Science.gov

Sample records for plasma engineering analysis

  1. Plasma engineering for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Baldwin, D.E.; Barr, W.L.

    1983-03-24

    The two-year Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in the conceptual design of a commercial, electricity-producing fusion reactor based on tandem mirror confinement. The physics basis for the MARS reactor was developed through work in two highly coupled areas of plasma engineering: magnetics and plasma performance.

  2. Magnetic Lens For Plasma Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1992-01-01

    Low-field electromagnet coils placed downstream of plasma engine, polarized oppositely to higher-field but smaller radius coil in nozzle of engine, reduces divergence of plasma jet, thereby increasing efficiency of engine. Concept tested by computer simulation based on simplified mathematical model of plasma, engine, and coils.

  3. An engineering and economic analysis: Inductively coupled plasma mobile treatment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; McLlwain, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    This analysis considers the engineering and economic viability of an rf-plasma, mobile treatment process for remediation of hazardous waste located at remote sites in Alaska. A simple engineering process flowsheet is used to define the elements associated with the process and to identify major pieces of equipment. The proposed flowsheet and equipment are used to estimate capital and operational costs for four separate processing cases. These cases explore various operational situations, including moving equipment to a remote site, transporting wastes to a base site, and varying operational periods. Some cases consider variations in fuel costs known to exist across Alaska. Operational costs, capital equipment costs, and revenues are used to calculate pro-forma income statements. These income statements are used to predict economic viability. Based on the economic viability, the analysis suggests that processing of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is more profitable when performed at remote sites as compared to at a home base. Processing of poly-chloro-biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated oil at a stationary site is more profitable as compared to remote treatment due to the cost of transporting the equipment. Over the range of fuel prices considered, higher fuel costs increase the per unit treatment price by ten percent. Based on the results of this analysis, an rf-plasma based process appears to be economically viable for remote treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, but less viable for treatment of PCB-contaminated oil.

  4. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  5. Analysis of apolipoprotein A5, C3 and plasma triglyceride concentrations in genetically engineered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Afzal, Veena; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-03-11

    To address the relationship between the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed or completely lacked both genes. We report both lines display normal triglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Together, these data support that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

  6. Impulse Plasma In Surface Engineering - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdunek, K.; Nowakowska-Langier, K.; Chodun, R.; Okrasa, S.; Rabinski, M.; Dora, J.; Domanowski, P.; Halarowicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    The article describes the view of the plasma surface engineering, assuming the role of non-thermal energy effects in the synthesis of materials and coatings deposition. In the following study it was underlined that the vapor excitation through the application of an electric field during coatings deposition gives new possibilities for coatings formation. As an example the IPD method was chosen. During the IPD (Impulse Plasma Deposition) the impulse plasma is generated in the coaxial accelerator by strong periodic electrical pulses. The impulse plasma is distributed in the form of energetic plasma pockets. Due to the almost completely ionization of gas, the nucleation of new phases takes place on ions directly in the plasma itself. As a result the coatings of metastable materials with nano-amorphous structure and excellent adhesion to the non-heated intentionally substrates could be deposited. Recently the novel way of impulse plasma generation during the coatings deposition was proposed and developed by our group. An efficient tool for plasma process control, the plasma forming gas injection to the interelectrode space was used. Periodic changing the gas pressure results in increasing both the degree of dispersion and the dynamics of the plasma pulses. The advantage of the new technique in deposition of coatings with exceptionally good properties has been demonstrated in the industrial scale not only in the case of the IPD method but also in the case of very well known magnetron sputtering method.

  7. Inductively coupled plasma source for VASIMR engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, V. A.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sydorenko, D. Y.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2004-11-01

    Various devices for plasma production differ in the way of plasma coupling to the electrical energy source. Power losses in the chain from the AC power line to the power deposited into the electrons are the most important for the overall efficiency of the plasma source while the losses to ionization, radiation and walls are typically very similar and do not depend on a mechanism of the electron interaction with the electromagnetic field. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) discharges with ferromagnetic cores, seems to be the most suitable candidate for a primary plasma source for VASIMR engine. Such commercial ICPs have coupling efficiency up to 98% (99% in laboratory devices). Combined with compact and efficient (90-95%) rf power converters operating at f < 1 MHz, it will allow to achieve high overall efficiency of plasma production and reduce the energy cost of the ion in the first stage plasma source. An important advantage of such sources is the ability to continuously work in a wide dynamic range (two orders of magnitude) of plasma density contrary to e.g. helicon sources where efficient operation is possible only on certain discrete modes (and plasma density) with discontinuous transitions between them.

  8. Plasma Diagnostics Development for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Timothy; Kittrell, Carter; Chan, Anthony; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2000-10-01

    The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine is a next-generation rocket engine under development at the Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. With an exhaust velocity up to 50 times that of chemical rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine, the VASIMR concept promises fast, efficient interplanetary flight. Rice University has participated in VASIMR research since 1996 and at present is developing two new diagnostic probes: a retarding potential analyzer to measure the velocity of ions in the rocket's exhaust, and a moveable optical probe to examine the spectrum of the rocket's helicon plasma source. In support of the probe development, a test facility is under construction at Rice, consisting of a small electric rocket engine firing into a 2-m vacuum chamber. This engine, the MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) thruster, dates from the 1960's and provides a well-characterized source plasma for testing of the probes under development. We present details of the ion energy analyzer and the facility under construction at Rice.

  9. Argonne Plasma Engineering Experiment (APEX) Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.H.; Balka, L.J.; Kulovitz, E.E.; Magill, S.R.; McGhee, D.G.; Moretti, A.; Praeg, W.F.

    1981-03-01

    The Argonne Plasma Engineering Experiment (APEX) Tokamak was designed to provide hot plasmas for reactor-relevant experiments with rf heating (current drive) and plasma wall experiments, principally in-situ low-Z wall coating and maintenance. The device, sized to produce energetic plasmas at minimum cost, is small (R = 51 cm, r = 15 cm) but capable of high currents (100 kA) and long pulse durations (100 ms). A design using an iron central core with no return legs, pure tension tapewound toroidal field coils, digital radial position control, and UHV vacuum technology was used. Diagnostics include monochrometers, x-ray detectors, and a microwave interferometer and radiometer for density and temperature measurements. Stable 100 ms shots were produced with electron temperatures in the range 500 to 1000 eV. Initial results included studies of thermal desorption and recoating of wall materials.

  10. Plasma igniter for internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.; Breshears, R. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An igniter for the air/fuel mixture used in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine is described. A conventional spark is used to initiate the discharge of a large amount of energy stored in a capacitor. A high current discharge of the energy in the capacitor switched on by a spark discharge produces a plasma and a magnetic field. The resultant combined electromagnetic current and magnetic field force accelerates the plasma deep into the combustion chamber thereby providing an improved ignition of the air/fuel mixture in the chamber.

  11. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  12. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  13. Separation, Sizing, and Quantitation of Engineered Nanoparticles in an Organism Model Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Monique E; Hanna, Shannon K; Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Sims, Christopher M; Elliott, Lindsay C C; Lingayat, Akshay; Johnston, Adrian C; Nikoobakht, Babak; Elliott, John T; Holbrook, R David; Scott, Keana C K; Murphy, Karen E; Petersen, Elijah J; Yu, Lee L; Nelson, Bryant C

    2017-01-24

    For environmental studies assessing uptake of orally ingested engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), a key step in ensuring accurate quantification of ingested ENPs is efficient separation of the organism from ENPs that are either nonspecifically adsorbed to the organism and/or suspended in the dispersion following exposure. Here, we measure the uptake of 30 and 60 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, using a sucrose density gradient centrifugation protocol to remove noningested AuNPs. Both conventional inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and single particle (sp)ICP-MS are utilized to measure the total mass and size distribution, respectively, of ingested AuNPs. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) imaging confirmed that traditional nematode washing procedures were ineffective at removing excess suspended and/or adsorbed AuNPs after exposure. Water rinsing procedures had AuNP removal efficiencies ranging from 57 to 97% and 22 to 83%, while the sucrose density gradient procedure had removal efficiencies of 100 and 93 to 98%, respectively, for the 30 and 60 nm AuNP exposure conditions. Quantification of total Au uptake was performed following acidic digestion of nonexposed and Au-exposed nematodes, whereas an alkaline digestion procedure was optimized for the liberation of ingested AuNPs for spICP-MS characterization. Size distributions and particle number concentrations were determined for AuNPs ingested by nematodes with corresponding confirmation of nematode uptake via high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution resin preparation and large-area SEM imaging. Methods for the separation and in vivo quantification of ENPs in multicellular organisms will facilitate robust studies of ENP uptake, biotransformation, and hazard assessment in the environment.

  14. Partial pressure analysis of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1984-11-01

    The application of partial pressure analysis for plasma diagnostic measurements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the techniques of plasma flux analysis and partial pressure analysis for mass spectrometry of plasmas. Emphasis is given to the application of quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS). The interface problems associated with the coupling of a QMS to a plasma device are discussed including: differential-pumping requirements, electromagnetic interferences from the plasma environment, the detection of surface-active species, ion source interactions, and calibration procedures. Example measurements are presented from process monitoring of glow discharge plasmas which are useful for cleaning and conditioning vacuum vessels.

  15. SSC Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Harry; Junell, Justin; Albasini, Colby; O'Rourke, William; Le, Thang; Strain, Ted; Stiglets, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A package for the automation of the Engineering Analysis (EA) process at the Stennis Space Center has been customized. It provides the ability to assign and track analysis tasks electronically, and electronically route a task for approval. It now provides a mechanism to keep these analyses under configuration management. It also allows the analysis to be stored and linked to the engineering data that is needed to perform the analysis (drawings, etc.). PTC s (Parametric Technology Corp o ration) Windchill product was customized to allow the EA to be created, routed, and maintained under configuration management. Using Infoengine Tasks, JSP (JavaServer Pages), Javascript, a user interface was created within the Windchill product that allows users to create EAs. Not only does this interface allow users to create and track EAs, but it plugs directly into the out-ofthe- box ability to associate these analyses with other relevant engineering data such as drawings. Also, using the Windchill workflow tool, the Design and Data Management System (DDMS) team created an electronic routing process based on the manual/informal approval process. The team also added the ability for users to notify and track notifications to individuals about the EA. Prior to the Engineering Analysis creation, there was no electronic way of creating and tracking these analyses. There was also a feature that was added that would allow users to track/log e-mail notifications of the EA.

  16. Plasma Sensor Measurements in Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlis, Eric; Marshall, Curtis; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2014-11-01

    Measurements have been conducted in a pulse detonation and rotating detonation engine using a newly developed plasma sensor. This sensor relies on the novel approach of using an ac-driven, weakly-ionized electrical discharge as the main sensing element. The advantages of this approach include a native high bandwidth of 1 MHz without the need for electronic frequency compensation, a dual-mode capability that provides sensitivity to multiple flow parameters, including velocity, pressure, temperature, and gas-species, and a simple and robust design making it very cost effective. The sensor design is installation-compatible with conventional sensors commonly used in gas-turbine research such as the Kulite dynamic pressure sensor while providing much better longevity. Developmental work was performed in high temperature facilities that are relevant to the propulsion and high-speed research community. This includes tests performed in a J85 augmentor at full afterburner and pulse-detonation engines at the University of Cincinnati (UC) at temperatures approaching 2760°C (5000°F).

  17. Systems engineering and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, B.S.; Fabrycky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction to systems is provided and tools for systems analysis are considered, taking into account system definitions and concepts, approaches for bringing systems into being, models in systems analysis, economic analysis techniques, mathematical modeling and optimization, probability and statistics, queuing theory and analysis, and control concepts and techniques. The system design process is discussed along with the design for operational feasibility, systems engineering management, and system design case studies. Attention is given to conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development, system test and evaluation, design for reliability, design for maintainability, design for supportability, design for economic feasibility, communication system design, finite population system design, energy storage system design, and procurement-inventory system design.

  18. NASA Researcher Adjusts a Travelling Magnetic Wave Plasma Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-02-21

    Raymond Palmer, of the Electromagnetic Propulsion Division’s Plasma Flow Section, adjusts the traveling magnetic wave plasma engine being operated in the Electric Power Conversion at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. During the 1960s Lewis researchers were exploring several different methods of creating electric propulsion systems, including the traveling magnetic wave plasma engine. The device operated similarly to alternating-current motors, except that a gas, not a solid, was used to conduct the electricity. A magnetic wave induced a current as it passed through the plasma. The current and magnetic field pushed the plasma in one direction. Palmer and colleague Robert Jones explored a variety of engine configurations in the Electric Propulsion Research Building. The engine is seen here mounted externally on the facility’s 5-foot diameter and 16-foot long vacuum tank. The four magnetic coils are seen on the left end of the engine. The researchers conducted two-minute test runs with varying configurations and used of both argon and xenon as the propellant. The Electric Propulsion Research Building was built in 1942 as the Engine Propeller Research Building, often called the Prop House. It contained four test cells to study large reciprocating engines with their propellers. After World War II, the facility was modified to study turbojet engines. By the 1960s, the facility was modified again for electric propulsion research and given its current name.

  19. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    over a range of power levels has been used for industrial and materials processing applications ,[1-4] and increasingly applied in biomedical...from already resistant bacteria. To identify the usefulness of the plasma pencil for biomedical applications , we assessed plasma pencil treatment on...Characterization of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet and its Applications for Disinfection and Cancer Treatment . (San Diego, CA: Annual MMVR20

  20. Analysis of plasma nitrided steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  1. Plasma electron analysis: Voyager plasma science experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Plasma Science Experiment (PLS) on the Voyager spacecraft provide data on the plasma ions and electrons in the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. A description of the analysis used to obtain electron parameters (density, temperature, etc.) from the plasma science experiment PLS electron measurements which cover the energy range from 10 eV to 5950 eV is presented. The electron sensor (D cup) and its transmission characteristics are described. A derivation of the fundamental analytical expression of the reduced distribution function F(e) is given. The electron distribution function F(e), used in the moment integrations, can be derived from F(e). Positive ions produce a correction current (ion feedthrough) to the measured electron current, which can be important to the measurements of the suprathermal electron component. In the case of Saturn, this correction current, which can either add to or subtract from the measured electron current, is less than 20% of the measured signal at all times. Comments about the corrections introduced by spacecraft charging to the Saturn encounter data, which can be important in regions of high density and shadow when the spacecraft can become negatively charged are introduced.

  2. Transient Plasma Ignition for Small Internal Combustion Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    engines having large combustion chamber surface area to volume ratios. Piston and cylinder head design, intake manifold flow straighteners, and...Combustion Engines FA9550-10-1-0554 Dr. Martin A. Gundersen Dr. Paul Ronney University of Southern California Department of Contracts & Grants 3720 S...focused on introducing transient plasma ignition (TPI) into a small combustion engine (2 hp Fuji Imvac BF-34EI), seeking to demonstrate improved

  3. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    treatment. We have developed a portable plasma source and tested on a range of bacteria and cancer cells and results were obtained. We have...source is very efficient in decontaminating wide range of infection and contamination causing bacteria . The direct and indirect exposure of the RBP jet...and post plasma treated bacteria . In these tests, the ROS produced by the RBP source was applied to Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Bacillus cereus ATCC

  4. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  5. Lightweight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    quantum numbers of electronic...considering the low rotational level of the OH radicals OH (A-X) and small rotational quantum numbers J. 15, 40-42 The Boltzmann plot of the rotational...2004 – 05. Scientific Consultant, ASI Technology Corporation. (June 2003 - June 2004).  Designed and developed a novel plasma stealth

  6. Numerical analysis of engine instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballah, M.; Dubois, I.

    Following a literature review on numerical analyses of combustion instability, to give the state of the art in the area, the paper describes the ONERA methodology used to analyze the combustion instability in liquid propellant engines. Attention is also given to a model (named Phedre) which describes the unsteady turbulent two-phase reacting flow in a liquid rocket engine combustion chamber. The model formulation includes axial or radial propellant injection, baffles, and acoustic resonators modeling, and makes it possible to treat different engine types. A numerical analysis of a cryogenic engine stability is presented, and the results of the analysis are compared with results of tests of the Viking engine and the gas generator of the Vulcain engine, showing good qualitative agreement and some general trends between experiments and numerical analysis.

  7. Light Weight Portable Plasma Medical Device - Plasma Engineering Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    acting on the objective lens. Great care was taken to position the objective lens together with the plasma chamber precisely in the line of sight...pressure as that of the chamber pressure in order to avoid differential pressures acting on the objective lens. Great care was taken to position the...Mohid, in Experimental micromachining of silicon with Nd-YAG laser, Malaysia , 2011 (Trans Tech Publications), p. 244. 5 P. G. Ashmore, Photochemistry

  8. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  9. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  10. Space Flight Plasma Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method to analyze the plasma data that is reported on board the International Space station (ISS). The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), the role of which is to obtain floating potential and ionosphere plasma measurements for validation of the ISS charging model, assess photo voltaic array variability and interpreting IRI predictions, is composed of four probes: Floating Potential Probe (FPP), Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP) and the Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP). This gives redundant measurements of each parameter. There are also many 'boxes' that the data must pass through before being captured by the ground station, which leads to telemetry noise. Methods of analysis for the various signals from the different sets are reviewed. There is also a brief discussion of LP analysis of Low Earth Orbit plasma simulation source.

  11. Regenerative Engine Analysis Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    learning curve slope of 80%. Inconel 625 material has been selected for the tubular core because of its outstanding corrosion resistance. Recuperator...number with an assumed 80% learning curve slope. The cost of the 100th engine is $140,94Z. 00. Based on a vendor quotation, the cost of the hydromechan...with 80% Learning Curve Slope $108,487. 00 Fuel Control + Starter/Generator 9,508.00 0. 85 Factored Engine Inspection, Assembly, Testing, and

  12. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  13. Regenerative Engine Analysis Program (REAP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    were con- sidered in an effort to identify promising concepts for heli- copter applications. The aero/ thermodynamic characteristics of heat exchangers...AiResearch for small engines. The program, entitled WATE (Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines) accepts as inputs the geometric, thermodynamic ...Military Airplane Development; NASA-Lewis Research Center CR159431, Jan- uary 1979. 27 INPUT: - CONFIGURATION DATA - THERMODYNAMIC DATA - MECHANICAL AND

  14. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, M.R.

    1989-08-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation releases more energy per unit mass than any other method of energy production, making it an attractive energy source for spacecraft propulsion. In the magnetically confined plasma engine, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas. The resulting charged annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. The calculated energy transfer efficiencies for a low number density (10(14)/cu cm) hydrogen propellant are insufficient to warrant operating the engine in this mode. Efficiencies are improved using moderate propellant number densities (10(16)/cu cm), but the energy transferred to the plasma in a realistic magnetic mirror system is generally limited to less than 2 percent of the initial proton-antiproton annihilation energy. The energy transfer efficiencies are highest for high number density (10(18)/cu cm) propellants, but plasma temperatures are reduced by excessive radiation losses. Low to moderate thrust over a wide range of specific impulse can be generated with moderate propellant number densities, while higher thrust but lower specific impulse may be generated using high propellant number densities. Significant mass will be required to shield the superconducting magnet coils from the high energy gamma radiation emitted by neutral pion decay. The mass of such a radiation shield may dominate the total engine mass, and could severely diminish the performance of antiproton powered engines which utilize magnetic confinement. The problem is compounded in the antiproton powered plasma engine, where lower energy plasma bremsstrahlung radiation may cause shield surface ablation and degradation.

  15. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation releases more energy per unit mass than any other method of energy production, making it an attractive energy source for spacecraft propulsion. In the magnetically confined plasma engine, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas. The resulting charged annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. The calculated energy transfer efficiencies for a low number density (10(14)/cu cm) hydrogen propellant are insufficient to warrant operating the engine in this mode. Efficiencies are improved using moderate propellant number densities (10(16)/cu cm), but the energy transferred to the plasma in a realistic magnetic mirror system is generally limited to less than 2 percent of the initial proton-antiproton annihilation energy. The energy transfer efficiencies are highest for high number density (10(18)/cu cm) propellants, but plasma temperatures are reduced by excessive radiation losses. Low to moderate thrust over a wide range of specific impulse can be generated with moderate propellant number densities, while higher thrust but lower specific impulse may be generated using high propellant number densities. Significant mass will be required to shield the superconducting magnet coils from the high energy gamma radiation emitted by neutral pion decay. The mass of such a radiation shield may dominate the total engine mass, and could severely diminish the performance of antiproton powered engines which utilize magnetic confinement. The problem is compounded in the antiproton powered plasma engine, where lower energy plasma bremsstrahlung radiation may cause shield surface ablation and degradation.

  16. Novel application of plasma treatment for pharmaceutical and biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, Masayuki; Sasai, Yasushi; Kondo, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Yukinori

    2009-06-01

    The nature of plasma-induced surface radicals formed on a variety of organic polymers has been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR), making it possible to provide a sound basis for future experimental design of polymer surface processing using plasma treatment. On the basis of the findings from such studies, several novel bio-applications in the field of drug- and biomedical- engineering have been developed. Applications for drug engineering include the preparation of reservoir-type drug delivery system (DDS) of sustained- and delayed-release, and floating drug delivery system (FDDS) possessing gastric retention capabilities, followed by preparation of "Patient-Tailored DDS". Furthermore, the preparation of composite powders applicable to matrix-type DDS was developed by making a mechanical application to the surface radical-containing polymer powders with drug powders. In applications for biomedical engineering, the novel method to introduce the durable surface hydrophilicity and lubricity on hydrophobic biomedical polymers was developed by plasma-assisted immobilization of carboxyl group-containing polymer on the polymer substrate. The surfaces thus prepared were further used for the covalent immobilization of oligo-nucleotides (DNA) onto the polymer surfaces applicable to constructing DNA diagnosis system, and also plasma-assisted preparation of functionalized chemo-embolic agent of vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate copolymer (PVA- PAANa).

  17. Plasma Propulsion Testing Capabilities at Arnold Engineering Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Dawbarn, Albert; Moeller, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of experiments aimed at quantifying the plasma propulsion testing capabilities of a 12-ft diameter vacuum facility (12V) at USAF-Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). Vacuum is maintained in the 12V facility by cryogenic panels lining the interior of the chamber. The pumping capability of these panels was shown to be great enough to support plasma thrusters operating at input electrical power >20 kW. In addition, a series of plasma diagnostics inside the chamber allowed for measurement of plasma parameters at different spatial locations, providing information regarding the chamber's effect on the global plasma thruster flowfield. The plasma source used in this experiment was Hall thruster manufactured by Busek Co. The thruster was operated at up to 20 kW steady-state power in both a lower current and higher current mode. The vacuum level in the chamber never rose above 9 x 10(exp -6) torr during the course of testing. Langmuir probes, ion flux probes, and Faraday cups were used to quantify the plasma parameters in the chamber. We present the results of these measurements and estimates of pumping speed based on the background pressure level and thruster propellant mass flow rate.

  18. Engine Structural Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKnight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Schrantz, S.; Hartle, M. S.; Bechtel, G. S.; Lewis, K.; Ridgway, M.; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the technical effort to develop: (1) geometry recipes for nozzles, inlets, disks, frames, shafts, and ducts in finite element form, (2) component design tools for nozzles, inlets, disks, frames, shafts, and ducts which utilize the recipes and (3) an integrated design tool which combines the simulations of the nozzles, inlets, disks, frames, shafts, and ducts with the previously developed combustor, turbine blade, and turbine vane models for a total engine representation. These developments will be accomplished in cooperation and in conjunction with comparable efforts of NASA Glenn Research Center.

  19. Characterization of the human plasma phosphoproteome using linear ion trap mass spectrometry and multiple search engines.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Montserrat; Gay, Marina; Ovelleiro, David; Casas, Vanessa; Gelpí, Emilio; Abian, Joaquin

    2010-02-05

    Major plasma protein families play different roles in blood physiology and hemostasis and in immunodefense. Other proteins in plasma can be involved in signaling as chemical messengers or constitute biological markers of the status of distant tissues. In this respect, the plasma phosphoproteome holds potentially relevant information on the mechanisms modulating these processes through the regulation of protein activity. In this work we describe for the first time a collection of phosphopeptides identified in human plasma using immunoaffinity separation of the seven major serum protein families from other plasma proteins, SCX fractionation, and TiO(2) purification prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. One-hundred and twenty-seven phosphosites in 138 phosphopeptides mapping 70 phosphoproteins were identified with FDR < 1%. A high-confidence collection of phosphosites was obtained using a combined search with the OMSSA, SEQUEST, and Phenyx search engines.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis in Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M. (Compiler); Haftka, Raphael T. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The symposium proceedings presented focused primarily on sensitivity analysis of structural response. However, the first session, entitled, General and Multidisciplinary Sensitivity, focused on areas such as physics, chemistry, controls, and aerodynamics. The other four sessions were concerned with the sensitivity of structural systems modeled by finite elements. Session 2 dealt with Static Sensitivity Analysis and Applications; Session 3 with Eigenproblem Sensitivity Methods; Session 4 with Transient Sensitivity Analysis; and Session 5 with Shape Sensitivity Analysis.

  1. Regenerative Engine Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Engine. 49 UE II 04 fAu Cu C4 60 50. made to flow inside a bundle of small diameter tubes, while the .4 low-pressure gas flows over the tubes. In this...It Q II ci = -4 I >. - c x utp LflCU.1 CD 0 0 𔃺 0 0 -- - -. Ix 4.4 w (D ~ rs u I- UJ LU V) Uo 1100 CD CC) CDi C4 aV ’J S3HDNI - 00 S3113NI - HISN31...3HI03 HV~fNNV J3flJ IHOIVI11S 54 Lin Lt C) LOol Vp m i LOr C 4 4 o o o C! In - c4 I 0 SIj CD C) 0 ) 0 N c l D oD L) 0D LO A .4 1SUNVSlOHJ. S39fl1 30

  2. Application of a Plasma Powder Welding to engine valves

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Y.; Nagata, M.

    1985-01-01

    In hardfacing of automobile engine valves made of heat resisting steel such as 21-4N, conventional oxy-acetylene gase welding has been currently conducted manually by well trained operators because of using cast Stellite rods as the filler. In accordance with the strong demands of automatic welding, the authors newly developed an automatically controlled Plasma Powder Welding (PPW) system. This system is characterized by the application of a high thermal density plasma arc as heat source and by using power filler which melts more easily than bar cast rods. Moreover, this PPW system has been applied to the automotive engine valve production line and resulted in the great contribution to manpower saving.

  3. Plasma Assisted Combustion: Fundamental Studies and Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefkowitz, Joseph K.

    Successful and efficient ignition in short residence time environments or ultra-lean mixtures is a key technological challenge for the evolution of advanced combustion devices in terms of both performance and efficiency. To meet this challenge, interest in plasma assisted combustion (PAC) has expanded over the past 20 years. However, understanding of the underlying physical processes of ignition by plasma discharge remains elementary. In order to shed light on the key processes involved, two main thrusts of research were undertaken in this dissertation. First, demonstration of the applicability of plasma discharges in engines and engine-like environments was carried out using a microwave discharge and a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge in an internal combustion engine and a pulsed detonation engine, respectively. Major conclusions include the extension of lean ignition limits for both engines, significant reduction of ignition time for mixtures with large minimum ignition energy, and the discovery of the inter-pulse coupling effect of nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges at high frequency. In order to understand the kinetic processes that led to these improvements, the second thrust of research directly explored the chemical kinetic processes of plasma discharges with hydrocarbon fuels. For this purpose, a low pressure flow reactor with a NRP dielectric barrier discharge cell was assembled. The discharge cell was fitted with a Herriott type multipass mirror arrangement, which allowed quantitative laser absorption spectroscopy to be performed in situ during the plasma discharge. Experiments on methane and ethylene mixtures with oxygen, argon, and helium revealed the importance of low temperature oxidation pathways in PAC. In particular, oxygen addition reactions were shown to be of primary importance in the oxidation of these small hydrocarbons in the temperature range of 300-600 K. Kinetic modeling tools, including both a coupled plasma and

  4. Experimentally Determined Plasma Parameters in a 30 cm Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Goebel, Dan; Fitzgerald, Dennis; Owens, Al; Tynan, George; Dorner, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Single planar Langmuir probes and fiber optic probes are used to concurrently measure the plasma properties and neutral density variation in a 30cm diameter ion engine discharge chamber, from the immediate vicinity of the keeper to the near grid plasma region. The fiber optic probe consists of a collimated optical fiber recessed into a double bore ceramic tube fitted with a stainless steel light-limiting window. The optical fiber probe is used to measure the emission intensity of excited neutral xenon for a small volume of plasma, at various radial and axial locations. The single Langmuir probes, are used to generate current-voltage characteristics at a total of 140 spatial locations inside the discharge chamber. Assuming a maxwellian distribution for the electron population, the Langmuir probe traces provide spatially resolved measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and plasma density. Data reduction for the NSTAR TH8 and TH15 throttle points indicates an electron temperature range of 1 to 7.9 eV and an electron density range of 4e10 to le13 cm(sup -3), throughout the discharge chamber, consistent with the results in the literature. Plasma potential estimates, computed from the first derivative of the probe characteristic, indicate potential from 0.5V to 11V above the discharge voltage along the thruster centerline. These values are believed to be excessively high due to the sampling of the primary electron population along the thruster centerline. Relative neutral density profiles are also obtained with a fiber optic probe sampling photon flux from the 823.1 nm excited to ground state transition. Plasma parameter measurements and neutral density profiles will be presented as a function of probe location and engine discharge conditions. A discussion of the measured electron energy distribution function will also be presented, with regards to variation from pure maxwellian. It has been found that there is a distinct primary population found along

  5. Experimentally Determined Plasma Parameters in a 30 cm Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Goebel, Dan; Fitzgerald, Dennis; Owens, Al; Tynan, George; Dorner, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Single planar Langmuir probes and fiber optic probes are used to concurrently measure the plasma properties and neutral density variation in a 30cm diameter ion engine discharge chamber, from the immediate vicinity of the keeper to the near grid plasma region. The fiber optic probe consists of a collimated optical fiber recessed into a double bore ceramic tube fitted with a stainless steel light-limiting window. The optical fiber probe is used to measure the emission intensity of excited neutral xenon for a small volume of plasma, at various radial and axial locations. The single Langmuir probes, are used to generate current-voltage characteristics at a total of 140 spatial locations inside the discharge chamber. Assuming a maxwellian distribution for the electron population, the Langmuir probe traces provide spatially resolved measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and plasma density. Data reduction for the NSTAR TH8 and TH15 throttle points indicates an electron temperature range of 1 to 7.9 eV and an electron density range of 4e10 to le13 cm(sup -3), throughout the discharge chamber, consistent with the results in the literature. Plasma potential estimates, computed from the first derivative of the probe characteristic, indicate potential from 0.5V to 11V above the discharge voltage along the thruster centerline. These values are believed to be excessively high due to the sampling of the primary electron population along the thruster centerline. Relative neutral density profiles are also obtained with a fiber optic probe sampling photon flux from the 823.1 nm excited to ground state transition. Plasma parameter measurements and neutral density profiles will be presented as a function of probe location and engine discharge conditions. A discussion of the measured electron energy distribution function will also be presented, with regards to variation from pure maxwellian. It has been found that there is a distinct primary population found along

  6. A Study of Test Techniques for Evaluating Ablative Plasma Engines in Vacuum Test Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    windows as shown. A small light source was placed at the plasma engine face and the spectrometer was adjusted until the image of the source was...engine pulses. Since the flat face of the calorimeter is completely immersed in the plasma , then if the energy transfer is independent of the...that the plasma impinged on the’ outer surface as the apex faced the engine or on the inner surface as the open base faced the engine. Three

  7. Plasma-modified and polyethylene glycol-grafted polymers for potential tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Svorcík, V; Makajová, Z; Kasálková-Slepicková, N; Kolská, Z; Bacáková, L

    2012-08-01

    Modified and grafted polymers may serve as building blocks for creating artificial bioinspired nanostructured surfaces for tissue engineering. Polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) were modified by Ar plasma and the surface of the plasma activated polymers was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The changes in the surface wettability (contact angle) of the modified polymers were examined by goniometry. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the surface roughness and morphology and electrokinetical analysis (Zeta potential) characterized surface chemistry of the modified polymers. Plasma treatment and subsequent PEG grafting lead to dramatic changes in the polymer surface morphology, roughness and wettability. The plasma treated and PEG grafted polymers were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. Biological tests, performed in vitro, show increased adhesion and proliferation of cells on modified polymers. Grafting with PEG increases cell proliferation, especially on PS. The cell proliferation was shown to be an increasing function of PEG molecular weight.

  8. Plasma Igniter for Reliable Ignition of Combustion in Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Adam; Eskridge, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A plasma igniter has been developed for initiating combustion in liquid-propellant rocket engines. The device propels a hot, dense plasma jet, consisting of elemental fluorine and fluorine compounds, into the combustion chamber to ignite the cold propellant mixture. The igniter consists of two coaxial, cylindrical electrodes with a cylindrical bar of solid Teflon plastic in the region between them. The outer electrode is a metal (stainless steel) tube; the inner electrode is a metal pin (mild steel, stainless steel, tungsten, or thoriated-tungsten). The Teflon bar fits snugly between the two electrodes and provides electrical insulation between them. The Teflon bar may have either a flat surface, or a concave, conical surface at the open, down-stream end of the igniter (the igniter face). The igniter would be mounted on the combustion chamber of the rocket engine, either on the injector-plate at the upstream side of the engine, or on the sidewalls of the chamber. It also might sit behind a valve that would be opened just prior to ignition, and closed just after, in order to prevent the Teflon from melting due to heating from the combustion chamber.

  9. Analysis of ISS Plasma Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon; Alred, John; Kramer, Leonard; Mikatarian, Ron; Minow, Joe; Koontz, Steve

    2006-01-01

    To date, the International Space Station (ISS) has been one of the largest objects flown in lower earth orbit (LEO). The ISS utilizes high voltage solar arrays (160V) that are negatively grounded leading to pressurized elements that can float negatively with respect to the plasma. Because laboratory measurements indicate a dielectric breakdown potential difference of 80V, arcing could occur on the ISS structure. To overcome the possibility of arcing and clamp the potential of the structure, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) were designed, built, and flown. Also a limited amount of measurements of the floating potential for the present ISS configuration were made by a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), indicating a minimum potential of 24 Volts at the measurement location. A predictive tool, the ISS Plasma Interaction Model (PIM) has been developed accounting for the solar array electron collection, solar array mast wire and effective conductive area on the structure. The model has been used for predictions of the present ISS configuration. The conductive area has been inferred based on available floating potential measurements. Analysis of FPP and PCU data indicated distribution of the conductive area along the Russian segment of the ISS structure. A significant input to PIM is the plasma environment. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001) was initially used to obtain plasma temperature and density values. However, IRI provides mean parameters, leading to difficulties in interpretation of on-orbit data, especially at eclipse exit where maximum charging can occur. This limits our predicative capability. Satellite and Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) data of plasma parameters have also been collected. Approximately 130,000 electron temperature (Te) and density (Ne) pairs for typical ISS eclipse exit conditions have been extracted from the reduced Langmuir probe data flown aboard the NASA DE-2 satellite. Additionally, another 18,000 Te and Ne pairs of ISR data

  10. Proteomic analysis of engineered cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xinzhu; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2016-01-01

    Summary Tissue engineering holds promise for the treatment of damaged and diseased tissues, especially for those tissues that do not undergo repair and regeneration readily in situ. Many techniques are available for cell and tissue culturing and differentiation of chondrocytes using a variety of cell types, differentiation methods, and scaffolds. In each case, it is critical to demonstrate the cellular phenotype and tissue composition, with particular attention to the extracellular matrix molecules that play a structural role and that contribute to the mechanical properties of the resulting tissue construct. Mass spectrometry provides an ideal analytical method with which to characterize the full spectrum of proteins produced by tissue engineered cartilage. Using normal cartilage tissue as a standard, tissue engineered cartilage can be optimized according to the entire proteome. Proteomic analysis is a complementary approach to biochemical, immunohistochemical, and mechanical testing of cartilage constructs. Proteomics is applicable as an analysis approach to most cartilage constructs generated from a variety of cellular sources including primary chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic stem cells. Additionally, proteomics can be used to optimize novel scaffolds and bioreactor applications, yielding cartilage tissue with the proteomic profile of natural cartilage. PMID:26445845

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Engineered Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds promise for the treatment of damaged and diseased tissues, especially for those tissues that do not undergo repair and regeneration readily in situ. Many techniques are available for cell and tissue culturing and differentiation of chondrocytes using a variety of cell types, differentiation methods, and scaffolds. In each case, it is critical to demonstrate the cellular phenotype and tissue composition, with particular attention to the extracellular matrix molecules that play a structural role and that contribute to the mechanical properties of the resulting tissue construct. Mass spectrometry provides an ideal analytical method with which to characterize the full spectrum of proteins produced by tissue-engineered cartilage. Using normal cartilage tissue as a standard, tissue-engineered cartilage can be optimized according to the entire proteome. Proteomic analysis is a complementary approach to biochemical, immunohistochemical, and mechanical testing of cartilage constructs. Proteomics is applicable as an analysis approach to most cartilage constructs generated from a variety of cellular sources including primary chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, adipose tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic stem cells. Additionally, proteomics can be used to optimize novel scaffolds and bioreactor applications, yielding cartilage tissue with the proteomic profile of natural cartilage.

  12. Analysis of pedestal plasma transport

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J. D.; Groebner, R.; Osborne, T.H.; Canik, John; Owen, Larry W; Pankin, A. Y.; Rafiq, T.; Rognlien, T. D.; Stacey, W. M.

    2010-01-01

    diffusive outward radial density flux. The inward ion pinch velocity and density diffusion coefficient are determined by a new interpretive analysis technique that uses information from the force balance (momentum conservation) equations; the paleoclassical transport model provides a plausible explanation of these new results. Finally, the measurements and additional modelling needed to facilitate better pedestal plasma transport modelling are discussed.

  13. Particle based plasma simulation for an ion engine discharge chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    Design of the next generation of ion engines can benefit from detailed computer simulations of the plasma in the discharge chamber. In this work a complete particle based approach has been taken to model the discharge chamber plasma. This is the first time that simplifying continuum assumptions on the particle motion have not been made in a discharge chamber model. Because of the long mean free paths of the particles in the discharge chamber continuum models are questionable. The PIC-MCC model developed in this work tracks following particles: neutrals, singly charged ions, doubly charged ions, secondary electrons, and primary electrons. The trajectories of these particles are determined using the Newton-Lorentz's equation of motion including the effects of magnetic and electric fields. Particle collisions are determined using an MCC statistical technique. A large number of collision processes and particle wall interactions are included in the model. The magnetic fields produced by the permanent magnets are determined using Maxwell's equations. The electric fields are determined using an approximate input electric field coupled with a dynamic determination of the electric fields caused by the charged particles. In this work inclusion of the dynamic electric field calculation is made possible by using an inflated plasma permittivity value in the Poisson solver. This allows dynamic electric field calculation with minimal computational requirements in terms of both computer memory and run time. In addition, a number of other numerical procedures such as parallel processing have been implemented to shorten the computational time. The primary results are those modeling the discharge chamber of NASA's NSTAR ion engine at its full operating power. Convergence of numerical results such as total number of particles inside the discharge chamber, average energy of the plasma particles, discharge current, beam current and beam efficiency are obtained. Steady state results for

  14. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of the matter-antimatter annihilation, with its specific energy being over 250 times the specific energy released in nuclear fusion, is considered as an energy source for spacecraft propulsion. A concept of a magnetically confined pulsed plasma engine is described. In this concept, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas; the resulting charge annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. Numerical simulations were developed to calculate the annihilation rate of antiprotons in hydrogen and to follow the resulting ion, muon, and electron/positron number density evolutions.

  15. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of the matter-antimatter annihilation, with its specific energy being over 250 times the specific energy released in nuclear fusion, is considered as an energy source for spacecraft propulsion. A concept of a magnetically confined pulsed plasma engine is described. In this concept, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas; the resulting charge annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. Numerical simulations were developed to calculate the annihilation rate of antiprotons in hydrogen and to follow the resulting ion, muon, and electron/positron number density evolutions. 22 refs.

  16. Plasma-assisted interface engineering of boron nitride nanostructure films.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-10-28

    Today many aspects of science and technology are progressing into the nanoscale realm where surfaces and interfaces are intrinsically important in determining properties and performances of materials and devices. One familiar phenomenon in which interfacial interactions play a major role is the wetting of solids. In this work we use a facile one-step plasma method to control the wettability of boron nitride (BN) nanostructure films via covalent chemical functionalization, while their surface morphology remains intact. By tailoring the concentration of grafted hydroxyl groups, superhydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic patterns are created on the initially superhydrophobic BN nanosheet and nanotube films. Moreover, by introducing a gradient of the functional groups, directional liquid spreading toward increasing [OH] content is achieved on the films. The resulting insights are meant to illustrate great potentials of this method to tailor wettability of ceramic films, control liquid flow patterns for engineering applications such as microfluidics and biosensing, and improve the interfacial contact and adhesion in nanocomposite materials.

  17. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of the matter-antimatter annihilation, with its specific energy being over 250 times the specific energy released in nuclear fusion, is considered as an energy source for spacecraft propulsion. A concept of a magnetically confined pulsed plasma engine is described. In this concept, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas; the resulting charge annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. Numerical simulations were developed to calculate the annihilation rate of antiprotons in hydrogen and to follow the resulting ion, muon, and electron/positron number density evolutions.

  18. Analysis of nuclear induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic model is developed for a plasma generated by fission fragments, and the results are employed to study He plasma generated in a tube coated with fissionable material. Because both the heavy particles and electrons play important roles in creating the plasma, their effects are considered simultaneously. The calculations are carried out for a range of neutron fluxes and pressures. In general, the predictions of the theory are in good agreement with available intensity measurements. Moreover, the theory predicts the experimentally measured inversions. However, the calculated gain coefficients are such that lasing is not expected to take place in a helium plasma generated by fission fragments.

  19. An overview of the VASIMR engine: High power space propulsion with RF plasma generation and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, F. R. Chang

    2001-10-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is a high power, radio frequency-driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of exhaust modulation at constant power. While the plasma is produced by a helicon discharge, the bulk of the energy is added in a separate downstream stage by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). Axial momentum is obtained by the adiabatic expansion of the plasma in a magnetic nozzle. Exhaust variation in the VASIMR is primarily achieved by the selective partitioning of the RF power to the helicon and ICRH systems, with the proper adjustment of the propellant flow. However, other complementary techniques are also being studied. Operational and performance considerations favor the light gases. The physics and engineering of this device have been under study since the late 1970s. A NASA-led, research effort, involving several terms in the United States, continues to explore the scientific and technological foundations of this concept. The research involves theory, experiment, engineering design, mission analysis, and technology development. Experimentally, high density, stable plasma discharges have been generated in Helium, Hydrogen and Deuterium, as well as mixtures of these gases. Key issues involve the optimization of the helicon discharge for high-density operation and the efficient coupling of ICRH to the plasma, prior to acceleration by the magnetic nozzle. Theoretically, the dynamics of the magnetized plasma are being studied from kinetic and fluid perspectives. Plasma acceleration by the magnetic nozzle and subsequent detachment has been demonstrated in numerical simulations. These results are presently undergoing experimental verification. A brisk technology development effort for space-qualified, compact, solid-state RF equipment, and high temperature superconducting magnets is under way in support of this project. A conceptual point design for an early space demonstrator on the International Space Station has been defined

  20. Analysis of plasma-nitrided steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  1. Homogenous demineralized dentin matrix and platelet-rich plasma for bone tissue engineering in cranioplasty of diabetic rabbits: biochemical, radiographic, and histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M F; Valva, V N; Vieira, E M M; Giannasi, L C; Salgado, M A C; Vilela-Goulart, M G

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of homogenous demineralized dentin matrix (HDDM) slices and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in surgical defects created in the parietal bones of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, treated with a guided bone regeneration technique. Biochemical, radiographic, and histological analyses were performed. Sixty adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into five groups of 12: normoglycaemic (control, C), diabetic (D), diabetic with a PTFE membrane (DM), diabetic with a PTFE membrane and HDDM slices (DM-HDDM), and diabetic with PTFE membrane and PRP (DM-PRP). The quantity and quality of bone mass was greatest in the DM-HDDM group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days, 71.70 ± 16.50 and 50.80 ± 1.52; 30 days, 62.73 ± 16.51 and 54.20 ± 1.23; 60 days, 63.03 ± 11.04 and 59.91 ± 3.32; 90 days, 103.60 ± 24.86 and 78.99 ± 1.34), followed by the DM-PRP group (respective radiographic and histological analyses: at 15 days 23.00 ± 2.74 and 20.66 ± 7.45; 30 days 31.92 ± 6.06 and 25.31 ± 5.59; 60 days 25.29 ± 16.30 and 46.73 ± 2.07; 90 days 38.10 ± 14.04 and 53.38 ± 9.20). PRP greatly enhanced vascularization during the bone repair process. Abnormal calcium metabolism was statistically significant in the DM-PRP group (P<0.001) for all four time intervals studied, especially when compared to the DM-HDDM group. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the DM-HDDM group (P<0.001) in comparison to the C, D, and DM-PRP groups, confirming the findings of intense osteoblastic activity and increased bone mineralization. Thus, HDDM promoted superior bone architectural microstructure in bone defects in diabetic rabbits due to its effective osteoinductive and osteoconductive activity, whereas PRP stimulated angiogenesis and red bone marrow formation.

  2. LHD Plasma Modeling and Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    The transport/heating modeling and equilibrium/stability analysis have been carried out for LHD (Large Helical Device) plasmas. A new simulation code TOTAL (TOroidal Transport Analysis Linkage) is developed, which consists of the 3-dimensional equilibrium code VMEC including bootstrap current and 1-dimensional transport code HTRANS including helical-ripple transport determined as well as anomalous transport. This code clarified the favorable effect of bootstrap current on the neoclassical confinement in LHD. The 3-dimensional stability analysis using CAS3D code has been done and clarified the ballooning mode structure peculiar to the LHD high-beta plasmas. The 5-dimensional simulation code has been developed to analyze the NBI or ECH heating power depositions in LHD plasmas, and the particle orbit effects of high-energy particles are clarified. The plasma rotation analysis is also carried out related to the possibility of the electric-field transition and the plasma confinement improvement in LHD.

