the inlet argon flow rate is lowered below 300 sccm. That there is minimal contamination of the APP reactor built here, was verified by conducting an atmospheric pressure PECVD process under acetylene flow, combined with argon flow at 100 sccm and 500 sccm. The deposition of a polymer coating is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the polymer coating contains only 5% of oxygen, which is comparable to the oxygen content in polymer deposits obtained in low-pressure PECVD systems.

  11. Redeposition in plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition: Silicon nitride film quality ruled by the gas residence time

    SciTech Connect

    Knoops, Harm C. M. E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl; Peuter, K. de; Kessels, W. M. M. E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl

    2015-07-06

    The requirements on the material properties and growth control of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) spacer films in transistors are becoming ever more stringent as scaling of transistor structures continues. One method to deposit high-quality films with excellent control is atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, depositing SiN{sub x} by ALD has turned out to be very challenging. In this work, it is shown that the plasma gas residence time τ is a key parameter for the deposition of SiN{sub x} by plasma-assisted ALD and that this parameter can be linked to a so-called “redeposition effect”. This previously ignored effect, which takes place during the plasma step, is the dissociation of reaction products in the plasma and the subsequent redeposition of reaction-product fragments on the surface. For SiN{sub x} ALD using SiH{sub 2}(NH{sup t}Bu){sub 2} as precursor and N{sub 2} plasma as reactant, the gas residence time τ was found to determine both SiN{sub x} film quality and the resulting growth per cycle. It is shown that redeposition can be minimized by using a short residence time resulting in high-quality films with a high wet-etch resistance (i.e., a wet-etch rate of 0.5 nm/min in buffered HF solution). Due to the fundamental nature of the redeposition effect, it is expected to play a role in many more plasma-assisted ALD processes.

  12. Physics of Plasma-Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID)and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-08-28

    The emerging technology of High Power Impulse MagnetronSputtering (HIPIMS) has much in common with the more establishedtechnology of Plasma Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID):both use pulsed plasmas, the pulsed sheath periodically evolves andcollapses, the plasma-sheath system interacts with the pulse-drivingpower supply, the plasma parameters are affected by the power dissipated,surface atoms are sputtered and secondary electrons are emitted, etc.Therefore, both fields of science and technology could learn from eachother, which has not been fully explored. On the other hand, there aresignificant differences, too. Most importantly, the operation of HIPIMSheavilyrelies on the presence of a strong magnetic field, confiningelectrons and causing their ExB drift, which is closed for typicalmagnetron configurations. Second, at the high peak power levels used forHIPIMS, 1 kW/cm2 or greater averaged over the target area, the sputteredmaterial greatly affects plasma generation. For PBIID, in contrast,plasma generation and ion processing of the surface (ion implantation,etching, and deposition) are considered rela-tively independentprocesses. Third, secondary electron emission is generally considered anuisance for PBIID, especially at high voltages, whereas it is a criticalingredient to the operation of HIPIMS. Fourth, the voltages in PBIID areoften higher than in HIPIMS. For the first three reasons listed above,modelling of PBIID seems to be easier and could give some guidance forfuture HIPIMS models, which, clearly, will be more involved.

  13. Film Characteristics of Low-Temperature Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Dioxide Using Tetraisocyanatesilane and Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Irman; Sugiura, Osamu

    1998-12-01

    Silicon dioxide films were deposited in a parallel-plate electrode RF plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system using hydrogen-free tetraisocyanatesilane (TICS) and oxygen. The deposition parameters were varied systematically, and the films were characterized by measuring infrared spectra, density, etch rate, refractive index, and current-voltage (I V) and capacitance-voltage (C V) characteristics, as well as by examining their annealing behavior. At 300°C and a TICS partial pressure ratio of 20%, a water-free and hydroxyl-group-free SiO2 film was obtained. The film density, BHF etch rate, refractive index, resistivity, and dielectric constant were 2.3 g/cm3, 330 nm/min, 1.46, 7×1015 Ω·cm, and 3.6, respectively. The film quality degraded and, simultaneously, the film absorbed moisture from the atmosphere with decreasing deposition temperature; however, the quality can be improved by reducing TICS partial pressure. SiO2 films could be deposited even at 15°C, and had a resistivity of about 1013Ω·cm. Infrared measurements showed that SiO2 films deposited from TICS/O2 contained less absorbed water than those deposited from hydrogen-containing source materials at the same deposition temperature.

  14. Control of interparticle cohesion in PS304 plasma spray deposited solid lubricant coating powder feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Malcolm Keith

    The effects of eutectic barium fluoride - calcium fluoride particle morphology, particle size, size distribution and relative humidity level on PS304 powder feedstock flowability have been investigated in an effort to optimize the plasma spray deposition process. The eutectic fluorides were fabricated by comminution (angular particle morphology) and by gas atomization (spherical particle morphology). The angular fluorides were classified by screening to obtain 38--45mum, 45--106mum, 63--106mum, 45--53mum, 63--75mum and 90--106mum particle size distributions and the spherical fluorides were screened to obtain 45--106mum particles. The fluorides were added incrementally to the other powder constituents of the PS304 feedstock: nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. A linear relationship between feedstock flow rate and concentration of the fluorides was found from 0--10wt% using a Hall flowmeter. For the angular fluorides, the flow rate of the feedstock decreased linearly with increasing fluoride concentration. Flow of feedstock containing spherical fluorides was independent of fluoride concentration. Flow was degraded with decreasing fluoride particle size and with increasing particle size distribution due to interparticle friction. The angle of repose was distinct with respect to physical properties of the fluorides. The Hausner Ratio was less sensitive, though these data behaved predictably. Feedstock containing 10wt% 45--53mum and 90--106mum angular fluorides and 45--106mum angular and spherical fluorides were dried in a vacuum oven and cooled to room temperature under dry nitrogen. The flow of these powders was studied from 2--100% relative humidity (RH). The flow rate was only slightly degraded with increasing humidity below 66%RH, and a greater effect was apparent above 66%RH. No flow was observed above 88%RH for feedstock containing 45--106mum fluorides. The feedstock with narrower fluoride particle size distributions allowed flow up to 95%RH. These results

  15. Effects of copper-plasma deposition on weathering properties of wood surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascón-Garrido, P.; Mainusch, N.; Militz, H.; Viöl, W.; Mai, C.

    2016-03-01

    Thin layers of copper micro-particles were deposited on the surfaces of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) micro-veneers using atmospheric pressure plasma to improve the resistance of the surfaces to weathering. Three different loadings of copper were established. Micro-veneers were exposed to artificial weathering in a QUV weathering tester for 0, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h following the standard EN 927-6 [1]. Mass losses after each exposure showed significant differences between copper coated and untreated micro-veneers. Tensile strength was assessed at zero span (z-strength) and finite span (f-strength) under dry conditions (20 °C, 65% RH). During 48 h, micro-veneers lost their z-strength progressively. In contrast, copper coating at highest loading imparts a photo-protective effect to wood micro-veneers during 144 h exhibiting z-strength retention of 95%. F-strength losses were similar in all copper treated and untreated micro-veneers up to 96 h. However, after 144 h, copper coated micro-veneers at highest loading showed significantly greater strength retention of 56%, while untreated micro-veneers exhibited only 38%. Infrared spectroscopy suggested that copper coating does not stabilize lignin. Inductively Coupled Plasma revealed that micro-veneers coated with the highest loading exhibited the lowest percentage of copper loss. Blue stain resistance of copper coated Scots pine following the guidelines of EN 152 [2] was performed. Additional test with different position of the coated surface was also assessed. Copper coating reduced fungal growth when coated surface is exposed in contact with vermiculite. Spores of Aureobasidium pullulans were not able to germinate on the copper coated surface positioned uppermost.

  16. Physical/chemical properties of tin oxide thin film transistors prepared using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung Kook; Jung, Eunae; Kim, Seok Hwan; Moon, Dae Chul; Lee, Sun Sook; Park, Bo Keun; Hwang, Jin Ha; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun; An, Ki-Seok

    2012-10-15

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with tin oxide films as the channel layer were fabricated by means of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). The as-deposited tin oxide films show n-type conductivity and a nano-crystalline structure of SnO{sub 2}. Notwithstanding the relatively low deposition temperatures of 70, 100, and 130 °C, the bottom gate tin oxide TFTs show an on/off drain current ratio of 10{sup 6} while the device mobility values were increased from 2.31 cm{sup 2}/V s to 6.24 cm{sup 2}/V s upon increasing the deposition temperature of the tin oxide films.

  17. Low-temperature-deposited insulating films of silicon nitride by reactive sputtering and plasma-enhanced CVD: Comparison of characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masaru; Takeyama, Mayumi B.; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Nakamura, Tomoji; Noya, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    The characteristics of SiN x films deposited by reactive sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are examined to obtain high-density films at low deposition temperatures. PECVD SiN x films deposited at 200 °C show low densities of 2.14-2.20 g/cm3 regardless of their composition, while their refractive index varies depending on their composition. PECVD requires the substrate temperature to obtain high-density films, because a possible cause of low-density films is the amount of Si-H bond, rather than that of N-H bond, in the films originating from hydrogen incorporated by the insufficient decomposition of SiH4 molecules at low temperatures. The sputtered SiN x films with high density are obtained at a temperature lower than 200 °C and considered a promising candidate for insulating films at low process temperatures.

  18. Thermal Shock Properties of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited Using Low-Energy Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Bolot, Rodolphe; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings have been frequently used as a thermal protective layer on the metal or alloy component surfaces. In the present study, ZrO2-7%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were successfully deposited by DC (direct current) plasma spray process under very low pressure conditions (less than 1 mbar) using low-energy plasma guns F4-VB and F100. The experiments were performed to evaluate the thermal shock resistance of different TBC specimens which were heated to 1373 K at a high-temperature cycling furnace and held for 0.5 h, followed by air cooling at room temperature for 0.2 h. For comparison, a corresponding atmospheric plasma spray (APS) counterpart was also elaborated to carry out the similar experiments. The results indicated that the very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS) coatings displayed better thermal shock resistance. Moreover, the failure mechanism of the coatings was elucidated.

  19. Numerical investigation on fundamental properties in capacitively-coupled methane plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akinori; Kousaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    Capacitively-coupled methane (CH4) plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films have been simulated using a self-consistent one-dimensional fluid model, incorporating the mass balance equations for electrons, ions, radicals and non-radicals, the electron energy balance equation, coupled with the Poisson equation. Despite of low-pressure CH4 gas condition, many positive-ion species, such as C2H4^+, CH4^+, C2H2^+, CH5^+ etc., have been found in the plasmas. The non-radical neutrals, such as C2H4, C3H8, C2H2 and C2H6, have also found with higher densities comparable to the source gas density. This result indicates that this complexity of background gas in CH4 plasmas is strongly affected to the electron energy distribution function, which is important for the determination of plasmas properties.

  20. The deposition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by means of a hollow cathode plasma jet in dc regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekrestov, R.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.

    2015-06-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are being investigated in this work. Nanoparticles were obtained in Ar plasma on monocrystaline Si(111) substrate by means of a gas-phase deposition using a low pressure hollow cathode plasma jet. The material of the cathode is pure titanium. Oxygen was introduced separately from argon through an inlet in the chamber. The nanoparticle growth mechanism is qualitatively discussed. The morphology of the surfaces of thin films was investigated by an atomic force microscope. The chemical composition of the thin films was investigated by means of an energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A cylindrical Langmuir probe and a fiber optic thermometer was used for measurements of plasma parameters and neutral gas temperature respectively. The relationship between plasma parameters and the films’ morphology is particularly explained.

  1. Deposition and composition-control of Mn-doped ZnO thin films by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition using two delayed plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Ake, C.; Camacho, R.; Moreno, L.

    2012-08-15

    Thin films of ZnO doped with manganese were deposited by double-beam, combinatorial pulsed laser deposition. The laser-induced plasmas were studied by means of fast photography and using a Langmuir probe, whereas the films were analyzed by x-ray-diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The effect of the relative delay between plasma plumes on the characteristics of the films was analyzed. It was found that using this parameter, it is possible to control the dopant content keeping the oriented wurtzite structure of the films. The minimum content of Mn was found for plume delays between 0 and 10 {mu}s as the interaction between plasmas scatters the dopant species away from the substrate, thus reducing the incorporation of Mn into the films. Results suggest that for delays shorter than {approx}100 {mu}s, the expansion of the second plume through the region behind the first plume affects the composition of the film.

  2. Deposition and composition-control of Mn-doped ZnO thin films by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition using two delayed plasma plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Aké, C.; Camacho, R.; Moreno, L.

    2012-08-01

    Thin films of ZnO doped with manganese were deposited by double-beam, combinatorial pulsed laser deposition. The laser-induced plasmas were studied by means of fast photography and using a Langmuir probe, whereas the films were analyzed by x-ray-diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The effect of the relative delay between plasma plumes on the characteristics of the films was analyzed. It was found that using this parameter, it is possible to control the dopant content keeping the oriented wurtzite structure of the films. The minimum content of Mn was found for plume delays between 0 and 10 μs as the interaction between plasmas scatters the dopant species away from the substrate, thus reducing the incorporation of Mn into the films. Results suggest that for delays shorter than ˜100 μs, the expansion of the second plume through the region behind the first plume affects the composition of the film.

  3. Magnesium plasma diagnostics by heated probe and characterization of the Mg thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladoiu, Rodica; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca Balan, Virginia; Prodan, Gabriel; Kudrna, Pavel; Tichý, Milan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on magnesium plasma diagnostics and to investigate the properties of thin Mg films deposited on Si and glass substrates by using thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technology. TVA is an original deposition method using a combination of anodic arc and powerful electron gun system (up to 600 W) for the growth of thin films from solid precursors under a vacuum of 10-6Torr. Due to the comparatively high deposition rate as well as comparatively high plasma potential—around 0.5 kV—plasma diagnostics were carried out by a heated probe that prevents layer deposition on the probe surface. The estimated value of electron density was in the order of 1.0  ×  1016m-3 and the electron temperature varied between 4  ×  104 and 1.2  ×  105 K (corresponding to two different discharge conditions). The thin Mg films were investigated using SEM images and TEM analyses provided with HR-TEM and SAED facilities. According to the SAED patterns the structure of the films can be indexed as two forms: hexagonal structure for Mg and cubic structure for MgO; the peak value of grain size distribution was 91.29 nm in diameter for Mg TVA/Si and 61.06 nm for Mg TVA/Gl.

  4. Integration of atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on GaSb via hydrogen plasma exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppalt, Laura B.; Cleveland, Erin R.; Champlain, James G.; Bennett, Brian R.; Prokes, Sharka M.

    2014-12-01

    In this letter we report the efficacy of a hydrogen plasma pretreatment for integrating atomic layer deposited (ALD) high-k dielectric stacks with device-quality p-type GaSb(001) epitaxial layers. Molecular beam eptiaxy-grown GaSb surfaces were subjected to a 30 minute H2/Ar plasma treatment and subsequently removed to air. High-k HfO2 and Al2O3/HfO2 bilayer insulating films were then deposited via ALD and samples were processed into standard metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The quality of the semiconductor/dielectric interface was probed by current-voltage and variable-frequency admittance measurements. Measurement results indicate that the H2-plamsa pretreatment leads to a low density of interface states nearly independent of the deposited dielectric material, suggesting that pre-deposition H2-plasma exposure, coupled with ALD of high-k dielectrics, may provide an effective means for achieving high-quality GaSb MOS structures for advanced Sb-based digital and analog electronics.

