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Sample records for plasma hdl cholesterol

  1. Selective delipidation of plasma HDL enhances reverse cholesterol transport in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Frank M; Rudel, Lawrence L; Conner, Adam; Akeefe, Hassibullah; Kostner, Gerhard; Baki, Talal; Rothblat, George; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Asztalos, Bela; Perlman, Timothy; Zheng, Chunyu; Alaupovic, Petar; Maltais, Jo-Ann B; Brewer, H Bryan

    2009-05-01

    Uptake of cholesterol from peripheral cells by nascent small HDL circulating in plasma is necessary to prevent atherosclerosis. This process, termed reverse cholesterol transport, produces larger cholesterol-rich HDL that transfers its cholesterol to the liver facilitating excretion. Most HDL in plasma is cholesterol-rich. We demonstrate that treating plasma with a novel selective delipidation procedure converts large to small HDL [HDL-selectively delipidated (HDL-sdl)]. HDL-sdl contains several cholesterol-depleted species resembling small alpha, prebeta-1, and other prebeta forms. Selective delipidation markedly increases efficacy of plasma to stimulate ABCA1-mediated cholesterol transfer from monocytic cells to HDL. Plasma from African Green monkeys underwent selective HDL delipidation. The delipidated plasma was reinfused into five monkeys. Prebeta-1-like HDL had a plasma residence time of 8 +/- 6 h and was converted entirely to large alpha-HDL having residence times of 13-14 h. Small alpha-HDL was converted entirely to large alpha-HDL. These findings suggest that selective HDL delipidation activates reverse cholesterol transport, in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with delipidated plasma tended to reduce diet-induced aortic atherosclerosis in monkeys measured by intravascular ultrasound. These findings link the conversion of small to large HDL, in vivo, to improvement in atherosclerosis.

  2. HDL Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  3. Enzymatic assessment of cholesterol on electrophoresis gels for estimating HDL size distribution and plasma concentrations of HDL subclasses[S

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Ibelles, Paola; García-Sánchez, Cynthia; Ávila-Vazzini, Nydia; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an enzymatic cholesterol staining method to determine HDL subclasses in a polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, which further allows staining by protein in the same electrophoresis lane. HDLs from 120 healthy individuals were separated through nondenaturing PAGE. HDLs were stained for cholesterol using an enzymatic semisolid mixture. Once the gels were unstained, they were stained again for proteins with Coomassie blue. The proportions of HDL subclasses were determined by densitometry. HDL subclasses were transformed to concentrations using as reference HDL-cholesterol plasma levels. This method is comparable in linearity and reproducibility to Coomassie blue staining, although it provides quantitative data. As expected, HDL size distribution shifted toward larger particles when determined by cholesterol as compared with protein. With this method, we observed different proportions of HDL subclasses between men and women as compared with Coomassie blue staining. We described a method to determine HDL size distribution by enzymatic cholesterol staining on polyacrylamide gels. The method allows the quantification of the cholesterol plasma concentration of each HDL subclass with the possibility to further stain the protein in the same sample. The combination of HDL staining by cholesterol and protein on electrophoresis gels provides information that may have clinical relevance. PMID:20097938

  4. Plasma triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Jiménez-Flores, J. Rafael; Sigrist-Flores, Santiago C.; Espinoza-Camacho, Miguel A.; Jiménez-Morales, Mayra; Piña, Enrique; Méndez-Cruz, A. René; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Reaven, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in mature adults suggest that the plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride (TG)/HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) provides a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals who are insulin resistant (IR) and at increased cardiometabolic risk. This study extends these observations by examining the clinical utility of the TG/HDL-C ratio and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 2,244 healthy college students (17–24 years old) of Mexican Mestizo ancestry. The TG/HDL-C ratio separating the 25% with the highest value was used to identify IR and increased cardiometabolic risk. Cardiometabolic risk factors were more adverse in men and women whose TG/HDL-C ratios exceeded 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, and approximately one third were identified as being IR. The MetS identified fewer individuals as being IR, but their risk profile was accentuated. In conclusion, both a higher TG/HDL-C ratio and a diagnosis of the MetS identify young IR individuals with an increased cardiometabolic risk profile. The TG/HDL-C ratio identified a somewhat greater number of “high risk” subjects, whereas the MetS found a group whose risk profile was somewhat magnified. These findings suggest that the TG/HDL-C ratio may serve as a simple and clinically useful approach to identify apparently healthy, young individuals who are IR and at increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:23863983

  5. Epistasis contributes to the genetic buffering of plasma HDL cholesterol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Stressful environmental factors, such as a high-fat diet, can induce responses in the expression of genes that act to maintain physiological homeostasis. We observed variation in plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol across inbred mouse strains in response to high dietary fat intake. Several strains, including C57BL/6J, have stable levels of plasma HDL independent of diet, whereas other strains, including DBA2/J, show marked changes in plasma HDL. To explore this phenomenon further, we used publicly available data from a C57BL/6J × DBA/2J intercross to identify genetic factors that associate with HDL under high-fat diet conditions. Our analysis identified an epistatic interaction that plays a role in the buffering of HDL levels in C57BL/6J mice, and we have identified Arl4d as a candidate gene that mediates this effect. Structural modeling further elucidates the interaction of genetic factors that contribute to the robustness of HDL in response to high-fat diet in the C57BL/6J strain. PMID:20858711

  6. Control of Cholesterol Metabolism and Plasma HDL Levels by miRNA-144

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Cristina M.; Rotllan, Noemi; Vlassov, Alexander V.; Dávalos, Alberto; Li, Mu; Goedeke, Leigh; Aranda, Juan F.; Cirera-Salinas, Daniel; Araldi, Elisa; Salerno, Alessandro; Wanschel, Amarylis; Zavadil, Jiri; Castrillo, Antonio; Kim, Jungsu; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Foam cell formation due to excessive accumulation of cholesterol by macrophages is a pathological hallmark of atherosclerosis, the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. Liver X nuclear receptors (LXRs) regulate the expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including ABCA1 and ABCG1. ABCA1 and ABCG1 facilitate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and regulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis. Increasing evidence supports the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in regulating cholesterol metabolism through ABC transporters. Objective We aimed to identify novel miRNAs that regulate cholesterol metabolism in macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists. Methods and Results To map the miRNA expression signature of macrophages stimulated with LXR agonists, we performed a miRNA profiling microarray analysis in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LXR ligands. We report that LXR ligands increase miR-144 expression in macrophages and mouse livers. Overexpression of miR-144 reduces ABCA1 expression and attenuates cholesterol efflux to ApoA1 in macrophages. Delivery of miR-144 oligonucleotides to mice attenuates ABCA1 expression in the liver, reducing HDL levels. Conversely, silencing of miR-144 in mice increases the expression of ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. Thus, miR-144 appears to regulate both macrophage cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis in the liver. Conclusions 1) miR-144 regulates cholesterol metabolism via suppressing ABCA1 expression; and 2) modulation of miRNAs may represent a potential therapeutical intervention for treating dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:23519695

  7. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study

    PubMed Central

    Voight, Benjamin F; Peloso, Gina M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Barbalic, Maja; Jensen, Majken K; Hindy, George; Hólm, Hilma; Ding, Eric L; Johnson, Toby; Schunkert, Heribert; Samani, Nilesh J; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Thompson, John F; Li, Mingyao; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Musunuru, Kiran; Pirruccello, James P; Saleheen, Danish; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre FR; Schillert, Arne; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Anand, Sonia; Engert, James C; Morgan, Thomas; Spertus, John; Stoll, Monika; Berger, Klaus; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; McKeown, Pascal P; Patterson, Christopher C; Epstein, Stephen E; Devaney, Joseph; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Mooser, Vincent; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Perola, Markus; Havulinna, Aki; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Ingelsson, Erik; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp; de Bakker, Paul I W; Klungel, Olaf H; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J M; de Boer, Anthonius; Grobbee, Diederick E; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Deneer, Vera H M; Elbers, Clara C; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wijmenga, Cisca; Verschuren, WM Monique; Boer, Jolanda MA; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Rasheed, Asif; Frossard, Philippe; Demissie, Serkalem; Willer, Cristen; Do, Ron; Ordovas, Jose M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Daly, Mark J; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noël P; Surti, Aarti; Gonzalez, Elena; Purcell, Shaun; Gabriel, Stacey; Marrugat, Jaume; Peden, John; Erdmann, Jeanette; Diemert, Patrick; Willenborg, Christina; König, Inke R; Fischer, Marcus; Hengstenberg, Christian; Ziegler, Andreas; Buysschaert, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Van de Werf, Frans; Fox, Keith A; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Rubin, Diana; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Schäfer, Arne; Danesh, John; Blankenberg, Stefan; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Hall, Alistair S; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric; Boerwinkle, Eric; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Cupples, L Adrienne; Reilly, Muredach P; Melander, Olle; Mannucci, Pier M; Ardissino, Diego; Siscovick, David; Elosua, Roberto; Stefansson, Kari; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; Rader, Daniel J; Peltonen, Leena; Schwartz, Stephen M; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the hypothesis that the association of a plasma biomarker with disease is causal. Methods We performed two mendelian randomisation analyses. First, we used as an instrument a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the endothelial lipase gene (LIPG Asn396Ser) and tested this SNP in 20 studies (20 913 myocardial infarction cases, 95 407 controls). Second, we used as an instrument a genetic score consisting of 14 common SNPs that exclusively associate with HDL cholesterol and tested this score in up to 12 482 cases of myocardial infarction and 41 331 controls. As a positive control, we also tested a genetic score of 13 common SNPs exclusively associated with LDL cholesterol. Findings Carriers of the LIPG 396Ser allele (2·6% frequency) had higher HDL cholesterol (0·14 mmol/L higher, p=8×10−13) but similar levels of other lipid and non-lipid risk factors for myocardial infarction compared with non-carriers. This difference in HDL cholesterol is expected to decrease risk of myocardial infarction by 13% (odds ratio [OR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·84–0·91). However, we noted that the 396Ser allele was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·99, 95% CI 0·88–1·11, p=0·85). From observational epidemiology, an increase of 1 SD in HDL cholesterol was associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·62, 95% CI 0·58–0·66). However, a 1 SD increase in HDL cholesterol due to genetic score was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·93, 95% CI 0·68–1·26, p=0·63). For LDL cholesterol, the estimate from observational epidemiology (a 1 SD increase in LDL cholesterol

  8. Hepatic and extrahepatic uptake of HDL-derived plasma cholesterol in exercised and sedentary rats

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanathan, S.; Green, M.H.; Kris-Etherton, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    The present investigation was designed to study high density lipoprotein (HDL)-derived plasma cholesterol (C) turnover in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues of sedentary (S) and exercised (E) rats. 4-week-old Long Evans rats were exercised for 1 hr, 6 days weekly, for a period of 38 weeks, on a motor-driven treadmill at 0.8 mph at a 12% grade. Animals were injected with HDL that was labelled in vitro with /sup 3/H-cholesteryl ester. Serial blood samples and tissues were collected. HDL-C concentration was lower in E vs S rats (23.0 +/- 1.2 and 26.6 +/- 1.9 mg/dl, p < 0.01). While total plasma C was not different, liver C was higher in S vs E rats (8.2 +/- 0.8 and 7.2 +/- 0.5 mg/g). Adrenal C was higher in E vs S rats (29.5 +/- 2.3 and 20.7 +/- 2.3 mg/g, p < 0.01). Multicompartmental analysis of plasma and tissue tracer response led to development of an 8-component model (5 physiological; 3 nonphysiological) that depicted HDL-derived plasma C turnover. Plasma fraction of tracer declined more rapidly in E vs S rats. E rats cleared nonphysiological tracer more rapidly than S rats, but delayed release of tracer into the plasma longer. Fractional rate of tracer uptake into adrenals, liver, testes, and carcass was greater in E rats. There was a greater fractional turnover rate of tracer in adrenals and liver in S vs E rats. Hence HDL-derived plasma C turnover is altered with vigorous exercise.

  9. Peripheral plasma vitamin D and non-HDL cholesterol reflect the severity of cerebral cavernous malformation disease

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Romuald; Khanna, Omaditya; Shenkar, Robert; Zhang, Lingjiao; Wu, Meijing; Jesselson, Michael; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Gangal, Anupriya; Fam, Maged D; Gibson, Christopher C; Whitehead, Kevin J; Li, Dean Y; Liao, James K; Shi, Changbin; Awad, Issam A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To correlate cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) disease aggressiveness with peripheral blood biomarkers hypothesized mechanistically. Patients & methods: A prospective case–control study enrolled 43 CCM patients, where 25-(OH) vitamin D, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, CRP plasma levels and leukocyte ROCK activity were correlated with parameters of disease aggressiveness reflecting chronic and acute domains. Results: Patients with one or more features of chronically aggressive disease (early age at symptom onset, two or more symptomatic bleeds, high lesion burden) had significantly lower 25-(OH) vitamin D and non-HDL cholesterol levels in comparison to patients without these features. Conclusion: Validation of these biomarkers and their potential treatment modulation may influence the clinical care of patients with CCM disease. PMID:26861901

  10. Fish protein hydrolysate reduces plasma total cholesterol, increases the proportion of HDL cholesterol, and lowers acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in liver of Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Wergedahl, Hege; Liaset, Bjørn; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita; Lied, Einar; Espe, Marit; Muna, Ziad; Mørk, Sverre; Berge, Rolf K

    2004-06-01

    There is growing evidence that soy protein improves the blood lipid profiles of animals and humans. We compared the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), soy protein, and casein (control) on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats and genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. In Zucker rats, FPH treatment affected the fatty acid composition in liver, plasma, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. The mRNA levels of Delta 5 and Delta 6 desaturases were reduced by FPH and soy protein feeding compared with casein feeding. In Zucker rats both FPH and soy protein treatment reduced the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, the HDL cholesterol:total cholesterol ratio was greater in these rats and in the Wistar rats fed FPH and soy protein compared with those fed casein. Although fecal total bile acids were greater in soy protein-fed Zucker rats than in casein-fed controls, those fed FPH did not differ from the controls. However, the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was reduced in Zucker rats fed FPH and tended to be lower (P = 0.13) in those fed soy protein compared with those fed casein. Low ratios of methionine to glycine and lysine to arginine in the FPH and soy protein diets, compared with the casein diet, may be involved in lowering the plasma cholesterol concentration. Our results indicate that the effects of FPH and soy protein on fatty acid metabolism are similar in many respects, but the hypocholesterolemic effects of FPH and soy protein appear to be due to different mechanisms. FPH may have a role as a cardioprotective nutrient.

  11. [Accuracy of HDL cholesterol measurements].

    PubMed

    Niedmann, P D; Luthe, H; Wieland, H; Schaper, G; Seidel, D

    1983-02-01

    The widespread use of different methods for the determination of HDL-cholesterol (in Europe: sodium phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2) in connection with enzymatic procedures (in the USA: heparin/MnCl2 followed by the Liebermann-Burchard method) but common reference values makes it necessary to evaluate not only accuracy, specificity, and precision of the precipitation step but also of the subsequent cholesterol determination. A high ratio of serum vs. concentrated precipitation reagent (10:1 V/V) leads to the formation of variable amounts of delta-3.5-cholestadiene. This substance is not recognized by cholesterol oxidase but leads to an 1.6 times overestimation by the Liebermann-Burchard method. Therefore, errors in HDL-cholesterol determination should be considered and differences up to 30% may occur between HDL-cholesterol values determined by the different techniques (heparin/MnCl2 - Liebermann-Burchard and NaPW/MgCl2-CHOD-PAP).

  12. Raw Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) promotes cecal fermentation and reduces plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naomichi; Tanabe, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of raw Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita), containing resistant starch (RS), on lipid metabolism and cecal fermentation in rats. Raw yam (RY) and boiled yam (BY) contained 33.9% and 6.9% RS, respectively. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a cholesterol-free, control (C) diet supplemented with or without 15 and 30 g of RY or BY/100 g for 3 wk. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the tail vein of rats fed the 30% RY diet were significantly lower than in the C group throughout the feeding period. Compared with the C group, non-HDL concentrations in arterial plasma in the 30% RY group was significantly reduced. Liver cholesterol concentration in rats fed the 30% RY diet was significantly higher compared with those fed the C diet. Hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA and fecal bile acid excretion were significantly higher in the BY, but not the RY group, compared with the C group. Fecal cholesterol excretion in the 30% RY group was greater compared with the C group. Hepatic microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein mRNA was significantly lower in the 30% RY group compared with the C group. Cecal pools of acetate, propionate and butyrate were 113-257%, 181-476% and 410-789% greater in the RY group compared with the C group. These results suggest raw yam is effective as a source of RS and facilitates production of short chain fatty acid (SCFA), especially butyrate, in the rat cecum. In addition, RY has a plasma-cholesterol lowering effect, possibly due to the inhibited release of VLDL.

  13. Intake of up to 3 Eggs/Day Increases HDL Cholesterol and Plasma Choline While Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide is Unchanged in a Healthy Population.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Diana M; Missimer, Amanda; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Lemos, Bruno S; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-03-01

    Eggs are a source of cholesterol and choline and may impact plasma lipids and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations, which are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the effects of increasing egg intake (0, 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day) on these and other CVD risk biomarkers were evaluated in a young, healthy population. Thirty-eight subjects [19 men/19 women, 24.1 ± 2.2 years, body mass index (BMI) 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)] participated in this 14-week crossover intervention. Participants underwent a 2-week washout with no egg consumption, followed by intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day for 4 weeks each. Anthropometric data, blood pressure (BP), dietary records, and plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, choline, and TMAO) were measured during each intervention phase. BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose, and plasma triacylglycerol did not change throughout the intervention. Diastolic BP decreased with egg intake (P < 0.05). Compared to 0 eggs/day, intake of 1 egg/day increased HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) (P < 0.05), and decreased LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) (P < 0.05) and the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (P < 0.01). With intake of 2-3 eggs/day, these changes were maintained. Plasma choline increased dose-dependently with egg intake (P < 0.0001) while fasting plasma TMAO was unchanged. These results indicate that in a healthy population, consuming up to 3 eggs/day results in an overall beneficial effect on biomarkers associated with CVD risk, as documented by increased HDL-c, a reduced LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, and increased plasma choline in combination with no change in plasma LDL-c or TMAO concentrations.

  14. [Determination of HDL-cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, W; Schütz, C; Reuter, W

    1983-01-01

    For the clinical practice methods of the determination of HDL-cholesterol made their way which are based on the precipitation of apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins and a determination of cholesterol following. The expensive methods of the ultracentrifugation serve as reference methods. The most-spread precipitation techniques (heparin/MCl2, dextran sulphate/CaCl2 or MgCl2 photungstic acid/MgCl2) are comparatively observed with regard to their effectiveness, practicability and methodical and technical conditions (influence of the concentration of the precipitation reagents, pH-value, temperature, incubation and centrifugation conditions). Results of own investigations as well as data from literature are presented to the problem of the harmonization of the cholesterol determination with the precipitation technique. According to the opinion of the authors for the enzymatic determination of cholesterol by means of the CHOD-PAP-method the phosphotungstic acid precipitation well stood the test, whereas for the chemical determination of cholesterol after Liebermann-Burchard in manual or automatized works the precipitation by means of dextran sulphate/CaCl2 (40 g/l, 2.0 mol/l) is to be recommended. The superabundant precipitations with phosphotungstic acid and dextran sulphate/MgCl2 (20 g/l, 2.0 mol/l) achieve higher results in Liebermann-Burchard's reaction likely on account of interferences.

  15. [Diagnostic importance of HDL cholesterol determination].

    PubMed

    Reissner, J; Herrmann, W

    1990-01-01

    The present paper describes the sensitivity to quantification of changes of HDL-cholesterol in serum by two different precipitation and analytical techniques during the treatment of patients. After the precipitation of VLDL and LDL by phosphotungstic acid/magnesium chloride the chemical determination of HDL-cholesterol in serum with the Liebermann-Burchard reaction yields different results in comparison to enzymatic HDL-cholesterol determined in serum supernatant after the precipitation by polyethylene glycol 20.000. Correlation analyses of apolipoprotein A-I with enzymatic HDL-, HDL2-, HDL3-cholesterol or electrophoretic alpha-cholesterol demonstrate that the therapeutically induced changes (by training and diet) of lipid composition are more correctly reflected by the enzymatic determination of HDL-cholesterol after serum precipitation by polyethylene glycol.

  16. Effect of 360His mutation in apolipoprotein A-IV on plasma HDL-cholesterol response to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S; Lopez-Miranda, J; Ordovas, J M; Zambrana, J L; Marin, C; Ostos, M A; Castro, P; McPherson, R; Lopez Segura, F; Blanco, A; Jimenez Pereperez, J A; Perez-Jimenez, F

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine whether genetic variability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is responsible for the improvement in lipid profile when dietary saturated fats are replaced by carbohydrates or monounsaturated fats, 41 healthy male subjects were studied: 33 were homozygous for the 360Gln allele and 8 were heterozygote carriers of the 360His allele. These were administered three consecutive 4-week diets. The first was a diet rich in saturated fat (SAT diet, with 38% fat, 20% saturated. This was followed by a low fat diet (NCEP-I, with < 30% fat, < 10% saturated). The final diet was rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA diet, with 38% fat, 22% monounsaturated). There was no difference in plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels of both groups of individuals after consuming the SAT diet. Switching from this diet to the NCEP-I diet, carriers of the 360His allele presented a greater decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-10 vs. -1 mg/dL, P < 0.004) and apoA-I levels (-19 vs. -8 mg/dL, P < 0.037). Similarly, replacement of carbohydrates by monounsaturated fats produced a greater increase in HDL-C (9 vs. 1 mg/dL, P < 0.003) and apoA-I levels (9 vs. 2 mg/dL, P < 0.036) in carriers of the 360His mutation. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities and apoA-IV levels were also measured. However, no genotype-related differences were observed for these parameters. Our results suggest that variability in HDL-C and apoA-I response to diet is, at least partially, determined by the 360His mutation of apoA-IV.

  17. HDL Function, Dysfunction, and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edward A.; Feig, Jonathan E.; Hewing, Bernd; Hazen, Stanley L.; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Although high HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with decreased cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies, recent genetic and pharmacological findings have raised doubts about the beneficial effects of HDL. Raising HDL levels in animal models by infusion or over expression of apolipoprotein A-I has shown clear vascular improvements, such as delayed atherosclerotic lesion progression and accelerated lesion regression, along with increased reverse cholesterol transport. Inflammation and other factors, such as myeloperoxidase mediated oxidation, can impair HDL production and HDL function, in regard to its reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, tests of HDL function, which have not yet been developed as routine diagnostic assays, may prove useful and be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than HDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:23152494

  18. Enhanced vascular permeability facilitates entry of plasma HDL and promotes macrophage-reverse cholesterol transport from skin in mice.

    PubMed

    Kareinen, Ilona; Cedó, Lídia; Silvennoinen, Reija; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Jauhiainen, Matti; Julve, Josep; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-02-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway from macrophage foam cells initiates when HDL particles cross the endothelium, enter the interstitial fluid, and induce cholesterol efflux from these cells. We injected [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages into the dorsal skin of mice and measured the transfer of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol to feces [macrophage-RCT (m-RCT)]. Injection of histamine to the macrophage injection site increased locally vascular permeability, enhanced influx of intravenously administered HDL, and stimulated m-RCT from the histamine-treated site. The stimulatory effect of histamine on m-RCT was abolished by prior administration of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonist pyrilamine, indicating that the histamine effect was H1R-dependent. Subcutaneous administration of two other vasoactive mediators, serotonin or bradykinin, and activation of skin mast cells to secrete histamine and other vasoactive compounds also stimulated m-RCT. None of the studied vasoactive mediators affected serum HDL levels or the cholesterol-releasing ability of J774 macrophages in culture, indicating that acceleration of m-RCT was solely due to increased availability of cholesterol acceptors in skin. We conclude that disruption of the endothelial barrier by vasoactive compounds enhances the passage of HDL into interstitial fluid and increases the rate of RCT from peripheral macrophage foam cells, which reveals a novel tissue cholesterol-regulating function of these compounds.

  19. Impaired HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux is associated with metabolic syndrome in families with early onset coronary heart disease and low HDL-cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    Paavola, Timo; Kuusisto, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Matti; Kakko, Sakari; Kangas-Kontio, Tiia; Metso, Jari; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Bloigu, Risto; Hannuksela, Minna L.; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The potential of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to facilitate cholesterol removal from arterial foam cells is a key function of HDL. We studied whether cholesterol efflux to serum and HDL subfractions is impaired in subjects with early coronary heart disease (CHD) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) in families where a low HDL-cholesterol level (HDL-C) predisposes to early CHD. Methods HDL subfractions were isolated from plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation. THP-1 macrophages loaded with acetyl-LDL were used in the assay of cholesterol efflux to total HDL, HDL2, HDL3 or serum. Results While cholesterol efflux to serum, total HDL and HDL3 was unchanged, the efflux to HDL2 was 14% lower in subjects with MetS than in subjects without MetS (p<0.001). The efflux to HDL2 was associated with components of MetS such as plasma HDL-C (r = 0.76 in men and r = 0.56 in women, p<0.001 for both). The efflux to HDL2 was reduced in men with early CHD (p<0.01) only in conjunction with their low HDL-C. The phospholipid content of HDL2 particles was a major correlate with the efflux to HDL2 (r = 0.70, p<0.001). A low ratio of HDL2 to total HDL was associated with MetS (p<0.001). Conclusion Our results indicate that impaired efflux to HDL2 is a functional feature of the low HDL-C state and MetS in families where these risk factors predispose to early CHD. The efflux to HDL2 related to the phospholipid content of HDL2 particles but the phospholipid content did not account for the impaired efflux in cardiometabolic disease, where a combination of low level and poor quality of HDL2 was observed. PMID:28207870

  20. [The real measurement of non-HDL-cholesterol: Atherogenic cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Millán, Jesús; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Brea, Angel; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia. We can to considere, that the non-HDL cholesterol -cLDL+cVLDL+c-remmants+Lp(a)- is the real measurement of atherogenic cholesterol. In addition, non-HDL-cholesterol do not show any variations between postprandial states. In fact, non-HDL-cholesterol should be an excellent marker of atherogenic cholesterol, and an major therapeutic target in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. According with different clinical trials and with the epidemiological and mendelian studies, in patients with high cardiovascular risk, optimal level of cLDL will be under 70mg/dl, and under 100 ng/dl for non-HDL-cholesterol; and in high risk patients, 100mg/dl and 130mg/dl, respectively.

  1. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to increase your HDL cholesterol or correct a vitamin deficiency, niacin is sold in higher doses that are ... Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/nutritional-disorders/vitamin-deficiency%2c-dependency%2c-and-toxicity/niacin?qt=niacin& ...

  2. Hypertriglyceridaemia, postprandial lipaemia and non-HDL cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits decreases the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD) and cardiovascular (CV) events. The predictive value of elevated TG levels for coronary artery disease (CAD) seen in univariate analysis tends to disappear on multivariate analyses, especially when correction is made for HDL-C. The relationship between TG and HDL-C is complex and not fully understood. Hydrolysis of TG by lipoprotein lipase converts HDL subclass 3 to a larger lipoprotein enriched in both phospholipid and TG. This process occurs in postprandial lipaemia (PPL). An additional factor for the complex relationship between TGs and CV risk is that the lipoproteins which transport plasma TG (chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins and their remnants) are heterogeneous particles. Therefore, they may differ in their level of atherogenicity. PPL is a physiological process during which plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses undergo variations in concentration and composition following consumption of food, particularly fatty food. "Postprandial hyperlipidaemia" is the quantitative/qualitative alteration of this normal process. These lipoprotein alterations could play a role in the development of CV disease (CVD). However, lipid levels used to evaluate CV risk are usually measured in the fasting state. This review focuses on TG, PPL, postprandial hyperlipidaemia and non-HDL-C, their relationships and potential predictive role in atherogenesis and CVD.

  3. HDL Cholesterol Efflux Predicts Graft Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Annema, Wijtske; Dikkers, Arne; Freark de Boer, Jan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are involved in the protection against cardiovascular disease by promoting cholesterol efflux, in which accumulated cholesterol is removed from macrophage foam cells. We investigated whether HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and graft failure in a cohort of renal transplant recipients (n=495, median follow-up 7.0 years). Cholesterol efflux capacity at baseline was quantified using incubation of human macrophage foam cells with apolipoprotein B–depleted plasma. Baseline efflux capacity was not different in deceased patients and survivors (P=0.60 or P=0.50 for cardiovascular or all-cause mortality, respectively), whereas recipients developing graft failure had lower efflux capacity than those with functioning grafts (P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated a lower risk for graft failure (P=0.004) but not cardiovascular (P=0.30) or all-cause mortality (P=0.31) with increasing gender-stratified tertiles of efflux capacity. Cox regression analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that efflux capacity was not associated with cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.67 to 1.19; P=0.43). Furthermore, the association between efflux capacity and all-cause mortality (HR, .79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98; P=0.031) disappeared after further adjustment for potential confounders. However, efflux capacity at baseline significantly predicted graft failure (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64; P<0.001) independent of apolipoprotein A-I, HDL cholesterol, or creatinine clearance. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophage foam cells is not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality but is a strong predictor of graft failure independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels in renal transplant recipients. PMID:26319244

  4. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3.

  5. Targeted next-generation sequencing to diagnose disorders of HDL cholesterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Sadananda, Singh N.; Foo, Jia Nee; Toh, Meng Tiak; Cermakova, Lubomira; Trigueros-Motos, Laia; Chan, Teddy; Liany, Herty; Collins, Jennifer A.; Gerami, Sima; Singaraja, Roshni R.; Hayden, Michael R.; Francis, Gordon A.; Frohlich, Jiri; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Brunham, Liam R.

    2015-01-01

    A low level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is a common clinical scenario and an important marker for increased cardiovascular risk. Many patients with very low or very high HDL-C have a rare mutation in one of several genes, but identification of the molecular abnormality in patients with extreme HDL-C is rarely performed in clinical practice. We investigated the accuracy and diagnostic yield of a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay for extreme levels of HDL-C. We developed a targeted NGS panel to capture the exons, intron/exon boundaries, and untranslated regions of 26 genes with highly penetrant effects on plasma lipid levels. We sequenced 141 patients with extreme HDL-C levels and prioritized variants in accordance with medical genetics guidelines. We identified 35 pathogenic and probably pathogenic variants in HDL genes, including 21 novel variants, and performed functional validation on a subset of these. Overall, a molecular diagnosis was established in 35.9% of patients with low HDL-C and 5.2% with high HDL-C, and all prioritized variants identified by NGS were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Our results suggest that a molecular diagnosis can be identified in a substantial proportion of patients with low HDL-C using targeted NGS. PMID:26255038

  6. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) < 85 cm) and which anthropometric index, dBW or changes in WC (dWC), is more strongly associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in men without abdominal obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  7. Effects of Dietary Flavonoids on Reverse Cholesterol Transport, HDL Metabolism, and HDL Function.

    PubMed

    Millar, Courtney L; Duclos, Quinn; Blesso, Christopher N

    2017-03-01

    Strong experimental evidence confirms that HDL directly alleviates atherosclerosis. HDL particles display diverse atheroprotective functions in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic processes. In certain inflammatory disease states, however, HDL particles may become dysfunctional and proatherogenic. Flavonoids show the potential to improve HDL function through their well-documented effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the basic science and clinical research examining the effects of dietary flavonoids on RCT and HDL function. Based on preclinical studies that used cell culture and rodent models, it appears that many flavonoids (e.g., anthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavone subclasses) influence RCT and HDL function beyond simple HDL cholesterol concentration by regulating cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophages and hepatic paraoxonase 1 expression and activity. In clinical studies, dietary anthocyanin intake is associated with beneficial changes in serum biomarkers related to HDL function in a variety of human populations (e.g., in those who are hyperlipidemic, hypertensive, or diabetic), including increased HDL cholesterol concentration, as well as HDL antioxidant and cholesterol efflux capacities. However, clinical research on HDL functionality is lacking for some flavonoid subclasses (e.g., flavanols, flavones, flavanones, and isoflavones). Although there has been a tremendous effort to develop HDL-targeted drug therapies, more research is warranted on how the intake of foods or specific nutrients affects HDL function.

  8. Human paraoxonase 1 overexpression in mice stimulates HDL cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Ikhlef, Souade; Berrougui, Hicham; Kamtchueng Simo, Olivier; Zerif, Echarki

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of human PON1 overexpression in mice on cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport. PON1 overexpression in PON1-Tg mice induced a significant 3-fold (p<0.0001) increase in plasma paraoxonase activity and a significant ~30% (p<0.0001) increase in the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages compared to wild-type mice. It also caused a significant 4-fold increase (p<0.0001) in the capacity of macrophages to transfer cholesterol to apoA-1, a significant 2-fold (p<0.0003) increase in ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression, and a significant increase in the expression of PPARγ (p<0.0003 and p<0.04, respectively) and LXRα (p<0.0001 and p<0.01, respectively) mRNA and protein compared to macrophages from wild-type mice. Moreover, transfection of J774 macrophages with human PON1 also increased ABCA1, PPARγ and LXRα protein expression and stimulates macrophages cholesterol efflux to apo A1. In vivo measurements showed that the overexpression of PON1 significantly increases the fecal elimination of macrophage-derived cholesterol in PON1-Tg mice. Overall, our results suggested that the overexpression of PON1 in mice may contribute to the regulation of the cholesterol homeostasis by improving the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux and by stimulating reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:28278274

  9. The macrophage and its related cholesterol efflux as a HDL function index in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Narita, Ichiei; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    The macrophage and its related cholesterol efflux are considered to be a key player in atherosclerotic formation in relation to the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The HDL function can be evaluated by the reaction between lipid-loaded macrophages and lipid-acceptors in the HDL fraction from the plasma, apolipoprotein B-depleted serum, and/or whole serum/plasma. Recent studies have reported that an impaired cholesterol efflux of HDL is observed in patients with cardiometabolic diseases, such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. A population-based cohort study has reported an inverse association between the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL and the incidence of atherosclerotic disease, regardless of the serum HDL-cholesterol level. Moreover, in this paper, when we summarized several clinical interventional studies of statin treatment that examined cholesterol efflux, a potential increase in the efflux in patients treated with statins was implied. However, the effect was not fully defined in the current situation because of the small sample sizes, lack of a unified protocol for measuring the efflux, and short-term intervention periods without cardiovascular outcomes in available studies. Further investigation is necessary to determine the effect of drugs on cholesterol efflux. With additional advanced studies, cholesterol efflux is a promising laboratory index to understand the HDL function.

  10. The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations depend on smoking habit in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background-Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and concentrations are modulated by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking. Objective- To assess whether the association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  11. Altered relationship of plasma triglycerides to HDL cholesterol in patients with HIV/HAART-associated dyslipidemia: further evidence for a unique form of Metabolic Syndrome in HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Catherine N.; Ruiz-Esponda, Raul; Yang, Eric; Chang, Evelyn; Gillard, Baiba; Pownall, Henry J.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-C are inversely related in Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), due to exchange of VLDL-TG for HDL-cholesteryl esters catalyzed by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We investigated the relationship of TG to HDL-C in highly-active antiretroviral drug (HAART)-treated HIV patients. Methods Fasting plasma TG and HDL-C levels were compared in 179 hypertriglyceridemic HIV/HAART patients and 71 HIV-negative persons (31 normotriglyceridemic (NL) and 40 hypertriglyceridemic due to type IV hyperlipidemia (HTG)). CETP mass and activity were compared in 19 NL and 87 HIV/HAART subjects. Results Among the three groups, a plot of HDL-C vs. TG gave similar slopes but significantly different y-intercepts (9.24 ± 0.45, 8.16 ± 0.54, 6.70 ± 0.65, sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG respectively; P<0.001); this difference persisted after adjusting HDL-C for TG, age, BMI, gender, glucose, CD4 count, viral load and HAART strata (7.18 ± 0.20, 6.20 ± 0.05 and 4.55 ± 0.15 sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG, respectively, P <0.001). CETP activity was not different between NL and HIV, but CETP mass was significantly higher in HIV (1.47 ± 0.53 compared to 0.93 ± 0.27 μg/mL, P<0.0001), hence CETP specific activity was lower in HIV (22.67 ± 13.46 compared to 28.46 ± 8.24 nmol/μg/h, P=0.001). Conclusions Dyslipidemic HIV/HAART patients have a distinctive HDL-C plasma concentration adjusted for TG. The weak inverse relationship between HDL-C and TG is not explained by altered total CETP activity; it could result from a non-CETP-dependent mechanism or a decrease in CETP function due to inhibitors of CETP activity in HIV patients’ plasma. PMID:23522788

  12. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Larach, Daniel B.; Hancock-Cerutti, William F.; Millar, John S.; Cuchel, Marina; DerOhannessian, Stephanie; Kontush, Anatol; Surendran, Praveen; Saleheen, Danish; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J. Wouter; De Craen, Anton; Deloukas, Panos; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris; Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi; Alam, Dewan S.; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Abecasis, Goncalo; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Erdmann, Jeanette; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Schmidt, Ruth Frikke; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Liu, Dajiang J.; Perola, Markus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrieres, Jean; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ferrario, Marco; Kee, Frank; Willer, Cristen J.; Samani, Nilesh; Schunkert, Heribert; Butterworth, Adam S.; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Peloso, Gina M.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Danesh, John; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rader, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant). PMID:26965621

  13. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Larach, Daniel B; Hancock-Cerutti, William F; Millar, John S; Cuchel, Marina; DerOhannessian, Stephanie; Kontush, Anatol; Surendran, Praveen; Saleheen, Danish; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter; De Craen, Anton; Deloukas, Panos; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris; Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi; Alam, Dewan S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Abecasis, Goncalo; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Erdmann, Jeanette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Schmidt, Ruth Frikke; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Liu, Dajiang J; Perola, Markus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrieres, Jean; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ferrario, Marco; Kee, Frank; Willer, Cristen J; Samani, Nilesh; Schunkert, Heribert; Butterworth, Adam S; Howson, Joanna M M; Peloso, Gina M; Stitziel, Nathan O; Danesh, John; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-03-11

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant).

  14. Isomer-specific effects of conjugated linoleic acid on HDL functionality associated with reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Nicod, Nathalie; Parker, Robert S; Giordano, Elena; Maestro, Virginia; Davalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are atheroprotective because of their role in reverse cholesterol transport. The intestine is involved in this process because it synthesizes HDL, removes cholesterol from plasma and excretes it into the lumen. We investigated the role of selected dietary fatty acids on intestinal cholesterol uptake and HDL functionality. Caco-2 monolayers grown on Transwells were supplemented with either palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, arachidonic or conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs): c9,t11-CLA; t9,t11-CLA; c10,t12-CLA. Cells synthesized HDL in the basolateral compartment for 24 h in the absence or presence of an antibody to SR-BI (aSR-BI), which inhibits its interaction with HDL. Free cholesterol (FC) accumulated to a greater extent in the presence than in the absence of aSR-BI, indicating net uptake of FC by SR-BI. Uptake's efficiency was significantly decreased when cells were treated with c9,t11-CLA relative to the other fatty acids. These differences were associated with lower HDL functionality, since neither SR-BI protein expression nor expression and alternative splicing of other genes involved lipid metabolism were affected. Only INSIG2 expression was decreased, with no increase of its target genes. Increasing pre-β-HDL synthesis, by inducing ABCA1 and adding APOA1, resulted in reduced uptake of FC by SR-BI after c9,t11-CLA treatment, indicating reduced functionality of pre-β-HDL. Conversely, treatment with c9,t11-CLA resulted in a greater uptake of FC and esterified cholesterol from mature HDL. Therefore, Caco-2 monolayers administered c9,t11-CLA produced a nonfunctional pre-β-HDL but took up cholesterol more efficiently via SR-BI from mature HDL.

  15. ACAT inhibition reverses LCAT deficiency and improves plasma HDL in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, N D; Liang, K

    2004-11-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with increased risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and profound alteration of plasma lipid profile. Uremic dyslipidemia is marked by increased plasma concentration of ApoB-containing lipoproteins and impaired high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. These abnormalities are, in part, due to acquired LCAT deficiency and upregulation of hepatic acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). ACAT catalyzes intracellular esterification of cholesterol, thereby promoting hepatic production of ApoB-containing lipoproteins and constraining HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in the peripheral tissues. In view of the above considerations, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of ACAT may ameliorate CRF-induced dyslipidemia. 5/6 Nephrectomized rats were treated with either ACAT inhibitor IC-976 (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or placebo for 6 wk. Sham-operated rats served as controls. Key cholesterol-regulating enzymes, plasma lipids, and creatinine clearance were measured. The untreated CRF rats exhibited increased plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL (VLDL) cholesterol, unchanged plasma HDL cholesterol, elevated total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, reduced liver microsomal free cholesterol, and diminished creatinine clearance. This was accompanied by reduced plasma LCAT, increased hepatic ACAT-2 mRNA, ACAT-2 protein and ACAT activity, and unchanged hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. ACAT inhibitor raised plasma HDL cholesterol, lowered LDL and VLDL cholesterol, and normalized total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio without changing total cholesterol concentration (hence, a shift from ApoB-containing lipoproteins to HDL). This was accompanied by normalizations of hepatic ACAT activity and plasma LCAT. In conclusion, inhibition of ACAT reversed LCAT deficiency and improved plasma HDL level in CRF rats. Future studies are needed to explore

  16. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  17. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2

  18. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2

  19. WWOX gene is associated with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Altered lipid profile, and in particular low HDL and high triglyceride (TG) plasma levels, are within the major determinants of cardiovascular diseases. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting these lipid levels is a relevant issue for predictive purposes. The WWOX gene has been recently associated with HDL levels. This gene is located at chromosome 16q23, a region previously linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and HDL. Our objective is to perform a genetic association analysis at the WWOX gene region with HDL, TG and TG/HDL ratio. Methods A quantitative association analysis performed in 801 individuals selected from the Spanish general population. Results For HDL levels, two regions of intron 8 display clustering of positive signals (p < 0.05) but none of them was associated in the haplotypic analysis (0.07 ≤ p ≤ 0.165). For TG levels not only intron 8 but also a 27 kb region spanning from the promoter region to intron 4 are associated in this study. For the TG/HDL genetic association analysis, positive signals are coincident with those of the isolated traits. Interestingly, haplotypic analysis at the 5' region showed that variation in this region modified both HDL and TG levels, especially the latter (p = 0.003). Conclusions Our results suggest that WWOX is a QTL for both TG and HDL. PMID:20942981

  20. Ciprofibrate therapy in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol: greater reduction of non-HDL cholesterol in subjects with excess body weight (The CIPROAMLAT study)

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Assis-Luores-Vale, Andréia; Stockins, Benjamín; Rengifo, Hector Mario; Filho, José Dondici; Neto, Abrahão Afiune; Rabelo, Lísia Marcílio; Torres, Kerginaldo Paulo; Oliveira, José Egídio Paulo de; Machado, Carlos Alberto; Reyes, Eliana; Saavedra, Victor; Florenzano, Fernando; Hernández, Ma Victoria; Jiménez, Sergio Hernandez; Ramírez, Erika; Vazquez, Cuauhtémoc; Salinas, Saul; Hernández, Ismael; Medel, Octavio; Moreno, Ricardo; Lugo, Paula; Alvarado, Ricardo; Mehta, Roopa; Gutierrez, Victor; Gómez Pérez, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia in combination with low HDL cholesterol levels is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of ciprofibrate for the treatment of this form of dyslipidemia and to identify factors associated with better treatment response. Methods Multicenter, international, open-label study. Four hundred and thirty seven patients were included. The plasma lipid levels at inclusion were fasting triglyceride concentrations between 1.6–3.9 mM/l and HDL cholesterol ≤ 1.05 mM/l for women and ≤ 0.9 mM/l for men. The LDL cholesterol was below 4.2 mM/l. All patients received ciprofibrate 100 mg/d. Efficacy and safety parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of the treatment. The primary efficacy parameter of the study was percentage change in triglycerides from baseline. Results After 4 months, plasma triglyceride concentrations were decreased by 44% (p < 0.001). HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased by 10% (p < 0.001). Non-HDL cholesterol was decreased by 19%. A greater HDL cholesterol response was observed in lean patients (body mass index < 25 kg/m2) compared to the rest of the population (8.2 vs 19.7%, p < 0.001). In contrast, cases with excess body weight had a larger decrease in non-HDL cholesterol levels (-20.8 vs -10.8%, p < 0.001). There were no significant complications resulting from treatment with ciprofibrate. Conclusions Ciprofibrate is efficacious for the correction of hypertriglyceridemia / low HDL cholesterol. A greater decrease in non-HDL cholesterol was found among cases with excess body weight. The mechanism of action of ciprofibrate may be influenced by the pathophysiology of the disorder being treated. PMID:15272932

  1. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Adu, Patrick; Ake, Edem; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince; Cudjoe, Obed; Agoni, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8–28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8–38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, p = 0.01, OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6–0.93); DBP, p = 0.023, OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05–2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP. PMID:28078142

  2. The effect of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol levels depends on the ABCA1 gene variation in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/G8 have shown an association with HDL-C. One of the most likely mechanisms to explain those associations is through ABCA1. Objective: To assess whether the effect of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on HDL-C is dependent on ABCA1, we studied potential interacti...