  3. Proteomic analysis of integral plasma membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Wei; Kho, Yoonjung; Zhao, Yingming

    2004-04-01

    Efficient methods for profiling proteins integral to the plasma membrane are highly desirable for the identification of overexpressed proteins in disease cells. Such methods will aid in both understanding basic biological processes and discovering protein targets for the design of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Avoiding contamination by subcellular organelles and cytosolic proteins is crucial to the successful proteomic analysis of integral plasma membrane proteins. Here we report a biotin-directed affinity purification (BDAP) method for the preparation of integral plasma membrane proteins, which involves (1) biotinylation of cell surface membrane proteins in viable cells, (2) affinity enrichment using streptavidin beads, and (3) depletion of plasma membrane-associated cytosolic proteins by harsh washes with high-salt and high-pH buffers. The integral plasma membrane proteins are then extracted and subjected to SDS-PAGE separation and HPLC/MS/MS for protein identification. We used the BDAP method to prepare integral plasma membrane proteins from a human lung cancer cell line. Western blotting analysis showed that the preparation was almost completely devoid of actin, a major cytosolic protein. Nano-HPLC/MS/MS analysis of only 30 microg of protein extracted from the affinity-enriched integral plasma membrane preparation led to the identification of 898 unique proteins, of which 781 were annotated with regard to their plasma membrane localization. Among the annotated proteins, at least 526 (67.3%) were integral plasma membrane proteins. Notable among them were 62 prenylated proteins and 45 Ras family proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive proteomic analysis of integral plasma membrane proteins in mammalian cells to date. Given the importance of integral membrane proteins for drug design, the described approach will expedite the characterization of plasma membrane subproteomes and the discovery of plasma membrane protein drug targets.

  4. Trends in surface engineering of biomaterials: atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of coatings for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Ponte, G.; Sardella, E.; Fanelli, F.; D'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.

    2011-11-01

    Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.

  5. Analysis of the plasma sweeper

    SciTech Connect

    Glanz, J.; Motley, R.W.

    1982-09-01

    The coupling of lower hybrid waves to a plasma can be modified by placing potentials on electrodes near the mouth of a phased array. Positive potentials on the electrodes create an electric field that sweeps the plasma away at a velocity c anti E x anti B/B/sup 2/. In this paper we derive the electric field created by the applied potential from the nondivergent character of the current flow and the ion momentum equation, in which ion-neutral charge-exchange collisions are retained, and we compare the predictions with experimental data.

  6. Micro-Plasma Discharges From Charge Rollers in Print Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh; Leoni, Napoleon; Birecki, Henryk; Gila, Omer; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    Conductive charge rollers (CR) are components in print engines of, for example, laser printers for charging of photoconductor (PC) surfaces. The charging results from an atmospheric plasma produced between the biased CR and the PC. During charging, the PC behaves like a perfect insulator with a conductivity < 10-15/φ.cm. The charging process is essentially that of a dielectric-barrier-discharge. If operated with a dc or quasi-dc voltage, the discharge is terminated by surface charges on the PC. The charging process is continuous as the CR and PC surfaces move at speeds of tens to hundreds of cm-s-1. The discharge is then reignited as the voltage drop between the CR and incoming uncharged surface of the PC rebounds. In this investigation, multi-dimensional computer modeling of the CR to PC charging process has been conducted. The computer model, nonPDPSIM, solves transport equations for charged and neutral species, Poisson's equation, and the electron energy conservation equation for electron temperature. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to track sheath accelerated secondary electrons and the energy of ions incident onto surfaces. Radiation transport is included. We found that the applied voltage waveform and material properties of CR are important to operation. The uniformity of surface charges on the PC is sensitive to the material properties and speed of the moving surface. Parametric results for uniformity of charging of the PC will be discussed.

  7. Security Engineering Risk Analysis (SERA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    cert.org ©2014 Software Engineering Institute Software Faults : Introduction, Discovery, and Cost Faults account for 30–50% percent of total software...project costs. • Most faults are introduced before coding (~70%). • Most faults are discovered at system integration or later (~80%). Modeling...requirements engineering Software Development Lifecycle 70% 3.5% 16% 50.5% 9% 20x 300–1000x20.5% 10% Requirements Engineering Where Faults are

  8. Launch Deployment Assembly Human Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the human engineering analysis performed by the Systems Branch in support of the 6A cargo element design. The human engineering analysis is limited to the extra vehicular activities (EVA) which are involved in removal of various cargo items from the LDA and specific activities concerning deployment of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS).

  9. Analysis of Next-Step Burning Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, S.; Kessel, C.; Meade, D.; Rutherford, P.; Pletzer, A.; Neumeyer, C.

    2001-10-01

    We present comparison studies of candidate next-step burning plasma experiments. A new systems-level code, BPSC, has been developed to find optimal designs for a particular design concept subject to a given set of engineering and physics constraints. We have applied this to liquid Nitrogen cooled compact devices of either the ST concept, where the poloidal field (PF) coils link the toroidal field (TF) coil, or the high-field tokamak concept, where the PF and TF coils are unlinked. For the latter class, we show that the FIRE* design is near optimal for an inductively driven burning plasma experiment with Q = 10 and pulse length exceeding two current redistribution times. We also present MHD and TSC transport analysis of the FIRE* design and compare this with other proposed burning plasma experiments. It is further shown that LHCD can reduce the consequences of neoclassical tearing modes in FIRE-class devices through reduction of delta-prime.

  10. The CPS Plasma Award at the Intel Science and Engineering Fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Lee

    2012-10-01

    For the past eight years, the Coalition for Plasma Science (CPS) has presented an award for a plasma project at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). We reported on the first five years of this award at the 2009 DPP Symposium. Pulsed neutron-producing experiments are a recurring topic, with the efforts now turning to applications. The most recent award at the Pittsburgh ISEF this past May was given for analysis of data from Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The effort had the goal of understanding the fluid properties of the quark-gluon plasma. All of the CPS award-winning projects so far have been based on experiments, with four awards going to women students and four to men. In 2009 we noted that the number and quality of projects was improving. Since then, as we we predicted (hoped for), that trend has continued. The CPS looks forward to continuing its work with students who are excited about the possibilities of plasma. You too can share this excitement by judging at the 2013 fair in Phoenix on May 12-17. Information may be obtained by emailing cps@plasmacoalition.org.

  11. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  12. Economic analysis of transmission line engineering based on industrial engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    The modern industrial engineering is applied to the technical analysis and cost analysis of power transmission and transformation engineering. It can effectively reduce the cost of investment. First, the power transmission project is economically analyzed. Based on the feasibility study of power transmission and transformation project investment, the proposal on the company system cost management is put forward through the economic analysis of the effect of the system. The cost management system is optimized. Then, through the cost analysis of power transmission and transformation project, the new situation caused by the cost of construction is found. It is of guiding significance to further improve the cost management of power transmission and transformation project. Finally, according to the present situation of current power transmission project cost management, concrete measures to reduce the cost of power transmission project are given from the two aspects of system optimization and technology optimization.

  13. Analysis of engineered nanomaterials in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Robert Bruce

    With increasing incorporation of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) into consumer products, there is concern that these materials will be released to the environment with unknown ecological effects. Methods for detection and characterization of these materials at environmentally relevant concentrations are crucial to understanding this potential risk. A relatively new method, single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS), was applied to analysis of metal oxide NPs such as ZnO, CeO2, and TiO2, as well as silver nanowires and carbon nanotubes. A lack of nanoparticulate "pulses" in spICPMS analysis of nano-ZnO led to a study on ZnO NP solubility in a variety of matrices. Dissolution of nano-ZnO was observed in nanopure water (7.18 - 7.40 mg/L dissolved Zn, as measured by filtration) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI-1640) (~5 mg/L), but much more dissolution was observed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), where the dissolved Zn concentration exceeded 34 mg/L. These results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influence on ZnO NP dissolution and can result in limits on zinc solubility due to precipitation of less soluble solid phases. Detection and sizing of metal-containing NPs was achieved at concentrations predicted for environmental samples (part-per trillion levels) using spICPMS. Sizing of silver nanowires, titanium dioxide and cerium oxide NPs was done by correlating ICP-MS response (pulses) from NPs entering the plasma to mass of metal in dissolved standards. The ratio of NP pulse detections to the total number of readings during analysis was optimized at 2.5% or less to minimize coincident pulses while still allowing definition of a size distribution. Detection of single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was performed using spICPMS. This study focuses on using trace catalytic metal nanoparticles intercalated in the CNT structure as proxies for the nanotubes. The small, variable, amount of trace metal in

  14. A Bibliometric Analysis of Climate Engineering Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belter, C. W.; Seidel, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The past five years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of media and scientific publications on the topic of climate engineering, or geoengineering, and some scientists are increasingly calling for more research on climate engineering as a possible supplement to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. In this context, understanding the current state of climate engineering research can help inform policy discussions and guide future research directions. Bibliometric analysis - the quantitative analysis of publications - is particularly applicable to fields with large bodies of literature that are difficult to summarize by traditional review methods. The multidisciplinary nature of the published literature on climate engineering makes it an ideal candidate for bibliometric analysis. Publications on climate engineering are found to be relatively recent (more than half of all articles during 1988-2011 were published since 2008), include a higher than average percentage of non-research articles (30% compared with 8-15% in related scientific disciplines), and be predominately produced by countries located in the Northern Hemisphere and speaking English. The majority of this literature focuses on land-based methods of carbon sequestration, ocean iron fertilization, and solar radiation management and is produced with little collaboration among research groups. This study provides a summary of existing publications on climate engineering, a perspective on the scientific underpinnings of the global dialogue on climate engineering, and a baseline for quantitatively monitoring the development of climate engineering research in the future.

  15. Comprehensive characterization of chondrocyte cultures in plasma and whole blood biomatrices for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ronny M; Haberhauer, Marcus; Zernia, Göran; Pösel, Claudia; Thümmler, Christian; Somerson, Jeremy S; Huster, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Many synthetic polymers and biomaterials have been used as matrices for 3D chondrocyte seeding and transplantation in the field of cartilage tissue engineering. To develop a fully autologous carrier for chondrocyte cultivation, we examined the feasibility of allogeneic plasma and whole blood-based matrices and compared them to agarose constructs. Primary articular chondrocytes isolated from 12-month-old pigs were embedded into agarose, plasma and whole blood matrices and cultivated under static-free swelling conditions for up to four weeks. To evaluate the quality of the synthesized extracellular matrix (ECM), constructs were subjected to weekly examinations using histological staining, spectrophotometry, immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis. In addition, gene expression of cartilage-specific markers such as aggrecan, Sox9 and collagen types I, II and X was determined by RT-PCR. Chondrocyte morphology was assessed via scanning electron microscopy and viability staining, including proliferation and apoptosis assays. Finally, (13)  C NMR spectroscopy provided further evidence of synthesis of ECM components. It was shown that chondrocyte cultivation in allogeneic plasma and whole-blood matrices promoted sufficient chondrocyte viability and differentiation behaviour, resulting in neo-formation of a hyaline-like cartilage matrix.

  16. Use of NDT data in engineering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, R.S.

    1993-12-31

    Failure Analysis Associates, Inc. (FaAA) has combined state-of-the-art NDT data visualization and analysis capabilities into the workstation-based Integrated Part Evaluation System (IPES). This system provides a practical means to visualize data from various NDT techniques, automatically identify anomalies based on the data, and perform engineering analyses of parts containing anomalies. IPES consists of different software packages. (1) visualization; (2) automated assessment system; (3) NDT-analysis interface; and (4) engineering analysis. The software packages can be used either independently or in combination. If used in combination, the output of one package is automatically accessed as input to a subsequent package.

  17. Wavelet analysis of fusion plasma transients

    SciTech Connect

    Dose, V.; Venus, G.; Zohm, H.

    1997-02-01

    Analysis of transient signals in the diagnostic of fusion plasmas often requires the simultaneous consideration of their time and frequency information. The newly emerging technique of wavelet analysis contains both time and frequency domains. Therefore it can be a valuable tool for the analysis of transients. In this paper the basic method of wavelet analysis is described. As an example, wavelet analysis is applied to the well-known phenomena of mode locking and fishbone instability. The results quantify the current qualitative understanding of these events in terms of instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes and encourage applications of the method to other problems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. ISEE/ICE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed for the period 1 Jan. 1985 to 30 Oct. 1989 is presented. The objective was to provide reduction and analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3)/International Cometary Explorer (ICE) missions.

  19. Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jonathan; Luhrs, Claudia C; Richard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

  20. IPD -The Use of Impulse Plasma in Surface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdunek, Krzysztof

    2008-10-01

    It is evident that impulse plasma ensures both the highest level of nonequilibrity and highest level of vapour ionisation. These conditions seemed to be especially suitable for synthetizing the phases with high energetic barrier of nucleation process. In our methods, called by us as the Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD) the impulse plasma is generated and accelerated in a coaxial accelerator. The only source of electric energy in the plasma process is condenser battery charged to the voltage of order of kVs. During the discharge of condensers individual plasmoids are being accelerated in the coaxial generator by the Ampere force to the speed of the order of 10^4 ms-1 and directed to the non-heated substrate. The most characteristic feature of the is that the synthesis proceeds in the impulse plasma itself, with the participation of ions. The crystallization on ions (ionization degree of the impulse plasma is equal to 100%) makes individual plasmoids to be strongly enriched rather in clusters or particles agglomerates with dimensions of order of single nms than the atoms. Because of the very short life time of plasmoids (approx. 10-4 sec each) the surface coalescence of particles delivered to the substrate has a limited character. As a consequence the material of the layer has nanocrystalline, globular morphology.

  1. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  2. Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1997-10-09

    Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.

  3. Nozzle Numerical Analysis Of The Scimitar Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, F.; Marini, M.; Cutrone, L.

    2011-05-01

    This work describes part of the activities on the LAPCAT-II A2 vehicle, in which starting from the available conceptual vehicle design and the related pre- cooled turbo-ramjet engine called SCIMITAR, well- thought assumptions made for performance figures of different components during the iteration process within LAPCAT-I will be assessed in more detail. In this paper it is presented a numerical analysis aimed at the design optimization of the nozzle contour of the LAPCAT A2 SCIMITAR engine designed by Reaction Engines Ltd. (REL) (see Figure 1). In particular, nozzle shape optimization process is presented for cruise conditions. All the computations have been carried out by using the CIRA C3NS code in non equilibrium conditions. The effect of considering detailed or reduced chemical kinetic schemes has been analyzed with a particular focus on the production of pollutants. An analysis of engine performance parameters, such as thrust and combustion efficiency has been carried out.

  4. Computational analysis of ramjet engine inlet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Beverly; Thomas, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A computational analysis of a ramjet engine at Mach 3.5 has been conducted and compared to results obtained experimentally. This study focuses on the behavior of the inlet both with and without combustor backpressure. Increased backpressure results in separation of the body side boundary layer and a resultant static pressure rise in the inlet throat region. The computational results compare well with the experimental data for static pressure distribution through the engine, inlet throat flow profiles, and mass capture. The computational analysis slightly underpredicts the thickness of the engine body surface boundary layer and the extent of the interaction caused by backpressure; however, the interaction is observed at approximately the same level of backpressure both experimentally and computationally. This study demonstrates the ability of two different Navier-Stokes codes, namely RPLUS and PARC, to calculate the flow features of this ramjet engine and to provide more detailed information on the process of inlet interaction and unstart.

  5. The engine fuel system fault analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Song, Hanqiang; Yang, Changsheng; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    For improving the reliability of the engine fuel system, the typical fault factor of the engine fuel system was analyzed from the point view of structure and functional. The fault character was gotten by building the fuel system fault tree. According the utilizing of fault mode effect analysis method (FMEA), several factors of key component fuel regulator was obtained, which include the fault mode, the fault cause, and the fault influences. All of this made foundation for next development of fault diagnosis system.

  6. Mathematical Model For Engineering Analysis And Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Computational support for engineering design process reveals behavior of designed system in response to external stimuli; and finds out how behavior modified by changing physical attributes of system. System-sensitivity analysis combined with extrapolation forms model of design complementary to model of behavior, capable of direct simulation of effects of changes in design variables. Algorithms developed for this method applicable to design of large engineering systems, especially those consisting of several subsystems involving many disciplines.

  7. A Sensitivity Analysis of SOLPS Plasma Detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. L.; Canik, J. M.; Eldon, D.; Meneghini, O.; AToM SciDAC Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the scrape off layer plasma conditions required for the ITER plasma to achieve detachment is an important issue when considering divertor heat load management options that are compatible with desired core plasma operational scenarios. Given the complexity of the scrape off layer, such predictions often rely on an integrated model of plasma transport with many free parameters. However, the sensitivity of any given prediction to the choices made by the modeler is often overlooked due to the logistical difficulties in completing such a study. Here we utilize an OMFIT workflow to enable a sensitivity analysis of the midplane density at which detachment occurs within the SOLPS model. The workflow leverages the TaskFarmer technology developed at NERSC to launch many instances of the SOLPS integrated model in parallel to probe the high dimensional parameter space of SOLPS inputs. We examine both predictive and interpretive models where the plasma diffusion coefficients are chosen to match an empirical scaling for divertor heat flux width or experimental profiles respectively. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and is supported under Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231, DE-AC05-00OR22725 and DE-SC0012656.

  8. Plasma assessments for the fusion engineering device (FED)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.; Lyon, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    An initial range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the US tokamak FED concept. The results suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 4.8 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 4.8 to 5.4 MA are appropriate for achieving its nominal goals of P(fusion) approx. = 180 MW and a plasma Q greater than or equal to to 5 for a pulse length greater than 100 s. However, large uncertainty still exists in the areas of current startup, ion-cyclotron wave launching, influence of plasma shape on achievable beta, impurity control, plasma edge transport, and plasma disruption. Various options and remedies have been suggested to alleviate the impact of the uncertainty on the FED design concept. They appear promising because they can be studied experimentally and are not expected to lead to fundamental design modifications of FED.

  9. Atmospheric dump valve engineering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, B.; McNemar, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the activities undertaken after the atmospheric dump valves (ADVs) failed to operate following a Unit 3 reactor trip. The activities consisted of testing valves in all three units, examining Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) history with the valves, determining causes for failures, and making recommendations. The PVNGS engineering departments performed an in-depth review of the history, operation, maintenance, and design of ADVs. A preliminary mathematical model of the valves' dynamic behavior was developed by Arizona State University. The corrective actions are designed to eliminate the anomalies noted with the Unit 1 and 3 ADVs. Subsequent monitoring and testing activities following the planned modifications will ensure the ADVs remain operable during modes required by the PVNGS technical specifications. Through this increased monitoring and testing program, the valve modifications will be evaluated to confirm that the required level of reliability has been reached for the ADVs. The specific failures have been evaluated and the causes determined.

  10. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities Karen...of Design Thinking Ronald Giachetti, Chair and Professor, NPS Clifford Whitcomb, Professor, NPS Content Analysis in Systems Engineering...Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 57 - Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

  11. Experimental measurements of surface damage and residual stresses in micro-engineered plasma facing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, David; Wirz, Richard E.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2017-04-01

    The thermomechanical damage and residual stresses in plasma-facing materials operating at high heat flux are experimentally investigated. Materials with micro-surfaces are found to be more resilient, when exposed to cyclic high heat flux generated by an arc-jet plasma. An experimental facility, dedicated to High Energy Flux Testing (HEFTY), is developed for testing cyclic heat flux in excess of 10 MW/m2. We show that plastic deformation and subsequent fracture of the surface can be controlled by sample cooling. We demonstrate that W surfaces with micro-pillar type surface architecture have significantly reduced residual thermal stresses after plasma exposure, as compared to those with flat surfaces. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the W-(110) peak reveal that broadening of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) for micro-engineered samples is substantially smaller than corresponding flat surfaces. Spectral shifts of XRD signals indicate that residual stresses due to plasma exposure of micro-engineered surfaces build up in the first few cycles of exposure. Subsequent cyclic plasma heat loading is shown to anneal out most of the built-up residual stresses in micro-engineered surfaces. These findings are consistent with relaxation of residual thermal stresses in surfaces with micro-engineered features. The initial residual stress state of highly polished flat W samples is compressive (≈ -1.3 GPa). After exposure to 50 plasma cycles, the surface stress relaxes to -1.0 GPa. Micro-engineered samples exposed to the same thermal cycling show that the initial residual stress state is compressive at (- 250 MPa), and remains largely unchanged after plasma exposure.

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of automotive engine oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmani, Rachid; Gupta, Neelam

    2002-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology were combined to develop a portable spectrophotometer for use in engine oil analysis to identify and quantify oil contaminants and residue products, Preliminary measurements were taken with a field-portable AOTF-based spectrometer (2 to 4.5 micrometers ) and an FTIR spectrometer (2 to 25 micrometers ) for comparison. Absorption spectra of used and unused oil samples were measured and compared to determine absorption changes between the various samples resulting from oil degradation and any chemical reactions that might have taken place during high- temperature engine lubrication. These preliminary results indicate that IR spectroscopy can be used for oil quality monitoring in automotive engines, which will help predict and prevent engine failure and degradation. This work can be extended to other remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of environmental oil spills.

  13. SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CONTROL SYSTEMS, *MECHANICS, *STRUCTURES, *THERMODYNAMICS, *TOPOLOGY, BEAMS(ELECTROMAGNETIC), BEAMS(STRUCTURAL), GAS FLOW, GEARS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, MATHEMATICS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING , RAMJET ENGINES.

  14. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  15. Reusable Rocket Engine Operability Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Komar, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology, model, input data, and analysis results of a reusable launch vehicle engine operability study conducted with the goal of supporting design from an operations perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the use of metrics in a validated operations model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Operations analysis in this view is one of several design functions. An operations concept was developed given an engine concept and the predicted operations and maintenance processes incorporated into simulation models. Historical operations data at a level of detail suitable to model objectives were collected, analyzed, and formatted for use with the models, the simulations were run, and results collected and presented. The input data used included scheduled and unscheduled timeline and resource information collected into a Space Transportation System (STS) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) historical launch operations database. Results reflect upon the importance not only of reliable hardware but upon operations and corrective maintenance process improvements.

  16. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  17. Engine dynamic analysis with general nonlinear finite element codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Padovan, J.; Fertis, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A general engine dynamic analysis as a standard design study computational tool is described for the prediction and understanding of complex engine dynamic behavior. Improved definition of engine dynamic response provides valuable information and insights leading to reduced maintenance and overhaul costs on existing engine configurations. Application of advanced engine dynamic simulation methods provides a considerable cost reduction in the development of new engine designs by eliminating some of the trial and error process done with engine hardware development.

  18. A Cascaded Discharge Plasma-Adsorbent Technique for Engine Exhaust Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajanikanth, B. S.; Srinivasan, A. D.; Arya, Nandiny B.

    2003-06-01

    A cascaded system of electrical discharges (non-thermal plasma) and adsorption process was investigated for the removal of oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and total hydrocarbons (THC) from an actual diesel engine exhaust. The non-thermal plasma and adsorption processes were separately studied first and then the cascaded process was studied. In this study, different types of adsorbents were used. The NOx removal efficiency was higher with plasma-associated adsorption (cascaded) process compared to the individual processes and the removal efficiency was found almost invariant in time. When associated by plasma, among the adsorbents studied, activated charcoal and MS-13X were more effective for NOx and THC removal respectively. The experiments were conducted at no load and at 50% load conditions. The plasma reactor was kept at room temperature throughout the experiment, while the temperature of the adsorbent reactor was varied. A relative comparison of adsorbents was discussed at the end.

  19. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  20. Plasma physics analysis of SERT-2 operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the major plasma processes involved in the SERT 2 spacecraft experiments was conducted to aid in the interpretation of recent data. A plume penetration model was developed for neutralization electron conduction to the ion beam and showed qualitative agreement with flight data. In the SERT 2 configuration conduction of neutralization electrons between thrusters was experimentally demonstrated in space. The analysis of this configuration suggests that the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields was an important factor in the observed results. Specifically, the opposed field orientation appeared to provide a high conductivity channel between thrusters and a barrier to the ambient low energy electrons in space. The SERT 2 neutralizer currents with negative neutralizer biases were up to about twice the theoretical prediction for electron collection by the ground screen. An explanation for the higher experimental values was a possible conductive path from the neutralizer plume to a nearby part of the ground screen. Plasma probe measurements of SERT 2 gave the clearest indication of plasma electron temperature, with normal operation being near 5 eV and discharge only operation near 2 eV.

  1. Plasma technology for increase of operating high pressure fuel pump diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovev, R. Y.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Adigamov, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a change in the service life of high pressure fuel pumps of diesel engines on the working surface of the plunger which a wear resistant dielectric plasma coatings based on silicon oxycarbonitride. Such coatings possess high wear resistance, chemical inertness and low friction.

  2. T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housing refurbishment-plasma spray project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of reclaiming T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housings with an 88 wt percent aluminum to 12 wt percent silicon alloy applied by a plasma spray process. Tensile strength testing was conducted on as-sprayed and thermally cycled test specimens which were plasma sprayed with 0.020 to 0.100 in. coating thicknesses. Satisfactory tensile strength values were observed in the as-sprayed tensile specimens. There was essentially no decrease in tensile strength after thermally cycling the tensile specimens. Furthermore, compressor housings were plasma sprayed and thermally cycled in a 150-hr engine test and a 200-hr actual flight test during which the turbine engine was operated at a variety of loads, speeds and torques. The plasma sprayed coating system showed no evidence of degradation or delamination from the compressor housings. As a result of these tests, a procedure was designed and developed for the application of an aluminum-silicon alloy in order to reclaim T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housings.

  3. Plasma engineering of silicon quantum dots and their properties through energy deposition and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bibhuti Bhusan; Yin, Yongyi; Gauter, Sven; Han, Jeon Geon; Kersten, Holger

    2016-09-21

    The characterization of plasma and atomic radical parameters along with the energy influx from plasma to the substrate during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of Si quantum dot (QD) films is presented and discussed. In particular, relating to the Si QD process optimization and control of film growth, the necessity to control the deposition environment by inducing the effect of the energy of the key plasma species is realized. In this contribution, we report dual frequency PECVD processes for the low-temperature and high-rate deposition of Si QDs by chemistry and energy control of the key plasma species. The dual frequency plasmas can effectively produce a very high plasma density and atomic H and N densities, which are found to be crucial for the growth and nucleation of QDs. Apart from the study of plasma chemistry, the crucial role of the energy imparted due to these plasma activated species on the substrate is determined in light of QD formation. Various plasma diagnostics and film analysis methods are integrated to correlate the effect of plasma and energy flux on the properties of the deposited films prepared in the reactive mixtures of SiH4/NH3 at various pressures. The present results are highly relevant to the development of the next-generation plasma process for devices that rely on effective control of the QD size and film properties.

  4. Analysis of Ten Reverse Engineering Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Jussi; Lehmonen, Tero

    Reverse engineering tools can be used in satisfying the information needs of software maintainers. Especially in case of maintaining large-scale legacy systems tool support is essential. Reverse engineering tools provide various kinds of capabilities to provide the needed information to the tool user. In this paper we analyze the provided capabilities in terms of four aspects: provided data structures, visualization mechanisms, information request specification mechanisms, and navigation features. We provide a compact analysis of ten representative reverse engineering tools for supporting C, C++ or Java: Eclipse Java Development Tools, Wind River Workbench (for C and C++), Understand (for C++), Imagix 4D, Creole, Javadoc, Javasrc, Source Navigator, Doxygen, and HyperSoft. The results of the study supplement the earlier findings in this important area.

  5. Fate of SO{sub 2} During Plasma Treatment of Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-10-25

    Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} to achieve efficient reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates in diesel engine exhaust. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO{sub 2} is also active in converting SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} without oxidizing SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. It is shown that the presence of hydrocarbons in the plasma is essential for enhancing the selective partial oxidation of NO and suppressing the oxidation of SO{sub 2}.

  6. Deformation analysis of rotary combustion engine housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilmann, Carl

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of the deformation of rotary combustion engine housings targeted the following objectives: (1) the development and verification of a finite element model of the trochoid housing, (2) the prediction of the stress and deformation fields present within the trochoid housing during operating conditions, and (3) the development of a specialized preprocessor which would shorten the time necessary for mesh generation of a trochoid housing's FEM model from roughly one month to approximately two man hours. Executable finite element models were developed for both the Mazda and the Outboard Marine Corporation trochoid housings. It was also demonstrated that a preprocessor which would hasten the generation of finite element models of a rotary engine was possible to develop. The above objectives are treated in detail in the attached appendices. The first deals with finite element modeling of a Wankel engine center housing, and the second with the development of a preprocessor that generates finite element models of rotary combustion engine center housings. A computer program, designed to generate finite element models of user defined rotary combustion engine center housing geometries, is also included.

  7. Development of improved-durability plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Ruckle, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation is reported of improving the durability of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for the vane platforms in the JT9d turbofan engine. The program aims for reduced fuel consumption of commercial aircraft engines; the use of improved strain tolerant microstructures and control of the substrate temperature during coating application are being evaluated. The initial burner rig tests at temperatures up to 1010 C indicated that improvements in cyclic life greater than 20:1 over previous ceramic coatings were achieved. Three plasma sprayed coating systems applied to first stage vane platforms in the high pressure turbine were subjected to a 1000-cycle JT9D engine endurance test with only minor damage occurring to the coatings.

  8. Development of improved-durability plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Ruckle, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    As part of a NASA program to reduce fuel consumption of current commercial aircraft engines, methods were investigated for improving the durability of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings for use on vane platforms in the JT9D turbofan engine. Increased durability concepts under evaluation include use of improved strain tolerant microstructures and control of the substrate temperature during coating application. Initial burner rig tests conducted at temperatures of 1010 C (1850 F) indicate that improvements in cyclic life greater than 20:1 over previous ceramic coating systems were achieved. Three plasma sprayed coating systems applied to first stage vane platforms in the high pressure turbine were subjected to a 100-cycle JT9D engine endurance test with only minor damage occurring to the coatings.

  9. Reduction of NOx and PM in marine diesel engine exhaust gas using microwave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, W.; FInst, P.; Manivannan, N.; Beleca, R.; Abbod, M.

    2015-10-01

    Abatement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) of marine diesel exhaust gas using microwave (MW) non-thermal plasma is presented in this paper. NOx mainly consist of NO and less concentration of NO2 in a typical two stoke marine diesel engine and microwave plasma generation can completely remove NO. MW was generated using two 2kW microwave sources and a saw tooth passive electrode. Passive electrode was used to generate high electric field region within microwave environment where high energetic electrons (1-3eV) are produced for the generation of non-thermal plasma (NTP). 2kW gen-set diesel exhaust gas was used to test our pilot-scale MW plasma reactor. The experimental results show that almost 100% removal of NO is possible for the exhaust gas flow rate of 60l/s. It was also shown that MW can significantly remove soot particles (PM, 10nm to 365nm) entrained in the exhaust gas of 200kW marine diesel engine with 40% engine load and gas flow rate of 130l/s. MW without generating plasma showed reduction up to 50% reduction of PM and with the plasma up to 90% reduction. The major challenge in these experiments was that igniting the desired plasma and sustaining it with passive electrodes for longer period (10s of minutes) as it required fine tuning of electrode position, which was influenced by many factors such as gas flow rate, geometry of reactor and MW power.

  10. Jet Engine Exhaust Analysis by Subtractive Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    and J. J. Brooks. Development of a portable miniature collection system for the exposure as- sessment within the microenvironment for carcinogens ...65 A-2. Recovery of acrylonitrile from standard sample generation system ...... ............. 66 B-I. Jet engine exhaust sampling and analysis...7 n-Butane 0.16 2.6 minutes 8 Propylene oxide 3.14 52 minutes 9 Acrylonitrile 9.35 2.6 hours 10 Phenanthrene 1.9 x 106 61 years 11 4-Bromodiphenyl

  11. Plasma Science and Applications at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Lee

    2005-10-01

    The Coalition for Plasma Science (CPS) has established a plasma prize at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). This year's prize was awarded for projects in simulated ball lightning and plasma thrusters. The CPS is a broadly-based group of institutions and individuals whose goal is to increase the understanding of plasmas for non-technical audiences. In addition to the ISEF plasma award, CPS activities include maintaining a website, http://www.plasmacoalition.org; developing educational literature; organizing educational luncheon presentations for Members of Congress and their staffs; and responding to questions about plasmas that are received by the CPS e-mail or toll-free number. The success of these activities depend on the voluntary labor of CPS members and associates. These volunteers include the ISEF judges, whom the APS/DPP and the IEEE/PSAC helped identify. Please send an e-mail to the CPS at CPS@plasmacoalition.org for information if you would like to become involved in spreading the good word about plasmas.

  12. External Pulsed Plasma Propulsion (EPPP) Analysis Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joesph A.; Morton, P. Jeff; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    External Pulsed Plasma Propulsion (EPPP) systems are at the stage of engineering infancy with evolving paradigms for application. performance and general characteristics. Recent efforts have focused on an approach that employs existing technologies with near term EPPP development for usage in interplanetary exploration and asteroid/comet deflection. if mandated. The inherent advantages of EPPP are discussed and its application to a variety of propulsion concepts is explored. These include, but are not limited to, utilizing energy sources such as fission. fusion and antimatter, as well as, improved chemical explosives. A mars mission scenario is presented as a demonstration of its capability using existing technologies. A suggested alternate means to improve EPPP efficiencies could also lead to a heavy lift (non-nuclear) launch vehicle capability. Conceivably, true low-cost, access to space is possible using advanced explosive propellants and/or coupling the EPPP vehicle to a "beam propellant" concept. EPPP systems appear to offer an approach that can potentially cover ETO through interstellar transportation capability. A technology roadmap is presented that shows mutual benefits pertaining to a substantial number of existing space propulsion and research areas.

  13. Engineering Analysis in the Chem-E-Car Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Randy S.; Moshfeghian, Aliakbar; Madihally, Sundararajan V.

    2006-01-01

    The AIChE Chem-E-Car competition provides students an opportunity to demonstrate their design and teamwork skills. Engineering analysis is not required at the national competition and is often not applied. This work describes an engineering analysis of a Chem-E-Car to predict the distance traveled by the car. Engineering analysis is advantageous…

  14. Engineering Analysis in the Chem-E-Car Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Randy S.; Moshfeghian, Aliakbar; Madihally, Sundararajan V.

    2006-01-01

    The AIChE Chem-E-Car competition provides students an opportunity to demonstrate their design and teamwork skills. Engineering analysis is not required at the national competition and is often not applied. This work describes an engineering analysis of a Chem-E-Car to predict the distance traveled by the car. Engineering analysis is advantageous…

  15. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A critique is given of the JANNAF sub-critical propellant injection/combustion process analysis computer models and application of the models to correlation of well documented hot fire engine data bases. These programs are the distributed energy release (DER) model for conventional liquid propellants injectors and the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) for gaseous annulus/liquid core coaxial injectors. The critique identifies model inconsistencies while the computer analyses provide quantitative data on predictive accuracy. The program is comprised of three tasks: (1) computer program review and operations; (2) analysis and data correlations; and (3) documentation.

  16. Langmuir probe analysis in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bredin, Jerome Chabert, Pascal; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-12-15

    This paper compares two methods to analyze Langmuir probe data obtained in electronegative plasmas. The techniques are developed to allow investigations in plasmas, where the electronegativity α{sub 0} = n{sub –}/n{sub e} (the ratio between the negative ion and electron densities) varies strongly. The first technique uses an analytical model to express the Langmuir probe current-voltage (I-V) characteristic and its second derivative as a function of the electron and ion densities (n{sub e}, n{sub +}, n{sub –}), temperatures (T{sub e}, T{sub +}, T{sub –}), and masses (m{sub e}, m{sub +}, m{sub –}). The analytical curves are fitted to the experimental data by adjusting these variables and parameters. To reduce the number of fitted parameters, the ion masses are assumed constant within the source volume, and quasi-neutrality is assumed everywhere. In this theory, Maxwellian distributions are assumed for all charged species. We show that this data analysis can predict the various plasma parameters within 5–10%, including the ion temperatures when α{sub 0} > 100. However, the method is tedious, time consuming, and requires a precise measurement of the energy distribution function. A second technique is therefore developed for easier access to the electron and ion densities, but does not give access to the ion temperatures. Here, only the measured I-V characteristic is needed. The electron density, temperature, and ion saturation current for positive ions are determined by classical probe techniques. The electronegativity α{sub 0} and the ion densities are deduced via an iterative method since these variables are coupled via the modified Bohm velocity. For both techniques, a Child-Law sheath model for cylindrical probes has been developed and is presented to emphasize the importance of this model for small cylindrical Langmuir probes.

  17. Analysis of pulse detonation turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutthivithayarak, Ronnachai

    2011-12-01

    Research over the last two decades has shown the potential advantages of pulse detonation engines (PDEs) over existing aero-engines in terms of improved thermodynamics efficiency, improved thrust performance, simplicity of design, and flexibility to operate over a wide speed range. The inherently unsteady characteristic of PDEs makes it difficulty to analyze and evaluate their performance. The conventional method that relies on steady-state assumptions cannot be directly applied. PDE studies have to employ unsteady gasdynamics behavior. In this study, the thermodynamic cycle of a PDE, which can be called the ZND cycle, is theoretically analyzed. A parametric analysis of turbojet PDEs is considered for both ideal and non-ideal cases. The conventional turbojet with a Brayton cycle is brought in the comparison to verify that PDEs can provide better performance.

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Amin Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, John C.

    2002-11-01

    Extraordinary claims for the The Amin engine, made recently in full-page paid advertisements in Science Magazine and Physics Today are based upon faulty analysis of the proposed cycle. As presented, the engine constitutes a claim to violate the second law of thermodynamics, purporting to produce net useful work while extracting heat from a reservoir at a single temperature. When analyzed correctly, it conforms to the second law and produces at most zero net work when operating under isothermal conditions. The author neglects the torque-angle work needed to change the angular velocity and/or moment of inertia of the working fluid in the cylinder. When this is correctly accounted for, the contradiction with the second law is resolved.

  19. Analysis of the tuning characteristics of microwave plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotk, Robert; Jasiński, Mariusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the tuning characteristics of waveguide-supplied metal-cylinder-based nozzleless microwave plasma source. This analysis has enabled to estimate the electron concentration ne and electron frequency collisions ν in the plasma generated in nitrogen and in a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol vapour. The parameters ne and ν are the basic quantities that characterize the plasma. The presented new plasma diagnostic method is particularly useful, when spectroscopic methods are useless. The presented plasma source is currently used in research of a hydrogen production from liquids.

  20. Analysis of the tuning characteristics of microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Miotk, Robert Jasiński, Mariusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the tuning characteristics of waveguide-supplied metal-cylinder-based nozzleless microwave plasma source. This analysis has enabled to estimate the electron concentration n{sub e} and electron frequency collisions ν in the plasma generated in nitrogen and in a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol vapour. The parameters n{sub e} and ν are the basic quantities that characterize the plasma. The presented new plasma diagnostic method is particularly useful, when spectroscopic methods are useless. The presented plasma source is currently used in research of a hydrogen production from liquids.

  1. High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the Dynamics Explorer mission are to investigate the coupling of energy, mass, and momentum among the earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. At launch, on August 3, 1981, DE-1 was placed into an elliptical polar orbit having an apogee of 23,130 km to allow global auroral imaging and crossings of auroral field lines at altitudes of several thousand kilometers. At the same time DE-2 was placed into a polar orbit, coplanar with that of DE-1 but with a perigee altitude low enough (309 km) for neutral measurements and an apogee altitude of 1012 km. The DE-1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) provided data on low and medium energy electrons and ions from August 13, 1981 until December 1, 1981, when a high-voltage failure occured. Analysis of HAPI data for the time period of this contract has produced new results on the source mechanisms for electron conical distributions, particle acceleration phenomena in auroral acceleration regions, Birkeland currents throughout the nightside auroral regions, the source region for auroral kilometric radiation (AKR), and plasma injection phenomena in the polar cusp.

  2. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  3. Engineering genders: A spatial analysis of engineering, gender, and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidler-Lewis, Joanna R.

    This three article dissertation is an investigation into the ontology of learning insofar as learning is a process of becoming. In each article I explore the general questions of who is learning, in what ways, and with what consequences. The context for this research is undergraduate engineering education with particular attention to the construction of gender in this context. The first article is an examination of the organization of freshman engineering design. The second article draws on Lefebvre's spatial triad as both a theory and method for studying learning. The third article is an interview study of LGBTQA students creating their futures as engineers.

  4. Analysis of Apex Seal Friction Power Loss in Rotary Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Owen, A. Karl

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the frictional losses from the apex seals in a rotary engine was developed. The modeling was initiated with a kinematic analysis of the rotary engine. Next a modern internal combustion engine analysis code was altered for use in a rotary engine to allow the calculation of the internal combustion pressure as a function of rotor rotation. Finally the forces from the spring, inertial, and combustion pressure on the seal were combined to provide the frictional horsepower assessment.

  5. Instabilities in uranium plasma and the gas-core nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of unstable sound waves in a uranium plasma has been calculated using a multiple time-scale asymptotic expansion scheme. The fluid equations used include the fission power density, radiation diffusion, and the effects of the changing degree of ionization of the uranium atoms. The nonlinear growth of unstable waves is shown to be limited by mode coupling to shorter wavelength waves which are damped by radiation diffusion. This mechanism limits the wave pressure fluctuations to values of order delta P/P approximates 0.00001 in the plasma of a typical gas-core nuclear rocket engine. The instability is thus not expected to present a control problem for this engine.

  6. CTR plasma engineering studies. Annual progress report, 1 October 1979--30 September 1080

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    FY 1980 CTR Plasma Engineering Studies performed at the University of Illinois are reported. Current studies concentrated on four major areas including (i) field-reversed mirror (FRM) and related compact tori, (ii) dynamic behavior of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) including transport and stability and start-up, (iii) plasma buildup in small mirrors by including finite, ion orbit effects as well as the drift cyclotron loss-cone velocity-space diffusion, and (iv) high-energy fusion product transport in non-circular and high-..beta.. tokamaks, alpha ash buildup and possible control in tokamaks. Various computer packages have been produced for FRM, FROP, RFP, small compact tori and non-circular tokamaks. Basic models and the code packages developed and tested with available experiments are of vital information that can be used in conceptual reactor studies for the scaling and prediction of plasma behavior in near-term reactors.

  7. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1992-08-04

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

  8. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Devendra; McGlynn, Sean P.

    1992-01-01

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition.

  9. Feasibility analysis report for hybrid non-thermal plasma reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1998-01-15

    The purpose of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project CP-1038 is to evaluate and develop non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor technology for Department of Defense (DoD) air emissions control applications. The primary focus is on oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and a secondary focus on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Examples of NO{sub x} sources are jet engine test cells (JETCs) and diesel-engine powered electrical generators. Examples of VOCs are organic solvents used in painting, paint-stripping, and parts cleaning. Because pollutant-containing air-emission streams within the Department of Defense (DoD) frequently span a broad range of pollutant concentrations, flow rates, and gas conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity), a single type of NTP reactor is not expected to fit all types of emissions streams. Additionally, stand-alone NTP reactors may provide neither an adequate means of pollutant removal nor an acceptable economic solution. Therefore, hybrid systems (combinations of different NTP reactor types or architectures), which employ adsorbents and/or catalytic media are being examined by researchers in this field. This report is intended to provide a preliminary summary analysis of a few representative hybrid systems as a means of introducing the hybrid or staged-system concept.

  10. Oxygen plasma-treated thermoresponsive polymer surfaces for cell sheet engineering.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagamori, Eiji

    2010-06-01

    Although cell sheet tissue engineering is a potent and promising method for tissue engineering, an increase of mechanical strength of a cell sheet is needed for easy manipulation of it during transplantation or 3D tissue fabrication. Previously, we developed a cell sheet-polymer film complex that had enough mechanical strength that can be manipulated even by tweezers (Fujita et al., 2009. Biotechnol Bioeng 103(2): 370-377). We confirmed the polymer film involving a temperature sensitive polymer and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins could be removed by lowering temperature after transplantation, and its potential use in regenerative medicine was demonstrated. However, the use of ECM proteins conflicted with high stability in long-term storage and low cost. In the present study, to overcome these drawbacks, we employed the oxygen plasma treatment instead of using the ECM proteins. A cast and dried film of thermoresponsive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) was fabricated and treated with high-intensity oxygen plasma. The cells became possible to adhere to the oxygen plasma-treated PNIPAAm surface, whereas could not to the inherent surface of bulk PNIPAAm without treatment. Characterizations of the treated surface revealed the surface had high stability. The surface roughness, wettability, and composition were changed, depending on the plasma intensity. Interestingly, although bulk PNIPAAm layer had thermoresponsiveness and dissolved below lower critical solution temperature (LCST), it was found that the oxygen plasma-treated PNIPAAm surface lost its thermoresponsiveness and remained insoluble in water below LCST as a thin layer. Skeletal muscle C2C12 cells could be cultured on the oxygen plasma-treated PNIPAAm surface, a skeletal muscle cell sheet with the insoluble thin layer could be released in the medium, and thus the possibility of use of the cell sheet for transplantation was demonstrated.

  11. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégot, Sylvie; Layes, Guillaume; Lanzetta, François; Nika, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis of a free piston Stirling engine. The model and the detailed calculation of pressures losses are exposed. Stability of the machine is studied by the observation of the eigenvalues of the model matrix. Model validation based on the comparison with NASA experimental results is described. The influence of operational and construction parameters on performance and stability issues is exposed. The results show that most parameters that are beneficial for machine power seem to induce irregular mechanical characteristics with load, suggesting that self-sustained oscillations could be difficult to maintain and control.

  12. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  13. Geotail MCA plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-2346 supports the data analysis effort at The University of Iowa for the GEOTAIL Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) which is a part of the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI). At the beginning of this reporting period we had just begun to receive our GEOTAIL Sirius data on CD-ROMs. Much programming effort went into adapting and refining the data analysis programs to include the CD-ROM inputs. Programs were also developed to display the high-frequency-resolution PWI Sweep Frequency Analyzer (SFA) data and to include in all the various plot products the electron cyclotron frequency derived from the magnitude of the magnetic field extracted from the GEOTAIL Magnetic Field (MGF) data included in the GEOTAIL Sirius data. We also developed programs to use the MGF data residing in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) GEOTAIL Scientific Data Base (SDB). Our programmers also developed programs and provided technical support for the GEOTAIL data analysis efforts of Co-lnvestigator William W. L. Taylor at Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). At the end of this report we have included brief summaries of the NRC effort and the progress being made.

  14. Ferrographic and spectrographic analysis of oil sampled before and after failure of a jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph as well as plasma, atomic absorption, and emission spectrometers. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism, nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the oil sample from the engine just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure.