  5. Integration of atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on GaSb via hydrogen plasma exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppalt, Laura B. Cleveland, Erin R.; Champlain, James G.; Bennett, Brian R.; Prokes, Sharka M.

    2014-12-15

    In this letter we report the efficacy of a hydrogen plasma pretreatment for integrating atomic layer deposited (ALD) high-k dielectric stacks with device-quality p-type GaSb(001) epitaxial layers. Molecular beam eptiaxy-grown GaSb surfaces were subjected to a 30 minute H{sub 2}/Ar plasma treatment and subsequently removed to air. High-k HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} bilayer insulating films were then deposited via ALD and samples were processed into standard metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The quality of the semiconductor/dielectric interface was probed by current-voltage and variable-frequency admittance measurements. Measurement results indicate that the H{sub 2}-plamsa pretreatment leads to a low density of interface states nearly independent of the deposited dielectric material, suggesting that pre-deposition H{sub 2}-plasma exposure, coupled with ALD of high-k dielectrics, may provide an effective means for achieving high-quality GaSb MOS structures for advanced Sb-based digital and analog electronics.

  6. Transition from single to multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown by inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissett, Mark A.; Barlow, Anders J.; Shapter, Joe G.; Quinton, Jamie S.

    2011-08-01

    In this work a simple and up-scalable technique for creating arrays of high purity carbon nanotubes via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used with methane and argon mixtures to grow arrays in a repeatable and controllable way. Changing the growth conditions such as temperature and growth time led to a transition between single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and was investigated. This transition from single to multi-walled carbon nanotubes is attributed to a decrease in catalytic activity with time due to amorphous carbon deposition combined with a higher susceptibility of single-walled nanotubes to plasma etching. Patterning of these arrays was achieved by physical masking during the iron catalyst deposition process. The low growth pressure of 100 mTorr and lack of reducing gas such as ammonia or hydrogen or alumina supporting layer further show this to be a simple yet versatile procedure. These arrays were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was also observed that at high temperature (550 °C) single-walled nanotube growth was preferential while lower temperatures (450 °C) produced mainly multi-walled arrays.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films Prepared by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Gou, Li; Ran, Junguo; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties and chemical stability, making it highly suitable for biomedical applications. For implant materials, the impact of boron-doped NCD films on the character of cell growth (i.e., adhesion, proliferation) is very important. Boron-doped NCD films with resistivity of 10-2 Ω·cm were grown on Si substrates by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) process with H2 bubbled B2O3. The crystal structure, diamond character, surface morphology, and surface roughness of the boron-doped NCD films were analyzed using different characterization methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact potential difference and possible boron distribution within the film were studied with a scanning kelvin force microscope (SKFM). The cytotoxicity of films was studied by in vitro tests, including fluorescence microscopy, SEM and MTT assay. Results indicated that the surface roughness value of NCD films was 56.6 nm and boron was probably accumulated at the boundaries between diamond agglomerates. MG-63 cells adhered well and exhibited a significant growth on the surface of films, suggesting that the boron-doped NCD films were non-toxic to cells. supported by the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China) (No. KFJJ201313)

  8. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings. PMID:25942897

  9. Osteoblast-like cell behavior on plasma deposited micro/nanopatterned coatings.

    PubMed

    Intranuovo, Francesca; Favia, Pietro; Sardella, Eloisa; Ingrosso, Chiara; Nardulli, Marina; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Gristina, Roberto

    2011-02-14

    The behavior of cells in terms of cell-substrate and cell-cell interaction is dramatically affected by topographical characteristics as shape, height, and distance, encountered in their physiological environment. The combination of chemistry and topography of a biomaterial surface influences in turns, important biological responses as inflammatory events at tissue-implant interface, angiogenesis, and differentiation of cells. By disentangling the effect of material chemistry from the topographical one, the possibility of controlling the cell behavior can be provided. In this paper, surfaces with different roughness and morphology were produced by radiofrequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) glow discharges, fed with hexafluoropropylene oxide (C(3)F(6)O), in a single process. Coatings with different micro/nanopatterns and the same uppermost chemical composition were produced by combining two plasma deposition processes, with C(3)F(6)O and tetrafluoroethylene (C(2)F(4)), respectively. The behavior of osteoblast-like cells toward these substrates clearly shows a strict dependence of cell adhesion and proliferation on surface roughness and morphology.

  10. Synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers-carbon nanowalls by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Atsuto; Tanaka, Kei; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Ueda, Kazuyuki; Ghosh, Pradip; Tanemura, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VA-CNFs)-carbon nanowalls (CNWs) have been prepared on a silicon (Si) substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The VA-CNFs-CNWs were formed at bias voltage of - 185 V, whereas conventional VA-CNFs were synthesized under conditions of high bias voltages. Degenerated CNWs with turbostratic graphite structure were created on amorphous carbon layer around CNFs like a flag attached to a pole, which is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Electron field emission characteristics of VA-CNFs-CNWs with unique microstructure, fabricated on the Si substrate, were primarily investigated. As a result, the VA-CNFs-CNWs showed the turn-on and the threshold fields of 1.7 V x microm(-1) and 3.35 V x microm(-1) with current densities of 10 nA x cm(-2) and 1 microA x cm(-2), respectively. The field enhancement factor beta was estimated to be 1059 by using Fowler-Nordheim theory. PMID:23755628

  11. Surface modification of biomaterials using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tao; Qiao, Yuqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2012-01-01

    Although remarkable progress has been made on biomaterial research, the ideal biomaterial that satisfies all the technical requirements and biological functions is not available up to now. Surface modification seems to be a more economic and efficient way to adjust existing conventional biomaterials to meet the current and ever-evolving clinical needs. From an industrial perspective, plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is an attractive method for biomaterials owing to its capability of treating objects with irregular shapes, as well as the control of coating composition. It is well acknowledged that the physico-chemical characteristics of biomaterials are the decisive factors greatly affecting the biological responses of biomaterials including bioactivity, haemocompatibility and antibacterial activity. Here, we mainly review the recent advances in surface modification of biomaterials via PIII&D technology, especially titanium alloys and polymers used for orthopaedic, dental and cardiovascular implants. Moreover, the variations of biological performances depending on the physico-chemical properties of modified biomaterials will be discussed. PMID:23741609

  12. Ti-PS nanocomposites by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z. J.; Tay, B. K.

    2009-02-01

    We synthesize Ti-PS nanocomposites by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) technique. Ti nanoparticles at size of 5-15 nm are found in PS matrix. We propose the formation of Ti nanoparticles as a result of the combined effect of ion implantation and ion condensation in PIII&D process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal that Ti atoms have three different chemical states, metal, oxide and carbide. While surface Ti atoms are oxidized, embedded Ti atoms keep their metallic states by surrounding PS matrix. We characterize optical absorbance of Ti-PS nanocomposites by UV-VIS measurements. An adsorption peak due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon is found at wavelength 337.5 nm and the fractal nature of Ti-PS nanocomposites broaden absorption wavelength from UV to infrared. In addition, we use a protein assay to measure protein immobilization. It is found that the amount of protein immobilized on Ti-PS nanocomposites is almost twice than that on pristine PS. The enhancement mechanisms are attributed to the increased surface roughness as well as covalent linkages between protein molecules and functional groups on the surface of Ti-PS nanocomposites.

  13. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings.

  14. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density

    PubMed Central

    Balasundaram, Ganesan; Storey, Daniel M; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) and coat it on titanium (Ti) using molecular plasma deposition (MPD). NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA) were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. PMID:25609958

  15. Heteroepitaxial growth of wafer scale highly oriented graphene using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Libo; Xu, Hai; Li, Linjun; Yang, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe; Loh, Kian Ping

    2016-06-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on Cu has attracted much attention because of its industrial scalability. Herein, we report inductively coupled plasma-assisted CVD of epitaxially grown graphene on (111)-textured Cu film alloyed with a small amount of Ni, where large area high quality graphene film can be grown in less than 5 min at 800 °C, thus affording industrial scalability. The epitaxially grown graphene films on (111)-textured Cu contain grains which are predominantly aligned with the Cu lattice and about 10% of 30°-rotated grains (anti-grains). Such graphene films are exclusively monolayer and possess good electrical conductivity, high carrier mobility, and room temperature quantum Hall effect. Magnetoresistance measurements reveal that the reduction of the grain sizes from 150 nm to 50 nm produce increasing Anderson localization and the appearance of a transport gap. Owing to the presence of grain boundaries in these anti-grains, epitaxially grown graphene films possess n-type characteristics and exhibit ultra-high sensitivity to adsorbates.

  16. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Ganesan; Storey, Daniel M; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) and coat it on titanium (Ti) using molecular plasma deposition (MPD). NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA) were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. PMID:25609958

  17. Growth of graphene on Cu foils by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition: The effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liping; Yuan, Wen; Wang, Bing; Xiong, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) is a promising method for the large-scale production of high-quality graphene. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment on the MPCVD-grown graphene films. By simply varying the duration time of in-situ hydrogen plasma, surface morphology, number of layers and defect density of as-grown graphene films can be manipulated. The role of hydrogen plasma can be proposed from our observations, promoting to further grow graphene films in the early stage and consequently acting as an etching agent to thin graphene films in the later stage. On the basis of above mechanism, monolayer graphene films with low defect density and smooth surface can be grown by adjusting the times of the growing step and the plasma post-treatment step. This additional in-situ hydrogen plasma post-treatment may be significant for growing well-defined graphene films with controllable defects and number of layers.

  18. Effect of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane and trifluoromethane electron cyclotron resonance plasmas on F-SiCOH low dielectric constant film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chao; Zhang, Haiyan; Ning, Zhaoyuan

    2009-07-01

    The characteristics of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (DMCPS) and trifluoromethane (CHF3) electron cyclotron resonance plasmas for depositing F-SiCOH low dielectric constant films were investigated by quadrupole mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy. The radicals in the plasma come from the dissociation of DMCPS and CHF3 molecules and the recombination of active radicals. The DMCPS dissociation produced the Si-related and CH-related radicals, including the SiOC2H5, SiOCH3, SiCH3, SiO, Si, O, CH3, CH2, CH, C, and H radicals, by breaking the Si-O fivefold ring and Si-O chain and by removing hydrocarbon groups from Si atoms. The CHF3 dissociation produced the F-related radicals, including the CHF2, CF3, and F radicals. The recombination of active radicals produced the HF, C2H2, C2H3, C2H4, C2H5, C2, H2, SiH2, SiF3, SiF2, and SiF radicals. The Si-related and CH-related radicals led to the deposition of SiCOH films; however, the F-related radicals led not only to the deposition of F-SiCOH films but also to the etching of SiCOH films by the reactions between F and Si atoms in the plasma and at the surface of as-deposited films simultaneously. The competition between film deposition and etching led to an n-type dependence of the deposition rate on CHF3/DMCPS flow rate ratio, the drastic composition change, and the structural evolution from SiCOH to Si-doping COF and further to COF films.

  19. 2D fluid model analysis for the effect of 3D gas flow on a capacitively coupled plasma deposition reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2016-06-01

    The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.

  20. Low temperature deposition of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films using trimethylgallium and oxygen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Donmez, Inci; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi

    2013-01-15

    Gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylgallium as the gallium precursor and oxygen plasma as the oxidant. A wide ALD temperature window was observed from 100 to 400 Degree-Sign C, where deposition rate was constant at {approx}0.53 A/cycle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey scans indicated the presence of gallium, oxygen, and carbon elements with concentrations of {approx}36, {approx}51.8, and {approx}12.2 at. %, respectively. As-deposited films were amorphous; upon annealing at 900 Degree-Sign C under N{sub 2} atmosphere for 30 min, polycrystalline {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase with a monoclinic crystal structure was obtained. Refractive index and root mean square roughness of the annealed Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film were higher than those of the as-deposited due to crystallization.

  1. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Amorphous Al2O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yuqing; Sang, Lijun; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Lizhen; Wang, Zhengduo; Liu, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Without extra heating, Al2O3 thin films were deposited on a hydrogen-terminated Si substrate etched in hydrofluoric acid by using a self-built electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) device with Al(CH3)3 (trimethylaluminum; TMA) and O2 used as precursor and oxidant, respectively. During the deposition process, Ar was introduced as a carrier and purging gas. The chemical composition and microstructure of the as-deposited Al2O3 films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), an X-ray photoelectric spectroscope (XPS), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). It achieved a growth rate of 0.24 nm/cycle, which is much higher than that deposited by thermal ALD. It was found that the smooth surface thin film was amorphous alumina, and an interfacial layer formed with a thickness of ca. 2 nm was observed between the Al2O3 film and substrate Si by HRTEM. We conclude that ECR plasma-assisted ALD can grow Al2O3 films with an excellent quality at a high growth rate at ambient temperature.

  2. Nanostructured TaxC interlayer synthesized via double glow plasma surface alloying process for diamond deposition on cemented carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Wolong; Hei, Hongjun; Zhong, Qiang; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Bing; He, Zhiyong; Yu, Shengwang

    2015-12-01

    The aim in this work was to improve the adhesion of diamond coating with pre-deposition of a TaxC interlayer on cemented carbide (WC-Co) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The following deposition of diamond coating on the interlayer was performed in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. TaxC interlayer with an inner diffusion layer and an outer deposition layer was composed of Ta2C and TaC nanocrystalline, and it exhibited a special compact surface morphology formed of flower-shaped pits. As the gradual element distributions existed in the diffusion layer, the interlayer displayed a superior adherence to the substrate with significantly enhanced surface microhardness to the original substrate. After CVD process, the preferred orientation of TaC changed from (2 2 2) to (2 0 0) plane, and a uniform and tense diamond coating with adhesion referred to class HF 2 at least (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 3198 norm) was obtained on the interlayered substrate. It indicated that the diffusion of Co was effectively inhibited by the formation of TaxC diffusion-deposition interlayer. The TaxC interlayer is most likely to improve the performance of diamond coatings used in cutting tools.

  3. Deposition of Chromium Thin Films on Stainless Steel-304 Substrates Using a Low Energy Plasma Focus Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Hojabri, A.; Habibi, M.; Hosseinnejad, M. T.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we study thin films of chromium deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates using a low energy (1.6 kJ) plasma focus device. The films of chromium are likewise deposited with 25 focus shots each at various axial distances from the top of the anode (3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 cm). We also consider different angular positions with respect to the anode axis (0°, 15° and 30°) at a distance of 5 cm from the anode tip to deposit the chromium films on the stainless steel substrates. To characterize the structural properties of the films, we benefit from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are applied as well to study the surface morphology of these deposited films. Furthermore, we make use of Vicker's micro-hardness measurements to investigate the mechanical properties of chromium thin films. The XRD results show that the degree of crystallinity of chromium thin films depends on the substrate axial and angular positions. The AFM images illustrate that the film deposited at the distance of 5 cm and the angular position of 0° has quite a uniform surface with homogeneous distribution of grains on the film surface. From the hardness results, we observe that the sample deposited at the axial distance of 5 cm from the anode tip and at the angle of 0° with respect to the anode axis, is harder than the other deposited films.