  3. Polymorphisms in the CD36 gene modulate the ability of fish oil supplements to lower fasting plasma triacyl glycerol and raise HDL cholesterol concentrations in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Madden, Jacqueline; Carrero, Juan J; Brunner, Andreas; Dastur, Neville; Shearman, Cliff P; Calder, Philip C; Grimble, Robert F

    2008-06-01

    Five SNPs in the CD36 gene, 25444G>A, 27645del>ins, 30294G>C, -31118G>A and -33137A>G in haplotypic combinations, link to fasting plasma NEFA concentrations. Fish oil lowers TAG concentrations. The influence of CD36 SNPs on hypotriglyceridemic effects is unknown. The study examines how four of the SNPs modify the effects of fish oil on fasting plasma TAG, NEFA, glucose LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations in 111 healthy, middle-aged, Caucasian men. Subjects consumed habitual diets while taking 6g MaxEPA daily for 12 weeks. TAG decreased from 1.48 mol/l to 0.11 mmol/l, and glucose and HDL rose from 5.92 to 0.15 mmol/l and from 1.27 to 0.04 mmol/l, respectively, irrespective of genotype. NEFA was unaffected. Significant falls in TAG only occurred in individuals with the GG variant of the 25444, 30294, -31118 or -33137 SNPs. The TAG-lowering effects may be via stimulation of CD36 activity in extrahepatic tissue in individuals with the GG variants of these SNPs.

  4. HDL Cholesterol Efflux Capacity: Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Potential Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Anish; Rohatgi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular events; however, many therapies targeting increases in HDL-C have failed to show consistent clinical benefit. Thus, focus has recently shifted toward measuring high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. HDL is the key mediator of reverse cholesterol transport, the process of cholesterol extraction from foam cells, and eventual excretion into the biliary system. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral macrophages to HDL particles has been associated with atherosclerosis in both animals and humans. We review the mechanism of cholesterol efflux and the emerging evidence on the association between cholesterol efflux capacity and cardiovascular disease in human studies. We also focus on the completed and ongoing trials of novel therapies targeting different aspects of HDL cholesterol efflux.

  5. HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange is independently associated with cholesterol efflux capacity

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Mark S.; Ng, Kit F.; Irwin, Angela; Hong, Jaekyoung; Wu, Xing; Isquith, Daniel; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Prazen, Bryan; Gildengorin, Virginia; Oda, Michael N.; Vaisar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    HDL is the primary mediator of cholesterol mobilization from the periphery to the liver via reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). A critical first step in this process is the uptake of cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages by HDL, a function of HDL inversely associated with prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the dynamic ability of HDL to undergo remodeling and exchange of apoA-I is an important and potentially rate-limiting aspect of RCT. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE) and serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) efflux capacity. We compared HAE to the total and ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity of 77 subjects. We found that HAE was highly correlated with both total (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) and ABCA1-specific (r = 0.47, P < 0.0001) efflux, and this relationship remained significant after adjustment for HDL-C or apoA-I. Multivariate models of sterol efflux capacity indicated that HAE accounted for approximately 25% of the model variance for both total and ABCA1-specific efflux. We conclude that the ability of HDL to exchange apoA-I and remodel, as measured by HAE, is a significant contributor to serum HDL efflux capacity, independent of HDL-C and apoA-I, indicating that HDL dynamics are an important factor in cholesterol efflux capacity and likely RCT. PMID:26254308

  6. Postpartum weight retention is associated with elevated ratio of oxidized LDL lipids to HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2013-12-01

    Oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL) are associated with lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated how postpartum weight retention effects on ox-LDL and serum lipids. The study is a nested comparative research of a cluster-randomized controlled trial, NELLI (lifestyle and counselling during pregnancy). During early pregnancy (8-12 weeks) and 1 year postpartum, 141 women participated in measurements for determining of plasma lipids: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TAG) and ox-LDL. Subjects were stratified into tertiles (weight loss, unaltered weight and weight gain groups) based on their weight change from baseline to follow-up. Ox-LDL was determined by baseline level of conjugated dienes in LDL lipids. Among the group of weight gainers, concentration of TAG reduced less (-0.14 vs. -0.33, p = 0.002), HDL-C reduced more (-0.31 vs. -0.16, p = 0.003) and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio increased (3.0 vs. -0.2, p = 0.003) when compared to group of weight loss. Both T-C and LDL-C elevated more (0.14 vs. -0.21, p = 0.008; 0.31 vs. 0.07, p = 0.015) and TAG and ox-LDL reduced less (-0.33 vs. 0.20, p = 0.033; -3.33 vs. -0.68, p = 0.026) in unaltered weight group compared to weight loss group. The women who gained weight developed higher TAG and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio as compared to those who lost weight. Postpartum weight retention of 3.4 kg or more is associated with atherogenic lipid profile.

  7. β-COP as a Component of Transport Vesicles for HDL Apolipoprotein-Mediated Cholesterol Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Weilie; Lin, Margarita; Ding, Hang; Lin, Guorong; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Objective HDL and its apolipoproteins protect against atherosclerotic disease partly by removing excess cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. But the underlying mechanisms of cholesterol clearance are still not well defined. We investigated roles of vesicle trafficking of coatomer β-COP in delivering cholesterol to the cell surface during apoA-1 and apoE-mediated lipid efflux from fibroblasts and THP-1 macrophages. Methods shRNA knockout, confocal and electron microscopy and biochemical analysis were used to investigate the roles of β-COP in apolipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux in fibroblasts and THP-1 macrophages. Results We showed that β-COP knockdown by lentiviral shRNA resulted in reduced apoA-1-mediated cholesterol efflux, while increased cholesterol accumulation and formation of larger vesicles were observed in THP-1 macrophages by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that β-COP appeared on the membrane protrusion complexes and colocalized with apoA-1 or apoE during cholesterol efflux. This was associated with releasing heterogeneous sizes of small particles into the culture media of THP-1 macrophage. Western blotting also showed that apoA-1 promotes β-COP translocation to the cell membrane and secretion into culture media, in which a total of 17 proteins were identified by proteomics. Moreover, β-COP exclusively associated with human plasma HDL fractions. Conclusion ApoA-1 and apoE promoted transport vesicles consisting of β-COP and other candidate proteins to exocytose cholesterol, forming the protrusion complexes on cell surface, which were then released from the cell membrane as small particles to media. PMID:26986486

  8. A nutrient-dense, high-fiber, fruit-based supplement bar increases HDL cholesterol, particularly large HDL, lowers homocysteine, and raises glutathione in a 2-wk trial

    PubMed Central

    Mietus-Snyder, Michele L.; Shigenaga, Mark K.; Suh, Jung H.; Shenvi, Swapna V.; Lal, Ashutosh; McHugh, Tara; Olson, Don; Lilienstein, Joshua; Krauss, Ronald M.; Gildengoren, Ginny; McCann, Joyce C.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake modulates disease risk, but little is known how components within food mixtures affect pathophysiology. A low-calorie, high-fiber, fruit-based nutrient-dense bar of defined composition (e.g., vitamins and minerals, fruit polyphenolics, β-glucan, docosahexaenoic acid) appropriate for deconstruction and mechanistic studies is described and evaluated in a pilot trial. The bar was developed in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Changes in cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk biomarkers were measured after 2 wk twice-daily consumption of the bar, and compared against baseline controls in 25 healthy adults. Plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) increased 6.2% (P=0.001), due primarily to a 28% increase in large HDL (HDL-L; P<0.0001). Total plasma homocysteine (Hcy) decreased 19% (P=0.017), and glutathione (GSH) increased 20% (P=0.011). The changes in HDL and Hcy are in the direction associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline; increased GSH reflects improved antioxidant defense. Changes in biomarkers linked to insulin resistance and inflammation were not observed. A defined food-based supplement can, within 2 wk, positively impact metabolic biomarkers linked to disease risk. These results lay the groundwork for mechanistic/deconstruction experiments to identify critical bar components and putative synergistic combinations responsible for observed effects.—Mietus-Snyder, M. L., Shigenaga, M. K., Suh, J. H., Shenvi, S. V., Lal, A., McHugh, T., Olson, D., Lilienstein, J., Krauss, R. M., Gildengoren, G., McCann, J. C., Ames, B. N. A nutrient-dense, high-fiber, fruit-based supplement bar increases HDL cholesterol, particularly large HDL, lowers homocysteine, and raises glutathione in a 2-wk trial. PMID:22549511

  9. The mouse plasma PAF acetylhydrolase: II. It consists of two enzymes both associated with the HDL.

    PubMed

    Tsaoussis, V; Vakirtzi-Lemonias, C

    1994-05-01

    The PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) of mouse plasma was characterised as to its lipoprotein subclass and apolipoprotein association. Association with plasma lipoproteins was established by cholesteryl-hemisuccinate agarose affinity chromatography while electrophoretic and electrofocusing studies demonstrated almost exclusive association with the HDL-VHDL. Fractionation of [4-14C]cholesterol-labelled plasma on a Bio-Gel A-5m column established that 1% of the enzymic activity was associated with the VLDL-LDL, 4.5% with the HDL1, 80% with the HDL2-HDL3 and 15% with the VHDL. Electrophoresis of the solubilised, HDL2-HDL3 bound enzyme gave two peaks of activity with mobilities of 0.29 and 0.49 and a distribution of the recovered activity of 78 and 22%, respectively. The VHDL associated activity on similar analysis gave a 25 and 75% distribution. These findings showed that two enzymes, both associated with the HDL and VHDL fractions, constitute the PAF-AH activity of mouse plasma. Further fractionation of the HDL2-HDL3 bound activity on heparin-agarose established that 70% of the recovered activity was bound to the apo-E containing HDL.

  10. LXR driven induction of HDL-cholesterol is independent of intestinal cholesterol absorption and ABCA1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, Kristina; Gåfvels, Mats; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Slätis, Katharina; Hu, Xiaoli; Jorns, Carl; Steffensen, Knut R; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether: (1) liver X receptor (LXR)-driven induction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and other LXR-mediated effects on cholesterol metabolism depend on intestinal cholesterol absorption; and (2) combined treatment with the LXR agonist GW3965 and the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe results in synergistic effects on cholesterol metabolism that could be beneficial for treatment of atherosclerosis. Mice were fed 0.2 % cholesterol and treated with GW3965+ezetimibe, GW3965 or ezetimibe. GW3965+ezetimibe treatment elevated serum HDL-C and Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, effectively reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased the excretion of faecal neutral sterols. No changes in intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 or ABCG5 protein expression were observed, despite increased mRNA expression, while hepatic ABCA1 was slightly reduced. The combined treatment caused a pronounced down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and reduced hepatic and intestinal cholesterol levels. GW3965 did not affect the intestinal cholesterol absorption, but increased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels. GW3965 also increased Apoa1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and HEPA1-6 cells. Ezetimibe reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption, ABCA1 and ABCG5, but did not affect the serum HDL-C or ApoAI levels. Thus, the LXR-driven induction of HDL-C and ApoAI was independent of the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased expression of intestinal or hepatic ABCA1 was not required. Inhibited influx of cholesterol via NPC1L1 and/or low levels of intracellular cholesterol prevented post-transcriptional expression of intestinal ABCA1 and ABCG5, despite increased mRNA levels. Combined LXR activation and blocked intestinal cholesterol absorption induced effective faecal elimination of cholesterol.

  11. The mouse QTL map helps interpret human genome-wide association studies for HDL cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Magalie S; Lyons, Malcolm; Darvishi, Katayoon; Walsh, Kenneth; Sheehan, Susan; Amend, Sarah; Cox, Allison; Orho-Melander, Marju; Kathiresan, Sekar; Paigen, Beverly; Korstanje, Ron

    2011-06-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful strategy for identifying susceptibility genes for complex diseases in human populations but results must be confirmed and replicated. Because of the close homology between mouse and human genomes, the mouse can be used to add evidence to genes suggested by human studies. We used the mouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) map to interpret results from a GWA study for genes associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. We first positioned single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a human GWA study on the genomic map for mouse HDL QTL. We then used mouse bioinformatics, sequencing, and expression studies to add evidence for one well-known HDL gene (Abca1) and three newly identified genes (Galnt2, Wwox, and Cdh13), thus supporting the results of the human study. For GWA peaks that occur in human haplotype blocks with multiple genes, we examined the homologous regions in the mouse to prioritize the genes using expression, sequencing, and bioinformatics from the mouse model, showing that some genes were unlikely candidates and adding evidence for candidate genes Mvk and Mmab in one haplotype block and Fads1 and Fads2 in the second haplotype block. Our study highlights the value of mouse genetics for evaluating genes found in human GWA studies.

  12. Current and future therapies for addressing the effects of inflammation on HDL cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fatima; Baker, Wendy S; Khan, Madiha I; Thukuntla, Shwetha; McKinney, Kevin H; Abate, Nicola; Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa

    2017-03-22

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes arising from metabolic abnormalities are known to precipitate the development of CVD. Several metabolic and inflammatory markers have been proposed for predicting the progression of CVD, including high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For ~50 years, HDL-C has been considered as the atheroprotective 'good' cholesterol because of its strong inverse association with the progression of CVD. Thus, interventions to increase the concentration of HDL-C have been successfully tested in animals; however, clinical trials were unable to confirm the cardiovascular benefits of pharmaceutical interventions aimed at increasing HDL-C levels. Based on these data, the significance of HDL-C in the prevention of CVD has been called into question. Fundamental in vitro and animal studies suggest that HDL-C functionality, rather than HDL-C concentration, is important for the CVD-preventive qualities of HDL-C. Our current review of the literature positively demonstrates the negative impact of systemic and tissue (i.e. adipose tissue) inflammation in the healthy metabolism and function of HDL-C. Our survey indicates that HDL-C may be a good marker of adipose tissue health, independently of its atheroprotective associations. We summarize the current findings on the use of anti-inflammatory drugs to either prevent HDL-C clearance or improve the function and production of HDL-C particles. It is evident that the therapeutic agents currently available may not provide the optimal strategy for altering HDL-C metabolism and function, and thus, further research is required to supplement this mechanistic approach for preventing the progression of CVD.

  13. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-04-29

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05). When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05). When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25938914

  15. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  16. Historical milestones in measurement of HDL-cholesterol: impact on clinical and laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Michel R; Blaton, Victor H

    2006-07-23

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) comprises a family of particles with differing physicochemical characteristics. Continuing progress in improving HDL-C analysis has originated from two separate fields-one clinical, reflecting increased attention to HDL-C in estimating risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), and the other analytical, reflecting increased emphasis on finding more reliable and cost-effective HDL-C assays. Epidemiologic and prospective studies established the inverse association of HDL-C with CHD risk, a relationship that is consistent with protective mechanisms demonstrated in basic research and animal studies. Atheroprotective and less atheroprotective HDL subpopulations have been described. Guidelines on primary and secondary CHD prevention, which increased the workload in clinical laboratories, have led to a revolution in HDL-C assay technology. Many analytical techniques including ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis, chromatography, and polyanion precipitation methods have been developed to separate and quantify HDL-C and HDL subclasses. More recently developed homogeneous assays enable direct measurement of HDL-C on an automated analyzer, without the need for manual pretreatment to separate non-HDL. Although homogeneous assays show improved accuracy and precision in normal serum, discrepant results exist in samples with atypical lipoprotein characteristics. Hypertriglyceridemia and monoclonal paraproteins are important interfering factors. A novel approach is nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that allows rapid and reliable analysis of lipoprotein subclasses, which may improve the identification of individuals at increased CHD risk. Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein of HDL, has been proposed as an alternative cardioprotective marker avoiding the analytical limitations of HDL-C.

  17. Postprandial lipemia enhances the capacity of large HDL2 particles to mediate free cholesterol efflux via SR-BI and ABCG1 pathways in type IIB hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Julia, Zélie; Duchene, Emilie; Fournier, Natalie; Bellanger, Natacha; Chapman, M John; Le Goff, Wilfried; Guerin, Maryse

    2010-11-01

    Lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the postprandial phase is associated with both quantitative and qualitative remodeling of HDL particle subspecies that may influence their anti-atherogenic functions in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma or isolated HDL particles to mediate cellular free cholesterol (FC) efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer, and selective hepatic CE uptake during the postprandial phase in subjects displaying type IIB hyperlipidemia (n = 16). Postprandial, large HDL2 displayed an enhanced capacity to mediate FC efflux via both scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-dependent (+12%; P < 0.02) and ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1)-dependent (+31%; P < 0.008) pathways in in vitro cell systems. In addition, the capacity of whole postprandial plasma (4 h and 8 h postprandially) to mediate cellular FC efflux via the ABCA1-dependent pathway was significantly increased (+19%; P < 0.0003). Concomitantly, postprandial lipemia was associated with elevated endogenous CE transfer rates from HDL2 to apoB lipoproteins and with attenuated capacity (-17%; P < 0.02) of total HDL to deliver CE to hepatic cells. Postprandial lipemia enhanced SR-BI and ABCG1-dependent efflux to large HDL2 particles. However, postprandial lipemia is equally associated with deleterious features by enhancing formation of CE-enriched, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles through the action of CETP and by reducing the direct return of HDL-CE to the liver.

  18. How do elevated triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol affect inflammation and atherothrombosis?

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K

    2013-09-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The "functionality" of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C.

  19. Consumption of high-oleic acid ground beef increases HDL-cholesterol concentration but both high- and low-oleic acid ground beef decrease HDL particle diameter in normocholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L Anne; Walzem, Rosemary L; Crouse, Stephen F; Smith, Dana R; Adams, Thaddeus H; Vaidyanathan, Vidya; Cao, Xiaojuan; Smith, Stephen B

    2011-06-01

    On the basis of previous results from this laboratory, this study tested the hypothesis that ground beef high in MUFA and low in SFA would increase the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and LDL particle diameter. In a crossover dietary intervention, 27 free-living normocholesterolemic men completed treatments in which five 114-g ground beef patties/wk were consumed for 5 wk with an intervening 4-wk washout period. Patties contained 24% total fat with a MUFA:SFA ratio of either 0.71 (low MUFA, from pasture-fed cattle) or 1.10 (high MUFA, from grain-fed cattle). High-MUFA ground beef provided 3.21 g more 18:1(n-9), 1.26 g less 18:0, 0.89 g less 16:0, and 0.36 g less 18:1(trans) fatty acids per patty than did the low-MUFA ground beef. Both ground beef interventions decreased plasma insulin and HDL(2) and HDL(3) particle diameters and increased plasma 18:0 and 20:4(n-6) (all P ≤ 0.05) relative to baseline values. Only the high-MUFA ground beef intervention increased the HDL-C concentration from baseline (P = 0.02). The plasma TG concentration was positively correlated with the plasma insulin concentration (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with HDL-C (r = -0.47; P < 0.001) and plasma 18:0 (r = -0.24; P < 0.01). Plasma insulin and HDL diameters were not correlated (r = 0.01; P > 0.50), indicating that reductions in these measures were not coordinately regulated. The data indicate that dietary beef interventions have effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are independent (insulin, HDL diameters) and dependent (HDL-C) on beef fatty acid composition.

  20. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bertato, Marina P; Oliveira, Carolina P; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L; Lerario, Antonio C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE) labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and 3H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the 3H-free- cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in atherogenic

  1. Novel natural food colourant G8000 benefits LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in humans.

    PubMed

    Peres, Rogerio Correa; Gollücke, Andrea Pitelli Boiago; Soares, Clayton; Machado, Patricia; Viveiros Filho, Vitor; Rocha, Silvana; Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic composition of a natural food colourant (G8000™) as well as its effects on plasma markers after 28-day consumption by healthy individuals at a dietary dose (70 g). Parameters of total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides and plasma enzymes biomarkers of muscle injury were measured. Major compounds identified in G8000™ by ESI-MS showed the presence of anthocyanins, organic acids, phenolic acids as well as monosaccharides. HDL levels significantly increased from 43 ± 10.2 mg/dL to 95 ± 16.9 mg/dL. LDL levels significantly decreased from 110 ± 40.9 mg/dL to 69 ± 39 mg/dL (p < 0.001). No significant statistical differences (p > 0.05) were observed for total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL. After the intake, plasma enzyme CK-MB decreased from 20 ± 12.1 U/L to 10 ± 1.9 U/L while LDH levels increased from 275 ± 124.4 U/L to 317 ± 114.7 U/L (p < 0.005). No significant differences were observed for CK levels. Taken together, dietary intake of natural colourant G8000™ was able to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis biomarkers.

  2. Serum total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratios in US white and black adults by selected demographic and socioeconomic variables (HANES II).

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S; Fulwood, R; Carroll, M; Brook, J G; Johnson, C; Kalsbeek, W D; Rifkind, B M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Framingham Study findings suggest that total cholesterol (TC):High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is a useful summary of the joint contribution of TC and HDL-C to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Information on the distribution of TC:HDL-C in the US population is limited to selected populations and the relationship of the ratio distribution and its correlates has received little attention. METHOD: TC/HDL-C ratios were examined in a representative sample of the United States adult population ages 20 to 74 years, between February 1976 and February 1980 during NHANES II, using stratification and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Age-adjusted mean ratios were higher in men compared with women and were higher in Whites compared with Blacks. White men had the highest TC/HDL-C mean ratios. These relationships remained after stratification by age, education, body mass index, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Using multivariate analyses, the ratios were positively related to BMI, age, and smoking; and negatively related to female sex, alcohol use, being Black, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Using a ratio reference point of greater than or equal to 4.5 from the Framingham study, at least an estimated 44 million persons ages 25 to 74 years in the US were found to be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease. PMID:1853996

  3. Mitochondrial Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) Is Present in Human Serum and Is Positively Correlated with HDL-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Genoux, Annelise; Pons, Véronique; Radojkovic, Claudia; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Combes, Guillaume; Rolland, Corinne; Malet, Nicole; Monsarrat, Bernard; Lopez, Frédéric; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial ATP synthase is expressed as a plasma membrane receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). On hepatocytes, apoA-I binds to cell surface ATP synthase (namely ecto-F1-ATPase) and stimulates its ATPase activity, generating extracellular ADP. This production of extracellular ADP activates a P2Y13-mediated HDL endocytosis pathway. Conversely, exogenous IF1, classically known as a natural mitochondrial specific inhibitor of F1-ATPase activity, inhibits ecto-F1-ATPase activity and decreases HDL endocytosis by both human hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. Methodology/Principal Findings Since recent reports also described the presence of IF1 at the plasma membrane of different cell types, we investigated whether IF1 is present in the systemic circulation in humans. We first unambiguously detected IF1 in human serum by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. We then set up a competitive ELISA assay in order to quantify its level in human serum. Analyses of IF1 levels in 100 normolipemic male subjects evidenced a normal distribution, with a median value of 0.49 µg/mL and a 95% confidence interval of 0.22–0.82 µg/mL. Correlations between IF1 levels and serum lipid levels demonstrated that serum IF1 levels are positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and negatively with triglycerides (TG). Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data support the view that, in humans, circulating IF1 might affect HDL levels by inhibiting hepatic HDL uptake and also impact TG metabolism. PMID:21935367

  4. Molecular mechanism of reverse cholesterol transport: reaction of pre-beta-migrating high-density lipoprotein with plasma lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Kotite, Leila; Gan, Yonghong; Spencer, Thomas A; Fielding, Christopher J; Fielding, Phoebe E

    2004-11-23

    A 70-75 kDa high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle with pre-beta-electrophoretic migration (pre-beta(1)-HDL) has been identified in several studies as an early acceptor of cell-derived cholesterol. However, the further metabolism of this complex has not been determined. Here we sought to identify the mechanism by which cell-derived cholesterol was esterified and converted to mature HDL as part of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Human plasma selectively immunodepleted of pre-beta(1)-HDL was used to study factors regulating pre-beta(1)-HDL production. A major role for phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) in the recycling of pre-beta(1)-HDL was identified. Cholesterol binding, esterification by lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and transfer by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) were measured using (3)H-cholesterol-labeled cell monolayers. LCAT bound to (3)H-free cholesterol (FC)-labeled pre-beta(1)-HDL generated cholesteryl esters at a rate much greater than the rest of HDL. The cholesteryl ester produced in pre-beta(1)-HDL in turn became the preferred substrate of CETP. Selective LCAT-mediated reactivity with pre-beta(1)-HDL represents a novel mechanism increasing the efficiency of RCT.

  5. Signal transduction pathways provide opportunities to enhance HDL and apoAI-dependent reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Vishwaroop; Wood, Peta; Rentero, Carles; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Binding of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and its major apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to cell surface receptors is believed to initiate a plethora of signaling cascades that promote atheroprotective cell behavior, including the removal of excess cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages. More specifically, HDL and apoA-I binding to scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 has been shown to activate protein kinase A and C (PKA, PKC), Rac/Rho GTPases, Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2), calmodulin as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Some of these signaling events upregulate mobilization of cholesterol from cellular pools, while others promote efflux pathways through increased expression, stability, and cell surface localization of SR-BI and ABCA1. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of HDL- and apoA-I -induced signal transduction pathways that are linked to cholesterol efflux and discusses the underlying mechanisms that could couple ligand binding to SR-BI and ABCA1 with signaling and cholesterol export. Additional focus is given on the potential of pharmacological intervention to modulate the activity of signaling cascades for the inhibition or regression of cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions.

  6. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan O; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  7. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  8. High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles from end-stage renal disease patients are defective in promoting reverse cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Josephine L.C.; Gautier, Thomas; Nijstad, Niels; Tölle, Markus; Schuchardt, Mirjam; van der Giet, Markus; Tietge, Uwe J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the largest cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CVD in ESRD is not explained by classical CVD risk factors such as HDL cholesterol mass levels making functional alterations of lipoproteins conceivable. HDL functions in atheroprotection by promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), comprising cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, uptake into hepatocytes and final excretion into the feces. ESRD-HDL (n = 15) were compared to healthy control HDL (n = 15) for their capacity to promote in vitro (i) cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage foam cells and (ii) SR-BI-mediated selective uptake into ldla[SR-BI] cells as well as (iii) in vivo RCT. Compared with HDL from controls, ESRD-HDL displayed a significant reduction in mediating cholesterol efflux (p < 0.001) and SR-BI-mediated selective uptake (p < 0.01), two key steps in RCT. Consistently, also the in vivo capacity of ESRD-HDL to promote RCT when infused into wild-type mice was significantly impaired (p < 0.01). In vitro oxidation of HDL from healthy controls with hypochloric acid was able to fully mimic the impaired biological activities of ESRD-HDL. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HDL from ESRD patients is dysfunctional in key steps as well as overall RCT, likely due to oxidative modification. PMID:28148911

  9. High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles from end-stage renal disease patients are defective in promoting reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Josephine L C; Gautier, Thomas; Nijstad, Niels; Tölle, Markus; Schuchardt, Mirjam; van der Giet, Markus; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2017-02-02

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the largest cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CVD in ESRD is not explained by classical CVD risk factors such as HDL cholesterol mass levels making functional alterations of lipoproteins conceivable. HDL functions in atheroprotection by promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), comprising cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, uptake into hepatocytes and final excretion into the feces. ESRD-HDL (n = 15) were compared to healthy control HDL (n = 15) for their capacity to promote in vitro (i) cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage foam cells and (ii) SR-BI-mediated selective uptake into ldla[SR-BI] cells as well as (iii) in vivo RCT. Compared with HDL from controls, ESRD-HDL displayed a significant reduction in mediating cholesterol efflux (p < 0.001) and SR-BI-mediated selective uptake (p < 0.01), two key steps in RCT. Consistently, also the in vivo capacity of ESRD-HDL to promote RCT when infused into wild-type mice was significantly impaired (p < 0.01). In vitro oxidation of HDL from healthy controls with hypochloric acid was able to fully mimic the impaired biological activities of ESRD-HDL. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HDL from ESRD patients is dysfunctional in key steps as well as overall RCT, likely due to oxidative modification.

  10. Associations between HDL-cholesterol and polymorphisms in hepatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase genes are modified by dietary fat intake in African American and White adults.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Steffen, Lyn M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R

    2007-10-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism influence plasma HDL-C concentrations. We examined whether dietary fat intake modified relations between HDL-C and polymorphisms in hepatic lipase (LIPC-514C-->T), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP TaqIB), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL S447X) genes. Diet (food frequency questionnaire), plasma lipids, and LIPC, CETP, and LPL genotypes were assessed in approximately 12,000 White and African American adults. In both races and all genotypes studied, minor allele homozygotes had highest HDL-C concentrations compared to the other genotypes (P<0.001). However, main effects were modified by usual dietary fat intake. In African Americans - women somewhat more strongly than men -LIPC TT homozygotes with fat intake >or=33.2% of energy had approximately 3-4 mg/dL higher HDL-C concentrations than CC and CT genotypes. In contrast, when fat intake was <33.2% of energy, TT homozygotes had HDL-C concentrations approximately 3.5mg/dL greater than those with the CC genotype but not different from those with the CT genotype (P(interaction)=0.013). In Whites, LPLGG homozygotes had greatest HDL-C at lower total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat intakes but lowest HDL-C at higher intakes of these fats (P(interaction)HDL-C. In conclusion, these data show that plasma HDL-C differs according to LIPC, LPL, and CETP genotypes. In the case of LIPC and LPL, data suggest dietary fat modifies these relations.

  11. [New trends in lipidology: the increasing role of HDL-cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Paragh, György; Harangi, Mariann; László, Márk

    2008-07-27

    Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the increase of which is one of the cornerstones of preventive cardiovascular care. In addition to its major role in reverse cholesterol transport, HDL-C has other biological activities that may contribute to its protective effects against atherosclerosis. These include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic/profibrinolytic and vasoprotective effects. Current guidelines recommend aggressive lifestyle modifications, niacin, fibrate, statin or a combination of these to increase HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, several novel HDL-based therapeutic strategies have been or are currently being tested. These include newer formulations of nicotinic acid/receptor agonists, CETP inhibitors, cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists, PPAR agonists, liver X receptor/farnesoid X receptor agonists, and apoA-I and/or phospholipid-derived therapies. In this article previous clinical trials, epidemiological observations, basic science studies and the most important trials of novel agents are reviewed.

  12. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bechor, Sapir; Zolberg Relevy, Noa; Harari, Ayelet; Almog, Tal; Kamari, Yehuda; Ben-Amotz, Ami; Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc) is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA), which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE) and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages. PMID:27447665

  13. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bechor, Sapir; Zolberg Relevy, Noa; Harari, Ayelet; Almog, Tal; Kamari, Yehuda; Ben-Amotz, Ami; Harats, Dror; Shaish, Aviv

    2016-07-19

    Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc) is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA), which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE) and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages.

  14. Human pedigree-based quantitative-trait-locus mapping: localization of two genes influencing HDL-cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Almasy, L; Hixson, J E; Rainwater, D L; Cole, S; Williams, J T; Mahaney, M C; VandeBerg, J L; Stern, M P; MacCluer, J W; Blangero, J

    1999-01-01

    Common disorders with genetic susceptibilities involve the action of multiple genes interacting with each other and with environmental factors, making it difficult to localize the specific genetic loci responsible. An important route to the disentangling of this complex inheritance is through the study of normal physiological variation in quantitative risk factors that may underlie liability to disease. We present an analysis of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), which is inversely correlated with risk of heart disease. A variety of HDL subphenotypes were analyzed, including HDL particle-size classes and the concentrations and proportions of esterified and unesterified HDL-C. Results of a complete genomic screen in large, randomly ascertained pedigrees implicated two loci, one on chromosome 8 and the other on chromosome 15, that influence a component of HDL-C-namely, unesterified HDL2a-C. Multivariate analyses of multiple HDL phenotypes and simultaneous multilocus analysis of the quantitative-trait loci identified permit further characterization of the genetic effects on HDL-C. These analyses suggest that the action of the chromosome 8 locus is specific to unesterified cholesterol levels, whereas the chromosome 15 locus appears to influence both HDL-C concentration and distribution of cholesterol among HDL particle sizes. PMID:10330356

  15. Serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol from SHR after evening primrose oil and other polyunsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Hoffmann, P; Beitz, J; Förster, W; Wirth, M; Gödicke, W

    1986-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets enriched with evening primrose (EPO), sunflower (SO) and linseed oils (LO) as well as palm kernel fat (PKF), the latter being deficient in polyunsarated fatty acids (PUFA). In SHR fed EPO serum triglycerides were lowest and HDL1 cholesterol was highest as compared to the other groups of animals. Total cholesterol was not different. The data suggest that - as with blood pressure - serum lipids and lipoproteins might be influenced most effectively by EPO in comparison to other polyunsaturated fats.

  16. Injected phytosterols/stanols suppress plasma cholesterol levels in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, C A.; Raeini-Sarjaz, M; Jones, P J.H.

    2001-10-01

    Although plant sterols are known to suppress intestinal cholesterol absorption, whether plasma and hepatic lipid levels are influenced through non-gut related internal mechanisms has not been established. To examine this question 50 male hamsters were divided into 5 groups and fed semi-purified diets containing 20% energy as fat and 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol ad libitum for 60 days. The control group (i) received diet alone, while four additional groups consumed the diet plus one of four equivalent phytosterol mixtures (5 mg/kg/day) given either as (ii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols mixed with diet (oralSA), (iii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols subcutaneously injected (subSA), (iv) soybean oil phytosterols alone mixed with diet (oralSE), or (v) soybean oil subcutaneous injected phytosterols alone (subSE). The control group and both orally supplemented groups also received placebo subcutaneous sham injections. Neither food consumption, body weight, nor liver weight differed across treatment groups. Subcutaneous administration of SA and SE decreased plasma total cholesterol levels by 21% and 23% (p < 0.0001) and non-apolipoprotein-A cholesterol concentrations by 22% and 15% (p < 0.0002), respectively, compared to control. HDL cholesterol and TG concentrations remained unchanged across all groups, except for a decline of 25% (p < 0.0001) in HDL concentration in the subSE group versus control. Plasma campesterol levels were lower (p < 0.05) in the subSA group relative to all other groups. Plasma campesterol:cholesterol and campesterol:sitosterol ratios were, however, higher (p < 0.0001) for both the oral and subSE groups. Hepatic cholesterol levels were higher (p < 0.0001) in the oral and subSE phytosterol groups by 30% and 31%, respectively, relative to control. We conclude that low doses of subcutaneously administered plant sterols reduce circulating cholesterol levels through mechanisms other than inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  17. MediterrAsian Diet Products That Could Raise HDL-Cholesterol: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Giacosa, Attilio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Morandi, Gabriella; Bologna, Chiara; Riva, Antonella; Allegrini, Pietro; Perna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Background. High HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) values are negatively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. This review analyses the effect of the supplementation with various Mediterranean diet products (artichoke, bergamot, and olive oil) and Asian diet products (red yeast rice) on the HDL-C value in dyslipidemic subjects. Methods. A systematic review has been done involving all the English written studies published from the 1st of January 1958 to the 31st of March 2016. Results. The results of this systematic review indicate that the dietary supplementation with red yeast rice, bergamot, artichoke, and virgin olive oil has promising effects on the increase of HDL-C serum levels. The artichoke leaf extract and virgin olive oil appear to be particularly interesting, while bergamot extract needs further research and the effect of red yeast rice seems to be limited to patients with previous myocardial infarction. Conclusions. Various MediterrAsian diet products or natural extracts may represent a potential intervention treatment to raise HDL-C in dyslipidemic subjects.

  18. MediterrAsian Diet Products That Could Raise HDL-Cholesterol: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Giacosa, Attilio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Morandi, Gabriella; Bologna, Chiara; Allegrini, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Background. High HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) values are negatively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. This review analyses the effect of the supplementation with various Mediterranean diet products (artichoke, bergamot, and olive oil) and Asian diet products (red yeast rice) on the HDL-C value in dyslipidemic subjects. Methods. A systematic review has been done involving all the English written studies published from the 1st of January 1958 to the 31st of March 2016. Results. The results of this systematic review indicate that the dietary supplementation with red yeast rice, bergamot, artichoke, and virgin olive oil has promising effects on the increase of HDL-C serum levels. The artichoke leaf extract and virgin olive oil appear to be particularly interesting, while bergamot extract needs further research and the effect of red yeast rice seems to be limited to patients with previous myocardial infarction. Conclusions. Various MediterrAsian diet products or natural extracts may represent a potential intervention treatment to raise HDL-C in dyslipidemic subjects. PMID:27882320

  19. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI.

  20. Some observations on the cholesterol esterifying and cholesterol ester hydrolyzing activities in dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Kamo-Yamada, F; Cho, S; Sugano, M

    1980-05-01

    Cholesterol esterification and cholesterol ester hydrolysis in dog plasma were investigated. Esterification proceeded linearly for 60 min, and the amounts of cholesterol esterified were in the range of 0.13-0.18 mumol/ml/h. No change of acyl composition had occurred in newly formed cholesterol esters during incubation. With the addition of Na taurocholate (10 mM), complete inhibition of the esterifying activity and maximal activation of the hydrolase activity were observed. Approximately 50% of cholesterol esters present in plasma was hydrolyzed in 10 min of incubation, and the reaction was completed within 60 min. The maximal rate of hydrolysis was estimated to be 4.0-5.4 mumol/ml/h, and polyunsaturated esters were hydrolyzed more rapidly than saturated ones. The esterifying activity was detected in high density (HDL) and very high density lipoproteins (VHDL), while the hydrolytic activity was found only in VHDL. Each lipoprotein fraction served as a good substrate for hydrolysis, while HDL was the sole substrate for esterification. The optimal pH of the hydrolytic activity in VHDL lay in a broad range between 6.8 and 7.2 and the apparent Km was determined as 12.5 x 10(-3) mM for cholesteryl oleate.

  1. Evacetrapib is a novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein that elevates HDL cholesterol without inducing aldosterone or increasing blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guoqing; Beyer, Thomas P.; Zhang, Youyan; Schmidt, Robert J.; Chen, Yan Q.; Cockerham, Sandra L.; Zimmerman, Karen M.; Karathanasis, Sotirios K.; Cannady, Ellen A.; Fields, Todd; Mantlo, Nathan B.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyses the exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride between HDL and apoB containing lipoprotein particles. The role of CETP in modulating plasma HDL cholesterol levels in humans is well established and there have been significant efforts to develop CETP inhibitors to increase HDL cholesterol for the treatment of coronary artery disease. These efforts, however, have been hampered by the fact that most CETP inhibitors either have low potency or have undesirable side effects. In this study, we describe a novel benzazepine compound evacetrapib (LY2484595), which is a potent and selective inhibitor of CETP both in vitro and in vivo. Evacetrapib inhibited human recombinant CETP protein (5.5 nM IC50) and CETP activity in human plasma (36 nM IC50) in vitro. In double transgenic mice expressing human CETP and apoAI, evacetrapib exhibited an ex vivo CETP inhibition ED50 of less than 5 mg/kg at 8 h post oral dose and significantly elevated HDL cholesterol. Importantly, no blood pressure elevation was observed in rats dosed with evacetrapib at high exposure multiples compared with the positive control, torcetrapib. In addition, in a human adrenal cortical carcinoma cell line (H295R cells), evacetrapib did not induce aldosterone or cortisol biosynthesis whereas torcetrapib dramatically induced aldosterone and cortisol biosynthesis. Our data indicate that evacetrapib is a potent and selective CETP inhibitor without torcetrapib-like off-target liabilities. Evacetrapib is currently in phase II clinical development. PMID:21957197

  2. Discordance of Non-HDL and Directly Measured LDL Cholesterol: Which Lipid Measure is Preferred When Calculated LDL Is Inaccurate?

    PubMed

    Baruch, Lawrence; Chiong, Valerie J; Agarwal, Sanjay; Gupta, Bhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine if non-HDL cholesterol (N-HDL) and directly measured LDL cholesterol (D-LDL) are clinically equivalent measurements. Patients and Methods. Eighty-one subjects recruited for 2 cholesterol treatment studies had at least 1 complete fasting lipid panel and D-LDL performed simultaneously; 64 had a second assessment after 4 to 6 weeks, resulting in 145 triads of C-LDL, D-LDL, and N-HDL. To directly compare N-HDL to D-LDL and C-LDL, we normalized the N-HDL by subtracting 30 from the N-HDL (N-HDLA). Results. There was significant correlation between N-HDLA, D-LDL, and C-LDL. Correlation was significantly greater between N-HDLA and C-LDL than between N-HDLA and D-LDL. A greater than 20 mg/dL difference between measures was observed more commonly between N-HDLA and D-LDL, 29%, than between C-LDL and N-HDLA, 11% (P < 0.001), and C-LDL and D-LDL, 17% (P = 0.028). Clinical discordance was most common, and concordance was least common between N-HDL and D-LDL. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that N-HDL cholesterol and D-LDL cholesterol are not clinically equivalent and frequently discordant. As N-HDL may be superior to even C-LDL for predicting events in statin-treated patients, utilizing N-HDL to guide therapy would appear to be preferable to D-LDL when C-LDL is inaccurate.

  3. Plasma lipidomics discloses metabolic syndrome with a specific HDL phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Cabré, Rosanna; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-12-01

    Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma. In this study, we have performed an in-depth lipidomic analysis of human plasma from healthy individuals and subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in order to determine the lipidomic profile that allows prognosis of a pathological subpopulation with altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. The MetS population was categorized as having pathological or nonpathological HDL. Anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk markers, and lipoprotein subclasses of HDL and low-density lipoproteins were also evaluated. Lipidomic analysis revealed 357 differential molecules that were clustered (k means) in the two groups. The molecules identified in the whole lipidome showed that MetS subjects presented lower levels of glycerolipids and higher levels of glycerophospholipids with respect to control subjects. In contrast, when only statistically differential lipids were taken into account, differences were found between the two groups in almost cases. Furthermore, levels of saturated fatty acids were higher in patients with pathological HDL levels than in controls, whereas levels of unsaturated fatty acids were lower. These results highlight the potential of lipidomics as a clinical tool for risk assessment and monitoring of disease.

  4. Effect of cigarette smoke and dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoprotein composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hojnacki, J.L.; Mulligan, J.J.; Cluette, J.E.; Kew, R.R.; Stack, D.J.; Huber, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Pigeons were assigned to four treatment groups: 1) Controls fed a chow diet ad libitum and retained in their cages; 2) Sham pigeons fed a cholesterol-saturated fat diet and exposed to fresh air by the Lorillard smoking machine; 3) Low nicotine-low carbon monoxide (LoLo) animals also fed the cholesterol diet and exposed to low concentrations of cigarette smoke; and 4) High nicotine-high carbon monoxide (HiHi) birds fed the cholesterol diet and subjected to high concentrations of inhalants. Plasma very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), and high density (HDL) lipoproteins were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Smoke-related differences appeared in HiHi HDL which contained relatively more free and esterified cholesterol and total lipid, but less total protein than HDL from Sham-smoked pigeons. VLDL from birds exposed to cigarette smoke (LoLo and HiHi) contained relatively more total lipid, but less total protein than VLDL from Sham pigeons. Inhalation smoke produced a marked depression in the HDL2/HDL3 ratio resulting from an increased proportion of the HDL3 subfraction relative to HDL2. Pigeons fed the cholesterol-saturated fat diet circulated HDL with greater free and esterified cholesterol mass than Controls. Diet also altered the type of cholesteryl ester present in HDL with cholesteryl linoleate representing the predominant form in Control pigeons and cholesteryl oleate in cholesterol-fed birds. These results demonstrate that cigarette smoking can mediate alterations in lipoprotein composition independent of changes induced by dietary cholesterol and saturated fat.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Experimental Studies of Gold Nanoparticle Templated HDL-like Nanoparticles for Cholesterol Metabolism Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cheng-Tsung; Sun, Wangqiang; Palekar, Rohun U; Thaxton, C Shad; Schatz, George C

    2017-01-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol. Mimics of HDL are being explored as potentially powerful therapeutic agents for removing excess cholesterol from arterial plaques. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with apolipoprotein A-I and with the lipids 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate] have been demonstrated to be robust acceptors of cellular cholesterol. However, detailed structural information about this functionalized HDL AuNP is still lacking. In this study, we have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase activation experiments together with coarse-grained and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to model the structure and cholesterol uptake properties of the HDL AuNP construct. By simulating different apolipoprotein-loaded AuNPs, we find that lipids are oriented differently in regions with and without apoA-I. We also show that in this functionalized HDL AuNP, the distribution of cholesteryl ester maintains a reverse concentration gradient that is similar to the gradient found in native HDL.