  15. GRETINA commissioning and engineering run resolution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarlow, Thomas; Beausang, Con; Ross, Tim; Hughes, Richard; Gell, Kristen; Good, Erin

    2012-10-01

    GRETINA, the first stage in the full Gamma Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETA), consists of seven modules covering approximately 1 solid angle. Each module is made up of four large, highly-segmented germanium detectors capable of measuring the interaction points of individual gamma-rays. GRETINA has recently been assembled and commissioned in LBNL via a series of engineering and commissioning runs. Here we report on an analysis of data from the first engineering run (ER01) which was intended to probe the response of the data acquisition system to high multiplicity gamma-ray cascades. For this experiment the 122Sn(40Ar, 4n) reaction at a beam energy of 210 MeV was utilized to populate high spin states in 158Er. A variety of beam currents, targets and trigger conditions were utilized to test the acquisition. Here we report on the measured energy resolution, both with calibration and in-beam sources as well as a gamma-gamma coincidence analysis to confirm the known level scheme and the capability of the data acquisition system for high fold coincidence measurements. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy via grant numbers DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05-ER41379.

  16. Engineering Genders: A Spatial Analysis of Engineering, Gender, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidler-Lewis, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    This three article dissertation is an investigation into the ontology of learning insofar as learning is a process of becoming. In each article I explore the general questions of who is learning, in what ways, and with what consequences. The context for this research is undergraduate engineering education with particular attention to the…

  17. Engineering Genders: A Spatial Analysis of Engineering, Gender, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidler-Lewis, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    This three article dissertation is an investigation into the ontology of learning insofar as learning is a process of becoming. In each article I explore the general questions of who is learning, in what ways, and with what consequences. The context for this research is undergraduate engineering education with particular attention to the…

  18. Computational analysis of a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    The pulsed inductive plasma accelerator allows for ionization of a cold gas propellant to plasma and acceleration of plasma with the same current pulse and without plasma contact with any part. This is beneficial since erosion is never a problem and lifetimes are limited only by the amount of carried propellant. To date, work involving the pulsed inductive plasma accelerator concept has been largely experimental with minimal computational analysis. The goal of the present research was to develop a computational tool using Maxwell's equations coupled with the Navier-Stokes fluid equations to fully analyze a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator. A plasma model was developed using the Saha equation and partition functions to calculate all required thermodynamic properties. The solution to Maxwell's equations was verified accurate and then coupled computations with propellant plasma were conducted. These coupled computations showed good order of magnitude accuracy with a simple onedimensional model however failed when the plasma began to accelerate due to the Lorentz force. The electric field, magnetic field, current density, and Lorentz force were all aligned in the proper vector directions. The computational failure occurred due to rapid, fictitious increases in the induced electric field in the vacuum created between the accelerating plasma and drive coil. Possible solutions to this problem are to decrease the time step and refine the grid density. Although complete acceleration of propellant plasma has yet to be computationally computed, this study has shown successful coupled computations with Maxwell and Navier-Stokes equations for a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator.

  19. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  20. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of the final processing of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and analysis of late ISEE 3, ICE cometary, and ICE cruise trajectory data, where coronal mass ejections (CME's) were the first locus of attention. Interest in CME's inspired an effort to represent our pw data in a condensed spectrogram format that facilitated rapid digestion of interplanetary phenomena on long (greater than 1 day) time scales. The format serendipitously allowed us to also examine earth-orbiting data from a new perspective, invigorating older areas of investigation in Earth's immediate environment. We, therefore, continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording for days on end conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations has been the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data we revisited.

  1. Analysis of automobile engine cylinder pressure and rotation speed from engine body vibration signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhua; Cheng, Xiang; Tan, Haishu

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the engine vibration signal process method for the engine cylinder pressure and engine revolution speed measurement instrument, the engine cylinder pressure varying with the engine working cycle process has been regarded as the main exciting force for the engine block forced vibration. The forced vibration caused by the engine cylinder pressure presents as a low frequency waveform which varies with the cylinder pressure synchronously and steadily in time domain and presents as low frequency high energy discrete humorous spectrum lines in frequency domain. The engine cylinder pressure and the rotation speed can been extract form the measured engine block vibration signal by low-pass filtering analysis in time domain or by FFT analysis in frequency domain, the low-pass filtering analysis in time domain is not only suitable for the engine in uniform revolution condition but also suitable for the engine in uneven revolution condition. That provides a practical and convenient way to design motor revolution rate and cylinder pressure measurement instrument.

  2. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    The interval reported on, from Jan. 1990 to Dec. 1991, has been one of continued processing and archiving of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and transition from analysis of ISEE 3 and ICE cometary data to ICE data taken along its cruise trajectory, where coronal mass ejections are the focus of attention. We have continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations was the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data was revisited. While pursuing detailed, second-order scientific inquiries still pending from the late ISEE 3 recordings, we have also sought to position ourselves for study of CME's by instituting a data processing format new to the ISEE 3/ICE pw detector. Processed detector output has always been summarized and archived in 24-hour segments, with all pw channels individually plotted and stacked one above the next down in frequency, with each channel calibrated separately to keep all data patterns equally visible in the plots, regardless of gross differences in energy content at the various frequencies. Since CME's, with their preceding and following solar wind plasmas, can take more than one day to pass by the spacecraft, a more condensed synoptic view of the pw data is required to identify, let alone assess, CME characteristics than has been afforded by the traditional routines. This requirement is addressed in a major new processing initiative in the past two years. Besides our own ongoing and fresh investigations, we have cooperated, within our resources, with studies conducted extramurally by distant colleagues irrespective of the phase of the ISEE 3/ICE mission under scrutiny. The remainder of this report summarizes our processing activities, our

  3. Electrostatic analysis of the tokamak edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.

    1981-07-01

    The intrusion of an equipotential poloidal limiter into the edge plasma of a circular tokamak discharge distorts the axisymmetry in two ways: (1) it (partially) shorts out the top-to-bottom Pfirsch-Schlueter driving potentials, and (2) it creates zones of back current flow into the limiter. The resulting boundary mismatch between the outer layers and the inner axisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlueter layer provides free energy to drive the edge plasma unstable. Special limiters are proposed to symmetrize the edge plasma and thereby reduce the electrical and MHD activity in the boundary layer.

  4. System analysis of plasma centrifuges and sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    System analyses of cylindrical plasma centrifuges are presented, for which the velocity field and electromagnetic fields are calculated. The effects of different electrode geometrics, induced magnetic fields, Hall-effect, and secondary flows are discussed. It is shown that speeds of 10000 m/sec can be achieved in plasma centrifuges, and that an efficient separation of U238 and U235 in uranium plasmas is feasible. The external boundary-value problem for the deposition of sputtering products is reduced to a Fredholm integral equation, which is solved analytically by means of the method of successive approximations.

  5. Engineering Analysis Using a Web-based Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.; Claus, Russell W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of a web-based framework for engineering analysis. A one-dimensional, high-speed analysis code called LAPIN was used in this study, but the approach can be generalized to any engineering analysis tool. The web-based framework enables users to store, retrieve, and execute an engineering analysis from a standard web-browser. We review the encapsulation of the engineering data into the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and various design considerations in the storage and retrieval of application data.

  6. Development of super-clean diesel engine and combustor using nonthermal plasma hybrid aftertreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Masaaki

    2015-10-01

    One of important and successful environmental applications of atmospheric-pressure corona discharge or plasma is electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which have been widely used for coal- or oil-fired boilers in electric power plants and particulate matter control emitted from industries such as glass melting furnace system, etc. In the ESPs, steady high voltage is usually applied to a pair of electrodes (at least, one of these has sharp edge). Unsteady pulsed high voltage is often applied for the collection of high-resistivity particulate matter (PM) to avoid reverse corona phenomena which reduce the collection efficiency of the ESPs. It was found that unsteady high voltage can treat hazardous gaseous components (NOx, SOx, hydrocarbon, and CO, etc.) in the exhaust gas, and researches were shifted from PM removal to hazardous gases aftertreatment with unsteady corona discharge induced plasmas. In the paper, recent results on diesel engine and industrial boiler emission controls are mainly reviewed among these our research topics.

  7. Diesel engine coolant analysis, new application for established instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.P.; Lukas, M.; Lynch, B.K.

    1998-09-01

    Rotating disk electrode (RDE) arc emission spectrometers are used in many commercial, industrial and military laboratories throughout the world to analyze millions of oil and fuel samples each year. In fact, RDE spectrometers have been used exclusively for oil and fuel analysis for so long, that most practitioners have probably forgotten that when RDE spectrometers were first introduced more than 40 years ago, they were also routinely used for aqueous samples. This paper describes recent work to calibrate and modify RDE arc emission spectrometers for the analysis of engine coolant samples; a mixture of approximately 50% water and 50% glycol. The technique has been shown to be effective for the analysis of wear metals, contamination and supplemental coolant additives in ethylene and propylene glycol. A comparison of results for coolant samples measured by both inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and RDE spectrometers will be presented. The data correlates extremely well on new and relatively clean coolants. However, not surprisingly, RDE results are sometimes higher for samples containing particles larger than a few micrometers. This paper suggests that RDE spectrometers are appropriate, and sometimes preferred, for most types of coolants and certain types of aqueous samples. Actual field data is be presented to support the arguments.

  8. Electric propulsion. [pulsed plasma thruster and electron bombardment ion engine for MSAT attitude control and stationkeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An alternative propulsion subsystem for MSAT is presented which has a potential of reducing the satellite weight by more than 15%. The characteristics of pulsed plasma and ion engines are described and used to estimate of the mass of the propellant and thrusters for attitude control and stationkeeping functions for MSAT. Preliminary estimates indicate that the electric propulsion systems could also replace the large momentum wheels necessary to counteract the solar pressure; however, the fine pointing wheels would be retained. Estimates also show that either electric propulsion system can save approximately 18% to 20% of the initial 4,000 kg mass. The issues that require further experimentation are mentioned.

  9. Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, F. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic analysis. A real time engine model was developed on the AD100 computer system. This model provides sufficient fidelity on the dynamics of major engine components and yet simplified enough to be executed in real time. The hardware-in-the-loop type simulation and analysis becomes necessary as NASA is continuously improving the SSME technology, some with significant changes in the dynamics of the engine. The many issues of interfaces between new components and the engine can be better understood and be resolved prior to the firing of the engine. In this paper, the SSME real time simulation Lab at the MSFC, the SSME real time model, SSME engine and control system stability analysis, both in real time and non-real time is presented.

  10. Parametric analysis of a magnetized cylindrical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ahedo, Eduardo

    2009-11-15

    The relevant macroscopic model, the spatial structure, and the parametric regimes of a low-pressure plasma confined by a cylinder and an axial magnetic field is discussed for the small-Debye length limit, making use of asymptotic techniques. The plasma response is fully characterized by three-dimensionless parameters, related to the electron gyroradius, and the electron and ion collision mean-free-paths. There are the unmagnetized regime, the main magnetized regime, and, for a low electron-collisionality plasma, an intermediate-magnetization regime. In the magnetized regimes, electron azimuthal inertia is shown to be a dominant phenomenon in part of the quasineutral plasma region and to set up before ion radial inertia. In the main magnetized regime, the plasma structure consists of a bulk diffusive region, a thin layer governed by electron inertia, a thinner sublayer controlled by ion inertia, and the non-neutral Debye sheath. The solution of the main inertial layer yields that the electron azimuthal energy near the wall is larger than the electron thermal energy, making electron resistivity effects non-negligible. The electron Boltzmann relation is satisfied only in the very vicinity of the Debye sheath edge. Ion collisionality effects are irrelevant in the magnetized regime. Simple scaling laws for plasma production and particle and energy fluxes to the wall are derived.

  11. Systems Analysis of a Compact Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; C. Neumeyer

    2002-02-06

    A new burning plasma systems code (BPSC) has been developed for analysis of a next step compact burning plasma experiment with copper-alloy magnet technology. We consider two classes of configurations: Type A, with the toroidal field (TF) coils and ohmic heating (OH) coils unlinked, and Type B, with the TF and OH coils linked. We obtain curves of the minimizing major radius as a function of aspect ratio R(A) for each configuration type for typical parameters. These curves represent, to first order, cost minimizing curves, assuming that device cost is a function of major radius. The Type B curves always lie below the Type A curves for the same physics parameters, indicating that they lead to a more compact design. This follows from that fact that a high fraction of the inner region, r < R-a, contains electrical conductor material. However, the fact that the Type A OH and TF magnets are not linked presents fewer engineering challenges and should lead to a more reliable design. Both the Type A and Type B curves have a minimum in major radius R at a minimizing aspect ratio A typically above 2.8 and at high values of magnetic field B above 10 T. The minimizing A occurs at larger values for longer pulse and higher performance devices. The larger A and higher B design points also have the feature that the ratio of the discharge time to the current redistribution time is largest so that steady-state operation can be more realistically prototyped. A sensitivity study is presented for the baseline Type A configuration showing the dependence of the results on the parameters held fixed for the minimization study.

  12. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-11-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  13. Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both

  14. Tomographic Analysis of SRF Cavities as Asymmetric Plasma Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    M. Nikolić, A.L. Godunov, S. Popović, A. Samolov, J. Upadhyay, L. Vušković, H.L. Phillips, A-M. Valente-Feliciano

    2010-05-01

    The tomographic reconstruction of local plasma parameters for nonequilibrium plasma sources is a developing approach, which has a great potential in understanding the fundamental processes and phenomena during plasma processing of SRF cavity walls. Any type of SRF cavity presents a plasma rector with limited or distorted symmetry and possible presence of high gradients. Development of the tomographic method for SRF plasma analysis consists of several steps. First, we define the method based on the inversion of the Abel integral equation for a hollow spherical reactor. Second step is application of the method for the actual elliptical cavity shape. Third step consists of study of the effects of various shapes of the driven electrode. Final step consists of testing the observed line-integrated optical emission data. We will show the typical results in each step and the final result will be presented in the form of correlation between local plasma parameter distributions and local etching characteristics.

  15. A Phospholipidomic Analysis of All Defined Human Plasma Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Monireh; Kulik, Willem; Hoek, Frans; Veerman, Enno C.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are performed. LC-ESI/MS, LC-ESI-MS/MS and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of different lipoprotein fractions collected from pooled plasma revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and sphingomyeline (SM) only on lipoproteins and phosphatidylcholine (PC), Lyso-PC on both lipoproteins and plasma lipoprotein free fraction (PLFF). Cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and Phosphatidylserine (PS) were observed neither in the lipoprotein fractions nor in PLFF. All three approaches led to the same results regarding phospholipids occurrence in plasma lipoproteins and PLFF. A high abundancy of PE and SM was observed in VLDL and LDL fractions respectively. This study provides for the first time the knowledge about the phospholipid composition of all defined plasma lipoproteins. PMID:22355656

  16. Data engineering systems: Computerized modeling and data bank capabilities for engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, H.; Trettau, R.; Zolotar, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Data Engineering System (DES) is a computer-based system that organizes technical data and provides automated mechanisms for storage, retrieval, and engineering analysis. The DES combines the benefits of a structured data base system with automated links to large-scale analysis codes. While the DES provides the user with many of the capabilities of a computer-aided design (CAD) system, the systems are actually quite different in several respects. A typical CAD system emphasizes interactive graphics capabilities and organizes data in a manner that optimizes these graphics. On the other hand, the DES is a computer-aided engineering system intended for the engineer who must operationally understand an existing or planned design or who desires to carry out additional technical analysis based on a particular design. The DES emphasizes data retrieval in a form that not only provides the engineer access to search and display the data but also links the data automatically with the computer analysis codes.

  17. Performance, Applications, and Analysis of Rotating Detonation Engine Technologies (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0171 PERFORMANCE, APPLICATION , AND ANALYSIS OF ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES (PREPRINT) Brent A. Rankin...SUBTITLE PERFORMANCE, APPLICATION , AND ANALYSIS OF ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER...compact engine designs for a broad range of power and propulsion applications . Recent accomplishments related to the performance, application , and

  18. Perspective of laser-induced plasma ignition of hydrocarbon fuel in Scramjet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Leichao; Li, Xiaohui; Liang, Jianhan; Yu, Xin; Li, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Laser-induced plasma ignition of an ethylene fuelled cavity was successfully conducted in a model scramjet engine combustor. The ethylene was injected 10mm upstream of cavity flameholder from 3 orifices 60 degree inclined relative to freestream direction. The 1064nm laser beam, from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source running at 3Hz and 200mJ per pulse, was focused into cavity for ignition. High speed photography was used to capture the transient ignition process. The laser-induced gas breakdown, flame kernel generation and propagation were all recorded and ensuing stable supersonic combustion was established in cavity. The flame kernel is found rotating anti-clockwise and gradually moves upwards as the entrainment of circulation flow in cavity. The flame is then stretched from leading edge to trailing edge to fully fill the entire cavity. Eventually, a stable combustion is achieved roughly 900μs after the laser pulse. The results show promising potentials for practical application. The perspective of laser-induced plasma ignition of hydrocarbon fuel in scramjet engine is outlined.

  19. Chemical Engineering Data Analysis Made Easy with DataFit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The outline for half of a one-credit-hour course in analysis of chemical engineering data is presented, along with a range of typical problems encountered later on in the chemical engineering curriculum that can be used to reinforce the data analysis skills learned in the course. This mini course allows students to be exposed to a variety of ChE…

  20. Ion Velocity Phase Space Studies of the VASIMR Engine Exhaust Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, III; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Squire, J.; Jacobson, V.; Tarditi, A.; Bengtson, R. D.; Glover, T. W.; Brukardt, M.; McCaskill, G. E.

    2004-11-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is a high power engine capable of Isp/thrust modulation at constant power. The plasma is produced by helicon discharge. The bulk of the energy is added by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH.) Axial momentum is obtained by adiabatic expansion of the plasma in a magnetic nozzle. Thrust/specific impulse ratio control in the VASIMR is primarily achieved by the partitioning of the RF power to the helicon and ICRH systems, with the proper adjustment of the propellant flow. Ion dynamics in the exhaust were studied using probes, gridded energy analyzers (RPAÂ's), microwave interferometry and optical techniques. This paper will focus on the RPA data. We will examine the ion dynamics in a deuterium exhaust plasma using ˜9 kW of RF power to the helicon ionization stage and varying power levels to the ICRH acceleration stage. Ion heating of ˜70 eV/ion/kW of applied ICRH has been demonstrated. Results also confirm conversion of transverse ion motion to axial motion.

  1. Mission Area Analysis Update Engineers as Infantry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    713-62N30, Construction HJuimnent Superviso 15 October 1984. 95. USAES, Program of Instruction, 7-51- C42 , Engineer Noncommissioned Officer Advanced...1985. 97. USAES, Program of Instruction, O-12- C42 , Combat Engineer Nongmmissioned Officer Advanced Course, August 1984. 98. Department of the Army, FM 25

  2. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  3. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

  4. Production of human tissue-engineered skin trilayer on a plasma-based hypodermis.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Asun; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Izeta, Ander

    2013-06-01

    Full thickness wounds require a dermal component to achieve functional permanent skin restoration. Currently available tissue-engineered skin substitutes lack a subcutaneous fat layer that would functionally contribute some of the mechanical and thermoregulatory properties of normal skin. To generate a trilayer engineered skin equivalent, we included bone marrow mesenchymal (BM-MSC) or adipose tissue-derived (ASC) stromal cells in a human plasma hydrogel exposed to adipogenic clues for three weeks. Approximately half of the cells differentiated under these conditions into mature adipocytes that survived for two years in culture with minimal medium change. In vitro generation of bona fide fully differentiated adipocytes was assessed by leptin secretion and ultrastructurally demonstrated through semithin to ultrathin sectioning and lipid staining with osmium tetroxide. Furthermore, presence of BM-MSCs or ASCs within the subcutaneous layer contributed to the epidermal differentiation program, with more proliferating basal cells depositing basal membrane proteins and differentiating into mature keratinocytes that were able to generate a pluristratified epithelium. In conclusion, we engineered a fully differentiated human skin trilayer that could present multiple applications such as use for in vitro drug absorption tests and regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ion Dynamics and ICRH Heating in the Exhaust Plasma of The VASIMR Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A., III; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.; Jacobson, V.; Ilin, A.; Winter, D. S.; Bengtson, R. D.; Gibson, J. N.; Glober, T. W.; Brukardt, M.; Rodriguez, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is a high power, radio frequency-driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of Isp/thrust modulation at constant power. The plasma is produced by an integrated helicon discharge. However, the bulk of the plasma energy is added in a separate downstream stage by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH.) Axial momentum is obtained by the adiabatic expansion of the plasma in a magnetic nozzle. Exhaust variation in the VASIMR is primarily achieved by the selective partitioning of the RF power to the helicon and ICRH systems, with the proper adjustment of the propellant flow. A laboratory simulation of the 25 kW proof of concept VASIMIR engine has been under development and test at NASA-JSC for several years. Experimentally, high density, stable plasma discharges have been generated in Helium, Hydrogen, Deuterium, Argon and Xenon. This paper will review the plasma diagnostic results obtained in 2000-2002 in a continuing series of performance optimization and design development studies. Available plasma diagnostics include a triple probe, a Mach probe, a bolometer, a television monitor, an H- photometer, a spectrometer, neutral gas pressure and flow measurements, several gridded energy analyzers (retarding potential analyzer or RPA), a surface recombination probe system, an emission probe, a directional, steerable RPA and other diagnostics. Reciprocating Langmuir and Mach probes are the primary plasma diagnostics. The Langmuir probe measures electron density and temperature profiles while the Mach probe measures flow profiles. Together this gives total plasma particle flux. An array of thermocouples provides a temperature map of the system. Ion flow velocities are estimated through three techniques: Mach probes, retarding potential analyzer, and spectroscopic measurements. During 2000-2002, we have performed a series of experiments on the VASIMR apparatus with several objectives, to explore the parameter space that

  6. Development of a virtual metrology method using plasma harmonics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, H.; Shin, J.; Kim, S.; Choi, H.

    2017-07-01

    A virtual metrology technique based on plasma harmonics is developed for predicting semiconductor processes. From a plasma process performed by 300 mm photoresist stripper equipment, a strong correlation is found between optical plasma harmonics intensities and the process results, such as the photoresist strip rate and strip non-uniformity. Based on this finding, a general process prediction model is developed. The developed virtual metrology model shows that the R-squared (R2) values between the measured and predicted process results are 95% and 64% for the photoresist strip rate and photoresist strip non-uniformity, respectively. This is the first research on process prediction based on optical plasma harmonics analysis, and the results can be applied to semiconductor processes such as dry etching and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  7. Geotail MCA Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1997-01-01

    The primary goals of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program are identifying, studying, and understanding the source, movement, and dissipation of plasma mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and the Earth. The GEOTAIL spacecraft was built by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and has provided extensive measurements of entry, storage, acceleration, and transport in the geomagnetic tail and throughout the Earth's outer magnetosphere. GEOTAIL was launched on July 24, 1992, and began its scientific mission with eighteen extensions into the deep-tail region with apogees ranging from around 60 R(sub e) to more than 208 R(sub e) in the period up to late 1994. Due to the nature of the GEOTAIL trajectory which kept the spacecraft passing into the deep tail, GEOTAIL also made 'magnetopause skimming passes' which allowed measurements in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, magnetosheath, bow shock, and upstream solar wind regions as well as in the lobe, magnetosheath, boundary layers, and central plasma sheet regions of the tail. In late 1994, after spending nearly 30 months primarily traversing the deep tail region, GEOTAIL began its near-Earth phase. Perigee was reduced to 10 R(sub e) and apogee first to 50 R(sub e) and finally to 30 R(sub e) in early 1995. This orbit provides many more opportunities for GEOTAIL to explore the upstream solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, and outer magnetosphere as well as the near-Earth tail regions. The WIND spacecraft was launched on November 1, 1994 and the POLAR spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996. These successful launches have dramatically increased the opportunities for GEOTAIL and the GGS spacecraft to be used to conduct the global research for which the ISTP program was designed. The measurement and study of plasma waves have made and will continue to make important contributions to reaching the ISTP/GGS goals and solving the

  8. Analysis of blood plasma at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, O. P.; Nazarov, M. M.; Angeluts, A. A.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 0.05-2.5 THz frequency range was employed to analyze blood plasma samples obtained from laboratory animals with experimental diabetes and from healthy controls. It was found that transmission and reflection coefficients of samples from rats with diabetes differed significantly from control values in both amplitude and phase. The cause of the detected differences is discussed with respect to variation in the terahertz response of water.

  9. Teaching ethics in engineering education through historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Billington, David P

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of ethics for engineering education and to illustrate how it can be brought into the mainstream of higher education in a natural way that is integrated with the teaching objectives of enriching the core meaning of engineering. Everyone will agree that the practicing engineer should be virtuous, should be a good colleague, and should use professional understanding for the common good. But these injunctions to virtue do not reach closely enough the ethic of the engineer as engineer, as someone acting in a uniquely engineering situation, and it is to such conditions that I wish to speak through a set of specific examples from recent history. I shall briefly refer to four controversies between engineers. Then, in some detail I shall narrate three historical cases that directly involve the actions of one engineer, and finally I would like to address some common contemporary issues. The first section, Engineering Ethics and the History of Innovation, includes four cases involving professional controversy. Each controversy sets two people against each other in disputes over who invented the telegraph, the radio, the automobile, and the airplane. In each dispute, it is possible to identify ethical and unethical behavior or ambiguous ethical behavior that serves as a basis for educational discussion. The first two historical cases described in "Crises and the Engineer" involve the primary closure dam systems in The Netherlands, each one the result of the actions of one engineer. The third tells of an American engineer who took his political boss, a big city mayor, to court over the illegal use of a watershed. The challenges these engineers faced required, in the deepest sense, a commitment to ethical behavior that is unique to engineering and instructive to our students. Finally, the cases in "Professors and Comparative Critical Analysis" illuminate the behavior of engineers in the design of structures and also how

  10. Fast Whole-Engine Stirling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses the simulation approach to whole-engine for physical consistency, REV regenerator modeling, grid layering for smoothness, and quality, conjugate heat transfer method adjustment, high-speed low cost parallel cluster, and debugging.

  11. Fast Whole-Engine Stirling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2005-01-01

    An experimentally validated approach is described for fast axisymmetric Stirling engine simulations. These simulations include the entire displacer interior and demonstrate it is possible to model a complete engine cycle in less than an hour. The focus of this effort was to demonstrate it is possible to produce useful Stirling engine performance results in a time-frame short enough to impact design decisions. The combination of utilizing the latest 64-bit Opteron computer processors, fiber-optical Myrinet communications, dynamic meshing, and across zone partitioning has enabled solution times at least 240 times faster than previous attempts at simulating the axisymmetric Stirling engine. A comparison of the multidimensional results, calibrated one-dimensional results, and known experimental results is shown. This preliminary comparison demonstrates that axisymmetric simulations can be very accurate, but more work remains to improve the simulations through such means as modifying the thermal equilibrium regenerator models, adding fluid-structure interactions, including radiation effects, and incorporating mechanodynamics.

  12. Fast Whole-Engine Stirling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2007-01-01

    An experimentally validated approach is described for fast axisymmetric Stirling engine simulations. These simulations include the entire displacer interior and demonstrate it is possible to model a complete engine cycle in less than an hour. The focus of this effort was to demonstrate it is possible to produce useful Stirling engine performance results in a time-frame short enough to impact design decisions. The combination of utilizing the latest 64-bit Opteron computer processors, fiber-optical Myrinet communications, dynamic meshing, and across zone partitioning has enabled solution times at least 240 times faster than previous attempts at simulating the axisymmetric Stirling engine. A comparison of the multidimensional results, calibrated one-dimensional results, and known experimental results is shown. This preliminary comparison demonstrates that axisymmetric simulations can be very accurate, but more work remains to improve the simulations through such means as modifying the thermal equilibrium regenerator models, adding fluid-structure interactions, including radiation effects, and incorporating mechanodynamics.

  13. Optimization of Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis with Analytic Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Tristan; Hendricks, Eric; Chin, Jeffrey; Gray, Justin; Moore, Kenneth T.

    2016-01-01

    A new engine cycle analysis tool, called Pycycle, was built using the OpenMDAO framework. Pycycle provides analytic derivatives allowing for an efficient use of gradient-based optimization methods on engine cycle models, without requiring the use of finite difference derivative approximation methods. To demonstrate this, a gradient-based design optimization was performed on a turbofan engine model. Results demonstrate very favorable performance compared to an optimization of an identical model using finite-difference approximated derivatives.

  14. Analysis of new diesel engine and component design

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents of this book include: A root cause investigation of cylinder heat cracking in large diesel engine standby power generators; Predictive analysis of lube oil consumption for a diesel engine; Development of a new engine piston incorporating heat pipe cooling technology; Development of new torsional vibration rubber damper of compression type; Novel approach to reduce the time from concept-to-finished piston; and more.

  15. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, a plasma, an atomic absorption, and an emission spectrometer to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations ( 2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure.

  16. UCLA/FNPL Underdense Plasma Lens Experiment: Results and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M C; Badakov, H; Rosenzweig, J B; Travish, G; Fliller, R; Kazakevich, G M; Piot, P; Santucci, J; Li, J; Tikhoplav, R

    2006-08-04

    Focusing of a 15 MeV, 16 nC electron bunch by a gaussian underdense plasma lens operated just beyond the threshold of the underdense condition has been demonstrated. The strong 1.9 cm focal length plasma lens focused both transverse directions simultaneously and reduced the minimum area of the beam spot by a factor of 23. Analysis of the beam envelope evolution observed near the beam waist shows that the spherical aberrations of this underdense lens are lower than those of an overdense plasma lens, as predicted by theory. Time resolved measurements of the focused electron bunch are also reported and compared to simulations.

  17. Novel 3D Tissue Engineered Bone Model, Biomimetic Nanomaterials, and Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technique for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mian

    This thesis research is consist of four chapters, including biomimetic three-dimensional tissue engineered nanostructured bone model for breast cancer bone metastasis study (Chapter one), cold atmospheric plasma for selectively ablating metastatic breast cancer (Chapter two), design of biomimetic and bioactive cold plasma modified nanostructured scaffolds for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (Chapter three), and enhanced osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cell functions on titanium with hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite/magnetically treated carbon nanotubes for orthopedic applications (Chapter four). All the thesis research is focused on nanomaterials and the use of cold plasma technique for various biomedical applications.

  18. The discharge plasma in ion engine neutralizers: Numerical simulations and comparisons with laboratory data

    SciTech Connect

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Goebel, Dan M.; Snyder, John Steven; Katz, Ira; Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-01

    Numerical simulations of neutralizer hollow cathodes at various operating conditions and orifice sizes are presented. The simulations were performed using a two-dimensional axisymmetric model that solves numerically an extensive system of conservation laws for the partially ionized gas in these devices. The results for the plasma are compared directly with Langmuir probe measurements. The computed keeper voltages are also compared with the observed values. Whenever model inputs and/or specific physics of the cathode discharge were uncertain or unknown additional sensitivity calculations have been performed to quantify the uncertainties. The model has also been employed to provide insight into recent ground test observations of the neutralizer cathode in NASA's evolutionary xenon thruster. It is found that a likely cause of the observed keeper voltage drop in a long duration test of the engine is cathode orifice erosion.

  19. Optimization and analysis of gas turbine engine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbrink, D. J.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    A gas turbine engine blade design is optimized using STAEBL. To validate the STAEBL analysis, the optimized blade design is analyzed using MARC, MHOST and BEST3D. The results show good agreement between STAEBL, MARC, and MHOST. The conclusion is that STAEBL can be used to optimize an engine blade design.

  20. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  1. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  2. The Feasibility of Oil Analysis for Air Force Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    period 18 September 1978 to 18 June 1979. The Air F’orce Project Monitor was MrW~ le MaW e, - an rton16h ALC /MMET,’ . Mr. J,P. Cuellar, Jr., of SwRI...insolub les 28 TABLE 5. RELATION OF USED CRANKCASE OIL ANALYSIS TO ENGINE CONDITION OR OPERATION (Cont’d) Contributing Engine Condition Test Result...guidelines for wearmetal and lubricant control limits. 46. Schilling, A. (Chief Engineer, Institut Francais du Petrole ), Automobile Engine Lubrication, 1972

  3. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Susan, I. A.; Arianto, F.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts

  4. Geotail MCA Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    The goals of this program include identifying, studying, and understanding the source, movement, and dissipation of plasma mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and Earth. The GEOTAIL spacecraft was built by the Japanese Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science and has provided extensive measurements of entry, storage, acceleration, and transport in the geomagnetic tail. Due to the GEOTAIL trajectory, which kept the spacecraft passing into the deep tail, GEOTAIL also made 'magnetopause skimming passes' which allowed measurements in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, bow shock, and upstream solar wind regions as well as in the lobe, magnetosheath, boundary layers, and central plasma sheet regions of the tail. In late 1994, after spending nearly 30 months primarily traversing the deep tail region, GEOTAIL began its near Earth phase where apogee was reduced first to about 50 Re and later to 30 Re and perigee was decreased to about 10 Re. The WIND spacecraft was launched on November 1, 1994, and the POLAR spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996. These successful launches have dramatically increased the opportunities for GEOTAIL and the GGS spacecraft to conduct global research.

  5. Metallic-like bonding in plasma-born silicon nanocrystals for nanoscale bandgap engineering.

    PubMed

    Vach, Holger; Ivanova, Lena V; Timerghazin, Qadir K; Jardali, Fatme; Le, Ha-Linh Thi

    2016-10-27

    Based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we show that small nanoclusters of about 1 nm size spontaneously generated in a low-temperature silane plasma do not possess tetrahedral structures, but are ultrastable. Apparently small differences in the cluster structure result in substantial modifications in their electric, magnetic, and optical properties, without the need for any dopants. Their non-tetrahedral geometries notably lead to electron deficient bonds that introduce efficient electron delocalization that strongly resembles the one of a homogeneous electron gas leading to metallic-like bonding within a semiconductor nanocrystal. As a result, pure hydrogenated silicon clusters that form by self-assembly in a plasma reactor possess optical gaps covering most of the solar spectrum from 1.0 eV to 5.2 eV depending simply on their structure and, in turn, on their degree of electron delocalization. This feature makes them ideal candidates for future bandgap engineering not only for photovoltaics, but also for many nano-electronic devices employing nothing else but silicon and hydrogen atoms.

  6. Behavior analysis and training-a methodology for behavior engineering.

    PubMed

    Colombetti, M; Dorigo, M; Borghi, G

    1996-01-01

    We propose Behavior Engineering as a new technological area whose aim is to provide methodologies and tools for developing autonomous robots. Building robots is a very complex engineering enterprise that requires the exact definition and scheduling of the activities which a designer, or a team of designers, should follow. Behavior Engineering is, within the autonomous robotics realm, the equivalent of more established disciplines like Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. In this article we first give a detailed presentation of a Behavior Engineering methodology, which we call Behavior Analysis and Training (BAT), where we stress the role of learning and training. Then we illustrate the application of the BAT methodology to three cases involving different robots: two mobile robots and a manipulator. Results show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  7. Commissioning and Performance Analysis of WhisperGen Stirling Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradip, Prashant Kaliram

    Stirling engine based cogeneration systems have potential to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission, due to their high cogeneration efficiency and emission control due to steady external combustion. To date, most studies on this unit have focused on performance based on both experimentation and computer models, and lack experimental data for diversified operating ranges. This thesis starts with the commissioning of a WhisperGen Stirling engine with components and instrumentation to evaluate power and thermal performance of the system. Next, a parametric study on primary engine variables, including air, diesel, and coolant flowrate and temperature were carried out to further understand their effect on engine power and efficiency. Then, this trend was validated with the thermodynamic model developed for the energy analysis of a Stirling cycle. Finally, the energy balance of the Stirling engine was compared without and with heat recovery from the engine block and the combustion chamber exhaust.

  8. Analysis of a Radioisotope Thermal Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machado-Rodriguez, Jonathan P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    The Triton Hopper is a concept for a vehicle to explore the surface of Neptunes moon Triton, which uses a radioisotope heated rocket engine and in-situ propellant acquisition. The initial Triton Hopper conceptual design stores pressurized Nitrogen in a spherical tank to be used as the propellant. The aim of the research was to investigate the benefits of storing propellant at ambient temperature and heating it through a thermal block during engine operation, as opposed to storing gas at a high temperature.

  9. SITE PROGRAM: AN ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF THE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an engineering analysis of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration Program performed between February 1993 and April 1994. The SITE Program evaluates new and promising treatment and monitoring and measurement technologies for clea...

  10. Advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) for a Robust, Longlife and Safe Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Elam, Sandra K.; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, the Vacuum Plasma Spray Lab was built at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for applying durable, protective coatings to turbine blades for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump. Existing turbine blades were cracking and breaking off after five hot fire tests while VPS coated turbine blades showed no wear or cracking after 40 hot fire tests. Following that, a major manufacturing problem of copper coatings peeling off the SSME Titanium Main Fuel Valve Housing was corrected with a tenacious VPS copper coating. A patented VPS process utilizing Functional Gradient Material (FGM) application was developed to build ceramic lined metallic cartridges for space furnace experiments, safely containing gallium arsenide at 1260 degrees centigrade. The VPS/FGM process was then translated to build robust, long life, liquid rocket combustion chambers for the space shuttle main engine. A 5K (5,000 Lb. thrust) thruster with the VPS/FGM protective coating experienced 220 hot firing tests in pristine condition with no wear compared to the SSME which showed blanching (surface pulverization) and cooling channel cracks in less than 30 of the same hot firing tests. After 35 of the hot firing tests, the injector face plates disintegrated. The VPS/FGM process was then applied to spraying protective thermal barrier coatings on the face plates which showed 50% cooler operating temperature, with no wear after 50 hot fire tests. Cooling channels were closed out in two weeks, compared to one year for the SSME. Working up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) to establish the VPS/FGM process as viable technology, a 40K thruster was built and is currently being tested. Proposed is to build a J-2X size liquid rocket engine as the final step in establishing the VPS/FGM process TRL for space flight.

  11. Advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) for a Robust, Longlife and Safe Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Elam, Sandra K.; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, the Vacuum Plasma Spray Lab was built at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for applying durable, protective coatings to turbine blades for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump. Existing turbine blades were cracking and breaking off after five hot fire tests while VPS coated turbine blades showed no wear or cracking after 40 hot fire tests. Following that, a major manufacturing problem of copper coatings peeling off the SSME Titanium Main Fuel Valve Housing was corrected with a tenacious VPS copper coating. A patented VPS process utilizing Functional Gradient Material (FGM) application was developed to build ceramic lined metallic cartridges for space furnace experiments, safely containing gallium arsenide at 1260 degrees centigrade. The VPS/FGM process was then translated to build robust, long life, liquid rocket combustion chambers for the space shuttle main engine. A 5K (5,000 Lb. thrust) thruster with the VPS/FGM protective coating experienced 220 hot firing tests in pristine condition with no wear compared to the SSME which showed blanching (surface pulverization) and cooling channel cracks in less than 30 of the same hot firing tests. After 35 of the hot firing tests, the injector face plates disintegrated. The VPS/FGM process was then applied to spraying protective thermal barrier coatings on the face plates which showed 50% cooler operating temperature, with no wear after 50 hot fire tests. Cooling channels were closed out in two weeks, compared to one year for the SSME. Working up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) to establish the VPS/FGM process as viable technology, a 40K thruster was built and is currently being tested. Proposed is to build a J-2X size liquid rocket engine as the final step in establishing the VPS/FGM process TRL for space flight.

  12. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  13. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Tunable hybrid plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report resents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning Tunable Hybrid Plasma (THP) derived from a three-year program of stake holder involvement. THP destroys volatile organic compounds by directing a moderate energy electron beam into a flow of air containing organic contaminants. This report is for technology developers and for those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of THP to the remediation problems the face. In addition, this report presents data requirements for the technology`s field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on THP from stakeholders from four other sites throughout the western United States.

  14. Observations and analysis of FTU plasmas by video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, R.; Di Matteo, L.

    2010-11-01

    The interaction of the FTU plasma with the vessel walls and with the limiters is responsible for the release of hydrogen and impurities through various physical mechanisms (physical and chemical sputtering, desorption, etc.). In the cold plasma periphery, these particles are weakly ionised and emit mainly in the visible spectral range. A good description of plasma periphery can then be obtained by use of video cameras. In FTU small size video cameras, placed close to the plasma edge, give wide-angle images of the plasma at a standard rate of 25 frames/s. Images are stored digitally, allowing their retrieval and analysis. This paper reports some of the most interesting features of the discharges evidenced by the images. As a first example, the accumulation of cold neutral gas in the plasma periphery above a density threshold (a phenomenon known as Marfe) can be seen on the video images as a toroidally symmetric band oscillating poloidally; on the multi-chord spectroscopy or bolometer channels, this appears only as a sudden rise of the signals whose overall behaviour could not be clearly interpreted. A second example is the identification of runaway discharges by the signature of the fast electrons emitting synchrotron radiation in their motion direction; this appears as a bean shaped bright spot on one toroidal side, which reverts according to plasma current direction. A relevant side effect of plasma discharges, as potentially dangerous, is the formation of dust as a consequence of some strong plasma-wall interaction event; video images allow monitoring and possibly estimating numerically the amount of dust, which can be produced in these events. Specialised software can automatically search experimental database identifying relevant events, partly overcoming the difficulties associated with the very large amount of data produced by video techniques.

  15. Structural dynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.; Jamison, G. T.; Mccutcheon, W. A.; Price, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    This structural dynamic analysis supports development of the SSME by evaluating components subjected to critical dynamic loads, identifying significant parameters, and evaluating solution methods. Engine operating parameters at both rated and full power levels are considered. Detailed structural dynamic analyses of operationally critical and life limited components support the assessment of engine design modifications and environmental changes. Engine system test results are utilized to verify analytic model simulations. The SSME main chamber injector assembly is an assembly of 600 injector elements which are called LOX posts. The overall LOX post analysis procedure is shown.

  16. Optimization of Turbine Engine Cycle Analysis with Analytic Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Tristan; Hendricks, Eric; Chin, Jeffrey; Gray, Justin; Moore, Kenneth T.

    2016-01-01

    A new engine cycle analysis tool, called Pycycle, was recently built using the OpenMDAO framework. This tool uses equilibrium chemistry based thermodynamics, and provides analytic derivatives. This allows for stable and efficient use of gradient-based optimization and sensitivity analysis methods on engine cycle models, without requiring the use of finite difference derivative approximation methods. To demonstrate this, a gradient-based design optimization was performed on a multi-point turbofan engine model. Results demonstrate very favorable performance compared to an optimization of an identical model using finite-difference approximated derivatives.

  17. Simple enrichment and analysis of plasma lysophosphatidic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialu; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Escobedo, Jorge O; Lowry, Mark; Wang, Lei; Chu, Yu-Hsuan; Moore, Richard G; Strongin, Robert M

    2013-11-21

    A simple and highly efficient technique for the analysis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) subspecies in human plasma is described. The streamlined sample preparation protocol furnishes the five major LPA subspecies with excellent recoveries. Extensive analysis of the enriched sample reveals only trace levels of other phospholipids. This level of purity not only improves MS analyses, but enables HPLC post-column detection in the visible region with a commercially available fluorescent phospholipids probe. Human plasma samples from different donors were analyzed using the above method and validated by LC-ESI/MS/MS.

  18. Production of a composite hyaluronic acid/gelatin blood plasma gel for hydrogel-based adipose tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Korurer, Esra; Kenar, Halime; Doger, Emek; Karaoz, Erdal

    2014-07-01

    Standard approaches to soft-tissue reconstruction include autologous adipose tissue transplantation, but most of the transferred adipose tissue is generally reabsorbed in a short time. To overcome this problem, long lasting implantable hydrogel materials that can support tissue regeneration must be produced. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of composite 3D natural origin scaffolds for reconstructive surgery applications through in vitro tests. The Young's modulus of the glutaraldehyde crosslinked hyaluronic acid/gelatin (HA/G) plasma gels, composed of human platelet-poor plasma, gelatin and human umbilical cord hyaluronic acid, was determined as 3.5 kPa, close to that of soft tissues. The composite HA/G plasma gels had higher porosity than plain plasma gels (72.5% vs. 63.86%). Human adipose tissue derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) were isolated from human lipoaspirates and characterized with flow cytometry, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Cell proliferation assay of AD-MSCs on the HA/G plasma gels revealed the nontoxic nature of these constructs. Adipogenic differentiation was distinctly better on HA/G plasma gels than on plain plasma gels. The results showed that the HA/G plasma gel with its suitable pore size, mechanical properties and excellent cell growth and adipogenesis supporting properties can serve as a useful scaffold for adipose tissue engineering applications.

  19. Analysis of Platelet-Rich Plasma Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Jane; Bulsara, Max K.; McCrory, Paul Robert; Richardson, Martin D.; Zheng, Ming Hao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been extensively used as a treatment in tissue healing in tendinopathy, muscle injury, and osteoarthritis. However, there is variation in methods of extraction, and this produces different types of PRP. Purpose: To determine the composition of PRP obtained from 4 commercial separation kits, which would allow assessment of current classification systems used in cross-study comparisons. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Three normal adults each donated 181 mL of whole blood, some of which served as a control and the remainder of which was processed through 4 PRP separation kits: GPS III (Biomet Biologics), Smart-Prep2 (Harvest Terumo), Magellan (Arteriocyte Medical Systems), and ACP (Device Technologies). The resultant PRP was tested for platelet count, red blood cell count, and white blood cell count, including differential in a commercial pathology laboratory. Glucose and pH measurements were obtained from a blood gas autoanalyzer machine. Results: Three kits taking samples from the “buffy coat layer” were found to have greater concentrations of platelets (3-6 times baseline), while 1 kit taking samples from plasma was found to have platelet concentrations of only 1.5 times baseline. The same 3 kits produced an increased concentration of white blood cells (3-6 times baseline); these consisted of neutrophils, leukocytes, and monocytes. This represents high concentrations of platelets and white blood cells. A small drop in pH was thought to relate to the citrate used in the sample preparation. Interestingly, an unexpected increase in glucose concentrations, with 3 to 6 times greater than baseline levels, was found in all samples. Conclusion: This study reveals the variation of blood components, including platelets, red blood cells, leukocytes, pH, and glucose in PRP extractions. The high concentrations of cells are important, as the white blood cell count in PRP samples has frequently been ignored

  20. T63 Engine Vibratory Characteristics Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    corporation, or oonvaying any rights rt parmMon. to manufactura . us*, or sail any patantad invantion that may in any way ba ralatad thereto. Tjaaa namas...Suspension 30 8 Instrumentation Block Diagram 32 9 Engine Test Setup 33 10 Rigid Connection Between Shaker and Impedance Head. 35 11 Flexible Rod...Rotor Inplane Hub Shears at 1/Rev and 3/Rev ... 80 24 Tail Rotor Hub Shears 80 25 Correlation of Analytical and Test Modes for First Flexible

  1. Analysis of the JSF Engine Competition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Analyses ,4850 Mark Center Drive,Alexandria,VA,22311 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9 . SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...in a break-even percentage savings of 16 percent. 9 Because the DOD has not typically linked procurement and O&S costs in a single competition, we...slopes 9 Procurement Cost Estimates Used F135 Flight Test Engine (FTE) #3 actual data  Costs available by component  Applied F119 FTE and

  2. OMV/VTE variable thrust engine analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosillere, Louis; Litchford, Ron; Jeng, San-Mou

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop a predictive CFD based analytical tool for the variable thrust engine (VTE) in the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV). This objective is being accomplished within the framework of the Los Alamos KIVA computer code for chemically reactive flows with sprays. For the OMV application, the main structure of KIVA is to be retained while reformulating many of the phenomenological submodels, enhancing some of the numerics, and adding more features. The analytical model consists of the general conservation equations for two phase reactive flows and of submodels for turbulence, chemical reactions, and bipropellant sprays. Tailoring this model to the OMV engine brings about the added complexities of combustion and flow processes that occur in a liquid hypergolic propellant rocket chamber. This report exposes the foundation upon which the analytical tool is being constructed and developed. Results from a cursory computational exercise involving the simulation of the flow and combustion processes in a hypothetical N2H4/N2O4 rocket engine thrust chamber is presented and discussed.