  4. Extraction of plasma from whole blood using a deposited microbead plug (DMBP) in a capillary-driven microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyu; Liu, Chong; Xu, Zheng; Li, Jingmin

    2012-06-01

    We presented a deposited microbead plug (DMBP)-based microfluidic device capable of extracting plasma from whole blood by capillary forces. This device was fabricated by reversibly bonding a PDMS slab with a straight channel to a hydrophilic glass substrate. The DMBP was easily constructed at the inlet of the channel within 2 min by a method of natural deposition of microbeads without the need of weirs or photopolymerization. Capillary forces generated mainly on the hydrophilic glass substrate provided a driving force during the fabrication of the DMBP and plasma extraction, resulting in simplicity of operations. The DMBP only allows blood plasma to pass through but blocks blood cells, which was demonstrated experimentally using sheep blood. The DMBP enabled to remain in its initial configuration during plasma extraction. The high quality plasma was obtained without contamination of microbeads and blood cells. This easy-to-use, easy-to-integrate, disposable the DMBP-based microfluidic device has the potential to be integrated with on-chip bioanalytical units for the applications of point-of-care diagnostics.

  5. New method of plasma immersion ion implantation and also deposition of industrial components using tubular fixture and plasma generated inside the tube by high voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Mario; Silva, Ataide Ribeiro da; Pillaca, Elver J. D. M.; Mariano, Samantha F. M.; Oliveira, Rogério de Moraes; Rossi, José Osvaldo; Lepienski, Carlos Mauricio; Pichon, Luc

    2016-01-01

    A new method of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) and deposition (PIII and D) for treating industrial components in the batch mode has been developed. A metal tubular fixture is used to allocate the components inside, around, and along the tube, exposing only the parts of each component that are to be ion implanted to the plasma. Hollow cathode-like plasma is generated only inside the tube filled with the desired gas, by applying high negative voltage pulses to the hollow cylindrical fixture which is insulated from the vacuum chamber walls. This is a very convenient method of batch processing of industrial parts by ion implantation, in which a large number of small to medium sized components can be treated by PIII and PIII and D, very quickly, efficiently, and also at low cost.

  6. Comparison of gate dielectric plasma damage from plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited and magnetron sputtered TiN metal gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Christopher J.; Neumann, Christopher M.; Vitale, Steven A.

    2015-07-01

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors were fabricated using two different metal gate deposition mechanisms to compare plasma damage effects on gate oxide quality. Devices fabricated with both plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PE-ALD) TiN gates and magnetron plasma sputtered TiN gates showed very good electrostatics and short-channel characteristics. However, the gate oxide quality was markedly better for PE-ALD TiN. A significant reduction in interface state density was inferred from capacitance-voltage measurements as well as a 1200× reduction in gate leakage current. A high-power magnetron plasma source produces a much higher energetic ion and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photon flux to the wafer compared to a low-power inductively coupled PE-ALD source. The ion and VUV photons produce defect states in the bulk of the gate oxide as well as at the oxide-silicon interface, causing higher leakage and potential reliability degradation.

  7. Comparison of gate dielectric plasma damage from plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited and magnetron sputtered TiN metal gates

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Christopher J.; Neumann, Christopher M.; Vitale, Steven A.

    2015-07-28

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors were fabricated using two different metal gate deposition mechanisms to compare plasma damage effects on gate oxide quality. Devices fabricated with both plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PE-ALD) TiN gates and magnetron plasma sputtered TiN gates showed very good electrostatics and short-channel characteristics. However, the gate oxide quality was markedly better for PE-ALD TiN. A significant reduction in interface state density was inferred from capacitance-voltage measurements as well as a 1200× reduction in gate leakage current. A high-power magnetron plasma source produces a much higher energetic ion and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photon flux to the wafer compared to a low-power inductively coupled PE-ALD source. The ion and VUV photons produce defect states in the bulk of the gate oxide as well as at the oxide-silicon interface, causing higher leakage and potential reliability degradation.

  8. Green light emission from terbium doped silicon rich silicon oxide films obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorodecki, A.; Zatryb, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Wojcik, J.; Wilson, P. R. J.; Mascher, P.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of silicon concentration and annealing temperature on terbium luminescence was investigated for thin silicon rich silicon oxide films. The structures were deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of these films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering. The optical properties were investigated by means of photoluminescence and photoluminescence decay spectroscopy. It was found that both the silicon concentration in the film and the annealing temperature have a strong impact on the terbium emission intensity. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of these issues and determine the optimal silicon concentration and annealing temperature.

  9. Parametric study of Al and Al 2O 3 ceramic coatings deposited by air plasma spray onto polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanhong, Sun; Xiaodong, He; Jiuxing, Jiang; Yue, Sun

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum and ceramic (Al 2O 3) coatings were deposited onto the polymer substrate by air plasma spray (APS) to improve the mechanical properties of the polymer surface. The effect of spray parameters (current and spray distance in this paper) on the phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. Shear adhesion strength between the coatings and the substrates was also examined. The results indicate that the deposition parameters have a significant effect on the phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of as-spayed coatings. The maximum shear adhesion strength of the bond coats was 5.21 MPa with the current of 180 A and 190 mm spray distance.

  10. Reduced chemical warfare agent sorption in polyurethane-painted surfaces via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wesley O; Peterson, Gregory W; Durke, Erin M

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoralkalation via plasma chemical vapor deposition has been used to improve hydrophobicity of surfaces. We have investigated this technique to improve the resistance of commercial polyurethane coatings to chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents. The reported results indicate the surface treatment minimizes the spread of agent droplets and the sorption of agent into the coating. The improvement in resistance is likely due to reduction of the coating's surface free energy via fluorine incorporation, but may also have contributing effects from surface morphology changes. The data indicates that plasma-based surface modifications may have utility in improving chemical resistance of commercial coatings.

  11. Reduction of deuterium permeation through DIN 1.4914 stainless steel (MANET) by plasma-spray deposited aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perujo, A.; Forcey, K. S.; Sample, T.

    1993-12-01

    The paper describes the formation of a permeation barrier on DIN 1.4914 (MANET) martensitic stainless steel by plasma spraying aluminium on the surface of the steel, followed by heat treatment of the sample to form Al 3Fe and Al 5Fe 2. Vacuum plasma spraying was chosen because it ensures that the sample will be exposed to low temperatures during the Al layer deposition and will not interfere with the heat treatment that MANET has to undergo in order to produce a homogeneous, fully martensitic structure. Measurements of the permeation rate of deuterium in the bare and aluminium-deposited MANET were performed by a gas permeation technique over the temperature range 573-743 K and for driving deuterium pressures in the range 3-50 kPa. Such measurements showed a reduction of the permeation rate between two and three orders of magnitude and there was evidence that surface reactions were the rate governing process.

  12. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  13. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  14. Electrostatic quadrupole plasma mass spectrometer measurements during thin film depositions using simultaneous matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C. N.; Check, M. H.; Muratore, C.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2010-05-15

    A hybrid plasma deposition process, combining matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of carbon nanopearls (CNPs) with magnetron sputtering of gold was investigated for growth of composite films, where 100 nm sized CNPs were encapsulated into a gold matrix. Composition and morphology of such composite films was characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Carbon deposits on a gold magnetron sputter target and carbon impurities in the gold matrices of deposited films were observed while codepositing from gold and frozen toluene-CNP MAPLE targets in pure argon. Electrostatic quadrupole plasma analysis was used to determine that a likely mechanism for generation of carbon impurities was a reaction between toluene vapor generated from the MAPLE target and the argon plasma originating from the magnetron sputtering process. Carbon impurities of codeposited films were significantly reduced by introducing argon-oxygen mixtures into the deposition chamber; reactive oxygen species such as O and O+ effectively removed carbon contamination of gold matrix during the codeposition processes. Increasing the oxygen to argon ratio decreased the magnetron target sputter rate, and hence hybrid process optimization to prevent gold matrix contamination and maintain a high sputter yield is needed. High resolution TEM with energy dispersive spectrometry elemental mapping was used to study carbon distribution throughout the gold matrix as well as embedded CNP clusters. This research has demonstrated that a hybrid MAPLE and magnetron sputtering codeposition process is a viable means for synthesis of composite thin films from premanufactured nanoscale constituents, and that cross-process contaminations can be overcome with understanding of hybrid plasma process interaction mechanisms.

  15. 3-dimensional Modeling of Electromagnetic and Physical Sources of Aziumuthal Nonuniformities in Inductively Coupled Plasmas for Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junqing; Keiter, Eric R.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1998-10-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasmas (ICPs) are being used for a variety of deposition processes for microelectronics fabrication. Of particular concern in scaling these devices to large areas is maintaining azimuthal symmetry of the reactant fluxes. Sources of nonuniformity may be physical (e.g., gas injection and side pumping) or electromagnetic (e.g., transmission line effects in the antennas). In this paper, a 3-dimensional plasma equipment model, HPEM-3D,(M. J. Kushner, J. Appl. Phys. v.82, 5312 (1997).) is used to investigate physical and electromagentic sources of azimuthal nonuniformities in deposition tools. An ionized metal physical vapor deposition (IMPVD) system will be investigated where transmission line effects in the coils produce an asymmetric plasma density. Long mean free path transport for sputtered neutrals and tensor conducitivities have been added to HPEM-3D to address this system. Since the coil generated ion flux drifts back to the target to sputter low ionization potential metal atoms, the asymmetry is reinforced by rapid ionization of the metal atoms.

  16. An understanding of enhanced osteoblast adhesion on various nanostructured polymeric and metallic materials prepared by ionic plasma deposition.

    PubMed

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Reising, Alexander B; Miller, Tiffany; Storey, Dan; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-03-01

    The development of new materials through novel surface modification techniques to enhance orthopedic implant lifetimes (hence, decreasing the need for revision surgery) is of great interest to the medical community. The purpose of this in vitro study was to treat common metallic implant materials [such as titanium (Ti) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V)] and traditional polymeric materials (like polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, polytetrafluoroethylene, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and nylon) with either nanoparticulate alumina or titanium using novel (i) ionic plasma deposition (IPD) and (ii) nitrogen ion immersion plasma deposition (NIIPD) techniques. The treated surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and surface energy, demonstrating greater nanoscale roughness on the modified surfaces regardless of the underlying material or coating applied. These surface-modified substrates were also tested for cytocompatibility properties with osteoblasts (or bone-forming cells). Results showed increased osteoblast adhesion on modified compared to control (traditional or untreated) materials. Since the adhesion of osteoblasts is the first crucial step for new bone synthesis, these results are very promising and suggest that the plasma deposition processes used in this study should be further investigated to improve the longevity of orthopedic implants.

  17. The effect on bone growth enhancement of implant coatings with hydroxyapatite and collagen deposited electrochemically and by plasma spray.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E; Jensen, Thomas; Soballe, Kjeld

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal bone consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)] and collagen type I, both of which are osseoconductive. The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable long-lasting fixation between bone and an implant surface. In this study, we evaluated the mechanical fixation and tissue distribution surrounding implants coated with three surfaces: plasma-sprayed HA coating, thinner coating of electrochemical-assisted deposition of HA, and an identical thin coating with a top layer of mineralized collagen. Uncoated plasma-sprayed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) served as negative control. The electrochemical-assisted deposition was performed near physiological conditions. We used a canine experimental joint replacement model with four cylindrical implants (one of each treatment group) inserted in the humeri cancellous metaphyseal bone in a 1 mm gap. Observation time was 4 weeks. The mechanical fixation was quantified by push-out test to failure, and the peri-implant tissue formation by histomorphometric evaluation. HA coatings deposited by plasma spray technique or electrochemically, increased the mechanical fixation and bone ongrowth, but there was no statistical difference between the individual HA applications. Addition of collagen to the mineralized phase of the coating to create a more bone natural surface did not improve the osseoconductive effect of HA.

  18. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provine, J.; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2016-06-01

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiNx), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiNx films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiNx and evaluate the film's WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H2O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiNx film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiNx of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiNx from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  19. Role of GaAs surface clearing in plasma deposition of silicon nitride films for encapsulated annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Valco, G.J.; Kapoor, V.J.

    1985-06-01

    The role of GaAs surface cleaning and plasma reactor cleaning prior to deposition of silicon nitride films for encapsulated annealing has been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the surface characteristics of GaAs treated with HCl, HF, and NH4OH solutions preceded by a degreasing procedure. The HCl clean left the least amount of oxygen on the surface. Fluorine contamination resulting from the CF4 plasma used to clean the reactor was found to be located at the film-substrate interface by Auger electron spectroscopy with argon-ion sputtering. A modified deposition procedure was developed to eliminate the fluorine contamination. Plasma deposition of silicon nitride encapsulating films was found to modify the I-V characteristics of Schottky diodes subsequently formed on GaAs surface. The reverse current of the diodes was slightly reduced. Substrates implanted with Si at 100 keV and a dose of 5 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm showed a peak electron concentration of 1.7 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm at a depth of 0.1-micron with 60 percent activation after encapsulation and annealing at 800 C for 7 min. 9 references.

  20. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bui, Hao Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.

    2015-01-01

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30 nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  1. Effect of oxygen plasma on field emission characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avshish; Parveen, Shama; Husain, Samina; Ali, Javid; Zulfequar, Mohammad; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid

    2014-02-01

    Field emission properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) grown on iron catalyst film by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system were studied in diode configuration. The results were analysed in the framework of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The grown SWCNTs were found to be excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 20 mA/cm2 at a turn-on field of 1.3 V/μm. The as grown SWCNTs were further treated with Oxygen (O2) plasma for 5 min and again field emission characteristics were measured. The O2 plasma treated SWCNTs have shown dramatic improvement in their field emission properties with emission current density of 111 mA/cm2 at a much lower turn on field of 0.8 V/μm. The as grown as well as plasma treated SWCNTs were also characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after O2 plasma treatment and the findings are being reported in this paper.

  2. Effect of oxygen plasma on field emission characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Avshish; Parveen, Shama; Husain, Samina; Ali, Javid; Zulfequar, Mohammad; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid

    2014-02-28

    Field emission properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) grown on iron catalyst film by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system were studied in diode configuration. The results were analysed in the framework of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The grown SWCNTs were found to be excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 20 mA/cm{sup 2} at a turn-on field of 1.3 V/μm. The as grown SWCNTs were further treated with Oxygen (O{sub 2}) plasma for 5 min and again field emission characteristics were measured. The O{sub 2} plasma treated SWCNTs have shown dramatic improvement in their field emission properties with emission current density of 111 mA/cm{sup 2} at a much lower turn on field of 0.8 V/μm. The as grown as well as plasma treated SWCNTs were also characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after O{sub 2} plasma treatment and the findings are being reported in this paper.

  3. Porosity in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiCOH dielectrics: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, A.; Patel, V.; Rodbell, K. P.; Huang, E.; Baklanov, M. R.; Mogilnikov, K. P.; Toney, M.; Kim, H.-C.

    2003-09-01

    The low dielectric constant (k) of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiCOH films has been attributed to porosity in the films. We have shown previously that the dielectric constant of such materials can be extended from the typical k values of 2.7-2.9 to ultralow-k values of k=2.0. The reduction in the dielectric constants has been achieved by enhancing the porosity in the films through the addition of an organic material to the SiCOH precursor and annealing the films to remove the thermally less-stable organic fractions. In order to confirm the relation between dielectric constant and film porosity the latter has been evaluated for SiCOH films with k values from 2.8 to 2.05 using positron annihilation spectroscopy, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, small angle x-ray scattering, specular x-ray reflectivity, and ellipsometric porosimetry measurements. It has been found that the SiCOH films with k=2.8 had no detectable porosity, however the porosity increased with decreasing dielectric constant reaching values of 28%-39% for k values of 2.05. The degree of porosity and the pore size determined by the dissimilar techniques agreed within reasonable limits, especially when one takes into account the small pore size in these films and the different assumptions used by the different techniques. The pore size increases with decreasing k, however the diameter remains below 5 nm for k=2.05, most of the pores being smaller than 2.5 nm.