  6. Niacin Reduces Atherosclerosis Development in APOE*3Leiden.CETP Mice Mainly by Reducing NonHDL-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M.; Pieterman, Elsbet J.; van Klinken, Jan B.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; van der Hoorn, José W. A.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Jukema, J. Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Niacin potently lowers triglycerides, mildly decreases LDL-cholesterol, and largely increases HDL-cholesterol. Despite evidence for an atheroprotective effect of niacin from previous small clinical studies, the large outcome trials, AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE did not reveal additional beneficial effects of niacin (alone or in combination with laropiprant) on top of statin treatment. We aimed to address this apparent discrepancy by investigating the effects of niacin without and with simvastatin on atherosclerosis development and determine the underlying mechanisms, in APOE*3Leiden.CETP mice, a model for familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD). Approach and Results Mice were fed a western-type diet containing cholesterol without or with niacin (120 mg/kg/day), simvastatin (36 mg/kg/day) or their combination for 18 weeks. Similarly as in FD patients, niacin reduced total cholesterol by -39% and triglycerides by −50%, (both P<0.001). Simvastatin and the combination reduced total cholesterol (−30%; −55%, P<0.001) where the combination revealed a greater reduction compared to simvastatin (−36%, P<0.001). Niacin decreased total cholesterol and triglycerides primarily by increasing VLDL clearance. Niacin increased HDL-cholesterol (+28%, P<0.01) and mildly increased reverse cholesterol transport. All treatments reduced monocyte adhesion to the endothelium (−46%; −47%, P<0.01; −53%, P<0.001), atherosclerotic lesion area (−78%; −49%, P<0.01; −87%, P<0.001) and severity. Compared to simvastatin, the combination increased plaque stability index [(SMC+collagen)/macrophages] (3-fold, P<0.01). Niacin and the combination reduced T cells in the aortic root (−71%, P<0.01; −81%, P<0.001). Lesion area was strongly predicted by nonHDL-cholesterol (R2 = 0.69, P<0.001) and to a much lesser extent by HDL-cholesterol (R2 = 0.20, P<0.001). Conclusion Niacin decreases atherosclerosis development mainly by reducing nonHDL-cholesterol with modest HDL-cholesterol

  7. HDL functionality in reverse cholesterol transport--Challenges in translating data emerging from mouse models to human disease.

    PubMed

    Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T

    2016-07-01

    Whereas LDL-derived cholesterol accumulates in atherosclerotic lesions, HDL particles are thought to facilitate removal of cholesterol from the lesions back to the liver thereby promoting its fecal excretion from the body. Because generation of cholesterol-loaded macrophages is inherent to atherogenesis, studies on the mechanisms stimulating the release of cholesterol from these cells and its ultimate excretion into feces are crucial to learn how to prevent lesion development or even induce lesion regression. Modulation of this key anti-atherogenic pathway, known as the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, has been extensively studied in several mouse models with the ultimate aim of applying the emerging knowledge to humans. The present review provides a detailed comparison and critical analysis of the various steps of reverse cholesterol transport in mouse and man. We attempt to translate this in vivo complex scenario into practical concepts, which could serve as valuable tools when developing novel HDL-targeted therapies.

  8. Prediction of cardio- and cerebro-vascular events in patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and low HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Corrado, Egle; Coppola, Giuseppe; Muratori, Ida; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    Low HDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and recent evidences suggest that HDL may aggravate the atherosclerotic process promoting inflammation: HDL are anti-inflammatory in the absence of inflammation but can become proinflammatory in the presence of atherosclerosis. Yet, no data is available on the cardiovascular outcome in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol and early stages of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we included in a prospective 5-year follow-up study 150 subjects with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid colour doppler, evaluating at baseline all the established traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. male gender, older age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, family history of coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia), as well as levels of two markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen). At the end of the follow-up we registered vascular events in the 21% of patients and we found that lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations were associated with ischemic stroke (p=.0164), peripheral arterial disease (p=.0248) and the presence of any clinical event (p=.0105). By multivariate analysis we searched, among all baseline parameters, for independent variables associated with the events and we found a predictive role for elevated fibrinogen concentrations (OR 6.3, 95% CI 2.0-19.6, p=.0016), family history of coronary artery disease (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.7-12.8, p=.0045) and lower HDL-cholesterol levels (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9, p=.0278). These findings further suggest a synergistic role of low-HDL and inflammation on the atherosclerotic disease progression from subclinical lesions to clinical events. Yet, their therapeutical implications remain to be established in future studies.

  9. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. Piccolotto; Lemos, J.R. Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R. Souza; Martins, M. Gassen; Nascimento, C.H.; Bayona, M.; Marcon, J.L.; Monteiro, J. Barros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Objective Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Research Methods Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. Results There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post

  10. High HDL cholesterol level after treatment with pitavastatin is an important factor for regression in carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Hideto; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hirayama, Haruo; Kamiya, Haruo; Watarai, Masato; Ishiki, Ryoji; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-03-01

    This study is a prospective multicenter study designed to investigate the effects of lipid-lowering therapy with pitavastatin on atherosclerotic plaque in patients with coronary heart disease, and to determine which factor is more closely associated with plaque regression. Participants (n = 63) were treated with pitavastatin for 12 months, and the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound before and after treatment. Mean IMT slightly but significantly decreased (from 0.99 ± 0.33 to 0.94 ± 0.28 mm for overall, P = 0.01) regardless of the presence of pretreatment with other statins. There were no significant relations with hs-CRP, malondialdehyde-LDL, LDL cholesterol, and smaller LDL cholesterol levels despite their decrease by pitavastatin. Decreases in mean IMT were observed significantly more frequently in subjects with high on-treatment HDL cholesterol levels than with low HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.017). The change in mean IMT tended to be inversely correlated with increments in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The IMT regression was more often observed in the absence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with pitavastatin attenuated atherosclerotic plaque. This effect was associated with the level of HDL cholesterol, and was stronger in the absence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in our ischemic heart disease patients.

  11. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  12. NMR-Based Lipid Profiling of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Healthy Subjects with Low, Normal, and Elevated HDL-Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kostara, Christina E; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Elisaf, Moses S; Bairaktari, Eleni T

    2017-03-21

    Recent studies suggest that the cholesterol content of HDL (high density lipoproteins) may provide limited information on their antiatherogenic properties and that the composition and particles' structure provide more information on their functionality. We used NMR-based (nuclear magnetic resonance-based) lipidomics to study the relationships of serum HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol) levels with the lipid composition of HDL particles in three groups of subjects selected on the basis of their HDL-C levels. Subjects with low and high HDL-C levels exhibited differences in HDL lipidome compared to those with normal HDL-C levels. In pattern recognition analysis, the discrimination power among all groups was of high significance. The low HDL-C group presented enrichment of the core in triglycerides and depletion in cholesterol esters, whereas the high HDL-C group showed a decrease in triglycerides content. Additionally, as HDL-C increases, all lipid classes are esterified with higher percentage of unsaturated than saturated fatty acids. In addition to the aforementioned differences, the surface layer is enriched in sphingomyelin and free cholesterol in the high HDL-C level group. NMR-based lipidomic analysis of HDL can be particularly useful since it provides insights into molecular features and helps in the characterization of the atheroprotective function of HDL lipoproteins and in the identification of novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

  13. Impact of Lifestyle Intervention on HDL-Induced eNOS Activation and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Obese Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Wesnigk, Jenny; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Fischer, Tina; Schuler, Gerhard; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese children and adolescent and is regarded as a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Important components for the development of endothelial dysfunction are reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and an increase in cholesterol deposition in the vessel wall, due to reduced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) activity. High density lipoprotein (HDL) exhibits antiatherosclerotic properties including modulation of eNOS activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. Lifestyle intervention programs can modify endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents, but their impact on HDL-mediated eNOS activation and RCT is unknown so far. Methods. Obese adolescents (15 ± 1 years, BMI > 35 kg/m2) where randomized either to an intervention group (IG, n = 8; restricted diet and exercise) or to a usual care group (UC, n = 8). At the beginning and after 10 months of treatment HDL-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cholesterol efflux capacity were evaluated. Results. Ten months of treatment resulted in a substantial weight loss (−31%), an improvement of endothelial function, and an increase in HDL-mediated eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and RCT. A correlation between change in eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation or RCT and change in endothelial function was noted. Conclusion. A structured lifestyle intervention program improves antiatherosclerotic HDL functions, thereby positively influencing endothelial function. PMID:27965912

  14. Lower HDL-cholesterol among healthy middle-aged Japanese-Brazilians in São Paulo compared to Natives and Japanese-Brazilians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Erb, Christopher T; Souza, Simone M; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-01-01

    Blood lipid levels are determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Higher than average values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) have been observed in people of Japanese ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Japanese immigrants to Brazil and subsequent generations maintain the protective benefits associated with higher levels of HDL-cholesterol, and to examine the potential associations between HDL-cholesterol and a variety of other blood lipids, anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Healthy men and women aged 35 years and older who were Native Japanese (n = 198) or Japanese-Brazilians (JB) living in São Paulo, Brazil (n = 198) and in some Japanese cities (n = 246) were investigated. Anthropometric variables, blood lipids including HDL-cholesterol, and lifestyle factors were assessed. Serum HDL-cholesterol was observed to be lower for JB in São Paulo (both women and men) compared with Natives and JB in Japan. Among the groups, triglycerides, waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, meat intake, stress, and smoking were observed to be independently negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol, whereas total cholesterol, fish intake, and physical activity were positively associated. Lower levels of HDL-cholesterol among both men and women of JB in São Paulo compared with both other groups were confirmed even after lifestyle adjustments. Our findings highlight the significantly lower levels of HDL-cholesterol among Japanese-Brazilians living in São Paulo city compared to Japanese-Brazilians and Native Japanese residing in Japan. Although several lifestyle factors were found to be significantly associated with HDL-cholesterol, they cannot adequately explain the role of the Brazilian cultural environment on HDL-cholesterol levels.

  15. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

  16. LDL and HDL subfractions, dysfunctional HDL: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Nikolic, Dragana; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Rizzo, Manfredi; Hoogeveen, Ron C

    2014-01-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are considered as important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), while highdensity lipoproteins (HDL) are well recognized for their putative role in reverse cholesterol transport and other atheroprotective functions. Both LDL and HDL are heterogeneous in nature, including various subfractions depending on the method of isolation (≥ 7 LDL and 10 HDL subspecies, respectively). While it is established that small, dense LDL (sdLDL) have atherogenic potential, the role of different HDL subfractions is still largely unclear. The majority of clinical studies suggest an atheroprotective role of larger HDL particles, although recent work has highlighted the role of dysfunctional HDL within different subfractions. Several therapeutic approaches are able to primarily target cholesterol concentration in LDL or HDL. Certain drugs, such as niacin, statins and fibrates target multiple lipid traits (i.e. pleiotropic drug effects), while cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are able to increase plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Statins represent the most used lipid-lowering drugs, but there is a continued interest in the development of novel therapeutic approaches, including those that might affect dysfunctional HDL. Targeting distinct LDL and HDL subfractions may potentially reduce the residual risk seen in clinical endpoint trials.

  17. Peptide Mimetics of Apolipoproteins Improve HDL Function

    PubMed Central

    Navab, Mohamad; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Buga, Georgette M.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade evidence has accumulated that suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL may be at least as important as the levels of HDL-cholesterol. The recent failure of the torcetrapib clinical trails has highlighted the potential differences between HDL-cholesterol levels and HDL function. Agents to improve HDL function including HDL anti-inflammatory properties provide a new therapeutic strategy for ameliorating atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory conditions related to dyslipidemia. Seeking guidance from the structure of the apolipoproteins of the plasma lipoproteins has allowed the creation of a series of polypeptides that have interesting functionality with therapeutic implications. In animal models of atherosclerosis, peptide mimetics of apolipoproteins have been shown to improve the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL, significantly reduce lesions and improve vascular inflammation and function without necessarily altering HDL-cholesterol levels. Some of these are now entering the clinical arena as interventions in pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic studies. PMID:18449337

  18. High density lipoprotein plasma fractions inhibit aortic fatty streaks in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Badimon, J J; Badimon, L; Galvez, A; Dische, R; Fuster, V

    1989-03-01

    The effects of in vivo administration of high density lipoprotein-very high density lipoprotein (HDL-VHDL) on the development of aortic fatty streaks were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The rabbits received a 0.5% cholesterol-rich diet for 8 weeks. During this period, the HDL-VHDL group was intravenously administered with 50 mg/week of homologous HDL-VHDL protein; the control group received normal saline (0.9% NaCl). HDL-VHDL fraction was obtained at density range 1.063 to 1.25 gm/ml by ultracentrifugation of normal rabbit plasma. Along the study, plasma lipid levels followed a similar profile in both groups. At the completion of the study, atherosclerotic-like lipid-rich lesions covered 37.9 +/- 6% (X +/- SEM) of the intimal aortic surface in the control group, and 14.9 +/- 2.1% in the treated group (p less than 0.001). The values of total and free cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, and phospholipids deposited within vessel wall were significantly lower in the aortas of the HDL-VHDL treated group than those in the control group. Cholesterol accumulation in the livers was also significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in the treated group than in the control. We concluded that administration of homologous HDL-VHDL lipoprotein fraction to cholesterol-fed rabbits, dramatically inhibited the extent of aortic fatty streaks and lowered lipid deposition in the arterial wall and liver without modification of the plasma lipid levels.

  19. Are low levels of HDL2-cholesterol a risk factor for atherosclerosis of cerebral vascular disease? Case report.

    PubMed

    Cordova, C; Alessandri, C; Basili, S; Peverini, F; Ferro, D; Barsi, R; Paradiso, M

    1990-01-01

    A case of a 45 years old man with an atherosclerotic stenosis of right internal carotid and TIA event is reported. The patient showed an increase of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol serum levels and, in particular, a very low familiar HDL2-cholesterol serum value. The possibility that this last condition could represent an important co-factor of the extracranial cerebrovascular disease is discussed. The usefulness of a long-term follow-up of all family members, showing the same lipids pattern, is also suggested.

  20. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These

  1. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Alkhouri, Naim; Eng, Katharien; Lopez, Rocio; Nobili, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in children. Non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has been shown to be a good predictor of cardiovascular events. Recent data in adults found non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to be associated with significantly higher levels of non-HDL-C than simple steatosis, suggestive it might be used as a non-invasive tool to diagnose NASH. The goal of our study was to assess non-HDL-C levels in children with NAFLD. Our cohort consisted of pediatric patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Anthropometric, laboratory, and histologic data were obtained on all patients. Univariable analysis was performed to assess differences in clinical characteristics between groups. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the correlation between non-HDL-C levels and clinical variables. ANCOVA was used to adjust for possible confounders. 302 subjects with NAFLD were included in our study; 203 with NASH and 99 without NASH. Subjects with NASH had significantly higher non-HDL-C levels than those without (p = 0.004). Histologic features of NASH, including ballooning, inflammation, and fibrosis were found to be weakly correlated with non-HDL-C levels, (p < 0.05 for all). After adjusting for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), ALT, and GGT, the association between non-HDL-C and NASH was not significant (p = 0.66). In Conclusion, non-HDL-C levels are higher in children with NASH than those with simple steatosis, suggesting increased CVD risk. This may be a reflection of the higher prevalence of MetS. Non-HDL-C had a positive association with histologic features of NASH.

  2. Plasma cholesterol efflux capacity from human THP-1 macrophages is reduced in HIV-infected patients: impact of HAART[S

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Petra; Ghislain, Mathilde; Villard, Elise F.; Le Goff, Wilfried; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Yeni, Patrick; Meyer, Laurence; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile; Guerin, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of HDL to remove cholesterol from macrophages is inversely associated with the severity of angiographic coronary artery disease. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or its treatment on the ability of HDL particles to stimulate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages has never been studied. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma and isolated HDL particles from HIV-infected subjects (n = 231) and uninfected controls (n = 200), as well as in a subset of 41 HIV subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to mediate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages. Plasma cholesterol efflux capacity was reduced (−12%; P = 0.001) in HIV patients as compared with controls. HIV infection reduced by 27% (P < 0.05) the capacity of HDL subfractions to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages. We observed a reduced ABCA1-dependent efflux capacity of plasma (−27%; P < 0.0001) from HIV-infected subjects as a result of a reduction in the efflux capacity of HDL3 particles. HAART administration restored the capacity of plasma from HIV patients to stimulate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages (9.4%; P = 0.04). During HIV infection, the capacity of whole plasma to remove cholesterol from macrophages is reduced, thus potentially contributing to the increased coronary heart disease in the HIV population. HAART administration restored the removal of cholesterol from macrophages by increasing HDL functionality. PMID:25573889

  3. Dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), alters plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and hepatic gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2009-12-01

    The effects of dietary capsanthin, the main carotenoid in paprika (Capsicum annuum), on lipid metabolism were examined. Young male Wistar rats were fed diets containing paprika powder, paprika organic solvent extract, residue of paprika extract, and purified capsanthin. Administration of purified capsanthin for 2 weeks resulted in a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) without detectable differences in plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations. A statistically significant correlation (r 0.567; P < 0.001) was found between dietary capsanthin concentrations and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Animals receiving diets containing two different capsanthin concentrations exhibited dose-dependent increases in plasma HDL-cholesterol (r 0.597; P < 0.005). While capsanthin was absent in the liver of animals fed the basal diet, it increased markedly in capsanthin-fed animals (P < 0.001). Quantitative analyses of hepatic mRNA levels revealed that capsanthin administration resulted in up-regulation of mRNA for apoA5 and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), without significant differences in other mRNA levels related to HDL-cholesterol metabolism. These results suggest that capsanthin had an HDL-cholesterol-raising effect on plasma, and the potential to increase cholesterol efflux to HDL particles by increasing apoA5 levels and/or enhancement of LCAT activity.

  4. The very-high-density lipoprotein fraction of rabbit plasma is rich in tissue-derived cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nanjee, M N; Miller, N E

    1991-11-05

    When plasma from rabbits, which several weeks earlier had been infused with [3H]cholesterol, was subjected to equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation, the specific radioactivity of cholesterol in the very-high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) fraction (d 1.22-1.32 g/ml) was three to 8-fold greater (mean, 5.5-fold; P less than 0.001) than that in high-density lipoproteins (HDL; d 1.06-1.21 g/ml). On size exclusion chromatography of plasma, no increase in specific radioactivity was seen in particles smaller than HDL. These findings suggest that those apolipoprotein-lipid complexes that dissociate from HDL during ultracentrifugation to form the VHDL fraction contain proportionately more tissue-derived cholesterol than do those that are more tightly bound to HDL.

  5. Prospective multicentre study of the effect of voluntary plasmapheresis on plasma cholesterol levels in donors

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Bray, M; Wisdom, C; Wada, S; Johnson, BR; Grifols-Roura, V; Grifols-Lucas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives LDL apheresis is used to treat patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, and low-volume plasmapheresis for plasma donation may similarly lower cholesterol levels in some donors. This study was designed to assess the effect of plasmapheresis on total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in a plasma donor population. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, unblinded longitudinal cohort study in which a blood sample was obtained for analysis before each donation. Data from 663 donors were analysed using a multivariable repeated measures regression model with a general estimating equations approach with changes in cholesterol as the primary outcome measure. Results The model predicted a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol for both genders and all baseline cholesterol levels (P < 0·01). The greatest total cholesterol decreases (women, −46·8 mg/dL; men, −32·2 mg/dL) were associated with high baseline levels and 2–4 days between donations. Small but statistically significant increases (P ≤ 0·01) in HDL cholesterol were predicted for donors with low baseline levels. Conclusions These results suggest that, in donors with elevated baseline cholesterol levels, total and LDL cholesterol levels may decrease during routine voluntary plasmapheresis. PMID:23517282

  6. Association of total cholesterol and HDL-C levels and outcome in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin; Li, Jianfei; Yang, Jin; Li, Rongshan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with heart failure (HF). Patients who were angiographical-diagnosis of CHD and echocardiographical-diagnosis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45% were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were collected and association of TC and HDL-C levels with rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality was assessed. A total of 118 patients were recruited. Mean age was 58.6 ± 10.9 years and male accounted for 65%. Mean LVEF was 39.5 ± 4.0%. Twenty-eight patients were rehospitalized for HF and 6 patients were dead. In patients with poor prognosis, lower body mass index (BMI), TC, HDL-C and albumin while higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) was observed. TC was positively correlated with BMI and albumin, and HDL-C was inversely correlated with Hs-CRP. The associations of TC level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were attenuated but consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with odds ratio (OR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–0.99). Associations of HDL-C level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were also consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with OR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90–0.98). Strength of association was attenuated prominently in model 3 after adjusted for Hs-CRP, and no change was observed after further adjusted for BMI and albumin. Higher baseline TC and HDL-C levels are associated with better outcome in CHD patients with HF. PMID:28248864

  7. Genetic-epidemiological evidence on genes associated with HDL cholesterol levels: a systematic in-depth review.

    PubMed

    Boes, Eva; Coassin, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Heid, Iris M; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-03-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles exhibit multiple antiatherogenic effects. They are key players in the reverse cholesterol transport which shuttles cholesterol from peripheral cells (e.g. macrophages) to the liver or other tissues. This complex process is thought to represent the basis for the antiatherogenic properties of HDL particles. The amount of cholesterol transported in HDL particles is measured as HDL cholesterol (HDLC) and is inversely correlated with the risk for coronary artery disease: an increase of 1mg/dL of HDLC levels is associated with a 2% and 3% decrease of the risk for coronary artery disease in men and women, respectively. Genetically determined conditions with high HDLC levels (e.g. familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia) often coexist with longevity, and higher HDLC levels were found among healthy elderly individuals. HDLC levels are under considerable genetic control with heritability estimates of up to 80%. The identification and characterization of genetic variants associated with HDLC concentrations can provide new insights into the background of longevity. This review provides an extended overview on the current genetic-epidemiological evidence from association studies on genes involved in HDLC metabolism. It provides a path through the jungle of association studies which are sometimes confusing due to the varying and sometimes erroneous names of genetic variants, positions and directions of associations. Furthermore, it reviews the recent findings from genome-wide association studies which have identified new genes influencing HDLC levels. The yet identified genes together explain only a small amount of less than 10% of the HDLC variance, which leaves an enormous room for further yet to be identified genetic variants. This might be accomplished by large population-based genome-wide meta-analyses and by deep-sequencing approaches on the identified genes. The resulting findings will probably result in a re-drawing and extension of

  8. Cholesterol Asymmetry in Synaptic Plasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W. Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2010-01-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: 1) chronic ethanol consumption; 2) statins; 3) aging; and 4) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density-lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, p-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. PMID:21214553

  9. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Seth G; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L; Kruth, Howard S; Adelman, Steven J; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-07-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(-/-)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-null [Lcat(-/-)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.

  10. The transport of cholesterol through the plasma in normal man.

    PubMed

    Myant, N B

    1983-09-30

    This review includes a brief account of the routes of entry of cholesterol into the plasma by (a) secretion of lipoproteins and (b) uptake of tissue free cholesterol by lipoproteins in the interstitial fluid, the metabolic transformation undergone by cholesterol within the plasma, with particular reference to the esterification of plasma free cholesterol by lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase and the redistribution of esterified cholesterol from high-density to low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein, and the routes by which cholesterol is removed from the plasma by bulk transport. The review end with a balance sheet showing the approximate amounts of cholesterol entering and leaving the plasma by different routes.

  11. HDL cholesterol: all hope is not lost after the torcetrapib setback--emerging therapeutic strategies on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nitin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2014-01-01

    Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) has been definitely shown to reduce cardiovascular events and improve clinical outcomes in the literature. As a result, LDL lowering has become the cornerstone of therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention. Recently, there has been a focus on targeting other lipid fractions to improve the clinical risk profile of patients. Raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has received considerable attention. Low HDL levels are often seen in combination with elevated triglyceride levels. New therapeutic modalities are being developed to increase HDL levels. Recent failure of agents such as cholesteryl ester transferase protein inhibitor torcetrapib has highlighted the importance of measuring functionality of HDL particles and not just focus quantitatively on HDL-C levels. The heterogeneity of HDL within the systemic circulation results from constant remodeling of particles in response to several factors. Established dyslipidemia therapies such as stains, fibrates, and niacin have already been well known in the literature to have a substantial benefit. Lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and moderate alcohol consumption have also shown to have some benefit. Several novel HDL therapies are currently being developed, but only the cholesteryl ester transferase protein inhibitors have received considerable attention. Although torcetrapib has received some negative attention due to adverse effects, this overall class of therapeutic agents still holds a lot of promise. Newer agents without the concerned toxicities are currently being developed. ApoA-1-related peptides, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, endothelial lipase inhibitors, and liver X receptor agonists are some of the other novel agents currently in various stages of development.

  12. Different palm oil preparations reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to coconut oil in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Kotyla, Timothy; Sundram, Kalyana; Kritchevsky, David

    2005-10-01

    Several studies have reported on the effect of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) incorporation into the diet on blood cholesterol concentrations and on the development of atherosclerosis. However, very little work has been reported on the influence of red palm oil (RPO), which is higher in carotenoid and tocopherol content than RBD-PO. Thus, we studied the influence of RPO, RBD-PO and a RBD-PO plus red palm oil extract (reconstituted RBD-PO) on plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic accumulation vs. hamsters fed coconut oil. Forty-eight F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three/cage) in hanging polystyrene cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks at which time they were bled after an overnight fast and segregated into four groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 continued on the HCD, Group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RPO in place of coconut oil, Group 3 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBD-PO in place of coconut oil and Group 4 was fed the HCD with 10% reconstituted RBD-PO for an additional 10 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the hamsters fed the RPO (-42% and -48%), RBD-PO (-32% and -36%) and the reconstituted RBD-PO (-37% and -41%) compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. Plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher by 14% and 31% in hamsters fed the RBD-PO and RPO compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly lower in hamsters fed RBD-PO (-32%) and the reconstituted RBD-PO (-31%) compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. The plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations were higher

  13. Regression of atherosclerotic lesions by high density lipoprotein plasma fraction in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

    PubMed

    Badimon, J J; Badimon, L; Fuster, V

    1990-04-01

    The effects of homologous plasma HDL and VHDL fractions on established atherosclerotic lesions were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the animals a 0.5% cholesterol-rich diet for 60 d (group 1). Another group of animals were maintained on the same diet for 90 d (group 2). A third group was also fed the same diet for 90 d but received 50 mg HDL-VHDL protein per wk (isolated from normolipemic rabbit plasma) during the last 30 d (group 3). Aortic atherosclerotic involvement at the completion of the study was 34 +/- 4% in group 1, 38.8 +/- 5% in group 2, and 17.8 +/- 4% in group 3 (P less than 0.005). Aortic lipid deposition was also significantly reduced in group 3 compared with group 1 (studied at only 60 d) and group 2. This is the first in vivo, prospective evidence of the antiatherogenic effect of HDL-VHDL against preexisting atherosclerosis. Our results showed that HDL plasma fractions were able to induce regression of established aortic fatty streaks and lipid deposits. Our results suggest that it may be possible not only to inhibit progression but even to reduce established atherosclerotic lesions by HDL administration.

  14. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population.

    PubMed

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rayman, Margaret P; Guallar, Eliseo; Nybo, Mads; Griffin, Bruce A; Stranges, Saverio; Cold, Søren

    2015-12-14

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60-74 years (n 491) were randomised to 100 (n 124), 200 (n 122) or 300 (n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets (n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months and 5 years. Total cholesterol decreased significantly both in the intervention groups and in the placebo group after 6 months and 5 years, with small and nonsignificant differences in changes in plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population.

  15. ARH missense polymorphisms and plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Hyatt, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in a putative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor adaptor protein called ARH have been recently described in patients with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH). ARH plays a tissue-specific role in determination of LDL receptor function. In the ARH gene three mismatched polymorphisms have been detected: Pro202Ser, Pro202His and Arg238Trp. These are of putative interest in plasma cholesterol level determination. To evaluate the effect of polymorphisms on plasma cholesterol levels, all polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis by MnII, HpyCH4IV and SacII in 100 Caucasian males with high (>90%, 6.29 +/- 0.89 mmol/l), and 100 males with low (<10%, 3.60 +/- 0.57 mmol/l), total plasma cholesterol levels. No significant differences were observed in frequencies of ARH genotypes or alleles between these two extreme groups. These results suggest that ARH polymorphisms are unlikely to be important genetic determinants of plasma cholesterol levels.

  16. Chronic kidney disease - different role for HDL?

    PubMed

    Jacek, Rysz; Anna, Gluba; Danilo, Fliser; Timo, Speer; Andrzej, Wiecek

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging health hazard, connected to very high cardiovascular mortality due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Increased cardiovascular risk cannot be explained only by traditional risk factors. Patients with renal dysfunction have significant disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL in these patients becomes dysfunctional. It has been documented that in patients with CKD lower plasma level of HDL cholesterol and reduced ability of HDL to bind to ABCA1 are seen, which result in slowing down the reverse cholesterol transport and disturbances in HDL maturation due to decreased lecithin cholesterol ester transfer protein. Studies demonstrated that HDL of CKD patients loses its vasoprotective, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and turns into a noxious particle which promotes endothelial dysfunction via stimulating superoxide production and limiting NO bioavailability. Alterations of HDL at the 'molecular and functional level' are also seen in renal transplant recipients even in those with excellent graft function.

  17. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  18. Intake of up to 3 Eggs per Day Is Associated with Changes in HDL Function and Increased Plasma Antioxidants in Healthy, Young Adults.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Diana M; Norris, Gregory H; Millar, Courtney L; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-03-01

    Background: HDL function may be more important than HDL concentration in determining risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, HDL is a carrier of carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes, which protect HDL and LDL particles against oxidation.Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of consuming 0-3 eggs/d on LDL and HDL particle size, HDL function, and plasma antioxidants in a young, healthy population.Methods: Thirty-eight healthy men and women [age 18-30 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 18.5-29.9] participated in this 14-wk crossover intervention. Subjects underwent a 2-wk washout (0 eggs/d) followed by sequentially increasing intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/d for 4 wk each. After each period, fasting blood was collected for analysis of lipoprotein subfractions, plasma apolipoprotein (apo) concentration, lutein and zeaxanthin concentration, and activities of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and paraoxonase-1.Results: Compared with intake of 0 eggs/d, consuming 1-3 eggs/d resulted in increased large-LDL (21-37%) and large-HDL (6-13%) particle concentrations, plasma apoAI (9-15%), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity (5-15%) (P < 0.05 for all biomarkers). Intake of 2-3 eggs/d also promoted an 11% increase in apoAII (P < 0.05) and a 20-31% increase in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin (P < 0.05), whereas intake of 3 eggs/d resulted in a 9-16% increase in serum paraoxonase-1 activity compared with intake of 1-2 eggs/d (P < 0.05). Egg intake did not affect cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity.Conclusions: Intake of 1 egg/d was sufficient to increase HDL function and large-LDL particle concentration; however, intake of 2-3 eggs/d supported greater improvements in HDL function as well as increased plasma carotenoids. Overall, intake of ≤3 eggs/d favored a less atherogenic LDL particle profile, improved HDL function, and increased plasma antioxidants in young, healthy adults. This trial was

  19. Relation among the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio, insulin resistance, and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors in men and women.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Balbín, Eduardo; Dulbecco, Carlos A; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Marillet, Alberto G; Reaven, Gerald M

    2012-06-15

    Results of recent studies using the ratio of plasma triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration to identify insulin-resistant patients at increased cardiometabolic risk have emphasized that the cut point used for this purpose will vary with race. Because TG and HDL cholesterol concentrations vary with gender, this analysis was initiated to define gender-specific plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratios that best identified high-risk subjects among women (n = 1,102) and men (n = 464) of primarily European ancestry. Insulin resistance was defined as the 25% of the population with the highest values for fasting plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Using TG/HDL concentration ratios >2.5 in women and >3.5 in men identified subgroups of men and women that were comparable in terms of insulin resistance and associated cardiometabolic risk, with significantly higher values for fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and glucose and TG concentrations and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations than in women and men below these cut points. The sensitivity and specificity of these gender-specific cut points to identify insulin-resistant subjects were about 40% and about 80%, respectively. In conclusion, the plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratio that identifies patients who are insulin resistant and at significantly greater cardiometabolic risk varies between men and women.

  20. Serum amyloid A impairs the antiinflammatory properties of HDL

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang Yeop; Tang, Chongren; Guevara, Myriam E.; Wei, Hao; Wietecha, Tomasz; Shao, Baohai; Subramanian, Savitha; Omer, Mohamed; Wang, Shari; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Wight, Thomas N.; Vaisar, Tomas; de Beer, Maria C.; de Beer, Frederick C.; Osborne, William R.; Elkon, Keith B.; Chait, Alan

    2015-01-01

    HDL from healthy humans and lean mice inhibits palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation; however, the effect of the inflammatory state on the functional properties of HDL on adipocytes is unknown. Here, we found that HDL from mice injected with AgNO3 fails to inhibit palmitate-induced inflammation and reduces cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, HDL isolated from obese mice with moderate inflammation and humans with systemic lupus erythematosus had similar effects. Since serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in HDL increase with inflammation, we investigated whether elevated SAA is a causal factor in HDL dysfunction. HDL from AgNO3-injected mice lacking Saa1.1 and Saa2.1 exhibited a partial restoration of antiinflammatory and cholesterol efflux properties in adipocytes. Conversely, incorporation of SAA into HDL preparations reduced antiinflammatory properties but not to the same extent as HDL from AgNO3-injected mice. SAA-enriched HDL colocalized with cell surface–associated extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes, suggesting impaired access to the plasma membrane. Enzymatic digestion of proteoglycans in the ECM restored the ability of SAA-containing HDL to inhibit palmitate-induced inflammation and cholesterol efflux. Collectively, these findings indicate that inflammation results in a loss of the antiinflammatory properties of HDL on adipocytes, which appears to partially result from the SAA component of HDL binding to cell-surface proteoglycans, thereby preventing access of HDL to the plasma membrane. PMID:26642365

  1. The effect of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hoang V T; Sievenpiper, John L; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Jovanovski, Elena; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Oats are a rich source of β-glucan, a viscous, soluble fibre recognised for its cholesterol-lowering properties, and are associated with reduced risk of CVD. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for the risk reduction of CVD. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. We included RCT of ≥3 weeks of follow-up, assessing the effect of diets enriched with oat β-glucan compared with controlled diets on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol or apoB. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using the generic inverse-variance method with random effects models and expressed as mean differences with 95 % CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q statistic and quantified by the I 2-statistic. In total, fifty-eight trials (n 3974) were included. A median dose of 3·5 g/d of oat β-glucan significantly lowered LDL-cholesterol (-0·19; 95 % CI -0·23, -0·14 mmol/l, P<0·00001), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0·20; 95 % CI -0·26, -0·15 mmol/l, P<0·00001) and apoB (-0·03; 95 % CI -0·05, -0·02 g/l, P<0·0001) compared with control interventions. There was evidence for considerable unexplained heterogeneity in the analysis of LDL-cholesterol (I 2=79 %) and non-HDL-cholesterol (I 2=99 %). Pooled analyses showed that oat β-glucan has a lowering effect on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB. Inclusion of oat-containing foods may be a strategy for achieving targets in CVD reduction.

  2. Human plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Jauhiainen, M.; Stevenson, K.J.; Dolphin, P.J.

    1988-05-15

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which catalyzes the transacylation of the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of lecithin to cholesterol forming lysolecithin and cholesteryl ester. The substrates for and products of this reaction are present within the plasma lipoproteins upon which the enzyme acts to form the majority of cholesteryl ester in human plasma. The authors proposed a covalent catalytic mechanism of action for LCAT in which serine and histidine residues mediate lecithin cleavage and two cysteine residues cholesterol esterification. With the aid of sulfhydryl reactive trivalent organoarsenical compounds which are specific for vicinal thiols they have probed the geometry of the catalytic site. They conclude that the two catalytic cysteine residues of LCAT (Cys/sup 31/ and Cys /sup 184/) are vicinal with a calculated distance between their sulfur atoms of 3.50-3.62 A. The additional residue alkylated by teh bifunctional reagent is within the catalytic site and may represent a previously identified catalytic serine or histidine residue.

  3. Non-HDL cholesterol is a good predictor of the risk of increased arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women in an urban Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Alvim, Rafael; Mourao, Carlos Alberto; Magalhães, Géssica Lopes; de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Krieger, José Eduardo; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease. Lipid profile impairment, especially hypercholesterolemia, is associated with stiffer blood vessels. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine which of the five circulating lipid components (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides) is the best predictor of increased arterial stiffness in an urban Brazilian population. METHODS: A random sample of 1,662 individuals from the general population of Vitoria, Brazil (25-64 years), was selected, and lipid components were measured using standard methods. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a non-invasive automatic device, and increased arterial stiffness was defined as a pulse wave velocity ≥10 m/s. RESULTS: In men, only total cholesterol (OR=1.59; CI=1.02 to 2.48, p=0.04) was associated with the risk of increased arterial stiffness. In women, HDL-C (OR=1.99; CI=1.18 to 3.35, p=0.01) and non-HDL-C (OR=1.61; CI=1.01 to 2.56, p=0.04) were good predictors of the risk of increased arterial stiffness. However, these associations were only found in postmenopausal women (OR=2.06; CI=1.00 to 4.26, p=0.05 for HDL-C and OR=1.83; CI=1.01 to 3.33, p=0.04 for non-HDL-C). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that both HDL-C and non-HDL-C are good predictors of the risk of increased arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women in an urban Brazilian population and may be useful tools for assessing the risk of arterial stiffness. PMID:28273234

  4. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  5. Lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in major depression and in depressed men with serious suicidal attempts: relationship with immune-inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; Smith, R; Christophe, A; Vandoolaeghe, E; Van Gastel, A; Neels, H; Demedts, P; Wauters, A; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Recently, there have been some reports that changes in serum lipid composition may be related to suicide, major depression and immune-inflammatory responses. Findings from our laboratory suggest that major depression is accompanied by reduced formation of cholesteryl esters and perhaps by impairment of reverse cholesterol transport. The latter is reportedly accompanied by lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The aim of this study was to examine whether (i) major depression is accompanied by lower serum HDL-C or by abnormal levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) or vitamin E, (ii) suicidal attempts are related to lower serum HDL-C and (iii) there are significant associations between serum HDL-C and immune/inflammatory markers. A total of 36 subjects with major depression, of whom 28 patients showed treatment resistance, as well as 28 normal control subjects, had blood sampled for the assay of the above lipids, serum zinc (Zn), albumin (Alb) and flow cytometric determination of the T-helper/T-suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio. In total, 28 depressed subjects had repeated measures of these variables both before and after treatment with antidepressants. Serum HDL-C and total cholesterol, as well as the HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, were significantly lower in subjects with major depression than in normal controls. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly lower in depressed men who had at some time made serious suicidal attempts than in those without such suicidal behaviour. Treatment with antidepressants for 5 weeks did not significantly alter either serum HDL-C or other lipid variables. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly and negatively correlated with the (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio, and positively correlated with serum Alb and Zn. These results suggest that (i) lower serum HDL-C levels are a marker for major depression and suicidal behaviour in depressed men, (ii) lower serum HDL-C levels are probably

  6. Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beer-Ljubić, B; Aladrović, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Majić-Balić, I; Milinković-Tur, S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality.

  7. WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase is associated with low plasma HDL-C levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenny C; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Kyttälä, Mira; Dastani, Zari; Cantor, Rita M; Sobel, Eric M; Plaisier, Christopher L; Engert, James C; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; Kane, John P; Malloy, Mary J; Pullinger, Clive R; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; de Bruin, Tjerk W A; Aouizerat, Bradley E; van der Kallen, Carla C J; Croce, Carlo M; Aqeilan, Rami I; Marcil, Michel; Viikari, Jorma S A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Genest, Jacques; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2008-08-01

    Low serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. We performed targeted genotyping of a 12.4 Mb linked region on 16q to test for association with low HDL-C by using a regional-tag SNP strategy. We identified one SNP, rs2548861, in the WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene with region-wide significance for low HDL-C in dyslipidemic families of Mexican and European descent and in low-HDL-C cases and controls of European descent (p = 6.9 x 10(-7)). We extended our investigation to the population level by using two independent unascertained population-based Finnish cohorts, the cross-sectional METSIM cohort of 4,463 males and the prospective Young Finns cohort of 2,265 subjects. The combined analysis provided p = 4 x 10(-4) to 2 x 10(-5). Importantly, in the prospective cohort, we observed a significant longitudinal association of rs2548861 with HDL-C levels obtained at four different time points over 21 years (p = 0.003), and the T risk allele explained 1.5% of the variance in HDL-C levels. The rs2548861 resides in a highly conserved region in intron 8 of WWOX. Results from our in vitro reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay demonstrate that this region functions as a cis-regulatory element whose associated rs2548861 SNP has a specific allelic effect and that the region forms an allele-specific DNA-nuclear-factor complex. In conclusion, analyses of 9,798 subjects show significant association between HDL-C and a WWOX variant with an allele-specific cis-regulatory function.

  8. LDL-apheresis depletes apoE-HDL and pre-β1-HDL in familial hypercholesterolemia: relevance to atheroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Orsoni, Alexina; Saheb, Samir; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje; Atassi, Marielle; Bittar, Randa; Robillard, Paul; Bruckert, Eric; Kontush, Anatol; Carrié, Alain; Chapman, M. John

    2011-01-01

    Subnormal HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo)AI levels are characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), reflecting perturbed intravascular metabolism with compositional anomalies in HDL particles, including apoE enrichment. Does LDL-apheresis, which reduces HDL-cholesterol, apoAI, and apoE by adsorption, induce selective changes in HDL subpopulations, with relevance to atheroprotection? Five HDL subpopulations were fractionated from pre- and post-LDL-apheresis plasmas of normotriglyceridemic FH subjects (n = 11) on regular LDL-apheresis (>2 years). Apheresis lowered both plasma apoE (−62%) and apoAI (−16%) levels, with preferential, genotype-independent reduction in apoE. The mass ratio of HDL2:HDL3 was lowered from ∼1:1 to 0.72:1 by apheresis, reflecting selective removal of HDL2 mass (80% of total HDL adsorbed). Pre-LDL-apheresis, HDL2 subpopulations were markedly enriched in apoE, consistent with ∼1 copy of apoE per 4 HDL particles. Large amounts (50-66%) of apoE-HDL were removed by apheresis, preferentially in the HDL2b subfraction (−50%); minor absolute amounts of apoE-HDL were removed from HDL3 subfractions. Furthermore, pre-β1-HDL particle levels were subnormal following removal (−53%) upon apheresis, suggesting that cellular cholesterol efflux may be defective in the immediate postapheresis period. In LDL-receptor (LDL-R) deficiency, LDL-apheresis may enhance flux through the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and equally attenuate potential biglycan-mediated deposition of apoE-HDL in the arterial matrix. PMID:21957200

  9. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = −0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = −0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age. PMID:27417608

  10. Postmenopausal Women Have Higher HDL and Decreased Incidence of Low HDL than Premenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria Luz; Murillo, Ana Gabriela

    2016-03-16

    It is well known that plasma lipids, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) increase following menopause. In addition, there is a perceived notion that plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also decrease in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated plasma lipids, fasting glucose, anthropometrics and BP in 88 post and 100 pre-menopausal women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. No differences were observed in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose or systolic and diastolic BP between groups. However, plasma HDL-C was higher (p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women and the percentage of women who had low HDL (<50 mg/dL) was higher (p < 0.01) among premenopausal women. In addition, negative correlations were found between WC and HDL-C (r = -0.148, p < 0.05) and BMI and HDL-C (r = -0.258, p < 0.01) for all subjects indicating that increases in weight and abdominal fat have a deleterious effect on plasma HDL-C. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma HDL-C (r = 0.237 p < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that although HDL is decreased by visceral fat and overall weight, low HDL is not a main characteristic of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Further, HDL appears to increase, not decrease, with age.