  3. OMV/VTE variable thrust engine analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosillere, L.; Litchford, R.; Jeng, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop a predictive CFD based analytical tool for the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) in the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). This objective is being accomplished within the framework of the Los Alamos KIVA computer code for chemically reactive flows with sprays. For the OMV application, the main structure of KIVA is to be retained while reformulating many of the phenomenological submodels, enhancing some of the numerics, and adding more features. The analytical model consists of the general conservation equations for two-phase reactive flows and of submodels for turbulence, chemical reactions, and bipropellant sprays. Tailoring this model to the OMV engine brings about the added complexities of combustion and flow processes that occur in a liquid hypergolic propellant rocket chamber. This report exposes the foundation upon which the analytical tool is being constructed and developed. Results from a cursory computational exercise involving the simulation of the flow and combustion processes in a hypothetical N2H4/N204 rocket engine thrust chamber is presented and discussed.

  4. Advanced Plasma Diagnostic Analysis using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritz, Kevin; Reinke, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Machine learning techniques, specifically neural networks (NN), are used with sufficient internal complexity to develop an empirically weighted relationship between a set of filtered X-ray emission measurements and the electron temperature (Te) profile for a specific class of discharges on NSTX. The NN response matrix is used to calculate the Te profile directly from the filtered X-ray diode measurements which extends the electron temperature time response from the 60Hz Thomson Scattering profile measurements to fast timescales (>10kHz) and greatly expands the applicability of Te profile information to fast plasma phenomena, such as ELM dynamics. This process can be improved by providing additional information which helps the neural network refine the relationship between Te and the corresponding X-ray emission. NN supplement limited measurements of a particular quantity using related measurements with higher time or spatial resolution. For example, the radiated power (Prad) determined using resistive foil bolometers is related to similar measurements using AXUV diode arrays through a complex and slowly time-evolving quantum efficiency curve in the VUV spectral region. Results from a NN trained using Alcator C-Mod resistive foil bolometry and AXUV diodes are presented, working towards hybrid Prad measurements with the quantitative accuracy of resistive foil bolometers and with the enhanced temporal and spatial resolution of the unfiltered AXUV diode arrays. Work supported by Department of Energy Grant #: DE-FG02-09ER55012.

  5. Surface modification of electrospun PLLA nanofibers by plasma treatment and cationized gelatin immobilization for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Su, Chien-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Electrospun poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers (NF) were modified with cationized gelatin (CG) to improve their compatibility with chondrocytes and to show in vitro and in vivo the potential applications of CG-grafted PLLA nanofibrous membranes (CG-PLLA NFM) as a cartilage tissue engineering scaffold. PLLA NF were first treated with oxygen plasma to introduce -COOH groups on the surface, followed by covalent grafting of CG molecules onto the fiber surface, using water-soluble carbodiimide as the coupling agent. The effects of CG grafting and properties of NFM were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro studies indicated that CG-PLLA NFM could enhance viability, proliferation and differentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes compared with pristine PLLA NFM. SEM observations of the cell-scaffold construct confirmed the tight attachment of chondrocytes to CG-PLLA NF and in-growth of cells into the interior of the membrane with proper maintenance of cell morphology. Improved cell differentiation in CG-PLLA NFM was confirmed by enhanced glycoaminoglycan and collagen secretion, histological analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies, which showed that the cells were able to maintain the expression of characteristic markers (collagen II, aggregan and SOX 9) of chondrocytes. Subcutaneous implantation of the cell-scaffold constructs with autologous chondrocytes also confirmed the formation of ectopic cartilage tissues after 28 days by histological examination and immunostaining.

  6. 1-D Numerical Analysis of ABCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Richard

    1999-01-01

    ABCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engine into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Except for the heat source, the basic operation of the ABCC is similar to the basic operation of the RBCC engine. The ABCC is intended to have a higher specific impulse than the RBCC for single stage Earth to orbit vehicle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in ABCC propulsion system. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model using conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy equations that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic ABCC engine following a flight path. At specific points during the development of the 1-D numerical model a myriad of tests were performed to prove the program produced consistent, realistic numbers that follow compressible flow theory for various inlet conditions.

  7. 1-D Numerical Analysis of ABCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Richard

    1999-01-01

    ABCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engine into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Except for the heat source, the basic operation of the ABCC is similar to the basic operation of the RBCC engine. The ABCC is intended to have a higher specific impulse than the RBCC for single stage Earth to orbit vehicle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in ABCC propulsion system. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model using conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy equations that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic ABCC engine following a flight path. At specific points during the development of the 1-D numerical model a myriad of tests were performed to prove the program produced consistent, realistic numbers that follow compressible flow theory for various inlet conditions.

  8. Planetary plasma data analysis and 3D visualisation at the French Plasma Physics Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Michel; Génot, Vincent; Cecconi, Baptiste; Andre, Nicolas; Budnik, Elena; Bouchemit, Myriam; Jourdane, Nathanaël; Dufourg, Nicolas; Beigbeider, Laurent; Toniutti, Jean-Philippe; Durand, Joelle

    2016-10-01

    The CDPP (the French plasma physics data center http://cdpp.eu/) is engaged for nearly two decades in the archiving and dissemination of plasma data products from space missions and ground-based observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed services like AMDA (http://amda.cdpp.eu/) and 3DView (http://3dview.cdpp.eu/). AMDA enables in depth analysis of a large amount of data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualisation, data mining, cataloguing. 3DView provides immersive visualisations in planetary environments: spacecraft position and attitude, ephemerides. Magnetic field models (Cain, Tsyganenko), visualisation of cubes, 2D cuts as well as spectra or time series along spacecraft trajectories are possible in 3Dview. Both tools provide a joint access to outputs of simulations (MHD or Hybrid models) in planetary sciences as well as planetary plasma observational data (from AMDA, CDAWeb, Cluster Science Archive, ...). Some of these developments were funded by the EU IMPEx project, and some of the more recent ones are done in the frame of Europlanet 2020 RI project. The role of CDPP in the analysis and visualisation of planetary data and mission support increased after a collaboration with the NASA/PDS which resulted in the access in AMDA to several planetary datasets like those of GALILEO, MESSENGER, MAVEN, etc. In 2014, AMDA was chosen as the quicklook visualisation tool for the Rosetta Plasma Consortium through a collaboration with Imperial College, London. This presentation will include several use cases demonstrating recent and new capabilities of the tools.

  9. FLOCK cluster analysis of plasma cell flow cytometry data predicts bone marrow involvement by plasma cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, David M; LaPlante, Charlotte D; Li, Betty

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed plasma cell populations in bone marrow samples from 353 patients with possible bone marrow involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm, using FLOCK (FLOw Clustering without K), an unbiased, automated, computational approach to identify cell subsets in multidimensional flow cytometry data. FLOCK identified discrete plasma cell populations in the majority of bone marrow specimens found by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria to be involved by a plasma cell neoplasm (202/208 cases; 97%), including 34 cases that were negative by standard flow cytometric analysis that included clonality assessment. FLOCK identified discrete plasma cell populations in only a minority of cases negative for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria (38/145 cases; 26%). Interestingly, 55% of the cases negative by standard analysis, but containing a FLOCK-identified discrete plasma cell population, were positive for monoclonal gammopathy by serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. FLOCK-identified and quantitated plasma cell populations accounted for 3.05% of total cells on average in cases positive for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria, and 0.27% of total cells on average in cases negative for involvement by a plasma cell neoplasm by standard histologic and immunophenotypic criteria (p<0.0001; area under the curve by ROC analysis=0.96). The presence of a FLOCK-identified discrete plasma cell population was predictive of the presence of plasma cell neoplasia with a sensitivity of 97%, compared with only 81% for standard flow cytometric analysis, and had specificity of 74%, PPV of 84% and NPV of 95%. FLOCK analysis, which has been shown to provide useful diagnostic information for evaluating patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis, is able to identify neoplastic plasma cell populations analyzed by flow cytometry, and may be helpful in the diagnostic

  10. Engineered glucagon-like peptide-1-producing hepatocytes lower plasma glucose levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Michael J; Lee, Corinna Wai Kwan; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2009-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is an incretin hormone with well-characterized antidiabetic properties, including glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion and enhancement of beta-cell mass. GLP-1 agonists have recently been developed and are now in clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Rapid degradation of GLP-1 by enzymes including dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-IV and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) 24.11, along with renal clearance, contribute to a short biological half-life, necessitating frequent injections to maintain therapeutic efficacy. Gene therapy may represent a promising alternative approach for achieving long-term increases in endogenous release of GLP-1. We have developed a novel strategy for glucose-regulated production of GLP-1 in hepatocytes by expressing a DPP-IV-resistant GLP-1 peptide in hepatocytes under control of the liver-type pyruvate kinase promoter. Adenoviral delivery of this construct to hepatocytes in vitro resulted in production and secretion of bioactive GLP-1 as measured by a luciferase-based bioassay developed to detect the NH2-terminally modified GLP-1 peptide engineered for this study. Transplantation of encapsulated hepatocytes into CD-1 mice resulted in an increase in plasma GLP-1 levels that was accompanied by a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose levels. The results from this study demonstrate that a gene therapy approach designed to induce GLP-1 production in hepatocytes may represent a novel strategy for long-term secretion of bioactive GLP-1 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Ladas, H.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a finite-time thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling engine cycle. A lumped-parameter thermodynamic model is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. The mathematical formulation of this model is based on mass and energy balances with associated heat transfer rate equations. These governing equations are formulated into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically to obtain the dynamic behavior of the Stirling engine. Close inspection of the governing equations reveals that the time to complete on cycle, {tau} and the engine time constant, {tau}{sub c} always appear together in a dimensionless ratio. This ratio, {tau}/{tau}{sub c}, is defined here as the Finite-Time Parameter, FTP. The effects of FTP upon power output and efficiency, are studied. The results show that there exists an optimum power output for a given engine design, based on engine speed and heat-transfer contact time. The results also provide an engineering evaluation procedure to improve the efficiency and power output of Stirling engines.

  12. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  13. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  14. Near Discharge Cathode Assembly Plasma Potential Measurements in a 30-cm NSTAR Type Ion Engine During Beam Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2006-01-01

    Floating emissive probe plasma potential data are presented over a two-dimensional array of locations in the near Discharge Cathode Assembly (DCA) region of a 30-cm diameter ring-cusp ion thruster. Discharge plasma data are presented with beam extraction at throttling conditions comparable to the NASA TH Levels 8, 12, and 15. The operating conditions of the Extended Life Test (ELT) of the Deep Space One (DS1) flight spare ion engine, where anomalous discharge keeper erosion occurred, were TH 8 and TH 12 consequently they are of specific interest in investigating discharge keeper erosion phenomena. The data do not validate the presence of a potential hill plasma structure downstream of the DCA, which has been proposed as a possible erosion mechanism. The data are comparable in magnitude to data taken by other researchers in ring-cusp electron-bombardment ion thrusters. The plasma potential structures are insensitive to thruster throttling level with a minimum as low as 14 V measured at the DCA exit plane and increasing gradually in the axial direction. A sharp increase in plasma potential to the bulk discharge value of 26 to 28 volts, roughly 10 mm radially from DCA centerline, was observed. Plasma potential measurements indicate a low-potential plume structure that is roughly 20 mm in diameter emanating from the discharge cathode that may be attributed to a free-standing plasma double layer.

  15. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  16. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  17. Computational analysis of liquid hypergolic propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, A.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gross, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion process in liquid rocket engines depends on a number of complex phenomena such as atomization, vaporization, spray dynamics, mixing, and reaction mechanisms. A computational tool to study their mutual interactions is developed to help analyze these processes with a view of improving existing designs and optimizing future designs of the thrust chamber. The focus of the article is on the analysis of the Variable Thrust Engine for the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. This engine uses a hypergolic liquid bipropellant combination of monomethyl hydrazine as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer.

  18. Hybrid Analysis of Engine Core Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Jeffrey; Kim, Jeonglae; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Core noise, or the noise generated within an aircraft engine, is becoming an increasing concern for the aviation industry as other noise sources are progressively reduced. The prediction of core noise generation and propagation is especially challenging for computationalists since it involves extensive multiphysics including chemical reaction and moving blades in addition to the aerothermochemical effects of heated jets. In this work, a representative engine flow path is constructed using experimentally verified geometries to simulate the physics of core noise. A combustor, single-stage turbine, nozzle and jet are modeled in separate calculations using appropriate high fidelity techniques including LES, actuator disk theory and Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings surfaces. A one way coupling procedure is developed for passing fluctuations downstream through the flowpath. This method effectively isolates the core noise from other acoustic sources, enables straightforward study of the interaction between core noise and jet exhaust, and allows for simple distinction between direct and indirect noise. The impact of core noise on the farfield jet acoustics is studied extensively and the relative efficiency of different disturbance types and shapes is examined in detail.

  19. Engineering and Design: Ice-Influenced Flood Stage Frequency Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-31

    Beltaos , S . (1983 )River ice jams: theory, case studies andapplications. journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 109(10):1338-1359. Gerard, R. L., and...Ice-Influenced Flood Stage Frequency Analysis Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author( s ) Project Number Task Number Work Unit...Number Performing Organization Name( s ) and Address(es) Department of the Army U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Performing

  20. Integrating computer programs for engineering analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Crisp, V. K.; Johnson, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The design of a third-generation system for integrating computer programs for engineering and design has been developed for the Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design (AVID) system. This system consists of an engineering data management system, program interface software, a user interface, and a geometry system. A relational information system (ARIS) was developed specifically for the computer-aided engineering system. It is used for a repository of design data that are communicated between analysis programs, for a dictionary that describes these design data, for a directory that describes the analysis programs, and for other system functions. A method is described for interfacing independent analysis programs into a loosely-coupled design system. This method emphasizes an interactive extension of analysis techniques and manipulation of design data. Also, integrity mechanisms exist to maintain database correctness for multidisciplinary design tasks by an individual or a team of specialists. Finally, a prototype user interface program has been developed to aid in system utilization.

  1. On-line distortion analysis system inlet-engine test

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, W.K.; Lazalier, G.R.; Rose, C.D.; Lauer, R.F.

    1991-06-01

    A system for near-real-time distortion analysis support of aircraft turbine engine-inlet altitude testing is described. Target applications include both subscale and full-scale inlet-engine compatibility testing in wind tunnel, direct-connect, and free-jet configurations. The system digitizes analog-format, time-dependent data and combines it with digital-format, steady-state data. A high-speed data bus and multiple array processors provide for on-line execution of complex distortion analysis algorithms to compute and display distortion indices, histograms, isobar plots, and surge margin consumption. Analysis algorithms are programmed using a high-level language (FORTRAN 77).

  2. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, C. W.; Lam, Y. L.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Luximon, A.; Lau, K. W.; Chen, K. S.

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  3. Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

  4. Wear Protection of AJ62 Mg Engine Blocks using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and pollution, automotive companies are developing magnesium-intensive components. However, due to the low wear resistance of the magnesium (Mg) alloys, Mg cylinder bores are vulnerable to the sliding wear attack. In this thesis, two approaches were used to protect the cylinder bores, made of a new developed Mg engine alloy AJ62 (MgA16Mn0.34Sr2). The first one was to use a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process to produce oxide coatings on the Mg bores. The wear properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated by sliding wear tests under the boundary lubrication condition at the room and elevated temperatures. It was found that due to the substrate softening and the vaporization loss of the lubricant, the tribological properties of the PEO coatings were deteriorated at the elevated temperature. In order to optimize the PEO process, a statistical method (Response surface method) was used to analyze the effects of the 4 main PEO process parameters with 2 levels for each and their interactions on the tribological properties of the PEO coatings at the room and elevated temperatures, individually. A cylinder liner made of an economical metal-matrix composite (MMC) was another approach to improve the wear resistance of the Mg cylinder bore. In this thesis, an A1383/SiO2 MMC was designed to replace the expensive Alusil alloy used in the BMW Mg/Al composite engine to build the cylinder liner. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, PEO process was also used to form an oxide coating on the MMC. The effects of the SiO 2 content and coating thickness on the tribological properties of the MMC were studied. To evaluate the wear properties of the optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the MMC with the oxide coatings, Alusil and cast iron, currently used on the cylinder bores of the commercial aluminum engines, were used as reference materials. The optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the oxidized MMC showed their advantages over the

  5. Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A Model Based Systems Engineering Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Nicholas James

    2015-07-01

    This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using Model Based System Engineering (MBSE).

  6. Application Experiences of NASTRAN Thermal Analysis in Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The application of the thermal analysis phase of NASTRAN in engineering is described. Some illustrative samples are presented to demonstrate the applicability and limitation of NASTRAN thermal analysis capability. The results of the evaluation of the relative efficiency, applicability and accuracy among NASTRAN, other finite element programs, and finite difference programs are also presented.

  7. Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

  8. State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

  9. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  10. Photon Physics and Plasma Research, Photonics Applications and Web Engineering, Wilga, May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper is the third part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with Photon Physics and Plasma Research. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET tokamak and pi-of-the sky experiments development. The symposium is an annual summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP students to meet together in a large group spanning the whole country with guests from this part of Europe. A digest of Wilga references is presented [1-270].

  11. Platelet-Rich Plasma in Bone Regeneration: Engineering the Delivery for Improved Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Growney Kalaf, Emily A.; Bowlin, Gary L.; Sell, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Human bone is a tissue with a fairly remarkable inherent capacity for regeneration; however, this regenerative capacity has its limitations, and defects larger than a critical size lack the ability to spontaneously heal. As such, the development and clinical translation of effective bone regeneration modalities are paramount. One regenerative medicine approach that is beginning to gain momentum in the clinical setting is the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP therapy is essentially a method for concentrating platelets and their intrinsic growth factors to stimulate and accelerate a healing response. While PRP has shown some efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo scenarios, to date its use and delivery have not been optimized for bone regeneration. Issues remain with the effective delivery of the platelet-derived growth factors to a localized site of injury, the activation and temporal release of the growth factors, and the rate of growth factor clearance. This review will briefly describe the physiological principles behind PRP use and then discuss how engineering its method of delivery may ultimately impact its ability to successfully translate to widespread clinical use. PMID:25050347

  12. Incorporating platelet-rich plasma into electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Sell, Scott A; Wolfe, Patricia S; Ericksen, Jeffery J; Simpson, David G; Bowlin, Gary L

    2011-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has seen a recent spike in clinical interest due to the potential that the highly concentrated platelet solutions hold for stimulating tissue repair and regeneration. The aim of this study was to incorporate PRP into a number of electrospun materials to determine how growth factors are eluted from the structures, and what effect the presence of these factors has on enhancing electrospun scaffold bioactivity. PRP underwent a freeze-thaw-freeze process to lyse platelets, followed by lyophilization to create a powdered preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF), which was subsequently added to the electrospinning process. Release of protein from scaffolds over time was quantified, along with the quantification of human macrophage and adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) chemotaxis and proliferation. Protein assays demonstrated a sustained release of protein from PRGF-containing scaffolds at up to 35 days in culture. Scaffold bioactivity was enhanced as ADSCs demonstrated increased proliferation in the presence of PRGF, whereas macrophages demonstrated increased chemotaxis to PRGF. In conclusion, the work performed in this study demonstrated that the incorporation of PRGF into electrospun structures has a significant positive influence on the bioactivity of the scaffolds, and may prove beneficial in a number of tissue engineering applications.

  13. Microstructural prototyping of ceramics by kinetic engineering: applications of spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhijian; Nygren, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The significance of kinetics on the development of microstructures in connection with sintering of ceramics is well recognized. In practice, however, it still remains a challenge to prepare designed microstructures via engineering the sintering kinetics because of an insufficient understanding of the different operative mechanisms that are in many cases overlapping. In this article the kinetic issues involved in sintering are described and discussed with respect to their potential for prototyping microstructures that yield desired properties. By exploiting and mastering the differences present in the kinetics of grain sliding, densification, chemical reactions, and grain growth, respectively, we have established processing principles for producing bulk ceramics with microstructures consisting of nano-sized grains, aligned grains, and/or non-equilibrium-phase constitutions, and for achieving radically improved superplasticity in brittle ceramics. Although the studies quoted in this article were mainly carried out by spark plasma sintering, more general implications of them are expected, including efficient particle sliding, deformation-induced dynamic ripening, superplastic deformation-induced dynamic ripening, and non-equilibrium integration.

  14. Environmental engineering and analysis: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, F.D.

    1989-03-01

    One of the primary missions of the Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is the development of an information and data base on the engineering and environmental aspects of advanced technologies for the conversion of relatively abundant energy sources, such as coal, to clean fuels. Such fuels may be suitable for a number of end uses, including substitute natural gas, fuel gas for use in gas turbines, and others. METC has provided support for the development of a number of synfuels technologies, including the Mountain Fuel Resources (MFR) and Kellogg-Rust/Westinghouse (KRW) gasification technologies, and several raw gas and aqueous waste cleanup technologies. The primary objective of this project was to obtain and evaluate environmental data for advanced synthetic fuel technologies of interest to the Department of Energy as well as associated pollution controls, such as gas cleanup and wastewater treatment technologies.

  15. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  16. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  17. Correlation analysis of waves above a capacitive plasma applicator.

    PubMed

    Gekelman, W; Barnes, M; Vincena, S; Pribyl, P

    2009-07-24

    Capacitively coupled plasma glow discharges have been extensively used for materials processing in numerous industrial applications. Considerable research has been performed on plasma sheaths and standing waves over a capacitive applicator, which typically holds the processed substrate (e.g., a semiconductor wafer). In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of normal modes in electric potential analogous to the vibrational modes in circular membranes and plates. These modes are exhibited through cross spectral analysis of the plasma potential measured with an emissive probe at 208 spatial positions and sampled at 1 GHz. These modes exist at several frequencies and are described by a series of Bessel functions. The data further suggests a nonlinear interaction between modes of different frequencies.

  18. Correlation Analysis of Waves above a Capacitive Plasma Applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Gekelman, W.; Vincena, S.; Pribyl, P.; Barnes, M.

    2009-07-24

    Capacitively coupled plasma glow discharges have been extensively used for materials processing in numerous industrial applications. Considerable research has been performed on plasma sheaths and standing waves over a capacitive applicator, which typically holds the processed substrate (e.g., a semiconductor wafer). In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of normal modes in electric potential analogous to the vibrational modes in circular membranes and plates. These modes are exhibited through cross spectral analysis of the plasma potential measured with an emissive probe at 208 spatial positions and sampled at 1 GHz. These modes exist at several frequencies and are described by a series of Bessel functions. The data further suggests a nonlinear interaction between modes of different frequencies.

  19. Toward the automated analysis of plasma physics problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-04-01

    A program (CALC) is described, which carries out nontrivial plasma physics calculations, in a manner intended to emulate the approach of a human theorist. This includes the initial process of gathering the relevant equations from a plasma knowledge base, and then determining how to solve them. Solution of the sets of equations governing physics problems, which in general have a nonuniform,irregular structure, not amenable to solution by standardized algorithmic procedures, is facilitated by an analysis of the structure of the equations and the relations among them. This often permits decompositions of the full problem into subproblems, and other simplifications in form, which renders the resultant subsystems soluble by more standardized tools. CALC's operation is illustrated by a detailed description of its treatment of a sample plasma calculation. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Thirteenth symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Fluid/thermal processes, systems analysis and control

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of which Engineering Research is a component program, is responsible for the long-term mission-oriented research in the Department. Consistent with the DOE/BES mission, the Engineering Research Program is charged with the identification, initiation, and management of fundamental research on broad, generic topics addressing energy-related engineering problems. Its stated goals are: (1) to improve and extend the body of knowledge underlying current engineering practice so as to create new options for enhancing energy savings and production, for prolonging useful life of energy-related structures and equipment, and for developing advanced manufacturing technologies and materials processing with emphasis on reducing costs with improved industrial production and performance quality; and (2) to expand the store of fundamental concepts for solving anticipated and unforeseen engineering problems in the energy technologies. The meeting covered the following areas: (1) fluid mechanics 1--fundamental properties; (2) fluid mechanics 2--two phase flow; (3) thermal processes; (4) fluid mechanics 3; (5) process analysis and control; (6) fluid mechanics 4--turbulence; (7) fluid mechanics 5--chaos; (8) materials issues; and (9) plasma processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Gyrokinetic linear stability analysis of NSTX L-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ke; Ren, Yang

    2016-10-01

    NSTX offered unique opportunities in studying transport and turbulence with low aspect ratio, strong plasma shaping and strong E ×B shear. NSTX L-mode plasmas have some favorable properties to facilitate the study of the relation between microturbulence and thermal transport: easier to obtain stationary profiles; easier to maintain MHD quiescence; no complications from edge transport barrier. Studies of NSTX RF/NBI-heated L-mode plasmas have provided new insight into the role of ion and electron-scale turbulence in driving anomalous transport. Here we present linear stability analysis of some NSTX L-mode plasmas with GS2 gyrokinetic code. GS2 is an initial value gyrokinetic code which, in its linear mode, finds the fastest growing mode for a given pair of poloidal and radial wavenumbers. The linear simulations used local Miller equilibria and plasma parameters derived from measured experimental profiles with electromagnetic effects, electron and ion collisions and carbon impurity. The work is supported by DOE, China Scholarship Council, the Natural Science Foundation of China (61402138) and the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (E201452).

  2. An Integrated, Cooperative Learning Oriented Freshman Civil Engineering Course: Computer Analysis in Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Frederick L.; Groccia, James E.

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts) has developed a new freshman course titled "Computer Analysis in Civil Engineering" as part of a curriculum revision project which emphasizes critical thinking, cooperative group learning and problem solving, the integration of knowledge through projects, and student responsibility for…

  3. Control Engineering Analysis of Mechanical Pitch Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernicke, Olaf; Gauterin, Eckhard; Schulte, Horst; Zajac, Michal

    2014-12-01

    With the help of a local stability analysis the coefficient range of a discrete damper, used for centrifugal forced, mechanical pitch system of small wind turbines (SWT), is gained for equilibrium points. - By a global stability analysis the gained coefficient range can be validated. An appropriate approach by Takagi-Sugeno is presented in the paper.

  4. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  5. Investigation and improvement of three-dimensional plasma crystal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, C.; Thoma, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, existing methods for plasma crystal analysis are investigated using artificial and simulated calibration data, which reproduce a multiphase system consisting of fcc, hcp, and bcc crystal data. Disturbances of the artificial data including Gaussian noise, stretching, and randomly missing particles are used to investigate the methods thoroughly. A popular method, called bond order parameter, has been repeatedly criticized as a structure analysis tool and will be improved with the help of a recent development. The method is called the bcc-sensitive Minkowski structure metric. It enhances robustness and consistency, while remaining compatible with previous bond-order-based results. Also, a promising method rooted in the molecular dynamics community is tested, yielding detailed insight of bond-order-specific drawbacks. With this investigation, the state of three-dimensional plasma crystal analysis will be significantly improved.

  6. Plasma Vehicle Charging Analysis for Orion Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, B.; Norgard, J.

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the upcoming experimental test flight for the Orion crew module, considerable interest was raised over the possibility of exposure to elevated levels of plasma activity and vehicle charging both externally on surfaces and internally on dielectrics during the flight test orbital operations. Initial analysis using NASCAP-2K indicated very high levels of exposure, and this generated additional interest in refining/defining the plasma and spacecraft models used in the analysis. This refinement was pursued, resulting in the use of specific AE8 and AP8 models, rather than SCATHA models, as well as consideration of flight trajectory, time duration, and other parameters possibly affecting the levels of exposure and the magnitude of charge deposition. Analysis using these refined models strongly indicated that, for flight test operations, no special surface coatings were necessary for the Thermal Protection System (TPS), but would definitely be required for future GEO, trans-lunar, and extra-lunar missions.

  7. Plasma Vehicle Charging Analysis for Orion Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallement, L.; McDonald, T.; Norgard, J.; Scully, B.

    2014-01-01

    In preparation for the upcoming experimental test flight for the Orion crew module, considerable interest was raised over the possibility of exposure to elevated levels of plasma activity and vehicle charging both externally on surfaces and internally on dielectrics during the flight test orbital operations. Initial analysis using NASCAP-2K indicated very high levels of exposure, and this generated additional interest in refining/defining the plasma and spacecraft models used in the analysis. This refinement was pursued, resulting in the use of specific AE8 and AP8 models, rather than SCATHA models, as well as consideration of flight trajectory, time duration, and other parameters possibly affecting the levels of exposure and the magnitude of charge deposition. Analysis using these refined models strongly indicated that, for flight test operations, no special surface coatings were necessary for the thermal protection system, but would definitely be required for future GEO, trans-lunar, and extra-lunar missions...

  8. 1-D Numerical Analysis of RBCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1998-01-01

    An RBCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engines into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Considerable research pertaining to RBCC propulsion was performed during the 1960's and these engines were revisited recently as a candidate propulsion system for either a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) or two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle. There are a variety of RBCC configurations that had been evaluated and new designs are currently under development. However, the basic configuration of all RBCC systems is built around the ejector scramjet engine originally developed for the hypersonic airplane. In this configuration, a rocket engine plays as an ejector in the air-augmented initial acceleration mode, as a fuel injector in scramjet mode and the rocket in all rocket mode for orbital insertion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in RBCC propulsion systems. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic RBCC engine following a flight path.

  9. Engine System Loads Analysis Compared to Hot-Fire Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Jennings, John M.; Mims, Katherine; Brunty, Joseph; Christensen, Eric R.; McConnaughey, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Early implementation of structural dynamics finite element analyses for calculation of design loads is considered common design practice for high volume manufacturing industries such as automotive and aeronautical industries. However with the rarity of rocket engine development programs starts, these tools are relatively new to the design of rocket engines. In the NASA MC-1 engine program, the focus was to reduce the cost-to-weight ratio. The techniques for structural dynamics analysis practices, were tailored in this program to meet both production and structural design goals. Perturbation of rocket engine design parameters resulted in a number of MC-1 load cycles necessary to characterize the impact due to mass and stiffness changes. Evolution of loads and load extraction methodologies, parametric considerations and a discussion of load path sensitivities are important during the design and integration of a new engine system. During the final stages of development, it is important to verify the results of an engine system model to determine the validity of the results. During the final stages of the MC-1 program, hot-fire test results were obtained and compared to the structural design loads calculated by the engine system model. These comparisons are presented in this paper.

  10. A dislocation-based crystal viscoplasticity model with application to micro-engineered plasma-facing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, David; Huang, Yue; Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2017-03-01

    Materials developed with special surface architecture are shown here to be more resilient to the transient thermomechanical environments imposed by intermittent exposures to high heat flux thermal loading typical of long-pulse plasma transients. In an accompanying article, we present experimental results that show the relaxation of residual thermal stresses in micro-engineered W surfaces. A dislocation-based model is extended here within the framework of large deformation crystal plasticity. The model is applied to the deformation of single crystals, polycrystals, and micro-engineered surfaces composed of a uniform density of micro-pillars. The model is utilized to design tapered surface micro-pillar architecture, composed of a Re core and W coatings. Residual stresses generated by cyclic thermomechanical loading of these architectures show that the surface can be in a compressive stress state, following a short shakedown plasma exposure, thus mitigating surface fracture.

  11. Analysis of plasma wave interference patterns in the Spacelab 2 PDP data. [PDP (Plasma Diagnostics Package)

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Wei.

    1992-01-01

    During the Spacelab 2 mission the University of Iowa's Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) explored the plasma environment around the shuttle. Wideband spectrograms of plasma waves were obtained from the PDP at frequencies from 0 to 30 kHz up to 400 m from the shuttle. These spectrograms frequently showed interference patterns caused by waves with wavelengths short compared to the antenna length (3.89 meters). Two types of interference patterns were observed in the wideband data: associated with the ejection of an electron beam from the space shuttle; associated with lower hybrid waves generated by an interaction between the neutral gas cloud around shuttle and the ambient ionospheric plasma. Analysis of these antenna interference patterns permits a determination of the wavelength, the plasma rest frame frequency, the direction of propagation, the power spectrum and in some cases the location of the source. The electric field noise associated with the electron beam was observed in the wideband data for two periods during which an electron frequency range at low frequencies (below 10 kHz) and shows clear evidence of interference patterns. The broadband low frequency noise was the dominant type of noise produced by the electron beam. The waves have a linear dispersion relation very similar to ion acoustic waves. The returning to the shuttle in response to the ejected electron beam. The waves associated with the lower hybrid resonance have rest frame frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and propagate perpendicular to the magnetic field. The occurrence of these waves depends strongly on the PDP's position relative to the shuttle and the magnetic field direction. The authors results confirm previous identifications of these waves as lower hybrid waves and suggest they are driven by pick-up ions (H[sub 2]O[sup +]) produced by a charge exchange interaction between a water cloud around the shuttle and the ambient ionosphere.

  12. Predicting human plasma protein binding of drugs using plasma protein interaction QSAR analysis (PPI-QSAR).

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Chen, Zhuxi; Xu, Xuejun; Sui, Xiaofan; Guo, Tao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2011-09-01

    A novel method, named as the plasma protein-interaction QSAR analysis (PPI-QSAR) was used to construct the QSAR models for human plasma protein binding. The intra-molecular descriptors of drugs and inter-molecular interaction descriptors resulted from the docking simulation between drug molecules and human serum albumin were included as independent variables in this method. A structure-based in silico model for a data set of 65 antibiotic drugs was constructed by the multiple linear regression method and validated by the residual analysis, the normal Probability-Probability plot and Williams plot. The R(2) and Q(2) values of the entire data set were 0.87 and 0.77, respectively, for the training set were 0.86 and 0.72, respectively. The results indicated that the fitted model is robust, stable and satisfies all the prerequisites of the regression models. Combining intra-molecular descriptors with inter-molecular interaction descriptors between drug molecules and human serum albumin, the drug plasma protein binding could be modeled and predicted by the PPI-QSAR method successfully.

  13. An expert system for spectroscopic analysis of rocket engine plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, Greg; Valenti, Elizabeth; Alphonso, Keith; Holladay, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    The expert system described in this paper analyzes spectral emissions of rocket engine exhaust plumes and shows major promise for use in engine health diagnostics. Plume emission spectroscopy is an important tool for diagnosing engine anomalies, but it is time-consuming and requires highly skilled personnel. The expert system was created to alleviate such problems. The system accepts a spectral plot in the form of wavelength vs intensity pairs and finds the emission peaks in the spectrum, lists the elemental emitters present in the data and deduces the emitter that produced each peak. The system consists of a conventional language component and a commercially available inference engine that runs on an Apple Macintosh computer. The expert system has undergone limited preliminary testing. It detects elements well and significantly decreases analysis time.

  14. An analysis of Ph.D. examiners' reports in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Elena; Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls for an overall transformation of the nature of engineering Ph.D. programs and the way theses are assessed. There exists a need to understand the examination process to ensure the best quality outcome for candidates in engineering. The work we present in this paper uses data collected between 2003 and 2010 for a total of 1220 Australian Ph.D. theses by analysing examiner reports. Our analysis indicates that Ph.D. theses in engineering, N = 106, differ considerably from those in other fields in areas such as gender of candidates and examiners and the examiners' geographical location. We also found that assessment areas such as significance and contribution of the thesis, publications arising from the thesis, breadth, depth and recency of the literature review and communication and editorial correctness are areas in which the proportion of text of engineering examiners' comments differs significantly from other fields.

  15. Interactive color display of 3-D engineering analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, John F.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.; Greenberg, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    A general approach to three-dimensional postprocessing of engineering analyses is presented. The approach is versatile and may handle the results from a wide range of engineering analysis methods which involve the discretization of continua. To facilitate the understanding of complex three-dimensional numerical models, advanced interactive color postprocessing techniques are introduced. Finite element, finite difference, and boundary element models are evaluated with the prototype postprocessor. The existing color graphics program (POSTPRO3D) was ported to a high-resolution device. Interactive graphic tools were implemented to facilitate qualitative mesh evaluation from a single analysis. A postprocessing environment was design for workstation technology.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented by Hydrogen Rich Gas from a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Green, Jr.; N. Domingo; J. M. E. Storey; R.M. Wagner; J.S. Armfield; L. Bromberg; D. R. Cohn; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev

    2000-06-19

    It is well known that hydrogen addition to spark-ignited (SI) engines can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. Micro plasmatron fuel converters can be used for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas by partial oxidation of a wide range of fuels. These plasma-boosted microreformers are compact, rugged, and provide rapid response. With hydrogen supplement to the main fuel, SI engines can run very lean resulting in a large reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions relative to stoichiometric combustion without a catalytic converter. This paper presents experimental results from a microplasmatron fuel converter operating under variable oxygen to carbon ratios. Tests have also been carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of a microplasmatron fuel converter generated gas in a 1995 2.3-L four-cylinder SI production engine. The tests were performed with and without hydrogen-rich gas produced by the plasma boosted fuel converter with gasoline. A one hundred fold reduction in NO x due to very lean operation was obtained under certain conditions. An advantage of onboard plasma-boosted generation of hydrogen-rich gas is that it is used only when required and can be readily turned on and off. Substantial NO x reduction should also be obtainable by heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) facilitated by use of hydrogen-rich gas with stoichiometric operation.

  17. Dietary zinc depletion and repletion affects plasma proteins: an analysis of the plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Grider, Arthur; Wickwire, Kathie; Ho, Emily; Chung, Carolyn S; King, Janet

    2013-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a problem world-wide. Current methods for assessing Zn status are limited to measuring plasma or serum Zn within populations suspected of deficiency. Despite the high prevalence of Zn deficiency in the human population there are no methods currently available for sensitively assessing Zn status among individuals. The purpose of this research was to utilize a proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry to identify protein biomarkers that were sensitive to changes in dietary Zn levels in humans. Proteomic analysis was performed in human plasma samples (n = 6) obtained from healthy adult male subjects that completed a dietary Zn depletion/repletion protocol, current dietary zinc intake has a greater effect on fractional zinc absorption than does longer term zinc consumption in healthy adult men. Chung et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 87 (5):1224-1229, 2008). After a 13 day Zn acclimatization period where subjects consumed a Zn-adequate diet, the male subjects consumed a marginal Zn-depleted diet for 42 days followed by consumption of a Zn-repleted diet for 28 days. The samples at baseline, end of depletion and end of repletion were pre-fractionated through immuno-affinity columns to remove 14 highly abundant proteins, and each fraction separated by 2DE. Following staining by colloidal Coomassie blue and densitometric analysis, three proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as affected by changes in dietary Zn. Fibrin β and chain E, fragment double D were observed in the plasma protein fraction that remained bound to the immunoaffinity column. An unnamed protein that was related to immunoglobulins was observed in the immunodepleted plasma fraction. Fibrin β increased two-fold following the Zn depletion period and decreased to baseline values following the Zn repletion period; this protein may serve as a viable biomarker for Zn status in the future.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Plasma in Arc and RF Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Todorovic-Markovic, B.; Markovic, Z.; Mohai, I.; Szepvolgyi, J.

    2004-12-01

    Results on studies of molecular spectra emitted in the initial stages of fullerene formation during the processing of graphite powder in induction RF reactor and evaporation of graphite electrodes in arc reactor are presented in this paper. It was found that C2 radicals were dominant molecular species in both plasmas. C2 radicals have an important role in the process of fullerene synthesis. The rotational-vibrational temperatures of C2 and CN species were calculated by fitting the experimental spectra to the simulated ones. The results of optical emission study of C2 radicals generated in carbon arc plasma have shown that rotational temperature of C2 species depends on carbon concentration and current intensity significantly. The optical emission study of induction RF plasma and SEM analysis of graphite powder before and after plasma treatment have shown that evaporation of the processed graphite powder depends on feed rate and composition of gas phase significantly. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that in the plasma region CN radicals could be formed by the reaction of C2 species with atomic nitrogen at smaller loads. At larger feed rate of graphite powder, CN species were produced by surface reaction of the hot carbon particles with nitrogen atoms. The presence of nitrogen in induction RF plasma reduces the fullerene yield significantly. The fullerene yield obtained in two different reactors was: 13% in arc reactor and 4.1% in induction RF reactor. However, the fullerene production rate was higher in induction RF reactor-6.4 g/h versus 1.7 g/h in arc reactor.

  19. Flux analysis and metabolomics for systematic metabolic engineering of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Toya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Rational engineering of metabolism is important for bio-production using microorganisms. Metabolic design based on in silico simulations and experimental validation of the metabolic state in the engineered strain helps in accomplishing systematic metabolic engineering. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a method for the prediction of metabolic phenotype, and many applications have been developed using FBA to design metabolic networks. Elementary mode analysis (EMA) and ensemble modeling techniques are also useful tools for in silico strain design. The metabolome and flux distribution of the metabolic pathways enable us to evaluate the metabolic state and provide useful clues to improve target productivity. Here, we reviewed several computational applications for metabolic engineering by using genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms. We also discussed the recent progress made in the field of metabolomics and (13)C-metabolic flux analysis techniques, and reviewed these applications pertaining to bio-production development. Because these in silico or experimental approaches have their respective advantages and disadvantages, the combined usage of these methods is complementary and effective for metabolic engineering.

  20. Metabolic engineering: techniques for analysis of targets for genetic manipulations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J

    Metabolic engineering has been defined as the purposeful modification of intermediary metabolism using recombinant DNA techniques. With this definition metabolic engineering includes: (1) inserting new pathways in microorganisms with the aim of producing novel metabolites, e.g., production of polyketides by Streptomyces; (2) production of heterologous peptides, e.g., production of human insulin, erythropoitin, and tPA; and (3) improvement of both new and existing processes, e.g., production of antibiotics and industrial enzymes. Metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary approach, which involves input from chemical engineers, molecular biologists, biochemists, physiologists, and analytical chemists. Obviously, molecular biology is central in the production of novel products, as well as in the improvement of existing processes. However, in the latter case, input from other disciplines is pivotal in order to target the genetic modifications; with the rapid developments in molecular biology, progress in the field is likely to be limited by procedures to identify the optimal genetic changes. Identification of the optimal genetic changes often requires a meticulous mapping of the cellular metabolism at different operating conditions, and the application of metabolic engineering to process optimization is, therefore, expected mainly to have an impact on the improvement of processes where yield, productivity, and titer are important design factors, i.e., in the production of metabolites and industrial enzymes. Despite the prospect of obtaining major improvement through metabolic engineering, this approach is, however, not expected to completely replace the classical approach to strain improvement-random mutagenesis followed by screening. Identification of the optimal genetic changes for improvement of a given process requires analysis of the underlying mechanisms, at best, at the molecular level. To reveal these mechanisms a number of different techniques may be applied

  1. Simultaneous analysis and design. [in structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization techniques are increasingly being used for performing nonlinear structural analysis. The development of element by element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) techniques is expected to extend this trend to linear analysis. Under these circumstances the structural design problem can be viewed as a nested optimization problem. There are computational benefits to treating this nested problem as a large single optimization problem. The response variables (such as displacements) and the structural parameters are all treated as design variables in a unified formulation which performs simultaneously the design and analysis. Two examples are used for demonstration. A seventy-two bar truss is optimized subject to linear stress constraints and a wing box structure is optimized subject to nonlinear collapse constraints. Both examples show substantial computational savings with the unified approach as compared to the traditional nested approach.

  2. Simultaneous analysis and design. [in structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Optimization techniques are increasingly being used for performing nonlinear structural analysis. The development of element by element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient (CG) techniques is expected to extend this trend to linear analysis. Under these circumstances the structural design problem can be viewed as a nested optimization problem. There are computational benefits to treating this nested problem as a large single optimization problem. The response variables (such as displacements) and the structural parameters are all treated as design variables in a unified formulation which performs simultaneously the design and analysis. Two examples are used for demonstration. A seventy-two bar truss is optimized subject to linear stress constraints and a wing box structure is optimized subject to nonlinear collapse constraints. Both examples show substantial computational savings with the unified approach as compared to the traditional nested approach.

  3. Two methodologies for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghayan, Hamid; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Yang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The performance, efficiency and lifetime of modern combustion engines significantly depend on the quality of the engine lubricants. However, contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, coolant and wear particles, reduce the life of engine mechanical components and lubricant quality. Therefore, direct and indirect measurements of engine lubricant properties, such as physical-mechanical, electro-magnetic, chemical and optical properties, are intensively utilized in engine condition monitoring systems and sensors developed within the last decade. Such sensors for the measurement of engine lubricant properties can be used to detect a functional limit of the in-use lubricant, increase drain interval and reduce the environmental impact. This paper proposes two new methodologies for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The methodologies are based on optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium (e.g. engine lubricant). The novelty of the proposed methodologies is in the introduction of an object with a known periodic shape behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodic structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. In the object shape-based optical analysis, several parameters of an acquired optical image, such as the gray scale intensity of lubricant and object, shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative intensity and width non-uniformity coefficient are newly proposed. Variations in the contaminant concentration and use of different contaminants lead to the changes of these parameters measured on-line. In the statistical optical analysis methodology, statistical auto- and cross-characteristics (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, auto- and cross-spectrums, transfer function

  4. Engine Control Improvement through Application of Chaotic Time Series Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B., Jr.; Daw, C.S.