  4. Mechanisms and energetics of hydride dissociation reactions on surfaces of plasma-deposited silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder; Valipa, Mayur S.; Mountziaris, T. J.; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2007-11-01

    We report results from a detailed analysis of the fundamental silicon hydride dissociation processes on silicon surfaces and discuss their implications for the surface chemical composition of plasma-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films. The analysis is based on a synergistic combination of first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations of hydride dissociation on the hydrogen-terminated Si(001)-(2×1) surface and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of adsorbed SiH3 radical precursor dissociation on surfaces of MD-grown a-Si :H films. Our DFT calculations reveal that, in the presence of fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms, surface trihydride species dissociate sequentially to form surface dihydrides and surface monohydrides via thermally activated pathways with reaction barriers of 0.40-0.55eV. The presence of dangling bonds (DBs) results in lowering the activation barrier for hydride dissociation to 0.15-0.20eV, but such DB-mediated reactions are infrequent. Our MD simulations on a-Si :H film growth surfaces indicate that surface hydride dissociation reactions are predominantly mediated by fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms, with resulting activation barriers of 0.35-0.50eV. The results are consistent with experimental measurements of a-Si :H film surface composition using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicate that the a-Si :H surface is predominantly covered with the higher hydrides at low temperatures, while the surface monohydride, SiH(s ), becomes increasingly more dominant as the temperature is increased.

  5. Optical modeling of plasma-deposited ZnO films: Electron scattering at different length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Knoops, Harm C. M. Loo, Bas W. H. van de; Smit, Sjoerd; Ponomarev, Mikhail V.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Sharma, Kashish; Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-03-15

    In this work, an optical modeling study on electron scattering mechanisms in plasma-deposited ZnO layers is presented. Because various applications of ZnO films pose a limit on the electron carrier density due to its effect on the film transmittance, higher electron mobility values are generally preferred instead. Hence, insights into the electron scattering contributions affecting the carrier mobility are required. In optical models, the Drude oscillator is adopted to represent the free-electron contribution and the obtained optical mobility can be then correlated with the macroscopic material properties. However, the influence of scattering phenomena on the optical mobility depends on the considered range of photon energy. For example, the grain-boundary scattering is generally not probed by means of optical measurements and the ionized-impurity scattering contribution decreases toward higher photon energies. To understand this frequency dependence and quantify contributions from different scattering phenomena to the mobility, several case studies were analyzed in this work by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The obtained electrical parameters were compared to the results inferred by Hall measurements. For intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), the in-grain mobility was obtained by fitting reflection data with a normal Drude model in the IR range. For Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO), besides a normal Drude fit in the IR range, an Extended Drude fit in the UV-vis range could be used to obtain the in-grain mobility. Scattering mechanisms for a thickness series of Al:ZnO films were discerned using the more intuitive parameter “scattering frequency” instead of the parameter “mobility”. The interaction distance concept was introduced to give a physical interpretation to the frequency dependence of the scattering frequency. This physical interpretation furthermore allows the prediction of which Drude models can be used in a specific

  6. Early apatite deposition and osteoblast growth on plasma-sprayed dicalcium silicate coating.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuanyong; Xie, Youtao; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K

    2005-09-01

    Dicalcium silicate coating was deposited onto a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using plasma-spraying technology. The coating was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h to investigate early apatite formation on the coating. Osteoblasts were also seeded onto the surface of the dicalcium silicate coating to evaluate its biocompatibility. Cold field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used to evaluate the morphologies and determine the chemical composition of the coatings. The surface structural changes caused by immersion in SBF were analyzed using thin-film X-ray diffraction. After the dicalcium silicate coating was soaked in SBF solution 1-6 h, two types of particles containing calcium and phosphorus were formed on the surface. One type consisted of relatively larger particles (P1) precipitated on the surface of the coating from the precursor cluster formed in the SBF solution. The second type was composed of particles (P2) nucleated on the surface of the coating. With increasing immersion time, the particles coalesced to form a surface Ca-P layer. The Ca-P layer was composed of amorphous calcium phosphate that was not transformed to crystalline apatite until the immersion time in SBF exceeded 24 h. The formation mechanism of the Ca-P layer and apatite on the surface of the coating is believed to be involved in the formation of the Si 3-ring active surface site with negative charge. The cell-seeding test revealed that osteoblasts grew and proliferated very well on the surface of the dicalcium silicate coating.

  7. Trends in surface engineering of biomaterials: atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of coatings for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Ponte, G.; Sardella, E.; Fanelli, F.; D'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.

    2011-11-01

    Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.

  8. Polymorphous silicon thin films obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using dichlorosilane as silicon precursor.

    PubMed

    Remolina, A; Monroy, B M; García-Sánchez, M F; Ponce, A; Bizarro, M; Alonso, J C; Ortiz, A; Santana, G

    2009-06-17

    Polymorphous silicon thin films (pm-Si) have been deposited from mixtures of dichlorosilane and hydrogen, using argon as the diluting gas by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The deposition conditions were chosen to simultaneously obtain both Si nanocrystallites and an amorphous silicon matrix in the as-grown samples. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show the crystallinity of Si domains whose dimensions are in the interval of 2-14 nm. The surface passivation state of the silicon nanocrystals was inferred from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Two optical absorption edges, corresponding to the amorphous matrix and the Si nanocrystals, were observed for all the pm-Si thin films. Intense visible photoluminescence was observed for the as-grown samples. The possibility of using these thin films for the down-conversion effect in silicon solar cells is discussed. PMID:19471076

  9. Cathodic cage plasma deposition of TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films on silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Romulo R. M. de; Sato, Patricia S.; Nascente, Pedro A. P.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Alves, Clodomiro; Nishimoto, Akio

    2015-07-15

    Cathodic cage plasma deposition (CCPD) was used for growing titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films on silicon substrates. The main advantages of the CCPD technique are the uniformity, tridimensionality, and high rate of the film deposition that occurs at higher pressures, lower temperatures, and lower treatment times than those used in conventional nitriding treatments. In this work, the influence of the temperature and gas atmosphere upon the characteristics of the deposited films was investigated. The TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their chemical, structural, and morphological characteristics, and the combination of these results indicates that the low-cost CCPD technique can be used to produce even and highly crystalline TiN and TiO{sub 2} films.

  10. Photovoltaic characteristics of postdeposition iodine-doped amorphous carbon films by microwave surface wave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Omer, Ashraf M.M.; Adhikari, Sudip; Adhikary, Sunil; Uchida, Hideo; Umeno, Masayoshi

    2005-10-17

    The amorphous carbon thin films have been deposited on silicon and quartz substrates by microwave surface wave plasma chemical vapor deposition at low temperature (<100 deg. C) in Ar/CH{sub 4} phase gas. Doping of iodine has been done in the postdeposited films by exposing them in iodine vapor. The photovoltaic measurements of the films were carried out before and after iodine doping. The results show dramatic decrease of optical gap from 3.4 to 0.9 eV corresponding to nondoping to iodine doping conditions, respectively. The preliminary photovoltaic characteristics of the film deposited on n-type silicon substrate under light illumination (AM1.5, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}) reveal a short-circuit current density of 1.15 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, open-circuit voltage of 177 mV and fill factor of 21.7%.

  11. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe; Blasco, Nicolas

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  12. Evolution of local texture and grain morphology in metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of TiN

    SciTech Connect

    Manova, D.; Attenberger, W.; Maendl, S.; Stritzker, B.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2004-11-01

    The local crystallographic texture and grain orientation was investigated for deposition of TiN by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIIID) at different ion incident angles across one sample. A very good match between the tilt of (fiber) texture and the tilt of grains was observed, indicating the validity of models for ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) also for MePIIID. A (100) orientation was obtained for 5 kV pulses at 9% duty cycle. The ion incident angle changed from near normal at the center towards 35 deg. tilt away from the surface normal at the sample edge for the substrate orientation at 45 deg. towards the cathode. However, due to the pulsed regime in MePIIID, there exist certain differences from IBAD.

  13. Deposition of Polymer Thin Film Using an Atmospheric Pressure Micro-Plasma Driven by Dual-Frequency Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaomin; Yuan, Qianghua; Zhou, Yongjie; Yin, Guiqin; Dong, Chenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Polymer thin film deposition using an atmospheric pressure micro-plasma jet driven by dual-frequency excitations is described in this paper. The discharge process was operated with a mixture of argon (6 slm) and a small amount of acetone (0-2100 ppm). Plasma composition was measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). In addition to a large number of Ar spectra lines, we observed some spectra of C, CN, CH and C2. Through changing acetone content mixed in argon, we found that the optimum discharge condition for deposition can be characterized by the maximum concentration of carbonaceous species. The deposited film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XPS indicated that the film was mostly composed of C with trace amount of O and N elements. The FTIR suggested different carbon-containing bonds (-CHx, C=O, C=C, C-O-C) presented in the deposited film.

  14. Control of TTIP Solution for Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet and Deposition of TiO2 Micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiro; Parajulee, Shankar; Ikezawa, Shunjiro

    TiO2 deposition-methods are versatile and are expected to be more simple and easy, however, in recent years the industrial photocatalytic products have been developed enormously. In this work, photocatalytic TiO2 micro-particles are deposited using the atmospheric pressure plasma jet device. Here, deposition-method is carried out in two steps, at first, the hydrolysis reaction time has been able to control which will resolve the TTIP coagulating trouble during the transportation, by acidifying the solution with AA (Acetic acid) and DEA (Diethanolamine). An experiment was performed to measure the hydrolysis reaction time of TTIP (Titanium tetraisopropoxide) solution by He-Ne laser. Secondly, the deposition of TiO2 micro-particles was carried out using the atmospheric pressure plasma jet with the controlled TTIP solution in reaction time. Based on SEM and water contact angle measurement, it is found that the smaller the mixing ratios of TTIP and DEA the smaller the TiO2 particle size. Also, the smaller the TiO2 particles the smaller the contact angle under the UV irradiation which suffices the photocatalytic behavior.

  15. Thermal and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2}: Comparison of spectroscopic and electric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Chittaranjan Henkel, Karsten; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter; Gargouri, Hassan; Kärkkänen, Irina; Schneidewind, Jessica; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael

    2015-01-15

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used as a protective layer in photocatalytic water splitting system as well as a dielectric in resistive memory switching. The way ALD is performed (thermally or plasma-assisted) may change the growth rate as well as the electronic properties of the deposited films. In the present work, the authors verify the influence of the ALD mode on functional parameters, by comparing the growth rate and electronic properties of TiO{sub 2} films deposited by thermal (T-) and plasma-enhanced (PE-) ALD. The authors complete the study with the electrical characterization of selected samples by means of capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. In all samples, the authors found a significant presence of Ti{sup 3+} states, with the lowest content in the PE-ALD grown TiO{sub 2} films. The observation of Ti{sup 3+} states was accompanied by the presence of in-gap states above the valence band maximum. For films thinner than 10 nm, the authors found also a strong leakage current. Also in this case, the PE-ALD films showed the weakest leakage currents, showing a correlation between the presence of Ti{sup 3+} states and leakage current density.

  16. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon polymer films on titanium for preventing cell adhesion: a surface finishing for temporarily used orthopaedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, B.; Testrich, H.; Rebl, H.; Walschus, U.; Schlosser, M.; Zietz, C.; Staehlke, S.; Nebe, J. B.; Weltmann, K. D.; Meichsner, J.; Polak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The design of a titanium implant surface should ideally support its later application in clinical use. Temporarily used implants have to fulfil requirements different from permanent implants: they should ensure the mechanical stabilization of the bone stock but in trauma surgery they should not be integrated into the bone because they will be removed after fracture healing. Finishing of the implant surface by a plasma-fluorocarbon-polymer (PFP) coating is a possible approach for preventing cell adhesion of osteoblasts. Two different low pressure gas-discharge plasma processes, microwave (MW 2.45 GHz) and capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasma, were applied for the deposition of the PFP film using a mixture of the precursor octafluoropropane (C3F8) and hydrogen (H2). The thin films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. Cell culture experiments show that cell adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblasts were clearly reduced or nonexistent on these surfaces, also after 24 h of storage in the cell culture medium. In vivo data demonstrated that the local inflammatory tissue response for the PFP films deposited in MW and RF plasma were comparable to uncoated controls.

  17. Thin Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Low-Energy Plasma Spraying Under Very Low Pressure Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Fu; Bolot, Rodolphe; Planche, Marie-Pierre; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2011-09-01

    In recent decades, very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) technology (less than 10 mbar), as a next-generation coating process, has been extensively studied, because it can fully evaporate the materials to deposit dense, thin, and columnar grain coatings. This research aims at applying VLPPS with low-energy plasma source to melt or evaporate ceramic materials to develop high-quality thermal barrier coatings. Thin and homogeneous yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings were deposited successfully on a stainless steel substrate using low-power plasma spraying torch F100 (23 kW maximal) under very low pressure (1 mbar). The optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the properties of the plasma jet. The phase composition and the microstructure of the coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the YSZ powder was fully melted and partially evaporated, and the coatings had a hybrid microstructure that was combined with the condensation of the YSZ vapor and the melted particles. In addition, the porosity and microhardness of the coatings were evaluated.

  18. Characteristics of ultra low-k nanoporous and fluorinated silica based films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi-Firouzjah, M.; Shokri, B.

    2013-12-07

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) silica based films were deposited on p-type silicon and polycarbonate substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at low temperature. A mixture of tetraethoxysilane vapor, oxygen, and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) was used for the deposition of the films in forms of two structures called as SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z}. Properties of the films were controlled by amount of porosity and fluorine content in the film matrix. The influence of RF power and CF{sub 4} flow on the elemental composition, deposition rate, surface roughness, leakage current, refractive index, and dielectric constant of the films were characterized. Moreover, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the plasma process at the different parameters. Electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films with metal-oxide-semiconductor structure were investigated using current-voltage analysis to measure the leakage current and breakdown field, as well as capacitance-voltage analysis to obtain the film's dielectric constant. The results revealed that SiO{sub x}C{sub y} films, which are deposited at lower RF power produce more leakage current, meanwhile the dielectric constant and refractive index of these films decreased mainly due to the more porosity in the film structure. By adding CF{sub 4} in the deposition process, fluorine, the most electronegative and the least polarized atom, doped into the silica film and led to decrease in the refractive index and the dielectric constant. In addition, no breakdown field was observed in the electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films and the leakage current of these films reduced by increment of the CF{sub 4} flow.

  19. Chemical reactions during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of SiO2 films employing aminosilane and O2/Ar plasma at 50 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Kobayashi, Akiko; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    We report the temporal evolution of surface species observed in situ using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) of SiO2 films employing aminosilane and an O2/Ar plasma at a temperature of 50 °C. Reversals in the appearance of IR absorbance features associated with SiO-H, C-Hx, and Si-H proved to coincide with the self-limiting reaction property in ALD. Our IR results indicate that an O2/Ar plasma can both removed CHx groups and transform SiH surface species to SiOH. In addition, SiO2 deposition was confirmed by a continuous increase in Si-O absorbance with each PE-ALD step, which becomes stable after several cycles. On the basis of our results, the mechanism of low temperature SiO2 PE-ALD was discussed.