  11. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD) prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P < 0.001), hematocrit (P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and a negative significant association with reticulocytes (P = 0.046), leukocytes (P = 0.015), monocytes (P = 0.004) and platelets (P = 0.005), bilirubins [total bilirubin (P < 0.001), direct bilirubin (P < 0.001) and indirect bilirubin (P < 0.001], iron (P < 0.001), aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.004), alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.035)], lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0.030), alpha 1-antitrypsin (P < 0.001), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglycerides (P = 0.005) and hemoglobin S (P = 0.002). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was associated with the history of cardiac abnormalities (P = 0.025), pneumonia (P = 0.033) and blood transfusion use (P = 0.025). Lipids and inflammatory markers were associated with the presence of cholelithiasis. Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic

  12. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism and HDL lipid transfers are equally altered in metabolic syndrome and in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa M; Vinagre, Carmen G C; Dallan, Luis A O; Chacra, Ana P M; Maranhão, Raul C

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-rich emulsion labeled with [(3)H]-triolein ([(3)H]-TAG) and [(14)C]-cholesteryl esters ([(14)C]-CE) injected intravenously followed by one-hour blood sampling were determined. Lipid transfers from an artificial nanoemulsion donor to high-density lipoprotien (HDL) were assayed in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) were not different in T2DM (128 ± 7; 42 ± 7) and MetS (142 ± 6; 39 ± 3), but triacylglycerols were even higher in MetS (215 ± 13) than in T2DM (161 ±11, p < 0.05). Fractional clearance rate (FCR, in min(1)) of [(3)H]-TAG and [(14)C]-CE were equal in T2DM (0.008 ± 0.018; 0.005 ± 0.024) and MetS (0.010 ± 0.016; 0.006 ± 0.013), and both were reduced compared to controls. The transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, phospholipids and triacylglycerols to HDL was higher in MetS and T2DM than in controls (p < 0.01). Cholesteryl ester transfer and HDL size were equal in all groups. Results imply that MetS is equal to poorly controlled T2DM concerning the disturbances of plasma lipid metabolism examined here, and suggest that there are different thresholds for the insulin action on glucose and lipids. These findings highlight the magnitude of the lipid disturbances in MetS, and may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. HDL cholesterol quantitation by phosphotungstate-Mg2+ and by dextran sulfate-Mn2+-polyethylene glycol precipitation, both with enzymic cholesterol assay compared with the lipid research method.

    PubMed

    Warnick, G R; Mayfield, C; Benderson, J; Chen, J S; Albers, J J

    1982-11-01

    Two methods using commercial kits for high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol quantitation were compared with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) procedures. HDL cholesterol quantitations on 50 patient specimens by the Lancer HDL cholesterol Rapid Stat Kit (Lancer) with phosphotungstate-Mg2+ precipitation and enzymic cholesterol assay averaged 424 mg/L, and by a method with dextran sulfate-Mn2+-polyethylene glycol (dextran sulfate) precipitation and enzymic cholesterol assay averaged 474 mg/L. By comparison, the LRC method (heparin-Mn2+ precipitation combined with a Liebermann-Burchard reagent cholesterol assay) averaged 478 mg/L. Supernates obtained by the three precipitation methods had similar cholesterol values when analyzed by the LRC assay, suggesting that the observed differences were primarily due to differences between the cholesterol assays. Results were consistent with underestimation by the enzymic assay of cholesterol in the supernates, offset by a positive interference of Mn2+ in the dextran sulfate-produced supernates. Among-day CVs of 4-5% were observed for the Lancer method, and 6-7% for the dextran sulfate method. Sedimentation of precipitates in hypertriglyceridemic specimens was excellent by both methods.

  14. Using bioinformatics and systems genetics to dissect HDL-cholesterol genetics in an MRL/MpJ x SM/J intercross.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Magalie S; Blair, Rachael Hageman; Verdugo, Ricardo A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Walsh, Kenneth; Churchill, Gary A; Paigen, Beverly

    2012-06-01

    A higher incidence of coronary artery disease is associated with a lower level of HDL-cholesterol. We searched for genetic loci influencing HDL-cholesterol in F2 mice from a cross between MRL/MpJ and SM/J mice. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping revealed one significant HDL QTL (Apoa2 locus), four suggestive QTL on chromosomes 10, 11, 13, and 18 and four additional QTL on chromosomes 1 proximal, 3, 4, and 7 after adjusting HDL for the strong Apoa2 locus. A novel nonsynonymous polymorphism supports Lipg as the QTL gene for the chromosome 18 QTL, and a difference in Abca1 expression in liver tissue supports it as the QTL gene for the chromosome 4 QTL. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified a module that after adjustment for Apoa2, correlated with HDL, was genetically determined by a QTL on chromosome 11, and overlapped with the HDL QTL. A combination of bioinformatics tools and systems genetics helped identify several candidate genes for both the chromosome 11 HDL and module QTL based on differential expression between the parental strains, cis regulation of expression, and causality modeling. We conclude that integrating systems genetics to a more-traditional genetics approach improves the power of complex trait gene identification.

  15. HDL particle number and size as predictors of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kontush, Anatol

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that reduced concentrations of circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles can be superior to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Measurements of HDL particle numbers, therefore, bear a potential for the improved assessment of cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, such measurement can be relevant for the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches targeting HDL. Modern in-depth analyses of HDL particle profile may further improve evaluation of cardiovascular risk. Although clinical relevance of circulating concentrations of HDL subpopulations to cardiovascular disease remains controversial, the negative relationship between the number of large HDL particles and cardiovascular disease suggests that assessment of HDL particle profile can be clinically useful. Reduced mean HDL size is equally associated with cardiovascular disease in large-scale clinical studies. Since HDL-C is primarily carried in the circulation by large, lipid-rich HDL particles, the inverse relationship between HDL size and cardiovascular risk can be secondary to those established for plasma levels of HDL particles, HDL-C, and large HDL. The epidemiological data thereby suggest that HDL particle number may represent a more relevant therapeutic target as compared to HDL-C.

  16. Size, density and cholesterol load of HDL predict microangiopathy, coronary artery disease and β-cell function in men with T2DM.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michel P; Amoussou-Guenou, K Daniel; Bouenizabila, Evariste; Sadikot, Shaukat S; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2016-09-01

    The role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease is increasingly debated, notwithstanding the finding that small-dense and dysfunctional HDL are associated with the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. In order to better clarify the epidemiological risk related to HDL of different size/density, without resorting to direct measures, it would seem appropriate to adjust HDL-C to the level of its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I), thereby providing an [HDL-C/apoA-I] ratio. The latter allows not only to estimate an average size for HDLs, but also to derive indices on particle number, cholesterol load, and density. So far, the potential usefulness of this ratio in diabetes is barely addressed. To this end, we sorted 488 male patients with T2DM according to [HDL-C/apoA-I] quartiles (Q), to determine how the ratio relates to cardiometabolic risk, β-cell function, glycaemic control, and micro- and macrovascular complications. Five lipid parameters were derived from the combined determination of HDL-C and apoA-I, namely HDL size; particle number; cholesterol load/particle; apoA-I/particle; and particle density. An unfavorable cardiometabolic profile characterized patients from QI and QII, in which HDLs were pro-atherogenic, denser and apoA-I-depleted. By contrast, QIII patients had an [HDL-C/apoA-I] ratio close to that of non-diabetic controls. QIV patients had better than average HDL size and composition, and in those patients whose [HDL-C/apoA-I] ratio was above normal, a more favorable phenotype was observed regarding lifestyle, anthropometry, metabolic comorbidities, insulin sensitivity, MetS score/severity, glycaemic control, and target-organ damage pregalence in small or large vessels. In conclusion, [HDL-C/apoA-I] and the resulting indices of HDL composition and functionality predict macrovascular risk and β-cell function decline, as well as overall microangiopathic risk, suggesting that this ratio could serve

  17. Effects of curcumin on HDL functionality.

    PubMed

    Ganjali, Shiva; Blesso, Christopher N; Banach, Maciej; Pirro, Matteo; Majeed, Muhammed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-02-10

    Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol, is a yellow pigment of the Curcuma longa (turmeric) plant. Curcumin has many pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it has been found that curcumin affects lipid metabolism, and subsequently, may alleviate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent negative risk predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, numerous clinical and genetic studies have yielded disappointing results about the therapeutic benefit of raising plasma HDL-C levels. Therefore, research efforts are now focused on improving HDL functionality, independent of HDL-C levels. The quality of HDL particles can vary considerably due to heterogeneity in composition. Consistent with its complexity in composition and metabolism, a wide range of biological activities is reported for HDL, including antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-apoptotic and immune modulatory activities. Protective properties of curcumin may influence HDL functionality; therefore, we reviewed the literature to determine whether curcumin can augment HDL function. In this review, we concluded that curcumin may modulate markers of HDL function, such as apo-AI, CETP, LCAT, PON1, MPO activities and levels. Curcumin may subsequently improve conditions in which HDL is dysfunctional and may have potential as a therapeutic drug in future. Further clinical trials with bioavailability-improved formulations of curcumin are warranted to examine its effects on lipid metabolism and HDL function.

  18. Effect of dietary cholesterol and fat on cell cholesterol transfer to postprandial plasma in hyperlipidemic men.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Wayne H F; de Jong, Sylvia A; Walker, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    Postprandial chylomicrons are potent ultimate acceptors of cell membrane cholesterol and are believed to accelerate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We compared the effects of meals rich in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and either high (605 mg) or low (151 mg) in cholesterol and a meal rich in dairy fat (DF) in the form of cream on net in vitro transport of red blood cell (RBC) membrane cholesterol to 4 and 6 h postprandial plasma in eight normotriglyceridemic (NTG-H) and eight hypertriglyceridemic (HTG-H) men with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In HTG-H men, cell cholesterol accumulation in 6-h postprandial plasma was significantly (P = 0.02) less after the PUFA-HC meal compared with the other meals. The significant (P < 0.001) increase in cell plus endogenous cholesterol accumulation in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction of 4 h postprandial plasma incubated with RBC was significantly (P = 0.007) higher after the PUFA-HC meal compared with DF meal in HTG-H men. In NTG-H men, cholesterol accumulation in plasma and plasma lipoproteins in the presence and absence of RBC was not significantly affected by the type of meal ingested. These data suggest that addition of large amounts of cholesterol to a PUFA meal may impair diffusion-mediated transport of cell membrane cholesterol to postprandial plasma and that replacing DF with PUFA in a meal increases postprandial lipemia and may potentially increase cholesterol accumulation in atherogenic postprandial TRL in HTG-H men.

  19. Effect of ezetimibe on plasma cholesterol levels, cholesterol absorption, and secretion of biliary cholesterol in laboratory opossums with high and low responses to dietary cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeannie; Kushwaha, Rampratap S; Vandeberg, Jane F; Vandeberg, John L

    2008-12-01

    Partially inbred lines of laboratory opossums differ in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and cholesterol absorption on a high-cholesterol diet. The aim of the present studies was to determine whether ezetimibe inhibits cholesterol absorption and eliminates the differences in plasma cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol metabolism between high and low responders on a high-cholesterol diet. Initially, we determined that the optimum dose of ezetimibe was 5 mg/(kg d) and treated 6 high- and 6 low-responding opossums with this dose (with equal numbers of controls) for 3 weeks while the opossums consumed a high-cholesterol and low-fat diet. Plasma and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly (P < .05) in treated but not in untreated high-responding opossums. Plasma cholesterol concentrations increased slightly (P < .05) in untreated low responders but not in treated low responders. The percentage of cholesterol absorption was significantly higher in untreated high responders than in other groups. Livers from high responders with or without treatment were significantly (P < .01) heavier than livers from low responders with or without treatment. Hepatic cholesterol concentrations in untreated high responders were significantly (P < .05) higher than those in low responders with or without treatment (P < .001). The gall bladder bile cholesterol concentrations in untreated high responders were significantly (P < .05) lower than those in other groups. A decrease in biliary cholesterol in low responders treated with ezetimibe was associated with a decrease in hepatic expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8. These studies suggest that ezetimibe decreases plasma cholesterol levels in high responders mainly by decreasing cholesterol absorption and increasing biliary cholesterol concentrations. Because ezetimibe's target is NPC1L1 and NPC1L1 is expressed in the intestine of opossums, its effect on cholesterol absorption may be mediated

  20. Resolution of genetic and cultural inheritance in twin families by path analysis: application to HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    McGue, M; Rao, D C; Iselius, L; Russell, J M

    1985-01-01

    A path model and associated statistical method for the analysis of data on twin families are introduced and applied to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) observations in the Swedish Twin Family Study. The proposed path model incorporates both genetic and environmental sources of familial resemblance, maternal environmental effects, intergenerational differences in heritabilities, marital resemblance due to either primary or secondary phenotypic homogamy, and twin residual environmental correlations. Application of the model to HDL-c levels resulted in parameter estimates consistent with those reported in earlier reviews and in the analysis of nuclear family and twin data. Genetic heritability was estimated as h2 = .363 +/- .243, cultural heritability as c2 = .187 +/- .082, and the proportion of phenotypic variance due to residual environmental effects as r2 = .450 +/- .207. Although the parameter estimates were comparable, the statistical tests of hypotheses were, relative to other designs, of low statistical power. It appears that environmental indices are necessary for powerful tests of hypotheses. PMID:4050793

  1. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  2. HDL-C: does it matter? An update on novel HDL-directed pharmaco-therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Gadi, Ramprasad; Amanullah, Aman; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2013-08-10

    It has long been recognized that elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CHD) and that pharmacologic therapy to decrease LDL-C significantly reduces cardiovascular events. Despite the effectiveness of statins for CHD risk reduction, even optimal LDL-lowering therapy alone fails to avert 60% to 70% of CHD cases. A low plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is also associated with increased risk of CHD. However, the convincing epidemiologic data linking HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) to CHD risk in an inverse correlation has not yet translated into clinical trial evidence supporting linearity between HDL-C increases and CHD risk reduction. It is becoming clear that a functional HDL is a more desirable target than simply increasing HDL-C levels. Discoveries in the past decade have shed light on the complex metabolic and antiatherosclerotic pathways of HDL. These insights, in turn, have fueled the development of new HDL-targeted drugs, which can be classified according to four different therapeutic approaches: directly augmenting the concentration of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein constituent of HDL; indirectly augmenting the concentration of apo A-I and HDL cholesterol; mimicking the functionality of apo A-I and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. This review discusses the latest in novel HDL directed therapeutic strategies.

  3. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  4. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L.; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A.; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L.; Kruth, Howard S.; Adelman, Steven J.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(−/−)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-null [Lcat(−/−)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(−/−) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles. PMID:25964513

  5. Deficient Cholesterol Esterification in Plasma of apoc2 Knockout Zebrafish and Familial Chylomicronemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Gaudet, Daniel; Miller, Yury I.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type. Feeding apoc2 mutant zebrafish a low-fat diet reduced triglyceride levels but not the FC/CE ratio. In situ hybridization and qPCR results demonstrated that the hepatic expression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat), the enzyme responsible for esterifying plasma FC to CE, and of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of HDL, were dramatically decreased in apoc2 mutants. Furthermore, the FC/CE ratio was significantly increased in the whole plasma and in a chylomicron-depleted fraction of human FCS patients. The FCS plasma LCAT activity was significantly lower than that of healthy controls. In summary, this study, using a zebrafish model and human patient samples, reports for the first time the defect in plasma cholesterol esterification associated with LPL deficiency. PMID:28107429

  6. Emerging therapeutic strategies to enhance HDL function.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Santiago; Martínez-González, José; Urraca, Concha; Tejerina, Teresa

    2011-10-10

    Epidemiologic studies indicate a strong inverse correlation between plasma levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The most relevant cardioprotective mechanism mediated by HDL is thought to be reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). New insights in HDL biology and RCT have allowed the development of promising agents aimed to increase HDL function and promote atherosclerosis regression. In this regard, apo-AI analogs and CETP inhibitors dalcetrapib and anacetrapib have aroused a great interest and opened new expectations in the treatment of CVD.

  7. Enzymic determination of plasma cholesterol on discrete automatic analysers.

    PubMed

    Nobbs, B T; Smith, J M; Walker, A W

    1977-09-01

    Enzymic procedures for the determination of plasma cholesterol, using cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase, have been adapted to the Vickers D-300, Vickers M,-300, and Vitatron AKES discrete analysers. The results obtained by these methods have been compared to those obtained by manual and continuous flow Liebermann-Burchard methods. The enzymic methods were found to be accurate, precise and of adequate sensitivity.

  8. Anacetrapib and dalcetrapib differentially alters HDL metabolism and macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport at similar levels of CETP inhibition in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Thieblemont, Quentin; Muzotte, Elodie; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Sulpice, Thierry; Johns, Douglas G

    2014-10-05

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors dalcetrapib and anacetrapib differentially alter LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, which might be related to the potency of each drug to inhibit CETP activity. We evaluated the effects of both drugs at similar levels of CETP inhibition on macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamsters. In normolipidemic hamsters, both anacetrapib 30 mg/kg QD and dalcetrapib 200 mg/kg BID inhibited CETP activity by ~60%. After injection of 3H-cholesteryl oleate labeled HDL, anacetrapib and dalcetrapib reduced HDL-cholesteryl esters fractional catabolic rate (FCR) by 30% and 26% (both P<0.001 vs. vehicle) respectively, but only dalcetrapib increased HDL-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion by 30% (P<0.05 vs. vehicle). After 3H-cholesterol labeled macrophage intraperitoneal injection, anacetrapib stimulated 3H-tracer appearance in HDL, but both drugs did not promote macrophage-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion. In dyslipidemic hamsters, both anacetrapib 1 mg/kg QD and dalcetrapib 200 mg/kg BID inhibited CETP activity by ~65% and reduced HDL-cholesteryl ester FCR by 36% (both P<0.001 vs. vehicle), but only anacetrapib increased HDL-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion significantly by 39%. After 3H-cholesterol labeled macrophage injection, only anacetrapib 1 mg/kg QD stimulated macrophage-derived 3H-tracer appearance in HDL. These effects remained weaker than those observed with anacetrapib 60 mg/kg QD, which induced a maximal inhibition of CETP and stimulation of macrophage-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion. In contrast, dalcetrapib 200 mg/kg BID reduced macrophage-derived 3H-tracer fecal excretion by 23% (P<0.05 vs. vehicle). In conclusion, anacetrapib and dalcetrapib differentially alter HDL metabolism and RCT in hamsters. A stronger inhibition of CETP may be required to promote macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport in dyslipidemic hamsters.

  9. The plasma concentration of HDL-associated apoM is influenced by LDL receptor-mediated clearance of apoB-containing particles.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Christina; Benn, Marianne; Christensen, Pernille M; Gordts, Philip L S M; Roebroek, Anton J M; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Dahlbäck, Björn; Nielsen, Lars B

    2012-10-01

    ApoM is mainly associated with HDL. Nevertheless, we have consistently observed positive correlations of apoM with plasma LDL cholesterol in humans. Moreover, LDL receptor deficiency is associated with increased plasma apoM in mice. Here, we tested the idea that plasma apoM concentrations are affected by the rate of LDL receptor-mediated clearance of apoB-containing particles. We measured apoM in humans each carrying one of three different LDL receptor mutations (n = 9) or the apoB3500 mutation (n = 12). These carriers had increased plasma apoM (1.34 ± 0.13 µM, P = 0.003, and 1.23 ± 0.10 µM, P = 0.02, respectively) as compared with noncarriers (0.93 ± 0.04 µM). When we injected human apoM-containing HDL into Wt (n = 6) or LDL receptor-deficient mice (n = 6), the removal of HDL-associated human apoM was delayed in the LDL receptor-deficient mice. After 2 h, 54 ± 5% versus 90 ± 8% (P < 0.005) of the initial amounts of human apoM remained in the plasma of Wt and LDL receptor-deficient mice, respectively. Finally, we compared the turnover of radio-iodinated LDL and plasma apoM concentrations in 45 normocholesterolemic humans. There was a negative correlation between plasma apoM and the fractional catabolic rate of LDL (r = -0.38, P = 0.009). These data suggest that the plasma clearance of apoM, despite apoM primarily being associated with HDL, is influenced by LDL receptor-mediated clearance of apoB-containing particles.

  10. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P < .05), whereas the low-MUFA ground beef increased LDL density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  11. Therapeutic RNAi targeting PCSK9 acutely lowers plasma cholesterol in rodents and LDL cholesterol in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Frank-Kamenetsky, Maria; Grefhorst, Aldo; Anderson, Norma N; Racie, Timothy S; Bramlage, Birgit; Akinc, Akin; Butler, David; Charisse, Klaus; Dorkin, Robert; Fan, Yupeng; Gamba-Vitalo, Christina; Hadwiger, Philipp; Jayaraman, Muthusamy; John, Matthias; Jayaprakash, K Narayanannair; Maier, Martin; Nechev, Lubomir; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Read, Timothy; Röhl, Ingo; Soutschek, Jürgen; Tan, Pamela; Wong, Jamie; Wang, Gang; Zimmermann, Tracy; de Fougerolles, Antonin; Vornlocher, Hans-Peter; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Manoharan, Muthiah; Koteliansky, Victor; Horton, Jay D; Fitzgerald, Kevin

    2008-08-19

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels and function. Loss of PCSK9 increases LDLR levels in liver and reduces plasma LDL cholesterol (LDLc), whereas excess PCSK9 activity decreases liver LDLR levels and increases plasma LDLc. Here, we have developed active, cross-species, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) capable of targeting murine, rat, nonhuman primate (NHP), and human PCSK9. For in vivo studies, PCSK9 and control siRNAs were formulated in a lipidoid nanoparticle (LNP). Liver-specific siRNA silencing of PCSK9 in mice and rats reduced PCSK9 mRNA levels by 50-70%. The reduction in PCSK9 transcript was associated with up to a 60% reduction in plasma cholesterol concentrations. These effects were shown to be mediated by an RNAi mechanism, using 5'-RACE. In transgenic mice expressing human PCSK9, siRNAs silenced the human PCSK9 transcript by >70% and significantly reduced PCSK9 plasma protein levels. In NHP, a single dose of siRNA targeting PCSK9 resulted in a rapid, durable, and reversible lowering of plasma PCSK9, apolipoprotein B, and LDLc, without measurable effects on either HDL cholesterol (HDLc) or triglycerides (TGs). The effects of PCSK9 silencing lasted for 3 weeks after a single bolus i.v. administration. These results validate PCSK9 targeting with RNAi therapeutics as an approach to specifically lower LDLc, paving the way for the development of PCSK9-lowering agents as a future strategy for treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Is Positively Associated with Baseline Triglyceride Concentrations, and Changes in Intake Are Inversely Associated with Changes in HDL Cholesterol over 12 Months in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children123

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, Maria I; McKeown, Nicola M; Goodman, Elizabeth; Eliasziw, Misha; Chomitz, Virginia R; Gordon, Catherine M; Economos, Christina D; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to greater cardiometabolic risk in adults. Although longitudinal evidence is sparse among children, SSB intake reduction is targeted to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in this group. Objective: We investigated characteristics associated with consumption of SSBs in a multi-ethnic sample of children/adolescents and measured cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SSB intake and plasma HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) over 12 mo. Methods: In a diverse cohort of children aged 8–15 y, cross-sectional associations (n = 613) between baseline SSB intake and blood lipid concentrations and longitudinal associations (n = 380) between mean SSB intake, changes in SSB intake, and lipid changes over 12 mo were assessed with multivariable linear regression. Results: Greater SSB intake was associated with lower socioeconomic status, higher total energy intake, lower fruit/vegetable intake, and more sedentary time. In cross-sectional analysis, greater SSB intake was associated with higher plasma TG concentrations among consumers (62.4, 65.3, and 71.6 mg/dL in children who consumed >0 but <2, ≥2 but <7, and ≥7 servings/wk, respectively; P-trend: 0.03); plasma HDL cholesterol showed no cross-sectional association. In the longitudinal analysis, mean SSB intake over 12 mo was not associated with lipid changes; however, the 12-mo increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was greater among children who decreased their intake by ≥1 serving/wk (4.6 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared with children whose intake stayed the same (2.0 ± 0.8 mg/dL) or increased (1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P = 0.02). Conclusions: In a multi-ethnic sample of children, intake of SSBs was positively associated with TG concentrations among consumers, and changes in SSB intake were inversely associated with HDL cholesterol concentration changes over 12 mo. Further research in large diverse samples of children is needed to study the

  13. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Salto, Lorena M; Bu, Liming; Beeson, W Lawrence; Firek, Anthony; Cordero-MacIntyre, Zaida; De Leon, Marino

    2015-12-23

    The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele) had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele). Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes.

  14. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Salto, Lorena M.; Bu, Liming; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Firek, Anthony; Cordero-MacIntyre, Zaida; De Leon, Marino

    2015-01-01

    The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele) had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele). Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes. PMID:26703680

  15. HDL endocytosis and resecretion.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert

    2013-11-01

    HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers it to the liver and steroidogenic tissues via selective lipid uptake without catabolism of the HDL particle itself. In addition, endocytosis of HDL holo-particles has been debated for nearly 40years. However, neither the connection between HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake, nor the physiological relevance of HDL uptake has been delineated clearly. This review will focus on HDL endocytosis and resecretion and its relation to cholesterol transfer. We will discuss the role of HDL endocytosis in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in tissues and cell types involved in atherosclerosis, focusing on liver, macrophages and endothelium. We will critically summarize the current knowledge on the receptors mediating HDL endocytosis including SR-BI, F1-ATPase and CD36 and on intracellular HDL transport routes. Dependent on the tissue, HDL is either resecreted (retro-endocytosis) or degraded after endocytosis. Finally, findings on HDL transcytosis across the endothelial barrier will be summarized. We suggest that HDL endocytosis and resecretion is a rather redundant pathway under physiologic conditions. In case of disturbed lipid metabolism, however, HDL retro-endocytosis represents an alternative pathway that enables tissues to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

  16. Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  17. apo B gene knockout in mice results in embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube defects, male infertility, and reduced HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I transport rates in heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L S; Voyiaziakis, E; Markenson, D F; Sokol, K A; Hayek, T; Breslow, J L

    1995-01-01

    apo B is a structural constituent of several classes of lipoprotein particles, including chylomicrons, VLDL, and LDL. To better understand the role of apo B in the body, we have used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to create a null apo B allele in the mouse. Homozygous apo B deficiency led to embryonic lethality, with resorption of all embryos by gestational day 9. Heterozygotes showed an increased tendency to intrauterine death with some fetuses having incomplete neural tube closure and some live-born heterozygotes developing hydrocephalus. The majority of male heterozygotes were sterile, although the genitourinary system and sperm were grossly normal. Viable heterozygotes had normal triglycerides, but total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased by 37, 37, and 39%, respectively. Hepatic and intestinal apo B mRNA levels were decreased in heterozygotes, presumably contributing to the decreased LDL levels through decreased synthesis of apo B-containing lipoproteins. Kinetic studies indicated that heterozygotes had decreased transport rates of HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I. As liver and intestinal apo A-I mRNA levels were unchanged, the mechanism for decreased apo A-I transport must be posttranscriptional. Heterozygotes also had normal cholesterol absorption and a normal response of the plasma lipoprotein pattern to chronic consumption of a high fat, high cholesterol, Western-type diet. In summary, we report a mouse model for apo B deficiency with several phenotypic features that were unexpected based on clinical studies of apo B-deficient humans, such as embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube closure defects, male infertility, and a major defect in HDL production in heterozygotes. This model presents an opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic changes. Images PMID:7593600

  18. L-Carnitine effects on chemical composition of plasma lipoproteins of rabbits fed with normal and high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M; Lopez, F; Hernandez, F; Urbina, J A

    2000-06-01

    L-Carnitine plays an important role in the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids in mammals. It has recently been shown that this compound has a marked hypo-cholesterolemic effect when used in conjunction with lipid-rich diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipoproteins in rabbits fed with different diets. Four different groups were investigated: group I (standard diet), group II (standard diet supplemented with L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg), group III (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol), and group IV (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol plus L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg). The feeding period was 126 d. Total plasma cholesterol was indistinguishable in groups I and II, but increased nearly 40-fold in group III. This increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. Correspondingly, total cholesterol content in lipoprotein fractions [very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) separated by agarose gel chromatography was the same for groups I and II, while for animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet (III) total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL increased nearly 100-fold when compared with groups I and II but, again, the increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. In contrast, total cholesterol in HDL increased only fivefold for both groups III and IV when compared with groups I and II, indicating no effects of L-carnitine on this parameter. The reduction of total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL particles in animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet plus L-carnitine was associated with a marked decrease in the ratio of cholesteryl ester to free cholesterol and a dramatic increase in their phospholipid content; opposite effects were observed for HDL. L-Carnitine induced a marked decrease in the saturated to unsaturated C16 + C18 fatty acid ratio in cholesteryl esters associated with VLDL and LDL from animals fed with both normal and cholesterol

  19. Consuming Two Eggs per Day, as Compared to an Oatmeal Breakfast, Decreases Plasma Ghrelin while Maintaining the LDL/HDL Ratio.

    PubMed

    Missimer, Amanda; DiMarco, Diana M; Andersen, Catherine J; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-29

    Eggs contain high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, yet regular consumption is still met with uncertainty. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of consuming two eggs per day or a heart-healthy oatmeal breakfast on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and satiety measures in a young, healthy population. Fifty subjects participated in a randomized crossover clinical intervention; subjects were randomly allocated to consume either two eggs or one packet of oatmeal per day for breakfast for four weeks. After a three-week washout period, participants were allocated to the alternative breakfast. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each intervention period to assess plasma lipids and plasma ghrelin. Subjects completed visual analog scales (VAS) concurrent to dietary records to assess satiety and hunger. Along with an increase in cholesterol intake, there were significant increases in both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol following the egg consumption period (p < 0.01). However, there was no difference in the LDL/HDL ratio, a recognized biomarker of CVD risk, nor in the plasma glucose, triglycerides or liver enzymes, between diet periods. Several self-reported satiety measures were increased following the consumption of eggs, which were associated with lower plasma ghrelin concentrations (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that compared to an oatmeal breakfast, two eggs per day do not adversely affect the biomarkers associated with CVD risk, but increase satiety throughout the day in a young healthy population.

  20. Candidate genetic analysis of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and severity of coronary atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suet Nee; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Todd, Josh; Lombardi, Raffaella; Willerson, James T; Gotto, Antonio M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Marian, AJ

    2009-01-01

    Background Plasma level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), a heritable trait, is an important determinant of susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Non-synonymous and regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes implicated in HDL-C synthesis and metabolism are likely to influence plasma HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) levels and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods We genotyped 784 unrelated Caucasian individuals from two sets of populations (Lipoprotein and Coronary Atherosclerosis Study- LCAS, N = 333 and TexGen, N = 451) for 94 SNPs in 42 candidate genes by 5' nuclease assays. We tested the distribution of the phenotypes by the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. We used Box-Cox regression to analyze associations of the non-normally distributed phenotypes (plasma HDL-C and apo A-I levels) with the genotypes. We included sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cigarette smoking as covariates. We calculated the q values as indicators of the false positive discovery rate (FDR). Results Plasma HDL-C levels were associated with sex (higher in females), BMI (inversely), smoking (lower in smokers), DM (lower in those with DM) and SNPs in APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL and LIPC (each q ≤0.01). Likewise, plasma apo A-I levels, available in the LCAS subset, were associated with SNPs in CETP, APOA5, and APOC2 as well as with BMI, sex and age (all q values ≤0.03). The APOA5 variant S19W was also associated with minimal lumen diameter (MLD) of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, a quantitative index of severity of coronary atherosclerosis (q = 0.018); mean number of coronary artery occlusions (p = 0.034) at the baseline and progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as indicated by the loss of MLD. Conclusion Putatively functional variants of APOA2, APOA5, APOC2, CETP, LPL, LIPC and SOAT2 are independent genetic determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. The non-synonymous S19W SNP in APOA5 is also an independent determinant of plasma

  1. Plasma levels of HDL subpopulations and remnant lipoproteins predict the extent of angiographically defined disease in post-menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of coronary heart disease (CHD) with subpopulations of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is established in men, but has not been well characterized in women. Plasma HDL subpopulation concentrations, quantified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis...

  2. Knowledge-driven multi-locus analysis reveals gene-gene interactions influencing HDL cholesterol level in two independent EMR-linked biobanks.

    PubMed

    Turner, Stephen D; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James G; Peissig, Peggy L; Crawford, Dana C; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; McCarty, Catherine A; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Wilke, Russell A

    2011-05-11

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are routinely being used to examine the genetic contribution to complex human traits, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Although HDL-C levels are highly heritable (h(2)∼0.7), the genetic determinants identified through GWAS contribute to a small fraction of the variance in this trait. Reasons for this discrepancy may include rare variants, structural variants, gene-environment (GxE) interactions, and gene-gene (GxG) interactions. Clinical practice-based biobanks now allow investigators to address these challenges by conducting GWAS in the context of comprehensive electronic medical records (EMRs). Here we apply an EMR-based phenotyping approach, within the context of routine care, to replicate several known associations between HDL-C and previously characterized genetic variants: CETP (rs3764261, p = 1.22e-25), LIPC (rs11855284, p = 3.92e-14), LPL (rs12678919, p = 1.99e-7), and the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 locus (rs964184, p = 1.06e-5), all adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. By using a novel approach which censors data based on relevant co-morbidities and lipid modifying medications to construct a more rigorous HDL-C phenotype, we identified an association between HDL-C and TRIB1, a gene which previously resisted identification in studies with larger sample sizes. Through the application of additional analytical strategies incorporating biological knowledge, we further identified 11 significant GxG interaction models in our discovery cohort, 8 of which show evidence of replication in a second biobank cohort. The strongest predictive model included a pairwise interaction between LPL (which modulates the incorporation of triglyceride into HDL) and ABCA1 (which modulates the incorporation of free cholesterol into HDL). These results demonstrate that gene-gene interactions modulate complex human traits, including HDL cholesterol.

  3. Enzymatic analysis of total- and HDL-cholesterol: comparison with the standardized Liebermann-Burchard method used by the Lipid Research Clinics program.

    PubMed

    Bachorik, P S; Virgil, D G; Derby, C; Widman, D; McMahon, R; Fulwood, R P; Ezzati, T

    1988-06-15

    We compared two enzymatic cholesterol methods with the standardized chemical method used in the Lipid Research Clinic's (LRC) program. The methods were used to measure total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in heparin-MnCl2 supernatants of 1,812 sera collected over a 16-mth period from subjects who were sampled as part of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Thirty percent of the subjects had fasted for 12 h or more before venepuncture. The enzymatic total cholesterol values were 1.4-1.8% lower than the LRC method and both enzymatic methods correlated highly with the LRC method (r greater than 0.97). The enzymatic HDL cholesterol values were 2.4 and 6.4% higher than the LRC method, and the correlation between the enzymatic and LRC methods was greater than 0.93. The differences between the enzymatic and LRC methods were the same in samples from fasting and non-fasting subjects.

  4. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Bassi, C; Zanoni, P; Plancher, A C

    1991-12-31

    We examined total cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, high density lipoproteins- (HDL) cholesterolemia, apolipoproteins A1 and B, body mass index, albuminemia and alanine aminotransferase in 60 heroin addicts. After comparing 23 control subjects with the heroin addicts the result was that the latter have significantly lower mean values of total cholesterolemia and of HDL-cholesterolemia and higher values of triglyceridemia. They also have significantly higher prevalences of cases of hypocholesterolemia and of hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia. Within the addict group there is no linear correlation between total cholesterolemia and body mass index; there is, however, an inverse linear correlation between total cholesterolemia and alanine aminotransferase. Therefore, the alterations found in the lipid pattern of heroin addicts are not due to malnutrition but hypothetically to liver diseases which are frequent in these patients.

  5. The low-resolution structure of nHDL reconstituted with DMPC with and without cholesterol reveals a mechanism for particle expansion[S

    PubMed Central

    Gogonea, Valentin; Gerstenecker, Gary S.; Wu, Zhiping; Lee, Xavier; Topbas, Celalettin; Wagner, Matthew A.; Tallant, Thomas C.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Callow, Philip; Pipich, Vitaliy; Malet, Hélène; Schoehn, Guy; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation was used to obtain the low-resolution structure of nascent HDL (nHDL) reconstituted with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) in the absence and presence of cholesterol, [apoA1:DMPC (1:80, mol:mol) and apoA1:DMPC:cholesterol (1:86:9, mol:mol:mol)]. The overall shape of both particles is discoidal with the low-resolution structure of apoA1 visualized as an open, contorted, and out of plane conformation with three arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine without cholesterol (nHDLDMPC) and two arms in nascent HDL/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine with cholesterol (nHDLDMPC+Chol). The low-resolution shape of the lipid phase in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol were oblate ellipsoids, and fit well within their respective protein shapes. Modeling studies indicate that apoA1 is folded onto itself in nHDLDMPC, making a large hairpin, which was also confirmed independently by both cross-linking mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry analyses. In nHDLDMPC+Chol, the lipid was expanded and no hairpin was visible. Importantly, despite the overall discoidal shape of the whole particle in both nHDLDMPC and nHDLDMPC+Chol, an open conformation (i.e., not a closed belt) of apoA1 is observed. Collectively, these data show that full length apoA1 retains an open architecture that is dictated by its lipid cargo. The lipid is likely predominantly organized as a bilayer with a micelle domain between the open apoA1 arms. The apoA1 configuration observed suggests a mechanism for accommodating changing lipid cargo by quantized expansion of hairpin structures. PMID:23349207

  6. Short-term administration of tall oil phytosterols improves plasma lipid profiles in subjects with different cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, P J; Howell, T; MacDougall, D E; Feng, J Y; Parsons, W

    1998-06-01

    To assess the short-term cholesterol-lowering potential of sitostanol-containing tall oil plant sterols, 22 subjects consumed fixed-food diets over two 10-day periods with or without 21.2 mg/kg body weight/d tall oil phytosterols (sitosterol 62%, sitostanol 21%, campesterol 16%, and campestanol 1%) in a randomized crossover study design. On day 10 of each diet, plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels, plasma phytosterol concentrations, and cholesterol biosynthesis rates were determined. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were lower (P < .01) after administration of tall oil phytosterol (4.7 +/- 0.3 and 3.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively) versus placebo (5.0 +/- 0.3 and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively). Tall oil treatment had no effect on the plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) versus placebo (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L). Similarly, plasma triglyceride (TG) levels did not differ between tall oil (1.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) and placebo (1.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) treatments. Plasma campesterol (15.8 +/- 3.7 mmol/mol cholesterol) and sitosterol (6.0 +/- 2.1 mmol/mol cholesterol) levels were not different after tall oil treatment versus placebo treatment (15.4 +/- 2.3 and 6.4 +/- 2.0 mmol/mol cholesterol, respectively). Plasma sitostanol levels were essentially undetectable. No difference was observed in cholesterol biosynthesis between tall oil (0.045 +/- 0.004 pools/d) and placebo (0.034 +/- 0.004 pools/d) treatments; however, the effect of treatments in subjects with different cholesterol levels varied. In subjects with lower cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) increased from 0.0291 +/- 0.0054 pools/d after placebo to 0.0509 +/- 0.0049 pools/d (P < .05) after phytosterol treatment. In subjects with higher cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol FSR did not change significantly after treatment. These results demonstrate the short-term efficacy of tall

  7. HDL-Targeting Therapeutics: Past, Present And Future.

    PubMed

    Zakiev, Emile; Feng, Ma; Sukhorukov, Vasily; Kontush, Anatol

    2016-10-27

    Large-scale epidemiological studies firmly established the association between low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship is thought to reflect the key biological function of HDL, which involves reverse cholesterol transport from the arterial wall to the liver for further excretion from the body. Other aspects of the cardioprotective HDL functionality include antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic, vasodilatory, anti-infectious and anti-diabetic activities. Over the last decades, wide interest in HDL as an athero- and cardioprotective particle has resulted in the development of HDL-C raising as a therapeutic approach to reduce cardiovascular risk. Several strategies to increase circulating HDL-C concentrations were developed that primarily included use of niacin and fibrates as potent HDL-C raising agents. In the statin era, inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, infusion of artificially reconstituted HDL and administration of apolipoprotein A-I mimetics were established as other approaches to raise HDL-C. More recently, novel strategies targeting HDL metabolism, such as upregulation of apolipoprotein A-I production by the liver, were added to the list of HDL therapeutics. This review summarises current knowledge of HDL-targeting therapies and discusses perspectives of their use.

  8. Apolipoproteins and HDL cholesterol do not associate with the risk of future dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the National Finnish population study (FINRISK).

    PubMed

    Tynkkynen, Juho; Hernesniemi, Jussi A; Laatikainen, Tiina; Havulinna, Aki S; Sundvall, Jouko; Leiviskä, Jaana; Salo, Perttu; Salomaa, Veikko

    2016-12-01

    Data on associations of apolipoproteins A-I and B (apo A-I, apo B) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are conflicting. Our aim was to examine, whether apo B, apoA-I, their ratio, or HDL-C are significant, independent predictors of incident dementia and AD in the general population free of dementia at baseline. We analyzed the results from two Finnish prospective population-based cohort studies in a total of 13,275 subjects aged 25 to 74 years with mainly Caucasian ethnicity. The follow-up time for both cohorts was 10 years. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate hazard ratios (HR) for incident dementia (including AD) (n = 220) and for AD (n = 154). Cumulative incidence function (CIF) analysis was also performed to adjust the results for competing risks of death. Adjusted for multiple dementia and AD risk factors, log-transformed apo A-I, log HDL-C, log apo B, and log apo B/A-I ratio were not associated with incident dementia or AD. HDL-C was inversely associated with AD risk when adjusted for competing risks but no other statistically significant associations were observed in the CIF analyses. Apo A-I, HDL-C, apo B, or apo B/A-I ratio were not associated with future dementia or AD. HDL-C was inversely associated with incident AD risk when adjusted for competing risks of death, but the finding is unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Our study does not support the use of these risk markers to predict incident dementia or AD.

  9. Localization of genes for V+LDL plasma cholesterol levels on two diets in the opossum Monodelphis domestica[S

    PubMed Central

    Kammerer, Candace M.; Rainwater, David L.; Gouin, Nicolas; Jasti, Madhuri; Douglas, Kory C.; Dressen, Amy S.; Ganta, Prasanth; VandeBerg, John L.; Samollow, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol levels among individuals vary considerably in response to diet. However, the genes that influence this response are largely unknown. Non-HDL (V+LDL) cholesterol levels vary dramatically among gray, short-tailed opossums fed an atherogenic diet, and we previously reported that two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influenced V+LDL cholesterol on two diets. We used hypothesis-free, genome-wide linkage analyses on data from 325 pedigreed opossums and located one QTL for V+LDL cholesterol on the basal diet on opossum chromosome 1q [logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 3.11, genomic P = 0.019] and another QTL for V+LDL on the atherogenic diet (i.e., high levels of cholesterol and fat) on chromosome 8 (LOD = 9.88, genomic P = 5 × 10−9). We then employed a novel strategy involving combined analyses of genomic resources, expression analysis, sequencing, and genotyping to identify candidate genes for the chromosome 8 QTL. A polymorphism in ABCB4 was strongly associated (P = 9 × 10−14) with the plasma V+LDL cholesterol concentrations on the high-cholesterol, high-fat diet. The results of this study indicate that genetic variation in ABCB4, or closely linked genes, is responsible for the dramatic differences among opossums in their V+LDL cholesterol response to an atherogenic diet. PMID:20650928

  10. Localization of genes for V+LDL plasma cholesterol levels on two diets in the opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Candace M; Rainwater, David L; Gouin, Nicolas; Jasti, Madhuri; Douglas, Kory C; Dressen, Amy S; Ganta, Prasanth; Vandeberg, John L; Samollow, Paul B

    2010-10-01

    Plasma cholesterol levels among individuals vary considerably in response to diet. However, the genes that influence this response are largely unknown. Non-HDL (V+LDL) cholesterol levels vary dramatically among gray, short-tailed opossums fed an atherogenic diet, and we previously reported that two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influenced V+LDL cholesterol on two diets. We used hypothesis-free, genome-wide linkage analyses on data from 325 pedigreed opossums and located one QTL for V+LDL cholesterol on the basal diet on opossum chromosome 1q [logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 3.11, genomic P = 0.019] and another QTL for V+LDL on the atherogenic diet (i.e., high levels of cholesterol and fat) on chromosome 8 (LOD = 9.88, genomic P = 5 x 10(-9)). We then employed a novel strategy involving combined analyses of genomic resources, expression analysis, sequencing, and genotyping to identify candidate genes for the chromosome 8 QTL. A polymorphism in ABCB4 was strongly associated (P = 9 x 10(-14)) with the plasma V+LDL cholesterol concentrations on the high-cholesterol, high-fat diet. The results of this study indicate that genetic variation in ABCB4, or closely linked genes, is responsible for the dramatic differences among opossums in their V+LDL cholesterol response to an atherogenic diet.