    2003-07-15

    The objective of this program was to investigate cyclic variations in spark-ignition (SI) engines under lean fueling conditions and to develop options to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines at high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. The CIDI activity builds upon an earlier collaboration between ORNL and Ford examining combustion instabilities in SI engines. Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to understand the fundamental causes of combustion instability in spark-ignition engines operating with lean fueling. The results of this earlier activity demonstrated that such combustion instabilities are dominated by the effects of residual gas remaining in each cylinder from one cycle to the next. A very simple, low-order model was developed that explained the observed combustion instability as a noisy nonlinear dynamical process. The model concept lead to development of a real-time control strategy that could be employed to significantly reduce cyclic variations in real engines using existing sensors and engine control systems. This collaboration led to the issuance of a joint patent for spark-ignition engine control. After a few years, the CRADA was modified to focus more on EGR and CIDI engines. The modified CRADA examined relationships between EGR, combustion, and emissions in CIDI engines. Information from CIDI engine experiments, data analysis, and modeling were employed to identify and characterize new combustion regimes where it is possible to simultaneously achieve significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions. These results were also used to develop an on-line combustion diagnostic (virtual sensor) to make cycle-resolved combustion quality assessments for active feedback control. Extensive experiments on engines at Ford and ORNL led to the development of the virtual sensor concept that may be able to detect simultaneous reductions in NOx and PM

  5. Scaling of Microcavity Plasmas Toward 1 µm. Science and Engineering of Spatially-Confined, Low Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, J. G.

    2012-03-07

    The DOE has provided, by means of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), $146,400 in funding for the purchase of scientific equipment. Specifically, these funds have enabled the purchase of two scientific cameras that have already been applied to the research in microcavity plasmas at the University of Illinois (Urbana). The first camera system that was purchased with these funds is a gated ICCD system that allows events as short as 5 ns in time to be captured. It is difficult to express the impact that this equipment has already had on our research. Despite having arrived just 6 - 7 months ago, this camera system has already been used by five graduate students and several undergraduates to capture phenomena that we simply could not see in the past. As an example, the low temperature plasma confined to a spiral structure we fabricate in the Al/Al₂O₃ materials system appears, on long time scales such as those we see with our eyes, to be spatially uniform. However, when captured with the new camera system, the plasma actually is formed initially at the center of the spiral and then moves radially (literally, "jumping" over channels as it goes) at a velocity of a few km/sec. This is an exciting result and I should add that the camera shows that plasma standing waves are produced in some of the structures as well. We do not currently understand all of the phenomena we are witnessing but it is obvious that this new system has quite literally opened new areas of plasma research and application. The second system purchased under this ARRA grant is an infrared system that is far more sensitive than anything our laboratory (or the University of Illinois, for that matter) has had previously. Although fewer experiments have been completed to date with this second camera, it is already clear that it is, indeed, extremely sensitive and it is slated for several experiments in the near future in which we will be measuring the infrared spectra of several arrays of

  6. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J. W.; Saltzman, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Mixing methodology improvement for the JANNAF DER and CICM injection/combustion analysis computer programs was accomplished. ZOM plane prediction model development was improved for installation into the new standardized DER computer program. An intra-element mixing model developing approach was recommended for gas/liquid coaxial injection elements for possible future incorporation into the CICM computer program.

  7. Data reduction and analysis of HELIOS plasma wave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1988-01-01

    Reduction of data acquired from the HELIOS Solar Wind Plasma Wave Experiments on HELIOS 1 and 2 was continued. Production of 24 hour survey plots of the HELIOS 1 plasma wave data were continued and microfilm copies were submitted to the National Space Science Data Center. Much of the effort involved the shock memory from both HELIOS 1 and 2. This data had to be deconvoluted and time ordered before it could be displayed and plotted in an organized form. The UNIVAX 418-III computer was replaced by a DEC VAX 11/780 computer. In order to continue the reduction and analysis of the data set, all data reduction and analysis computer programs had to be rewritten.

  8. Extending Lean and EGR-Dilute Operating Limits of a Modern GDI Engine Using a Low Energy Transient Plasma Ignition System

    SciTech Connect

    Sevik, James; Wallner, Thomas; Pamminger, Michael; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Singleton, Dan; Sanders, Jason

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency improvement and emissions reduction potential of lean and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-dilute operation of spark-ignition gasoline engines is well understood and documented. However, dilute operation is generally limited by deteriorating combustion stability with increasing inert gas levels. The combustion stability decreases due to reduced mixture flame speeds resulting in significantly increased combustion initiation periods and burn durations. A study was designed and executed to evaluate the potential to extend lean and EGR-dilute limits using a low-energy transient plasma ignition system. The low-energy transient plasma was generated by nanosecond pulses and its performance compared to a conventional transistorized coil ignition (TCI) system operated on an automotive, gasoline direct-injection (GDI) single-cylinder research engine. The experimental assessment was focused on steady-state experiments at the part load condition of 1500 rpm 5.6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), where dilution tolerance is particularly critical to improving efficiency and emission performance. Experimental results suggest that the energy delivery process of the low-energy transient plasma ignition system significantly improves part load dilution tolerance by reducing the early flame development period. Statistical analysis of relevant combustion metrics was performed in order to further investigate the effects of the advanced ignition system on combustion stability. Results confirm that at select operating conditions EGR tolerance and lean limit could be improved by as much as 20% (from 22.7 to 27.1% EGR) and nearly 10% (from λ = 1.55 to 1.7) with the low-energy transient plasma ignition system.

  9. EXTENDING LEAN AND EGR-DILUTE OPERATING LIMITS OF A MODERN GDI ENGINE USING A LOW-ENERGY TRANSIENT PLASMA IGNITION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sevik, James Michael; Wallner, Thomas; Pamminger, Michael; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Singleton, Dan; Sanders, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency improvement and emissions reduction potential of lean and EGR dilute operation of spark-ignition gasoline engines is well understood and documented. However, dilute operation is generally limited by deteriorating combustion stability with increasing inert gas levels. The combustion stability decreases due to reduced mixture flame speeds resulting in significantly increased combustion initiation periods and burn durations. A study was designed and executed to evaluate the potential to extend lean and EGR-dilute limits using a low-energy transient plasma ignition system. The low-energy transient plasma was generated by nano-second pulses and its performance compared to a conventional transistorized coil ignition system operated on an automotive, gasoline direct injection (GDI) single-cylinder research engine. The experimental assessment was focused on steady-state experiments at the part load condition of 1500 rpm 5.6 bar IMEP, where dilution tolerance is particularly critical to improving efficiency and emissions performance. Experimental results suggest that the energy delivery process of the low-energy transient plasma ignition system significantly improves part load dilution tolerance by reducing the early flame development period. Statistical analysis of relevant combustion metrics was performed in order to further investigate the effects of the advanced ignition system on combustion stability. Results confirm that at select operating conditions EGR tolerance and lean limit could be improved by as much as 20% (from 22.7 to 27.1% EGR) and nearly 10% (from λ=1.55 to 1.7) with the low-energy transient plasma ignition system.

  10. Combining platelet-rich plasma and tissue-engineered skin in the treatment of large skin wound.

    PubMed

    Han, Tong; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Ya Qin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to observe the effects of tissue-engineered skin in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and other preparations on the repair of large skin wound on nude mice.We first prepared PRP from venous blood by density-gradient centrifugation. Large skin wounds were created surgically on the dorsal part of nude mice. The wounds were then treated with either artificial skin, tissue-engineered skin, tissue-engineered skin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor, tissue-engineered skin combined with epidermal growth factor, or tissue-engineered skin combined with PRP. Tissue specimens were collected at different time intervals after surgery. Hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess the rate of wound healing.Macroscopic observations, hematoxylin-eosin/periodic acid-Schiff staining, and immunohistochemistry revealed that the wounds treated with tissue-engineered skin in combination with PRP showed the most satisfactory wound recovery, among the 5 groups.

  11. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  12. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  13. Analysis of Particle Detectors in Plasma Sheaths on Sounding Rockets and in Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Lisa; Lynch, Kristina

    2013-10-01

    The influence of plasma sheaths on particle measurements is a well-known problem. Improvements in computational speed and memory have made the use of particle-in-cell codes, attainable on a laptop. These codes can calculate complex sheath structures and include most of the relevant physics. We will discuss how the use of one such code, SPIS, has been integrated into our data processing for the MICA sounding rocket. This inclusion of sheath physics has allowed us to describe the current-voltage signature of an ion retarding potential analyzer, called the PIP, to measure the ambient ionospheric temperature, as well as to examine the possibility of ion upflow. These results will be compared with the other instrumentation on MICA, which use traditional thin-sheath approximations. This comparison will emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of these other data analysis methods and call attention to the need to include sheath physics when measuring very low energy populations. Additionally, these instruments have also been tested in the Dartmouth College plasma facility. This provides another set of plasma conditions for testing and extrapolating our method to a future low-orbit mission.

  14. Temporary spectral analysis of a laser plasma of mineral coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, P.; Pacheco, P.; Sarmiento, R.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejía-Ospino, E.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we present results of the temporal spectral study of a plasma laser of mineral coal using the Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The plasma was generated by focusing a laser beam of Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm with energy per pulse of 35 mJ on coal target pellets. The plasma radiation was conducted by an optical fiber to the entrance slit of a spectrograph of 0.5 m, equipped with a 1200 and 2400 grooves/mm diffraction grating and an ICCD camera for registration with different delay times of the spectra in the spectral range from 250 nm to 900 nm. The temporal spectral analysis allowed the identification of the elements Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, and Si, and CN and C2 molecules present in natural coals. The characteristics of the spectral lines and bands were studied at different delay times obtaining the calculation of the evolution of electron temperature, electron density, and vibrational temperature of plasmas in the time. The delay times used were between 0.5 μs and 5 μs, calculating the electron temperature ranged between 5 000 K and 1 000 K.

  15. Tiling analysis of melting in strongly-coupled dusty plasma*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suranga Ruhunusiri, W. D.; Feng, Yan; Liu, Bin; Goree, John

    2010-11-01

    A dusty plasma is an ionized gas containing micron-size particles of solid matter, which collect electrons and ions and become negatively charged. Due to large Coulomb interparticle potential energies, the microparticles represent a strongly-coupled plasma. In the absence of an external disturbance, the microparticles self-organize, arranging themselves in a crystalline lattice, due to their Coulomb interaction. If kinetic energy is added, the arrangement of microparticles becomes disordered, like atoms in a liquid. This melting process can be characterized by a proliferation of defects, which previous experimenters measured using Voronoi analysis. Here we use another method, tiling [1] to quantify defects. We demonstrate this method, which until now has been used only in simulations, in a dusty plasma experiment. A single layer of 4.83 μm polymer microparticles was electrically levitated in a glow discharge argon plasma. The lattice was melted by applying random kicks to the micoparticles from rastered laser beams. We imaged the particle positions and computed the corresponding tiling for both the crystalline lattice and liquid states. [1] Matthew A. Glaser, Phys. Rev A 41, 4585 (1990) ^*Work supported by NSF and NASA.

  16. An Analysis of the Small Engine Repair Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salsbury, Robert C.; Kline, Charles R.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the small engine repair occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Sixteen duties are broken down into a…

  17. Jet Engine hot parts IR Analysis Procedure (J-EIRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal radiation analysis method called Jet Engine IR Analysis Procedure (J-EIRP) was developed to evaluate jet engine cavity hot parts source radiation. The objectives behind J-EIRP were to achieve the greatest accuracy in model representation and solution, while minimizing computer resources and computational time. The computer programs that comprise J-EIRP were selected on the basis of their performance, accuracy, and flexibility to solve both simple and complex problems. These programs were intended for use on a personal computer, but include the ability to solve large problems on a mainframe or supercomputer. J-EIRP also provides the user with a tool for developing thermal design experience and engineering judgment through analysis experimentation, while using minimal computer resources. A sample jet engine cavity analysis demonstrates the procedure and capabilities within J-EIRP, and is compared to a simplified method for approximating cavity radiation. The goal is to introduce the terminology and solution process used in J-EIRP and to provide insight into the radiation heat transfer principles used in this procedure.

  18. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. State-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) state-level analysis provides policymakers, educators, state government officials, and others with details on the projections of STEM jobs through 2018. This report delivers a state-by-state snapshot of the demand for STEM jobs, including: (1) The number of forecast net new and…

  19. Key Reliability Drivers of Liquid Propulsion Engines and A Reliability Model for Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhao-Feng; Fint, Jeffry A.; Kuck, Frederick M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is to address the in-flight reliability of a liquid propulsion engine system for a launch vehicle. We first establish a comprehensive list of system and sub-system reliability drivers for any liquid propulsion engine system. We then build a reliability model to parametrically analyze the impact of some reliability parameters. We present sensitivity analysis results for a selected subset of the key reliability drivers using the model. Reliability drivers identified include: number of engines for the liquid propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine thrust size, reusability, engine de-rating or up-rating, engine-out design (including engine-out switching reliability, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction), propellant specific hazards, engine start and cutoff transient hazards, engine combustion cycles, vehicle and engine interface and interaction hazards, engine health management system, engine modification, engine ground start hold down with launch commit criteria, engine altitude start (1 in. start), Multiple altitude restart (less than 1 restart), component, subsystem and system design, manufacturing/ground operation support/pre and post flight check outs and inspection, extensiveness of the development program. We present some sensitivity analysis results for the following subset of the drivers: number of engines for the propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine de-rating or up-rating requirements, engine-out design, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction, and engine health management system implementation (basic redlines and more advanced health management systems).

  20. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  1. The Boeing plastic analysis capability for engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The current BOPACE program is described as a nonlinear stress analysis program, which is based on a family of isoparametric finite elements. The theoretical, user, programmer, preprocessing aspects are discussed, and example problems are included. New features in the current program version include substructuring, an out-of-core Gauss wavefront equation solver, multipoint constraints, combined material and geometric nonlinearities, automatic calculation of inertia effects, provision for distributed as well as concentrated mechanical loads, follower forces, singular crack-tip elements, the SAIL automatic generation capability, and expanded user control over input quantity definition, output selection, and program execution. BOPACE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is currently available for both the IBM 360/370 and the UNIVAC 1108 machines.

  2. Improvement of Rocket Engine Plume Analysis Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    A nozzle plume flow field code was developed. The RAMP code which was chosen as the basic code is of modular construction and has the following capabilities: two phase with two phase transonic solution; a two phase, reacting gas (chemical equilibrium reaction kinetics), supersonic inviscid nozzle/plume solution; and is operational for inviscid solutions at both high and low altitudes. The following capabilities were added to the code: a direct interface with JANNAF SPF code; shock capturing finite difference numerical operator; two phase, equilibrium/frozen, boundary layer analysis; a variable oxidizer to fuel ratio transonic solution; an improved two phase transonic solution; and a two phase real gas semiempirical nozzle boundary layer expansion.

  3. Millstone: software for multiplex microbial genome analysis and engineering.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Daniel B; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Lajoie, Marc J; Ahern, Brian W; Napolitano, Michael G; Chen, Kevin Y; Chen, Changping; Church, George M

    2017-05-25

    Inexpensive DNA sequencing and advances in genome editing have made computational analysis a major rate-limiting step in adaptive laboratory evolution and microbial genome engineering. We describe Millstone, a web-based platform that automates genotype comparison and visualization for projects with up to hundreds of genomic samples. To enable iterative genome engineering, Millstone allows users to design oligonucleotide libraries and create successive versions of reference genomes. Millstone is open source and easily deployable to a cloud platform, local cluster, or desktop, making it a scalable solution for any lab.

  4. Millstone: software for multiplex microbial genome analysis and engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Goodman, Daniel B.; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Lajoie, Marc J.; ...

    2017-05-25

    Inexpensive DNA sequencing and advances in genome editing have made computational analysis a major rate-limiting step in adaptive laboratory evolution and microbial genome engineering. Here, we describe Millstone, a web-based platform that automates genotype comparison and visualization for projects with up to hundreds of genomic samples. To enable iterative genome engineering, Millstone allows users to design oligonucleotide libraries and create successive versions of reference genomes. Millstone is open source and easily deployable to a cloud platform, local cluster, or desktop, making it a scalable solution for any lab.

  5. Interactive Finite Elements for General Engine Dynamics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Padovan, J.; Fertis, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    General nonlinear finite element codes were adapted for the purpose of analyzing the dynamics of gas turbine engines. In particular, this adaptation required the development of a squeeze-film damper element software package and its implantation into a representative current generation code. The ADINA code was selected because of prior use of it and familiarity with its internal structure and logic. This objective was met and the results indicate that such use of general purpose codes is viable alternative to specialized codes for general dynamics analysis of engines.

  6. Optimization of a Small-Scale Engine Using Plasma Enhanced Ignition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    incapable of motoring the engine, a 24 V DC electric motor was mounted next to the engine. A timing belt pulley (M in Figure 4) with a one way bearing (L...associated hardware; body of the engine and dynamometer are not shown: A) engine shaft, B) engine hub, C) 60 minus 2 tooth spur gear flywheel, D) single...keyed dynamometer collar, J) dynamometer shaft, K) rear side shaft extension, L) one-way bearing, M) starter timing belt pulley , N) encoder timing

  7. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  8. Bird impact analysis package for turbine engine fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the gross structural response of turbine engine fan blades subjected to bird strikes. The program couples a NASTRAN finite element model and modal analysis of a fan blade with a multi-mode bird impact analysis computer program. The impact analysis uses the NASTRAN blade model and a fluid jet model of the bird to interactively calculate blade loading during a bird strike event. The analysis package is computationaly efficient, easy to use and provides a comprehensive history of the gross structual blade response. Example cases are presented for a representative fan blade.

  9. Bird impact analysis package for turbine engine fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the gross structural response of turbine engine fan blades subjected to bird strikes. The program couples a NASTRAN finite element model and modal analysis of a fan blade with a multi-mode bird impact analysis computer program. The impact analysis uses the NASTRAN blade model and a fluid jet model of the bird to interactively calculate blade loading during a bird strike event. The analysis package is computationaly efficient, easy to use and provides a comprehensive history of the gross structual blade response. Example cases are presented for a representative fan blade.

  10. Stabilization and HPLC analysis of betamethasone sodium phosphate in plasma.

    PubMed

    Samtani, Mahesh N; Schwab, Matthias; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Jusko, William J

    2004-03-01

    The analysis of corticosteroid prodrugs in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies poses the risk of overestimation of corticosteroid concentrations due to in vitro hydrolysis of prodrugs after sample collection. This study tests the effectiveness of enzyme inhibitors as stabilizers for betamethasone sodium phosphate (BSP) in pregnant sheep plasma samples collected during PK studies with betamethasone (BET) and provides simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of BSP and BET. A rapid, sensitive, and specific ion-paired reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay for simultaneous measurement of BET and BSP in plasma was developed. This assay was used for analyzing samples from an in vitro prodrug hydrolysis study. Enzyme inhibitors tested were sodium arsenate (Na(2)HAsO(4)) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The BSP was administered intramuscularly to three pregnant sheep to assess in vivo PK. Samples were split with part treated with Na(2)HAsO(4) and part left natural. In vitro hydrolysis of BSP in plasma to BET could be completely inhibited by Na(2)HAsO(4), but not by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The PK study showed lower concentrations of BET in samples with Na(2)HAsO(4) compared with natural samples. This study demonstrates that artifacts in PK profiles of corticosteroids due to in vitro prodrug hydrolysis can be prevented by sample treatment with enzyme inhibitors. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  11. Statistical analysis of plasma thermograms measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Fish, Daniel J; Brewood, Greg P; Kim, Jong Sung; Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B; Benight, Albert S

    2010-11-01

    Melting curves of human plasma measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), known as thermograms, have the potential to markedly impact diagnosis of human diseases. A general statistical methodology is developed to analyze and classify DSC thermograms to analyze and classify thermograms. Analysis of an acquired thermogram involves comparison with a database of empirical reference thermograms from clinically characterized diseases. Two parameters, a distance metric, P, and correlation coefficient, r, are combined to produce a 'similarity metric,' ρ, which can be used to classify unknown thermograms into pre-characterized categories. Simulated thermograms known to lie within or fall outside of the 90% quantile range around a median reference are also analyzed. Results verify the utility of the methods and establish the apparent dynamic range of the metric ρ. Methods are then applied to data obtained from a collection of plasma samples from patients clinically diagnosed with SLE (lupus). High correspondence is found between curve shapes and values of the metric ρ. In a final application, an elementary classification rule is implemented to successfully analyze and classify unlabeled thermograms. These methods constitute a set of powerful yet easy to implement tools for quantitative classification, analysis and interpretation of DSC plasma melting curves.

  12. Flow virometric sorting and analysis of HIV quasispecies from plasma

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Keele, Brandon F.; Jenkins, Lisa M. Miller; Demberg, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry is utilized extensively for cellular analysis, but technical limitations have prevented its routine application for characterizing virus. The recent introduction of nanoscale fluorescence-activated cytometric cell sorting now allows analysis of individual virions. Here, we demonstrate staining and sorting of infectious HIV. Fluorescent antibodies specific for cellular molecules found on budding virions were used to label CCR5-tropic Bal HIV and CXCR4-tropic NL4.3 HIV Env-expressing pseudovirions made in THP-1 cells (monocyte/macrophage) and H9 cells (T cells), respectively. Using a flow cytometer, we resolved the stained virus beyond isotype staining and demonstrated purity and infectivity of sorted virus populations on cells with the appropriate coreceptors. We subsequently sorted infectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus from archived plasma. Recovery was approximately 0.5%, but virus present in plasma was already bound to viral-specific IgG generated in vivo, likely contributing to the low yield. Importantly, using two broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies, PG9 and VRC01, we also sorted virus from archived human plasma and analyzed the sorted populations genetically and by proteomics, identifying the quasispecies present. The ability to sort infectious HIV from clinically relevant samples provides material for detailed molecular, genetic, and proteomic analyses applicable to future design of vaccine antigens and potential development of personalized treatment regimens. PMID:28239654

  13. Multi-source Geospatial Data Analysis with Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a cloud computing environment for data analysis that combines a public data catalog with a large-scale computational facility optimized for parallel processing of geospatial data. The data catalog is a multi-petabyte archive of georeferenced datasets that include images from Earth observing satellite and airborne sensors (examples: USGS Landsat, NASA MODIS, USDA NAIP), weather and climate datasets, and digital elevation models. Earth Engine supports both a just-in-time computation model that enables real-time preview and debugging during algorithm development for open-ended data exploration, and a batch computation mode for applying algorithms over large spatial and temporal extents. The platform automatically handles many traditionally-onerous data management tasks, such as data format conversion, reprojection, and resampling, which facilitates writing algorithms that combine data from multiple sensors and/or models. Although the primary use of Earth Engine, to date, has been the analysis of large Earth observing satellite datasets, the computational platform is generally applicable to a wide variety of use cases that require large-scale geospatial data analyses. This presentation will focus on how Earth Engine facilitates the analysis of geospatial data streams that originate from multiple separate sources (and often communities) and how it enables collaboration during algorithm development and data exploration. The talk will highlight current projects/analyses that are enabled by this functionality.https://earthengine.google.org

  14. Methods of Plasma Turbulence Analysis: Application to Shock Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Balikhin, M.A.; Walker, S.N.

    2005-08-01

    The availability of multisatellite observations (e.g. ISEE, AMPTE, and Cluster) has triggered the development of new methods of analysis to shed light on the complex dynamics inherent in the solar wind and magnetosphere. This paper looks at the results of two such methods. Firstly, the phase differencing method is used to determine the properties of waves observed upstream of a quasiperpendicular bow shock. The resulting dispersion relation is then interpreted as evidence that the waves are generated as a result of the dynamics of the shock front. The second, NARMAX, is used to investigate the linear and nonlinear processes if the plasma observed at a antiparallel shock. The results show that for a small amplitude whistler wavetrain, third order nonlinear interactions are only important at the interface between the shocklet and the wavetrain. For higher amplitude wavetrains, the phase of the linear term describing the plasma is shifted.

  15. Analysis of simulated engine sounds using a psychoacoustic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvigneau, Fabian; Liefold, Steffen; Höchstetter, Marius; Verhey, Jesko L.; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is the evaluation and the prediction of the perceived quality of engine sounds, which is predicted in the design process by numerical simulations. Periodic combustion sounds of the operating engine are synthesized with the help of an overall numerical simulation approach before a real prototype exists. The perceived quality of the sound is rated in hearing tests using the method of relative comparison and absolute judgment. Results are transferred into an interval scaled ranking of the stimuli. Based on the data, a psychoacoustic model for sound quality is developed using psychoacoustic parameters. Predictions of this model are used to evaluate the sound quality of several technical design modifications, for example, different engine encapsulations. The results are visualized to allow a simple qualitative analysis of the sound perception. This results in an impartial and objective decision regarding the final design of an acoustic encapsulation with a higher perceived sound quality.

  16. Hypermedia support for engineering design systems: Application to fatigue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeaeski, Juha; Sipilae, Sisko; Marquis, Gary

    1992-12-01

    The possibilities of using hypermedia for supporting engineering design systems are discussed. The application selected to test the hypermedia ideas was fatigue analysis. In addition, the possibility of combining hypermedia and expert system ideas into a fatigue expert system is reported. Hypermedia's underlying notion of linking nodes of information and its capability to handle these information entities stored appear to be well suited for engineering system support systems, especially in those engineering design systems where there exists a great demand for representing graphical information in a convenient way. This can be realized using hypermedia tools that are based on hypermedia techniques. The resulting fatigue handbook covers only part of the hypermedia's possibilities. The development of a prototype application indicates the efficiency of a hypermedia tool to create an electronic manual.

  17. Using flux balance analysis to guide microbial metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kathleen A; Crook, Nathan C; Alper, Hal S

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic engineers modify biological systems through the use of modern molecular biology tools in order to obtain desired phenotypes. However, due to the extreme complexity and interconnectedness of metabolism in all organisms, it is often difficult to a priori predict which changes will yield the optimal results. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a mathematical approach that uses a genomic-scale metabolic network models to afford in silico prediction and optimization of metabolic changes. In particular, a genome-scale approach can help select gene targets for knockout and overexpression. This approach can be used to help expedite the strain engineering process. Here, we give an introduction to the use of FBA and provide details for its implementation in a microbial metabolic engineering context.

  18. Plasma-assisted heterogeneous catalysis for NOx reduction in lean-burn engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wan, C.Z.; Rice, G.W.; Voss, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the combination of a plasma with a catalyst to improve the reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions. The authors have been investigating the effects of a plasma on the NO{sub x} reduction activity and temperature operating window of various catalytic materials. One of the goals is to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction between the gas-phase plasma chemistry and the heterogeneous chemistry on the catalyst surface. The authors have observed that plasma assisted heterogeneous catalysis can facilitate NO{sub x} reduction under conditions that normally make it difficult for either the plasma or the catalyst to function by itself. By systematically varying the plasma electrode and catalyst configuration, they have been able to elucidate the process by which the plasma chemistry affects the chemical reduction of NO{sub x} on the catalyst surface. They have discovered that the main effect of the plasma is to induce the gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO{sub 21}. The reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} is then accomplished by heterogeneous reaction of O with activated hydrocarbons on the catalyst surface. The use of a plasma opens the opportunity for a new class of catalysts that are potentially more durable, more active, more selective and more sulfur-tolerant compared to conventional lean-NO{sub x} catalysts.

  19. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  20. Thermal Analysis of the MC1 Engine Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MC1 Engine turbopump supplied the propellants to the main injector. The turbopump consisted of four parts; lox pump, interpropellant seal package (IPS), RP pump and turbine. The thermal analysis was divided into two 2D finite element models; Housing or stationary parts and rotor or rotating parts. Both models were analyzed at the same boundary conditions using SINDA. The housing model consisted of, lox pump housing, ips housing, RP housing, turbine inlet housing, turbine housing, exit guide vane, heat shield and both bearing outer races. The rotor model consisted of the lox impeller; lox end bearing and id race, RP impeller, and RP bearing and id race, shaft and turbine disk. The objectives of the analysis were to: (1) verified the original design and recommend modifications to it, (2) submitted a thermal environment to support the structural analysis, (3) support the component and engine test program. and (4) to support the X34 vehicle program.

  1. Summary of NGNP Engineering Analysis Progress in Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip M. Mills

    2010-09-01

    The Engineering Analysis work package accomplished a number of activities in FY2010 that will help to inform Licensing, R&D, and detailed design activities that will be performed during the preliminary design phase in Phase 2 of the NGNP Project. These activities were in the following areas: • Fission Product Transport • DDN Update and Consolidation • Gas Reactor Lessons Learned Review • Reactor Coolant Chemistry Control • Resilient Control Systems for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors • Water-ingress Analysis In total, the efforts associated with the Engineering Analysis work package accomplished four (4) Level 2 milestones and two (2) internal (Level 4) milestones. Details of the activities and milestones are included in the attached report.

  2. Thermodynamic and Mechanical Analysis of a Thermomagnetic Rotary Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, D. M.; Khotimah, S. N.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    A heat engine in magnetic system had three thermodynamic coordinates: magnetic intensity ℋ, total magnetization ℳ, and temperature T, where the first two of them are respectively analogous to that of gaseous system: pressure P and volume V. Consequently, Carnot cycle that constitutes the principle of a heat engine in gaseous system is also valid on that in magnetic system. A thermomagnetic rotary engine is one model of it that was designed in the form of a ferromagnetic wheel that can rotates because of magnetization change at Curie temperature. The study is aimed to describe the thermodynamic and mechanical analysis of a thermomagnetic rotary engine and calculate the efficiencies. In thermodynamic view, the ideal processes are isothermal demagnetization, adiabatic demagnetization, isothermal magnetization, and adiabatic magnetization. The values of thermodynamic efficiency depend on temperature difference between hot and cold reservoir. In mechanical view, a rotational work is determined through calculation of moment of inertia and average angular speed. The value of mechanical efficiency is calculated from ratio between rotational work and heat received by system. The study also obtains exergetic efficiency that states the performance quality of the engine.

  3. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  4. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Bityurin, V. A.; Lineberry, J. T.

    2000-01-01

    The prospects for realizing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) bypass hypersonic airbreathing engine are examined from the standpoint of fundamental thermodynamic feasibility. The MHD-bypass engine, first proposed as part of the Russian AJAX vehicle concept, is based on the idea of redistributing energy between various stages of the propulsion system flow train. The system uses an MHD generator to extract a portion of the aerodynamic heating energy from the inlet and an MHD accelerator to reintroduce this power as kinetic energy in the exhaust stream. In this way, the combustor entrance Mach number can be limited to a specified value even as the flight Mach number increases. Thus, the fuel and air can be efficiently mixed and burned within a practical combustor length, and the flight Mach number operating envelope can be extended. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass engines using a simplified thermodynamic analysis. This cycle analysis, based on a thermally and calorically perfect gas, incorporates a coupled MHD generator-accelerator system and accounts for aerodynamic losses and thermodynamic process efficiencies in the various engin components. It is found that the flight Mach number range can be significantly extended; however, overall performance is hampered by non-isentropic losses in the MHD devices.

  5. Dense plasma focus research at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kisoda, A.; Yamada, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, C.

    1983-09-01

    Research using a 50 kV/50 kJ deuterium plasma focus with 1.25 MA maximum current is summarized. Plasma dynamics in implosion phase of dense plasma focus were investigated by 2nsec ruby laser holographic interferometry and shadowgraphy. Radial pinch velocity of the plasma column and ionizing front velocity are 20 million cm/sec. Rayleigh-Taylor instability is observed in the early stage of the implosion phase. Effects of CO2 laser light on a dense plasma focus are discussed. High energy deuteron intensity, energy spectrum, and angular distribution were measured from radioactivity induced in graphite, aliminum and copper in ion dominant low pressure mode and neutron dominant high pressure mode.

  6. Energy engineering analysis program, Anniston Army Depot. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) study (Increment F) conducted at the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama by Science Applications, Incorporated (SAl) under Contract No. DACAOl-83-C-0099. The report includes an analysis of energy conservation projects that can be accomplished using various Army funds, Post funds, and new management procedures. Also found in the report is a complete listing of recently implemented energy conservation projects, recommended similar future projects and a presentation of current and projected Post energy usage. The result of this analysis indicates that current energy use (FY 1983) can be reduced by 23 percent if these recommendations are adopted.

  7. Probabilistic Analysis of International Space Station Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddell, B.; Alred, J.; Kramer, L.; Mikatarian, R.; Minow, J.; Koontz, S.

    2005-12-01

    To date, the International Space Station (ISS) has been one of the largest objects flown in lower earth orbit (LEO). The ISS utilizes high voltage solar arrays (160V) that are negatively grounded leading to pressurized elements that can float negatively with respect to the plasma. Because laboratory measurements indicate a dielectric breakdown potential difference of 80V, arcing could occur on the ISS structure. To overcome the possibility of arcing and clamp the potential of the structure, two Plasma Contactor Units (PCUs) were designed, built, and flown. Also a limited amount of measurements of the floating potential for the present ISS configuration were made by a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), indicating a minimum potential of -24 Volts at the measurement location. A predictive tool, the ISS Plasma Interaction Model (PIM) has been developed accounting for the solar array electron collection, solar array mast wire and effective conductive area on the structure. The model has been used for predictions of the present ISS configuration. The conductive area has been inferred based on available floating potential measurements. Analysis of FPP and PCU data indicated distribution of the conductive area along the Russian segment of the ISS structure. A significant input to PIM is the plasma environment. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001) was initially used to obtain plasma temperature and density values. However, IRI provides mean parameters, leading to difficulties in interpretation of on-orbit data, especially at eclipse exit where maximum charging can occur. This limits our predicative capability. Satellite and Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) data of plasma parameters have also been collected. Approximately 130,000 electron temperature (Te) and density (Ne) pairs for typical ISS eclipse exit conditions have been extracted from the reduced Langmuir probe data flown aboard the NASA DE-2 satellite. Additionally, another 18,000 Te and Ne pairs of ISR data

  8. Pixel Analysis and Plasma Dynamics Characterized by Photospheric Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, A.; Chen, J.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continued advances in solar observations have led to higher-resolution magnetograms and surface (photospheric) images, revealing bipolar magnetic features operating near the resolution limit during emerging flux events and other phenomena used to predict solar eruptions responsible for geomagnetic plasma disturbances. However, line of sight (LOS) magnetogram pixels only contain the net uncanceled magnetic flux, which is expected to increase for fixed regions as resolution limits improve. A pixel dynamics model utilizing Stokes I spectral profiles was previously-used to quantify changes in the Doppler shift, width, asymmetry, and tail flatness of Fe I lines at 6301.5 and 6302.5 Å and used pixel-by-pixel line profile fluctuations to characterize quiet and active regions on the Sun. We use this pixel dynamics model with circularly polarized photospheric data (e.g., SOLIS data) to estimate plasma dynamic properties at a sub-pixel level. The analysis can be extended to include the full Stokes parameters and study signatures of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties on sub-pixel scales.

  9. Peptidomic Analysis of Rat Plasma: Proteolysis in Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Aletti, Federico; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Santamaria, Marco H; DeLano, Frank A; Kistler, Erik B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W; Tedeschi, Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    It has been previously shown that intestinal proteases translocate into the circulation during hemorrhagic shock and contribute to proteolysis in distal organs. However, consequences of this phenomenon have not previously been investigated using high-throughput approaches. Here, a shotgun label-free quantitative proteomic approach was utilized to compare the peptidome of plasma samples from healthy and hemorrhagic shock rats to verify the possible role of uncontrolled proteolytic activity in shock. Plasma was collected from rats after hemorrhagic shock (HS) consisting of 2-h hypovolemia followed by 2-h reperfusion, and from healthy control (CTRL) rats. A new two-step enrichment method was applied to selectively extract peptides and low molecular weight proteins from plasma, and directly analyze these samples by tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred twenty-six circulating peptides were identified in CTRL and 295 in HS animals. Ninety-six peptides were present in both conditions; of these, 57 increased and 30 decreased in shock. In total, 256 peptides were increased or present only in HS confirming a general increase in proteolytic activity in shock. Analysis of the proteases that potentially generated the identified peptides suggests that the larger relative contribution to the proteolytic activity in shock is due to chymotryptic-like proteases. These results provide quantitative confirmation that extensive, system-wide proteolysis is part of the complex pathologic phenomena occurring in hemorrhagic shock.

  10. Peptidomic Analysis of Rat Plasma: Proteolysis in Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Aletti, Federico; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Santamaria, Marco H.; De Lano, Frank A.; Kistler, Erik B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.; Tedeschi, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously shown that intestinal proteases translocate into the circulation during hemorrhagic shock and contribute to proteolysis in distal organs. However, consequences of this phenomenon have not previously been investigated using high-throughput approaches. Here, a shotgun label-free quantitative proteomic approach was utilized to compare the peptidome of plasma samples from healthy and hemorrhagic shock rats to verify the possible role of uncontrolled proteolytic activity in shock. Plasma was collected from rats after hemorrhagic shock (HS) consisting of two-hour hypovolemia followed by two-hour reperfusion, and from healthy control (CTRL) rats. A new two-step enrichment method was applied to selectively extract peptides and low molecular weight proteins from plasma, and directly analyze these samples by tandem mass spectrometry. 126 circulating peptides were identified in CTRL and 295 in HS animals. 96 peptides were present in both conditions; of these, 57 increased and 30 decreased in shock. In total, 256 peptides were increased or present only in HS confirming a general increase in proteolytic activity in shock. Analysis of the proteases that potentially generated the identified peptides suggests that the larger relative contribution of to the proteolytic activity in shock is due to chymotryptic-like proteases. These results provide quantitative confirmation that extensive, system-wide proteolysis is part of the complex pathologic phenomena occurring in hemorrhagic shock. PMID:26863123

  11. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  12. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  13. CTR plasma engineering studies. Annual progress report, 1 November 1981-30 October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    During FY 82, much effort was devoted to work in support of alternate confinement concepts, especially those involving field reversal. This work includes: (1) development of particle and energy confinement scaling for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) and the Field Reversed Theta Pinch (FRTP), and (2) analysis of start-up (heating and plasma build) for the spheromak and Field Reversed Mirror (FRM). In addition, a block of projects were concerned with fusion product effects, including heating and ash build-up. These include, (1) a study of possible use of radial electric fields to control ash build-up in tokamaks, (2) effects of alpha-driven microinstabilities on heating in tokamaks, and (3) fusion product transport, including effects of large angle scattering on orbits, in EBT and FRM devices. In a related study, the possibility of hot-ion mode operation (assuming strong transfer of fusion product energy to ions, e.g. via microinstabilities) was done with emphasis on calculation of ion-electron equilibration rates.

  14. Analysis of the effect of engine characteristics on the external aerodynamics of STOL wing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of engine presssure ratio, engine size, and engine location on the pressure distribution, lift coefficient, and flow field of a STOL wing propulsion system are presented. The flow variables of the engines are included in the two-dimensional potential flow analysis by considering the effects of mass flow coefficient at the engine inlet and thrust coefficient at the engine exit. A functional relation between these coefficients and engine pressure ratio is given. The results of this study indicate that the effect of engine pressure ratio on the external aerodynamics is a function of engine location. For engines located on the bottom of the wing, the highest pressure ratio engine resulted in the highest lift coefficient. For engines located on the top of the wing, the lowest pressure ratio engine resulted in the highest lift coefficient.

  15. HPLC analysis of K-48 concentration in plasma.

    PubMed

    Kalász, H; Hasan, M Y; Sheen, R; Kuca, K; Petroianu, G; Ludányi, K; Gergely, A; Tekes, K

    2006-07-01

    K-48 is a new oxime-type compound to be used as an enzyme reactivator in the treatment of exposure to organophosphorous compounds. Plasma concentration of K-48 can be determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Analysis using octyl silica stationary phase and ultraviolet-absorbance detection is fast and simple. K-48 displays a relatively high dose-normalized area under the curve as compared to pralidoxime, which might be beneficial for an antidote. After i.m. administration of 50 mumol K-48, the time course of the concentration can be approximated by a straight line between 15 and 120 min meaning the elimination follows zero-order kinetics.

  16. Analysis of Solid State Plasma Formation in Semiconductor Components.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    construct an ensele Monte Carlo program to model plasma effects under intense optical or electrical illumination in four smiconductor materials. l...INSTABILITY 31 7.2 KINK INSTABILITY 34 7.3 STREAMING INSTABILITIES 34 8.0 THER -FAL PINCH 39 9.0 MONTE CARLO METHOD 43 9.1 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SEMICONDUCTOR...DEVICES 46 9.2 QUASI-CLASSICAL DESCRIPTION OF CHARGE TRANSPORT 48 9.3 MONTE CARLO SIMULATION 50 9.4 ENSEMBLE MONTE CARLO 51 9.5 ENERGY BAND STRUCTURE

  17. Molten metal analysis by laser produced plasmas. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong W.

    1994-02-01

    A new method of molten metal analysis, based on time- and space-resolved spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma (LPP) plume of a molten metal surface, has been implemented in the form of a prototype LPP sensor-probe, allowing in-situ analysis in less than 1 minute. The research at Lehigh University has been structured in 3 phases: laboratory verification of concept, comparison of LPP method with conventional analysis of solid specimens and field trials of prototype sensor-probe in small-scale metal shops, and design/production/installation of two sensor-probes in metal production shops. Accomplishments in the first 2 phases are reported. 6 tabs, 3 figs.

  18. A dynamic analysis of rotary combustion engine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, J.; Vilmann, C. R.; Schock, H. J.; Stumpf, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Real time work cell pressures are incorporated into a dynamic analysis of the gas sealing grid in Rotary Combustion Engines. The analysis which utilizes only first principal concepts accounts for apex seal separation from the crochoidal bore, apex seal shifting between the sides of its restraining channel, and apex seal rotation within the restraining channel. The results predict that apex seals do separate from the trochoidal bore and shift between the sides of their channels. The results also show that these two motions are regularly initiated by a seal rotation. The predicted motion of the apex seals compares favorably with experimental results. Frictional losses associated with the sealing grid are also calculated and compare well with measurements obtained in a similar engine. A comparison of frictional losses when using steel and carbon apex seals has also been made as well as friction losses for single and dual side sealing.

  19. Analysis of engineering characteristics of pavement deflection trends

    SciTech Connect

    Kerali, H.R.; Lawrance, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes analysis of pavement deflection data collected by the Transport Research Laboratory at two experimental road sites in England during 1960--1985. Measurements of Benkelman beam deflections together with records of traffic loading were taken at 6 to 12 month intervals. The analysis investigates the deflection trend as a function of road base material and thickness. The deflection trend was represented by a negative exponential curve form. Engineering aspects of the curve form were extracted and statistically analyzed. The results obtained focus on the dependency of deflection progression on both road base material and thickness, which are shown to act either jointly or singly, depending on the engineering characteristic of the pavement deflection trend.

  20. Reverse engineering for biologically inspired cognitive architectures: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Schierwagen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Research initiatives on both sides of the Atlantic try to utilize the operational principles of organisms and brains to develop biologically inspired, artificial cognitive systems. This paper describes the standard way bio-inspiration is gained, i.e. decompositional analysis or reverse engineering. The indisputable complexity of brain and mind raise the issue of whether they can be understood by applying the standard method. Using Robert Rosen's modeling relation, the scientific analysis method itself is made a subject of discussion. It is concluded that the fundamental assumption of cognitive science, i.e. complex cognitive systems are decomposable, must be abandoned. Implications for investigations of organisms and behavior as well as for engineering artificial cognitive systems are discussed.

  1. Research and Development of the Pulsed Plasma Rocket Engine System onboard Osaka Institute of Technology Micro Artificial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Hirokazu; Naka, Masamichi; Takagi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yosuke

    The Project of Osaka Institute of Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology in 2007. In PROITERES, a micro satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) will be launched in 2010. The main mission is the first powered flight of micro satellite by electric thruster all over the world. This study aims at improvement in performance by changing configuration of PPTs. The total impulse of about 5 Ns was achieved with a teflon cylindrical discharge chamber 9.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm in diameter in 53,000-shot operation with 2.43 J/shot. Finally, the engineering model of PPT system was developed, and it is under operation as final test.

  2. Satellite power system: Engineering and economic analysis summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A system engineering and economic analysis was conducted to establish typical reference baselines for the photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear satellite power systems. Tentative conclusions indicate that feasibility and economic viability are characteristic of the Satellite Power System. Anticipated technology related to manufacturing, construction, and maintenance operations is described. Fuel consumption, environmental effects, and orbital transfer are investigated. Space shuttles, local space transportation, and the heavy lift launch vehicle required are also discussed.

  3. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  4. Failure analysis of a Stirling engine heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Cairelli, James E.; Khalili, Kaveh

    1989-01-01

    Failure analysis was conducted on a heat pipe from a Stirling Engine test rig which was designed to operate at 1073 K. Premature failure had occurred due to localized overheating at the leading edge of the evaporator fin. It was found that a crack had allowed air to enter the fin and react with the sodium coolant. The origin of the crack was found to be located at the inner surface of the Inconel 600 fin where severe intergranular corrosion had taken place.

  5. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  6. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  7. A CAD/CAE analysis of photographic and engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goza, S. Michael; Peterson, Wayne L.

    1987-01-01

    In the investigation of the STS 51L accident, NASA engineers were given the task of visual analysis of photographic data extracted from the tracking cameras located at the launch pad. An analysis of the rotations associated with the right Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) was also performed. The visual analysis involved pinpointing coordinates of specific areas on the photographs. The objective of the analysis on the right SRB was to duplicate the rotations provided by the SRB rate gyros and to determine the effects of the rotations on the launch configuration. To accomplish the objectives, computer aided design and engineering was employed. The solid modeler, GEOMOD, inside the Structural Dynamics Research Corp. I-DEAS package, proved invaluable. The problem areas that were encountered and the corresponding solutions that were obtained are discussed. A brief description detailing the construction of the computer generated solid model of the STS launch configuration is given. A discussion of the coordinate systems used in the analysis is provided for the purpose of positioning the model in coordinate space. The techniques and theory used in the model analysis are described.

  8. Multi-Level Analysis of Pulsed Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Houshang B.; Mohanraj, Rajendran; Merkle, Charles L.

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores some issues concerning the operational performance of pulsed detonation engines. Zero-, one- and two-dimensional, transient models are employed in a synergistic manner to elucidate the various characteristics that can be expected from each level of analysis. The zero-dimensional model provides rapid parametric trends that help to identify the global characteristics of pulsed detonation engines. The one-dimensional model adds key wave propagation issues that are omitted in the zero-dimensional model and helps to assess its limitations. Finally, the two-dimensional model allows estimates of the first-order multi-dimensional effects and provides an initial multi-dimensional end-correction for the one-dimensional model. The zero-dimensional results indicate that the pulsed detonation engine is competitive with a rocket engine when exhausting to vacuum conditions. At finite back pressures, the PDE out-performs the rocket if the combustion pressure rise from the detonation is added to the chamber pressure in the rocket. If the two peak pressures are the same, the rocket performance is higher. Two-dimensional corrections added to the one-dimensional model result in a modest improvement in predicted specific impulse over the constant pressure boundary condition.