  20. Ultrananocrystalline diamond film deposition by direct-current plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition using hydrogen-rich precursor gas in the absence of the positive column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Joo; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposition by direct-current plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition on 4 in. Si wafer using CH4H2 as well as CH4Ar gas chemistry containing additive nitrogen. CH4/N2/H2 (5%/0.5%/94.5%) and CH4/N2/H2/Ar (0.5%/5%/6%/88.5%) gas mixtures were compared as the precursor gas. Molybdenum and tungsten were compared as cathode material. Discharge voltage and current were 480 V/45 A and 320 V/60 A, for respective gas chemistry. Chamber pressure and substrate temperature were 110-150 Torr and 750-850 °C, respectively. The film was characterized by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning electron microscope. We have demonstrated that (1) elimination of the positive column, by adopting very small interelectrode distance, gave some important and beneficial effects; (2) the plasma stability and impurity incorporation was sensitive to the cathode material and the precursor gas; (3) using the conventional CH4/H2 precursor gas and tungsten cathode, the mirror-smooth 4 in. UNCD film of excellent phase-purity and grain size below 10 nm could be deposited even in the absence of the positive column. The high electric field in the unusually narrow interelectrode space and the consequent high electron kinetic energy, in conjunction with the unusually high electron current thereof, directed to the substrate, i.e., the anode, was proposed to be the source of the grain refinement to achieve UNCD at such high chamber pressure around 110-150 Torr, in the absence of the usual ion bombardment assistance.

  1. Crystalline silicon surface passivation with amorphous SiC{sub x}:H films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, I.; Vetter, M.; Garin, M.; Orpella, A.; Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2005-12-01

    Surface-passivating properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films (a-SiC{sub x}:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on both p- and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) have been extensively studied by our research group in previous publications. We characterized surface recombination by measuring the dependence of the effective lifetime ({tau}{sub eff}) on excess carrier density ({delta}n) through quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique. Additionally, we fitted the measured {tau}{sub eff}({delta}n) curves applying an insulator/semiconductor model which allows us to determine the surface recombination parameters. In this paper, this model is analyzed in detail focusing on the accuracy in the determination of the fitting parameters and revealing uncertainties not detected up to now. Taking advantage of this analysis, the dependence of surface passivation on film deposition conditions is revised including intrinsic a-SiC{sub x}:H films on both p- and n-type c-Si and phosphorus-doped a-SiC{sub x}:H films on p-type c-Si. As a consequence, a broad view of this passivation scheme is obtained.

  2. Barrier properties to surrogates of hydrogenated carbon nano-films deposited on PET by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Éder C; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Nerin, Cristina; Cruz, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) resin was contaminated with a series of surrogates using a US Food and Drug Administration protocol. The contaminated samples were coated with two different kinds of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films (a-C:H): one with diamond-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon and another with polymer-like hydrogenated carbon (PLCH) phases. To evaluate the barrier properties of the a-C:H films, migration assays were performed using food simulants. After the tests, analysis by gas chromatography with different detectors was carried out. The appearance of the films before and after the migration experiments was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that a-C:H films have good barrier properties for most of the evaluated compounds, mainly when they are deposited as PLCH phase. PMID:25254307

  3. In-situ erosion and deposition measurements of plasma-facing surfaces in Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Harold S.

    2014-10-01

    The Accelerator Based In-situ Materials Surveillance (AIMS) diagnostic was recently developed to demonstrate the novel application of ion beam analysis (IBA) to in-vessel studies of plasma materials interactions in Alcator C-Mod. The AIMS diagnostic injects a 900 keV deuterium ion beam into the tokamak's vacuum vessel between plasma discharges while magnetic fields are used to steer the ion beam to plasma facing component (PFC) surfaces. Spectroscopic analysis of neutrons and gamma rays from the induced nuclear reactions provides a quantitative, spatially resolved map of the PFC surface composition that includes boron (B) and deuterium (D) content. Since AIMS is sensitive to low-Z elements and C-Mod regularly boronizes PFCs, the evolution of B and D on PFCs can be used to directly study erosion, deposition, and fuel retention in response to plasma operations and wall conditioning processes. AIMS analysis of 18 lower single null I-mode discharges show a net boron deposition rate of 6 +/- 2 nm/s on the inner wall while subsequent inner wall limited discharges and a disruption did not show significant changes in B. Measurements of D content showed relative changes of >2.5 following a similar trend. This suggests high D retention rates and net B deposition rates of ~18 cm/year of plasma exposure are possible and depend strongly on the plasma conditions. Ex-situ IBA was also performed on the same PFCs after removal from C-Mod, successfully validating the AIMS technique. These IBA measurements also show that the B content on the inner wall varied toroidally and poloidally from 0 to 3000 nm, demonstrating the importance of the spatial resolution provided by AIMS and the sensitivity of PFCs to B-field alignment. AIMS upgrades are underway for operation in 2014 and we anticipate new measurements correlating the evolution of PFC surfaces to plasma configuration, RF heating, and current drive scenarios. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER54235 and

  4. Microwave Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond. I. N2/H2 and NH3/H2 Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Truscott, Benjamin S; Kelly, Mark W; Potter, Katie J; Johnson, Mack; Ashfold, Michael N R; Mankelevich, Yuri A

    2015-12-31

    We report a combined experimental/modeling study of microwave activated dilute N2/H2 and NH3/H2 plasmas as a precursor to diagnosis of the CH4/N2/H2 plasmas used for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of N-doped diamond. Absolute column densities of H(n = 2) atoms and NH(X(3)Σ(-), v = 0) radicals have been determined by cavity ring down spectroscopy, as a function of height (z) above a molybdenum substrate and of the plasma process conditions, i.e., total gas pressure p, input power P, and the nitrogen/hydrogen atom ratio in the source gas. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate variations in the relative number densities of H(n = 3) atoms, NH(A(3)Π) radicals, and N2(C(3)Πu) molecules as functions of the same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by 2-D (r, z) coupled kinetic and transport modeling for the same process conditions, which consider variations in both the overall chemistry and plasma parameters, including the electron (Te) and gas (T) temperatures, the electron density (ne), and the plasma power density (Q). Comparisons between experiment and theory allow refinement of prior understanding of N/H plasma-chemical reactivity, and its variation with process conditions and with location within the CVD reactor, and serve to highlight the essential role of metastable N2(A(3)Σ(+)u) molecules (formed by electron impact excitation) and their hitherto underappreciated reactivity with H atoms, in converting N2 process gas into reactive NHx (x = 0-3) radical species. PMID:26593853

  5. Highly efficient photocatalytic TiO2 coatings deposited by open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet with aerosolized TTIP precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, H.; Ben Salem, D.; Carton, O.; Pulpytel, J.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.

    2014-07-01

    A simple method to deposit photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, at a high rate (20-40 µm s-1), and with a high porosity, is reported in this paper. This method, which allows the treatment of membranes (with an 800 nm pore size), is based on the introduction of a liquid precursor sprayed into an open-air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin films prepared by APPJ have been compared with our best N-doped TiO2 thin films, deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, previously reported in the literature. The morphology, chemical composition, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic properties of the coatings have been studied in this paper. Significant control of the porosity and crystallinity was achieved by varying the deposition parameters and the annealing temperature. Under optimized conditions, the TiO2 coatings deposited by APPJ are characterized by a higher photocatalytic activity as compared to the optimized thin films deposited by RF sputtering. This difference can be explained by the higher specific surface of the APPJ coatings. Finally, the most interesting characteristic of this APPJ-liquid spray process is its capacity to treat membranes without blocking the pores, and to produce photocatalytic membranes which can efficiently combine filtration and photocatalysis for water treatment.

  6. Hard coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films on cemented tungsten carbide by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Egiza, Mohamed; Tominaga, Aki; Murasawa, Koki; Gonda, Hidenobu; Sakurai, Masatoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite (UNCD/a-C) films were deposited on cemented carbide containing Co by coaxial arc plasma deposition. With decreasing substrate temperature, the hardness was enhanced accompanied by an enhancement in the sp3/(sp2 + sp3). Energy-dispersive X-ray and secondary ion mass spectrometry spectroscopic measurements exhibited that the diffusion of Co atoms from the substrates into the films hardly occurs. The film deposited at room temperature exhibited the maximum hardness of 51.3 GPa and Young's modulus of 520.2 GPa, which evidently indicates that graphitization induced by Co in the WC substrates, and thermal deformation from sp3 to sp2 bonding are suppressed. The hard UNCD/a-C films can be deposited at a thickness of approximately 3 μm, which is an order larger than that of comparably hard a-C films. The internal compressive stress of the 51.3-GPa film is 4.5 GPa, which is evidently smaller than that of comparably hard a-C films. This is a reason for the thick deposition. The presence of a large number of grain boundaries in the film, which is a structural specific to UNCD/a-C films, might play a role in releasing the internal stress of the films.

  7. Erosion/re-deposition modeling in an ITER divertor-like high-density, low-temperature plasma beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swaaij, G. A.; Kirschner, A.; Borodin, D.; Goedheer, W. J.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.

    2014-09-01

    Transport of hydrocarbon impurities in a high-density (>1020 m-3), low-temperature (<2 eV) plasma beam was studied with the ERO code. The high ion density and low temperature cause strong Coulomb collisionality between plasma ions and impurity ions. The collisionality is so strong that ions typically do not complete their Larmor orbits. The high collisionality causes impurity entrainment: impurity ions quickly acquire a velocity close to the plasma flow velocity. This causes a relatively high surface impact energy: the calculated mean impact energy of CHx was 8.1 eV in a plasma with Te = 0.7 eV. Simulation results were compared to an a-C : H erosion experiment in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI. The large uncertainties in literature values for the sticking probability of hydrocarbon radicals are shown to cause a serious uncertainty in the calculated re-deposition pattern. In contrast, the radial electric field component perpendicular to the axial magnetic field lines did not have a major effect on the redeposition profile.

  8. Investigation on growth behavior of CNTs synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system on Fe catalyzed substrate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bum Ho; Kim, Won Jae; Kim, Young Baek; Lee, Jong Ho; Park, Jong Woon; Kim, Woo Sam; Shin, Dong Chan

    2008-10-01

    We have studied growth behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on iron (Fe) catalyzed substrate using newly developed atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) system. To investigate the improved growth performance with simple equipment and process on large scale, a new AP-PECVD system containing different concept on downstream gas was designed and manufactured. As a catalyst, either sputtered or evaporated Fe thin film on SiO2/Si substrate was used and acetylene gas was used as a carbon source. We observed growth behavior of CNTs such as height, rate and density were strongly affected by plasma power. The maximum height of 427 microm and 267 microm was synthesized under RF plasma power of 30 W for 30 min and 40 W for 3 min, respectively. The growth rate dramatically increased to 6.27 times as plasma power increased from 30 to 40 W which opens the possibility the mass production of CNTs. By SEM and TEM observation, it was verified the grown CNTs was consists of mixture of single-wall and multi-wall CNTs. The graphitization ratio was measured to be 0.93, indicating that the graphitized CNTs forest was formed and relatively high purity of CNTs was synthesized, being useful for nano-composite materials to reinforce the strength. From our experiments, we can observe that the height and growth rate of CNTs is strong function of plasma power. PMID:19198378

  9. Tailored adhesion behavior of polyelectrolyte thin films deposited on plasma-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) for functionalized membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassil, Joelle; Alem, Halima; Henrion, Gérard; Roizard, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Completely homogenous films formed via the layer-by-layer assembly of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and the poly(styrene sulfonate) were successfully obtained on plasma-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates. To modify the hydrophobicity of the PDMS surface, a cold plasma treatment was previously applied to the membrane, which led to the creation of hydrophilic groups on the surface of the membrane. PDMS wettability and surface morphology were successfully correlated with the plasma parameters. A combination of contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis was used to demonstrate that homogeneous and hydrophilic surfaces could be achieved on PDMS cold-plasma-treated membranes. The stability of the assembled PEL layer on the PDMS was evaluated using a combination of pull-off testing and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed the relevance of a plasma pre-treatment as the adhesion of the polyelectrolyte multilayers was greatly enhanced when the deposition was completed on an activated PDMS surface at 80 W for 5 min.

  10. Oxygen plasma treatment and deposition of CN{sub x} on a fluorinated polymer matrix composite for improved erosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, C.; Korenyi-Both, A.; Bultman, J. E.; Waite, A. R.; Jones, J. G.; Storage, T. M.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2007-07-15

    The use of polymer matrix composites in aerospace propulsion applications is currently limited by insufficient resistance to erosion by abrasive media. Erosion resistant coatings may provide necessary protection; however, adhesion to many high temperature polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials is poor. A low pressure oxygen plasma treatment process was developed to improve adhesion of CN{sub x} coatings to a carbon reinforced, fluorinated polymer matrix composite. Fullerene-like CN{sub x} was selected as an erosion resistant coating for its high hardness-to-elastic modulus ratio and elastic resilience which were expected to reduce erosion from media incident at different angles (normal or glancing) relative to the surface. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the effect of the plasma treatment on surface chemistry, and electron microscopy was used to identify changes in the surface morphology of the PMC substrate after plasma exposure. The fluorine concentration at the surface was significantly reduced and the carbon fibers were exposed after plasma treatment. CN{sub x} coatings were then deposited on oxygen treated PMC substrates. Qualitative tests demonstrated that plasma treatment improved coating adhesion resulting in an erosion resistance improvement of a factor of 2 compared to untreated coated composite substrates. The combination of PMC pretreatment and coating with CN{sub x} reduced the erosion rate by an order of magnitude for normally incident particles.

  11. Plasma-chemical processes in microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactors operating with C/H/Ar gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelevich, Yuri A.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Ma Jie

    2008-12-01

    Microwave (MW) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactors are widely used for growing diamond films with grain sizes spanning the range from nanometers through microns to millimeters. This paper presents a detailed description of a two-dimensional model of the plasma-chemical activation, transport, and deposition processes occurring in MW activated H/C/Ar mixtures, focusing particularly on the following base conditions: 4.4%CH{sub 4}/7%Ar/balance H{sub 2}, pressure p=150 Torr, and input power P=1.5 kW. The model results are verified and compared with a range of complementary experimental data in the companion papers. These comparators include measured (by cavity ring down spectroscopy) C{sub 2}(a), CH(X), and H(n=2) column densities and C{sub 2}(a) rotational temperatures, and infrared (quantum cascade laser) measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} column densities under a wide range of process conditions. The model allows identification of spatially distinct regions within the reactor that support net CH{sub 4}{yields}C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}{yields}CH{sub 4} conversions, and provide a detailed mechanistic picture of the plasma-chemical transformations occurring both in the hot plasma and in the outer regions. Semianalytical expressions for estimating relative concentrations of the various C{sub 1}H{sub x} species under typical MW PECVD conditions are presented, which support the consensus view regarding the dominant role of CH{sub 3} radicals in diamond growth under such conditions.