  11. Kinetics of lipids, apolipoproteins, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma after a bicycle marathon.

    PubMed

    Föger, B; Wohlfarter, T; Ritsch, A; Lechleitner, M; Miller, C H; Dienstl, A; Patsch, J R

    1994-05-01

    The short-term effects of prolonged intense exercise on plasma lipid transport parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its subfractions HDL2 cholesterol and HDL3 cholesterol, on apolipoproteins (apos) A-I, A-II, and B, and on mass and activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) were studied in eight male endurance-trained athletes over the first week after a bicycle marathon. CETP mass concentration in plasma was quantified by a newly developed immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, TGs, LDL cholesterol, apo B, CETP, and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) were significantly reduced in the recovery period compared with pre-exercise values (cholesterol by 20%, P < .05; TGs by 63%, P < .05; LDL cholesterol by 32%, P < .05; apo B by 18%, P < .05; CETP mass by 29%, P < .05; and CETA by 14%, P < .05). HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol, in contrast, were significantly increased in the post-exercise period (HDL cholesterol by 12%, P < .05, and HDL2 cholesterol by 96%, P < .05), whereas HDL3 cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease in the late recovery period (by 8%, NS). Although changes in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and CETP mass and activity were already evident in the early recovery period, HDL2 cholesterol showed a delayed response, reaching its maximum 72 hours after initiation of exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Why Targeting HDL Should Work as a Therapeutic Tool, but Hasn’t

    PubMed Central

    Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Thomas, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of death and disability in US today despite the availability of statins which reduce hyperlipidemia, a risk factor that predisposes individuals to this disease. Epidemiology of human populations has overwhelmingly demonstrated an inverse correlation between the concentration of plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decades of observations and mechanistic studies suggest that one protective function of HDL is its central role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In this pathway the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) releases intracellular cholesterol, which is packaged by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) into nascent HDL (nHDL) particles and released from the plasma membrane. Further lipidation and maturation of HDL occurs in plasma with the eventual uptake by the liver where cholesterol is removed. It is generally accepted that CVD risk can be reduced if plasma HDL-C levels are elevated. Several different pharmacological approaches have been tried, the most popular approach targets the movement of cholesteryl ester from HDL to triglyceride rich particles by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). Inhibition of CETP increases plasma HDL-C concentration, however, beneficial effects have yet to be demonstrated, likely the result of off-target effects. These revelations have led to a reevaluation of how elevating HDL concentration could decrease risk. A recent, landmark study showed that the inherent cholesterol efflux capacity of an individual’s plasma was a better predictor of CVD status than overall HDL-C concentration. Even more provocative are recent studies showing that apoA-I, the principle protein component of HDL, functions as a modulator of cellular inflammation and oxidation. The following will review all of these potential routes explaining how HDL apoA-I can reduce the risk of CVD. PMID:23743767

  13. A big role for small RNAs in HDL homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Mireille; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins play a central role in systemic cholesterol homeostasis by stimulating the efflux of excess cellular cholesterol and transporting it to the liver for biliary excretion. HDL has long been touted as the “good cholesterol” because of the strong inverse correlation of plasma HDL cholesterol levels with coronary heart disease. However, the disappointing outcomes of recent clinical trials involving therapeutic elevations of HDL cholesterol have called this moniker into question and revealed our lack of understanding of this complex lipoprotein. At the same time, the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate HDL biogenesis and function have led to a surge in our understanding of the posttranscriptional mechanisms regulating plasma levels of HDL. Furthermore, HDL has recently been shown to selectively transport miRNAs and thereby facilitate cellular communication by shuttling these potent gene regulators to distal tissues. Finally, that miRNA cargo carried by HDL may be altered during disease states further broadened our perspective of how this lipoprotein can have complex effects on target cells and tissues. The unraveling of how these tiny RNAs govern HDL metabolism and contribute to its actions promises to reveal new therapeutic strategies to optimize cardiovascular health. PMID:23509405

  14. HDL and Atherosclerosis Regression: Evidence from Pre-clinical and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feig, Jonathan E.; Hewing, Bernd; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    High density lipoprotein particles (HDL) transport, among other molecules, cholesterol (HDL-C). In epidemiologic studies, plasma HDL-C levels have an inverse relationship to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). It has been assumed that this reflects the protective functions of HDL, which include their ability to promote cholesterol efflux. Yet, a number of recent pharmacological and genetic studies have failed to demonstrate that increased plasma levels of HDL-C resulted in decreased CVD risk, giving rise to a controversy over whether plasma levels of HDL-C reflect HDL function, or that HDL is even as protective as assumed. On balance, the evidence from pre-clinical and (limited) clinical studies show that HDL can promote the regression of atherosclerosis when the levels of functional particles are increased from endogenous or exogenous sources. The data show that regression results from a combination of reduced plaque lipid and macrophage contents, as well as from a reduction in its inflammatory state. While more research will be needed on basic mechanisms and to establish that these changes translate clinically to reduced CVD events, that HDL can regress plaques suggests that the recent trial failures do not eliminate HDL from consideration as an atheroprotective agent, but emphasizes the important distinction between HDL function and plasma levels of HDL-C. PMID:24385513

  15. HDL cholesterol and risk of diabetic nephropathy in patient with type 1 diabetes: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhi, Yunqing; Li, Chengqian; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Lifang; Wang, Yangang; Che, Kui

    2016-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the impact of HDL on risk of diabetic nephropathy in T1DM patients. Ten papers containing (7698) participants were included in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis suggest that the risk of diabetic nephropathy was decreased with HDL in type 1 diabetes.

  16. A plant stanol yogurt drink alone or combined with a low-dose statin lowers serum triacylglycerol and non-HDL cholesterol in metabolic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Plat, Jogchum; Brufau, Gemma; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Dasselaar, Margreet; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of 2 commonly available strategies (plant stanol ester drink and 10 mg simvastatin) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk variables in participants with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome patients are at increased risk to develop CHD, partly due to high triacylglycerol (TAG) and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and a low-grade inflammatory profile. Effects of plant stanol esters on TAG concentrations in these participants are unknown. After a 3-wk run-in period in which individuals consumed placebo yogurt drinks and placebo capsules, participants were randomly divided into 4 groups: placebo (n = 9), simvastatin + placebo drink (n = 10), placebo + stanol drink (n = 9), and simvastatin + stanol drink (n = 8). After 9 wk, we evaluated the effects on serum lipids, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction markers. In metabolic syndrome patients, stanol esters (2.0 g/d), simvastatin, or the combination lowered non-HDL-C by 12.8% (P = 0.011), 30.7% (P < 0.001), and 35.4% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with placebo. TAG were lowered by 27.5% (P = 0.044), 21.7% (P = 0.034), and 32.7% (P < 0.01), respectively. The total-:HDL-C ratio was significantly lowered in all 3 intervention groups. We found no treatment effects on the apolipoprotein CII:CIII ratio, cholesterol ester transfer protein mass, FFA concentrations, and markers for low-grade inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. This study shows that in metabolic syndrome patients, plant stanol esters lower not only non-HDL-C, but also TAG. Effects on TAG were also present in combination with statin treatment, illustrating an additional benefit of stanol esters in this CHD risk population.

  17. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-07-15

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 x 10(-11)) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.

  18. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  19. Substitution of whole cows' milk with defatted milk for 4 months reduced serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB in a sample of Mexican school-age children (6-16 years of age).

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Lara Zamudio, Yaveth; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Manzano, Alejandra Contreras; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2015-09-14

    We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR.

  20. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  1. Low HDL cholesterol as a cardiovascular risk factor in rural, urban, and rural-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Porras, María; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H.; Acuña-Villaorduña, Ana; Cardenas-Montero, Deborah; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whilst the relationship between lipids and cardiovascular mortality has been well studied and appears to be controversial, very little has been explored in the context of rural-to-urban migration in low-resource settings. Objective Determine the profile and related factors for HDL-c patterns (isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c) in three population-based groups according to their migration status, and determine the effect of HDL-c patterns on the rates of cardiovascular outcomes (i.e. non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction) and mortality. Methods Cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal data from the PERU MIGRANT study, designed to assess the effect of migration on cardiovascular risk profiles and mortality in Peru. Two different analyses were performed: first, we estimated prevalence and associated factors with isolated and non-isolated low HDL-c at baseline. Second, using longitudinal information, relative risk ratios (RRR) of composite outcomes of mortality, non-fatal stroke and non-fatal myocardial infarction were calculated according to HDL-c levels at baseline. Results Data from 988 participants, rural (n = 201), rural-to-urban migrants (n = 589), and urban (n = 199) groups, was analysed. Low HDL-c was present in 56.5% (95%CI: 53.4%–59.6%) without differences by study groups. Isolated low HDL-c was found in 36.5% (95%CI: 33.5–39.5%), with differences between study groups. In multivariable analysis, urban group (vs. rural), female gender, overweight and obesity were independently associated with isolated low HDL-c. Only female gender, overweight and obesity were associated with non-isolated low HDL-c. Longitudinal analyses showed that non-isolated low HDL-c increased the risk of negative cardiovascular outcomes (RRR = 3.46; 95%CI: 1.23–9.74). Conclusions Isolated low HDL-c was the most common dyslipidaemia in the study population and was more frequent in rural subjects. Non-isolated low HDL-c increased three-to fourfold

  2. The Interpretation of Cholesterol Balance Derived Synthesis Data and Surrogate Noncholesterol Plasma Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis under Lipid Lowering Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Stellaard, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath) as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin. Cholesterol balance derived synthesis data increase during both therapies. We hypothesize the following. (1) The cholesterol balance data must be applied to the hepatobiliary cholesterol pool. (2) The calculated cholesterol synthesis value is the sum of hepatic de novo synthesis and the net plasma—liver cholesterol exchange rate. (3) The reduced rate of biliary cholesterol absorption is the major trigger for the regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism under ezetimibe treatment. Supportive experimental and literature data are presented that describe changes of cholesterol fluxes under ezetimibe, statin, and combined treatments in omnivores and vegans, link plasma R_Lath to liver function, and define hepatic de novo synthesis as target for regulation of synthesis. An ezetimibe dependent direct hepatic drug effect cannot be excluded. PMID:28321334

  3. Nicotinic Acid Accelerates HDL Cholesteryl Ester Turnover in Obese Insulin-Resistant Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Le Bloc'h, Jérôme; Leray, Véronique; Nazih, Hassan; Gauthier, Olivier; Serisier, Samuel; Magot, Thierry; Krempf, Michel; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2015-01-01

    Aim Nicotinic acid (NA) treatment decreases plasma triglycerides and increases HDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms involved in these change are not fully understood. A reduction in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity has been advanced to explain most lipid-modulating effects of NA. However, due to the central role of CETP in reverse cholesterol transport in humans, other effects of NA may have been hidden. As dogs have no CETP activity, we conducted this study to examine the specific effects of extended-release niacin (NA) on lipids and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester (CE) turnover in obese Insulin-Resistant dogs with increase plasma triglycerides. Methods HDL kinetics were assessed in fasting dogs before and four weeks after NA treatment through endogenous labeling of cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI by simultaneous infusion of [1,2 13C2] acetate and [5,5,5 2H3] leucine for 8 h. Kinetic data were analyzed by compartmental modeling. In vitro cell cholesterol efflux of serum from NA-treated dogs was also measured. Results NA reduced plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein TG concentrations (p < 0.05). The kinetic study also showed a higher cholesterol esterification rate (p < 0.05). HDL-CE turnover was accelerated (p < 0.05) via HDL removal through endocytosis and selective CE uptake (p < 0.05). We measured an elevated in vitro cell cholesterol efflux (p < 0.05) with NA treatment in accordance with a higher cholesterol esterification. Conclusion NA decreased HDL cholesterol but promoted cholesterol efflux and esterification, leading to improved reverse cholesterol transport. These results highlight the CETP-independent effects of NA in changes of plasma lipid profile. PMID:26366727

  4. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  5. Consuming Two Eggs per Day, as Compared to an Oatmeal Breakfast, Decreases Plasma Ghrelin while Maintaining the LDL/HDL Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Missimer, Amanda; DiMarco, Diana M.; Andersen, Catherine J.; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-01

    Eggs contain high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, yet regular consumption is still met with uncertainty. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of consuming two eggs per day or a heart-healthy oatmeal breakfast on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and satiety measures in a young, healthy population. Fifty subjects participated in a randomized crossover clinical intervention; subjects were randomly allocated to consume either two eggs or one packet of oatmeal per day for breakfast for four weeks. After a three-week washout period, participants were allocated to the alternative breakfast. Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each intervention period to assess plasma lipids and plasma ghrelin. Subjects completed visual analog scales (VAS) concurrent to dietary records to assess satiety and hunger. Along with an increase in cholesterol intake, there were significant increases in both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol following the egg consumption period (p < 0.01). However, there was no difference in the LDL/HDL ratio, a recognized biomarker of CVD risk, nor in the plasma glucose, triglycerides or liver enzymes, between diet periods. Several self-reported satiety measures were increased following the consumption of eggs, which were associated with lower plasma ghrelin concentrations (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that compared to an oatmeal breakfast, two eggs per day do not adversely affect the biomarkers associated with CVD risk, but increase satiety throughout the day in a young healthy population. PMID:28146063

  6. Improvements in cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels in youths during the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Frank, E; Winkleby, M; Fortmann, S P; Rockhill, B; Farquhar, J W

    1993-01-01

    This article examines cholesterol-related knowledge, cholesterol-related behaviors, and plasma cholesterol levels in 12-24-year-olds, using data collected from four community-based cross-sectional surveys conducted 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990. Participants included 1,552 individuals from randomly sampled households in two control cities (San Luis Obispo and Modesto, California) of the Stanford Five-City Project. Over the eleven-year study period, cholesterol-related knowledge improved in both control cities (P < .0002). Cholesterol-related behavior (P < .0003) and plasma cholesterol levels (P < .002) significantly improved only in San Luis Obispo (a college city with more 19-24-year-olds and a better-educated population than Modesto). In general, knowledge and behavior scores and plasma cholesterol levels were lower in these 12-24-year-olds than in 25-74-year-olds, although trends at all ages were similar over time and by demographic variables. Although the cholesterol-related interventions that began in the mid-1980s primarily targeted adults, these 12-24-year-olds' cholesterol-related knowledge improved (as did, to a lesser extent, their cholesterol-related behavior and plasma cholesterol levels). These findings have implications for upcoming youth-related cholesterol interventions.

  7. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bundy, Rafe; Walker, Ann F; Middleton, Richard W; Wallis, Carol; Simpson, Hugh C R

    2008-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the chief causes of death in the UK, and are associated with high circulating levels of total cholesterol in the plasma. Artichoke leaf extracts (ALEs) have been reported to reduce plasma lipids levels, including total cholesterol, although high quality data is lacking. The objective of this trial was to assess the effect of ALE on plasma lipid levels and general well-being in otherwise healthy adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. 131 adults were screened for total plasma cholesterol in the range 6.0-8.0 mmol/l, with 75 suitable volunteers randomised onto the trial. Volunteers consumed 1280 mg of a standardised ALE, or matched placebo, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in the treatment group by an average of 4.2% (from 7.16 (SD 0.62) mmol/l to 6.86 (SD 0.68) mmol/l) and increased in the control group by an average of 1.9% (6.90 (SD 0.49) mmol/l to 7.03 (0.61) mmol/l), the difference between groups being statistically significant (p=0.025). No significant differences between groups were observed for LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. General well-being improved significantly in both the treatment (11%) and control groups (9%) with no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, ALE consumption resulted in a modest but favourable statistically significant difference in total cholesterol after 12 weeks. In comparison with a previous trial, it is suggested that the apparent positive health status of the study population may have contributed to the modesty of the observed response.

  8. [Effect of the DiabetIMSS program on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure and HDL cholesterol in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Montes-Acuña, Juan Felipe; Zavala-Cruz, Gad Gamed; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Ramírez-Arreola, María Cleofas; Andrade-Rodríguez, Héctor Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del programa DiabetIMSS sobre el riesgo cardiovascular, la tensión arterial y colesterol-HDL en pacientes con síndrome metabólico. Métodos: estudio de intervención cuasiexperimental. Muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se incluyeron 35 sujetos que participaron en la estrategia educativa de un año de duración. Se recolectaron las siguientes variables: edad, género, tabaquismo, colesterol total, HDL, TA sistólica y diastólica; se calculó el riesgo cardiovascular con calculadora basada en Framingham. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva con porcentajes e inferencial con t de Student. Resultados: hubo una elevación de la proporción de sujetos que incrementaron sus cifras del colesterol-HDL posterior a la intervención, generando, por ende, un incremento del factor protector (p < 0.05). En razón de las cifras tensionales, se presentó una mejoría notable en todos los rangos de presión arterial (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: la estrategia educativa para el control del paciente diabético presentó un comportamiento favorable en el colesterol-HDL y tensión arterial, disminuyendo el riesgo cardiovascular de los pacientes.

  9. HDL Cholesterol Level Is Associated with Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing PCI

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Chan Joon; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Jang, Sung Won; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Pum-Joon; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Chang, Kiyuk; Jin, Dong Chan; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study included 1592 CKD patients extracted from a prospective multicenter, all comer-based registry of patients undergoing PCI. In multivariate logistic analysis for CI-AKI development, a significant linear trend was observed between the quartiles of HDL-C (quartile 1 vs. 2: odds ratio [OR], 0.716; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.421–1.219; quartile 1 vs. 3: OR, 0.534; 95% CI, 0.301–0.947; quartile 1 vs. 4: OR, 0.173; 95% CI, 0.079–0.377; P for trend < 0.001). HDL-C quartiles were also negatively correlated with the incidence of CI-AKI; 19.0%, 12.1%, 8.7%, and 3.7% for quartile 1(Q1) (<34 mg/dL), Q2 (34–40 mg/dL), Q3 (40–48 mg/dL), and Q4 (>48 mg/dL) respectively (P < 0.001 overall and for the trend). Multivariate Cox regression analysis for the long term mortality, the highest HDL-C quartile was associated with decreased mortality compared with the lowest HDL-C quartile (hazard ratio [HR] 0.516, 95% CI, 0.320–0.832, P = 0.007). Our study suggests more intensive strategies should be considered for preventing CI-AKI in CKD patients with low serum HDL-C level who is planned for PCI. PMID:27775043

  10. Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Tatsuro; Choi, Sungshin; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rubin, Edward M.; Cooper, Allen D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2003-01-30

    For the past three decades, epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD). Population-based studies have provided compelling evidence that low HDL-C levels are a risk factor for CHD, and several clinical interventions that increased plasma levels of HDL-C were associated with a reduction in CHD risk. These findings have stimulated extensive investigation into the determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. Turnover studies using radiolabeled apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein component of HDL, suggest that plasma HDL-C concentrations are highly correlated with the rate of clearance of apolipoprotein AI. However, the metabolic mechanisms by which HDL are catabolized have not been fully defined. Previous studies in humans with genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and in mice lacking the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), have demonstrated that these proteins participate in the removal of cholesterol from HDL, while observations in individuals with mutations in hepatic lipase indicate that this enzyme hydrolyzes HDL triglycerides. In this issue of the JCI, reports from laboratories of Tom Quertermous and Dan Rader now indicate that endothelial lipase (LIPG), a newly identified member of the lipase family, catalyzes the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids and facilitates the clearance of HDL from the circulation. Endothelial lipase was initially cloned by both of these laboratories using entirely different strategies. Quertermous and his colleagues identified endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergoing tube formation, whereas the Rader group cloned endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 exposed to oxidized LDL. Database searches revealed that endothelial lipase shows strong sequence similarity to lipoprotein

  11. Predictive value of chemotherapy-related high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) elevation in patients with colorectal cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: an exploratory analysis of 851 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng-hua; Lei, Xue-fen; Yan, Shu-mei; Wang, De-shen; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Rui-hua; Wang, Ling-yun; Li, Yu-hong

    2016-01-01

    Background The phenomenon of chemotherapy-related lipid alterations has been reported based on a small number of patients and varies among different cancers. However, little is known about these alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Results Patients in cohort 1, but not in cohort 2, exhibited significantly increased cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, and ApoA-I levels, and decreased LDL-C and ApoB levels after adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with chemotherapy-related HDL-C elevation exhibited better 3-year DFS (84.5% vs. 73%, P = 0.001) and 7-year OS (82% vs. 70%, P = 0.002) than those without. Similarly, the 3-year DFS (83.3% vs. 77.6%, P = 0.008) and 7-year OS (81% vs. 74.6%, P = 0.040) were superior in chemotherapy-related ApoA-I elevation patients. However, only HDL-C elevation remained an independent prognostic value in the multivariate Cox model. Methods Eight hundred fifty-one CRC patients with curative-intent resection were retrospectively analyzed. Six hundred sixty-seven receiving fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy for more than 3 months were enrolled in cohort 1. The lipid alterations before and after chemotherapy were studied. Simultaneously, 184 patients not treated with chemotherapy (cohort 2) were included as a control for the comparisons of lipids alterations within 1 month after resection and at half-year follow-up. Furthermore, these significant alterations were investigated with respect to the prognostic value of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). An internal validation was performed. Conclusion We observed significant changes in the levels of various lipids in CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Furthermore, chemotherapy-related HDL-C elevation was determined to be an independent prognostic indicator for superior DFS and OS. PMID:27344180

  12. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood

    PubMed Central

    Heuck, Claus-Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Polyacrylate (PAA) adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL) from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw) of the polyanion ligand. Ca++ and Mg++ inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density. PMID:21289994

  13. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood.

    PubMed

    Heuck, Claus-Chr

    2011-01-24

    Polyacrylate (PAA) adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL) from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw) of the polyanion ligand. Ca(++) and Mg(++) inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density.

  14. Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2007-12-01

    We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.

  15. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P < 0.05) concentrations. Regardless of diet induced differences in lipoprotein profiles, there was no significant effect on aortic cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P < 0.001). Diet induced differences in hepatic gene transcription (LDL receptor, apoB-100, microsomal transfer protein) were not reflected in protein concentrations. Although hamsters fed non-purified and/or saturated fatty acid-supplemented diets had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles compared to hamsters fed semi-purified and/or polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented diets these differences were not reflected in aortic cholesterol accumulation.

  16. Plasma HDL reduces nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides originating from oxidized LDL: a mechanism for its antioxidant ability.

    PubMed

    Kotosai, Mari; Shimada, Sachiko; Kanda, Mai; Matsuda, Namiko; Sekido, Keiko; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Tokumura, Akira; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced oxidation contained nonesterified fatty acid hydroperoxides (FFA-OOH) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho), in addition to cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CE-OOH) and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PtdCho-OOH). A platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inhibitor suppressed formation of FFA-OOH and lysoPtdCho in oxidized LDL. Among LOOH species, FFA-OOH was preferentially reduced by incubating oxidized LDL with HDL. HDL exhibited selective FFA-OOH reducing ability if it was mixed with a liposomal solution containing FFA-OOH, CE-OOH and PtdCho-OOH. Two-electron reduction of the hydroperoxy group to the hydroxy group was confirmed by the formation of 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid in HPLC analyses. This reducing effect was also found in apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). FFA-OOH released from PtdCho-OOH due to PAF-AH activity in oxidized LDL undergo two-electron reduction by the reducing ability of apoA1 in HDL. This preferential reduction of FFA-OOH may participate in the mechanism of the antioxidant property of HDL.

  17. Significance of the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Kenji; Kuwano, Takashi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Tomohiko; Shiga, Yuhei; Suematsu, Yasunori; Miyase, Yuiko; Adachi, Sen; Nakamura, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that cholesterol efflux capacity is more useful than the lipid profile as a marker of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we investigated the associations between the presence and the severity of CAD and both the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity and the lipid profile including the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). The subjects consisted of 204 patients who were clinically suspected to have CAD and underwent CTA. We isolated HDL from plasma by ultracentrifugation and measured the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophage cells and calculated total cholesterol efflux capacity as follows: the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity/100× HDL-C levels. While the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity was not associated with the presence or the severity of CAD, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. In addition, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C, but not the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity, significantly decreased as the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis increased. Total cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity showed only weak association. In a logistic regression analysis, the presence of CAD was independently associated with total cholesterol efflux capacity, in addition to age and gender. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the areas under the curves for total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C were similar. In conclusion, the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using the fixed amount of isolated HDL was not associated with CAD. On the other hand, the calculated total

  18. Soy β-conglycinin (7S globulin) reduces plasma and liver cholesterol in rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ederlan de Souza; Silva, Maraiza Aparecida; Demonte, Aureluce; Neves, Valdir Augusto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the comparative hypocholesterolemic effect of soybean 7S fraction in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Soybean 7S globulin (β-conglycinin) was administered orally once a day to rats, and the effects were measured after 28 days. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard diet (STD) (casein alone), hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet (STD plus 1 g/100 g cholesterol and 0.5 g/100 g cholic acid), HC+7S(1) diet (HC diet plus 200 mg of 7S/kg of body weight/day), and HC+7S(2) diet (HC diet plus 300 mg of 7S/kg of body weight/day). Food intake, weight gain, animals' growth, and feeding efficiency ratio were similar among the STD and three HC groups, indicating that these parameters were not affected by treatments. Animals that had received different doses of soybean 7S globulin had lower total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio in serum and lower levels of hepatic TC and TG than those fed only the HC diet. The atherogenic indexes of HC+7S(1) and HC+7S(2) groups were 40% and 55% lower than that of the HC group, respectively. The results showed that the oral daily administration of β-conglycinin in the diet to HC rats, at between 1.85% and 2.75% of total ingested protein, promotes the reduction of TC, LDL-cholesterol, and TG and an increase in HDL-cholesterol in the plasma, besides a small but significant reduction in cholesterol and TG levels in the liver of the animals as well as a reduced atherogenic index.

  19. Low and moderate-fat plant sterol fortified soymilk in modulation of plasma lipids and cholesterol kinetics in subjects with normal to high cholesterol concentrations: report on two randomized crossover studies

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Todd C; Chan, Yen-Ming; Harding, Scott V; Jones, Peter JH

    2009-01-01

    Background Although consumption of various plant sterol (PS)-enriched beverages is effective in lowering plasma cholesterol, the lipid-lowering potential of PS in a soymilk format has not been investigated thoroughly. Therefore, to evaluate the efficacy of PS-enriched soy beverages on plasma lipids and cholesterol kinetics, we conducted two separate 28 d dietary controlled cross-over studies. In study 1, the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a low-fat (2 g/serving) PS enriched soy beverage was examined in 33 normal cholesterolemic subjects in comparison with 1% dairy milk. In study 2, we investigated the efficacy of a moderate-fat (3.5 g/serving) PS-enriched soy beverage on plasma cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol kinetic responses in 23 hypercholesterolemic subjects compared with 1% dairy milk. Both the low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soymilk varieties provided 1.95 g PS/d. Endpoint plasma variables were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA using baseline values as covariates for plasma lipid measurements. Results In comparison with the 1% dairy milk control, the low-fat soy beverage reduced (P < 0.05) total and LDL-cholesterol by 10 and 13%, respectively. Consumption of the moderate-fat PS-enriched soy beverage reduced (P < 0.05) plasma total and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15% respectively. Fasting triglycerides were reduced by 9.4% following consumption of the moderate-fat soy beverage in comparison with the 1% dairy milk. Both low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soy varieties reduced (P < 0.05) LDL:HDL and TC:HDL ratios compared with the 1% dairy milk control. Consumption of the moderate-fat PS-enriched soymilk reduced (P < 0.05) cholesterol absorption by 27%, but did not alter cholesterol synthesis in comparison with 1% dairy milk. Conclusion We conclude that, compared to 1% dairy milk, consumption of low and moderate-fat PS-enriched soy beverages represents an effective dietary strategy to reduce circulating lipid concentrations in normal to

  20. High-density cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI as modifiers of plasma fibrin clot properties in apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Ząbczyk, Michał; Hońdo, Łukasz; Krzek, Marzena; Undas, Anetta

    2013-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increases cardiovascular risk, whereas its high levels protect against atherosclerosis via multiple beneficial effects. Dense and poorly lysable fibrin clot formation is observed in cardiovascular disease. We sought to investigate whether HDL-C and its major component apolipoprotein A (Apo A)-I affect fibrin clot properties. In 136 apparently healthy individuals (99 men, 37 women, aged 49-69 years) we determined plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks coefficient) and lysis time (t50%) together with Apo A-I and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels. The median HDL-C level was 1.33  mmol/l (range from 0.77 to 2.19  mmol/l). HDL-C was positively associated with Apo A-I (r = 0.62, P < 0.00001). HDL-C and Apo A-I were positively correlated with Ks (r = 0.52, P < 0.00001 and r = 0.44, P < 0.00001, respectively) and inversely with t50% (r = -0.44, P < 0.00001 and r = -0.35, P = 0.00003, respectively). No such associations were seen for other lipid variables. Ks and t50% were associated with Lp(a) (r = -0.42, P < 0.00001 and r = 0.42, P < 0.00001, respectively) and fibrinogen (r = -0.31, P = 0.00024 and r = 0.39, P < 0.00001, respectively). Individuals with HDL-C at least 1.4 mmol/l (n = 54) had 19% higher Ks (P = 0.00016) and 17% shorter t50% (P = 0.0012) than the remainder. After adjustment for age, fibrinogen, and Lp(a), HDL-C was the independent predictor of Ks (β = 0.7, P < 0.00001) and t50% (β = -0.62, P < 0.00001). This study shows that elevated HDL-C levels are associated with improved fibrin clot permeability and lysis, indicating a novel antithrombotic mechanism underlying the postulated beneficial effects of therapy targeted at HDL-C.

  1. LDL Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities LDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  2. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; <0.1 mg flavanols) with a high-fat fast-food–style breakfast [766 kcal, 50 g fat (59% energy)] in a crossover trial. After an overnight fast (10–12 h), participants consumed the breakfast with cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P < 0.05) and specifically at 4 h but had no overall effects on insulin resistance (except at 4 h, P < 0.05), systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or small artery elasticity. However, large artery elasticity was overall lower after cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P < 0.05), with the difference significant only at 2 h. Conclusion: Acute cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food–style meal challenge

  3. L-4F Differentially Alters Plasma Levels of Oxidized Fatty Acids Resulting in more Anti-Inflammatory HDL in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Satoshi; Grijalva, Victor; Navab, Mohamad; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Wagner, Alan C.; Anantharamaiah, G.M.; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2011-01-01

    To determine in vivo if L-4F differentially alters plasma levels of oxidized fatty acids resulting in more anti-inflammatory HDL. Injecting L-4F into apoE null mice resulted in a significant reduction in plasma levels of 15-HETE, 5-HETE, 13-HODE and 9-HODE. In contrast, plasma levels of 20-HETE were not reduced and plasma levels of 14,15-EET, which are derived from the cytochrome P450 pathway, were elevated after injection of L-4F. Injection of 13(S)-HPODE into wild-type C57BL/6J mice caused an increase in plasma levels of 13-HODE and 9-HODE and was accompanied by a significant loss in the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL. The response of atherosclerosis resistant C3H/HeJ mice to injection of 13(S)-HPODE was similar but much more blunted. Injection of L-4F at a site different from that at which the 13(S)-HPODE was injected resulted in significantly lower plasma levels of 13-HODE and 9-HODE and significantly less loss of HDL anti-inflammatory properties in both strains. i) L-4F differentially alters plasma levels of oxidized fatty acids in vivo. ii) The resistance of the C3H/HeJ strain to atherosclerosis may in part be mediated by a reduced reaction of this strain to these potent lipid oxidants. L-4F differentially alters plasma levels of oxidized fatty acids in mice and the resistance of C3H/HeJ mice to atherosclerosis may be mediated by a reduced reaction of this strain to these potent lipid oxidants. PMID:20642447

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2007-01-19

    The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  5. Plasma cholesterol reduction by defatted soy ontjom (fermented with Neurospora intermedia) in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, M

    2000-02-01

    To popularize defatted soy ontjom (DSB-ontjom, soy product fermented with Neurospora intermedia) as a new food, I examined the plasma cholesterol-reducing effects of DSB-ontjom and DSB in rats fed cholesterol-free diets and compared the efficiencies of these effects. DSB-ontjom greatly reduced the plasma cholesterol level and increased fecal steroid excretion as compared to DSB. DSB-ontjom was rich in pepsin-resistant protein having a high bile acid binding capacity and was abundant in isoflavone-aglycones, especially daizein. The dietary fiber (DF) of DSB-ontjom stimulated the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by intestinal microflora. The effect of DSB-ontjom on plasma cholesterol reduction was attributed to the collaborative effects of pepsin-resistant-protein, isoflavone-aglycones and SCFA-producing DF in DSB-ontjom.

  6. CC-Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) Suppresses High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Internalization and Cholesterol Efflux via CC-Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) Induction and p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation in Human Endothelial Cells *

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Run-Lu; Huang, Can-Xia; Bao, Jin-Lan; Jiang, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Cai, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to be internalized and to promote reverse cholesterol transport in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism underlying these processes has not been studied. In this study, we aim to characterize HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux in ECs and regulatory mechanisms. We found mature HDL particles were reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which was associated with an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In cultured primary human coronary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we determined that CCL2 suppressed the binding (4 °C) and association (37 °C) of HDL to/with ECs and HDL cellular internalization. Furthermore, CCL2 inhibited [3H]cholesterol efflux to HDL/apoA1 in ECs. We further found that CCL2 induced CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and siRNA-CCR2 reversed CCL2 suppression on HDL binding, association, internalization, and on cholesterol efflux in ECs. Moreover, CCL2 induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation via CCR2, and p42/44 MAPK inhibition reversed the suppression of CCL2 on HDL metabolism in ECs. Our study suggests that CCL2 was elevated in CAD patients. CCL2 suppressed HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux via CCR2 induction and p42/44 MAPK activation in ECs. CCL2 induction may contribute to impair HDL function and form atherosclerosis in CAD. PMID:27458015

  7. CC-Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) Suppresses High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Internalization and Cholesterol Efflux via CC-Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) Induction and p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation in Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-Lu; Huang, Can-Xia; Bao, Jin-Lan; Jiang, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Cai, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ling

    2016-09-09

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to be internalized and to promote reverse cholesterol transport in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism underlying these processes has not been studied. In this study, we aim to characterize HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux in ECs and regulatory mechanisms. We found mature HDL particles were reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which was associated with an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In cultured primary human coronary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we determined that CCL2 suppressed the binding (4 °C) and association (37 °C) of HDL to/with ECs and HDL cellular internalization. Furthermore, CCL2 inhibited [(3)H]cholesterol efflux to HDL/apoA1 in ECs. We further found that CCL2 induced CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and siRNA-CCR2 reversed CCL2 suppression on HDL binding, association, internalization, and on cholesterol efflux in ECs. Moreover, CCL2 induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation via CCR2, and p42/44 MAPK inhibition reversed the suppression of CCL2 on HDL metabolism in ECs. Our study suggests that CCL2 was elevated in CAD patients. CCL2 suppressed HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux via CCR2 induction and p42/44 MAPK activation in ECs. CCL2 induction may contribute to impair HDL function and form atherosclerosis in CAD.

  8. Impaired Lipoprotein Processing in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: Aberrant HDL Lipids, Stability, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Raya, Joe L.; Ruiz-Esponda, Raul; Iyer, Dinakar; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Pownall, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (HIV/ART) exhibit a unique atherogenic dyslipidemic profile with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and low plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In the Heart Positive Study of HIV/ART patients, a hypolipidemic therapy of fenofibrate, niacin, diet, and exercise reduced HTG and plasma non-HDL-C concentrations and raised plasma HDL-C and adiponectin concentrations. We tested the hypothesis that HIV/ART HDL have abnormal structures and properties and are dysfunctional. Approach and Results Hypolipidemic therapy reduced the TG contents of LDL and HDL. At baseline, HIV/ART low density lipoproteins (LDL) were more triglyceride (TG)-rich and HDL were more TG- and cholesteryl ester (CE)-rich than the corresponding lipoproteins from normolipidemic (NL) subjects. Very low density lipoproteins, LDL and HDL were larger than the corresponding lipoproteins from NL subjects; HIV/ART HDL were less stable than NL HDL. HDL-[3H]CE uptake by Huh7 hepatocytes was used to assess HDL functionality. HIV/ART plasma were found to contain significantly less competitive inhibition activity for hepatocyte HDL-CE uptake than did NL plasma (p<0.001). Conclusion Compared to NL subjects, lipoproteins from HIV/ART patients are larger and more neutral lipid-rich, and their HDL are less stable and less receptor-competent. Based on this work and previous studies of lipase activity in HIV, we present a model in which plasma lipolytic activities and/or hepatic CE uptake are impaired in HIV/ART patients. These findings provide a rationale to determine whether the distinctive lipoprotein structure, properties and function of HIV/ART HDL predict atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid artery intimal medial thickness. PMID:23640486

  9. Physical inactivity interacts with an endothelial lipase polymorphism to modulate high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the GOLDN study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is highly heritable but is also modifiable by environmental factors including physical activity. HDL-C response to exercise varies among individuals, and this variability may be associated with genetic polymorphism...

  10. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  11. The effect of a novel intergenic polymorphism (rs11774572) on HDL cholesterol concentrations depends on the TaqIB polymorphism in the cholesterol ester transfer protein gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Plasma lipid levels have a strong genetic component and many different loci, including those identified by genome-wide association studies, affect lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Hence, the study of gene-gene interactions may be useful to provide additional predictive value as well as ...

  12. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  13. Sex-specific HDL Cholesterol Changes with Weight Loss and Their Association with Anthropometric variables: the LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Jeffery, Robert W; Erickson, Darin J; Welsh, Ericka M; Flood, Andrew P; Jaeb, Melanie A; Laqua, Patricia S; Mitchell, Nathan; Langer, Shelby L; Levy, Rona L

    2010-01-01

    Decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) has been observed in women who start dieting, but not in men. Patterns of HDLC change during intentional weight loss through 30-months of follow-up, and their association with changes in anthropometric measurements were examined in obese women (N=112) and men (N=100). Missing HDLC values at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 30-month follow-up (N=16, 34, 55, and 50, respectively) due to drop-out were imputed by multiple imputation. Mean ages and body mass indices (BMIs) of subjects at baseline were 47.2 years and 34.8 kg/m2 for women, and 50.4 years and 35.0 kg/m2 for men. On average, participants lost weight steadily for 12 months, followed by slow regain. During the first six months, HDLC decreased significantly in women (−4.1 mg/dl, P=0.0007), but not in men. Significant HDLC increases were observed in both men and women from 6- to 12-month follow-up. HDLC changes in women were positively associated with changes in hip circumference from baseline to 12-month independent of changes in triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Rapid decrease of predominantly subcutaneous fat in the femoral and gluteal area might be associated with HDLC decrease in women during initial weight loss. PMID:20885387

  14. HDL as a target in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Tall, Alan R

    2005-03-01

    Lipid abnormalities are among the key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Indeed, lipid-modifying drugs - in particular, the statins, which primarily lower plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol - considerably reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, leading to their widespread use. Nevertheless, it seems that there might be limits to the degree of benefit that can be achieved by lowering LDL-cholesterol levels alone, which has led to increased interest in targeting other lipid-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In this article, we first consider the mechanisms that underlie the protective effect of HDL cholesterol, and then discuss several strategies that have recently emerged to increase levels of HDL cholesterol to treat cardiovascular disease, including nuclear receptor modulation, inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and infusion of apolipoprotein/phospholipid complexes.

  15. Evaluation of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol protective effect against atherogenesis in rabbits fed cholesterol supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Neuman, M P; Neuman, J; Mosso, H E; Ibarra, R; Rodríguez, S; Scavini, L M; Achille, A; Pecorini, V

    1990-01-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was evaluated in 15 rabbits fed cholesterol supplemented diets to assess its protective effect on the atherogenic process. From a baseline level of 29 +/- 11 mg/dl (mean +/- SD) the maximum attained for HDL-C was twofold in only three rabbits, whereas total cholesterol (TC) increased 20 fold. Plasma TC/HDL-C ratio rose 80 fold from the baseline (2.4 +/- 0.9) and it was the best parameter that correlated with aortic cholesterol accumulation and pathological scores. Aortic TC content increased 10 fold and free cholesterol/cholesterol esters ratio decreased 20 fold. Pathological studies showed that aortic lesion scores rose from 0 to 4. It can be concluded that the high correlations obtained when TC/HDL-C ratio was plotted against both aortic cholesterol deposition and lesion scores, support the theory of the reverse cholesterol transport and the effectiveness of this index to predict the degree of the atherogenic process. On the other hand, the poor response of HDL-C in this model encourages future research using drugs to increase this parameter in order to normalize TC/HDL-C ratio and avoid lesions.

  16. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  17. Cellular cholesterol efflux and cholesterol loading capacity of serum: effects of LDL-apheresis[S

    PubMed Central

    Adorni, M. P.; Zimetti, F.; Puntoni, M.; Bigazzi, F.; Sbrana, F.; Minichilli, F.; Bernini, F.; Ronda, N.; Favari, E.; Sampietro, T.

    2012-01-01

    High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) characterizes familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). LDL-apheresis, used in these patients to reduce LDL-C levels, has been shown to also affect HDL levels and composition. We studied LDL-apheresis effects on six FH and nine FCH subjects’ serum capacity to modulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an index of HDL functionality, and to load macrophages with cholesterol. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and macrophage cholesterol loading capacity (CLC) were measured before, immediately after, and two days after LDL-apheresis. The procedure reduced total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and apoB plasma levels (−69%, −80% and −74%, respectively), parameters only partially restored two days later. HDL-C and apoA-I plasma levels, reduced after LDL-apheresis (−27% and −16%, respectively), were restored to almost normal levels two days later. LDL-apheresis reduced serum aqueous diffusion (AD) CEC, SR-BI-CEC, and ABCA1-CEC. AD and SR-BI were fully restored whereas ABCA1-CEC remained low two days later. Sera immediately and two days after LDL-apheresis had a lower CLC than pre-LDL-apheresis sera. In conclusion, LDL-apheresis transiently reduces HDL-C levels and serum CEC, but it also reduces also serum capacity to deliver cholesterol to macrophages. Despite a potentially negative effect on HDL levels and composition, LDL-apheresis may counteract foam cells formation. PMID:22414482

  18. The binding capability of plasma phospholipid transfer protein, but not HDL pool size, is critical to repress LPS induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Cui, Yingjie; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Shuai; Song, Guohua; Jiao, Peng; Li, Bin; Luo, Tian; Guo, Shoudong; Zhang, Xiangjian; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Qin, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) participates in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Increased plasma PLTP activity was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggered acute inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the exact role of PLTP in LPS induced inflammation. HDL pool size was shrunk both in PLTP deficient mice (PLTP−/−) and PLTP transgenic mice (PLTP-Tg). PLTP displayed a strong protective effect on lethal endotoxemia in mice survival study. Furthermore, after LPS stimulation, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) from PLTP−/−, while decreased in BMDM from PLTP-Tg compared with BMDM from wild-type mice (WT). Moreover, LPS induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activation was enhanced in PLTP−/− BMDM or PLTP knockdown RAW264.7. Conversely, PLTP overexpression countered the NFκB activation in LPS challenged BMDM. Additionally, the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) induced by LPS showed no alteration in PLTP−/− BMDM. Finally, PLTP could bind to LPS, attenuate the pro-inflammatory effects of LPS, and improve the cell viability in vitro. To sum up, these findings elucidated that PLTP repressed LPS induced inflammation due to extracellular LPS binding capability, and the protective effects were not related to HDL pool size in mice. PMID:26857615

  19. Interaction of mammalian seminal plasma protein PDC-109 with cholesterol: implications for a putative CRAC domain.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Silvia; Müller, Karin; Bittman, Robert; Herrmann, Andreas; Müller, Peter

    2010-10-26

    Seminal plasma proteins of the fibronectin type II (Fn2) family modulate mammalian spermatogenesis by triggering the release of the lipids phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol from sperm cells. Whereas the specific interaction of these proteins with phosphatidylcholine is well-understood, their selectivity for cholesterol is unknown. To characterize the interaction between the bovine Fn2 protein PDC-109 and cholesterol, we have investigated the effect of PDC-109 on the dynamics of fluorescent cholesterol analogues in lipid vesicles by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. The data show that PDC-109 decreases the rotational mobility of cholesterol within the membrane and that the extent of this impact depends on the cholesterol structure, indicating a specific influence of PDC-109 on cholesterol. We propose that the cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) regions of PDC-109 are involved in the interaction with cholesterol.