  9. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults.

  10. Performance analysis for second-design space Stirling engine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Sachio; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Eguchi, Kunihisa; Nakamura, Yoshihiro

    A hybrid free-piston Stirling research engine, called NALSEM 125, has been tested since 1988 as part of a solar dynamic power technology program. It is a gamma-type Stirling driven linear-alternator machine with helium as a working fluid. The objective of the experimental program is to understand the thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms of the free piston engine integrated with a magnet-moving alternator. After the first phase engine experiments of NALSEM 125, a second design Stirling engine of NALSEM 125 R has been tested. By using a second-order analytical tool, some design modifications were performed to provide much more stable dynamic operations over a required operating range, as well as to incorporate an electric heater head simulating a hot interface of 12 sodium heat pipes. Describes in this paper are thermodynamic performance data of NALSEM 125R operations, which are also compared with the computational analysis, considering the power losses resulting from pressure drop and gas leakage.

  11. Multi-Level Analysis of Pulsed Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Houshang B.; Mohanraj, Rajendran; Merkle, Charles L.

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores some issues concerning the operational performance of pulsed detonation engines. Zero-, one- and two-dimensional, transient models are employed in a synergistic manner to elucidate the various characteristics that can be expected from each level of analysis. The zero-dimensional model provides rapid parametric trends that help to identify the global characteristics of pulsed detonation engines. The one-dimensional model adds key wave propagation issues that are omitted in the zero-dimensional model and helps to assess its limitations. Finally, the two-dimensional model allows estimates of the first-order multi-dimensional effects and provides an initial multi-dimensional end-correction for the one-dimensional model. The zero-dimensional results indicate that the pulsed detonation engine is competitive with a rocket engine when exhausting to vacuum conditions. At finite back pressures, the PDE out-performs the rocket if the combustion pressure rise from the detonation is added to the chamber pressure in the rocket. If the two peak pressures are the same, the rocket performance is higher. Two-dimensional corrections added to the one-dimensional model result in a modest improvement in predicted specific impulse over the constant pressure boundary condition.

  12. Microwave engineering of plasma-assisted CVD reactors for diamond deposition.

    PubMed

    Silva, F; Hassouni, K; Bonnin, X; Gicquel, A

    2009-09-09

    The unique properties of CVD diamond make it a compelling choice for high power electronics. In order to achieve industrial use of CVD diamond, one must simultaneously obtain an excellent control of the film purity, very low defect content and a sufficiently rapid growth rate. Currently, only microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPACVD) processes making use of resonant cavity systems provide enough atomic hydrogen to satisfy these requirements. We show in this paper that the use of high microwave power density (MWPD) plasmas is necessary to promote atomic hydrogen concentrations that are high enough to ensure the deposition of high purity diamond films at large growth rates. Moreover, the deposition of homogeneous films on large surfaces calls for the production of plasma with appropriate shapes and large volumes. The production of such plasmas needs generating a fairly high electric field over extended regions and requires a careful design of the MW coupling system, especially the cavity. As far as MW coupling efficiency is concerned, the presence of a plasma load represents a mismatching perturbation to the cavity. This perturbation is especially important at high MWPD where the reflected fraction of the input power may be quite high. This mismatch can lead to a pronounced heating of the reactor walls. It must therefore be taken into account from the very beginning of the reactor design. This requires the implementation of plasma modelling tools coupled to detailed electromagnetic simulations. This is discussed in section 3. We also briefly discuss the operating principles of the main commercial plasma reactors before introducing the reactor design methodology we have developed. Modelling results for a new generation of reactors developed at LIMHP, working at very high power density, will be presented. Lastly, we show that scaling up this type of reactor to lower frequencies (915 MHz) can result in high density plasmas allowing for fast and

  13. Surface analysis for students in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Rotberg, V.H.; Busby, J.; Toader, O.; Was, G.S.

    2003-08-26

    Students in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences at the University of Michigan are required to learn about the various applications of radiation. Because of the broad applicability of accelerators to surface analysis, one of these courses includes a laboratory session on surface analysis techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS) and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). In this laboratory session, the students determine the concentration of nitrogen atoms in various targets using RBS and NRA by way of the 14N(d,{alpha})12C reaction. The laboratory is conducted in a hands-on format in which the students conduct the experiment and take the data. This paper describes the approach to teaching the theory and experimental methods behind the techniques, the conduct of the experiment and the analysis of the data.

  14. Cryogenic heat loads analysis from SST-1 plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, N.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic heat load analysis is an important aspect for stable operation of Tokamaks employing large scale superconducting magnets. Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) at IPR is equipped with superconducting magnets system (SCMS) comprising sixteen numbers of modified ‘D’ shaped toroidal field (TF) and nine poloidal field (PF) superconducting coils which are wound using NbTi/Cu based cable-in conduit conductor (CICC). SST-1 magnets operation has flexibility to cool either in two-phase with sub-cooling, two-phase without sub-cooling or single phase (supercritical) helium using a dedicated 1.3 kW helium refrigerator cum liquefier (HRL). Here, we report gross heat losses for integrated TF superconducting magnets of SST-1 during the plasma campaign using cryogenic helium supply/return thermodynamic data from cryoplant. Heat loads mainly comprising of steady state as well as transient loads are smoothly absorbed by SST-1 cryogenic helium plant during plasma experiments. The corresponding heat produced in the coils is totally released to the helium flowing through the TF coils, which in turn is dumped into liquid helium stored in main control Dewar. These results are very useful reference for heat loss analysis for TF as well as PF coils and provides database for future operation of SST-1 machine.

  15. Analysis of trimethylgallium with inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bertenyi, I.; Barnes, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    Two methods for the analysis of trimethylgallium (TMG) are described. Since TMG is pyrophoric and volatile and the nature of its impurity species is not known, separate methods were employed for volatile and nonvolatile impurities. The nonvolatile impurities (Al, Cu, Fe, Mg) were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in an aqueous solution of decomposed TMG with conventional nebulization. The volatile impurity silicon in TMG also was determined by ICP-AES but with exponential dilution. A known quantity of TMG was placed in an exponential dilution flask, and argon swept the vapor out of the flask into the plasma. Limits of detection in 1 g of TMG were 2 ..mu..g of Al, 0.6 ..mu..g of Fe, 0.6 ..mu..g of Cu, and 0.08 ..mu..g of Mg. The Si detection limit was 0.6 ..mu..g. The analysis precision for practical samples was 10-20%.

  16. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  17. Engineering approach for elastic-plastic fracture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V; German, M D; Shih, C F

    1981-07-01

    This report for RP1237-1 presents formulas, charts, and background material that allow calculation of safety margins in ductile structures containing flaws. It is intended as a reference book for engineers who are concerned with design and analysis of flawed structures. The work extends the analysis procedures already available for brittle elastic materials to the tough and ductile steels used in the construction of pressure-boundary components. These new elastic-plastic methods more accurately describe the behavior of ductile materials and show more tolerance to flaws than the elastic methods contained in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the Code of Federal Regulations.

  18. Qualitative and temporal reasoning in engine behavior analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, W. E.; Stamps, M. E.; Ali, M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulation models, engine experts, and experimental data are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of abnormal engine behavior. Engine parameters monitored during operation are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of actual engine behavior. Similarities between the representations of failure scenarios and the actual engine behavior are used to diagnose fault conditions which have already occurred, or are about to occur; to increase the surveillance by the monitoring system of relevant engine parameters; and to predict likely future engine behavior.

  19. Qualitative and temporal reasoning in engine behavior analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, W. E.; Stamps, M. E.; Ali, M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulation models, engine experts, and experimental data are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of abnormal engine behavior. Engine parameters monitored during operation are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of actual engine behavior. Similarities between the representations of failure scenarios and the actual engine behavior are used to diagnose fault conditions which have already occurred, or are about to occur; to increase the surveillance by the monitoring system of relevant engine parameters; and to predict likely future engine behavior.

  20. A conceptual design tool for RBCC engine performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, John R.; Saks, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles will depend on new propulsion technologies to lower system operational costs while maintaining adequate performance. Recently, a number of vehicle systems utilizing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion have been proposed as possible low-cost space launch solutions. Vehicles using RBCC propulsion have the potential to combine the best aspects of airbreathing propulsion (high average Isp) with the best aspects of rocket propulsion (high propellant bulk density and engine T/W). Proper conceptual assessment of each proposed vehicle will require computer-based tools that allow for quick and cheap, yet sufficiently accurate disciplinary analyses. At Georgia Tech, a spreadsheet-based tool has been developed that uses quasi-1D flow analysis with component efficiencies to parametrically model RBCC engine performance in ejector, fan-ramjet, ramjet and pure rocket modes. The technique is similar to an earlier RBCC modeling technique developed by the Marquardt Corporation in the mid-1960's. For a given sea-level static thrust requirement, the current tool generates engine weight and size data, as well as Isp and thrust data vs. altitude and Mach number. The latter is output in tabular form for use in a trajectory optimization program. This paper reviews the current state of the RBCC analysis tool and the effort to upgrade it from a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to a design-oriented UNIX program in C suitable for integration into a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework.

  1. Evaluating control displays with the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Plott, B.

    2006-07-01

    In the Nuclear Power Industry increased use of automated sensors and advanced control systems is expected to reduce and/or change manning requirements. However, critical questions remain regarding the extent to which safety will be compromised if the cognitive workload associated with monitoring multiple automated systems is increased. Can operators/engineers maintain an acceptable level of performance if they are required to supervise multiple automated systems and respond appropriately to off-normal conditions? The interface to/from the automated systems must provide the information necessary for making appropriate decisions regarding intervention in the automated process, but be designed so that the cognitive load is neither too high nor too low for the operator who is responsible for the monitoring and decision making. This paper will describe a new tool that was developed to enhance the ability of human systems integration (HSI) professionals and systems engineers to identify operational tasks in which a high potential for human overload and error can be expected. The tool is entitled the Engineering Control Analysis Tool (ECAT). ECAT was designed and developed to assist in the analysis of: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), operator task requirements, human error probabilities, workload prediction, potential control and display problems, and potential panel layout problems. (authors)

  2. Engineered fetal cartilage: structural and functional analysis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julie R; Terada, Shinichi; Hannouche, Didier; Ochoa, Erin R; Vacanti, Joseph P; Fauza, Dario O

    2002-12-01

    This study was aimed at characterizing the structure and function of engineered fetal cartilage in vitro. Chondrocytes from ovine specimens of fetal elastic, fetal hyaline, and adult elastic cartilage were expanded in culture and their growth rates determined. Cells were seeded onto synthetic scaffolds, which were then maintained in a bioreactor. Matrix deposition was determined by specific staining and quantitative assays for glycosaminoglycans (GAG), type II collagen (CII), and elastin, as well as compared with native tissue. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Students' t test, with significance set at P less than.01. Fetal elastic chondrocytes grew significantly faster than all other cell types. All fetal constructs resembled hyaline cartilage, regardless of the cell source. There were significantly higher levels of GAG and CII in fetal versus adult constructs, but no significant difference between fetal constructs from different sources. Unlike their adult counterparts, fetal constructs had GAG and CII levels similar to native tissues. Fetal chondrocytes can be rapidly expanded in culture. Compared with adult constructs, matrix deposition is enhanced in engineered fetal cartilage, which closely resembles native tissue, regardless of the cell source. Engineered fetal cartilage may be a preferable option during surgical reconstruction of select congenital anomalies. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  3. A conceptual design tool for RBCC engine performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Olds, J.R.; Saks, G.

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles will depend on new propulsion technologies to lower system operational costs while maintaining adequate performance. Recently, a number of vehicle systems utilizing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion have been proposed as possible low-cost space launch solutions. Vehicles using RBCC propulsion have the potential to combine the best aspects of airbreathing propulsion (high average Isp) with the best aspects of rocket propulsion (high propellant bulk density and engine T/W). Proper conceptual assessment of each proposed vehicle will require computer-based tools that allow for quick and cheap, yet sufficiently accurate disciplinary analyses. At Georgia Tech, a spreadsheet-based tool has been developed that uses quasi-1D flow analysis with component efficiencies to parametrically model RBCC engine performance in ejector, fan-ramjet, ramjet and pure rocket modes. The technique is similar to an earlier RBCC modeling technique developed by the Marquardt Corporation in the mid-1960{close_quote}s. For a given sea-level static thrust requirement, the current tool generates engine weight and size data, as well as Isp and thrust data vs. altitude and Mach number. The latter is output in tabular form for use in a trajectory optimization program. This paper reviews the current state of the RBCC analysis tool and the effort to upgrade it from a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to a design-oriented UNIX program in C suitable for integration into a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Engineering Education Research in "European Journal of Engineering Education" and "Journal of Engineering Education": Citation and Reference Discipline Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Williams, Bill; Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The authors, citations and content of "European Journal of Engineering Education" ("EJEE") and "Journal of Engineering Education" ("JEE") in 1973 ("JEE," 1975 "EJEE"), 1983, 1993, 2003, and available 2013 issues were analysed. Both journals transitioned from house organs to become…

  5. Engineering Education Research in "European Journal of Engineering Education" and "Journal of Engineering Education": Citation and Reference Discipline Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Williams, Bill; Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The authors, citations and content of "European Journal of Engineering Education" ("EJEE") and "Journal of Engineering Education" ("JEE") in 1973 ("JEE," 1975 "EJEE"), 1983, 1993, 2003, and available 2013 issues were analysed. Both journals transitioned from house organs to become…

  6. The engine design engine. A clustered computer platform for the aerodynamic inverse design and analysis of a full engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J.; Pischel, K.; Hubler, D.

    1992-01-01

    An application for parallel computation on a combined cluster of powerful workstations and supercomputers was developed. A Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is used as message passage language on a macro-tasking parallelization of the Aerodynamic Inverse Design and Analysis for a Full Engine computer code. The heterogeneous nature of the cluster is perfectly handled by the controlling host machine. Communication is established via Ethernet with the TCP/IP protocol over an open network. A reasonable overhead is imposed for internode communication, rendering an efficient utilization of the engaged processors. Perhaps one of the most interesting features of the system is its versatile nature, that permits the usage of the computational resources available that are experiencing less use at a given point in time.

  7. Engine cyclic durability by analysis and material testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Halford, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of calculating turbine engine component durability is addressed. Nonlinear, finite-element structural analyses, cyclic constitutive behavior models, and an advanced creep-fatigue life prediction method called strainrange partitioning were assessed for their applicability to the solution of durability problems in hot-section components of gas turbine engines. Three different component or subcomponent geometries are examined: a stress concentration in a turbine disk; a louver lip of a half-scale combustor liner; and a squealer tip of a first-stage high-pressure turbine blade. Cyclic structural analyses were performed for all three problems. The computed strain-temperature histories at the critical locations of the combustor linear and turbine blade components were imposed on smooth specimens in uniaxial, strain-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue tests of evaluate the structural and life analysis methods.

  8. Systems analysis in environmental engineering: how far should we go?

    PubMed

    Gujer, W

    2004-01-01

    Systems analysis is identified as a unifying topic of environmental engineering. Based on a questionnaire sent out to peers and based on the experience with an advanced systems analysis course the possible content and association of the content with bachelor and master's programs is discussed. At the bachelor's level it is concluded that an array of topics should be introduced more in an inductive way, going along with the discussion of examples. At the master's level it is suggested that a substantial course, which systematically introduces a broad variety of systems analysis tools, is provided. Such a course should go along with the introduction of a simulation tool, which supports application of systems analysis methods.

  9. [Analysis of the relationship between hepatorenal syndrome and plasma ammonia].

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Li, Gui-Xing; Xia, Yong

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) and plasma ammonia. Plasma ammonia, liver and renal function of 465 patients with liver cirrhosis in our hospital, from June 2007 to March 2009, were analyzed. 80 renal dysfunction patients and 80 healthy controls were recruited in the control group. In addition, 40 patients with HRS were followed up. Using urea as the diagnosis standard of HRS, the morbidity rate of HRS was 39.6%, which was higher than that using creatinine as the diagnosis standard of HRS (Chi-square test = 97.33, P less than 0.01). using urea and creatinine as the diagnosis standard of HRS, the ammonia level of HRS groups was (57.39+/-48.83)mumol/L, (64.80+/-47.25)mumol/L, which were higher than that in the non-HRS groups (t = -3.07, t = -3.67, P less than 0.01). The ammonia level of patients with renal dysfunction was (26.59+/-14.34)mumol/L, which was lower than that in HRS group, non-HRS group (P less than 0.01), but there was no statistical significance between the patients with renal dysfunction and the healthy peoples [(22.36+/-8.72)mumol/L] (t = 1.52, P more than 0.05). The followed-up analysis of 40 patients with HRS indicated that plasma ammonia level was positively correlated with urea and creatinine, and correlation coefficients were 0.874 and 0.834 (P less than 0.05). Hepatic encephalopathy is liver-kidney-intestine-brain syndrome. HRS plays an important role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy.

  10. Regulating the antibiotic drug release from β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics by atmospheric plasma surface engineering.

    PubMed

    Canal, C; Modic, M; Cvelbar, U; Ginebra, M-P

    2016-10-20

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are of interest in bone substitution due to their good biocompatibility and bioresorbability. Currently certain CaPs in the market are loaded with antibiotics in order to prevent infections but further control is needed over antibiotic release patterns. Cold plasmas have emerged as a useful means of modifying the interactions with drugs through surface modification of polymer materials. In this work we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasmas as a tool for the surface modification of these CaP materials with newly populated bonds and charges, with views on enabling higher loading and controlled drug release. Herein the surface modification of β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics is investigated using an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet as a tool for tuning the controlled release of the antibiotic doxycycline hyclate, employed as a drug model. The surface chemistry is tailored mainly by plasma jet surface interaction with an increasing O/C ratio without changes in the topography as well as by build-up of surface charges. With this surface tailoring it is demonstrated that the atmospheric plasma jet is a new promising tool that leads to the design of a control for drug release from bioceramic matrices.

  11. Multiphysics Engineering Analysis for an Integrated Design of ITER Diagnostic First Wall and Diagnostic Shield Module Design

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y.; Loesser, G.; Smith, M.; Udintsev, V.; Giacomin, T., T.; Khodak, A.; Johnson, D,; Feder, R,

    2015-07-01

    ITER diagnostic first walls (DFWs) and diagnostic shield modules (DSMs) inside the port plugs (PPs) are designed to protect diagnostic instrument and components from a harsh plasma environment and provide structural support while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of DFWs and DSMs are driven by 1) plasma radiation and nuclear heating during normal operation 2) electromagnetic loads during plasma events and associate component structural responses. A multi-physics engineering analysis protocol for the design has been established at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and it was used for the design of ITER DFWs and DSMs. The analyses were performed to address challenging design issues based on resultant stresses and deflections of the DFW-DSM-PP assembly for the main load cases. ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-Vessel Components (SDC-IC) required for design by analysis and three major issues driving the mechanical design of ITER DFWs are discussed. The general guidelines for the DSM design have been established as a result of design parametric studies.

  12. An investigation of the treatment of particulate matter from gasoline engine exhaust using non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dan; Gao, Dengshan; Yu, Gang; Shen, Xianglin; Gu, Fan

    2005-12-09

    A plasma reactor with catalysts was used to treat exhaust gas from a gasoline engine in order to decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. The effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) of the dielectric discharges on the removal of PM from the exhaust gas was investigated experimentally. The removal efficiency of PM was based on the concentration difference in PM for particle diameters ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 microm as measured by a particle counter. Several factors affecting PM conversion, including the density of plasma energy, reaction temperature, flow rate of exhaust gas, were investigated in the experiment. The results indicate that PM removal efficiency ranged approximately from 25 to 57% and increased with increasing energy input in the reactor, reaction temperature and residence time of the exhaust gas in the reactor. Enhanced removal of the PM was achieved by filling the discharge gap of the reactor with Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst pellets. In addition, the removal of unburned hydrocarbons was studied. Finally, available approaches for PM conversion were analyzed involving the interactions between discharge and catalytic reactions.

  13. Surface Analysis of Reactive Ion Etched PZT Thin Films in SF6 Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Surface Analysis of Reactive Ion Etched PZT Thin Films in SF6 Plasma by Eugene Zakar ARL-TR-4284 September 2007...Surface Analysis of Reactive Ion Etched PZT Thin Films In SF6 Plasma Eugene Zakar Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...September 2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Surface Analysis of Reactive Ion Etched PZT Thin Films in SF6 Plasma

  14. Analysis of plasma instabilities and verification of the BOUT code for the Large Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, P.; Carter, T. A.; Friedman, B.; Umansky, M. V.

    2010-10-15

    The properties of linear instabilities in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] are studied both through analytic calculations and solving numerically a system of linearized collisional plasma fluid equations using the three-dimensional fluid code BOUT[M. Umansky et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 180, 887 (2009)], which has been successfully modified to treat cylindrical geometry. Instability drive from plasma pressure gradients and flows is considered, focusing on resistive drift waves and the Kelvin-Helmholtz and rotational interchange instabilities. A general linear dispersion relation for partially ionized collisional plasmas including these modes is derived and analyzed. For Large Plasma Device relevant profiles including strongly driven flows, it is found that all three modes can have comparable growth rates and frequencies. Detailed comparison with solutions of the analytic dispersion relation demonstrates that BOUT accurately reproduces all characteristics of linear modes in this system.

  15. Network structural analysis using directed graph for chemical reaction analysis in weakly-ionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuto, Kyosuke; Mizui, Yasutaka; Miyagi, Shigeyuki; Sakai, Osamu; Murakami, Tomoyuki

    2016-09-01

    We visualize complicated chemical reaction systems in weakly-ionized plasmas by analysing network structure for chemical processes, and calculate some indexes by assuming interspecies relationships to be a network to clarify them. With the current social evolution, the mean size of general data which we can use in computers grows huge, and significance of the data analysis increases. The methods of the network analysis which we focus on in this study do not depend on a specific analysis target, but the field where it has been already applied is still limited. In this study, we analyse chemical reaction systems in plasmas for configuring the network structure. We visualize them by expressing a reaction system in a specific plasma by a directed graph and examine the indexes and the relations with the characteristic of the species in the reaction system. For example, in the methane plasma network, the centrality index reveals importance of CH3 in an influential position of species in the reaction. In addition, silane and atmospheric pressure plasmas can be also visualized in reaction networks, suggesting other characteristics in the centrality indexes.

  16. Opacity and atomic analysis of double pulse laser ablated Li plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumaran, V.; Joshi, H. C.; Kumar, Ajai

    2014-09-01

    Opacity effects for neutral and ionic emission lines of lithium have been investigated by Atomic Data Analysis Structure (ADAS). Line ratios and opacity corrected photon emissivity coefficients are calculated over a wide range of electron temperatures and densities. The experimentally measured temporal evolution of the line profiles of the over dense Li plasma formed in the double pulse laser ablation experiment have been explained using the ADAS analysis and the plasma parameters of the plasma plume under consideration have been estimated. These results could be projected as a diagnostic tool to estimate plasma parameters of an over dense lithium plasma.

  17. Residual gas analysis of a dc plasma for carbon nanofiber growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cruden, Brett A.; Cassell, Alan M.; Hash, David B.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-11-01

    We report the analysis of a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanofiber growth. A direct current (dc) plasma is employed with a mixture of acetylene and ammonia. Residual gas analysis is performed on the downstream plasma effluent to determine degrees of precursor dissociation and high molecular weight species formation. Results are correlated to growth quality obtained in the plasma as a function of dc voltage/power, gas mixture, and pressure. Behaviors in plasma chemistry are understood through application of a zero-dimensional model.

  18. Two dimensional kinetic analysis of electrostatic harmonic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Pongutá, E. C.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-15

    Electrostatic harmonic Langmuir waves are virtual modes excited in weakly turbulent plasmas, first observed in early laboratory beam-plasma experiments as well as in rocket-borne active experiments in space. However, their unequivocal presence was confirmed through computer simulated experiments and subsequently theoretically explained. The peculiarity of harmonic Langmuir waves is that while their existence requires nonlinear response, their excitation mechanism and subsequent early time evolution are governed by essentially linear process. One of the unresolved theoretical issues regards the role of nonlinear wave-particle interaction process over longer evolution time period. Another outstanding issue is that existing theories for these modes are limited to one-dimensional space. The present paper carries out two dimensional theoretical analysis of fundamental and (first) harmonic Langmuir waves for the first time. The result shows that harmonic Langmuir wave is essentially governed by (quasi)linear process and that nonlinear wave-particle interaction plays no significant role in the time evolution of the wave spectrum. The numerical solutions of the two-dimensional wave spectra for fundamental and harmonic Langmuir waves are also found to be consistent with those obtained by direct particle-in-cell simulation method reported in the literature.

  19. Pixel Analysis and Plasma Dynamics Characterized by Photospheric Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, Anthony P.; Chen, James; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent observations of the photosphere using high spatial and temporal resolutions show small dynamic features at the resolving limit during emerging flux events. However, line-of-sight (LOS) magnetogram pixels only contain the net uncanceled magnetic flux, which is expected to increase for fixed regions as resolution limits improve. A new pixel dynamics method uses spectrographic images to characterize photospheric absorption line profiles by variations in line displacement, width, asymmetry, and peakedness and is applied to quiet-sun regions, active regions with no eruption, and an active region with an ongoing eruption. Using Stokes I images from SOLIS/VSM on 2012 March 13, variations in line width and peakedness of Fe I 6301.5 Å are shown to have a strong spatial and temporal relationship with an M7.9 X-ray flare originating from NOAA 11429. This relationship is observed as a flattening in the line profile as the X-ray flare approaches peak intensity and was not present in area scans of a non-eruptive active region on 2011 April 14. These results are used to estimate dynamic plasma properties on sub-pixel scales and provide both spatial and temporal information of sub-pixel activity at the photosphere. The analysis can be extended to include the full Stokes parameters and study signatures of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties.

  20. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  1. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 μm width and 100 μm depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  2. High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) data analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the Dynamics Explorer mission are to investigate the coupling of energy, mass, and momentum among the earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. At launch, on August 3, 1981, DE-1 was placed into an elliptical polar orbit having an apogee of 23,130 km to allow global auroral imaging and crossings of auroral field lines at altitudes of several thousand kilometers. At the same time DE-2 was placed into a polar orbit, coplanar with that of DE-1 but with a perigee altitude low enough (309 km) for neutral measurements and an apogee altitude of 1012 km. The DE-1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) provided data on low and medium energy electrons and ions from August 13, 1981 until December 1, 1981, when a high-voltage failure occured. Analysis of HAPI data for the time period of this contract has produced new results on the source mechanisms for electron conical distributions, particle acceleration phenomena in auroral acceleration regions, Birkeland currents throughout the nightside auroral regions, the source region for auroral kilometric radiation (AKR), and plasma injection phenomena in the polar cusp.

  3. Analysis of Sterilization Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ekem, N.; Akan, T.; Pat, S.; Akgun, Y.; Kiremitci, A.; Musa, G.

    2007-04-23

    We have developed a new technology, the High Voltage Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Plasma (HVAPPP), for bacteria killing. The aim of this paper is to present a simple device to generate plasma able to kill efficiently bacteria.

  4. Engineering education research in European Journal of Engineering Education and Journal of Engineering Education: citation and reference discipline analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankat, Phillip C.; Williams, Bill; Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The authors, citations and content of European Journal of Engineering Education (EJEE) and Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) in 1973 (JEE, 1975 EJEE), 1983, 1993, 2003, and available 2013 issues were analysed. Both journals transitioned from house organs to become engineering education research (EER) journals, although JEE transitioned first. In this process the number of citations rose, particularly of education and psychology sources; the percentage of research articles increased markedly as did the number of reference disciplines. The number of papers per issue, the number of single author papers, and the citations of science and engineering sources decreased. EJEE has a very broad geographic spread of authors while JEE authors are mainly US based. A 'silo' mentality where general engineering education researchers do not communicate with EER researchers in different engineering disciplines is evident. There is some danger that EER may develop into a silo that does not communicate with technically oriented engineering professors.

  5. Coating Bores of Light Metal Engine Blocks with a Nanocomposite Material using the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Thermal Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Ernst, F.; Zwick, J.; Schlaefer, T.; Cook, D.; Nassenstein, K.; Schwenk, A.; Schreiber, F.; Wenz, T.; Flores, G.; Hahn, M.

    2008-09-01

    Engine blocks of modern passenger car engines are generally made of light metal alloys, mostly hypoeutectic AlSi-alloys. Due to their low hardness, these alloys do not meet the tribological requirements of the system cylinder running surface—piston rings—lubricating oil. In order to provide a suitable cylinder running surface, nowadays cylinder liners made of gray cast iron are pressed in or cast into the engine block. A newer approach is to apply thermal spray coatings onto the cylinder bore walls. Due to the geometric conditions, the coatings are applied with specifically designed internal diameter thermal spray systems. With these processes a broad variety of feedstock can be applied, whereas mostly low-alloyed carbon steel feedstock is being used for this application. In the context of this work, an iron-based wire feedstock has been developed, which leads to a nanocrystalline coating. The application of this material was carried out with the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc system. AlMgSi0.5 liners were used as substrates. The coating microstructure and the properties of the coatings were analyzed.

  6. Analysis of multifrequency interferometry in a cylindrical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, D. J.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, B. N.; Chavers, D. G.; Dobson, C. C.; Jones, J. E.; Jacobson, V. T.

    2006-10-15

    A microwave interferometer operating simultaneously at 70, 90, and 110 GHz is used to measure line integrated electron density in a plasma column in the VX-20 experiment. Interferometer beam sizes are a significant part of the plasma radius at some locations. We model the wave propagation through the plasma using a scalar wave approximation with assumptions of a Gaussian beam profile and plasma spatial profile. The phase shifts obtained from this model are compared with standard thin beam calculations and experimental data.

  7. Analysis of Plasma Communication Schemes for Hypersonic Vehicles: Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    the ReComm scheme for communications through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle during re-entry. We demonstrate that the time...physical processes of the ReComm scheme for communications through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle during re-entry. The ReComm scheme...relation is derived to estimate the plasma heating in the sheath due to plasma waves excited by the antenna. Contents I. Introduction 4 II. Electron

  8. Ice Particle Analysis of the Honeywell AL502 Engine Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.; Rigby, David L.

    2015-01-01

    A flow and ice particle trajectory analysis was performed for the booster of the Honeywell ALF502 engine. The analysis focused on two closely related conditions one of which produced an icing event and another which did not during testing of the ALF502 engine in the Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The flow analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn GlennHT flow solver and the particle analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D v3.63 ice accretion software. The inflow conditions for the two conditions were similar with the main differences being that the condition that produced the icing event was 6.8 K colder than the non-icing event case and the inflow ice water content (IWC) for the non-icing event case was 50% less than for the icing event case. The particle analysis, which considered sublimation, evaporation and phase change, was generated for a 5 micron ice particle with a sticky impact model and for a 24 micron median volume diameter (MVD), 7 bin ice particle distribution with a supercooled large droplet (SLD) splash model used to simulate ice particle breakup. The particle analysis did not consider the effect of the runback and re-impingement of water resulting from the heated spinner and anti-icing system. The results from the analysis showed that the amount of impingement for the components were similar for the same particle size and impact model for the icing and non-icing event conditions. This was attributed to the similar aerodynamic conditions in the booster for the two cases. The particle temperature and melt fraction were higher at the same location and particle size for the non-icing event than for the icing event case due to the higher incoming inflow temperature for the non-event case. The 5 micron ice particle case produced higher impact temperatures and higher melt fractions on the components downstream of the fan than the 24 micron MVD case because the average particle size generated by the particle

  9. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  10. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier- Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  11. The thermal engineering characteristics of plasma-assisted ignition of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2010-06-01

    The parameters playing an important role in implementing a technology of preparing coal for combustion by subjecting it to plasma-assisted thermal—chemical treatment are considered, and their effect on the main characteristics of the obtained product is analyzed. The optimal values of such parameters are determined.

  12. Near Real Time Tools for ISS Plasma Science and Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti, A.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program utilizes a plasma environment forecast for estimating electrical charging hazards for crews during extravehicular activity (EVA). The process uses ionospheric electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) measurements from the ISS Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) instrument suite with the assumption that the plasma conditions will remain constant for one to fourteen days with a low probability for a space weather event which would significantly change the environment before an EVA. FPMU data is typically not available during EVA's, therefore, the most recent FPMU data available for characterizing the state of the ionosphere during EVA is typically a day or two before the start of an EVA or after the EVA has been completed. Three near real time space weather tools under development for ISS applications are described here including: (a) Ne from ground based ionosonde measurements of foF2 (b) Ne from near real time satellite radio occultation measurements of electron density profiles (c) Ne, Te from a physics based ionosphere model These applications are used to characterize the ISS space plasma environment during EVA periods when FPMU data is not available, monitor for large changes in ionosphere density that could render the ionosphere forecast and plasma hazard assessment invalid, and validate the "persistence of conditions" forecast assumption. In addition, the tools are useful for providing space environment input to science payloads on ISS and anomaly investigations during periods the FPMU is not operating.

  13. S-Duct Engine Inlet Flow Control Using SDBD Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Christopher; He, Chuan; Corke, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The results of a numerical simulation and experiment characterizing the performance of plasma streamwise vortex generators in controlling separation and secondary flow within a serpentine, diffusing duct are presented. A no flow control case is first run to check agreement of location of separation, development of secondary flow, and total pressure recovery between the experiment and numerical results. Upon validation, passive vane-type vortex generators and plasma streamwise vortex generators are implemented to increase total pressure recovery and reduce flow distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane: the exit of the S-duct. Total pressure recovery is found experimentally with a pitot probe rake assembly at the aerodynamic interface plane. Stagnation pressure distortion descriptors are also presented to show the performance increase with plasma streamwise vortex generators in comparison to the baseline no flow control case. These performance parameters show that streamwise plasma vortex generators are an effective alternative to vane-type vortex generators in total pressure recovery and total pressure distortion reduction in S-duct inlets.

  14. Caprine plasma proteinase inhibitors--II. Genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Vankan, D M; Bell, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Analysis of the inheritances of the variants of five caprine plasma proteinase inhibitor systems in families demonstrated a genetic control of codominant alleles at five loci. 2. The PIA, B, C, D and E proteins are controlled by four (PIA1,2,3,4), three (PIB1,4,0), three (PIC2,3,0), five (PID1,2,3,4,0) and two (PIE1,2) alleles respectively. Null alleles were postulated for the PIB, PIC and PID systems. 3. The frequencies of the alleles differed substantially between the Australian and Texan Angoras and Cashmere breeds of goats. 4. The combined exclusion probability for the five PI systems was as high as 0.82 in the Cashmere breed, indicating the potential of the proteinase inhibitor proteins for parentage control purposes.

  15. Performance analysis of charge plasma based dual electrode tunnel FET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sunny; Intekhab Amin, S.; Sarin, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes the charge plasma based dual electrode doping-less tunnel FET (DEDLTFET). The paper compares the device performance of the conventional doping-less TFET (DLTFET) and doped TFET (DGTFET). DEDLTEFT gives the superior results with high ON state current (ION ∼ 0.56 mA/μm), ION/IOFF ratio ∼ 9.12 × 1013 and an average subthreshold swing (AV-SS ∼ 48 mV/dec). The variation of different device parameters such as channel length, gate oxide material, gate oxide thickness, silicon thickness, gate work function and temperature variation are done and compared with DLTFET and DGTFET. Through the extensive analysis it is found that DEDLTFET shows the better performance than the other two devices, which gives the indication for an excellent future in low power applications.

  16. Assessment of the toxic potential of engineered metal oxide nanomaterials using an acellular model: citrated rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Patrick Thomas; Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; MacCormack, Tyson James; Dieni, Christopher Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Citrated Sprague-Dawley rat blood plasma was used as a biologically relevant exposure medium to assess the acellular toxic potential of two metal oxide engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), zinc oxide (nZnO), and cerium oxide (nCeO2). Plasma was incubated at 37 °C for up to 48 h with ENM concentrations ranging between 0 and 200 mg/L. The degree of ENM-induced oxidation was assessed by assaying for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels using dichlorofluorescein (DCF), pH, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), lipase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls (PC). Whereas previous in vitro studies showed linear-positive correlations between ENM concentration and oxidative damage, our results suggested that low concentrations were generally pro-oxidant and higher concentrations appeared antioxidant or protective, as indicated by DCF fluorescence trends. nZnO and nCeO2 also affected pH in a manner dependent on concentration and elemental composition; higher nZnO concentrations maintained a more alkaline pH, while nCeO2 tended to decrease pH. No other biomarkers of oxidative damage (FRAP, MDA, PC, lipase activity) showed changes at any ENM concentration or time-point tested. Differential dissolution of the two ENMs was also observed, where as much as ∼31.3% of nZnO was instantaneously dissolved to Zn(2+ )and only negligible nCeO2 was degraded. The results suggest that the direct oxidative potential of nZnO and nCeO2 in citrated rat blood plasma is low, and that a physiological or immune response is needed to generate appreciable damage biomarkers. The data also highlight the need for careful consideration when selecting a model for assessing ENM toxicity.

  17. Comparison of plasma triacylglycerol levels in vegetarians and omnivores: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Ma, Guanpei; Chen, Sifan; Li, Zilun; Xia, Enqin; Sun, YanShuang; Yang, Fang; Zheng, Lin; Feng, Xiang

    2013-02-01

    To compare the effect of vegetarian diets and omnivorous diets on triacylglycerols (TGs). We identified cross-sectional and cohort studies related to TGs (an index of blood lipids) listed on PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, bibliographies, and related references and studies suggested by search engines to further increase the range of data collected (all-year time span until May 2011). Twelve studies with 1300 subjects were included for meta-analysis. Vegetarian diets were effective in lowering plasma TG concentrations (standardized mean difference -1.28 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -2.14 to -0.42); in eight developed countries, plasma TG levels were insignificantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores (standardized mean difference -0.31 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -1.13 to 0.50), but in four developing countries, the phenomenon was obvious (standardized mean difference -4.06 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -7.43 to -0.70). Compared with omnivorous diets, vegetarian diets provide health benefits, especially in developing countries. This favorable effect occurs even if vegetarian diets last for at least 6 mo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

  19. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the TPX plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Redler, K.M.; Chin, E.E.; Boonstra, R.H.; Schaubel, K.M.; Anderson, P.M.; Hoffman, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is to develop and demonstrate steady state tokamak operating modes that can be extrapolated to reactor conditions. TPX will have a double null divertor with an option to operate in a single null mode. The maximum input power will be 45 MW and the pulse length will be 1,000 s. The major and minor radii will be 2.25 m and 0.5 m respectively. The material of plasma facing components (PFCs) will be carbon fiber composite (CFC). The plasma facing components (PFC) cooling will be provided by water at an inlet pressure of 2 MPa and inlet temperature of 50 C. The heat flux on the PFCs will be less than 0.2 MW/m{sup 2} on line of sight shields to 7.5 MW/m{sup 2} on divertor surfaces. The maximum allowable temperature on the divertor surface is 1,400 C and 600 C on all other PFCs. The attachment method, the type of CFC, the coolant flow velocity and the type of coolant channel is chosen based on the surface heat flux. In areas of highest heat flux, heat transfer augmentation will be used to obtain a safety margin of at least 2 on critical heat flux. An extensive thermal flow analysis has been performed to calculate the temperatures and pressure drops in the PFCs. A number of R and D programs are also in progress to verify the analysis and to obtain additional data when required. The total coolant flow rate requirement is estimated to be about 50 m{sup 3}/min (12,000 gpm) and the maximum pressure drop is estimated to be less than 1 MPa.

  20. Pixel Analysis of Photospheric Spectral Data. I. Plasma Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, Anthony P.; Chen, James; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent observations of the photosphere using high spatial and temporal resolution show small dynamic features at or below the current resolving limits. A new pixel dynamics method has been developed to analyze spectral profiles and quantify changes in line displacement, width, asymmetry, and peakedness of photospheric absorption lines. The algorithm evaluates variations of line profile properties in each pixel and determines the statistics of such fluctuations averaged over all pixels in a given region. The method has been used to derive statistical characteristics of pixel fluctuations in observed quiet-Sun regions, an active region with no eruption, and an active region with an ongoing eruption. Using Stokes I images from the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope on 2012 March 13, variations in line width and peakedness of Fe i 6301.5 Å are shown to have a distinct spatial and temporal relationship with an M7.9 X-ray flare in NOAA 11429. This relationship is observed as stationary and contiguous patches of pixels adjacent to a sunspot exhibiting intense flattening in the line profile and line-center displacement as the X-ray flare approaches peak intensity, which is not present in area scans of the non-eruptive active region. The analysis of pixel dynamics allows one to extract quantitative information on differences in plasma dynamics on sub-pixel scales in these photospheric regions. The analysis can be extended to include the Stokes parameters and study signatures of vector components of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties.

  1. Analysis and experiments of a whistler-wave plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.; Ferguson, S.W.; Makowski, M.A.; Stallard, B.W.; Power, J.L.

    1993-08-06

    A plasma thruster operating at high specific impulse ({ge} 3500 s) has been proposed to be based on electron-cyclotron resonance heating of whistler waves propagating on a plasma column on a magnetic hill. Calculations using a particle-in-cell code demonstrate that the distortion of the electron velocity distribution by the heating significantly reduces the flow of plasma up the field, greatly improving efficiency and reducing material interactions relative to a thermal plasma. These and other calculations are presented together with initial experiments on the plasma generated in the proposed device. The experiments are conducted in a magnetic field (3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} T at resonance) and a magnetic mirror ratio of 5. Microwaves (0.915 GHz, <20 kW) are coupled to the plasma with a helical antenna. Vacuum field measurements are in good agreement with prediction. The desired plasma spatial distribution has not yet been achieved.

  2. Articular cartilage tissue engineering with plasma-rich in growth factors and stem cells with nano scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Abbassy, Hadeer A.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. There is a great promise to advance current cartilage therapies toward achieving a consistently successful approach for addressing cartilage afflictions. Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. In this paper, current and emergent approach in the field of cartilage tissue engineering is presented for specific application. In the next years, the development of new strategies using stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium could improve the quality of new formed cartilage.

  3. Environmental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the numerous ways in which inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of environmental samples since it was commercially introduced in 1983. Its multielemental isotopic capability, high sensitivity and wide linear dynamic range makes it ideally suited for environmental analysis. Provided that some care is taken during sample preparation and that appropriate calibration strategies are used to circumvent non-spectroscopic interferences, the technique is readily applicable to the analysis of a wide variety of environmental samples (natural waters, soils, rocks, sediments, vegetation, etc.), using quadrupole, time-of-flight or double-focusing sector-field mass spectrometers. In cases where spectroscopic interferences arising from the sample matrix cannot be resolved, then separation methods can be implemented either on- or off-line, which can simultaneously allow analyte preconcentration, thus further decreasing the already low detection limits that are achievable. In most cases, the blank, prepared by following the same steps as for the sample but without the sample, limits the ultimate detection limits that can be reached.

  4. X-ray-spectroscopy analysis of electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J. P.; Martins, M. C.; Parente, F.; Costa, A. M.; Marques, J. P.; Indelicato, P.

    2010-12-15

    Analysis of x-ray spectra emitted by highly charged ions in an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) may be used as a tool to estimate the charge-state distribution (CSD) in the source plasma. For that purpose, knowledge of the electron energy distribution in the plasma, as well as the most important processes leading to the creation and de-excitation of ionic excited states are needed. In this work we present a method to estimate the ion CSD in an ECRIS through the analysis of the x-ray spectra emitted by the plasma. The method is applied to the analysis of a sulfur ECRIS plasma.

  5. Exploring Complex Engineering Learning over Time with Epistemic Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarovsky, Gina Navoa

    2011-01-01

    Recently, K-12 engineering education has received increased attention as a pathway to building stronger foundations in math and science and introducing young people to the profession. However, the National Academy of Engineering found that many K-12 engineering programs focus heavily on engineering design and science and math learning while…

  6. Exploring Complex Engineering Learning over Time with Epistemic Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svarovsky, Gina Navoa

    2011-01-01

    Recently, K-12 engineering education has received increased attention as a pathway to building stronger foundations in math and science and introducing young people to the profession. However, the National Academy of Engineering found that many K-12 engineering programs focus heavily on engineering design and science and math learning while…

  7. Near Real Time Tools for ISS Plasma Science and Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minow, J. I.; Willis, E. M.; Parker, L. N.; Shim, J.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program utilizes a plasma environment forecast for estimating electrical charging hazards for crews during extravehicular activity (EVA). The process uses ionospheric electron density and temperature measurements from the ISS Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) instrument suite with the assumption that the plasma conditions will remain constant for one to fourteen days with a low probability for a space weather event which would significantly change the environment before an EVA. FPMU data is typically not available during EVA's, therefore, the most recent FPMU data available for characterizing the state of the ionosphere during EVA is typically a day or two before the start of an EVA or after the EVA has been completed. In addition to EVA support, information on ionospheric plasma densities is often needed for support of ISS science payloads and anomaly investigations during periods when the FPMU is not operating. This presentation describes the application of space weather tools developed by MSFC using data from near real time satellite radio occultation and ground based ionosonde measurements of ionospheric electron density and a first principle ionosphere model providing electron density and temperature run in a real time mode by GSFC. These applications are used to characterize the space environment during EVA periods when FPMU data is not available, monitor for large charges in ionosphere density that could render the ionosphere forecast and plasma hazard assessment invalid, and validate the assumption of 'persistence of conditions' used in deriving the hazard forecast. In addition, the tools are used to provide space environment input to science payloads on ISS and anomaly investigations during periods the FPMU is not operating.