  12. A comparative study of nitrogen plasma effect on field emission characteristics of single wall carbon nanotubes synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avshish; Parveen, Shama; Husain, Samina; Ali, Javid; Zulfequar, Mohammad; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid

    2014-12-01

    Vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with large scale control of diameter, length and alignment have successfully been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The nickel (Ni) as catalyst deposited on silicon (Si) substrate was used to grow the SWCNTs. Field emission (FE) characteristics of the as grown SWCNTs were measured using indigenously designed setup in which a diode is configured in such a way that by applying negative voltage on the copper plate (cathode) with respect to stainless steel anode plate, current density can be recorded. To measure the FE characteristics, SWCNTs film pasted on the copper plate with silver epoxy was used as electron emitter source. The effective area of anode was ∼78.5 mm2 for field emission measurements. The emission measurements were carried out under high vacuum pressure of the order of 10-6 Torr to minimize the electron scattering and degradation of the emitters. The distance between anode and cathode was kept 500 μm (constant) during entire field emission studies. The grown SWCNTs are excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 25 mA/cm2 at turn-on field 1.3 V/μm. In order to enhance the field emission characteristics, the as grown SWCNTs have been treated under nitrogen (N2) plasma for 5 min and again field emission characteristics have been measured. The N2 plasma treated SWCNTs show a good enhancement in the field emission properties with emission current density 81.5 mA/cm2 at turn on field 1.2 V/μm. The as-grown and N2 plasma treated SWCNTs were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  13. Photoinduced Charge Transfer at Metal Oxide/Oxide Interfaces Prepared with Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpuneet

    LiNbO3 and ZnO have shown great potential for photochemical surface reactions and specific photocatalytic processes. However, the efficiency of LiNbO3 is limited due to recombination or back reactions and ZnO exhibits a chemical instability in a liquid cell. In this dissertation, both materials were coated with precise thickness of metal oxide layers to passivate the surfaces and to enhance their photocatalytic efficiency. LiNbO 3 was coated with plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) ZnO and Al2O3, and molecular beam deposited TiO2 and VO2. On the other hand, PEALD ZnO and single crystal ZnO were passivated with PEALD SiO2 and Al2O3. Metal oxide/LiNbO3 heterostructures were immersed in aqueous AgNO3 solutions and illuminated with ultraviolet (UV) light to form Ag nanoparticle patterns. Alternatively, Al2O3 and SiO2/ZnO heterostructures were immersed in K3PO 4 buffer solutions and studied for photoelectrochemical reactions. A fundamental aspect of the heterostructures is the band alignment and band bending, which was deduced from in situ photoemission measurements. This research has provided insight to three aspects of the heterostructures. First, the band alignment at the interface of metal oxides/LiNbO 3, and Al2O3 or SiO2/ZnO were used to explain the possible charge transfer processes and the direction of carrier flow in the heterostructures. Second, the effect of metal oxide coatings on the LiNbO3 with different internal carrier concentrations was related to the surface photochemical reactions. Third is the surface passivation and degradation mechanism of Al2O 3 and SiO2 on ZnO was established. The heterostructures were characterized after stability tests using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that limited thicknesses of ZnO or TiO2 on polarity patterned LiNbO3 (PPLN) enhances the Ag+ photoinduced reduction process. ZnO seems more efficient

  14. Nitrogen-doping of bulk and nanotubular TiO2 photocatalysts by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Creatore, Mariadriana; Ma, Quan-Bao; El Boukili, Aishah; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Verhoeven, M. W. G. M. (Tiny); Hensen, Emiel. J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) was adopted to deposit TiO2-xNx ultrathin layers on Si wafers, calcined Ti foils and nanotubular TiO2 arrays. A range of N content and chemical bond configurations were obtained by varying the background gas (O2 or N2) during the Ti precursor exposure, while the N2/H2-fed inductively coupled plasma exposure time was varied between 2 and 20 s. On calcined Ti foils, a positive effect from N doping on photocurrent density was observed when O2 was the background gas with a short plasma exposure time (5 and 10 s). This correlates with the presence of interstitial N states in the TiO2 with a binding energy of 400 eV (Ninterst) as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A longer plasma time or the use of N2 as background gas results in formation of N state with a binding energy of 396 eV (Nsubst) and very low photocurrents. These Nsubst are linked to the presence of Ti3+, which act as detrimental recombination center for photo-generated electron-hole pairs. On contrary, PA-ALD treated nanotubular TiO2 arrays show no variation of photocurrent density (with respect to the pristine nanotubes) upon different plasma exposure times and when the O2 recipe was adopted. This is attributed to constant N content in the PA-ALD TiO2-xNx, regardless of the adopted recipe.

  15. Characterization of intrinsic a-Si:H films prepared by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chaehwan; Boo, Seongjae; Jeon, Minsung; Kamisako, Koichi

    2007-11-01

    The hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films, which can be used as the passivation or absorption layer of solar cells, were prepared by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) and their characteristics were studied. Deposition process of a-Si:H films was performed by varying the parameters, gas ratio (H2/SiH4), radio frequency (RF) power and substrate temperature, while a working pressure was fixed at 70 m Torr. Their characteristics were studied by measuring thickness, optical bandgap (eV), photosensitivity, bond structure and surface roughness. When the RF power and substrate temperature were 300 watt and 200 degrees C, respectively, optical bandgap and photosensitivity, similar to the intrinsic a-Si:H film, were obtained. The Si-H stretching mode at 2000 cm(-1), which means a good quality of films, was found at all conditions. Although the RF power increased up to 400 watt, average of surface roughness got better, compared to a-Si:H films deposited by the conventional PECVD method. These results show the potential for developing the solar cells using ICP-CVD, which have the relatively less damage of plasma.

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Chang; Park, Yong Seob; Hong, Byungyou

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention as possible routes to device miniaturization due to their excellent mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties. These properties show great potential for devices such as field emission displays, transistors, and sensors. The growth of CNTs can be explained by interaction between small carbon patches and the metal catalyst. The metals such as nickel, cobalt, gold, iron, platinum, and palladium are used as the catalysts for the CNT growth. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC) was used for CNT growth as a nonmetallic catalyst layer. DLC films were deposited by a radio frequency (RF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) method with a mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. CNTs were synthesized by a hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD) method with ammonia (NH3) as a pretreatment gas and acetylene (C2H2) as a carbon source gas. The grown CNTs and the pretreated DLC films were observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) measurement, and the structure of the grown CNTs was analyzed by high resolution transmission scanning electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Also, using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurement, we confirmed that only the carbon component remained on the substrate. PMID:19318258

  17. Direct fabrication of 3D graphene on nanoporous anodic alumina by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Hualin; Garrett, David J.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond; Prawer, Steven; Cervenka, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    High surface area electrode materials are of interest for a wide range of potential applications such as super-capacitors and electrochemical cells. This paper describes a fabrication method of three-dimensional (3D) graphene conformally coated on nanoporous insulating substrate with uniform nanopore size. 3D graphene films were formed by controlled graphitization of diamond-like amorphous carbon precursor films, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Plasma-assisted graphitization was found to produce better quality graphene than a simple thermal graphitization process. The resulting 3D graphene/amorphous carbon/alumina structure has a very high surface area, good electrical conductivity and exhibits excellent chemically stability, providing a good material platform for electrochemical applications. Consequently very large electrochemical capacitance values, as high as 2.1 mF for a sample of 10 mm3, were achieved. The electrochemical capacitance of the material exhibits a dependence on bias voltage, a phenomenon observed by other groups when studying graphene quantum capacitance. The plasma-assisted graphitization, which dominates the graphitization process, is analyzed and discussed in detail. PMID:26805546

  18. Direct fabrication of 3D graphene on nanoporous anodic alumina by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Hualin; Garrett, David J.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond; Prawer, Steven; Cervenka, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    High surface area electrode materials are of interest for a wide range of potential applications such as super-capacitors and electrochemical cells. This paper describes a fabrication method of three-dimensional (3D) graphene conformally coated on nanoporous insulating substrate with uniform nanopore size. 3D graphene films were formed by controlled graphitization of diamond-like amorphous carbon precursor films, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Plasma-assisted graphitization was found to produce better quality graphene than a simple thermal graphitization process. The resulting 3D graphene/amorphous carbon/alumina structure has a very high surface area, good electrical conductivity and exhibits excellent chemically stability, providing a good material platform for electrochemical applications. Consequently very large electrochemical capacitance values, as high as 2.1 mF for a sample of 10 mm3, were achieved. The electrochemical capacitance of the material exhibits a dependence on bias voltage, a phenomenon observed by other groups when studying graphene quantum capacitance. The plasma-assisted graphitization, which dominates the graphitization process, is analyzed and discussed in detail.

  19. Influence of Plasma Intensity on Wear and Erosion Resistance of Conventional and Nanometric WC-Co Coatings Deposited by APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonache, V.; Salvador, M. D.; García, J. C.; Sánchez, E.; Bannier, E.

    2011-03-01

    The effects of plasma intensity and powder particle size on wear and erosion resistance have been evaluated for WC-12 wt.%Co coatings deposited by Air Plasma Spraying. Coatings were deposited from micrometric and nanostructured powders. SEM and XRD characterization showed the presence of WC, W2C, W, and an amorphous Co-rich matrix. The performance of the different coatings was compared in sliding wear tests (ball-on-disk), under dry friction conditions. Wear debris and tracks were analyzed by SEM. The debris generated during the test was found to have a great influence on the sliding properties. Wear follows a "three-body abrasive mechanism" and is dominated by coating spallation because of sub-surface cracking. In order to evaluate erosion behavior, solid particle erosion tests were conducted. Eroded coatings were analyzed by SEM, and erosion mainly occurs by a "cracking and chipping mechanism." The study shows that wear and erosion behavior is strongly affected by plasma arc intensity.

  20. Synthesis of indium oxi-sulfide films by atomic layer deposition: The essential role of plasma enhancement.

    PubMed

    Bugot, Cathy; Schneider, Nathanaëlle; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the atomic layer deposition of In2(S,O)3 films by using In(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate), H2S and either H2O or O2 plasma as oxygen sources. First, the growth of pure In2S3 films was studied in order to better understand the influence of the oxygen pulses. X-Ray diffraction measurements, optical analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to characterize the samples. When H2O was used as the oxygen source, the films have structural and optical properties, and the atomic composition of pure In2S3. No pure In2O3 films could be grown by using H2O or O2 plasma. However, In2(S,O)3 films could be successfully grown by using O2 plasma as oxygen source at a deposition temperature of T = 160 °C, because of an exchange reaction between S and O atoms. By adjusting the number of In2O3 growth cycles in relation to the number of In2S3 growth cycles, the optical band gap of the resulting thin films could be tuned.

  1. Synthesis of indium oxi-sulfide films by atomic layer deposition: The essential role of plasma enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Nathanaëlle; Lincot, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Summary This paper describes the atomic layer deposition of In2(S,O)3 films by using In(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate), H2S and either H2O or O2 plasma as oxygen sources. First, the growth of pure In2S3 films was studied in order to better understand the influence of the oxygen pulses. X-Ray diffraction measurements, optical analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to characterize the samples. When H2O was used as the oxygen source, the films have structural and optical properties, and the atomic composition of pure In2S3. No pure In2O3 films could be grown by using H2O or O2 plasma. However, In2(S,O)3 films could be successfully grown by using O2 plasma as oxygen source at a deposition temperature of T = 160 °C, because of an exchange reaction between S and O atoms. By adjusting the number of In2O3 growth cycles in relation to the number of In2S3 growth cycles, the optical band gap of the resulting thin films could be tuned. PMID:24367743

  2. Highly effective antibiofilm coating of silver-polymer nanocomposite on polymeric medical devices deposited by one step plasma process.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, Munin; Barman, Tapan; Gogoi, Dolly; Choudhury, Bula; Pal, Arup R; Yadav, R N S

    2014-08-01

    Foley's catheters were coated with Silver (Ag), plasma polymerized aniline (PPAni) and Ag-PPAni composite by plasma based deposition processes which were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, and FT-IR spectroscopy and bioassays were performed to validate their efficacies to kill planktonic cells as well as to remove biofilm. The analyses confirmed the formation of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), PPAni and Ag-PPAni composite and also corroborated their successful deposition over the catheters. Antibacterial assays showed that coated catheters were capable of killing planktonic cells of most commonly encountered uropathogens and equally capable of eradicating biofilm formation by the uropathogens as evident from the reduced cfu/ml. UV-vis spectroscopy results showed that the nanoparticle coated catheters were capable of gradual release of AgNPs, killing all planktonic cells in solution over the time. Foley's catheters coated with AgNPs and their composites by one step plasma process were non-toxic devices capable of killing planktonic cells and proficient in eradicating biofilm formation which could be used to cutback the likelihood of the catheter related complications.

  3. Stable plasma-deposited acrylic acid surfaces for cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Detomaso, Loredana; Gristina, Roberto; Senesi, Giorgio S; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Favia, Pietro

    2005-06-01

    Continuous and modulated glow discharges were used to deposit thin films from acrylic acid vapors. Different deposition regimes were investigated, and their effect on chemical composition, morphology and homogeneity of the coatings, as well as on their stability in water and resistance to sterilization. Stable films were utilized in cell adhesion experiments with human fibroblasts. PMID:15626431

  4. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of ZrO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, K.

    1993-12-09

    Amorphous ZrO{sub 2} thin films were deposited in an inductively coupled PECVD system using a Zr {beta}-diketonate, Zr(C{sub 11}H{sub 19}O{sub 2}){sub 4}, as the precursor. The deposits were air annealed at 900C for 5 min to get pure, single phase, oriented, polycrystalline {alpha}-ZrO{sub 2}. Feasibility of using 2 different types of reactors was investigated. The inductively heated horizontal reactor depositions at 600C had a lower deposition rate and the films were non-uniform in thickness with a columnar structure. The resistively heated vertical reactor depositions at 350C had a higher deposition rate and the films were more uniform in thickness with a fine grained microstructure. The statistical design was demonstrated as an effective technique to analyze the effect of process conditions on the rate of deposition and relative (h00) orientation. The factorial design was used to quantify the two responses in terms of the process variables and their mutual interactions. The statistical design for rate of deposition was found to correlate with the trends observed in classical design.

  5. Microcrystalline silicon thin films deposited by matrix-distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using an SiF4 /H2 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junkang; Bulkin, Pavel; Florea, Ileana; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Erik

    2016-07-01

    For the growth of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films by low temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) has recently attracted interest as a precursor due to the resilient optoelectronic performance of the resulting material and devices. In this work, μc-Si:H films are deposited at high rates (7 Å s‑1) from a SiF4 and hydrogen (H2) gas mixture by matrix-distributed electron cyclotron resonance PECVD (MDECR-PECVD). Increased substrate temperature and moderate ion bombardment energy (IBE) are demonstrated to be of vital importance to achieve high quality μc-Si:H films under such low process pressure and high plasma density conditions, presumably due to thermally-induced and ion-induced enhancement of surface species migration. Two well-defined IBE thresholds at 12 eV and 43 eV, corresponding respectively to SiF+ ion-induced surface and bulk atomic displacement, are found to be determinant to the final film properties, namely the surface roughness, feature size and crystalline content. Moreover, a study of the growth dynamics shows that the primary challenge to producing highly crystallized μc-Si:H films by MDECR-PECVD appears to be the nucleation step. By employing a two-step method to first prepare a highly crystallized seed layer, μc-Si:H films lacking any amorphous incubation layer have been obtained. A crystalline volume fraction of 68% is achieved with a substrate temperature as low as 120 °C, which is of great interest to broaden the process window for solar cell applications.