  20. Sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts are not enriched with cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-04-22

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. As a result, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize the cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton.

  1. Sphingolipid Domains in the Plasma Membranes of Fibroblasts Are Not Enriched with Cholesterol*

    PubMed Central

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. Thus, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize the cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton. PMID:23609440

  2. Sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts are not enriched with cholesterol

    DOE PAGES

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; ...

    2013-04-22

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. As a result, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize themore » cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton.« less

  3. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, Jacqueline; De Sauvage Nolting, Pernette R W; Van Dam, Marjel; Belsey, Elizabeth M; Kastelein, John J P; Haydn Pritchard, P; Stalenhoef, Anton F H

    2002-11-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol levels below 8 mmol/l). For 4 weeks, participants consumed three servings of the phytosterol-enriched chocolate/d that provided 1.8 g unesterified phytosterols/d or a placebo chocolate in conjunction with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels were statistically significantly reduced by 6.4 % (-0.44 mmol/l) and 10.3 % (-0.49 mmol/l), respectively, after 4 weeks of phytosterol-enriched-chocolate treatment. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not affected. Consumption of phytosterol-enriched chocolates significantly increased plasma lathosterol concentration (+20.7 %), reflecting an increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis in response to phytosterol-induced decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. Furthermore, the chocolates enriched with phytosterols significantly increased both plasma sitosterol (+95.8 %) and campesterol (+64.1 %) levels, compared with the placebo chocolate group. However, the absolute values of plasma sitosterol and campesterol remained within the normal range, that is, below 10 mg/l. The chocolates with phytosterols were palatable and induced no clinical or biochemical side effects. These findings indicate that dietary chocolate enriched with tall oil-derived phytosterols (1.8 g/d) is effective in lowering blood total and LDL-cholesterol levels in subjects with mild hypercholesterolaemia and thus may be helpful in reducing the risk of CHD in these individuals.

  4. Xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL are differentially affected by fenofibrate and niacin HDL-raising in a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Niesor, Eric J; Gauthamadasa, Kekulawalage; Silva, R A Gangani D; Suchankova, Gabriela; Kallend, David; Gylling, Helena; Asztalos, Bela; Damonte, Elisabetta; Rossomanno, Simona; Abt, Markus; Davidson, W Sean; Benghozi, Renee

    2013-12-01

    Fenofibrate and extended-release (ER) niacin similarly raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration but their effects on levels of potent plasma antioxidant xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and phytosterols obtained from dietary sources, and any relationship with plasma lipoproteins and pre-β1-HDL levels, have not been investigated. We studied these parameters in 66 dyslipidemic patients treated for 6 week with fenofibrate (160 mg/day) or ER-niacin (0.5 g/day for 3 week, then 1 g/day) in a cross-over study. Both treatments increased HDL-C (16 %) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (7 %) but only fenofibrate increased apoA-II (28 %). Lutein and zeaxanthin levels were unaffected by fenofibrate but inversely correlated with percentage change in apoB and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively correlated with end of treatment apoA-II. ApoA-II in isolated HDL in vitro bound more lutein than apoA-I. Xanthophylls were increased by ER-niacin (each ~30 %) without any correlation to lipoprotein or apo levels. Only fenofibrate markedly decreased plasma markers of cholesterol absorption; pre-β1-HDL was significantly decreased by fenofibrate (-19 %, p < 0.0001), with little change (3.4 %) for ER-niacin. Although fenofibrate and ER-niacin similarly increased plasma HDL-C and apoA-I, effects on plasma xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL differed markedly, suggesting differences in intestinal lipidation of HDL. In addition, the in vitro investigations suggest an important role of plasma apoA-II in xanthophyll metabolism.

  5. Defective functionality of HDL particles in familial apoA-I deficiency: relevance of alterations in HDL lipidome and proteome[S

    PubMed Central

    Rached, Fabiana; Santos, Raul D.; Camont, Laurent; Miname, Marcio H.; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Lecocq, Sora; Serrano, Carlos V.; Chapman, M. John; Kontush, Anatol

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate functional and compositional properties of HDL in subjects from a kindred of genetic apoA-I deficiency, two homozygotes and six heterozygotes, with a nonsense mutation at APOA1 codon -2, Q[-2]X, were recruited together with age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 11). Homozygotes displayed undetectable plasma levels of apoA-I and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoC-III (5.4% and 42.6% of controls, respectively). Heterozygotes displayed low HDL-C (21 ± 9 mg/dl), low apoA-I (79 ± 24 mg/dl), normal LDL-cholesterol (132 ± 25 mg/dl), and elevated TG (130 ± 45 mg/dl) levels. Cholesterol efflux capacity of ultracentrifugally isolated HDL subpopulations was reduced (up to −25%, P < 0.01, on a glycerophospholipid [GP] basis) in heterozygotes versus controls. Small, dense HDL3 and total HDL from heterozygotes exhibited diminished antioxidative activity (up to −48%, P < 0.001 on a total mass basis) versus controls. HDL subpopulations from both homozygotes and heterozygotes displayed altered chemical composition, with depletion in apoA-I, GP, and cholesteryl ester; enrichment in apoA-II, free cholesterol, and TG; and altered phosphosphingolipidome. The defective atheroprotective activities of HDL were correlated with altered lipid and apo composition. These data reveal that atheroprotective activities of HDL particles are impaired in homozygous and heterozygous apoA-I deficiency and are intimately related to marked alterations in protein and lipid composition. PMID:25341944

  6. Glycemic load is associated with HDL cholesterol but not with the other components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994

    PubMed Central

    Culberson, Amy; Kafai, Mohammad R; Ganji, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate quality and quantity may affect the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Glycemic load (GL) is a mathematical concept based on carbohydrate quality and quantity. GL is a product of glycemic index (GI) and the carbohydrate content of a food item divided by 100. Objective In this study, the association between GL and components and prevalence of metabolic syndrome was investigated in a representative sample survey of US residents utilizing the data reported in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5011). Methods Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria established by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Multivariate-adjusted means for waist circumference, triacylglycerol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, and HDL cholesterol were determined according to the energy-adjusted GL intake quartiles using regression models. Results In all subjects and in men, high GL was associated with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations in multivariate-adjusted analysis (P for trend < 0.01). However, no association was observed between GL and any of the individual components of metabolic syndrome in women. Also, no association was observed between energy-adjusted GL and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both men (P for trend < 0.21) and women (P for trend < 0.09) in the multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis. Conclusion It is likely that the diets low in GL may mitigate the risk for CVD through HDL cholesterol. PMID:19144143

  7. Protective Effects of HDL Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Calabresi, Laura; Franceschini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that, besides being a strong independent predictor of the occurrence of primary coronary events, a low plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level is also associated with short- and long-term unfavorable prognosis in patients, who have recovered from a myocardial infarction, suggesting a direct detrimental effect of low HDL on post-ischemic myocardial function. Experiments performed in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have clearly shown that HDL are able to preserve cardiac function when given before ischemia or at reperfusion; the protective effects of HDL against I/R injury have been also confirmed in other tissues and organs, as brain and hind limb. HDL were shown to act on coronary endothelial cells, by limiting the increase of endothelium permeability and promoting vasodilation and neoangiogenesis, on white blood cells, by reducing their infiltration into the ischemic tissue and the release of pro-inflammatory and matrix-degrading molecules, and on cardiomyocytes, by preventing the activation of the apoptotic cascade. Synthetic HDL retains the cardioprotective activity of plasma-derived HDL and may become a useful adjunctive therapy to improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes or undergoing coronary procedures.

  8. Transport of cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the transport of newly synthesized cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in Chinese hamster ovary cells using a cell fractionation assay. We found that transport is dependent on metabolic energy, but that the maintenance of the high differential concentration of cholesterol in the plasma membrane is not an energy-requiring process. We have tested a variety of inhibitors for their effect on cholesterol transport and found that cytochalasin B, colchicine, monensin, cycloheximide, and NH4Cl did not have any effect. The cholesterol transport process shows a sharp temperature dependence; it ceases at 15 degrees C, whereas cholesterol synthesis continues. When synthesis occurs at 15 degrees C, the newly synthesized cholesterol accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum and in a low density, lipid-rich vesicle fraction. These results suggest that cholesterol is transported via a vesicular system. PMID:4040520

  9. Essentially All Excess Fibroblast Cholesterol Moves from Plasma Membranes to Intracellular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Yvonne; Ye, Jin; Steck, Theodore L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that modestly increasing plasma membrane cholesterol beyond its physiological set point greatly increases the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial pools, thereby eliciting manifold feedback responses that return cell cholesterol to its resting state. The question arises whether this homeostatic mechanism reflects the targeting of cell surface cholesterol to specific intracellular sites or its general equilibration among the organelles. We now show that human fibroblast cholesterol can be increased as much as two-fold from 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin without changing the size of the cell surface pool. Rather, essentially all of the added cholesterol disperses rapidly among cytoplasmic membranes, increasing their overall cholesterol content by as much as five-fold. We conclude that the level of plasma membrane cholesterol is normally at capacity and that even small increments above this physiological set point redistribute essentially entirely to intracellular membranes, perhaps down their chemical activity gradients. PMID:25014655

  10. Modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products through feedlot technology lowers plasma cholesterol of humans consuming the products.

    PubMed

    Noakes, M; Nestel, P J; Clifton, P M

    1996-01-01

    Intake of milk and butter has been clearly associated with higher coronary heart disease rates in different countries and this is likely to be mediated by the hypercholesterolemic effect of dairy fat. Fat-modified dairy products are an innovation involving a technology in which protected unsaturated lipids are fed to ruminants resulting in milk and tissue lipids with reduced saturated fatty acids. We examined the impact of these novel dairy fats on plasma lipids in a human dietary trial. Thirty-three men and women participated in an 8-wk randomized crossover trial comparing fat-modified with conventional dairy products. The trial consisted of a 2-wk low-fat baseline period followed by two 3-wk intervention phases. During the test periods, the fat-modified products resulted in a significant 0.28-mmol/L (4.3%) lowering of total cholesterol (P < 0.001). Most of this decrease was in LDL cholesterol, which decreased by 0.24 mmol/L (P < 0.001) whereas HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols remained essentially unchanged. This alteration in the fatty acid profile of dairy products, if applied to populations typical of developed Western countries, represents a potential strategy to lower the risk of coronary heart disease without any appreciable change in customary eating patterns.

  11. Detection of cholesterol-rich microdomains in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masami; Shimada, Yukiko; Inomata, Mitsushi; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko . E-mail: iwashita@tmig.or.jp

    2006-12-22

    The C-terminal domain (D4) of perfringolysin O binds selectively to cholesterol in cholesterol-rich microdomains. To address the issue of whether cholesterol-rich microdomains exist in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, we expressed D4 as a fusion protein with EGFP in MEF cells. More than half of the EGFP-D4 expressed in stable cell clones was bound to membranes in raft fractions. Depletion of membrane cholesterol with {beta}-cyclodextrin reduced the amount of EGFP-D4 localized in raft fractions, confirming EGFP-D4 binding to cholesterol-rich microdomains. Subfractionation of the raft fractions showed most of the EGFP-D4 bound to the plasma membrane rather than to intracellular membranes. Taken together, these results strongly suggest the existence of cholesterol-rich microdomains in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane.

  12. High-Density Lipoprotein, Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ossoli, Alice; Pavanello, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data clearly show the existence of a strong inverse correlation between plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and the incidence of coronary heart disease. This relation is explained by a number of atheroprotective properties of HDL, first of all the ability to promote macrophage cholesterol transport. HDL are highly heterogeneous and are continuously remodeled in plasma thanks to the action of a number of proteins and enzymes. Among them, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a crucial role, being the only enzyme able to esterify cholesterol within lipoproteins. LCAT is synthetized by the liver and it has been thought to play a major role in reverse cholesterol transport and in atheroprotection. However, data from animal studies, as well as human studies, have shown contradictory results. Increased LCAT concentrations are associated with increased HDL-C levels but not necessarily with atheroprotection. On the other side, decreased LCAT concentration and activity are associated with decreased HDL-C levels but not with increased atherosclerosis. These contradictory results confirm that HDL-C levels per se do not represent the functionality of the HDL system. PMID:27302716

  13. Hemagglutinin Clusters in the Plasma Membrane Are Not Enriched with Cholesterol and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert L.; Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    The clusters of the influenza envelope protein, hemagglutinin, within the plasma membrane are hypothesized to be enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to image the distributions of antibody-labeled hemagglutinin and isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of fibroblast cells that stably express hemagglutinin. We found that the hemagglutinin clusters were neither enriched with cholesterol nor colocalized with sphingolipid domains. Thus, hemagglutinin clustering and localization in the plasma membrane is not controlled by cohesive interactions between hemagglutinin and liquid-ordered domains enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, or from specific binding interactions between hemagglutinin, cholesterol, and/or the majority of sphingolipid species in the plasma membrane. PMID:25863057

  14. The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on HDL-cholesterol concentrations depend on ABCA1 genetic variants in the Boston Puerto Rican health study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/G8 (ABCG5/G8) are associated with HDL-C concentrations. To assess whether the effect of ABCG5/G8 genetic variants on HDL-C concentrations is dependent on ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1), we studied potential interactions between ...

  15. Advances in the Study of the Antiatherogenic Function and Novel Therapies for HDL

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Peiqiu; Pan, Haitao; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhou, Ting; Guo, Jiao; Su, Zhengquan

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels could improve the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is facing challenges. There is multitudinous clear clinical evidence that the latest failures of HDL-C-raising drugs show no clear association with risks for CVD. At the genetic level, recent research indicates that steady-state HDL-C concentrations may provide limited information regarding the potential antiatherogenic functions of HDL. It is evident that the newer strategies may replace therapeutic approaches to simply raise plasma HDL-C levels. There is an urgent need to identify an efficient biomarker that accurately predicts the increased risk of atherosclerosis (AS) in patients and that may be used for exploring newer therapeutic targets. Studies from recent decades show that the composition, structure and function of circulating HDL are closely associated with high cardiovascular risk. A vast amount of data demonstrates that the most important mechanism through which HDL antagonizes AS involves the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Clinical trials of drugs that specifically target HDL have so far proven disappointing, so it is necessary to carry out review on the HDL therapeutics. PMID:26225968

  16. Chromium yeast supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose and LDL-cholesterol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Hoang; Chen, Ya-Yen; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien

    2006-11-01

    Chromium yeast supplementation has been studied for its ability to improve carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities. There have been some earlier literature-reported studies involving chromium supplementation amongst patients suffering diabetes, but the results would appear to be somewhat varied. Forty male Wistar rats (ten weeks old, 300 g in average body mass) were divided into one of four groups, namely (i) controls; (ii) controls treated with chromium yeast; (iii) diabetic controls; and (iv) diabetic rats treated with chromium yeast. In the present investigation, the effect of a four-week oral administration of chromium yeast (600 microg of Cr/kg body mass/day, by gavage) upon the glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was assessed. Supplemental Cr yeast decreased the fasting blood glucose amongst the STZ-diabetic rats. No significant difference was observed in plasma fructosamine levels of rats treated with chromium yeast compared to control rats. Supplemental Cr yeast did decrease the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level for the STZ-diabetic rats as compared to controls. We noted no significant effect of chromium supplementation upon plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol or triglycerides compared to controls. Treatment with chromium yeast significantly increased the blood and urine chromium levels for both the diabetic and normal rats compared to respective control groups. The results of these studies suggest that Cr yeast decreased the fasting blood glucose and LDL-cholesterol levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. This raises the possibility that Cr yeast supplementation can be considered to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism amongst human patients featuring type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Suárez, María E; Escolà-Gil, Joan C; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-09-07

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [(3)H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages.

  18. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Suárez, María E.; Escolà-Gil, Joan C.; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [3H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [3H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages. PMID:27601313

  19. Novel gene-by-environment interactions: APOB and NPC1L1 variants affect the relationship between dietary and total plasma cholesterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Plasma cholesterol level is a key risk factor in CVD pathogenesis. Genetic and dietary variation both influence plasma cholesterol; however, little is known about dietary interactions with genetic variants influencing the absorption and transport of dietary cholesterol. We sought to determine whether gut expressed variants predicting plasma cholesterol differentially affected the relationship between dietary and plasma cholesterol levels in 1,128 subjects (772/356 in the discovery/replication cohorts, respectively). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within three genes (APOB, CETP, and NPC1L1) were significantly associated with plasma cholesterol in the discovery cohort. These were subsequently evaluated for gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions with dietary cholesterol for the prediction of plasma cholesterol, with significant findings tested for replication. Novel GxE interactions were identified and replicated for two variants: rs1042034, an APOB Ser4338Asn missense SNP and rs2072183 (in males only), a synonymous NPC1L1 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs 5′ of NPC1L1. This study identifies the presence of novel GxE and gender interactions implying that differential gut absorption is the basis for the variant associations with plasma cholesterol. These GxE interactions may account for part of the “missing heritability” not accounted for by genetic associations. PMID:23482652

  20. Therapeutic approaches to the regulation of metabolism of high-density lipoprotein. Novel HDL-directed pharmacological intervention and exercise.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Kawachi, Emi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Uehara, Yoshinari; Matsunaga, Akira; Kuroki, Masahide; Saku, Keijiro

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles transport cholesterol in plasma and play an important role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis, which influences cell function. The risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) associated with high levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) can be reduced by treatment with statins, which reduce LDL-C levels by inhibiting cellular cholesterol synthesis. However, patients who are treated with high doses of statins, especially secondary CAD prevention, regardless of their resulting LDL-C levels, are still at high risk of CAD. Therefore, there has been growing interest in HDL-directed therapies. Inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) substantially increase HDL-C levels (by 31-138%). However, it is still unclear whether or not CETP inhibitors can reduce the risk of CAD associated with low HDL-C levels, while reconstituted HDL or apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides increase the functionality of HDL. Low levels of HDL-C are often complicated with metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and lifestyle changes are effective for correcting these conditions. Physical activity and exercise training increase HDL-C levels, especially HDL2-C levels, by multiple mechanisms. Therefore, although using HDL-directed therapies that increase HDL-C levels and/or improve the function of HDL is a reasonable approach for reducing the residual risk of CAD as a complement to LDL-C-lowering therapy, lifestyle modifications including exercise to improve metabolic disorders should be considered as the first option.

  1. Algal sterols are as effective as β-sitosterol in reducing plasma cholesterol concentration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Jiang, Yue; Bi, Yanlan; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-01-22

    The present study examined the cholesterol-lowering activity of sterol extract (SE) derived from alga Schizochytrium sp. and its interaction with gene expression of transporters, receptors, and enzymes involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism. GC-MS analyses found that SE was a mixture of various sterols including lathosterol, ergosterol, stigmasterol, 24-ethylcholesta-5,7,22-trienol, stigmasta-7,24(24(1))-dien-3β-ol, and cholesterol. Results showed that SE at doses of 0.06 and 0.30 g/kg diet were able to decrease plasma cholesterol concentration by 19.5 and 34%, respectively, compared with the control, in hamsters maintained on a 0.1% high-cholesterol diet. SE at a dose of 0.30 g/kg diet was as effective as β-sitosterol in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC). SE-induced reduction in plasma TC was accompanied by down-regulation of intestinal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) and hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and up-regulation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Addition of SE to the diet increased the excretion of total fecal sterols. It was concluded that SE possessed the same cholesterol-lowering activity as β-sitosterol and the underlying mechanisms were mediated by increasing sterol excretion and decreasing cholesterol absorption and synthesis.

  2. Use of cyclodextrins to manipulate plasma membrane cholesterol content: evidence, misconceptions and control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zidovetzki, Raphael

    2007-01-01

    The physiological importance of cholesterol in the cell plasma membrane has attracted increased attention in recent years. Consequently, the use of methods of controlled manipulation of membrane cholesterol content has also increased sharply, especially as a method of studying putative cholesterol-enriched cell membrane domains (rafts). The most common means of modifying the cholesterol content of cell membranes is the incubation of cells or model membranes with cyclodextrins, a family of compounds, which, due to the presence of relatively hydrophobic cavity, can be used to extract cholesterol from cell membranes. However, the mechanism of this activity of cyclodextrins is not completely established. Moreover, under conditions commonly used for cholesterol extraction, cyclodextrins may remove cholesterol from both raft and non-raft domains of the membrane as well as alter the distribution of cholesterol between plasma and intracellular membranes. In addition, other hydrophobic molecules such as phospholipids may also be extracted from the membranes by cyclodextrins. We review the evidence for the specific and non-specific effects of cyclodextrins and what is known about the mechanisms for cyclodextrin-induced cholesterol and phospholipid extraction. Finally, we discuss useful control strategies that may help to verify that the observed effects are due specifically to cyclodextrin-induced changes in cellular cholesterol. PMID:17493580

  3. The WWOX Gene Modulates HDL and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Iatan, Iulia; Choi, Hong Y.; Ruel, Isabelle; Linga Reddy, M.V. Prasad; Kil, Hyunsuk; Lee, Jaeho; Abu Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Nikkola, Elina; Civelek, Mete; Awan, Zuhier; Croce, Carlo M.; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Aldaz, C. Marcelo; Genest, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) constitutes a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies from our group reported a genetic association between the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene and HDL-C levels. Here, through next-generation resequencing, in vivo functional studies and gene microarray analyses, we investigated the role of WWOX in HDL and lipid metabolism. Methods and Results Using next-generation resequencing of the WWOX region, we first identified 8 variants significantly associated and perfectly segregating with the low-HDL trait in two multi-generational French Canadian dyslipidemic families. To understand in vivo functions of WWOX, we used liver-specific Wwoxhep−/− and total Wwox−/− mice models, where we found decreased ApoA-I and ABCA1 levels in hepatic tissues. Analyses of lipoprotein profiles in Wwox−/−, but not Wwox hep−/− littermates, also showed marked reductions in serum HDL-C concentrations, concordant with the low-HDL findings observed in families. We next obtained evidence of a gender-specific effect in female Wwoxhep−/− mice, where an increase in plasma triglycerides and altered lipid metabolic pathways by microarray analyses were observed. We further identified a significant reduction in ApoA-I and LPL, and upregulation in Fas, Angptl4 and Lipg, suggesting that the effects of Wwox involve multiple pathways, including cholesterol homeostasis, ApoA-I/ABCA1 pathway, and fatty acid biosynthesis/triglyceride metabolism. Conclusions Our data indicate that WWOX disruption alters HDL and lipoprotein metabolism through several mechanisms and may account for the low-HDL phenotype observed in families expressing the WWOX variants. These findings thus describe a novel gene involved in cellular lipid homeostasis, which effects may impact atherosclerotic disease development. PMID:24871327

  4. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  5. Effect of dietary fiber on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J L

    1978-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and level on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of White Leghorn laying hens. Initially, dietary fiber levels of 2.05, 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79% furnished mainly by sunflower meal were fed to laying hens for 140 days. In the second experiment, alfalfa meal, ground whole oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings was added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet to furnish 2.00% added crude fiber and fed to laying hens for 84 days. Yolk cholesterol decreased 4.39, 10.38, and 13.29% by feeding crude dietary fiber levels of 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79%, respectively, to hens as compared to a corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 2.05% crude fiber. Egg yolk cholesterol was significantly decreased by feeding alfalfa meal, oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings to laying hens when compared to yolk cholesterol of hens fed the basal diet. The greatest reduction in egg yolk cholesterol was found by feeding either oats or wood shavings. No significant differences were found in plasma cholesterol due to dietary fiber level. Plasma triglycerides decreased and liver cholesterol increased as dietary fiber level increased in diets fed to laying hens. When laying hens were fed alfalfa meal, oats, rice mill feed, or wood shavings, plasma cholesterol significantly decreased. Liver cholesterol increased when hens were fed either alfalfa meal or rice mill feed as the primary fiber source.

  6. Data in support of a central role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism in recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in the setting of high HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein using Bayesian network modeling.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, James P; Salzman, Peter; Ryan, Dan; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Sparks, Charles E

    2016-09-01

    Data is presented that was utilized as the basis for Bayesian network modeling of influence pathways focusing on the central role of a polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) on recurrent cardiovascular disease risk in patients with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of inflammation, "Influences on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2 Polymorphism-Associated Recurrent Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients with High HDL Cholesterol and Inflammation" (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]). The data consist of occurrence of recurrent coronary events in 166 post myocardial infarction patients along with 1. clinical data on gender, race, age, and body mass index; 2. blood level data on 17 biomarkers; and 3. genotype data on 53 presumptive CVD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Additionally, a flow diagram of the Bayesian modeling procedure is presented along with Bayesian network subgraphs (root nodes to outcome events) utilized as the data from which PAI-2 associated influence pathways were derived (Corsetti et al., 2016; [1]).

  7. Apolipoprotein A-II is a key regulatory factor of HDL metabolism as appears from studies with transgenic animals and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Sira Fatoumata; Kalopissis, Athina-Despina; Chabert, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    The structure and metabolism of HDL are linked to their major apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II. HDL metabolism is very dynamic and depends on the constant remodeling by lipases, lipid transfer proteins and receptors. HDL exert several cardioprotective effects, through their antioxidant and antiinflammatory capacities and through the stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport from extrahepatic tissues to the liver for excretion into bile. HDL also serve as plasma reservoir for C and E apolipoproteins, as transport vehicles for a great variety of proteins, and may have more physiological functions than previously recognized. In this review we will develop several aspects of HDL metabolism with emphasis on the structure/function of apo A-I and apo A-II. An important contribution to our understanding of the respective roles of apo A-I and apo A-II comes from studies using transgenic animal models that highlighted the stabilizatory role of apo A-II on HDL through inhibition of their remodeling by lipases. Clinical studies coupled with proteomic analyses revealed the presence of dysfunctional HDL in patients with cardiovascular disease. Beyond HDL cholesterol, a new notion is the functionality of HDL particles. In spite of abundant literature on HDL metabolic properties, a major question remains unanswered: which HDL particle(s) confer(s) protection against cardiovascular risk?

  8. Luminol electrochemiluminescence for the analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangzhong; Zhou, Junyu; Tian, Chunxiu; Jiang, Dechen; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Hongyuan

    2013-04-16

    A luminol electrochemiluminescence assay was reported to analyze active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells. The cellular membrane cholesterol was activated by the exposure of the cells to low ionic strength buffer or the inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). The active membrane cholesterol was reacted with cholesterol oxidase in the solution to generate a peak concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the electrode surface, which induced a measurable luminol electrochemiluminescence. Further treatment of the active cells with mevastatin decreased the active membrane cholesterol resulting in a drop in luminance. No change in the intracellular calcium was observed in the presence of luminol and voltage, which indicated that our analysis process might not interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Single cell analysis was performed by placing a pinhole below the electrode so that only one cell was exposed to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Twelve single cells were analyzed individually, and a large deviation on luminance ratio observed exhibited the cell heterogeneity on the active membrane cholesterol. The smaller deviation on ACAT/HMGCoA inhibited cells than ACAT inhibited cells suggested different inhibition efficiency for sandoz 58035 and mevastatin. The new information obtained from single cell analysis might provide a new insight on the study of intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

  9. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity in hamster plasma: increase by fat and cholesterol rich diets.

    PubMed

    Stein, Y; Dabach, Y; Hollander, G; Stein, O

    1990-01-16

    We investigated the presence of cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) in plasma of hamsters kept on various dietary regimens. In hamsters kept on a regular diet, CETA activity was about 5 units/4 mg protein of d greater than 1.21 g/ml fraction of plasma, as compared to about 35 units present in human d greater than 1.21 g/ml fraction. Addition of 15% margarine or butter alone or together with 2% cholesterol resulted in a 2-3-fold increase in plasma CETA. The increase in plasma CETA was correlated with plasma cholesterol levels (r = 0.78; P less than 0.001) and plasma triacylglycerol levels (r = 0.56, P less than 0.001). Hamsters consuming the cholesterol + butter-supplemented diets had the highest plasma CETA, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, while CETA in plasma of rats and mice remained nondetectable even after 4 weeks on the diet. The causal relation between hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and evaluation in CETA in hamsters remains to be elucidated.

  10. F2-Isoprostanes in HDL are bound to neutral lipids and phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Julie M; Barden, Anne E; Croft, Kevin D; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Bultel-Poncé, Valérie; Giera, Martin; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-12-01

    Low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, interventions that raise HDL-C have failed to reduce cardiovascular events. We previously reported that HDL is the main carrier of plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) that are markers of oxidative stress formed upon oxidation of arachidonic acid. F2-IsoPs are predominantly associated with phospholipids. However, there is evidence that F2-IsoPs in the liver of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride associate with the neutral lipids. To date it is not known whether F2-IsoPs are found in the neutral lipids in HDL in humans. Possible candidate neutral lipids include cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, diglycerides, and monoglycerides. This study aimed to identify the lipid classes within native and oxidized HDL that contain F2-IsoPs. We showed that F2-IsoPs in HDL are bound to neutral lipids as well as phospholipids. HDL-3 contained the highest concentration of F2-IsoPs in all lipid classes before and after in vitro oxidation. Using targeted LC/MS and high resolution MS, we were unable to provide conclusive evidence for the presence of the synthesized standards 15(R)-15-F2t-isoP cholesterol and 1-ent-15(RS)-15-F2t-isoprostanoyl-sn-glycerol in the neutral lipids of HDL. Our findings show that oxidized lipids such as F2-IsoPs are found in the core and surface of HDL. However, the exact molecular species remain to be definitively characterized. Future studies are required to determine whether the presence of F2-IsoPs in neutral lipids alters HDL function.

  11. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  12. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Scharnagl, Hubert; Kist, Manfred; Grawitz, Andrea Busse; Koenig, Wolfgang; Wieland, Heinrich; März, Winfried

    2004-01-15

    We examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on lipids and apolipoproteins in 87 patients with duodenal ulcers. A significant increase was observed in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (+24.7%, p <0.001), apolipoprotein AI (+9.0%, p <0.001), and apolipoprotein AII (+11.7%, p <0.001) after eradication. Minor increases occurred in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. Our results suggest that chronic H. pylori infection reduces plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and that eradication improves the lipoprotein pattern.

  13. Influence of dietary lipids on hepatic mRNA levels of proteins regulating plasma lipoproteins in baboons with high and low levels of large high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R S; McMahan, C A; Mott, G E; Carey, K D; Reardon, C A; Getz, G S; McGill, H C

    1991-12-01

    Selective breeding of baboons has produced families with increased plasma levels of large high density lipoproteins (HDL1) and very low (VLDL) and low (LDL) density lipoproteins when the animals consume a diet enriched in cholesterol and saturated fat. High HDL1 baboons have a slower cholesteryl ester transfer, which may account for the accumulation of HDL1, but not of VLDL and LDL. To investigate the mechanism of accumulation of VLDL + LDL in plasma of the high HDL1 phenotype, we selected eight half-sib pairs of baboons, one member of each pair with high HDL1, the other member with little or no HDL1 on the same high cholesterol, saturated fat diet. Baboons were fed a chow diet and four experimental diets consisting of high and low cholesterol with corn oil, and high and low cholesterol with lard, each for 6 weeks, in a crossover design. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and hepatic mRNA levels were measured on each diet. HDL1 phenotype, type of dietary fat, and dietary cholesterol affected plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, whereas dietary fat alone affected plasma triglyceride and apoA-I concentrations. HDL1 phenotype and dietary cholesterol alone did not influence hepatic mRNA levels, whereas dietary lard, compared to corn oil, significantly increased hepatic apoE mRNA levels and decreased hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. Hepatic apoA-I message was associated with cholesterol concentration in HDL fractions as well as with apoA-I concentrations in the plasma or HDL. However, hepatic apoB message level was not associated with plasma or LDL apoB levels. Total plasma cholesterol, including HDL, was negatively associated with hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. However, compared with low HDL1 baboons, high HDL1 baboons had higher concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol at the same hepatic mRNA levels. These studies suggest that neither overproduction of apoB from the liver nor decreased hepatic LDL

  14. HDL and endothelial protection

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Dinh, A; Diallo, D; Delbosc, S; Varela-Perez, L Maria; Dang, QB; Lapergue, B; Burillo, E; Michel, JB; Levoye, A; Martin-Ventura, JL; Meilhac, O

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) represent a family of particles characterized by the presence of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and by their ability to transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues back to the liver. In addition to this function, HDLs display pleiotropic effects including antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic or anti-proteolytic properties that account for their protective action on endothelial cells. Vasodilatation via production of nitric oxide is also a hallmark of HDL action on endothelial cells. Endothelial cells express receptors for apoA-I and HDLs that mediate intracellular signalling and potentially participate in the internalization of these particles. In this review, we will detail the different effects of HDLs on the endothelium in normal and pathological conditions with a particular focus on the potential use of HDL therapy to restore endothelial function and integrity. PMID:23488589

  15. Lipid transfer to HDL is higher in marathon runners than in sedentary subjects, but is acutely inhibited during the run.

    PubMed

    Vaisberg, Mauro; Bachi, André L L; Latrilha, Conceição; Dioguardi, Giuseppe S; Bydlowski, Sergio P; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-07-01

    Although exercise increases HDL-cholesterol, exercise-induced changes in HDL metabolism have been little explored. Lipid transfer to HDL is essential for HDL's role in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on lipid transfer to HDL. We compared plasma lipid, apolipoprotein and cytokine levels and in vitro transfer of four lipids from a radioactively labeled lipid donor nanoemulsion to HDL in sedentary individuals (n = 28) and in marathon runners (n = 14) at baseline, immediately after and 72 h after a marathon. While HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were higher in marathon runners, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and triacylglycerol levels were similar in both groups. Transfers of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.2 (4.5-6), p = 0.001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 8.2 (7.7-8.9), p = 0.0001] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 1.3 (0.8-1.7), p = 0.0001] were higher in marathon runners, but esterified-cholesterol transfer was similar. Immediately after the marathon, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were unchanged, but apo B and triacylglycerol levels increased. Lipid transfer of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.8 (4.9-6.6), p = 0.0001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 19.1 (18.6-19.3), p = 0.0001], esterified-cholesterol [3.2 (2.2-3.8) vs. 2.3 (2-2.9), p = 0.02] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 2.6 (2.1-2.8), p = 0.0001] to HDL were all reduced immediately after the marathon but returned to baseline 72 h later. Running a marathon increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels, but after 72 h these values returned to baseline. Lipid transfer, except esterified-cholesterol transfer, was higher in marathon runners than in sedentary individuals, but the marathon itself acutely inhibited lipid transfer. In light of these novel observations, further study is required to clarify how these metabolic changes can influence HDL composition and

  16. Enhanced HDL Functionality in Small HDL Species Produced Upon Remodeling of HDL by Reconstituted HDL, CSL112

    PubMed Central

    Didichenko, Svetlana A.; Navdaev, Alexei V.; Cukier, Alexandre M.O.; Gille, Andreas; Schuetz, Patrick; Spycher, Martin O.; Thérond, Patrice; Chapman, M. John; Kontush, Anatol

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: CSL112, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine, is known to cause a dramatic rise in small high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Objective: To explore the mechanisms by which the formation of small HDL particles is induced by CSL112. Methods and Results: Infusion of CSL112 into humans caused elevation of 2 small diameter HDL fractions and 1 large diameter fraction. Ex vivo studies showed that this remodeling does not depend on lipid transfer proteins or lipases. Rather, interaction of CSL112 with purified HDL spontaneously gave rise to 3 HDL species: a large, spherical species composed of apoA-I from native HDL and CSL112; a small, disc-shaped species composed of apoA-I from CSL112, but smaller because of the loss of phospholipids; and the smallest species, lipid-poor apoA-I composed of apoA-I from HDL and CSL112. Time-course studies suggest that remodeling occurs by an initial fusion of CSL112 with HDL and subsequent fission leading to the smaller forms. Functional studies showed that ATP-binding cassette transporter 1–dependent cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory effects in whole blood were carried by the 2 small species with little activity in the large species. In contrast, the ability to inactivate lipid hydroperoxides in oxidized low-density lipoprotein was carried predominantly by the 2 largest species and was low in lipid-poor apoA-I. Conclusions: We have described a mechanism for the formation of small, highly functional HDL species involving spontaneous fusion of discoidal HDL with spherical HDL and subsequent fission. Similar remodeling is likely to occur during the life cycle of apoA-I in vivo. PMID:27436846

  17. Chlordecone altered hepatic disposition of [{sup 14}C]cholesterol and plasma cholesterol distribution but not SR-BI or ABCG8 proteins in livers of C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Junga; Scheri, Richard C.; Curtis, Lawrence R.

    2008-06-15

    Organochlorine (OC) insecticides continue to occur in tissues of humans and wildlife throughout the world although they were banned in the United States a few decades ago. Low doses of the OC insecticide chlordecone (CD) alter hepatic disposition of lipophilic xenobiotics and perturb lipid homeostasis in rainbow trout, mice and rats. CD pretreatment altered tissue and hepatic subcellular distribution of exogenous [{sup 14}C]cholesterol (CH) equivalents 4 and 16 h after a bolus intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 5 ml corn oil/kg that contained 10 mg CH/kg. CD pretreatment altered tissue distribution of exogenously administered [{sup 14}C]CH by decreased hepatic and renal accumulation, and increased biliary excretion up to 300%. Biliary excretion of polar [{sup 14}C]CH metabolites was not altered by CD. CD pretreatment decreased subcellular distribution of [{sup 14}C]CH equivalents in hepatic cytosol and microsomes and lipoprotein-rich fraction-to-homogenate ratio. CD pretreatment increased the ratio of [{sup 14}C]CH equivalents in high density lipoprotein (HDL) to that in plasma and reduced [{sup 14}C]CH equivalents in the non-HDL fraction 4 h after a bolus lipid dose. CD pretreatment increased plasma non-HDL total CH by 80% 4 h after a bolus lipid dose. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G8 (ABCG8) proteins were quantified by western blotting in hepatic membranes from control and CD treated mice. Liver membrane contents of SR-BI and ABCG8 proteins were unchanged by CD pretreatment. The data demonstrated that a single dose of CD altered CH homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism.

  18. Plasma cholesterol-lowering and transient liver dysfunction in mice lacking squalene synthase in the liver.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Shuichi; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Tazoe, Fumiko; Takahashi, Manabu; Kitamine, Tetsuya; Yamamuro, Daisuke; Sakai, Kent; Sekiya, Motohiro; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Honda, Akira; Ishibashi, Shun

    2015-05-01

    Squalene synthase (SS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of squalene, the first specific intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. To test the feasibility of lowering plasma cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic SS, we generated mice in which SS is specifically knocked out in the liver (L-SSKO) using Cre-loxP technology. Hepatic SS activity of L-SSKO mice was reduced by >90%. In addition, cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver slices was almost eliminated. Although the hepatic squalene contents were markedly reduced in L-SSKO mice, the hepatic contents of cholesterol and its precursors distal to squalene were indistinguishable from those of control mice, indicating the presence of sufficient centripetal flow of cholesterol and/or its precursors from the extrahepatic tissues. L-SSKO mice showed a transient liver dysfunction with moderate hepatomegaly presumably secondary to increased farnesol production. In a fed state, the plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly reduced in L-SSKO mice, primarily owing to reduced hepatic VLDL secretion. In a fasted state, the hypolipidemic effect was lost. mRNA expression of liver X receptor α target genes was reduced, while that of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 target genes was increased. In conclusion, liver-specific ablation of SS inhibits hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and induces hypolipidemia without increasing significant mortality.

  19. Imaging approaches for analysis of cholesterol distribution and dynamics in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Wüstner, Daniel; Modzel, Maciej; Lund, Frederik W; Lomholt, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is an important lipid component of the plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian cells, where it is involved in control of many physiological processes, such as endocytosis, cell migration, cell signalling and surface ruffling. In an attempt to explain these functions of cholesterol, several models have been put forward about cholesterol's lateral and transbilayer organization in the PM. In this article, we review imaging techniques developed over the last two decades for assessing the distribution and dynamics of cholesterol in the PM of mammalian cells. Particular focus is on fluorescence techniques to study the lateral and inter-leaflet distribution of suitable cholesterol analogues in the PM of living cells. We describe also several methods for determining lateral cholesterol dynamics in the PM including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), single particle tracking (SPT) and spot variation FCS coupled to stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. For proper interpretation of such measurements, we provide some background in probe photophysics and diffusion phenomena occurring in cell membranes. In particular, we show the equivalence of the reaction-diffusion approach, as used in FRAP and FCS, and continuous time random walk (CTRW) models, as often invoked in SPT studies. We also discuss mass spectrometry (MS) based imaging of cholesterol in the PM of fixed cells and compare this method with fluorescence imaging of sterols. We conclude that evidence from many experimental techniques converges towards a model of a homogeneous distribution of cholesterol with largely free and unhindered diffusion in both leaflets of the PM.

  20. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet with and without supplemental soluble fiber on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other clinical markers of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard J; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Sharman, Matthew J; Silvestre, Ricardo; Greene, Christine M; Zern, Tosca L; Shrestha, Sudeep; Judelson, Daniel A; Gomez, Ana L; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) promote weight loss, reductions in plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels, and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels but may cause undesirable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) responses in some people. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of adding soluble fiber to a CRD on plasma LDL-C and other traditionally measured markers of cardiovascular disease. Using a parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 30 overweight and obese men (body mass index, 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to supplement a CRD with soluble fiber (Konjac-mannan, 3g/d) (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Plasma lipids, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, and nutrient intake were evaluated at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. Compliance was excellent as assessed by 7-day weighed dietary records and ketonuria. Both groups experienced decreases in (P < .01) body weight, percent body fat, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and plasma glucose levels. After 12 weeks, HDL-C and TAG improved significantly in the fiber (10% and -34%) and placebo (14%, -43%) groups. LDL-C decreased by 17.6% (P < .01) at week 6 and 14.1% (P < .01) at week 12 in the fiber group. Conversely, LDL-C reductions were significant in the placebo group only after 12 weeks (-6.0%, P < .05). We conclude that although clearly effective at lowering LDL-C, adding soluble fiber to a CRD during active and significant weight loss provides no additional benefits to the diet alone. Furthermore, a CRD led to clinically important positive alterations in cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  1. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa preβHDL (Lp1-AI) particle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xuefeng; Yang, Yunhuang; Neville, T.; Hoyt, David W.; Sparks, Daniel L.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-06-12

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI, 243-residues) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. This important property of apoAI is related to its roles in reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Two initial conformational states of apoAI are lipid-free apoAI and apoAI/preβHDL that recruit phospholipids and cholesterol to form HDL particles. In particular, lipid-free apoAI specifically binds to phospholipids to form lipid-poor apoAI, including apoAI/preβ-HDL (~37 kDa). As a unique class of lipid poor HDL, both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates that apoAI/preβ-HDLs are the most effective acceptors specifically for free cholesterol in human plasma and serves as the precursor of HDL particles (2). Here we report a complete backbone spectral assignment of human apoAI/preβHDL. Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that apoAI/preβHDL displays a two-domain structure: the N-terminal four helix-bundle domain (residues 1-186) and the C-terminal flexible domain (residues 187-243). A structure of apoAI/preβ-HDL is the first lipid-associated structure of apoAI and is critical for us to understand how apoAI recruits cholesterol to initialize HDL formation. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15093.