  8. Near Real Time Tools for ISS Plasma Science and Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti A.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program utilizes a plasma environment forecast for estimating electrical charging hazards for crews during extravehicular activity (EVA). The process uses ionospheric electron density and temperature measurements from the ISS Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) instrument suite with the assumption that the plasma conditions will remain constant for one to fourteen days with a low probability for a space weather event which would significantly change the environment before an EVA. FPMU data is typically not available during EVA's, therefore, the most recent FPMU data available for characterizing the state of the ionosphere during EVA is typically a day or two before the start of an EVA or after the EVA has been completed. In addition to EVA support, information on ionospheric plasma densities is often needed for support of ISS science payloads and anomaly investigations during periods when the FPMU is not operating. This presentation describes the application of space weather tools developed by MSFC using data from near real time satellite radio occultation and ground based ionosonde measurements of ionospheric electron density and a first principle ionosphere model providing electron density and temperature run in a real time mode by GSFC. These applications are used to characterize the space environment during EVA periods when FPMU data is not available, monitor for large charges in ionosphere density that could render the ionosphere forecast and plasma hazard assessment invalid, and validate the assumption of "persistence of conditions" used in deriving the hazard forecast. In addition, the tools are used to provide space environment input to science payloads on ISS and anomaly investigations during periods the FPMU is not operating.

  9. Integration of Microwave Plasma Ignition Into a Multi-Fuel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    electronics control, this type of ignition system can easily surpass conventional spark ignition performance and capabilities. Continued work would seek...plasma source as a spark plug replacement. The QWCCR is a highly efficient impedance transformation device that can step up the electrical potential...can be larger than a conventional spark plug spark, thus reducing the thermal point loading that results from a spark gap. Additionally, the nature of

  10. Space Operations Analysis Using the Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angster, Scott; Brewer, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment has been under development at the NASA Langley Research Center to aid in the understanding of the operations of spacecraft. This is accomplished through the integration of multiple data sets, analysis tools, spacecraft geometric models, and a visualization environment to create an interactive virtual simulation of the spacecraft. Initially designed to support the needs of the International Space Station, the SEE has broadened the scope to include spacecraft ranging from low-earth orbit to deep space missions. Analysis capabilities within the SEE include rigid body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. This provides the user the ability to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses in areas including flight attitudes and maneuvers, visiting vehicle docking scenarios, robotic operations, plume impingement, field of view obscuration, and alternative assembly configurations. The SEE has been used to aid in the understanding of several operational procedures related to the International Space Station. This paper will address the capabilities of the first build of the SEE, present several use cases of the SEE, and discuss the next build of the SEE.

  11. Nonlinear constitutive theory for turbine engine structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A number of viscoplastic constitutive theories and a conventional constitutive theory are evaluated and compared in their ability to predict nonlinear stress-strain behavior in gas turbine engine components at elevated temperatures. Specific application of these theories is directed towards the structural analysis of combustor liners undergoing transient, cyclic, thermomechanical load histories. The combustor liner material considered in this study is Hastelloy X. The material constants for each of the theories (as a function of temperature) are obtained from existing, published experimental data. The viscoplastic theories and a conventional theory are incorporated into a general purpose, nonlinear, finite element computer program. Several numerical examples of combustor liner structural analysis using these theories are given to demonstrate their capabilities. Based on the numerical stress-strain results, the theories are evaluated and compared.

  12. Genetic analysis of Down syndrome facilitated by mouse chromosome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Fu, Dawei; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Liu, Chunhong; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Pao, Annie; Liang, Ping; Clapcote, Steven J.; Mobley, William C.; Yu, Y. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Human trisomy 21 is the most frequent live-born human aneuploidy and causes a constellation of disease phenotypes classified as Down syndrome, which include heart defects, myeloproliferative disorder, cognitive disabilities and Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. Because these phenotypes are associated with an extra copy of a human chromosome, the genetic analysis of Down syndrome has been a major challenge. To complement human genetic approaches, mouse models have been generated and analyzed based on evolutionary conservation between the human and mouse genomes. These efforts have been greatly facilitated by Cre/loxP-mediated mouse chromosome engineering, which may result in the establishment of minimal critical genomic regions and eventually new dosage-sensitive genes associated with Down syndrome phenotypes. The success in genetic analysis of Down syndrome will further enhance our understanding of this disorder and lead to better strategies in developing effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:22126738

  13. Thermal analysis of the in-vessel components of the ITER plasma-position reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Quental, P. B. Policarpo, H.; Luís, R.; Varela, P.

    2016-11-15

    The ITER plasma position reflectometry system measures the edge electron density profile of the plasma, providing real-time supplementary contribution to the magnetic measurements of the plasma-wall distance. Some of the system components will be in direct sight of the plasma and therefore subject to plasma and stray radiation, which may cause excessive temperatures and stresses. In this work, thermal finite element analysis of the antenna and adjacent waveguides is conducted with ANSYS V17 (ANSYS® Academic Research, Release 17.0, 2016). Results allow the identification of critical temperature points, and solutions are proposed to improve the thermal behavior of the system.

  14. Thermal analysis of the in-vessel components of the ITER plasma-position reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Quental, P B; Policarpo, H; Luís, R; Varela, P

    2016-11-01

    The ITER plasma position reflectometry system measures the edge electron density profile of the plasma, providing real-time supplementary contribution to the magnetic measurements of the plasma-wall distance. Some of the system components will be in direct sight of the plasma and therefore subject to plasma and stray radiation, which may cause excessive temperatures and stresses. In this work, thermal finite element analysis of the antenna and adjacent waveguides is conducted with ANSYS V17 (ANSYS® Academic Research, Release 17.0, 2016). Results allow the identification of critical temperature points, and solutions are proposed to improve the thermal behavior of the system.

  15. Thermal analysis of the in-vessel components of the ITER plasma-position reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quental, P. B.; Policarpo, H.; Luís, R.; Varela, P.

    2016-11-01

    The ITER plasma position reflectometry system measures the edge electron density profile of the plasma, providing real-time supplementary contribution to the magnetic measurements of the plasma-wall distance. Some of the system components will be in direct sight of the plasma and therefore subject to plasma and stray radiation, which may cause excessive temperatures and stresses. In this work, thermal finite element analysis of the antenna and adjacent waveguides is conducted with ANSYS V17 (ANSYS® Academic Research, Release 17.0, 2016). Results allow the identification of critical temperature points, and solutions are proposed to improve the thermal behavior of the system.

  16. Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Yushuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-31

    The Project of Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a 10-kg small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), named JOSHO, will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster itself. Electrothermal PPTs were studied with both experiments and numerical simulations. An electrothermal PPT with a side-fed propellant feeding mechanism achieved a total impulse of 3.6 Ns with a repetitive 10000-shot operation. An unsteady numerical simulation showed the existence of considerable amount of ablation delaying to the discharge. However, it was also shown that this phenomenon should not be regarded as the 'late time ablation' for electrothermal PPTs.

  17. Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yushuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Minetsugu; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    The Project of Osaka-Institute-of-Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a 10-kg small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs), named JOSHO, will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster itself. Electrothermal PPTs were studied with both experiments and numerical simulations. An electrothermal PPT with a side-fed propellant feeding mechanism achieved a total impulse of 3.6 Ns with a repetitive 10000-shot operation. An unsteady numerical simulation showed the existence of considerable amount of ablation delaying to the discharge. However, it was also shown that this phenomenon should not be regarded as the ``late time ablation'' for electrothermal PPTs.

  18. A Thermodynamic System Analysis Model of a Diesel Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-16

    engine technology has become even more promising recently with the introduction of the innovative adiabatic diesel engine concept. U.S. activities in the...conventional diesel engine. The most important operational characteristics of the new engine may be its uncompromisingly high fuel efficiency , as demonstrated...by a low-cooled diesel engine installed in a five-ton military truck which achieved a brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of 0.285 lb/hp-hr (Bryzik

  19. Surface and interface characterization for low temperature plasma interface engineering of aluminum alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Christopher Edward

    2000-10-01

    High strength aluminum alloys owe their improved structural integrity to the addition of alloying elements to an aluminum matrix. In the highest strength alloys, these additions have the unfortunate effect of decreasing the corrosion resistance of the alloy, as compared to pure aluminum. Costs associated with the corrosion of structural materials greatly affect the world's economies, forcing the early replacement or failure of infrastructure components, industrial products, and military weapons systems, to name a few crucial example areas. Current methods for the protection of structural aluminum alloys employ hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor and surface passivating agent. This form of chromium is now known to be carcinogenic and it has come under great scrutiny as of late, due to pollution and remediation costs associated with its use. Research toward the development of more environmentally benign corrosion resistant coatings using plasma polymers, as intermediary adhesion and barrier layers on aluminum alloys, is showing great promise as an alternative protection method. These plasma polymer films also exhibit characteristics, in combination with certain conventional polymer coatings, that may lead to the development of long service-life coatings systems. The integrity of interfaces between each successive coating layer is the most critical factor in the overall performance of any system, given that the coatings themselves are stable. It is therefore necessary to more fully understand the specific chemistry of the surfaces under consideration. Electron spectroscopies allow for the investigation of surface chemistry and, when combined with inert ion sputtering, have the ability to characterize the chemistry throughout an entire film and its interface with a particular substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the alloy surface modifications from various chemical and plasma pretreatments, the surface and bulk film

  20. Analysis of benzoquinone decomposition in solution plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratescu, M. A.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in Solution Plasma Processing (SPP) was analyzed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) by monitoring the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity of the vibrational transitions of the molecule, during and after SPP. Just in the beginning of the SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensities of the ring vibrational molecular transitions increased under the influence of the electric field of plasma. The results show that plasma influences the p-BQ molecules in two ways: (i) plasma produces a polarization and an orientation of the molecules in the local electric field of plasma and (ii) the gas phase plasma supplies, in the liquid phase, hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which reduce or oxidize the molecules, respectively, generating different carboxylic acids. The decomposition of p-BQ after SPP was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

  1. Analysis of plasmas generated by fission fragments. [nuclear pumped lasers and helium plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    A kinetic model is developed for a plasma generated by fission fragments and the results are employed to study helium plasma generated in a tube coated with fissionable material. Because both the heavy particles and electrons play important roles in creating the plasma, their effects are considered simultaneously. The calculations are carried out for a range of neutron fluxes and pressures. In general, the predictions of the theory are in good agreement with available intensity measurements. Moreover, the theory predicts the experimentally measured inversions. However, the calculated gain coefficients are such that lasing is not expected to take place in a helium plasma generated by fission fragments. The effects of an externally applied electric field are also considered.

  2. Observation and numerical analysis of plasma parameters in a capillary discharge-produced plasma channel waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Bobrova, Nadezhda; Sasorov, Pavel; Kikuchi, Takashi; Sasaki, Toru; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    We observed the parameters of the discharge-produced plasma in cylindrical capillary. Plasma parameters of the waveguide were investigated by use of both a Normarski laser interferometer and a hydrogen plasma line spectrum. A space-averaged maximum temperature of 3.3 eV with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed at a discharge time of 150 ns and a maximum discharge current of 200 A. One-dimensional dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code was used to analyze the discharge dynamics in the gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses. Simulations were performed for the conditions of the experiment. We compared the temporal behavior of the electron temperature and the radial electron density profiles, measured in the experiment with the results of the numerical simulations. They occurred to be in a good agreement. An ultrashort, intense laser pulse was guided by use of this plasma channel.

  3. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  4. Low-molecular weight plasma proteome analysis using centrifugal ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Greening, David W; Simpson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The low-molecular weight fraction (LMF) of the human plasma proteome is an invaluable source of biological information, especially in the context of identifying plasma-based biomarkers of disease. This protocol outlines a standardized procedure for the rapid/reproducible LMF profiling of human plasma samples using centrifugal ultrafiltration fractionation, followed by 1D-SDS-PAGE separation and nano-LC-MS/MS. Ultrafiltration is a convective process that uses anisotropic semipermeable membranes to separate macromolecular species on the basis of size. We have optimized centrifugal ultrafiltration for plasma fractionation with respect to buffer and solvent composition, centrifugal force, duration and temperature to facilitate >95% recovery, and enrichment of low-M (r) components from human plasma. Using this protocol, >260 unique peptides can be identified from a single plasma profiling experiment using 100 μL of plasma (Greening and Simpson, J Proteomics 73:637-648, 2010). The efficacy of this method is demonstrated by the identification, for the first time, of several plasma proteins (e.g., protein KIAA0649 (Q9Y4D3), rheumatoid factor D5, serine protease inhibitor A3, and transmembrane adapter protein PAG) previously not reported in extant high-confidence Human Proteome Organization Plasma Proteome Project datasets.

  5. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    the proposed intervention. The implicit assumption underlying such analysis is that both models are commensurable. We hypothesize that they are commensurable only to a certain extent. In an idealised study we have demonstrated that prediction performance loss should be expected with increasingly large engineering works. When accounting for parametric uncertainty of floodplain roughness in model identification, we see uncertainty bounds for predicted effects of interventions increase with increasing intervention scale. Calibration of these types of models therefore seems to have a shelf-life, beyond which calibration does not longer improves prediction. Therefore a qualification scheme for model use is required that can be linked to model validity. In this study, we characterize model use along three dimensions: extrapolation (using the model with different external drivers), extension (using the model for different output or indicators) and modification (using modified models). Such use of models is expected to have implications for the applicability of surrogating modelling for efficient uncertainty analysis as well, which is recommended for future research. Warmink, J. J.; Straatsma, M. W.; Huthoff, F.; Booij, M. J. & Hulscher, S. J. M. H. 2013. Uncertainty of design water levels due to combined bed form and vegetation roughness in the Dutch river Waal. Journal of Flood Risk Management 6, 302-318 . DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12014

  6. Experimental investigation on laser-induced plasma ignition of hydrocarbon fuel in scramjet engine at takeover flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xipeng; Liu, Weidong; Pan, Yu; Yang, Leichao; An, Bin

    2017-09-01

    Laser-induced plasma ignition of an ethylene fuelled cavity is successfully conducted in a model scramjet engine combustor with dual cavities. The simulated flight condition corresponds to takeover flight Mach 4, with isolator entrance Mach number of 2.1, the total pressure of 0.65 MPa and stagnation temperature of 947 K. Ethylene is injected 35 mm upstream of cavity flameholder from four orifices with 2-mm-diameter. The 1064 nm laser beam, from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source running at 10 Hz and 940 mJ per pulse, is focused into cavity for ignition. High speed photography is used to capture the transient ignition process. The laser-induced gas breakdown, flame kernel generation and propagation are all recorded and ensuing stable supersonic combustion is established in cavity. The highly ionized plasma zone is almost round at starting, and then the surface of the flame kernel is wrinkled severely in 150 μs after the laser pulse due to the strong turbulence flow in cavity. The flame kernel is found rotating anti-clockwise and gradually moves upstream as the entrainment of circulation flow in cavity. The flame is stabilized at the corner of the cavity for about 200 μs, and then spreads from leading edge to trailing edge via the under part of shear layer to fully fill the entire cavity. The corner recirculation zone of cavity is of great importance for flame spreading. Eventually, a cavity shear-layer stabilized combustion is established in the supersonic flow roughly 2.9 ms after the laser pulse. Both the temporal evolution of normalized chemiluminescence intensity and normalized flame area show that the entire ignition process can be divided into four stages, which are referred as turbulent dissipation stage, combustion enhancement stage, reverting stage and combustion stabilization stage. The results show promising potentials of laser induced plasma for ignition in real scramjets.

  7. A Mechanical Composite Spheres Analysis of Engineered Cartilage Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kohles, Sean S.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Bonassar, Lawrence J.

    2007-01-01

    In the preparation of bioengineered reparative strategies for damaged or diseased tissues, the processes of biomaterial degradation and neotissue synthesis combine to affect the developing mechanical state of multiphase, composite engineered tissues. Here, cell-polymer constructs for engineered cartilage have been fabricated by seeding chondrocytes within three-dimensional scaffolds of biodegradable polymers. During culture, synthetic scaffolds degraded passively as the cells assembled an extracellular matrix (ECM) composed primarily of glycosaminoglycan and collagen. Biochemical and biomechanical assessment of the composite (cells, ECM, and polymer scaffold) were modeled at a unit-cell level to mathematically solve stress-strain relationships and thus construct elastic properties (n=4 samples per seven time points). This approach employed a composite spheres, micromechanical analysis to determine bulk moduli of: (1) the cellular-ECM inclusion within the supporting scaffold structure; and (2) the cellular inclusion within its ECM. Results indicate a dependence of constituent volume fractions with culture time (p<0.05). Overall mean bulk moduli were variably influenced by culture, as noted for the cell-ECM inclusion (Kc-m=29.7 kPa, p=0.1439), the cellular inclusion (Kc=5.5 kPa, p=0.0067), and its surrounding ECM (Km=373.9 kPa, p=0.0748), as well as the overall engineered construct (K=165.0 kPa, p=0.6899). This analytical technique provides a framework to describe the time-dependent contribution of cells, accumulating ECM, and a degrading scaffold affecting bioengineered construct mechanical properties. PMID:17655467

  8. Performance analysis and dynamic modeling of a single-spool turbojet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, Irina-Carmen; Toader, Adrian; Stroe, Gabriela; Frunzulica, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of modeling and simulation of a turbojet engine are the steady state analysis and transient analysis. From the steady state analysis, which consists in the investigation of the operating, equilibrium regimes and it is based on appropriate modeling describing the operation of a turbojet engine at design and off-design regimes, results the performance analysis, concluded by the engine's operational maps (i.e. the altitude map, velocity map and speed map) and the engine's universal map. The mathematical model that allows the calculation of the design and off-design performances, in case of a single spool turbojet is detailed. An in house code was developed, its calibration was done for the J85 turbojet engine as the test case. The dynamic modeling of the turbojet engine is obtained from the energy balance equations for compressor, combustor and turbine, as the engine's main parts. The transient analysis, which is based on appropriate modeling of engine and its main parts, expresses the dynamic behavior of the turbojet engine, and further, provides details regarding the engine's control. The aim of the dynamic analysis is to determine a control program for the turbojet, based on the results provided by performance analysis. In case of the single-spool turbojet engine, with fixed nozzle geometry, the thrust is controlled by one parameter, which is the fuel flow rate. The design and management of the aircraft engine controls are based on the results of the transient analysis. The construction of the design model is complex, since it is based on both steady-state and transient analysis, further allowing the flight path cycle analysis and optimizations. This paper presents numerical simulations for a single-spool turbojet engine (J85 as test case), with appropriate modeling for steady-state and dynamic analysis.

  9. Part 4. Effects of subchronic diesel engine emissions exposure on plasma markers in rodents: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Daniel J; Kong, Maiying

    2012-09-01

    Although epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE*) emissions causes adverse cardiovascular effects, neither the specific components of DE nor the mechanisms by which DE exposure could induce cardiovascular dysfunction and exacerbate cardiovascular disease (CVD) are known. Moreover, because the advance of new technologies has resulted in cleaner fuels and decreased engine emissions, there is even more uncertainty about the relationship between DE exposure and cardiovascular health effects. To address this ever-changing baseline of engine emissions, we tested for exposure-, sex- and duration-dependent alterations in plasma markers following subchronic exposure of mice and rats to DE emissions from a 2007-compliant diesel engine. Many plasma markers--several recognized as known human CVD risk factors--were measured in the plasma of rodents exposed to 1 or 3 months of air (the control) or DE emissions. Few changes in plasma markers resulted from exposure to DE, although significant exposure-level-dependent increases in total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were observed in male rats after 1 month of DE exposure, an effect that was neither sustained nor observed in any other group. These data indicate that DE emissions from a 2007-compliant diesel engine as tested in this study had little adverse effect on CVD markers in rodents.

  10. Cost Risk Analysis Based on Perception of the Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Wood, Darrell A.; Moore, Arlene A.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    In most cost estimating applications at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), it is desirable to present predicted cost as a range of possible costs rather than a single predicted cost. A cost risk analysis generates a range of cost for a project and assigns a probability level to each cost value in the range. Constructing a cost risk curve requires a good estimate of the expected cost of a project. It must also include a good estimate of expected variance of the cost. Many cost risk analyses are based upon an expert's knowledge of the cost of similar projects in the past. In a common scenario, a manager or engineer, asked to estimate the cost of a project in his area of expertise, will gather historical cost data from a similar completed project. The cost of the completed project is adjusted using the perceived technical and economic differences between the two projects. This allows errors from at least three sources. The historical cost data may be in error by some unknown amount. The managers' evaluation of the new project and its similarity to the old project may be in error. The factors used to adjust the cost of the old project may not correctly reflect the differences. Some risk analyses are based on untested hypotheses about the form of the statistical distribution that underlies the distribution of possible cost. The usual problem is not just to come up with an estimate of the cost of a project, but to predict the range of values into which the cost may fall and with what level of confidence the prediction is made. Risk analysis techniques that assume the shape of the underlying cost distribution and derive the risk curve from a single estimate plus and minus some amount usually fail to take into account the actual magnitude of the uncertainty in cost due to technical factors in the project itself. This paper addresses a cost risk method that is based on parametric estimates of the technical factors involved in the project being costed. The engineering

  11. Electrochemical analysis of Shewanella oneidensis engineered to bind gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kane, Aunica L; Bond, Daniel R; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2013-02-15

    Growth in three-electrode electrochemical cells allows quantitative analysis of mechanisms involved in electron flow from dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria to insoluble electron acceptors. In these systems, gold electrodes are a desirable surface to study the electrophysiology of extracellular respiration, yet previous research has shown that certain Shewanella species are unable to form productive biofilms on gold electrodes. To engineer attachment of Shewanella oneidensis to gold, five repeating units of a synthetic gold-binding peptide (5rGBP) were integrated within an Escherichia coli outer membrane protein, LamB, and displayed on the outer surface of S. oneidensis. Expression of LamB-5rGBP increased cellular attachment of S. oneidensis to unpoised gold surfaces but was also associated with the loss of certain outer membrane proteins required for extracellular respiration. Loss of these outer membrane proteins during expression of LamB-5rGBP decreased the rate at which S. oneidensis was able to reduce insoluble iron, riboflavin, and electrodes. Moreover, poising the gold electrode resulted in repulsion of the engineered cells. This study provides a strategy to specifically immobilize bacteria to electrodes while also outlining challenges involved in merging synthetic biology approaches with native cellular pathways and cell surface charge.

  12. Fetal tissue engineering: in vitro analysis of muscle constructs.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julie R; Pomerantseva, Irina; Ochoa, Erin R; Vacanti, Joseph P; Fauza, Dario O

    2003-09-01

    This study was aimed at examining the impact of different tissue engineering techniques on fetal muscle construct architecture. Myoblasts from ovine specimens of fetal skeletal muscle were expanded in culture and their growth rates determined. Cells were seeded at different densities onto 3 scaffold types, namely polyglycolic acid (PGA) treated with poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), a composite of PGA with poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB), and a collagen hydrogel. Constructs were maintained in a bioreactor and submitted to histologic, scanning electron microscopy, and DNA analyses at different time-points. Statistical analysis was by the likelihood ratio and paired Student's t tests (P <.05). Fetal myoblasts proliferated at faster rates than expected from neonatal cells. Cell attachment was enhanced in the PGA/PLLA matrix and collagen hydrogel when compared with the PGA/P4HB composite. Necrosis was observed at the center of all constructs, directly proportional to cell seeding density and time in the bioreactor. Fetal myoblasts can be expanded rapidly in culture and attach well to PGA/PLLA, as well as collagen hydrogel but less optimally to PGA/P4HB. Excessive cell seeding density and bioreactor time may worsen final construct architecture. These findings should be considered during in vivo trials of muscle replacement by engineered fetal constructs.

  13. Analysis and Engineering of Metabolic Pathway Fluxes in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Christoph

    The Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was discovered as a natural overproducer of glutamate about 50 years ago. Linked to the steadily increasing economical importance of this microorganism for production of glutamate and other amino acids, the quest for efficient production strains has been an intense area of research during the past few decades. Efficient production strains were created by applying classical mutagenesis and selection and especially metabolic engineering strategies with the advent of recombinant DNA technology. Hereby experimental and computational approaches have provided fascinating insights into the metabolism of this microorganism and directed strain engineering. Today, C. glutamicum is applied to the industrial production of more than 2 million tons of amino acids per year. The huge achievements in recent years, including the sequencing of the complete genome and efficient post genomic approaches, now provide the basis for a new, fascinating era of research - analysis of metabolic and regulatory properties of C. glutamicum on a global scale towards novel and superior bioprocesses.

  14. Three-dimensional volume analysis of vasculature in engineered tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YousefHussien, Mohammed; Garvin, Kelley; Dalecki, Diane; Saber, Eli; Helguera, María.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional textural and volumetric image analysis holds great potential in understanding the image data produced by multi-photon microscopy. In this paper, an algorithm that quantitatively analyzes the texture and the morphology of vasculature in engineered tissues is proposed. The investigated 3D artificial tissues consist of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) embedded in collagen exposed to two regimes of ultrasound standing wave fields under different pressure conditions. Textural features were evaluated using the normalized Gray-Scale Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) combined with Gray-Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM) analysis. To minimize error resulting from any possible volume rotation and to provide a comprehensive textural analysis, an averaged version of nine GLCM and GLRLM orientations is used. To evaluate volumetric features, an automatic threshold using the gray level mean value is utilized. Results show that our analysis is able to differentiate among the exposed samples, due to morphological changes induced by the standing wave fields. Furthermore, we demonstrate that providing more textural parameters than what is currently being reported in the literature, enhances the quantitative understanding of the heterogeneity of artificial tissues.

  15. Probabilistic structural analysis methods for improving Space Shuttle engine reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, L.

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analysis methods are particularly useful in the design and analysis of critical structural components and systems that operate in very severe and uncertain environments. These methods have recently found application in space propulsion systems to improve the structural reliability of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. A computer program, NESSUS, based on a deterministic finite-element program and a method of probabilistic analysis (fast probability integration) provides probabilistic structural analysis for selected SSME components. While computationally efficient, it considers both correlated and nonnormal random variables as well as an implicit functional relationship between independent and dependent variables. The program is used to determine the response of a nickel-based superalloy SSME turbopump blade. Results include blade tip displacement statistics due to the variability in blade thickness, modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio or density. Modulus of elasticity significantly contributed to blade tip variability while Poisson's ratio did not. Thus, a rational method for choosing parameters to be modeled as random is provided.

  16. NO{sub x} removal in jet-engine exhaust: Proposed non-thermal plasma systems and economic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Chang, J.S.; Urashima, K.; Kim, S.J.; Miziolek, A.W.; Nusca, M.J.; Daniel, R.G.; Huie, R.F.; Herron, J.T.

    1999-07-01

    Incentives for implementing new pollution-control technologies are both regulatory and economic. Given considerable regulatory pressure, e.g., the promulgation of a NESHAPS (National Emissions Standard for hazardous Air Pollutants ) for NO{sub x} emissions in CY 2000, new de-NO{sub x} technologies are being explored. One major reason for this is that conventional de-NO{sub x} methods (like wet scrubbers plus Selective Catalytic Reduction - SCR) will not work effectively for the low NO concentrations (e.g., <50 ppm), high exhaust-gas flow rates ({approximately} 10{sup 6}Nm{sup 3}/h), and low gas temperatures (near ambient) characteristic of Jet Engine Test Cells (JETCs). The project is currently evaluating nonthermal plasma (NTP) technologies for treating jet-engine exhaust and other hazardous air pollutants. In this paper, the authors will present the initial design options for NTP reactor systems for a field-pilot demonstration on small jet engines (e.g., F107 or F112; flow rates {approximately} 10{sup 4} Nm{sup 3}/h). The field-pilot demonstration is necessary to provide further data and operating experience to more fully evaluate economic and performance projections for NTP de-NO{sub x} technology and to design larger systems with confidence. They are presently considering five candidate NTP reactor systems: pulsed corona, dielectric barrier (silent discharge), hybrid NTP reactor-adsorber, plasma-catalytic hybrid, and corona radical shower. Because of the cost and logistics of using an electron-beam NTP reactor (for which some economic data will be given), they have limited the candidate systems to those based on electric-discharge-driven NTP reactors. This paper will discuss the exhaust stream to be addressed, the test setup, candidate reactor systems, and projected operating parameters and specifications for the field-pilot units--as well as initial cost comparisons of three NTP-based de-NO{sub x} systems with two SCR-based systems based on published small

  17. Analysis of magnetic field plasma interactions using microparticles as probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between a magnetic field and plasma close to a nonconductive surface is of interest for both science and technology. In space, crustal magnetic fields on celestial bodies without atmosphere can interact with the solar wind. In advanced technologies such as those used in fusion or spaceflight, magnetic fields can be used to either control a plasma or protect surfaces exposed to the high heat loads produced by plasma. In this paper, a method will be discussed for investigating magnetic field plasma interactions close to a nonconductive surface inside a Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell employing dust particles as probes. To accomplish this, a magnet covered by a glass plate was exposed to a low power argon plasma. The magnetic field was strong enough to magnetize the electrons, while not directly impacting the dynamics of the ions or the dust particles used for diagnostics. In order to investigate the interaction of the plasma with the magnetic field and the nonconductive surface, micron-sized dust particles were introduced into the plasma and their trajectories were recorded with a high-speed camera. Based on the resulting particle trajectories, the accelerations of the dust particles were determined and acceleration maps over the field of view were generated which are representative of the forces acting on the particles. The results show that the magnetic field is responsible for the development of strong electric fields in the plasma, in both horizontal and vertical directions, leading to complex motion of the dust particles.

  18. Phenomenology of plasma engine cathodes at high current rates and low pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huegel, H.; Kruelle, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of low surrounding pressures on cathodes of arc jet engines with electromagnetic acceleration are investigated for pressure and current energies of 20 to 100 Torr. and 400 to 1000 A. Experiments with 50 mm long and 8 mm diameter tungsten-thorium cathode in a coaxial gas flow show that pre-heating of the cathode reduces the duration of the instable arc discharge and thus material loss. The use of lighter gases also reduces instability effects, as well as the use of increased pressures and a massive gas influx.

  19. Engineering Considerations for the Self-Energizing Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD)-Type Fusion Plasma Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    OC 20 i. Ar9NCv USE ONLY (Le L* J 3 REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED F ’’ ebruary 1992 T= -910712 Engineering Considerations for the Self...I o> coca I J 0 015CC 0 0000 Ii 0 00 5 00 10 00 15 0 00 25 00 30 00 35 00 PROPELLANT MASS FLOW RATE (K3>S) Figure 18. Vehicle F /W vs. Propellant Mass...viii) W.E. Moeckel, "Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Concepts for Deep Space Exploration," J . Spacecraft, 12 (1972) 863. ix) F . Winterberg, "Rocket

  20. PREWATE: An interactive preprocessing computer code to the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    The Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code was developed by Boeing under contract to NASA Lewis. It was designed to function as an adjunct to the Navy/NASA Engine Program (NNEP). NNEP calculates the design and off-design thrust and sfc performance of User defined engine cycles. The thermodynamic parameters throughout the engine as generated by NNEP are then combined with input parameters defining the component characteristics in WATE to calculate the bare engine weight of this User defined engine. Preprocessor programs for NNEP were previously developed to simplify the task of creating input datasets. This report describes a similar preprocessor for the WATE code.

  1. Analysis of the reverse jet influence on particle ingestion at the engine inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, S. Yu.; Pudovikov, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    The reverse mode of an operating near-ground jet engine is considered. The air flow and particle trajectories under the engine intake are calculated. On the base of numerical and theoretical analysis of the air flow and particle trajectories, some conclusions about reducing the probability of transportation of large particles to the engine are drawn.

  2. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:24708858

  3. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hodačová, Petra; Kučková, Štěpánka; Švorčík, Václav

    2014-04-01

    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly- l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  4. Grafting of bovine serum albumin proteins on plasma-modified polymers for potential application in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hodačová, Petra; Kučková, Stěpánka; Svorčík, Václav

    2014-04-04

    In this work, an influence of bovine serum albumin proteins grafting on the surface properties of plasma-treated polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid was studied. The interaction of the vascular smooth muscle cells with the modified polymer surface was determined. The surface properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry, electrokinetic analysis, and goniometry. One of the motivations for this work is the idea that by the interaction of the cell with substrate surface, the proteins will form an interlayer between the cell and the substrate. It was proven that when interacting with the plasma-treated high-density polyethylene and poly-l-lactic acid, the bovine serum albumin protein is grafted on the polymer surface. Since the proteins are bonded to the substrate surface, they can stimulate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  5. Hydrogen engine performance analysis project. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Adt, Jr., R. R.; Swain, M. R.; Pappas, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in a 3 year research program to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines is reported. Fifteen hydrogen engine configurations will be subjected to performance and emissions characterization tests. During the first two years, baseline data for throttled and unthrottled, carburetted and timed hydrogen induction, Pre IVC hydrogen-fueled engine configurations, with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and water injection, were obtained. These data, along with descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained, are given. Analyses of other hydrogen-engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort. The unthrottled engine vis-a-vis the throttled engine is found, in general, to exhibit higher brake thermal efficiency. The unthrottled engine also yields lower NO/sub x/ emissions, which were found to be a strong function of fuel-air equivalence ratio. (LCL)

  6. Computational analysis of Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giridharan, M. G.; Krishnan, A.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) uses a hypergolic propellant combination of Monomethyl Hydrazine (MMH) and Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) as fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The performance of the VTE depends on a number of complex interacting phenomena such as atomization, spray dynamics, vaporization, turbulent mixing, convective/radiative heat transfer, and hypergolic combustion. This study involved the development of a comprehensive numerical methodology to facilitate detailed analysis of the VTE. An existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was extensively modified to include the following models: a two-liquid, two-phase Eulerian-Lagrangian spray model; a chemical equilibrium model; and a discrete ordinate radiation heat transfer model. The modified code was used to conduct a series of simulations to assess the effects of various physical phenomena and boundary conditions on the VTE performance. The details of the models and the results of the simulations are presented.

  7. Systems analysis of solid fuel nuclear engines in cislunar space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, U.; Koelle, H. H.; Balzer-Sieb, R.; Bernau, D.; Czarnitzki, J.; Floete, A.; Goericke, D.; Lindenthal, A.; Protsch, R.; Teschner, O.

    1984-12-01

    The use of nuclear engines in cislunar space was studied and the restrictions imposed on nuclear ferries by the chemical Earth to lower Earth orbit (LEO) transportation system were analyzed. The operating conditions are best met by tungsten-water-moderated reactors due to a high specific impulse and long durability. Specific transportation cost for LEO to geostationary orbit (GEO) and LEO to lunar orbit flights were calculated for a transportation system life of 50 yr. Average transportation costs are estimated to be 141 $/kg. No difference is made for both routes. An additional analysis of smaller and larger flight units shows only small cost reductions by employing larger ferries but a significant cost increase in case smaller flight units are used.

  8. An engineering analysis of a closed cycle plant growth module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickford, G. H., Jr.; Jakob, F. E.; Landstrom, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The SOLGEM model is a numerical engineering model which solves the flow and energy balance equations for the air flowing through a growing environment, assuming quasi-steady state conditions within the system. SOLGEM provides a dynamic simulation of the controlled environment system in that the temperature and flow conditions of the growing environment are estimated on an hourly basis in response to the weather data and the plant growth parameters. The flow energy balance considers the incident solar flux; incoming air temperature, humidity, and flow rate; heat exchange with the roof and floor; and heat and moisture exchange with the plants. A plant transpiration subroutine was developed based plant growth research facility, intended for the study of bioregenerative life support theories. The results of a performance analysis of the plant growth module are given. The estimated energy requirements of the module components and the total energy are given.

  9. Life-Cycle Analysis of Aircraft Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    l(it SAk mCvm 4. t* UN~,S " Air ’No 77 ~ 󈧰lpwtnpM. , , r , ,- -*--mvt pA-4tar " - -~ r ; rt~y~’~’iT’IN ~I i~4;y j ~ 1’c>~~W’( GfK~?~ .NRE R-2103L...AF November 1977 Life-Cycle Analysis of Aircraft Turbine Engines J. R. Nelson A Project AIR FORCE report prepared for the United States Air Force Rend...for cost data and operational and maintenance practices that could be profitable fur the Air Force. Refs. (WH) I I(’t ASS IFIED - ... - .’- . -.- -IN

  10. Computational analysis of Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridharan, M. G.; Krishnan, A.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1993-02-01

    The Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) uses a hypergolic propellant combination of Monomethyl Hydrazine (MMH) and Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) as fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The performance of the VTE depends on a number of complex interacting phenomena such as atomization, spray dynamics, vaporization, turbulent mixing, convective/radiative heat transfer, and hypergolic combustion. This study involved the development of a comprehensive numerical methodology to facilitate detailed analysis of the VTE. An existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was extensively modified to include the following models: a two-liquid, two-phase Eulerian-Lagrangian spray model; a chemical equilibrium model; and a discrete ordinate radiation heat transfer model. The modified code was used to conduct a series of simulations to assess the effects of various physical phenomena and boundary conditions on the VTE performance. The details of the models and the results of the simulations are presented.

  11. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  12. A new mathematical approach to the Stirling engine analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cicco, A.

    A new approach to the theoretical analysis of Stirling machine is presented. The mathematical model takes into account the phenomena occurring into the all main parts of the engine such as the expansion space, the heater, the regenerator, the cooler and the compression space as well. Energy, mass and momentum conservation differential equations are applied to each control volume, with the assumption the working fluid being regarded as a perfect, compressible gas, while the flow is unsteady, one dimensional, with friction and heat transfer. A set of algebraic equations is introduced, in order to consider the boundary conditions which express the constancy of total enthalpy and mass flow, and total pressure drop of the fluid flowing through the boundary sections of the control volumes.

  13. Energy Efficient Engine Low Pressure Subsystem Aerodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.; Lynn, Sean R.; Veres, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capability to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the complete low pressure subsystem (LPS) of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE). Detailed analyses were performed using three- dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical models employing advanced clustered processor computing platforms. The analysis evaluates the impact of steady aerodynamic interaction effects between the components of the LPS at design and off- design operating conditions. Mechanical coupling is provided by adjusting the rotational speed of common shaft-mounted components until a power balance is achieved. The Navier-Stokes modeling of the complete low pressure subsystem provides critical knowledge of component acro/mechanical interactions that previously were unknown to the designer until after hardware testing.

  14. Energy Efficient Engine Low Pressure Subsystem Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward J.; Lynn, Sean R.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide the capability to analyze the aerodynamic performance of the complete low pressure subsystem (LPS) of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE). The analyses were performed using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical models employing advanced clustered processor computing platforms. The analysis evaluates the impact of steady aerodynamic interaction effects between the components of the LPS at design and off-design operating conditions. Mechanical coupling is provided by adjusting the rotational speed of common shaft-mounted components until a power balance is achieved. The Navier-Stokes modeling of the complete low pressure subsystem provides critical knowledge of component aero/mechanical interactions that previously were unknown to the designer until after hardware testing.

  15. ``Recycling'' Geophysics: Monitoring and Isotopic Analysis of Engineered Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, R.; Singh, K. P.; Ogle, N.; Ntarlagiannis, D.

    2010-12-01

    The emerging sub discipline of biogeophysics has provoked debate on the mechanisms of microbial processes that may contribute to geophysical signatures. At field scales geophysical signatures are often non unique due to the many parameters (physical, chemical, and biological) that are involved. It may be easier to apply geophysical techniques such as electrodic potential (EP), self potential (SP) and induced polarization (IP) to engineered biological systems where there is a degree of control over the design of the physical and chemical domain. Here we present results of a column experiment that was designed to anaerobically biodegrade dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate. The column utilises a recycled porous media (concrete) to help sequester organic carbon. Electrodic potential, self potential and induced polarisation are used in conjunction with chemical and isotopic techniques to monitor the effectiveness of this approach. Preliminary carbon and oxygen isotopic analysis on concrete from the column in contact with leachate show isotopic enrichment suggesting abiotic precipitation of carbonates.

  16. Analysis of Tangential Camera Views of Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, W. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Groth, M.

    2014-10-01

    Commercial digital video cameras are increasingly being employed as sensor and digitizer for fusion plasma diagnostics. Here we describe some of our recent work to significantly improve tomographic analysis of tangential viewing camera data in toroidal geometry. Fiducial images obtained during vents are used to produce direct linear transformation matrices for each diagnostic camera and determine an accurate camera position and viewport. A tokamak solid model for rendering is used between vents to check camera alignment or when hardware fiducial images are unavailable. The rendering provides camera pixel distance of integration, vessel impact position, and angle of incidence. Reflection characterization is also performed using this solid model. After determining the camera geometry parameters, a response matrix is calculated for toroidally symmetric solution grids. We apply standard sparse linear solvers to the back projection problem for filtered visible light cameras. Forward projections are utilized for theory code validation and visualization. Poloidal IR profiles are extracted from tangential viewing IR camera data using surface parameters determined from solid model rendering. We present examples of each of these applications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a seeded magnetogasdynamic combustion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, T. K.

    1986-06-01

    A Faraday type magnetogasdynamic (MGD) seeded combustion gas plasma generated by burning fuel gas in air with up to 50 percent oxygen enrichment in stoichiometric ratio to determine the sources of thermodynamic irreversibility has been studied. For preliminary determination of the adiabatic flame temperature at one bar, five different fuel gases are studied, out of which four are derivatives of coal: water gas, Lurgi gas, Koppers-Totzek gas, producer gas, and methane. As seed, cesium, potassium and sodium in seed to fuel gas mass ratio of 0.01 to 0.03 in appropriate compound form are used and the equilibrium composition is calculated at 1 bar and temperature from 1500 to 3000 K by considering 14 species in the mixture. Subsequently, a Mollier enthalpy-entropy chart is produced for water gas burning with 50 percent oxygen enriched air and one percent potassium seed to fuel gas mass ratio in the above temperature range and in the pressure range of 0.01 to 100 bars. Finally, from the thermodynamic analysis it is shown that the electrical power generation per unit length is more and irreversibility due to the ohmic heating is less if the temperature is high.

  18. Statistical Analysis Tools for Learning in Engineering Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carolyn A.

    1990-01-01

    Described are engineering programs that have used automated data acquisition systems to implement data collection and analyze experiments. Applications include a biochemical engineering laboratory, heat transfer performance, engineering materials testing, mechanical system reliability, statistical control laboratory, thermo-fluid laboratory, and a…

  19. Analysis of Engineering Content within Technology Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantz, Todd D.; Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively teach engineering, technology teachers need to be taught engineering content, concepts, and related pedagogy. Some researchers posit that technology education programs may not have enough content to prepare technology teachers to teach engineering design. Certain technology teacher education programs have responded by…

  20. Teaching Green Engineering: The Case of Ethanol Lifecycle Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallero, Daniel A.; Braiser, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool in teaching green engineering and has been used to assess biofuels, including ethanol. An undergraduate engineering course at Duke University has integrated LCA with other interactive teaching techniques to enhance awareness and to inform engineering decision making related to societal issues, such as…

  1. Statistical Analysis Tools for Learning in Engineering Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carolyn A.

    1990-01-01

    Described are engineering programs that have used automated data acquisition systems to implement data collection and analyze experiments. Applications include a biochemical engineering laboratory, heat transfer performance, engineering materials testing, mechanical system reliability, statistical control laboratory, thermo-fluid laboratory, and a…

  2. Teaching Green Engineering: The Case of Ethanol Lifecycle Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallero, Daniel A.; Braiser, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool in teaching green engineering and has been used to assess biofuels, including ethanol. An undergraduate engineering course at Duke University has integrated LCA with other interactive teaching techniques to enhance awareness and to inform engineering decision making related to societal issues, such as…

  3. Ecosystem engineering effects on species diversity across ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Vieira, Camila; Koricheva, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Ecosystem engineering is increasingly recognized as a relevant ecological driver of diversity and community composition. Although engineering impacts on the biota can vary from negative to positive, and from trivial to enormous, patterns and causes of variation in the magnitude of engineering effects across ecosystems and engineer types remain largely unknown. To elucidate the above patterns, we conducted a meta-analysis of 122 studies which explored effects of animal ecosystem engineers on species richness of other organisms in the community. The analysis revealed that the overall effect of ecosystem engineers on diversity is positive and corresponds to a 25% increase in species richness, indicating that ecosystem engineering is a facilitative process globally. Engineering effects were stronger in the tropics than at higher latitudes, likely because new or modified habitats provided by engineers in the tropics may help minimize competition and predation pressures on resident species. Within aquatic environments, engineering impacts were stronger in marine ecosystems (rocky shores) than in streams. In terrestrial ecosystems, engineers displayed stronger positive effects in arid environments (e.g. deserts). Ecosystem engineers that create new habitats or microhabitats had stronger effects than those that modify habitats or cause bioturbation. Invertebrate engineers and those with lower engineering persistence (<1 year) affected species richness more than vertebrate engineers which persisted for >1 year. Invertebrate species richness was particularly responsive to engineering impacts. This study is the first attempt to build an integrative framework of engineering effects on species diversity; it highlights the importance of considering latitude, habitat, engineering functional group, taxon and persistence of their effects in future theoretical and empirical studies.

  4. Computational analysis of contractility in engineered heart tissue.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Grant; Sondergaard, Claus; Jeffreys, Angela; Childs, William; Le, Bao Linh; Sahota, Amrit; Najibi, Skender; Nolta, Jan; Si, Ming-Sing

    2012-05-01

    Engineered heart tissue (EHT) is a potential therapy for heart failure and the basis of functional in vitro assays of novel cardiovascular treatments. Self-organizing EHT can be generated in fiber form, which makes the assessment of contractile function convenient with a force transducer. Contractile function is a key parameter of EHT performance. Analysis of EHT force data is often performed manually; however, this approach is time consuming, incomplete and subjective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a computer algorithm to efficiently and objectively analyze EHT force data. This algorithm incorporates data filtering, individual contraction detection and validation, inter/intracontractile analysis and intersample analysis. We found the algorithm to be accurate in contraction detection, validation and magnitude measurement as compared to human operators. The algorithm was efficient in processing hundreds of data acquisitions and was able to determine force-length curves, force-frequency relationships and compare various contractile parameters such as peak systolic force generation. We conclude that this computer algorithm is a key adjunct to the objective and efficient assessment of EHT contractile function.

  5. Analysis of the Space Shuttle main engine simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deabreu-Garcia, J. Alex; Welch, John T.

    1993-01-01

    This is a final report on an analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Program, a digital simulator code written in Fortran. The research was undertaken in ultimate support of future design studies of a shuttle life-extending Intelligent Control System (ICS). These studies are to be conducted by NASA Lewis Space Research Center. The primary purpose of the analysis was to define the means to achieve a faster running simulation, and to determine if additional hardware would be necessary for speeding up simulations for the ICS project. In particular, the analysis was to consider the use of custom integrators based on the Matrix Stability Region Placement (MSRP) method. In addition to speed of execution, other qualities of the software were to be examined. Among these are the accuracy of computations, the useability of the simulation system, and the maintainability of the program and data files. Accuracy involves control of truncation error of the methods, and roundoff error induced by floating point operations. It also involves the requirement that the user be fully aware of the model that the simulator is implementing.