  6. Microcrystalline silicon thin films deposited by matrix-distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using an SiF4 /H2 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junkang; Bulkin, Pavel; Florea, Ileana; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Erik

    2016-07-01

    For the growth of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films by low temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) has recently attracted interest as a precursor due to the resilient optoelectronic performance of the resulting material and devices. In this work, μc-Si:H films are deposited at high rates (7 Å s-1) from a SiF4 and hydrogen (H2) gas mixture by matrix-distributed electron cyclotron resonance PECVD (MDECR-PECVD). Increased substrate temperature and moderate ion bombardment energy (IBE) are demonstrated to be of vital importance to achieve high quality μc-Si:H films under such low process pressure and high plasma density conditions, presumably due to thermally-induced and ion-induced enhancement of surface species migration. Two well-defined IBE thresholds at 12 eV and 43 eV, corresponding respectively to SiF+ ion-induced surface and bulk atomic displacement, are found to be determinant to the final film properties, namely the surface roughness, feature size and crystalline content. Moreover, a study of the growth dynamics shows that the primary challenge to producing highly crystallized μc-Si:H films by MDECR-PECVD appears to be the nucleation step. By employing a two-step method to first prepare a highly crystallized seed layer, μc-Si:H films lacking any amorphous incubation layer have been obtained. A crystalline volume fraction of 68% is achieved with a substrate temperature as low as 120 °C, which is of great interest to broaden the process window for solar cell applications.

  7. Modeling and experimental study on the growth of silicon germanium film by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lai

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon germanium µc-SiGe:H deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is of great interest to photovoltaic (PV) applications due to its low process temperature and good uniformity over large area. The nature of high optical absorption and low optical bandgap makes it promising as the bottom cell absorbing layer for tandem junction solar cells. However, the addition of germane (GeH4) gas changes deposited film properties and makes it rather complicated for the established silane (SiH4) based discharge process with hydrogen (H2) dilution. Despite existing experimental studies for SiH 4/GeH4/H2 3-gas mixture discharge and comprehensive numerical simulations for SiH4/H2 or SiH4/Ar plasma, to the author's best knowledge, a numerical model for both SiH 4 and GeH4 in a high pressure regime is yet to be developed. The plasma discharge, the film growth and their effects on film properties and the solar device performance need deep understanding. In this dissertation, the growth of the µc-SiGe:H film by radio frequency (RF) PECVD is studied through modeling simulation as well as experiments. The first numerical model for the glow discharge of SiH4/GeH 4/H2 3-gas mixture in a high pressure regime is developed based on one dimensional fluid model. Transports of electrons, molecules, radicals and ions in the RF excitation are described by diffusion equations that are coupled with the Poisson's equation. The deposition is integrated as the boundary conditions for discharge equations through the sticking coefficient model. Neutral ionizations, radical dissociations and chemical reactions in the gas phase and surface kinetics such as the diffusive motion, chemical reactions and the hydrogen etching are included with interaction rate constants. Solved with an explicit central-difference discretization scheme, the model simulates mathematical features that reflect the plasma physics such as the plasma sheath and gas species

  8. Process diagnostics and monitoring using the multipole resonance probe in an inhomogeneous plasma for ion-assisted deposition of optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styrnoll, T.; Harhausen, J.; Lapke, M.; Storch, R.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Foest, R.; Ohl, A.; Awakowicz, P.

    2013-08-01

    The application of a multipole resonance probe (MRP) for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in a plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD) process is reported. Recently, the MRP was proposed as an economical and industry compatible plasma diagnostic device (Lapke et al 2011 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 20 042001). The major advantages of the MRP are its robustness against dielectric coating and its high sensitivity to measure the electron density. The PIAD process investigated is driven by the advanced plasma source (APS), which generates an ion beam in the deposition chamber for the production of high performance optical coatings. With a background neutral pressure of p0 ˜ 20 mPa the plasma expands from the source region into the recipient, leading to an inhomogeneous spatial distribution. Electron density and electron temperature vary over the distance from substrate (ne ˜ 109 cm-3 and Te,eff ˜ 2 eV) to the APS (ne ≳ 1012 cm-3 and Te,eff ˜ 20 eV) (Harhausen et al 2012 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 035012). This huge variation of the plasma parameters represents a big challenge for plasma diagnostics to operate precisely for all plasma conditions. The results obtained by the MRP are compared to those from a Langmuir probe chosen as reference diagnostics. It is demonstrated that the MRP is suited for the characterization of the PIAD plasma as well as for electron density monitoring. The latter aspect offers the possibility to develop new control schemes for complex industrial plasma environments.

  9. In Situ Synthesis of TiC-Fe Composite Overlays from Low Cost TiO2 Precursors Using Plasma Transferred Arc Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corujeira Gallo, Santiago; Alam, Nazmul; O'Donnell, Robert

    2014-02-01

    A direct conversion of TiO2 into TiC during plasma transferred arc deposition is a cheap and novel approach to produce wear resistant coatings. The present study explored the use of a low cost titanium ore as precursor for titanium carbide in metal matrix composite overlays. The deposited layers were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microhardness testing. A carbothermic reduction of the titanium oxides took place during the deposition of the coating by plasma transferred arc. The overlays produced in this way consisted of fine titanium carbides evenly dispersed in an iron matrix. The opportunities and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  10. Selective deposition of a crystalline Si film by a chemical sputtering process in a high pressure hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmi, Hiromasa Yasutake, Kiyoshi; Kakiuchi, Hiroaki

    2015-07-28

    The selective deposition of Si films was demonstrated using a chemical sputtering process induced by a high pressure hydrogen plasma at 52.6 kPa (400 Torr). In this chemical sputtering process, the initial deposition rate (R{sub d}) is dependent upon the substrate type. At the initial stage of Si film formation, R{sub d} on glass substrates increased with elapsed time and reached to a constant value. In contrast, R{sub d} on Si substrates remained constant during the deposition. The selective deposition of Si films can be achieved by adjusting the substrate temperature (T{sub sub}) and hydrogen concentration (C{sub H2}) in the process atmosphere. For any given deposition time, it was found that an optimum C{sub H2} exists for a given T{sub sub} to realize the selective deposition of a Si film, and the optimum T{sub sub} value tends to increase with decreasing C{sub H2}. According to electron diffraction patterns obtained from the samples, the selectively prepared Si films showed epitaxial-like growth, although the Si films contained many defects. It was revealed by Raman scattering spectroscopy that some of the defects in the Si films were platelet defects induced by excess hydrogen incorporated during Si film formation. Raman spectrum also suggested that Si related radicals (SiH{sub 2}, SiH, Si) with high reactivity contribute to the Si film formation. Simple model was derived as the guideline for achieving the selective growth.

  11. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Dielectric Constant and Bonding Structure of Low-k SiCOH Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Yang, Jaeyoung; Yeo, Sanghak; Lee, Jaewon; Jung, Donggeun; Boo, Jin-hyo; Kim, Hyoungsub; Chae, Heeyeop

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the properties of SiCOH films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using or a mixture of Si-O containing and hydrocarbon precursors, decamethyl-cyclopentasiloxane (DMCPSO-C10H30O5Si5) and cyclohexane (CHex-C6H12). These SiCOH films were deposited at pressures of 0.6 and 1.5 Torr and the as-deposited SiCOH films were subjected to annealing temperatures from 25 to 500 °C in a furnace for 1 h in N2 ambient at a pressure of 1 atm. The relative dielectric constants, k, of the SiCOH films deposited at 0.6 and 1.5 Torr were 2.76 and 2.26, respectively, before the annealing process. The subsequent annealing of the SiCOH film at 500 °C further reduced the k values to as low as 2.31 and 1.85, respectively. Decreases in the refractive index, hardness, and modulus were observed as the annealing temperature increased to 450 °C. However, further increasing annealing temperature to 500 °C caused the refractive index, hardness, and modulus to increase again. Trends of decreases in both the hardness and modulus with increasing annealing temperature were found. The refractive index and the film thickness retention also decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The change in the k value as a function of the annealing temperature was correlated with the change in the Fourier transform infrared absorption peaks of C-Hx, Si-CH3, and Si-O related groups. As the annealing temperature increased, the intensity of both the CHx and Si-CH3 peaks decreased, respectively. In particular, the C-H2 (asymmetric and symmetric) peaks provide direct evidence of the presence of ethylene groups in the SiCOH films. Thus the decrease in intensity of the peaks corresponding to the CHx groups and Si-O cage structure in the SiCOH films was considered to be responsible for lowering they dielectric constant, refractive index, hardness and modulus of the films. The leakage current density of the SiCOH films at 1 MV/cm is obtained

  12. Preparation of wide range refractive index diamond-like carbon films by means of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Gharibyan, A; Hayrapetyan, D; Panosyan, Zh; Yengibaryan, Ye

    2011-11-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology has been elaborated for obtaining diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings of a wide range of properties. Alternative and direct bias voltages have been applied on the substrate, and refractive index dependencies upon various deposition technological parameters have been investigated. The frequency of the bias voltage has been varied in the region of 150-450 kHz. The maximum refractive index range that has been achieved is 1.46-3.2. Thin DLC films have been prepared on crystalline silicon substrates. Because of the wide range of physical, optical, and mechanical properties of the obtained films, they can successfully be applied in different fields of nano-optics. PMID:22086050

  13. Surface roughening during plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon on crystal silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanenbaum, D. M.; Laracuente, A. L.; Gallagher, Alan

    1997-08-01

    The morphology of a series of thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) grown by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) is studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. The substrates were atomically flat, oxide-free, single-crystal silicon. Films were grown in a PECVD chamber directly connected to a surface analysis chamber with no air exposure between growth and measurement. The homogeneous roughness of the films increases with film thickness. The quantification of this roughening is achieved by calculation of both rms roughness and lateral correlation lengths of the a-Si:H film surface from the height difference correlation functions of the measured topographs. Homogeneous roughening occurs over the film surface due to the collective behavior of the flux of depositing radical species and their interactions with the growth surface.

  14. Surface roughening during plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon on crystal silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Tanenbaum, D.M.; Laracuente, A.L.; Gallagher, A.

    1997-08-01

    The morphology of a series of thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) grown by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) is studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. The substrates were atomically flat, oxide-free, single-crystal silicon. Films were grown in a PECVD chamber directly connected to a surface analysis chamber with no air exposure between growth and measurement. The homogeneous roughness of the films increases with film thickness. The quantification of this roughening is achieved by calculation of both rms roughness and lateral correlation lengths of the a-Si:H film surface from the height difference correlation functions of the measured topographs. Homogeneous roughening occurs over the film surface due to the collective behavior of the flux of depositing radical species and their interactions with the growth surface. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films for applications in plasmonics and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Erin R.; Glembocki, Orest; Prokes, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    We have employed plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) as a means to create multi-layered nanocomposite structures in order to enhance the plasmonic behavior and SERS response in the detection of benzenethiol (BZT). Ag PEALD films were deposited within nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of various pore depths, using Ag(fod)(PEt3)(fod=2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluorooctane-3,5-dionato) as the precursor. We have examined the polycrystalline microstructure and conformality of the Ag films across the surface of an AAO template as well as into the pores, which varies significantly as thicknesses decrease. Furthermore, we investigated the plasmonic behavior of these films by performing SERS as a function of the Ag microstructure and conformality within the nanopores, using a 785 nm laser excitation and BZT as a test molecule, which forms a self-assembled monolayer on the Ag surface.

  16. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-24

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (∼0-600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50-400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices.

  17. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-01

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (˜0-600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50-400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices.

  18. Resolving the nanostructure of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline SiOx layers for application in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingsporn, M.; Kirner, S.; Villringer, C.; Abou-Ras, D.; Costina, I.; Lehmann, M.; Stannowski, B.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon suboxides (nc-SiOx) have attracted attention during the past years for the use in thin-film silicon solar cells. We investigated the relationships between the nanostructure as well as the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of phosphorous, doped, nc-SiO0.8:H fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure was varied through the sample series by changing the deposition pressure from 533 to 1067 Pa. The samples were then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and a specialized plasmon imaging method. We found that the material changed with increasing pressure from predominantly amorphous silicon monoxide to silicon dioxide containing nanocrystalline silicon. The nanostructure changed from amorphous silicon filaments to nanocrystalline silicon filaments, which were found to cause anisotropic electron transport.

  19. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiCOH dielectrics: from low-k to extreme low-k interconnect materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, Alfred

    2003-02-01

    Carbon doped oxide dielectrics comprised of Si, C, O, and H (SiCOH) have been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Low-k films with a dielectric constant (k) of about 2.8 have been deposited from tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS). The dielectric constant has been further reduced to extreme low-k values of k<2.1 by admixing an organic precursor to TMCTS and annealing the films to remove the organic fragments and create porosity in the films. The entire range of SiCOH films is characterized by relatively low coefficients of thermal expansion of about 12×10-6 K and mechanical properties that make them suitable for integration as the interconnect dielectric in ultralarge scale integration (ULSI) devices. The range of dielectric constants makes the films potentially useful for several generations of ULSI chips.

  20. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-01

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (∼0–600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50–400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices.

  1. Haemocompatibility of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Kwok, S. C. H.; Chu, P. K.; Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Wang, J.; Huang, N.

    2003-05-01

    Diamond-like-carbon has attracted much attention recently as a potential biomaterial in blood contacting biomedical devices. However, previous reports in this area have not adequately addressed the biocompatibility and acceptability of the materials in blood contacting applications. In this study, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were fabricated on silicon wafers (1 0 0) using plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition. A series of a-C:H films with different structures and chemical bonds were fabricated under different substrate voltages. The results indicate that film graphitization is promoted at higher substrate bias. The film deposited at a lower substrate bias of -75 V possesses better blood compatibility than the films at higher bias and stainless steel. Our results suggest two possible paths to improve the blood compatibility, suppression of the endogenic clotting system and reduction of platelet activation.

  2. Highly efficient shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Chen, Qi; Liang, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-24

    Solid-state nanopore-based analysis systems are currently one of the most attractive and promising platforms in sensing fields. This work presents a highly efficient method to shrink inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology by the deposition of SiN x onto the surface of the nanopore. The contraction of the inverted-pyramid silicon nanopores when subjected to the PECVD process has been modeled and carefully analyzed, and the modeling data are in good agreement with the experimental results within a specific PECVD shrinkage period (∼0-600 s). Silicon nanopores within a 50-400 nm size range contract to sub-10 nm dimensions. Additionally, the inner structure of the nanopores after the PECVD process has been analyzed by focused ion beam cutting process. The results show an inner structure morphology change from inverted-pyramid to hourglass, which may enhance the spatial resolution of sensing devices. PMID:27181294

  3. Stress relief patterns of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films grown by dc-pulse plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Chengbing; Wang, Zhou; Zhang, Junyan; He, Deyan

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films were prepared on Si (1 0 0) substrates by dc-pulse plasma chemical vapor deposition. The nature of the deposited films was characterized by Raman spectra and the stress relief patterns were observed by scanning electron microscope. Besides the well-known sinusoidal type and flower type patterns, etc., two different stress relief patterns, ring type and peg-top shape with exiguous tine on the top, were observed. The ring type in this paper was a clear ridge-cracked buckle and unusual. Two competing buckle delamination morphologies ring and sinusoidal buckling coexist. The ridge-cracked buckle in ring type was narrower than the sinusoidal buckling. Meanwhile peg-top shape with exiguous tine on the top in this paper was unusual. These different patterns supported the approach in which the stress relief forms have been analyzed using the theory of plate buckling.