  2. HDL: bridging past and present with a look at the future

    PubMed Central

    Scanu, Angelo M.; Edelstein, Celina

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that HDLs, a class of plasma lipoproteins, heterogeneous in size and density, have an atheroprotective role attributed, for years, to their capacity to promote the efflux of cholesterol from activated cholesterol-loaded arterial macrophages. Recent studies, however, have recognized that the physical heterogeneity of HDLs is associated with multiple functions that involve both the protein and the lipid components of these particles. ApoA-I, quantitatively the major protein constituent, has an amphipathic structure suited for transport of lipids. It readily interacts with the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1, the SR-B1 scavenger receptor; activates the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), which is critical for HDL maturation. It also has antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, along with the HDL-associated enzymes paraoxonase, platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF), and glutathione peroxidase. Regarding the lipid moiety, an atheroprotective role has been recognized for lysosphingolipids, particularly sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). All of these atheroprotective functions are lost in the post-translational dependent dysfunctional plasma HDLs of subjects with systemic inflammation, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The emerging notion that particle quality has more predictive power than quantity has stimulated further exploration of the HDL proteome, already revealing unsuspected pro- or antiatherogenic proteins/peptides associated with HDL.—Scanu, A. M., Edelstein, C. HDL: bridging past and present with a look at the future. PMID:18716026

  3. Extremely high HDL levels in a patient with multiple symmetric lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Deiana, L; Pes, G M; Carru, C; Campus, G V; Tidore, M G; Cherchi, G M

    1993-12-31

    An extreme form of hyperalphalipoproteinemia was studied in a patient affected by multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL); four relatives and three MSL controls were also evaluated. Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins were measured and overall lipoprotein profile was assessed by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The patient showed a plasma HDL-cholesterol of 138 mg/dl and an apo A-I of 218 mg/dl; moreover significantly high HDL levels were found in two unaffected relatives. The hypobetalipoproteinemia trait was also found both in the patient and in one of his daughters. We suggest that some pre-existing conditions may enhance lipoprotein metabolism alterations in this lipid storage disease.

  4. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increase in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. The authors suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Red wine prevents the postprandial increase in plasma cholesterol oxidation products: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Natella, F; Macone, A; Ramberti, A; Forte, M; Mattivi, F; Matarese, R M; Scaccini, C

    2011-06-28

    Moderate wine consumption has been shown to lower cardiovascular risk. One of the mechanisms could involve the control of postprandial hyperlipaemia, a well-defined risk factor for atherosclerosis, reasonably by reducing the absorption of lipid oxidised species from the meal. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether wine consumption with the meal is able to reduce the postprandial increase in plasma lipid hydroperoxides and cholesterol oxidation products, in human subjects. In two different study sessions, twelve healthy volunteers consumed the same test meal rich in oxidised and oxidisable lipids (a double cheeseburger), with 300 ml of water (control) or with 300 ml of red wine (wine). The postprandial plasma concentration of cholesterol oxidation products was measured by GC-MS. The control meal induced a significant increase in the plasma concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and of two cholesterol oxidation products, 7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol. The postprandial increase in lipid hydroperoxides and cholesterol oxidation products was fully prevented by wine when consumed with the meal. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that consumption of wine with the meal could prevent the postprandial increase in plasma cholesterol oxidation products.

  6. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 on plasma cholesterol levels in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Park, S; Lee, H; Min, B; Jung, S; Park, S; Kim, E; Oh, S

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1, such as acid resistance, bile tolerance, adherence to HT-29 cells, and cholesterol assimilation activity. In an animal study, 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 (ca. 1.0×10(8) cfu/mL) for 10 wk. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in mice fed an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 than in those fed an HFD only, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar between these 2 groups. To understand the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. acidophilus NS1 on the HFD-mediated increase in plasma cholesterol levels, we determined mRNA levels of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (Srebp2) and LDL receptor (Ldlr) in the liver was dramatically reduced in mice fed a HFD compared with those fed a normal diet. When L. acidophilus NS1 was administered orally to HFD-fed mice, an HFD-induced suppression of Srebp2 and Ldlr expression in the liver was abolished. These results suggest that the oral administration of L. acidophilus NS1 to mice fed an HFD increased the expression of Srebp2 and Ldlr in the liver, which was inhibited by high fat intake, thus leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 could be a useful probiotic microorganism for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  7. The role of dysfunctional HDL in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Navab, Mohamad; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on HDL function in modulating LDL oxidation and LDL-induced inflammation. Dysfunctional HDL has been identified in animal models and humans with chronic inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. The loss of antiinflammatory function correlated with a loss of function in reverse cholesterol transport. In animal models and perhaps in humans, dysfunctional HDL can be improved by apoA-I mimetic peptides that bind oxidized lipids with high affinity. PMID:18955731

  8. Metabolic and functional relevance of HDL subspecies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) was described as early as 1950, HDL’s role in CVD still remains to be fully elucidated. There are numerous publications showing the inverse relationship between HDL-C and CVD risk; however, in t...

  9. Bone marrow-derived HL mitigates bone marrow-derived CETP-mediated decreases in HDL in mice globally deficient in HL and the LDLr.

    PubMed

    Hime, Neil J; Black, Audrey S; Bonnet, David J; Curtiss, Linda K

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the combined effects of HL and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), derived exclusively from bone marrow (BM), on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis in high-fat-fed, atherosclerosis-prone mice. We transferred BM expressing these proteins into male and female double-knockout HL-deficient, LDL receptor-deficient mice (HL(-/-)LDLr(-/-)). Four BM chimeras were generated, where BM-derived cells expressed 1) HL but not CETP, 2) CETP and HL, 3) CETP but not HL, or 4) neither CETP nor HL. After high-fat feeding, plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased in mice with BM expressing CETP but not HL (17 ± 4 and 19 ± 3 mg/dl, female and male mice, respectively) compared with mice with BM expressing neither CETP nor HL (87 ± 3 and 95 ± 4 mg/dl, female and male mice, respectively, P < 0.001 for both sexes). In female mice, the presence of BM-derived HL mitigated this CETP-mediated decrease in HDL-C. BM-derived CETP decreased the cholesterol component of HDL particles and increased plasma cholesterol. BM-derived HL mitigated these effects of CETP. Atherosclerosis was not significantly different between BM chimeras. These results suggest that BM-derived HL mitigates the HDL-lowering, HDL-modulating, and cholesterol-raising effects of BM-derived CETP and warrant further studies to characterize the functional properties of these protein interactions.

  10. Cell lipid metabolism modulators 2-bromopalmitate, D609, monensin, U18666A and probucol shift discoidal HDL formation to the smaller-sized particles: implications for the mechanism of HDL assembly.

    PubMed

    Quach, Duyen; Vitali, Cecilia; La, Fiona M; Xiao, Angel X; Millar, John S; Tang, Chongren; Rader, Daniel J; Phillips, Michael C; Lyssenko, Nicholas N

    2016-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates formation of disc-shaped high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from cell lipid and lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I). Discoidal HDL particles are heterogeneous in physicochemical characteristics for reasons that are understood incompletely. Discoidal lipoprotein particles similar in characteristics and heterogeneity to cell-formed discoidal HDL can be reconstituted from purified lipids and apo A-I by cell-free, physicochemical methods. The heterogeneity of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) is sensitive to the lipid composition of the starting lipid/apo A-I mixture. To determine whether the heterogeneity of cell-formed HDL is similarly sensitive to changes in cell lipids, we investigated four compounds that have well-established effects on cell lipid metabolism and ABCA1-mediated cell cholesterol efflux. 2-Bromopalmitate, D609, monensin and U18666A decreased formation of the larger-sized, but dramatically increased formation of the smaller-sized HDL. 2-Bromopalmitate did not appear to affect ABCA1 activity, subcellular localization or oligomerization, but induced dissolution of the cholesterol-phospholipid complexes in the plasma membrane. Arachidonic and linoleic acids shifted HDL formation to the smaller-sized species. Tangier disease mutations and inhibitors of ABCA1 activity wheat germ agglutinin and AG 490 reduced formation of both larger-sized and smaller-sized HDL. The effect of probucol was similar to the effect of 2-bromopalmitate. Taking rHDL formation as a paradigm, we propose that ABCA1 mutations and activity inhibitors reduce the amount of cell lipid available for HDL formation, and the compounds in the 2-bromopalmitate group and the polyunsaturated fatty acids change cell lipid composition from one that favors formation of the larger-sized HDL particles to one that favors formation of the smaller-sized species.

  11. Chylomicron remnant cholesteryl esters as the major constituent of very low density lipoproteins in plasma of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ross, A C; Zilversmit, D B

    1977-03-01

    Feeding rabbits 500 mg of cholesterol daily for 4 to 15 days greatly increased the concentration of esterified cholesterol in lipoproteins of d less than 1.006 g/ml. The origin of hypercholesterolemic very low density lipoproteins was investigated by monitoring the degradation of labeled lymph chyomicrons administered to normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits. Chylomicrons were labeled in vivo by feeding either 1) [3H]cholesterol and [14C]oleic acid or 2) [14C]cholesterol and [3H]retinyl acetate. After intravenous injection of labeled chylomicrons to recipient rabbits, [14C]triglyceride hydrolysis was equally rapid in normal and cholesterol-fed animals. Normal rabbits rapidly removed from plasma both labeled cholesteryl and retinyl esters, whereas cholesterol-fed rabbits retained nearly 50% of doubly labeled remnants in plasma 25 min after chylomicron injection. Ultracentrifugal separation of plasma into subfractions of very low density lipoproteins showed that chylomicron remnants in cholesterol-fed animals are found among all subclasses of very low density lipoproteins. Analysis of cholesteryl ester specific activity-time curves for the very low density lipoproteins subfraction from hypercholesterolemic plasma showed that nearly all esterified cholesterol in large very low density lipoproteins and approximately 30% of esterified cholesterol in small very low density lipoproteins was derived from chylomicron degradation. Apparently, nearly two-thirds of the esterified cholesterol in total very low density lipoproteins from moderately hypercholesterolemic rabbits is of dietary origin.

  12. Synthetic High-Density Lipoprotein-Like Nanocarrier Improved Cellular Transport of Lysosomal Cholesterol in Human Sterol Carrier Protein-Deficient Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Da-Eun; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Jeongmin

    2016-01-01

    Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2), which is not found in tissues of people with Zellweger syndrome, facilitates the movement of cholesterol within cells, resulting in abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient cells. This study investigated whether synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanocarrier (sHDL-NC) improves the cellular transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts. Human SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts were incubated with [(3)H-cholesterol]LDL as a source of cholesterol and sHDL-NC. The cells were fractionated by centrifugation permit tracking of [(3)H]-cholesterol from lysosome into plasma membrane. Furthermore, cellular content of cholesteryl ester as a storage form and mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor were measured to support the cholesterol transport to plasma membrane. Incubation with sHDL-NC for 8 h significantly increased uptake of [(3)H]-cholesterol to lysosome by 53% and further enhanced the transport of [(3)H]-cholesterol to plasma membrane by 32%. Treatment with sHDL-NC significantly reduced cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R). In conclusion, sHDL-NC enables increased transport of lysosomal cholesterol to plasma membrane. In addition, these data were indirectly supported by decreased cellular content of cholesteryl ester and increased gene expression of LDL-R. Therefore, sHDL-NC may be a useful vehicle for transporting cholesterol, which may help to prevent accumulation of cholesterol in SCP-2-deficient fibroblasts.

  13. The Arg59Trp variant in ANGPTL8 (betatrophin) is associated with total and HDL-cholesterol in American Indians and Mexican Americans and differentially affects cleavage of ANGPTL3.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert L; Leti, Fatjon; Tsinajinnie, Darwin; Kobes, Sayuko; Puppala, Sobha; Curran, Joanne E; Almasy, Laura; Lehman, Donna M; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DiStefano, Johanna K

    2016-06-01

    We previously identified a locus linked to total cholesterol (TC) concentration in Pima Indians on chromosome 19p. To characterize this locus, we genotyped >2000 SNPs in 1838 Pimas and assessed association with log(TC). We observed evidence for association with log(TC) with rs2278426 (3.5% decrease/copy of the T allele; P=5.045×10(-6)) in the ANGPTL8 (angiopoietin-like 8) gene. We replicated this association in 2413 participants of the San Antonio Mexican American Family Study (SAMAFS: 2.0% decrease per copy of the T allele; P=0.005842). In a meta-analysis of the combined data, we found the strongest estimated effect with rs2278426 (P=2.563×10(-7)). The variant T allele at rs2278426 predicts an Arg59Trp substitution and has previously been associated with LDL-C and HDL-C. In Pimas and SAMAFS participants, the T allele of rs2278426 was associated with reduced HDL-C levels (P=0.000741 and 0.00002, respectively), and the combined estimated effect for the two cohorts was -3.8% (P=8.526×10(-8)). ANGPTL8 transcript and protein levels increased in response to both glucose and insulin. The variant allele was associated with increased levels of cleaved ANGPTL3. We conclude that individuals with the variant allele may have lower TC and HDL-C levels due to increased activation of ANGPTL3 by ANGPTL8.

  14. Antihyperlipidemic effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate in rats fed a normal and high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Arundhati; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-01-01

    The dietary influence of sesame protein isolate (protein content 91.5%), produced from dehulled, defatted sesame meal, on blood and tissue lipid profile and lipid peroxidation has been assessed in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. To evaluate their hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed 18% sesame protein isolate with or without 2% cholesterol in comparison with casein to rats for 28 d. We determined plasma total protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triacylglycerol as well as susceptibility of plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid to oxidation ex vivo. Liver tissue lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxidations were also determined. The total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group than the corresponding control casein groups. HDL-cholesterol level was also increased in sesame protein isolate (41%) and protein isolate containing cholesterol group (38%) than the corresponding control casein and casein containing cholesterol groups. There was 49% and 64% lowering of plasma lipid peroxidation as well as 36% and 56% lowering of lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility (LOS) in the 2 experimental groups (sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group) than the corresponding control (casein and casein containing cholesterol) groups. There was significant lowering of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (68% and 63% lowering in sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol groups) and liver lipid peroxidation (61% and 76% lowering in the 2 experimental groups than the corresponding control casein groups). Therefore, our results indicate that sesame protein isolate decreases cholesterol concentration in plasma, increases HDL-cholesterol, and also decreases plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation with or

  15. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a gene encoding cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase into hamsters increases hepatic enzyme activity and reduces plasma total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Spady, D K; Cuthbert, J A; Willard, M N; Meidell, R S

    1995-01-01

    Clinical interventions that accelerate conversion of cholesterol to bile acids reduce circulating low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. The initial and rate-limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. To examine the effects of transient primary overexpression of this enzyme on sterol metabolism and lipoprotein transport, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus in which a cDNA encoding rat 7 alpha-hydroxylase is expressed from the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (AdCMV7 alpha). Syrian hamsters administered AdCMV7 alpha intravenously accumulated transgene-specific mRNA in the liver and demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in hepatic microsomal 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. The increased conversion of cholesterol to bile acids resulted in a compensatory increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In addition, overexpression of 7 alpha-hydroxylase reduced the rate of LDL cholesterol entry into the plasma space and, in animals maintained on a Western-type diet, restored hepatic LDL receptor expression. As a consequence, plasma LDL concentrations fell by approximately 60% in animals maintained on control diet and by approximately 75% in animals consuming a Western-type diet. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reduced to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that transient upregulation of bile acid synthesis by direct transfer of a 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene favorably alters circulating lipoprotein profiles and suggest one potential molecular target for genetic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk. Images PMID:7635963

  16. Protein and cholesterol electrophoresis of plasma samples from captive cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus).

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Field, Cara; McDermott, Alexa; Leppert, Lynda; Clauss, Tonya; Bossart, Gregory D

    2015-11-01

    Our study was undertaken to assess the application of semiautomated methods available at the reference laboratory level for the evaluation of plasma protein and cholesterol via electrophoresis in samples from cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus). Three groups of animals were assessed: clinically normal, clinically abnormal, and parasitized with leeches. As reported previously, the albumin band was negligible; the protein electrophoretograms were dominated by a large beta-globulin fraction. While the group of samples from the leech-parasitized rays did not show any large differences, the abnormal group exhibited significantly elevated total solids and cholesterol levels. The latter was related to a significant increase in very low density lipoprotein levels. The results demonstrate the potential application of these laboratory methods in quantitation of plasma proteins and cholesterol fractions in subclass Elasmobranchii.

  17. Effect of frequency of dosing of plant sterols on plasma cholesterol levels and synthesis rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the effects of plant sterols (PS) consumed as a single dose (single) at breakfast or as three doses consumed with breakfast, lunch and dinner (divided) on plasma lipoprotien levels and cholesterol endogenous fractional synthesis rate (FSR). A randomized, placebo-controll...

  18. Plasma cholesterol-lowering effect on rats of dietary fiber extracted from immature plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, N; Taniguchi, Y; Kiriyama, S

    2000-12-01

    Crude dietary fiber samples were prepared from beet, cabbage, Japanese radish, onion and mung bean sprouts (BF, CF, RF, OF and MF, respectively). These samples contained total dietary fiber at the levels of 814, 699, 760, 693 and 666 g/kg, respectively. To examine the effect of these dietary fiber sources on the plasma cholesterol concentration, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a fiber-free (FF) diet or on an FF diet supplemented with 5% or 10% dietary fiber. Dietary fiber extracted from vegetables, wood cellulose (CL), pectin (PE) and guar gum (GG) were used as the fiber sources. Compared with the rats fed on the FF diet, a significant reduction in the plasma cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats fed on BF, CF, RF, MF, PE or GG after a 21-d feeding period. Cecal acetate, n-butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids were significantly higher in the rats fed on these dietary fibers, except for CF, than in those fed on the FF diet. A negative correlation was apparent between the total dietary fiber content, hemicellulose content and pectin content of each dietary fiber source and the plasma cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that some vegetable fibers exert a plasma cholesterol-lowering effect through cecal fermentation of these fibers.

  19. Protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS) reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Sivak, Olena; Darlington, Jerry; Gershkovich, Pavel; Constantinides, Panayiotis P; Wasan, Kishor M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of chronic administration of protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS) on the plasma cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein (ApoE) deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficient mice were divided into the following treatment groups: protonated NSAS 1.4% (w/w), untreated control and 2% (w/w) stigmastanol mixed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet. Animals were treated for 12 weeks, blood samples were withdrawn every 4 weeks for determination of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the end of the study the aortic roots were harvested for assessment of atherosclerotic lesions. NSAS at 1.4% (w/w) and stigmastanol at 2% (w/w) treatment groups showed significant decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations at all time points relative to the control animals. The lesion sum area in 1.4% (w/w) NSAS and 2% (w/w) stigmastanol groups were significantly less from the control animals. In conclusion, in this study, the effectiveness of chronic administration of protonated NSAS material in the reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and decrease in development of atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated in Apo-E deficient mice model. PMID:19638223

  20. Life style and cardiovascular risk factors in the Japanese population--from an epidemiological survey on serum lipid levels in Japan 1990 part 1: influence of life style and excess body weight on HDL-cholesterol and other lipid parameters in men.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akira; Temba, Hitomi; Horibe, Hiroshi; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasushi; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Kita, Toru; Nakamura, Haruo

    2003-01-01

    Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) has long been used as an important predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD), although HDL-C values themselves are influenced by various factors including serum triglyceride (TG) levels, obesity, and life style. In view of the importance of the metabolic syndrome as a risk factor of CAD, changes in HDL-C and other lipid parameters in the Japanese population associated with life style, especially in males, were analyzed in this study based on data obtained in an epidemiological survey carried out in 1990. Smokers had higher TG and lower HDL-C levels than non-smokers, while BMI and LDL-C were slightly decreased by smoking in middle-aged men (40-59 years old). Increases in both HDL-C and TG due to alcohol consumption were associated with an increase in BMI in younger men aged 20-39. In middle-aged men, significant increases in HDL-C were seen in every quintile of BMI, while the increase in TG levels due to alcohol was small. Middle-aged men engaged in occupations requiring greater physical activity also had higher HDL-C levels in every quintile of BMI. The influence of life style on serum lipid parameters appeared to be mostly expressed as a function of BMI in younger men, while it appeared to be independent of BMI in older men.

  1. Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dysfunctional HDL in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rysz-Górzyńska, Magdalena; Banach, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic kidney disease is characterized by significant disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, including differences in quantitative and qualitative content of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Recent studies have revealed that serum HDL cholesterol levels do not predict CVD in CKD patients; thus CKD-induced modifications in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may be responsible for the increase in CV risk in CKD patients. Various methods are available to separate several subclasses of HDL and confirm their atheroprotective properties. However, under pathological conditions associated with inflammation and oxidation, HDL can progressively lose normal biological activities and be converted into dysfunctional HDL. In this review, we highlight the current state of knowledge on subfractions of HDL and HDL dysfunction in CKD.

  2. Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dysfunctional HDL in chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic kidney disease is characterized by significant disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, including differences in quantitative and qualitative content of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Recent studies have revealed that serum HDL cholesterol levels do not predict CVD in CKD patients; thus CKD-induced modifications in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may be responsible for the increase in CV risk in CKD patients. Various methods are available to separate several subclasses of HDL and confirm their atheroprotective properties. However, under pathological conditions associated with inflammation and oxidation, HDL can progressively lose normal biological activities and be converted into dysfunctional HDL. In this review, we highlight the current state of knowledge on subfractions of HDL and HDL dysfunction in CKD. PMID:27478466

  3. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils.

  4. NMR Structure of the C-Terminal Transmembrane Domain of the HDL Receptor, SR-BI, and a Functionally Relevant Leucine Zipper Motif.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Jensen, Davin R; Hanson, Paul J; Lange, Philip T; Proudfoot, Sarah C; Peterson, Francis C; Volkman, Brian F; Sahoo, Daisy

    2017-03-07

    The interaction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with its receptor, scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), is critical for lowering plasma cholesterol levels and reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The HDL/SR-BI complex facilitates delivery of cholesterol into cells and is likely mediated by receptor dimerization. This work describes the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to generate the first high-resolution structure of the C-terminal transmembrane domain of SR-BI. This region of SR-BI harbors a leucine zipper dimerization motif, which when mutated impairs the ability of the receptor to bind HDL and mediate cholesterol delivery. These losses in function correlate with the inability of SR-BI to form dimers. We also identify juxtamembrane regions of the extracellular domain of SR-BI that may interact with the lipid surface to facilitate cholesterol transport functions of the receptor.

  5. Glycaemic control influences the relationship between plasma PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Laugier-Robiolle, Stéphanie; Vergès, Bruno; Le Bras, Maëlle; Gand, Elise; Bouillet, Benjamin; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Le May, Cédric; Pichelin, Matthieu; Maréchaud, Richard; Petit, Jean-Michel; Hadjadj, Samy; Cariou, Bertrand

    2017-03-01

    Pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a critical regulator of LDL cholesterol metabolism. Little is known, however, about the regulation of PCSK9 in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the present study, we aimed to determine the relationship between circulating PCSK9 and metabolic variables in T1D. Plasma PCSK9 levels were measured in 195 people with T1D (mean age 38.8 years, mean diabetes duration 17.2 years, mean glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 8.3%), who were free of any lipid-lowering agent. Plasma PCSK9 was positively correlated with LDL cholesterol (P = .0007), triglycerides (P = .004), apolipoprotein B (P = .005), HbA1c (P = .003), systolic (P = .003) and diastolic (P = .001) blood pressure and body mass index (0.02). In multivariate analysis, PCSK9 concentration was independently associated with HbA1c (P = .02) and LDL cholesterol (P = .03). After classifying patients according to HbA1c tertile, the correlation between PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol was only observed in the highest tertile (P = .0006; Rho = 0.43), whereas no correlation was found in the lowest and intermediate tertiles. This study suggests that good glycaemic control abolishes the positive relationship between PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol in patients with T1D; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be established.

  6. Dietary copper in excess of nutritional requirement reduces plasma and breast muscle cholesterol of chickens.

    PubMed

    Bakalli, R I; Pesti, G M; Ragland, W L; Konjufca, V

    1995-02-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed from hatching to 42 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 250 mg copper/kg diet from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (for 35 or 42 d). Hypocholesterolemia (11.8% reduction) and decreased breast muscle cholesterol (20.4% reduction) were observed in copper-supplemented birds. There was a slight increase (P > .05) in breast muscle copper (14.5%), and all levels were very low (< .5 mg/kg). Feeding copper for 42 vs 35 d resulted in lower levels of cholesterol in the plasma (12.9 vs 10.8% reduction) and breast muscle (24.6 vs 16.2% reduction). Very similar results were found in two additional experiments in which hypocholesterolemia and reduced breast muscle cholesterol were associated with reduced plasma triglycerides and blood reduced glutathione. It is well known that hypercholesterolemia is a symptom of dietary copper deficiency. The data presented here indicate that blood and breast muscle cholesterol are inversely related to dietary copper in excess of the dietary requirement for maximal growth. The cholesterol content of the edible muscle tissue of broiler chickens can be reduced by approximately 25% after feeding a supranormal level of copper for 42 d without altering the growth of the chickens or substantially increasing the copper content of the edible meat.

  7. [FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF THE BLOOD PLASMA OF RABBIT UNDER ARGININE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Hopanenko, O O; Rivis, J F

    2015-01-01

    The content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol were studied in the blood plasma of rabbits under acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction using linseed oil. It is established that the transport and anti-inflammatory functions of blood plasma deteriorates under acute arginine pancreatitis due to a decrease of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids. The amount of cholesterol esterified with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increases in the blood plasma of rabbits. The concentration of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol is normalized and their fatty acid composition is improved in the lipid composition of the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis fed with linseed oil.

  8. Thermotropic lipid phase separations in human erythrocyte ghosts and cholesterol-enriched rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L M; Mobley, P W

    1984-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of human erythrocyte ghosts labeled with 5-nitroxide stearate, I(12,3), indicate that a temperature-dependent lipid phase separation occurs with a high onset at 38 degrees C. Cooling below 38 degrees C induces I(12,3) clustering. Similar phase separations were previously identified in human platelet and cholesterol-loaded [cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio (C/P) = 0.85] rat liver plasma membranes [L.M. Gordon et al., 1983; J. Membrane Biol. 76; 139-149]; these were attributed to redistribution of endogenous lipid components such that I(12,3) is excluded from cholesterol-rich domains and tends to reside in cholesterol-poor domains. Further enrichment of rat liver plasma membranes to C/P ratios of 0.94-0.98 creates an "artificial" system equivalent to human erythrocyte ghosts (C/P = 0.90), using such criteria as probe flexibility, temperature dependent I(12,3) clustering; and polarity of the probe environment. Consequently, cholesterol-rich and -poor domains probably exist in both erythrocyte ghosts and high cholesterol liver membranes at physiologic temperatures. The temperature dependence of cold-induced hypertonic lysis of intact human erythrocytes was examined by incubating cells in 0.9 M sucrose for 10 min at 1 degree C intervals between 9 and 46 degrees C (Stage 1), and then subjecting them to 0 degrees C for 10 min (Stage 2). Plots of released hemoglobin are approx. sigmoidal, with no lysis below 18 degrees C and maximal lysis above 40 degrees C. The protective effect of low temperatures during Stage 1 may be due to the formation of cholesterol-rich domains that alter the bilayer distribution and/or conformation of critical membrane-associated proteins.

  9. Defective removal of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids by apolipoprotein A-I in Tangier Disease.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, G A; Knopp, R H; Oram, J F

    1995-01-01

    Tangier disease is a rare genetic disorder characterized by extremely low plasma levels of HDL and apo A-I, deposition of cholesteryl esters in tissues, and a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the possibility that HDL apolipoprotein-mediated removal of cellular lipids may be defective in Tangier disease. With fibroblasts from normal subjects, purified apo A-I cleared cells of cholesteryl esters, depleted cellular free cholesterol pools available for esterification, and stimulated efflux of radiolabeled cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. With fibroblasts from two unrelated Tangier patients, however, apo A-I had little or no effect on any of these lipid transport processes. Intact HDL also was unable to clear cholesteryl esters from Tangier cells even though it promoted radiolabeled cholesterol efflux to levels 50-70% normal. Passive desorption of radiolabeled cholesterol or phospholipids into medium containing albumin or trypsinized HDL was normal for Tangier cells. Binding studies showed that the interaction of apo A-I with high-affinity binding sites on Tangier fibroblasts was abnormal. These results indicate that apo A-I has an impaired ability to remove cholesterol and phospholipid from Tangier fibroblasts, possibly because of a defective interaction of apo A-I with cell-surface binding sites. Failure of apo A-I to acquire cellular lipids may account for the rapid catabolism of nascent HDL particles and the low plasma HDL levels in Tangier disease. Images PMID:7615839

  10. Lipoprotein products of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer.

    PubMed

    Rose, H G; Ellerbe, P

    1982-09-14

    High-density lipoprotein substrates and products of human plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase have been labelled with radioisotopic cholesteryl esters in order to facilitate identification. [3H]Cholesteryl esters were formed by endogenous HDL3/VHDL enzyme (d greater than 1.125 g/ml) following incubation with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine, unesterified cholesterol and 3H-labelled unesterified cholesterol. Transfer of labelled esters to acceptor lipoproteins (VLDL+LDL, d less than 1.063 g/ml) was employed to distinguish a hypothetical transfer complex. Separation of labelled HDL3/VHDL was by gel-permeation chromatography. The results indicate that a subpopulation of labelled HDL3/VHDL cholesteryl esters (43-61% of total) were removed by VLDL/LDL during a 3 h transfer period and these derive from the smaller lipoproteins of the spectrum. HDL carrying non-transferable [3H]cholesteryl esters localize to the larger HDL3. Transfer rates were proportional to ratios of acceptor to donor lipoproteins. Net transfer of cholesteryl esters from the smaller HDL3 also occurred, but was smaller in magnitude (about 10.5% of total). Acyltransferase assays indicated that enzyme distribution is skewed to larger-sized HDL3, suggesting that the non-transferable components might be lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-containing parent complexes, while the smaller transfer products contain little acyltransferase. The results fit the hypothesis that a parent HDL3-lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase complex generates a smaller-sized lipoprotein product which is active in cholesteryl ester transport.

  11. Effect of dietary fish oil on fatty acid deposition and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver and plasma lipid profile: comparison of two animal models.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Rozíková, V; Zamazalová, N; Škultéty, O; Vícenová, M; Trčková, M; Faldyna, M

    2016-10-16

    The objective of the present study was to compare hepatic fatty acid deposition, plasma lipid level and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver of rats (Wistar Albino; n = 32) and pigs (Large White × Landrace; n = 32) randomly assigned into two groups of 16 animals each and fed 10 weeks the diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F; source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, EPA+DHA) or 2.5% of palm oil (P; high content of saturated fatty acids; control). F-rats deposited in the liver three times less EPA, but 1.3 times more DHA than F-pigs (p < 0.05). Dietary fish oil relative to palm oil increased PPARα and SREBP-2 gene expression much strongly (p < 0.01) in the pig liver in comparison with the rat liver, but expression of Insig-1 and Hmgcr genes in the liver of the F-pigs relative to the expression of these genes in the liver of the P-pigs was substantially lower (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) as compared to rats. When plasma lipid concentration in the F-animals was expressed as a ratio of the plasma concentration in the P-counterparts, dietary fish oil decreased HDL cholesterol less (p < 0.01), but LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols more (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively) in rats than in pigs: more favourable effect of fish oil on rat plasma lipids in comparison with pigs can therefore be concluded. Concentration of total cholesterol and both its fractions in the rat plasma was negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with hepatic DHA, but also with unsaturated myristic and palmitic acid respectively. It has been concluded that regarding the similarity of the plasma lipid levels to humans, porcine model can be considered superior; however, using this model, dietary fish oil at the tested amount (2.5%) was not able to improve plasma lipid markers in comparison with saturated palm oil.

  12. Mung bean decreases plasma cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Hao, Liu; Shi, Zhenxing; Wang, Lixia; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2014-06-01

    Our results affirmed that supplementation of 1 or 2% mung bean could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Mung bean increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Most importantly, mung bean increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of mung bean was most probable mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  13. A COCONUT EXTRA VIRGIN OIL-RICH DIET INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND DECREASES WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AND BODY MASS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Diuli A; Moreira, Annie S B; de Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    diferencia significativa entre los grupos para DC (-2,1 ± 2,7 cm; p < 0,01). Además, se produjo un aumento en las concentraciones de HDL-C, Apo A, con una diferencia significativa en GD, solo para HDL-C (3,1 ± 7,4 mg/dl; p = 0,02). Conclusión: se observó que el tratamiento nutricional asociado con el consumo de aceite de coco virgen extra redujo la CC e incrementó los niveles de HDL-C en pacientes con CAD.

  14. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  15. Reduction in cholesterol absorption is enhanced by stearate-enriched plant sterol esters in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Guderian, David M; Wray, Curtis A; Dussault, Patrick H; Schlegel, Vicki L; Carr, Timothy P

    2006-11-01

    Consumption of plant sterol esters reduces plasma LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption. Commercially available plant sterol esters are prepared by esterifying free sterols to fatty acids from edible plant oils such as canola, soybean, and sunflower. To determine the influence of the fatty acid moiety on cholesterol metabolism, plant sterol esters were made with fatty acids from soybean oil (SO), beef tallow (BT), or purified stearic acid (SA) and fed to male hamsters for 4 wk. A control group fed no plant sterol esters was also included. Hamsters fed BT and SA had significantly lower cholesterol absorption and decreased concentrations of plasma non-HDL cholesterol and liver esterified cholesterol, and significantly greater fecal sterol excretion than SO and control hamsters. Cholesterol absorption was lowest in hamsters fed SA (7.5%), whereas it was 72.9% in control hamsters. Cholesterol absorption was correlated with fecal sterol excretion (r = -0.72, P < 0.001), liver cholesterol concentration (r = 0.88, P < 0.001), and plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentration (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). A multiple regression model that included each sterol ester type vs. cholesterol absorption indicated that intake of steryl stearate was the only dietary component that contributed significantly to the model (R2 = -0.75, P < 0.001). Therefore, our results demonstrate that BT and SA are more effective than SO in reducing cholesterol absorption, liver cholesterol, and plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentration, suggesting that cardioprotective benefits can be achieved by consuming stearate-enriched plant sterol esters.

  16. Effects of acute exercise on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein subfractions in moderately trained females

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, P. M.; Fowler, S.; Warty, V.; Danduran, M.; Visich, P.; Keteyian, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have previously been reported after moderate exercise bouts lasting less than two hours in men. Little information exists, however, on HDL-C responses after moderate duration exercise in women. Post-exercise HDL- C modifications may appear differently in women because of higher baseline HDL-C concentrations and differences in lipolytic activity. To determine the influence of exercise on acute HDL-C responses in women, 12 trained premenopausal women (22 (4) years old; mean (SD)) who ran 24- 48 km a week exercised on a motor driven treadmill at 75% VO2MAX until 3.34 MJ (800 kcal) were expended (72 (9) min). Subjects were all tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Fasting blood samples were obtained before exercise (baseline), immediately after (IPE), one hour after (1 h PE), 24 hours after (24 h PE), and 48 hours after (48 h PE) exercise. Plasma was analysed for HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C. A significant increase in HDL-C was observed 48 h PE (p<0.05). HDL3-C increased IPE (p<0.01) but returned to baseline at 1 h PE. In contrast, HDL2-C was not significantly different from baseline at any time point. The rise in HDL-C, however, was attributed to an increase in both HDL2 and HDL3. Moreover, at 48 h PE, the increase in HDL-C correlated highly with changes in HDL2-C (r = 0.92). Thus it appears that exercise of moderate duration can elicit similar post- exercise increases in HDL-C in women to those previously reported in men. However, the changes in HDL subfractions leading to the rise in HDL-C may be different in women. 


 PMID:9562167

  17. [High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP): role in lipid metabolism and clinical meaning].

    PubMed

    Kleber, M E; Grammer, T B; März, W

    2010-07-01

    Large epidemiological studies have consistently shown that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk. The apparent cardioprotective role of HDL has primarily been attributed to its participation in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but there is also substantial evidence that supports the concept of HDL and apoA-I preventing oxidative damage, inhibiting systemic inflammation, promoting vascular integrity and preventing thrombosis. Besides conventional therapy to increase HDL like physical exercise, weight loss and dietary changes new strategies to intervene at various steps of its metabolism have been proposed and are in development. One of the most promising approaches is inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)which plays a central role in RCT by transferring cholesteryl esters from HDL to apoB containing lipoproteins in exchange for triglycerides. The failure of the CETP inhibitor torcetrapib, however, to cause any benefit on cardiovascular outcomes despite significantly increased HDL levels in several clinical trials casted doubts upon the concept of CETP inhibition. Meanwhile, off target toxicity could be shown for torcetrapib and a new generation of CETP inhibitors stands ready to be tested in large clinical trials. This article describes the formation and remodeling of HDL, how HDL is thought to be beneficial for the vasculature and what options we have today to increase HDL levels with a special focus on CETP inhibition.

  18. Cholesterol modulates CFTR confinement in the plasma membrane of primary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Pandzic, Elvis; Goepp, Julie; Matthes, Elizabeth; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2015-07-07

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a plasma-membrane anion channel that, when mutated, causes the disease cystic fibrosis. Although CFTR has been detected in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction prepared from airway epithelial cells, suggesting that it may partition into cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts), its compartmentalization has not been demonstrated in intact cells and the influence of microdomains on CFTR lateral mobility is unknown. We used live-cell imaging, spatial image correlation spectroscopy, and k-space image correlation spectroscopy to examine the aggregation state of CFTR and its dynamics both within and outside microdomains in the plasma membrane of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. These studies were also performed during treatments that augment or deplete membrane cholesterol. We found two populations of CFTR molecules that were distinguishable based on their dynamics at the cell surface. One population showed confinement and had slow dynamics that were highly cholesterol dependent. The other, more abundant population was less confined and diffused more rapidly. Treatments that deplete the membrane of cholesterol caused the confined fraction and average number of CFTR molecules per cluster to decrease. Elevating cholesterol had the opposite effect, increasing channel aggregation and the fraction of channels displaying confinement, consistent with CFTR recruitment into cholesterol-rich microdomains with dimensions below the optical resolution limit. Viral infection caused the nanoscale microdomains to fuse into large platforms and reduced CFTR mobility. To our knowledge, these results provide the first biophysical evidence for multiple CFTR populations and have implications for regulation of their surface expression and channel function.

  19. Dietary flaxseed lignan extract lowers plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Yi; Tian, Haimei; Flickinger, Brent; Empie, Mark W; Sun, Sam Z

    2008-06-01

    Lignans, derived from flaxseed, are phyto-oestrogens being increasingly studied for their health benefits. An 8-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in fifty-five hypercholesterolaemic subjects, using treatments of 0 (placebo), 300 or 600 mg/d of dietary secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from flaxseed extract to determine the effect on plasma lipids and fasting glucose levels. Significant treatment effects were achieved (P < 0.05 to < 0.001) for the decrease of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose concentrations, as well as their percentage decrease from baseline. At weeks 6 and 8 in the 600 mg SDG group, the decreases of TC and LDL-C concentrations were in the range from 22.0 to 24.38 % respectively (all P < 0.005 compared with placebo). For the 300 mg SDG group, only significant differences from baseline were observed for decreases of TC and LDL-C. A substantial effect on lowering concentrations of fasting plasma glucose was also noted in the 600 mg SDG group at weeks 6 and 8, especially in the subjects with baseline glucose concentrations > or = 5.83 mmol/l (lowered 25.56 and 24.96 %; P = 0.015 and P = 0.012 compared with placebo, respectively). Plasma concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone were all significantly raised in the groups supplemented with flaxseed lignan. The observed cholesterol-lowering values were correlated with the concentrations of plasma SECO and ED (r 0.128-0.302; P < 0.05 to < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary flaxseed lignan extract decreased plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Anneke M J; Saris, Wim H M; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Hul, Gabby B; Martinez, J Alfredo; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Stich, Vladimir; Astrup, Arne; Arner, Peter; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Blaak, Ellen E

    2008-12-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are atherogenic. However, factors that determine RLP-C are not fully understood. This study evaluates which factors affect RLP-C in the fasting and postprandial state, using multiple regression analyses in a large cohort of lean and obese participants. All participants (n = 740) underwent a test meal challenge containing 95 energy % (en%) fat (energy content 50% of predicted daily resting metabolic rate). Fasting and postprandial concentrations of circulating metabolites were measured over a 3-h period. Obese participants (n = 613) also participated in a 10-wk weight loss program (-2510 kJ/d), being randomized to either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (20-25 vs. 40-45en% fat). Postprandial RLP-C was associated with fasting RLP-C, waist:hip ratio (WHR), HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance) (P < 0.001), and age, independently of BMI and gender [adjusted R(2) (adj. R(2)) = 0.70). These factors were also related to fasting RLP-C (P < 0.010), along with gender and physical activity (adj. R(2) = 0.23). The dietary intervention resulted in significantly lower fasting RLP-C concentrations, independently mediated by weight loss, improvements in HOMA(IR), and the fat content of the prescribed diet. However, after inclusion of plasma triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and FFA concentrations in the models, HOMA(IR) and WHR no longer significantly predicted fasting RLP-C, although WHR remained a predictor of postprandial RLP-C (P = 0.002). Plasma TG was strongly associated with both fasting and postprandial RLP-C (P < 0.001). In conclusion, plasma RLP-C concentrations are mainly associated with plasma TG concentrations. Interestingly, the high-fat diet was more effective at decreasing fasting RLP-C concentrations in obese participants than the low-fat diet.

  1. Anticoagulant activity of tissue factor pathway inhibitor in human plasma is preferentially associated with dense subspecies of LDL and HDL and with Lp(a).