  6. Citation Analysis: A Case Study of Korean Scientists and Engineers in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieh, Hae-young

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the citation patterns of publications by scientists and engineers in electrical and electronics engineering in Korea. Citation behavior of personnel in government, universities, and industry is compared; and citation patterns from articles in Korean and non-Korean publications are contrasted. (Contains 27…

  7. Citation Analysis: A Case Study of Korean Scientists and Engineers in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieh, Hae-young

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the citation patterns of publications by scientists and engineers in electrical and electronics engineering in Korea. Citation behavior of personnel in government, universities, and industry is compared; and citation patterns from articles in Korean and non-Korean publications are contrasted. (Contains 27…

  8. Detailed analysis of low energy plasma data under the Voyager Uranus data analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Belcher, John W.; Bagenal, Frances; Richardson, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Research effort included the PLS data analysis program where modifications to the data fitting procedure and elimination of possible noise and electron contamination were made. The analysis code corrections were used in checking the Neptune data gathered during the Voyager 2 encounter and for analyzing selected plasma spectra from the warm Io torus. A major task accomplished was the summary of Uranus-related research in the U.S. National Report to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics for the 1987 - 1990 quadrennium. A limited amount of work was accomplished on assessing the Pedersen conductivity of the ionosphere and comparing it with inferred values from shielding by the Uranian ring current. Under this grant there has been a great deal of effort expended on identifying and classifying plasma waves and oscillations in the magnetosheath and solar wind downstream from Uranus. Large amplitude oscillations in plasma parameters are found in the magnetosheath, with density changes of up to a factor of ten occurring on times scales of minutes. New algorithms developed for analyzing the inbound bow shock crossing of Neptune will probably be applied to a more detailed analysis of the Uranus shock in the near future.

  9. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, J. H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-10-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed.

  10. Plasma gasification of carbonaceous wastes: thermodynamic analysis and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mosse, A. L.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of the plasma gasification process of carbonaceous wastes in air and steam ambient were carried out. A maximum yield of synthesis gas in such processes is predicted to be achieved at a temperature of 1600 K. On a specially developed plasma facility, plasma gasification experiments were performed for carbonaceous wastes. From the organic mass of carbonaceous waste and from its mineral mass, respectively, a high-calorific syngas and a neutral slag consisting predominantly of ferric carbide, calcium monosilicate, silica and iron, were obtained. A comparison between the experiment and the calculations has shown a good consistency between the data.

  11. Nanoreactor engineering and spark plasma sintering of Gd20Ce80O1.90 nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Borodianska, H; Vasylkiv, O; Sakka, Y

    2008-06-01

    The concept of the in situ engineering of nanoreactors - morphologically homogeneous aggregates of synthesized complex intermediate metastable products has been realized. The nanoblast calcination technique was applied and the final composition was synthesized within the preliminary localized volumes of each single nanoreactor. Such technique provided the heredity of the final structure of nanosize product, and allowed the prevention of the uncontrolled agglomeration and production of Gd20Ce80O1.90 powder consisting of approximately 50 nm nano-aggregates of approximately 7 nm crystallites with a remarkably homogeneous composition and uniform morphology. Finally, the SPS consolidation of nanosized aggregates of Gd20Ce80O1.90 was analyzed. The CGO nanoceramics with average grain sizes of 32 nm and 16 nm were obtained by low-temperature SPS at 1050 degrees C and 970 degrees C, respectively under the pressures of 90-150 MPa.

  12. Analysis of hydrogen plasma in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivkumar, G.; Tholeti, S. S.; Alrefae, M. A.; Fisher, T. S.; Alexeenko, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to build a numerical model of hydrogen plasma inside a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. This model will help in understanding and optimizing the conditions for the growth of carbon nanostructures. A 2D axisymmetric model of the system is implemented using the finite element high frequency Maxwell solver and the heat transfer solver in COMSOL Multiphysics. The system is modeled to study variation in parameters with reactor geometry, microwave power, and gas pressure. The results are compared with experimental measurements from the Q-branch of the H2 Fulcher band of hydrogen using an optical emission spectroscopy technique. The parameter γ in Füner's model is calibrated to match experimental observations at a power of 500 W and 30 Torr. Good agreement is found between the modeling and experimental results for a wide range of powers and pressures. The gas temperature exhibits a weak dependence on power and a strong dependence on gas pressure. The inclusion of a vertical dielectric pillar that concentrates the plasma increases the maximum electron temperature by 70%, the maximum gas temperature by 50%, and the maximum electron number density by 70% when compared to conditions without the pillar at 500 W and 30 Torr. Experimental observations also indicate intensified plasma with the inclusion of a pillar.

  13. Analysis of hydrogen plasma in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shivkumar, G.; Tholeti, S. S.; Alexeenko, A. A.; Alrefae, M. A.; Fisher, T. S.

    2016-03-21

    The aim of this work is to build a numerical model of hydrogen plasma inside a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. This model will help in understanding and optimizing the conditions for the growth of carbon nanostructures. A 2D axisymmetric model of the system is implemented using the finite element high frequency Maxwell solver and the heat transfer solver in COMSOL Multiphysics. The system is modeled to study variation in parameters with reactor geometry, microwave power, and gas pressure. The results are compared with experimental measurements from the Q-branch of the H{sub 2} Fulcher band of hydrogen using an optical emission spectroscopy technique. The parameter γ in Füner's model is calibrated to match experimental observations at a power of 500 W and 30 Torr. Good agreement is found between the modeling and experimental results for a wide range of powers and pressures. The gas temperature exhibits a weak dependence on power and a strong dependence on gas pressure. The inclusion of a vertical dielectric pillar that concentrates the plasma increases the maximum electron temperature by 70%, the maximum gas temperature by 50%, and the maximum electron number density by 70% when compared to conditions without the pillar at 500 W and 30 Torr. Experimental observations also indicate intensified plasma with the inclusion of a pillar.

  14. Quantitative lipidomic analysis of plasma and plasma lipoproteins using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serna, Jorge; García-Seisdedos, David; Alcázar, Alberto; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Busto, Rebeca; Pastor, Óscar

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the plasma lipid composition is essential to clarify the specific roles of different lipid species in various pathophysiological processes. In this study, we developed an analytical strategy combining high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and off-line coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) to determine the composition of plasma and major lipoproteins at two levels, lipid classes and lipid species. We confirmed the suitability of MALDI-TOF/MS as a quantitative measurement tool studying the linearity and repeatability for triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Moreover, data obtained with this method were correlated with other lipid classes and species measurements using currently available technologies. To establish the potential utility of our approach, human plasma very low density- (VLDL), low density- (LDL) and high density- (HDL) lipoproteins from 10 healthy donors were separated using ultracentrifugation, and compositions of nine lipid classes, cholesteryl esters (CE), TG, free cholesterol (FC), PE, phosphatidylinositol (PI), sulfatides (S), PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM), analyzed. In total, 157 lipid species in plasma, 182 in LDL, 171 in HDL, and 148 in VLDL were quantified. The lipidomic profile was consistent with known differences in lipid classes, but also revealed unexpected differences in lipid species distribution of lipoproteins, particularly for LPC and SM. In summary, the methodology developed in this study constitutes a valid approach to determine the lipidomic composition of plasma and lipoproteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural Analysis of Dusty Plasma Formations Based on Spatial Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Khakhaev, A. D.; Luizova, L. A.; Piskunov, A. A.; Podryadchikov, S. F.; Soloviev, A. V.

    2008-09-07

    Some advantages of studying the structure of dusty plasma formations using spatial spectra are illustrated by simulated experiments and by processing actual images of dusty structures in dc glow discharge in inert and molecular gases.

  16. Parallel TREE code for two-component ultracold plasma analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Byoungseon; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2008-02-01

    The TREE method has been widely used for long-range interaction N-body problems. We have developed a parallel TREE code for two-component classical plasmas with open boundary conditions and highly non-uniform charge distributions. The program efficiently handles millions of particles evolved over long relaxation times requiring millions of time steps. Appropriate domain decomposition and dynamic data management were employed, and large-scale parallel processing was achieved using an intermediate level of granularity of domain decomposition and ghost TREE communication. Even though the computational load is not fully distributed in fine grains, high parallel efficiency was achieved for ultracold plasma systems of charged particles. As an application, we performed simulations of an ultracold neutral plasma with a half million particles and a half million time steps. For the long temporal trajectories of relaxation between heavy ions and light electrons, large configurations of ultracold plasmas can now be investigated, which was not possible in past studies.

  17. Analysis of Plasma Bubble Signatures in the Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    exams forced me to expand the boundaries of my critical thinking skills. I also learned a new way to cut watermelons and even enjoyed a stint of rare...take the form of vertically elongated wedges of depleted plasma resembling upside down watermelon slices with an apex height determined by the 11...farther distances are detected, resulting in lower affected elevation angles. Overall, the upside-down watermelon shape of the plasma bubbles elongated

  18. Neoclassical Tearing Mode Analysis in Spherical Tokamak Burning Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Daiki; Yamazaki, Kozo; Arimoto, Hideki; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Shoji, Tatsuo

    For stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), non-resonant helical field (NRHF) is investigated. The time variation of magnetic island is described by modified Rutherford equation. In this work, plasma parameter change due to NTM is analyzed using 1.5-dimensional transport code TOTAL. In ST plasma, magnetic island at 3/2 mode grows by bootstrap current and the central temperature decreases. If NRHF is added, the effect of bootstrap current decreases and NTM is stabilized.

  19. Quantitative plasma biomarker analysis in HDI exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Steve; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of amines in biological samples is important for evaluating occupational exposure to diisocyanates. In this study, we describe the quantification of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in hydrolyzed plasma of 46 spray painters applying 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-containing paint in vehicle repair shops collected during repeated visits to their workplace and their relationship with dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI monomer. HDA was detected in 76% of plasma samples, as heptafluorobutyryl derivatives, and the range of HDA concentrations was < or =0.02-0.92 microg l(-1). After log-transformation of the data, the correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI inhalation exposure measured on the same workday was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.026) compared with the correlation between plasma HDA levels and inhalation exposure occurring approximately 20 to 60 days before blood collection (N = 29, r = 0.57, P = 0.0014). The correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI dermal exposure measured on the same workday, although statistically significant, was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.040) while the correlation between HDA and dermal exposure occurring approximately 20 to 60 days before blood collection was slightly improved (N = 29, r = 0.36, P = 0.053). We evaluated various workplace factors and controls (i.e. location, personal protective equipment use and paint booth type) as modifiers of plasma HDA levels. Workers using a downdraft-ventilated booth had significantly lower plasma HDA levels relative to semi-downdraft and crossdraft booth types (P = 0.0108); this trend was comparable to HDI inhalation and dermal exposure levels stratified by booth type. These findings indicate that HDA concentration in hydrolyzed plasma may be used as a biomarker of cumulative inhalation and dermal exposure to HDI and for investigating the effectiveness of exposure controls in the workplace.

  20. Terahertz Systems Engineering: Detectors, Sources, Propagation, Phenomenology, Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, Jonathan Ying-Yan

    The terahertz (THz) band, from 300 GHz to 20 THz, is the last remaining frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fundamentally, the frequency is too high to use current electronic technologies, yet the photon energy is too low for optical systems. However, there is a rich set of phenomenology, science, and applications, which are only available with THz radiation. In order to exploit this, the THz engineer who is designing systems must be adept at integrating components with very limited performance into a system. This requires understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fields, including microwaves, infrared optics, material science, software development, atmospheric science, and the overall analysis and design of a system. Any THz system involves the sensing of some phenomena, which can be under the direct control of the engineer, such as in a communication system, or set by the laws of physics, such as in an astronomical telescope, or some variant in between. Thus, the design of such a system is fundamentally related to sensing science. Here, we have to consider detector and source technology, the propagation of radiation, target phenomenology, and the overall design and analysis of the system. This dissertation presents research in all of these areas. Specifically, in the field of THz phenomenology, I conducted a study to show the primary contrast mechanism in reflective biomedical imaging is water concentration. For source technology, I detail the development and characterization of photoconductive switches with record-breaking optical efficiency. In a separate study I developed a model which explains the complex photocarrier dynamics in fast-trapping THz photoconductive materials and show that high-frequency THz generation (>1 THz) is caused by beaching saturation. My work in detectors shows the design of a quasi-optical radar that exploits low 1/f noise Schottky diodes for detection of slow moving objects, useful for biomedical sensing of respiration and

  1. Variational analysis of railgun plasma-arc-armature for acceleration of solid hydrogen pellets for fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, W.H.; Kim, K.

    1988-12-01

    This paper discusses fueling magnetically confined plasmas using a railgun plasma-arc-armature. The topics covered are: the Plasma model; Variational analysis; Current density in the plasma arc and arc voltage; and Magnetic field and the net railgun force. 5 refs., 5 figs. (LSP)

  2. Application of platelet-rich plasma with stem cells in bone and periodontal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Gabriela; Yang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is a high paucity of bone grafts in the United States and worldwide. Regenerating bone is of prime concern due to the current demand of bone grafts and the increasing number of diseases causing bone loss. Autogenous bone is the present gold standard of bone regeneration. However, disadvantages like donor site morbidity and its decreased availability limit its use. Even allografts and synthetic grafting materials have their own limitations. As certain specific stem cells can be directed to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage in the presence of growth factors (GFs), it makes stem cells the ideal agents for bone regeneration. Furthermore, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which can be easily isolated from whole blood, is often used for bone regeneration, wound healing and bone defect repair. When stem cells are combined with PRP in the presence of GFs, they are able to promote osteogenesis. This review provides in-depth knowledge regarding the use of stem cells and PRP in vitro, in vivo and their application in clinical studies in the future. PMID:28018706

  3. Discharge Chamber Plasma Structure of a 30-cm NSTAR-Type Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2006-01-01

    Single Langmuir probe measurements are presented over a two-dimensional array of locations in the near Discharge Cathode Assembly (DCA) region of a 30-cm diameter ring cusp ion thruster over a range of thruster operating conditions encompassing the high-power half of the NASA throttling table. The Langmuir probe data were analyzed with two separate methods. All data were analyzed initially assuming an electron population consisting of Maxwellian electrons only. The on-axis data were then analyzed assuming both Maxwellian and primary electrons. Discharge plasma data taken with beam extraction exhibit a broadening of the higher electron temperature plume boundary compared to similar discharge conditions without beam extraction. The opposite effect is evident with the electron/ion number density as the data without began, extraction appears to be more collimated than the corresponding data with beam extraction. Primary electron energy and number densities are presented for one operating condition giving an order of magnitude of their value and the error associated with this calculation.

  4. Decision Engines for Software Analysis Using Satisfiability Modulo Theories Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorner, Nikolaj

    2010-01-01

    The area of software analysis, testing and verification is now undergoing a revolution thanks to the use of automated and scalable support for logical methods. A well-recognized premise is that at the core of software analysis engines is invariably a component using logical formulas for describing states and transformations between system states. The process of using this information for discovering and checking program properties (including such important properties as safety and security) amounts to automatic theorem proving. In particular, theorem provers that directly support common software constructs offer a compelling basis. Such provers are commonly called satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers. Z3 is a state-of-the-art SMT solver. It is developed at Microsoft Research. It can be used to check the satisfiability of logical formulas over one or more theories such as arithmetic, bit-vectors, lists, records and arrays. The talk describes some of the technology behind modern SMT solvers, including the solver Z3. Z3 is currently mainly targeted at solving problems that arise in software analysis and verification. It has been applied to various contexts, such as systems for dynamic symbolic simulation (Pex, SAGE, Vigilante), for program verification and extended static checking (Spec#/Boggie, VCC, HAVOC), for software model checking (Yogi, SLAM), model-based design (FORMULA), security protocol code (F7), program run-time analysis and invariant generation (VS3). We will describe how it integrates support for a variety of theories that arise naturally in the context of the applications. There are several new promising avenues and the talk will touch on some of these and the challenges related to SMT solvers. Proceedings

  5. A membrane-separator interface for mass-spectrometric analysis of blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Gerasimov, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of rapid mass-spectrometric determination of the content of anesthetic agents in blood plasma with the aid of a membrane-separator interface. The interface employs a hydrophobic selective membrane that is capable of separating various anesthetic drugs (including inhalation anesthetic sevofluran, noninhalation anesthetic thiopental, hypnotic propofol, and opioid analgesic fentanyl) from the blood plasma and introducing samples into a mass spectrometer. Analysis of the blood plasma was not accompanied by the memory effect and did not lead to membrane degradation. Results of clinical investigation of the concentration of anesthetics in the blood plasma of patients are presented.

  6. Efficient quantitative comparisons of plasma proteomes using label-free analysis with MaxQuant

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Lynn A.; Liu, Pengyuan; Ky, Bonnie; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Speicher, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)- based quantitation of plasma proteomes is challenging due to the extremely wide dynamic range and molecular heterogeneity of plasma samples. However, recent advances in technology, MS-instrumentation, and bioinformatics have enabled in-depth quantitative analyses of very complex proteomes, including plasma. Specifically, recent improvements in both label-based and label-free quantitation strategies have allowed highly accurate quantitative comparisons of expansive proteome datasets. Here we present a method for in-depth label-free analysis of human plasma samples using MaxQuant. PMID:28674895

  7. GENIES: gene network inference engine based on supervised analysis.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Masaaki; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Moriya, Yuki; Kanehisa, Minoru; Goto, Susumu

    2012-07-01

    Gene network inference engine based on supervised analysis (GENIES) is a web server to predict unknown part of gene network from various types of genome-wide data in the framework of supervised network inference. The originality of GENIES lies in the construction of a predictive model using partially known network information and in the integration of heterogeneous data with kernel methods. The GENIES server accepts any 'profiles' of genes or proteins (e.g. gene expression profiles, protein subcellular localization profiles and phylogenetic profiles) or pre-calculated gene-gene similarity matrices (or 'kernels') in the tab-delimited file format. As a training data set to learn a predictive model, the users can choose either known molecular network information in the KEGG PATHWAY database or their own gene network data. The user can also select an algorithm of supervised network inference, choose various parameters in the method, and control the weights of heterogeneous data integration. The server provides the list of newly predicted gene pairs, maps the predicted gene pairs onto the associated pathway diagrams in KEGG PATHWAY and indicates candidate genes for missing enzymes in organism-specific metabolic pathways. GENIES (http://www.genome.jp/tools/genies/) is publicly available as one of the genome analysis tools in GenomeNet.

  8. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  9. Use of Clotted Human Plasma and Aprotinin in Skin Tissue Engineering: A Novel Approach to Engineering Composite Skin on a Porous Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michelle; Kaur, Pritinder; Herson, Marisa; Cheshire, Perdita; Cleland, Heather; Akbarzadeh, Shiva

    2015-10-01

    Tissue-engineered composite skin is a promising therapy for the treatment of chronic and acute wounds, including burns. Providing the wound bed with a dermal scaffold populated by autologous dermal and epidermal cellular components can further entice host cell infiltration and vascularization to achieve permanent wound closure in a single stage. However, the high porosity and the lack of a supportive basement membrane in most commercially available dermal scaffolds hinders organized keratinocyte proliferation and stratification in vitro and may delay re-epithelization in vivo. The objective of this study was to develop a method to enable the in vitro production of a human skin equivalent (HSE) that included a porous scaffold and dermal and epidermal cells expanded ex vivo, with the potential to be used for definitive treatment of skin defects in a single procedure. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan dermal scaffold (Integra(®)) was populated with adult fibroblasts. A near-normal skin architecture was achieved by the addition of coagulated human plasma to the fibroblast-populated scaffold before seeding cultured keratinocytes. This resulted in reducing scaffold pore size and improving contact surfaces. Skin architecture and basement membrane formation was further improved by the addition of aprotinin (a serine protease inhibitor) to the culture media to inhibit premature clot digestion. Histological assessment of the novel HSE revealed expression of keratin 14 and keratin 10 similar to native skin, with a multilayered neoepidermis morphologically comparable to human skin. Furthermore, deposition of collagen IV and laminin-511 were detected by immunofluorescence, indicating the formation of a continuous basement membrane at the dermal-epidermal junction. The proposed method was efficient in producing an in vitro near native HSE using the chosen off-the-shelf porous scaffold (Integra). The same principles and promising outcomes should be applicable to other biodegradable

  10. TOPICA/TORIC integration for self-consistent antenna and plasma analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Riccardo; Lancellotti, Vito; Milanesio, Daniele; Kyrytsya, Volodymyr; Vecchi, Giuseppe; Bonoli, Paul T.; Wright, John C.

    2006-10-01

    TOPICA [1] is a numerical suite conceived for prediction and analysis of plasma-facing antennas. It can handle real-life 3D antenna geometries (with housing, Faraday screen, etc.) as well as a realistic plasma model, including measured density and temperature profiles. TORIC [2] solves the finite Larmor radius wave equations in the ICRF regime in arbitrary axisymmetric toroidal plasmas. Due to the approach followed in developing TOPICA (i.e. the formal splitting of the problem in the vacuum region around the antenna and the plasma region inside the toroidal chamber), the code lends itself to handle toroidal plasmas, provided TORIC is run independently to yield the plasma surface admittance tensorsY (m,m',n). The latter enter directly into the integral equations solved by TOPICA, thus allowing a far more accurate plasma description that accounts for curvature effects. TOPICA outputs comprise, among others, the EM fields in front of the plasma: these can in turn be input to TORIC, in order to self-consistently determine the EM field propagation in the plasma. In this work, we report on the theory underlying the TOPICA/TORIC integration and the ongoing evolution of the two codes. [1] V. Lancellotti et al., Nucl. Fusion, 46 (2006) S476 [2] M. Brambilla, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion (1999) 41 1

  11. Tribological Study on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Treatment in Al-Si Alloys for Engine Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiliat, Hoda

    Automotive industry strives to reach an optimum level of fuel economy. This can be achieved by overcoming two impacting factors on fuel consumption: weight and friction force. This research contributes to reduce both. The proposed surface treatment can replace cylinder liners of hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks with a thin layer of ceramic oxide composed of alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and mullite. The coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath with current densities of 0.1 to 0.2 A/cm2. Coatings produced in silicate based solutions have shown good adaptability to the counter surface with an average 0.12 coefficient of friction. Coatings produced in phosphate and aluminate solution have shown signs of delamination, and excessive porosity and roughness respectively. Coatings produced under Bipolar Pulsed Direct Current mode has up to 12% higher hardness values compared to unipolar coatings. For each increment of 0.2 A/cm2 current density, there is a 30% of increase in coating growth rate. Higher pH values of the solution creates faster growth rate up to 1.5 mu/min. These coatings are 20% more susceptible to wear. Samples treated in MoS2 solution showed 22% lower average roughness values and 37% of reduction in coefficient of friction. Mild wear scars on the piston rings were detected for the optimized coatings.

  12. A conceptual plasma exhaust system for the Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriza, Alexander; Gentile, Charles; Blanchard, William; Kozub, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) project proposes the construction of an indirect-drive inertial fusion reactor for the generation of electrical energy. LIFE will use hohlraum targets containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture which will be ignited by lasers at a rate of 16 times per second. In order to shield the first wall from high-energy x-rays and ions, the reactor vessel will be filled with an intervention gas of xenon. The average xenon density from the center to the first wall must be at least 8 g/m3 to ensure sufficient stopping power, while, because of nuclear exposure concerns, the amount of tritium in the vessel must not exceed 10 g. A conceptual design of the LIFE exhaust-processing system is undertaken with a focus on assessing its efficacy in meeting these two requirements simultaneously. A model of the density profile within the vessel indicates that an exhaust rate at the first wall of at least 26 m3/s is necessary to keep the tritium inventory below 10 g. At this rate, in order to maintain the required xenon density, approximately 40 tons of xenon will need to be exhausted, processed, and recirculated each day. This paper will discuss the operating parameters of this progenitor system for this and future IFE fusion reactors.

  13. Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course...development costs, engine production costs, and scheduling (Byerley A. R., 2013) as well as the linkage between turbine inlet temperature, blade cooling...analysis SE majors have studied and how this is linked to the specific issues they must face in aircraft gas turbine engine design. Aeronautical and

  14. Cell bricks-enriched platelet-rich plasma gel for injectable cartilage engineering - an in vivo experiment in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Bolei; Ma, Qin; Chen, Fulin; Wu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-based injectable tissue engineering is limited by weak mechanical properties and a rapid fibrinolytic rate. We proposed a new strategy, a cell bricks-stabilized PRP injectable system, to engineer and regenerate cartilage with stable morphology and structure in vivo. Chondrocytes from the auricular cartilage of rabbits were isolated and cultured to form cell bricks (fragmented cell sheet) or cell expansions. Fifteen nude mice were divided evenly (n = 5) into cells-PRP (C-P), cell bricks-PRP (CB-P) and cell bricks-cells-PRP (CB-C-P) groups. Cells, cell bricks or a cell bricks/cells mixture were suspended in PRP and were injected subcutaneously in animals. After 8 weeks, all the constructs were replaced by white resilient tissue; however, specimens from the CB-P and CB-C-P groups were well maintained in shape, while the C-P group appeared distorted, with a compressed outline. Histologically, all groups presented lacuna-like structures, glycosaminoglycan-enriched matrices and positive immunostaining of collagen type II. Different from the uniform structure presented in CB-C-P samples, CB-P presented interrupted, island-like chondrogenesis and contracted structure; fibrous interruption was shown in the C-P group. The highest percentage of matrix was presented in CB-C-P samples. Collagen and sGAG quantification confirmed that the CB-C-P constructs had statistically higher amounts than the C-P and CB-P groups; statistical differences were also found among the groups in terms of biomechanical properties and gene expression. We concluded that cell bricks-enriched PRP gel sufficiently enhanced the morphological stability of the constructs, maintained chondrocyte phenotypes and favoured chondrogenesis in vivo, which suggests that such an injectable, completely biological system is a suitable cell carrier for cell-based cartilage repair.

  15. Energy Efficient Engine: Flight propulsion system final design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y.; Stearns, E. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to create fuel saving technology for future transport engines. The Flight Propulsion System (FPS) is the engine designed to achieve E3 goals. Achieving these goals required aerodynamic, mechanical and system technologies advanced beyond that of current production engines. These technologies were successfully demonstrated in component rigs, a core engine and a turbofan ground test engine. The design and benefits of the FPS are presented. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff were met. The FPS has, at maximum cruise, 10.67 km (35,000 ft), M0.8, standard day, a 16.9 percent lower installed specific fuel consumption than a CF6-50C. It provides an 8.6 percent reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and a 16.2 percent reduction for an international long distance transport.

  16. Spacelab data analysis using the space plasma computer analysis network (SCAN) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Space-plasma Computer Analysis Network (SCAN) currently connects a large number of U.S. Spacelab investigators into a common computer network. Used primarily by plasma physics researchers at present, SCAN provides access to Spacelab investigators in other areas of space science, to Spacelab and non-Spacelab correlative data bases, and to large Class VI computational facilities for modeling. SCAN links computers together at remote institutions used by space researchers, utilizing commercially available software for computer-to-computer communications. Started by the NASA's Office of Space Science in mid 1980, SCAN presently contains ten system nodes located at major universities and space research laboratories, with fourteen new nodes projected for the near future. The Stanford University computer gateways allow SCAN users to connect onto the ARPANET and TELENET overseas networks.

  17. Spacelab data analysis using the space plasma computer analysis network (SCAN) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Space-plasma Computer Analysis Network (SCAN) currently connects a large number of U.S. Spacelab investigators into a common computer network. Used primarily by plasma physics researchers at present, SCAN provides access to Spacelab investigators in other areas of space science, to Spacelab and non-Spacelab correlative data bases, and to large Class VI computational facilities for modeling. SCAN links computers together at remote institutions used by space researchers, utilizing commercially available software for computer-to-computer communications. Started by the NASA's Office of Space Science in mid 1980, SCAN presently contains ten system nodes located at major universities and space research laboratories, with fourteen new nodes projected for the near future. The Stanford University computer gateways allow SCAN users to connect onto the ARPANET and TELENET overseas networks.

  18. Conference Proceedings of Engine Cyclic Durability by Analysis and Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    history of turbine engine applications reveals this common view is not accurate. For example, in the mid 1940s, the first qualified US military jet engines...intervals . ..- between inspections depend on the usage. However, the load history of turbine rotors in military aircraft engines is seldom known. This...exchange rates depending on the nature of the mission flown, and " ." , - Calculation subsequent to each flight on the basis of the time history of

  19. A comprehensive method for extraction and quantitative analysis of sterols and secosteroids from human plasma[S

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Smith, Daniel D.; Stiles, Ashlee R.; Russell, David W.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a method for the extraction and analysis of 62 sterols, oxysterols, and secosteroids from human plasma using a combination of HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Deuterated standards are added to 200 μl of human plasma. Bulk lipids are extracted with methanol:dichloromethane, the sample is hydrolyzed using a novel procedure, and sterols and secosteroids are isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Compounds are resolved on C18 core-shell HPLC columns and by GC. Sterols and oxysterols are measured using triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, and lathosterol is measured using GC-MS. Detection for each compound measured by HPLC-MS was ∪ 1 ng/ml of plasma. Extraction efficiency was between 85 and 110%; day-to-day variability showed a relative standard error of <10%. Numerous oxysterols were detected, including the side chain oxysterols 22-, 24-, 25-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, as well as ring-structure oxysterols 7α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol. Intermediates from the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway were also detected, including zymosterol, desmosterol, and lanosterol. This method also allowed the quantification of six secosteroids, including the 25-hydroxylated species of vitamins D2 and D3. Application of this method to plasma samples revealed that at least 50 samples could be extracted in a routine day. PMID:22517925

  20. Analysis of thermoelastohydrodynamic performance of journal misaligned engine main bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Fengrong; Shao, Kang; Liu, Changwen; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    To understand the engine main bearings' working condition is important in order to improve the performance of engine. However, thermal effects and thermal effect deformations of engine main bearings are rarely considered simultaneously in most studies. A typical finite element model is selected and the effect of thermoelastohydrodynamic(TEHD) reaction on engine main bearings is investigated. The calculated method of main bearing's thermal hydrodynamic reaction and journal misalignment effect is finite difference method, and its deformation reaction is calculated by using finite element method. The oil film pressure is solved numerically with Reynolds boundary conditions when various bearing characteristics are calculated. The whole model considers a temperature-pressure-viscosity relationship for the lubricant, surface roughness effect, and also an angular misalignment between the journal and the bearing. Numerical simulations of operation of a typical I6 diesel engine main bearing is conducted and importance of several contributing factors in mixed lubrication is discussed. The performance characteristics of journal misaligned main bearings under elastohydrodynamic(EHD) and TEHD loads of an I6 diesel engine are received, and then the journal center orbit movement, minimum oil film thickness and maximum oil film pressure of main bearings are estimated over a wide range of engine operation. The model is verified through the comparison with other present models. The TEHD performance of engine main bearings with various effects under the influences of journal misalignment is revealed, this is helpful to understand EHD and TEHD effect of misaligned engine main bearings.

  1. Engineering computer graphics in gas turbine engine design, analysis and manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopatka, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A time-sharing and computer graphics facility designed to provide effective interactive tools to a large number of engineering users with varied requirements was described. The application of computer graphics displays at several levels of hardware complexity and capability is discussed, with examples of graphics systems tracing gas turbine product development, beginning with preliminary design through manufacture. Highlights of an operating system stylized for interactive engineering graphics is described.

  2. Kinetic modeling and sensitivity analysis of plasma-assisted combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togai, Kuninori

    Plasma-assisted combustion (PAC) is a promising combustion enhancement technique that shows great potential for applications to a number of different practical combustion systems. In this dissertation, the chemical kinetics associated with PAC are investigated numerically with a newly developed model that describes the chemical processes induced by plasma. To support the model development, experiments were performed using a plasma flow reactor in which the fuel oxidation proceeds with the aid of plasma discharges below and above the self-ignition thermal limit of the reactive mixtures. The mixtures used were heavily diluted with Ar in order to study the reactions with temperature-controlled environments by suppressing the temperature changes due to chemical reactions. The temperature of the reactor was varied from 420 K to 1250 K and the pressure was fixed at 1 atm. Simulations were performed for the conditions corresponding to the experiments and the results are compared against each other. Important reaction paths were identified through path flux and sensitivity analyses. Reaction systems studied in this work are oxidation of hydrogen, ethylene, and methane, as well as the kinetics of NOx in plasma. In the fuel oxidation studies, reaction schemes that control the fuel oxidation are analyzed and discussed. With all the fuels studied, the oxidation reactions were extended to lower temperatures with plasma discharges compared to the cases without plasma. The analyses showed that radicals produced by dissociation of the reactants in plasma plays an important role of initiating the reaction sequence. At low temperatures where the system exhibits a chain-terminating nature, reactions of HO2 were found to play important roles on overall fuel oxidation. The effectiveness of HO2 as a chain terminator was weakened in the ethylene oxidation system, because the reactions of C 2H4 + O that have low activation energies deflects the flux of O atoms away from HO2. For the

  3. Citation Patterns of Engineering, Statistics, and Computer Science Researchers: An Internal and External Citation Analysis across Multiple Engineering Subfields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a multidimensional approach to citation analysis, examining citations in multiple subfields of engineering, from both scholarly journals and doctoral dissertations. The three major goals of the study are to determine whether there are differences between citations drawn from dissertations and those drawn from journal articles; to…

  4. Citation Patterns of Engineering, Statistics, and Computer Science Researchers: An Internal and External Citation Analysis across Multiple Engineering Subfields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a multidimensional approach to citation analysis, examining citations in multiple subfields of engineering, from both scholarly journals and doctoral dissertations. The three major goals of the study are to determine whether there are differences between citations drawn from dissertations and those drawn from journal articles; to…

  5. Statistical Analysis of Variation in the Human Plasma Proteome

    DOE PAGES

    Corzett, Todd H.; Fodor, Imola K.; Choi, Megan W.; ...

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the variation in the human plasma proteome is an essential prerequisite for disease-specific biomarker detection. We report here on the longitudinal and individual variation in human plasma characterized by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) using plasma samples from eleven healthy subjects collected three times over a two week period. Fixed-effects modeling was used to remove dye and gel variability. Mixed-effects modeling was then used to quantitate the sources of proteomic variation. The subject-to-subject variation represented the largest variance component, while the time-within-subject variation was comparable to the experimental variation found in a previous technical variability study where onemore » human plasma sample was processed eight times in parallel and each was then analyzed by 2-D DIGE in triplicate. Here, 21 protein spots had larger than 50% CV, suggesting that these proteins may not be appropriate as biomarkers and should be carefully scrutinized in future studies. Seventy-eight protein spots showing differential protein levels between different individuals or individual collections were identified by mass spectrometry and further characterized using hierarchical clustering. The results present a first step toward understanding the complexity of longitudinal and individual variation in the human plasma proteome, and provide a baseline for improved biomarker discovery.« less

  6. Analysis of mechanisms for anode plasma formation in ion diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.A.; Brandenburg, J.E.; Gerber, R.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Hoffman, J.M.; Miller, P.A.; Quintenz, J.P.; Slutz, S.A.; Bieg, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding how anode plasma is formed in intense pulsed-power ion diodes by insulator breakdown is important in assessing the effect on ion beam quality. Formation of a passive flashover anode plasma source may involve one or more of the following: polarization of the anode dielectric, direct leakage electron bombardment, UV-stimulated desorption of excited gas in the gap or on the anode surface, ionization of desorbed neutrals in a surface plasma by electron return currents associated with ion extraction, or bombardment by low energy electrons or negative ions. At Sandia National Laboratories experiments have been done on Nereus, PI 110A, Proto I, Proto II, HydraMITE, and PBFA I using anodes with dielectric-filled surfaces. The experiments represent a variety of anode turn-on delays (2 to 15 ns), magnetic field strengths (7 to 30 kG), voltages (300 keV to 2 MeV), and anode configurations. Data include ion beam current from Faraday cups, holographic observation of plasma motion, the spatial and temporal character of visible light emitted from the plasma, and optical metallographic examination of the dielectric.

  7. Spectroscopic Analysis and Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Wire Produced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plechaty, Christopher; Sotnikov, Vladimir; Main, Daniel; Caplinger, James; Wallerstein, Austin; Kim, Tony

    2014-10-01

    The Lower Hybrid Drift Instability (LHDI) in plasma is driven by the presence of inhomogeneities in density, temperature, or magnetic field (Krall 1971, Davidson 1977), and occurs in systems where the electrons are magnetized and the ions are effectively unmagnetized. The LHDI is thought to occur in magnetic reconnection (Huba 1977), and has also been investigated as a mitigation technique which can allow for communications to take place through the plasma formed around hypersonic aircraft (Sotnikov 2010). To further understand the phenomenology of the LHDI, we plan to carry out experiments at the Air Force Research Laboratory, in the newly formed Plasma Physics Sensors Laboratory. In experiment, a pulsed power generator is employed to produce plasma by passing current through single, or dual-wire configurations. To characterize the plasma, a Thomson scattering diagnostic is employed, along with a visible spectroscopy diagnostic. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Defense by Riverside Research under Contract BAA-FA8650-13-C-1539.

  8. Edge Plasma Analysis for Liquid-wall MFE Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W; Rensink, M; Rognlien, T D

    2000-09-21

    A thick flowing layer of liquid (e.g., flibe-a molten salt, or Sn{sub 80}Li{sub 20}--a liquid metal) protects the structural walls of the magnetic fusion configuration so that they can last the life of the plant even with intense 14 MeV neutron bombardment from the D-T fusion reaction, The surface temperature of the liquid rises as it passes from the inlet nozzles to the exit nozzles due to absorption of line and bremsstrahlung radiation, and neutrons. The surface temperature can be reduced by enhanced turbulent convection of hot surface liquid into the cooler interior. This surface temperature is affected by the temperature of liquid from a heat transport and energy recovery system. The evaporative flux from the wall driven by the surface temperature must also result in an acceptable impurity level in the core plasma. The shielding of the core by the edge plasma is modeled with a 2D-transport code for the DT and impurity ions; these impurity ions are either swept out to the divertor, or diffuse to the hot plasma core. An auxiliary plasma between the edge plasma and the liquid wall may further attenuate evaporating flux of atoms and molecules by ionization near the wall.

  9. Analysis of radiation performances of plasma sheet antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bo; Zhang, Zu-Fan; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    A novel concept of plasma sheet antennas is presented in this paper, and the radiation performances of plasma sheet antennas are investigated in detail. Firstly, a model of planar plasma antenna (PPA) fed by a microstrip line is developed, and its reflection coefficient is computed by the JE convolution finite-difference time-domain method and compared with that of the metallic patch antenna. It is found that the design of PPA can learn from the theory of the metallic patch antenna, and the impedance matching and reconstruction of resonant frequency can be expediently realized by adjusting the parameters of plasma. Then the PPA is mounted on a metallic cylindrical surface, and the reflection coefficient of the conformal plasma antenna (CPA) is also computed. At the same time, the influence of conformal cylinder radius on the reflection coefficient is also analyzed. Finally, the radiation pattern of a CPA is given, the results show that the pattern agrees well with the one of PPA in the main radiation direction, but its side lobe level has deteriorated significantly.

  10. Equilibrium operating performance of axial-flow turbojet engines by means of idealized analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, John C; Chapin, Edward C

    1950-01-01

    A method of predicting equilibrium operating performance of turbojet engines has been developed, with the assumption of simple model processes for the components. Results of the analysis are plotted in terms of dimensionless parameters comprising critical engine dimensions and over-all operating variables. This investigation was made of an engine in which the ratio of axial inlet-air velocity to compressor-tip velocity is constant, which approximates turbojet engines with axial-flow compressors. Experimental correlation of the theory with data from several existing axial-flow-type engines was good and showed close correlation between calculated and measured performance.

  11. Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve the engine thermal efficiency. The investigation was accomplished by using the Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer model. Bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater at full power resulted in a rise in the indicated thermal efficiency from 40.6 to 41.0 percent. For the idealized (some losses not included) heater bypass that was analyzed, this benefit is not considered significant.

  12. Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve engine performance. The Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer simulation was used for this investigation. Results for the heater-bypass concept showed no significant improvement in the indicated thermal efficiency for the P-40 Stirling engine operating at full-power and part-power conditions. Optimizing the heater tube length produced a small increase in the indicated thermal efficiency with the heater-bypass concept.

  13. Use of a biological reactor and platelet-rich plasma for the construction of tissue-engineered bone to repair articular cartilage defects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huibo; Sun, Shui; Liu, Haili; Chen, Hua; Rong, Xin; Lou, Jigang; Yang, Yunbei; Yang, Yi; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects are a major clinical burden worldwide. Current methods to repair bone defects include bone autografts, allografts and external fixation. In recent years, the repair of bone defects by tissue engineering has emerged as a promising approach. The present study aimed to assess a novel method using a biological reactor with platelet-rich plasma to construct tissue-engineered bone. Beagle bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and differentiated into osteoblasts and chondroblasts using platelet-rich plasma and tricalcium phosphate scaffolds cultured in a bioreactor for 3 weeks. The cell scaffold composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and implanted into beagles with articular cartilage defects. The expression of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase and bone γ-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP) were assessed using polymerase chain reaction after 3 months. Articular cartilage specimens were observed histologically. Adhesion and distribution of BMSCs on the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold were confirmed by SEM. Histological examination revealed that in vivo bone defects were largely repaired 12 weeks following implantation. The expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and BGLAP in the experimental groups were significantly elevated compared with the negative controls. BMSCs may be optimum seed cells for tissue engineering in bone repair. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides a rich source of cytokines to promote BMSC function. The β-TCP scaffold is advantageous for tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and 3D structure that promotes cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone was constructed in a bioreactor using BMSCs, β-TCP scaffolds and PRP and displayed appropriate morphology and biological function. The present study provides an efficient method for the generation of tissue-engineered bone for cartilage repair, compared with previously used

  14. Performance (Off-Design) Cycle Analysis for a Turbofan Engine With Interstage Turbine Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liew, K. H.; Urip, E.; Yang, S. L.; Mattingly, J. D.; Marek, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a steady-state, dual-spool, separate-exhaust turbofan engine, with an interstage turbine burner (ITB) serving as a secondary combustor. The ITB, which is located in the transition duct between the high- and the low-pressure turbines, is a relatively new concept for increasing specific thrust and lowering pollutant emissions in modern jet-engine propulsion. A detailed off-design performance analysis of ITB engines is written in Microsoft(Registered Trademark) Excel (Redmond, Washington) macrocode with Visual Basic Application to calculate engine performances over the entire operating envelope. Several design-point engine cases are pre-selected using a parametric cycle-analysis code developed previously in Microsoft(Registered Trademark) Excel, for off-design analysis. The off-design code calculates engine performances (i.e. thrust and thrust-specific-fuel-consumption) at various flight conditions and throttle settings.

  15. Spectral estimation of plasma fluctuations. II. Nonstationary analysis of edge localized mode spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, K.S.; Sidorenko, A. ); Bretz, N. ); Thomson, D.J. )

    1994-03-01

    Several analysis methods for nonstationary fluctuations are described and applied to the edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities of limiter H-mode plasmas. The microwave scattering diagnostic observes poloidal [ital k][sub [theta

  16. Thermodynamics analysis of aluminum plasma transition induced by hypervelocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixiang; Zhang, Qingming; Ju, Yuanyuan

    2016-02-01

    The production of plasmas during hypervelocity meteoroid and space debris impact has been proposed to explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields on the lunar surface, and also the electromagnetic damage to spacecraft electronic devices. Based on Gibbs' ensemble theory, we deduce Saha equation of state and figure out the ionization degree; further, by using the derivation of Clausius-Clapeyron equation, we obtain the entropy increase and latent heat of plasma transition after vaporization; finally, we analyze the conversion efficiency of kinetic energy into internal energy, present two key contradictions, and revise them with the entropy increase, latent heat, and conversion efficiency. We analyze the aluminum plasma transition from multiple perspectives of the equation of state, latent heat of phase transition, and conversion efficiency and propose the internal energy and impact velocity criterion, based on the laws of thermodynamics.

  17. Analysis of vibrational resonance in bi-harmonically driven plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Layinde, T. O.; Laoye, J. A.; Popoola, O. O.; Vincent, U. E.

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of vibrational resonance (VR) is examined and analyzed in a bi-harmonically driven two-fluid plasma model with nonlinear dissipation. An equation for the slow oscillations of the system is analytically derived in terms of the parameters of the fast signal using the method of direct separation of motion. The presence of a high frequency externally applied electric field is found to significantly modify the system's dynamics, and consequently, induce VR. The origin of the VR in the plasma model has been identified, not only from the effective plasma potential but also from the contributions of the effective nonlinear dissipation. Beside several dynamical changes, including multiple symmetry-breaking bifurcations, attractor escapes, and reversed period-doubling bifurcations, numerical simulations also revealed the occurrence of single and double resonances induced by symmetry breaking bifurcations.

  18. PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

  19. Analysis of Helimak Plasma Using Movies of Density Contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Chad; Gentle, Kenneth; Li, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Using an array of Langmuir probes we have created two-dimensional contour plot movies showing the arrangement, convection, and time sequence of plasma structures inside of the Texas Helimak, which approximates aspects of the tokamak SOL. These structures are seen to vary with time, magnetic field line pitch, and applied bias voltage. The probes are distributed in two sets of 48 probes arranged in a grid with two centimeter spacing, providing good spatial resolution of these structures. We find that, for negative biases, the plasma moves away from the biased plate in agreement with the simulations. For positive biases, the plasma is found close to the bias plate. Positive biases are seen to induce more radial convection than the negatively biased case. While all structures vary with time, those at lower magnetic field line pitch are seen to vary most dramatically.

  20. A COMPACT CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE (CDD{trademark}) FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA GENERATION IN GASOLINE OR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak,Victor J.

    2000-08-20

    Higher fuel economy targets and hybrid vehicles are increasing the marketability of diesel engines. But in order to implement the growth of diesels to achieve the fuel economy benefits, all emission regulation issues must be met. To do this traps and catalysts are being utilized. One of the main problems is finding a technology that enables the exhaust emission system to not only meet the emission requirements when new, but also to meet them at the regulated intermediate and full life requirements. Work is being done that enables catalysts to remain highly efficient throughout their full life. It is done by using a corona discharge device (CDD{trademark}) that introduces non-thermal plasma into the exhaust ahead of the converter. This low power device creates radicals that alter the chemistry of the exhaust so as to limit the poisoning of the catalyst. This can be done without so called ''purge'' cycles that lower fuel economy and degrade catalyst long-term durability. This device has been developed, not as a laboratory tool, but as a production ready product and is the first of its kind that is commercially available for testing. It is this product, the Corona Discharge Device, CDD{trademark}, which will be described.