  4. In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, M.; Nerushev, O. A.; Campbell, E. E. B.

    2007-08-01

    In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 µm min-1) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 µm min-1) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer.

  5. Phase-resolved measurement of electric charge deposited by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet on a dielectric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, R.; Gerling, T.; Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Stollenwerk, L.

    2014-01-01

    The surface charge distribution deposited by the effluent of a dielectric barrier discharge driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet on a dielectric surface has been studied. For the first time, the deposition of charge was observed phase resolved. It takes place in either one or two events in each half cycle of the driving voltage. The charge transfer could also be detected in the electrode current of the jet. The periodic change of surface charge polarity has been found to correspond well with the appearance of ionized channels left behind by guided streamers (bullets) that have been identified in similar experimental situations. The distribution of negative surface charge turned out to be significantly broader than for positive charge. With increasing distance of the jet nozzle from the target surface, the charge transfer decreases until finally the effluent loses contact and the charge transfer stops.

  6. Comparative study of plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coatings on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsari, E.; Kostopoulou, M.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Rapakoulias, D. E.

    2011-05-01

    The deposition of hydrophobic fluorocarbon coatings from C2F6 and C2F6-H2 rf discharges on different substrates was examined. Polyester textile, glass and two different ceramic compounds were used as substrates. The effect of the total gas pressure, the rf power dissipation and the deposition time on the hydrophobic character of the samples was investigated. Films deposited on polyester textiles at low pressure (0.03 mbar) and power consumption (16 mW cm-2) using pure C2F6 presented the highest water contact angles (~150°). On the other hand, the addition of hydrogen was necessary in order to deposit stable hydrophobic coatings on glass and ceramic substrates. Coatings deposited on glass at intermediate deposition rates (~100 Å min-1) and pressures presented the highest angles (~105°). Concerning the heavy clay ceramics, samples treated in low-pressure (0.05 mbar) and low-power (16 mW cm-2) discharges showed the highest contact angles. The deposition time was found to play an important role in the hydrophobicity and long-term behaviour of porous and rough substrates.

  7. Microstructural study of as sprayed and heat treated Ni3Al coatings deposited by air plasma spraying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, K.; Rafiq, M. A.; Nusair Khan, A.; Rauf, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    Air plasma spraying system was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI 321 steel samples. After plasma spraying the coatings were heat treated at different temperatures i.e. 500 °C to 800 °C for 10 to 100 hours. The characterization tools such as, X-Ray diffraction analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy were used. By comparing the XRD scan data of as sprayed and heat treated coating, it was observed that the formation of NiO increases drastically with time and temperature. Due to the formation of NiO, hardness was also enhanced. The oxidation behavior was observed by using optical microscope and when it was studied that the oxidation was increasing with time and temperature. Further, the SEM tool was utilized to study the detail microstructural behavior such as shrinkage cavity and oxide particles. The other phases like alumina and spinel phases were determined by using Energy dispersive spectrometer method.

  8. High-rate deposition of abrasion resistant coatings using a dual-source expanding thermal plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaepkens, M.; Selezneva, S.; Moeleker, P.; Iacovangelo, C. D.

    2003-07-01

    A unique high-rate plasma deposition process has been developed to generate abrasion resistant coatings on polymeric substrates. The process relies on the integration of a plurality of individual expanding thermal plasma sources into a multisource setup. In this work, we will discuss the effects of various hardware and process parameters on the performance of a dual-source system that has been used to apply abrasion resistant coatings to polycarbonate substrates. It will be shown that a properly engineered dual-source system can generate transparent organosilicon-based coatings that provide uniform glasslike abrasion resistance across a 30 cm width on substrates that are laterally translated past the dual-source array.

  9. Room-temperature photoluminescence from nitrogenated carbon nanotips grown by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. B.; Cheng, Q. J.; Chen, Y. A.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogenated carbon nanotips with a low atomic concentration of nitrogen have been synthesized by using a custom-designed plasma-enhanced hot-filament plasma chemical vapor deposition system. The properties (including morphology, structure, composition, photoluminescence, etc.) of the synthesized nitrogenated carbon nanotips are investigated using advanced characterization tools. The room-temperature photoluminescence measurements show that the nitrogenated carbon nanotips can generate two distinct broad emissions located at ˜405 and ˜507 nm, respectively. Through the detailed analysis, it is shown that these two emission bands are attributed to the transition between the lone pair valence and σ* bands, which are related to the sp3 and sp2 C-N bonds, respectively. These results are highly relevant to advanced applications of nitrogenated carbon nanotips in light emitting optoelectronic devices.

  10. Improved oxygen diffusion barrier properties of ruthenium-titanium nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Doo-In; Kim, Sang Ouk; Han, Tae Hee; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Jin-Seong; Kwon, Se-Hun

    2011-01-01

    Ru-TiN thin films were prepared from bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The Ru and TiN were deposited sequentially to intermix TiN with Ru. The composition of Ru-TiN films was controlled precisely by changing the number of deposition cycles allocated to Ru, while fixing the number of deposition cycles allocated to TiN. Although both Ru and TiN thin films have a polycrystalline structure, the microstructure of the Ru-TiN films changed from a TiN-like polycrystalline structure to a nanocrystalline on increasing the Ru intermixing ratio. Moreover, the electrical resistivity of the Ru0.67-TiN0.33 thin films is sufficiently low at 190 microomega x cm and was maintained even after O2 annealing at 750 degrees C. Therefore, Ru-TiN thin films can be utilized as a oxygen diffusion barrier material for future dynamic (DRAM) and ferroelectric (FeRAM) random access memory capacitors.

  11. Effect of hydrogen dilution on photoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline SiC films deposited by helicon wave plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Du, Jie; Zhang, Li; Cui, Shuang Kui; Han, Li; Fu, Guang Sheng

    2007-11-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-SiC) thin films were deposited by helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HW-PECVD) technique at different hydrogen dilution ratio (RH). The PL peak energy and intensity were systemically analyzed using photoluminescent (PL) and photoluminescent excitation (PLE) methods. As a whole, the PL intensity shows an increasing trend and the PL peak energy presents continuous blue shifts with increasing hydrogen dilution ratio. In addition, it is found that the spectra band of samples deposited at low RH are composed of two components, the high energy band comes from quantum confinement effect and the low energy band is related to radiation of surface defect. The low energy band has a decreasing trend with increasing hydrogen dilution ratio and even disappears finally at high RH. We explain dependence of PL properties in terms of the variation of film microstructure induced by hydrogen dilution during film deposition. The increasing of PL intensity and the decreasing of the low energy band can both be accounted by the microstructure improvement. The decrease of PL peak energy is related to the size decrease of SiC nanocrystals.

  12. Large-area SiC membrane produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at relatively high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Xie, Changqing

    2015-09-15

    Advances in the growth of silicon carbide (SiC) thin films with outstanding thermal and mechanical properties have received considerable attention. However, the fabrication of large-area free-standing SiC membrane still remains a challenge. Here, the authors report a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at a relatively high temperature to improve the free-standing SiC membrane area. A systematic study on the microstructural, mechanical, and optical properties of hydrogenated polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC{sub x}:H) thin films deposited at 600 °C with different annealing temperatures has been performed. In the as-deposited state, SiC{sub x}:H thin films show a polycrystalline structure. The crystallinity degree can be further improved with the increase of the postdeposition annealing temperature. The resulting process produced free-standing 2-μm-thick SiC membranes up to 70 mm in diameter with root mean square roughness of 3.384 nm and optical transparency of about 70% at 632.8 nm wavelength. The large-area SiC membranes made out of poly-SiC{sub x}:H thin films deposited at a relatively high temperature can be beneficial for a wide variety of applications, such as x-ray diffractive optical elements, optical and mechanical filtering, lithography mask, lightweight space telescopes, etc.

  13. Ellipsometry and XPS comparative studies of thermal and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited Al2O3-films

    PubMed Central

    Haeberle, Jörg; Gargouri, Hassan; Naumann, Franziska; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary We report on results on the preparation of thin (<100 nm) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films on silicon substrates using thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) in the SENTECH SI ALD LL system. The T-ALD Al2O3 layers were deposited at 200 °C, for the PE-ALD films we varied the substrate temperature range between room temperature (rt) and 200 °C. We show data from spectroscopic ellipsometry (thickness, refractive index, growth rate) over 4” wafers and correlate them to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The 200 °C T-ALD and PE-ALD processes yield films with similar refractive indices and with oxygen to aluminum elemental ratios very close to the stoichiometric value of 1.5. However, in both also fragments of the precursor are integrated into the film. The PE-ALD films show an increased growth rate and lower carbon contaminations. Reducing the deposition temperature down to rt leads to a higher content of carbon and CH-species. We also find a decrease of the refractive index and of the oxygen to aluminum elemental ratio as well as an increase of the growth rate whereas the homogeneity of the film growth is not influenced significantly. Initial state energy shifts in all PE-ALD samples are observed which we attribute to a net negative charge within the films. PMID:24367741

  14. Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of silica onto Ti: Analysis of surface chemistry, morphology and functional hydroxyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Szili, Endre J.; Kumar, Sunil; Smart, Roger St. C.; Lowe, Rachel; Saiz, Eduardo; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we have developed and characterised a procedure for the deposition of thin silica films by a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) procedure using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the main precursor. We have used the silica coatings for improving the corrosion resistance of metals and for enhancing the bioactivity of biomedical metallic implants. Recently, we have been fine-tuning the PECVD method for producing high quality and reproducible PECVD-silica (PECVD-Si) coatings on metals, primarily for biomaterial applications. In order to understand the interaction of the PECVD-Si coatings with biological species (such as proteins and cells), it is important to first analyse the properties of the silica films deposited using the optimised parameters. Therefore, this current investigation was carried out to analyse the characteristic features of PECVD-Si deposited on Ti substrates (PECVD-Si-Ti). We determined that the PECVD-Si coatings on Ti were conformal to the substrate surface, strongly adhered to the underlying substrate and were resistant to delamination. The PECVD-Si surface was composed of stoichiometric SiO2, showed a low carbon content (below 10 at.%) and was very hydrophilic (contact angle <10°). Finally, we also showed that the PECVD-Si coatings contain functional hydroxyl groups. PMID:19809536

  15. Determination of photocatalytic activity in amorphous and crystalline titanium oxide films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chiang, Bo-Sheng; Chang, Springfield; Liu, Day-Shan

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-oxygenated amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiO x:OH) films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using precursors of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and oxygen. The influences of chemical states and crystal quality on the photocatalytic activity were systematically investigated in the as-deposited and post-annealed films. The degree of the photocatalytic activity was deeply correlated with the porosity related to the hydroxyl (OH) groups in the as-deposited amorphous film. The crystallized anatase structures was observed from the 200 °C-deposited a-TiO x:OH film after a post-annealing treatment at 400 °C. The photocatalytic activity related to the film with anatase structure was markedly superior to that of an amorphous film with porous structures. The larger the crystal size of the anatase structure, the higher the photocatalytic activity obtained. At elevated annealed temperatures, the inferior anatase structure due to the crystalline transformation led to a low photocatalytic activity. It was concluded that the photocatalytic activity of an amorphous TiO x film prepared using PECVD was determined by the porosity originating from the functional OH groups in the film, whereas the crystalline quality of anatase phase in the annealed poly-TiO x film was crucial to the photocatalytic activity.

  16. Osteoconductive Potential of Barrier NanoSiO2 PLGA Membranes Functionalized by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Terriza, Antonia; Vilches-Pérez, Jose I.; de la Orden, Emilio; Yubero, Francisco; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan L.; González-Elipe, Agustin R.; Vilches, José; Salido, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of tailoring membrane surfaces with osteoconductive potential, in particular in biodegradable devices, to create modified biomaterials that stimulate osteoblast response should make them more suitable for clinical use, hopefully enhancing bone regeneration. Bioactive inorganic materials, such as silica, have been suggested to improve the bioactivity of synthetic biopolymers. An in vitro study on HOB human osteoblasts was performed to assess biocompatibility and bioactivity of SiO2 functionalized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membranes, prior to clinical use. A 15 nm SiO2 layer was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), onto a resorbable PLGA membrane. Samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). HOB cells were seeded on sterilized test surfaces where cell morphology, spreading, actin cytoskeletal organization, and focal adhesion expression were assessed. As proved by the FT-IR analysis of samples, the deposition by PECVD of the SiO2 onto the PLGA membrane did not alter the composition and other characteristics of the organic membrane. A temporal and spatial reorganization of cytoskeleton and focal adhesions and morphological changes in response to SiO2 nanolayer were identified in our model. The novedous SiO2 deposition method is compatible with the standard sterilization protocols and reveals as a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of resorbable PLGA membranes. PMID:24883304

  17. Orientating layers with adjustable pretilt angles for liquid crystals deposited by a linear atmospheric pressure plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, Shih-Jie; Kou, Chwung-Shan; Hwang, Jennchang; Lee, Chein-Dhau; Lin, Wei-Cheng

    2013-06-15

    A method for controlling the pretilt angles of liquid crystals (LC) was developed. Hexamethyldisiloxane polymer films were first deposited on indium tin oxide coated glass plates using a linear atmospheric pressure plasma source. The films were subsequently treated with the rubbing method for LC alignment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the film composition, which could be varied to control the surface energy by adjusting the monomer feed rate and input power. The results of LC alignment experiments showed that the pretilt angle continuously increased from 0 Degree-Sign to 90 Degree-Sign with decreasing film surface energy.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy investigation of various plasma-deposited polymer films irradiated with 170 keV He + ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelamo, R. V.; Trasferetti, B. C.; Durrant, S. F.; Davanzo, C. U.; Rouxinol, F. P.; Gadioli, G. Z.; Bica de Moraes, M. A.

    2006-08-01

    This work illustrates the advantages of using p-polarized radiation at an incidence angle of 70° in contrast to the conventional unpolarized beam at normal (or near-normal) incidence for the infrared spectroscopic study of polycarbosilane, polysilazane and polysiloxane thin films synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and subsequently irradiated with 170 keV He+ ions at fluences from 1 × 1014 to 1 × 1016 cm-2. Several bands not seen using the conventional mode could be observed in the polarized mode.

  19. Low-Temperature Growth of Carbon Nanotubes by Grid-Inserted Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Mizutani, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully grown at a temperature as low as 400 °C by grid-inserted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The grid and a thin double-layer catalyst of Fe (1 nm)/Ti (1 nm) were effective in growing the CNTs. The growth rates were 10 nm/min at 400 °C and 10 μm/min at 600 °C. The intensity ratios between G-peak and D-peak (G/D ratio) of the Raman scattering spectroscopy were almost the same for the CNTs grown at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C.

  20. On precursor self-organization upon the microwave vacuum-plasma deposition of submonolayer carbon coatings on silicon (100) crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yafarov, R. K.

    2015-03-15

    Scanning atomic-force and electron microscopies are used to study the self-organization kinetics of nanoscale domains upon the deposition of submonolayer carbon coatings on silicon (100) in the microwave plasma of low-pressure ethanol vapor. Model mechanisms of how silicon-carbon domains are formed are suggested. The mechanisms are based on Langmuir’s model of adsorption from the precursor state and modern concepts of modification of the equilibrium structure of the upper atomic layer in crystalline semiconductors under the influence of external action.