    PubMed

    Lesnik, P; Vonica, A; Guérin, M; Moreau, M; Chapman, M J

    1993-07-01

    Human plasma contains a multivalent, Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor termed tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), which specifically inhibits the action of the factor VII(a)-tissue factor complex in coagulation. In the present study, we examined the distribution and anticoagulant activity of TFPI among plasma lipoprotein subspecies separated by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation; this procedure permitted the simultaneous fractionation of the major lipoprotein classes (very-low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], intermediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], high-density lipoprotein [HDL] 2 and 3, and very-high-density lipoprotein [VHDL]). Studies of eight normolipidemic subjects revealed two major lipoprotein carriers of TFPI activity: dense LDL subspecies (d = 1.039 to 1.063 g/mL) and both dense HDL particles and VHDL (d = 1.133 to 1.190 g/mL), representing 33.8% and 35.9%, respectively, of the total lipoprotein-associated TFPI activity in plasma. TFPI activity was also associated with lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), whose density distribution (d = 1.044 to 1.100 g/mL) overlapped that of LDL and HDL2; such association was related to Lp(a)'s particle size and phenotype. VLDL, IDL, and LDL1 through LDL3 (d = 1.019 to 1.039 g/mL), HDL2 (d = 1.063 to 1.100 g/mL), and light subfractions of HDL3 (d = 1.100 to 1.167 g/mL) conveyed only 1.8%, 10%, and 18.5%, respectively, of lipoprotein-associated TFPI activity. Such anticoagulant activity was dependent on the presence of TFPI protein. The dense subspecies of HDL3 (d = 1.133 to 1.167 g/mL) with which TFPI was preferentially associated were small, displayed a cholesteryl ester to protein ratio of approximately 0.2, and were deficient in phospholipid (13.6% to 18.3%). HDL subspecies of d = 1.110 to 1.167 g/mL mainly contained the higher relative molecular mass form of TFPI of 41 kD (a form that is known to be covalently associated with apolipoprotein [apo] A-II) and minor bands of the 35- and 52-k

  2. Pleiotropic effects on subclasses of HDL, adiposity and glucose metabolism in adult Alaskan Eskimos

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, ME; Voruganti, VS; Cai, G; Cole, SA; Laston, S; Wenger, CR; MacCluer, JW; Dyke, B; Devereux, R; Ebbesson, SO; Fabsitz, RR; Howard, BV; Comuzzie, AG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the heritability and the presence of pleiotropic effects on subfractions of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), parameters for adiposity and glucose metabolism in adult Alaskan Eskimos. The present family study included 1214 adult Alaskan Eskimos (537 male/677 female). Body weight, height, circumferences, selected skinfolds and blood pressure were measured in all participants. Blood samples were collected under fasting conditions for isolation of plasma. Glucose, insulin, subclasses and size of lipoproteins, triglycerides, total and HDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) were measured in plasma. HbA1c was measured in total blood. Univariate and bivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted between HDL subclasses and size and the anthropometric and biochemical measures using the variance decomposition approach. Variation in all the analyzed traits exhibits a significant genetic component. Heritabilities ranged between 0.18 ± 0.11 for LDL2 (intermediate) to 0.89 ± 0.07 for small HDL. No common genetic effects were found on the HDL subclasses (small, intermediate and large). Small HDL particles were genetically correlated with LDL particles and HbA1c. Negative genetic correlations were observed between intermediate and large HDL subfractions and HDL size and measures of adiposity, LDL and parameters for glucose metabolism (HbA1, insulin). These observations confirm the presence of possible pleiotropic effects on HDL, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors and provide novel insight on the relationship between HDL subclasses, adiposity and glucose regulation. PMID:19950191

  3. [Role of the ABC transporters A1 and G1, key reverse cholesterol transport proteins, in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Demina, E P; Miroshnikova, V V; Schwarzman, A L

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Epidemiology studies firmly established an inverse relationship between atherogenesis and distorted lipid metabolism, in particular, higher levels of total cholesterol, an accumulation of CH-laden macrophages (foam cells), and lower plasma levels of antiatherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL). It is believed that the reverse cholesterol transport, a process that removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues/cells including macrophages to circulating HDL, is one of the main mechanisms responsible for anti-atherogenic properties of HDL. The key proteins of reverse cholesterol transport-ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1)-mediate the cholesterol efflux from macrophages and prevent their transformation into foam cells. This review focuses on the role of ABC transporters A1 and G1 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  4. Profound induction of hepatic cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgene expression in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein receptor gene knockout mice. A novel mechanism signals changes in plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed Central

    Masucci-Magoulas, L; Plump, A; Jiang, X C; Walsh, A; Breslow, J L; Tall, A R

    1996-01-01

    The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to other lipoproteins and is a key regulated component of reverse cholesterol transport. Dietary hypercholesterolemia results in increased hepatic CETP gene transcription and higher plasma CETP levels. To investigate the mechanisms by which the liver senses hypercholesterolemia, mice containing a natural flanking region CETP transgene (NFR-CETP transgene) were bred with apo E or LDL receptor gene knockout mice (E0 or LDLr0 mice). Compared to NFR-CETP transgenic (Tg) mice with intact apo E genes, in NFR-CETP Tg/E0 mice there was an eightfold induction of plasma CETP levels and a parallel increase in hepatic CETP mRNA levels. Other sterol-responsive genes (LDL receptor and hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase) also showed evidence of altered regulation with decreased abundance of their mRNAs in the E0 background. A similar induction of plasma CETP and hepatic CETP mRNA levels resulted from breeding the NFR-CETP transgene into the LDL receptor gene knockout background. When placed on a high cholesterol diet, there was a further increase in CETP levels in both E0 and LDLr0 backgrounds. In CETP Tg, CETP Tg/E0, and CETP Tg/LDLr0 mice on different diets, plasma CETP and CETP mRNA levels were highly correlated with plasma cholesterol levels. The results indicate that hepatic CETP gene expression is driven by a mechanism which senses changes in plasma cholesterol levels independent of apo E and LDL receptors. Hepatic sterol-sensitive genes have mechanisms to sense hypercholesterolemia that do not require classical receptor-mediated lipoprotein uptake. PMID:8550828

  5. Intestinal epithelial cell caveolin 1 regulates fatty acid and lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Chieh; Quinlivan, Vanessa; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Farber, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Caveolae and their structural protein caveolin 1 (CAV1) have roles in cellular lipid processing and systemic lipid metabolism. Global deletion of CAV1 in mice results in insulin resistance and increases in atherogenic plasma lipids and cholesterol, but protects from diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. Despite the fundamental role of the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of dietary lipid processing and metabolism, the contributions of CAV1 to lipid metabolism in this tissue have never been directly investigated. In this study the cellular dynamics of intestinal Cav1 were visualized in zebrafish and the metabolic contributions of CAV1 were determined with mice lacking CAV1 in intestinal epithelial cells (CAV1IEC-KO). Live imaging of Cav1–GFP and fluorescently labeled caveolae cargos shows localization to the basolateral and lateral enterocyte plasma membrane (PM), suggesting Cav1 mediates transport between enterocytes and the submucosa. CAV1IEC-KO mice are protected from the elevation in circulating fasted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol associated with a high-fat diet (HFD), but have increased postprandial LDL cholesterol, total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The increase in circulating FAs in HFD CAV1IEC-KO mice is mirrored by decreased hepatic FAs, suggesting a non-cell-autonomous role for intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 in promoting hepatic FA storage. In conclusion, CAV1 regulates circulating LDL cholesterol and several FA species via the basolateral PM of enterocytes. These results point to intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 as a potential therapeutic target to lower circulating FFAs and LDL cholesterol, as high levels are associated with development of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:28130355

  6. Preparation of immuno-affinity membranes for cholesterol removal from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Denizli, Adil

    2002-06-05

    Anti-low density lipoprotein antibody (anti-LDL) immobilized polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based membrane was prepared for selective removal of cholesterol from hypercholesterolemic human plasma. In order to further increase blood-compatibility, a newly synthesized comonomer, methacryloylamidophenylalanine (MAPA) was included in the membrane formulation. p(HEMA-MAPA) membranes were produced by a photopolymerization and then characterized by swelling tests, SEM and contact angle studies. Blood-compatibility tests were also investigated. The water swelling ratio of the p(HEMA-MAPA) membrane increases significantly (133.2.9%) compared with pHEMA (58%). p(HEMA-MAPA) membranes have large pores around in the range of 5-10 microm. All the clotting times increased when compared with pHEMA membranes. Loss of platelets and leukocytes was very low. The maximum anti-LDL antibody immobilization was achieved around pH 7.0. Immobilization of anti-LDL antibody was 12.6 mg/ml. There was a very low non-specific cholesterol adsorption onto the plain p(HEMA-MAPA) membranes, about 0.36 mg/ml. Anti-LDL antibody immobilized membranes adsorbed in the range of 4.5-7.2 mg cholesterol/ml from hypercholesterolemic human plasma. Up to 95% of the adsorbed LDL antibody was desorbed. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 10 times using the same membrane. There was no significant loss in the adsorption capacity.

  7. Optical Properties of Europium Tetracycline Complexes in the Presence of High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) Subfractions.

    PubMed

    Sicchieri, Letícia Bonfante; Monteiro, Andrea Moreira; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio Martins; Gomes, Laércio; Courrol, Lilia Coronato

    2016-12-12

    Standard lipoprotein measurements of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) fail to identify many lipoprotein abnormalities that contribute to cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD). Studies suggested that the presence of CHD is more strongly associated with the HDL subspecies than with total HDL cholesterol levels. The HDL particles can be collected in at least three subfractions, the HDL2b, HDL2a, and HDL3. More specifically, atherosclerosis is associated with low levels of HDL2. In this work, the optical spectroscopic properties of europium tetracycline (EuTc) complex in the presence of different HDL subspecies was studied. The results show that the europium spectroscopic properties in the EuTc complex are influenced by sizes and concentrations of subclasses. Eu(3+) emission intensity and lifetime can discriminate the subfractions HDL3 and HDL2b.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Oxysterols, Cholesterol and 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D3 in Human Plasma by LC-UV-MS

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Rohini; Iyer, Vignesh; Khare, Prachi; Bodziak, Mary Lou; Badgett, Darlene; Zivadinov, Robert; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Rideout, Todd C.; Ramanathan, Murali; Browne, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxysterols are promising biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases that are linked with cholesterol and vitamin D metabolism. There is an unmet need for methods capable of sensitive, and simultaneous quantitation of multiple oxysterols, vitamin D and cholesterol pathway biomarkers. Methods A method for simultaneous determination of 5 major oxysterols, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 and cholesterol in human plasma was developed. Total oxysterols were prepared by room temperature saponification followed by solid phase extraction from plasma spiked with deuterated internal standards. Oxysterols were resolved by reverse phase HPLC using a methanol/water/0.1% formic acid gradient. Oxysterols and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were detected with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion mode; in-series photodiode array detection at 204nm was used for cholesterol. Method validation studies were performed. Oxysterol levels in 220 plasma samples from healthy control subjects, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders patients were quantitated. Results Our method quantitated 5 oxysterols, cholesterol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 from 200 μL plasma in 35 minutes. Recoveries were >85% for all analytes and internal standards. The limits of detection were 3-10 ng/mL for oxysterols and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 and 1 μg/mL for simultaneous detection of cholesterol. Analytical imprecision was <10 %CV for 24(S)-, 25-, 27-, 7α-hydroxycholesterol (HC) and cholesterol and ≤15 % for 7-keto-cholesterol. Multiple Sclerosis and other neurological disorder patients had lower 27-hydroxycholesterol levels compared to controls whereas 7α-hydroxycholesterol was lower specifically in Multiple Sclerosis. Conclusion The method is suitable for measuring plasma oxysterols levels in human health and disease. Analysis of human plasma indicates that the oxysterol, bile acid precursors 7α-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol are lower in Multiple Sclerosis and

  9. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  10. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  11. The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Joseph, J Mini; Ramaswamy, V K; Moorthi, M; Kumar, A Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) has been documented as a traditional treatment for cholesterol and diabetes patients. In the present study, coriander seeds incorporated into diet and the effect of the administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats, fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The seeds had a significant hypolipidemic action. In the experimental group of rats (tissue) the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides increased significantly There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol decreased while that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT enhanced degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.

  12. Utility of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hemodialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Laura; González, Ana I; Elbert, Alicia; Berg, Gabriela; Wikinski, Regina

    2004-08-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is proposed as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Measuring non-HDL-C, as total cholesterol minus HDL-C, is convenient for routine practice because, among other advantages, fasting is not required. There are limited data of non-HDL-C in end-stage renal disease patients. We applied non-HDL-C calculation to 50 chronic renal patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and 20 healthy subjects, apart from measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) HDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (IDL-C), apoprotein (apo) B, and triglycerides. HD patients presented higher plasma triglycerides and IDL-C and lower HDL-C than the control group, even after adjustment for age (P < .05). VLDL-C increased in HD patients (P < .001) while differences in non-HDL-C did not reach significance (P = .08). To detect which parameter constitutes a better marker of CVD risk among HD patients, a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed considering HD patients in the highest risk group for CVD. In the ROC graphic, the plots of VLDL and IDL-C exhibited the greater observed accuracy and the best performance, while non-HDL-C showed a curve close to the 45 degrees line indicating that this parameter is a poor discriminator for evaluating CVD risk among HD patients. Non-HDL-C calculation, expressing all apo B-containing lipoproteins, may miss the significant contribution of each atherogenic lipoprotein, such as increase in IDL. This observation would not be in agreement with the currently proposed application of non-HDL-C a useful tool for risk assessment among HD patients.

  13. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihuan; Cheang, Wai San; Wang, Xiaobo; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Ma, Ka Ying; Zheng, Fangrui; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-08-20

    Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2.6 mmol of capsinoids (OH), respectively. Results showed capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC), reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and relax the aortic artery. This was accompanied by a 28-175% increase in fecal excretion of acidic sterols in hamsters fed the diets containing capsaicinoids. Similarly, capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease the pad weights of epididymal and prerenal adipose tissues. It was concluded that capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could favorably modulate plasma lipids and possess beneficial vascular activity.

  14. Sequential estrogen-progestin replacement therapy in healthy postmenopausal women: effects on cholesterol efflux capacity and key proteins regulating high-density lipoprotein levels.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Natalia; Arteaga, Eugenio; Bustos, Paulina; Durán-Sandoval, Daniel; Schulze, Kim; Castro, Graciela; Jauhiainen, Matti; Fruchart, Jean Charles; Calvo, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    Thirty healthy postmenopausal women were randomized into 2 groups that received a sequential combined hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) (n = 18; conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg/d for 28 days and 5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate during the last 14 days) or placebo (n = 12). Plasma samples were collected before and during treatment (days 0, 15, 43, 71). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid content, lipoprotein (Lp)A-I and LpA-I:LpA-II concentration, lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase activity (LCAT), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, and the plasma capacity to carry out cholesterol efflux from Fu5AH cells were measured. Most significant changes were found within the first 15 days after HRT. After 71 days of HRT, we found an increase in LpA-I lipoparticles (27%) and the following HDL lipids: phospholipids (21%), triglycerides (45%), and free cholesterol (43%), as well as an increase in cholesterol efflux (12.5%). PLTP activity, on the other hand, decreased 21% after 71 days of treatment. No significant changes in LCAT activity, HDL-cholesterol ester or LpA-I:LpA-II particles were found. Positive correlation between cholesterol efflux and the variables LpA-I and HDL-phospholipids were observed. PLTP was negatively correlated with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, LpA-I, and LpA-I:LpA-II. In summary, our study, performed during 3 hormonal cycles, shows that HRT not only modifies HDL-cholesterol level, but also its lipid composition and HDL lipoparticle distribution. HRT enhances the plasma capacity to carry out cholesterol efflux from the Fu5AH system and decreases the activity of PLTP, a key protein regulating HDL levels. Considering the protocol sampling, these results represent mainly the estrogenic effect of HRT.

  15. Improved plasma cholesterol levels in men after a nutrition education program at the worksite.

    PubMed

    Baer, J T

    1993-06-01

    Eighty management-level male employees participated in a company-sponsored comprehensive physical that included determination of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and percentage of body fat. After the lipid screening, each employee met with a registered dietitian who explained the results of the lipid analysis and discussed risk factors for coronary heart disease with an emphasis on diet. Seventy employees had a triglyceride level above 5.17 mmol/L and were invited to participate in a nutrition education program. Thirty-three (mean age = 44 years) chose to participate (intervention group); the other 37 (mean age = 35 years) served as controls (control group). Thus, the design of the study was not random. All subjects completed 3-day dietary records before and after the nutrition education program. Nutrition intervention consisted of (a) individualized instruction about the step 1 diet; (b) group sessions (1 hour every 3 months) on eating out, dietary fiber, and maintaining heart healthy behaviors; and (c) individualized follow-up by telephone (one call per month). The results of the year-long program revealed that men in the intervention group decreased dietary intake of energy (2,546 +/- 162 kcal to 2,246 +/- 125 kcal) and cholesterol (444 +/- 5.3 mg to 304 +/- 1.6 mg) and percentage of energy from total fat (38 +/- 3.4% to 31 +/- 2.6%) and protein (24 +/- 3.5% to 20 +/- 2.2%). Their consumption of carbohydrate and dietary fiber increased (38 +/- 2.1% to 45 +/- 2.5% and 8.0 +/- 2.3 g to 23.0 +/- 3.5 g, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. RAGE Suppresses ABCG1-Mediated Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Daffu, Gurdip; Shen, Xiaoping; Senatus, Laura; Thiagarajan, Devi; Abedini, Andisheh; Hurtado del Pozo, Carmen; Rosario, Rosa; Song, Fei; Friedman, Richard A.; Ramasamy, Ravichandran

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes exacerbates cardiovascular disease, at least in part through suppression of macrophage cholesterol efflux and levels of the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is highly expressed in human and murine diabetic atherosclerotic plaques, particularly in macrophages. We tested the hypothesis that RAGE suppresses macrophage cholesterol efflux and probed the mechanisms by which RAGE downregulates ABCA1 and ABCG1. Macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A1 and HDL and reverse cholesterol transport to plasma, liver, and feces were reduced in diabetic macrophages through RAGE. In vitro, RAGE ligands suppressed ABCG1 and ABCA1 promoter luciferase activity and transcription of ABCG1 and ABCA1 through peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARG)–responsive promoter elements but not through liver X receptor elements. Plasma levels of HDL were reduced in diabetic mice in a RAGE-dependent manner. Laser capture microdissected CD68+ macrophages from atherosclerotic plaques of Ldlr−/− mice devoid of Ager (RAGE) displayed higher levels of Abca1, Abcg1, and Pparg mRNA transcripts versus Ager-expressing Ldlr−/− mice independently of glycemia or plasma levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Antagonism of RAGE may fill an important therapeutic gap in the treatment of diabetic macrovascular complications. PMID:26253613

  17. Higher Plasma LDL-Cholesterol is Associated with Preserved Executive and Fine Motor Functions in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Nicholas W.; Lichtenstein, Maya; Lee, Eun-Young; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Evans, Alicia; Eslinger, Paul J.; Du, Guangwei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Kong, Lan; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol has been associated both with risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and with age-related changes in cognitive function. This prospective study examined the relationship between baseline plasma LDL-cholesterol and cognitive changes in PD and matched Controls. Fasting plasma LDL-cholesterol levels were obtained at baseline from 64 non-demented PD subjects (62.7 ± 7.9 y) and 64 Controls (61.3 ± 6.8 y). Subjects underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing at baseline, 18-, and 36-months. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to assess the relationships between baseline LDL-cholesterol levels and longitudinal cognitive changes. At baseline, PD patients had lower scores of fine motor (p<0.0001), executive set shifting (p=0.018), and mental processing speed (p=0.049) compared to Controls. Longitudinally, Controls demonstrated improved fine motor and memory test scores (p=0.044, and p=0.003), whereas PD patients demonstrated significantly accelerated loss in fine motor skill (p=0.002) compared to Controls. Within the PD group, however, higher LDL-cholesterol levels were associated with improved executive set shifting (β=0.003, p<0.001) and fine motor scores (β=0.002, p=0.030) over time. These associations were absent in Controls (p>0.7). The cholesterol - executive set shifting association differed significantly between PDs and Controls (interaction p=0.005), whereas the cholesterol - fine motor association difference did not reach significance (interaction, p=0.104). In summary, higher plasma LDL-cholesterol levels were associated with better executive function and fine motor performance over time in PD, both of which may reflect an effect on nigrostriatal mediation. Confirmation of these results and elucidation of involved mechanisms are warranted, and might lead to feasible therapeutic strategies. PMID:27330838

  18. Higher Plasma LDL-Cholesterol is Associated with Preserved Executive and Fine Motor Functions in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Nicholas W; Lichtenstein, Maya; Lee, Eun-Young; Lewis, Mechelle M; Evans, Alicia; Eslinger, Paul J; Du, Guangwei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Kong, Lan; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-05-01

    Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol has been associated both with risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with age-related changes in cognitive function. This prospective study examined the relationship between baseline plasma LDL-cholesterol and cognitive changes in PD and matched Controls. Fasting plasma LDL-cholesterol levels were obtained at baseline from 64 non-demented PD subjects (62.7 ± 7.9 y) and 64 Controls (61.3 ± 6.8 y). Subjects underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing at baseline, 18-, and 36-months. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to assess the relationships between baseline LDL-cholesterol levels and longitudinal cognitive changes. At baseline, PD patients had lower scores of fine motor (p<0.0001), executive set shifting (p=0.018), and mental processing speed (p=0.049) compared to Controls. Longitudinally, Controls demonstrated improved fine motor and memory test scores (p=0.044, and p=0.003), whereas PD patients demonstrated significantly accelerated loss in fine motor skill (p=0.002) compared to Controls. Within the PD group, however, higher LDL-cholesterol levels were associated with improved executive set shifting (β=0.003, p<0.001) and fine motor scores (β=0.002, p=0.030) over time. These associations were absent in Controls (p>0.7). The cholesterol - executive set shifting association differed significantly between PDs and Controls (interaction p=0.005), whereas the cholesterol - fine motor association difference did not reach significance (interaction, p=0.104). In summary, higher plasma LDL-cholesterol levels were associated with better executive function and fine motor performance over time in PD, both of which may reflect an effect on nigrostriatal mediation. Confirmation of these results and elucidation of involved mechanisms are warranted, and might lead to feasible therapeutic strategies.

  19. Plasma proteomic analysis of stable coronary artery disease indicates impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Trayambak; Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Ahmad, Shadab; Garg, Gaurav; V, Sreenivas; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Seth, Sandeep; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the largest causes of death worldwide yet the traditional risk factors, although useful in identifying people at high risk, lack the desired predictive accuracy. Techniques like quantitative plasma proteomics holds immense potential to identify newer markers and this study (conducted in three phases) was aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in stable CAD patients. In the first (discovery) phase, plasma from CAD cases (angiographically proven) and controls were subjected to iTRAQ based proteomic analysis. Proteins found to be differentially expressed were then validated in the second and third (verification and validation) phases in larger number of (n = 546) samples. After multivariate logistic regression adjusting for confounding factors (age, diet, etc.), four proteins involved in the reverse cholesterol pathway (Apo A1, ApoA4, Apo C1 and albumin) along with diabetes and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with CAD and could account for approximately 88% of the cases as revealed by ROC analysis. The maximum odds ratio was found to be 6.70 for albumin (p < 0.0001), followed by Apo AI (5.07, p < 0.0001), Apo CI (4.03, p = 0.001), and Apo AIV (2.63, p = 0.003). Down-regulation of apolipoproteins and albumin implicates the impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway in CAD. PMID:27350024

  20. Plasma proteomic analysis of stable coronary artery disease indicates impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway.

    PubMed

    Basak, Trayambak; Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Ahmad, Shadab; Garg, Gaurav; V, Sreenivas; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Seth, Sandeep; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2016-06-28

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the largest causes of death worldwide yet the traditional risk factors, although useful in identifying people at high risk, lack the desired predictive accuracy. Techniques like quantitative plasma proteomics holds immense potential to identify newer markers and this study (conducted in three phases) was aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in stable CAD patients. In the first (discovery) phase, plasma from CAD cases (angiographically proven) and controls were subjected to iTRAQ based proteomic analysis. Proteins found to be differentially expressed were then validated in the second and third (verification and validation) phases in larger number of (n = 546) samples. After multivariate logistic regression adjusting for confounding factors (age, diet, etc.), four proteins involved in the reverse cholesterol pathway (Apo A1, ApoA4, Apo C1 and albumin) along with diabetes and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with CAD and could account for approximately 88% of the cases as revealed by ROC analysis. The maximum odds ratio was found to be 6.70 for albumin (p < 0.0001), followed by Apo AI (5.07, p < 0.0001), Apo CI (4.03, p = 0.001), and Apo AIV (2.63, p = 0.003). Down-regulation of apolipoproteins and albumin implicates the impairment of reverse cholesterol pathway in CAD.

  1. Promotion of classic neutral bile acids synthesis pathway is responsible for cholesterol-lowing effect of Si-miao-yong-an decoction: Application of LC-MS/MS method to determine 6 major bile acids in rat liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ruowen; Gu, Liqiang; Chen, Xiaohui

    2017-02-20

    Si-miao-yong-an decoction (SMYAD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, significantly reduced plasma TC, LDL-c levels and increased HDL-c level in hyperlipidemia rats. Liver function test and tissue section examination indicated that SMYAD improved liver function and reduced fat accumulation in hyperlipidemia rat liver. A LC-MS/MS method was established and well validated to evaluate major bile acids derived from cholesterol metabolism through the classic neutral pathway and the alternative acidic pathway (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and their taurine and glycine conjugates) in liver and plasma. Increased total 6 bile acids concentrations in both liver and plasma were observed after oral administration of 12g/kg/d, 24g/kg/d and 36g/kg/d of SMYAD in a dose dependent manner which contributed to eliminate of cholesterol. Cholic acid, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid act as the main products of bile acid classic neutral synthesis pathway and show sharp increase (p<0.01) after treatment of SMYAD at dosage of 24-36g/kg/d. For liver samples, taurocholic acid level act as the largest growth section, while in plasma samples, cholic acid act as the largest growth section after SMYAD treatment, compared with Model group. By contrast, the main products of alternative acidic pathway (chenodeoxycholic acid and its glycine and taurine conjugates) show no significant increase after treatment of SMYAD. In conclusion, the cholesterol lowing effect of SMYAD may be related with the accelerated transformation of cholesterol into bile acids through the classic neutral pathway.

  2. The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) regulates esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davis, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters are a large family (~48 genes divided into seven families A-G) of proteins that utilize the energy of ATP-hydrolysis to pump substrates across lipid bilayers against a concentration gradient. The ABC "A" subfamily is comprised of 13 members and transport sterols, phospholipids and bile acids. ABCA2 is the most abundant ABC transporter in human and rodent brain with highest expression in oligodendrocytes, although it is also expressed in neurons. Several groups have studied a possible connection between ABCA2 and Alzheimer's disease as well as early atherosclerosis. ABCA2 expression levels have been associated with changes in cholesterol and sphingolipid metabolism. In this paper, we hypothesized that ABCA2 expression level may regulate esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism. ABCA2 overexpression in N2a neuroblastoma cells was associated with an altered bilayer distribution of the sphingolipid ceramide that inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and cholesterol esterification. In contrast, depletion of endogenous ABCA2 in the rat schwannoma cell line D6P2T increased esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol following treatment with exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase. These findings suggest that control of ABCA2 expression level may be a key locus of regulation for esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol through modulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

  3. Prospective study of malabsorption induced risk of gall stone formation in relation to fall in plasma cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T I; Andersen, B; Hylander, E; Jensen, L I; Laursen, K; Klein, H C

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cholesterol in plasma and risk of gall stone formation was investigated in 210 obese patients who underwent jejunoileal bypass surgery and were free of gall stone disease at the time. Among 185, successfully reexamined on average 19 months after surgery, 26 (14%) developed gall stones. The fall in plasma cholesterol after surgery exhibited a U-shaped relation to risk of gall stone formation with a minimum risk around the average fall (2.6 mmol/l). This was confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis (p less than 0.01) taking into account other possible determinants. The relation was not significantly dependent on weight loss or ratio between jejunum and ileum left in function. The study suggests that malabsorption induced fall in plasma cholesterol is related to risk of gall stone formation by two oppositely working mechanisms, one enhancing and one reducing the risk.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCMO1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a marker-trait association study we estimated the statistical significance of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 candidate genes on HDL levels of two independent Caucasian populations. Each population consisted of men and women and their HDL levels were adjusted for gender and body weight. We used a linear regression model. Selected genes corresponded to folate metabolism, vitamins B-12, A, and E, and cholesterol pathways or lipid metabolism. Methods Extracted DNA from both the Sacramento and Beltsville populations was analyzed using an allele discrimination assay with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform. The adjusted phenotype, y, was HDL levels adjusted for gender and body weight only statistical analyses were performed using the genotype association and regression modules from the SNP Variation Suite v7. Results Statistically significant SNP (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included: CETP (rs7499892 and rs5882); SLC46A1 (rs37514694; rs739439); SLC19A1 (rs3788199); CD36 (rs3211956); BCMO1 (rs6564851), APOA5 (rs662799), and ABCA1 (rs4149267). Many prior association trends of the SNP with HDL were replicated in our cross-validation study. Significantly, the association of SNP in folate transporters (SLC46A1 rs37514694 and rs739439; SLC19A1 rs3788199) with HDL was identified in our study. Conclusions Given recent literature on the role of niacin in the biogenesis of HDL, focus on status and metabolism of B-vitamins and metabolites of eccentric cleavage of β-carotene with lipid metabolism is exciting for future study. PMID:23656756

  5. PPARγ activation redirects macrophage cholesterol from fecal excretion to adipose tissue uptake in mice via SR-BI

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Sue-Anne; Millar, John S.; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Fuki, Ilia; Naik, Snehal U.; Macphee, Colin; Walker, Max; Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    PPARγ agonists, used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, can raise HDL-cholesterol, therefore could potentially stimulate macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We aimed to test whether PPARγ activation promotes macrophage RCT in vivo. Macrophage RCT was assessed in mice using cholesterol loaded/3H-cholesterol labeled macrophages. PPARγ agonist GW7845 (20 mg/kg/day) did not change 3H-tracer plasma appearance, but surprisingly decreased fecal 3H-free sterol excretion by 43% (P < 0.01) over 48 h. Total free cholesterol efflux from macrophages to serum (collected from control and GW7845 groups) was not different, although ABCA1-mediated efflux was significantly higher with GW7845. To determine the effect of PPARγ activation on HDL cholesterol uptake by different tissues, the metabolic fate of HDL labeled with 3H-cholesteryl ether (CE) was also measured. We observed two-fold increase in HDL derived 3H-CE uptake by adipose tissue (P < 0.005) with concomitant 22% decrease in HDL derived 3H-CE uptake by the liver (P < 0.05) in GW7845 treated wild type mice. This was associated with a significant increase in SR-BI protein expression in adipose tissue, but not liver. The same experiment in SR-BI knockout mice, showed no difference in HDL derived 3H-CE uptake by adipose tissue or liver. In conclusion, PPARγ activation decreases the fecal excretion of macrophage derived cholesterol in mice. This is not due to inhibition of cholesterol efflux from macrophages, but rather involves redirection of effluxed cholesterol from liver towards adipose tissue uptake via SR-BI. This represents a novel mechanism for regulation of RCT and may extend the therapeutic implications of these ligands. PMID:21291868

  6. Omentin-1 plasma levels and cholesterol metabolism in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: impact of weight reduction

    PubMed Central

    Lesná, J; Tichá, A; Hyšpler, R; Musil, F; Bláha, V; Sobotka, L; Zadák, Z; Šmahelová, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Omentin-1 is an anti-inflammatory adipokine produced preferentially by visceral adipose tissue. Plasma levels of omentin-1 are decreased in obesity and other insulin-resistant states. Insulin resistance contributes to the changes of cholesterol synthesis and absorption as well. The aim of this study was to characterise omentin-1 plasma levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 during weight reduction, and to elucidate the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and omentin-1. Methods: Plasma levels of omentin-1 were measured in obese type 1 diabetics (n=14, body mass index >30 kg m−2, age 29–62 years) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BioVendor). Gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (Fisons Plc.,) was used to measure squalene and non-cholesterol sterols—markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption (phase I). Measurements were repeated after 1 month (phase II; 1 week of fasting in the hospital setting and 3 weeks on a diet containing 150 g saccharides per day) and after 1 year (phase III) on a diet with 225 g saccharides per day. Results: Omentin-1 plasma levels were stable during phases I and II, but significantly increased (P<0.001) during phase III. Omentin-1 plasma dynamics were significantly associated with plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (P=0.005) and triacylglycerols (P=0.01), as well as with lathosterol (P=0.03). Conclusion: Omentin-1 plasma levels significantly increased during the weight reduction programme. Omentin-1 plasma dynamics suggest a close relationship with cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26524638

  7. Inflammation modulates human HDL composition and function in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation may directly impair HDL functions, in particular reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), but limited data support this concept in humans. Our study was designed to investigate this relationship. We employed low-dose human endotoxemia to assess the effects of inflammation on HDL and RCT-rel...

  8. Comparison of the lipid and apolipoprotein composition of skeletal muscle and peripheral lymph in control dogs and in dogs fed a high fat, high cholesterol, hypothyroid-inducing diet.

    PubMed

    Sloop, C H; Castle, C K; Lefevre, M; Wong, L

    1993-08-11

    Most studies of peripheral interstitial fluid lipoprotein composition have been made on interstitial fluid-derived from skin and connective tissue. We developed techniques which allowed simultaneous comparison of lymph (a model of interstitial fluid) from skeletal muscle and skin in control (C) and cholesterol-fed (CF) dogs. Lipoprotein fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation. Skeletal muscle interstitial fluid HDL concentrations were approximately twice those of skin. However, the concentration of VLDL-LDL particles was similar in both interstitial spaces. HDL particles from both microvascular beds showed evidence of extensive remodelling when compared to plasma HDL from the same animal. Relative to apo A-I, skeletal muscle HDL was enriched in free cholesterol and apo E (C and CF dogs) and apo A-IV (CF dogs). Skin-derived HDL was consistently enriched in free cholesterol, apo E and A-IV in both C and CF dogs. These studies indicate that similar remodeling of plasma HDL occurs in widely different tissues which together constitute approximately 70% of the total interstitial space. The relatively high concentration of plasma-derived and remodeled HDL within the interstitial space of skeletal muscle is consistent with that tissue's importance in reverse cholesterol transport.

  9. Regulation of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) synthesis, degradation, and translocation by high-density lipoprotein(2) at a low concentration.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Pownall, H J

    2000-12-01

    (,Although plasma HDL(2) cholesterol concentration stands in inverse relation to risk for atherosclerotic disease, little is known about the mechanism of the apparent cardioprotection. In mouse P388D1 macrophages, HDL(2) at a low concentration (< or = 40 microg/mL) inhibits macrophage acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme that catalyzes esterification of intracellular cholesterol. The effects of HDL(2) on ACAT synthesis, degradation, and intracellular translocation were investigated in mouse P388D1 macrophages. HDL(2) at a low concentration enhanced ACAT synthesis but not total ACAT mass. Immunocytochemical studies showed that in the absence of lipoproteins, ACAT associated primarily with the perinuclear region of the cell. The addition of HDL(2), however, induced the transfer of ACAT to vesicular structures and the cell periphery adjacent to the plasma membrane. Subfractionation combined with immunoprecipitation complemented these observations and showed that HDL(2) promoted the transfer of ACAT to the plasma membrane fraction. Brefeldin A, which inhibits vesicular protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi compartment in mammalian cells, blocked ACAT translocation and partially restored ACAT activity. These results suggest that HDL(2) is an initiating factor in a signal transduction pathway that leads to intracellular ACAT translocation and inactivation.

  10. Chitosan oligosaccharide decreases very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daxin; Han, Jiju; Yu, Yang; Li, Xueping; Wang, Yun; Tian, Hua; Guo, Shoudong; Jin, Shiguang; Luo, Tian; Qin, Shucun

    2011-09-01

    It is well known that chitosan has beneficial lipid-regulating effects, but it remains unknown whether chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), the chitosan degradation product, has the same lipid benefits. High-fat-diet-fed Wistar rats were administrated with COS by gastric gavage for three weeks. The effects of COS on lipids, lipoprotein components and lipid metabolism related protein activities were investigated. Plasma lipids level assays by an enzyme method showed that COS decreased triglyceride (TG) by 29-31%, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 8-11%, but did not affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Lipid distribution analysis through fast protein liquid chromatography indicated that COS significantly decreased TG content distributed in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/LDL fractions but increased cholesterol content in HDL fractions. Apolipoprotein analysis through plasma ultracentrifugation and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis displayed that COS decreased apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL and increased apolipoprotein E of LDL and apolipoprotein B-100 of VLDL, but did not change apoA-I content of HDL particles. Lipoprotein formation associated protein determination showed that COS also increased plasma activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase but not phospholipid transfer protein. The present study suggests that COS may play a beneficial role in plasma lipid regulation of rats with dyslipidemia induced by high-fat diet. The COS-decreased VLDL/LDL TG and -enhanced HDL cholesterol may be related to the upregulated activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase.

  11. Hampering Effect of Cholesterol on the Permeation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Phospholipids Bilayer: Possible Explanation for Plasma Cancer Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Paal, Jonas; Verheyen, Claudia; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ability of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPS) to selectively induce cell death in cancer cells has been widely established. This selectivity has been assigned to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) created in CAPs. To provide new insights in the search for an explanation for the observed selectivity, we calculate the transfer free energy of multiple ROS across membranes containing a varying amount of cholesterol. The cholesterol fraction is investigated as a selectivity parameter because membranes of cancer cells are known to contain lower fractions of cholesterol compared to healthy cells. We find that cholesterol has a significant effect on the permeation of reactive species across a membrane. Indeed, depending on the specific reactive species, an increasing cholesterol fraction can lead to (i) an increase of the transfer free energy barrier height and width, (ii) the formation of a local free energy minimum in the center of the membrane and (iii) the creation of extra free energy barriers due to the bulky sterol rings. In the context of plasma oncology, these observations suggest that the increased ingress of RONS in cancer cells can be explained by the decreased cholesterol fraction of their cell membrane.

  12. Hampering Effect of Cholesterol on the Permeation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Phospholipids Bilayer: Possible Explanation for Plasma Cancer Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Van der Paal, Jonas; Verheyen, Claudia; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ability of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPS) to selectively induce cell death in cancer cells has been widely established. This selectivity has been assigned to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) created in CAPs. To provide new insights in the search for an explanation for the observed selectivity, we calculate the transfer free energy of multiple ROS across membranes containing a varying amount of cholesterol. The cholesterol fraction is investigated as a selectivity parameter because membranes of cancer cells are known to contain lower fractions of cholesterol compared to healthy cells. We find that cholesterol has a significant effect on the permeation of reactive species across a membrane. Indeed, depending on the specific reactive species, an increasing cholesterol fraction can lead to (i) an increase of the transfer free energy barrier height and width, (ii) the formation of a local free energy minimum in the center of the membrane and (iii) the creation of extra free energy barriers due to the bulky sterol rings. In the context of plasma oncology, these observations suggest that the increased ingress of RONS in cancer cells can be explained by the decreased cholesterol fraction of their cell membrane. PMID:28059085

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Association of APOE Genetic Variation with Plasma Lipoprotein Traits in U.S. Whites and African Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Zaheda H.; Wang, Xingbin; Waqar, Fahad; Pirim, Dilek; Niemsiri, Vipavee; Hokanson, John E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Barmada, M. Michael; Demirci, F. Yesim; Kamboh, M. Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Although common APOE genetic variation has a major influence on plasma LDL-cholesterol, its role in affecting HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides is not well established. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that APOE also affects plasma variation in HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. It is thus important to resequence the APOE gene to identify both common and uncommon variants that affect plasma lipid profile. Here, we have sequenced the APOE gene in 190 subjects with extreme HDL-cholesterol levels selected from two well-defined epidemiological samples of U.S. non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and African Blacks followed by genotyping of identified variants in the entire datasets (623 NHWs, 788 African Blacks) and association analyses with major lipid traits. We identified a total of 40 sequence variants, of which 10 are novel. A total of 32 variants, including common tagSNPs (≥5% frequency) and all uncommon variants (<5% frequency) were successfully genotyped and considered for genotype-phenotype associations. Other than the established associations of APOE*2 and APOE*4 with LDL-cholesterol, we have identified additional independent associations with LDL-cholesterol. We have also identified multiple associations of uncommon and common APOE variants with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Our comprehensive sequencing and genotype-phenotype analyses indicate that APOE genetic variation impacts HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in addition to affecting LDL-cholesterol. PMID:25502880

  14. Ultrafast Diffusion of a Fluorescent Cholesterol Analog in Compartmentalized Plasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Hiramoto-Yamaki, Nao; Tanaka, Kenji A K; Suzuki, Kenichi G N; Hirosawa, Koichiro M; Miyahara, Manami S H; Kalay, Ziya; Tanaka, Koichiro; Kasai, Rinshi S; Kusumi, Akihiro; Fujiwara, Takahiro K

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol distribution and dynamics in the plasma membrane (PM) are poorly understood. The recent development of Bodipy488-conjugated cholesterol molecule (Bdp-Chol) allowed us to study cholesterol behavior in the PM, using single fluorescent-molecule imaging. Surprisingly, in the intact PM, Bdp-Chol diffused at the fastest rate ever found for any molecules in the PM, with a median diffusion coefficient (D) of 3.4 µm2/second, which was ∼10 times greater than that of non-raft phospholipid molecules (0.33 µm2/second), despite Bdp-Chol's probable association with raft domains. Furthermore, Bdp-Chol exhibited no sign of entrapment in time scales longer than 0.5 milliseconds. In the blebbed PM, where actin filaments were largely depleted, Bdp-Chol and Cy3-conjugated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (Cy3-DOPE) diffused at comparable Ds (medians = 5.8 and 6.2 µm2/second, respectively), indicating that the actin-based membrane skeleton reduces the D of Bdp-Chol only by a factor of ∼2 from that in the blebbed PM, whereas it reduces the D of Cy3-DOPE by a factor of ∼20. These results are consistent with the previously proposed model, in which the PM is compartmentalized by the actin-based membrane-skeleton fence and its associated transmembrane picket proteins for the macroscopic diffusion of all of the membrane molecules, and suggest that the probability of Bdp-Chol passing through the compartment boundaries, once it enters the boundary, is ∼10× greater than that of Cy3-DOPE. Since the compartment sizes are greater than those of the putative raft domains, we conclude that raft domains coexist with membrane-skeleton-induced compartments and are contained within them. PMID:24506328

  15. LDL but not HDL increases adiponectin release of primary human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Neumeier, Markus; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Dada, Ashraf; Schmitz, Gerd; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Buechler, Christa

    2013-12-01

    Adipocytes in obesity have inappropriately low cholesterol while adiponectin release is reduced. Cholesterol shortage may contribute to low adiponectin and 3T3-L1 cells treated with lovastatin have diminished adiponectin in cell supernatants. LDL and HDL deliver cholesterol to adipocytes. LDL but not HDL increases adiponectin in cell supernatants of primary human adipocytes. The effect of LDL is not blocked by receptor associated protein suggesting that members of the LDL-receptor family are not involved. To evaluate whether these in vitro observations translate into changes in systemic adiponectin, adiponectin was measured in serum of three patients before, immediately after and 3d after LDL-apheresis. Whereas circulating lipoproteins are reduced immediately after apheresis adiponectin is not changed. Therefore, acute lowering of lipoproteins does not affect systemic adiponectin also excluding that plenty of adiponectin is bound to lipoprotein particles. Accordingly, levels of adiponectin in purified lipoproteins are quite low. Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is a rare disorder associated with low plasma LDL. Serum adiponectin is, however, similar compared to healthy controls. Thus, neither LDL nor HDL directly contributes to circulating adiponectin concentrations.

  16. Deficiency and supplementation of PUFA in the diet have similar effects on the age-associated changes in rat-plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Straniero, Sara; Cavallini, Gabriella; Donati, Alessio; Metelli, Maria Rita; Tamburini, Ilaria; Pietrini, Pietro; Bergamini, Ettore

    2008-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholesterol, particularly LDL cholesterol, increase with increasing age in humans and rodents. Feeding a fish oil-rich diet may exert hypocholesterolemic effects. The aim of this work was to examine the effects of a life-long administration of a PUFA-enriched diet and of a PUFA-deficient diet in male Sprague-Dawley rats on the age-associated increases in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Diet had small effects on body-weight, and had dramatic effects on liver phospholipids-fatty acids. Surprisingly, both diets counteracted the age-associated changes in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides similarly and benefits were already visible in adult rats.

  17. Rapid turn-over of plasma membrane sphingomyelin and cholesterol in baby hamster kidney cells after exposure to sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Slotte, J P; Härmälä, A S; Jansson, C; Pörn, M I

    1990-12-14

    Plasma membrane sphingomyelin in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells was hydrolyzed with sphingomyelinase (Staphylococcus aureus) and the effects on membrane cholesterol translocation and the properties of membrane bound adenylate cyclase and Na+/K(+)-ATPase were determined. Exposure of confluent BHK-21 cells to 0.1 U/ml of sphingomyelinase led to the degradation (at 37 degrees C) of about 60% of cell sphingomyelin. No simultaneous hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine occurred. The hydrolysis of sphingomyelin subsequently led to the translocation (within 40 min) of about 50-60% of cell [3H]cholesterol from a cholesterol oxidase susceptible pool to an oxidase resistant compartment. The translocation of [3H]cholesterol from the cell surface to intracellular membranes was accompanied by a paralleled increase in [3H]cholesterol ester formation. When cells were first exposed to sphingomyelinase (to degrade sphingomyelin) and then incubated without the enzyme in serum-free media, the mass of cell sphingomyelin decreased initially (by 60%), but then began to increase and reached control levels within 3-4 h. The rapid re-synthesis of sphingomyelin was accompanied by an equally rapid normalization of cell [3H]cholesterol distribution. The re-formation of cell sphingomyelin also led to a decreased content of cellular [3H]cholesterol esters, indicating that unesterified [3H]cholesterol was pulled out of the cholesterol ester cycle and transported to the cell surface. Exposure of BHK-21 cells to sphingomyelinase further led to a dramatically decreased activity of ouabain-sensitive Na+/K(+)-ATPase, whereas forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected. The activity of Na+/K(+)-ATPase returned to normal in parallel with the normalization of cell sphingomyelin mass and cholesterol distribution. We conclude that sphingomyelin has profound effects on the steady-state distribution of cell cholesterol, and that manipulations of cell sphingomyelin levels directly and

  18. Effects of cholesterol on plasma membrane lipid order in MCF-7 cells by two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yixiu; Chen, Jianling; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipids- enriched microdomains on plasma membrane surface of mammal cells, involved in a variety of cellular processes. Depleting cholesterol from the plasma membrane by drugs influences the trafficking of lipid raft markers. Optical imaging techniques are powerful tools to study lipid rafts in live cells due to its noninvasive feature. In this study, breast cancer cells MCF-7 were treated with different concentrations of MβCD to deplete cholesterol and an environmentally sensitive fluorescence probe, Laurdan was loaded to image lipid order by two-photon microscopy. The generalized polarization (GP) values were calculated to distinguish the lipid order and disorder phase. GP images and GP distributions of native and cholesterol-depleted MCF-7 cells were obtained. Our results suggest that even at low concentration (0.5 mM) of MβCD, the morphology of the MCF-7 cells changes. Small high GP areas (lipid order phase) decrease more rapidly than low GP areas (lipid disorder phase), indicating that lipid raft structure was altered more severely than nonraft domains. The data demonstrates that cholesterol dramatically affect raft coverage and plasma membrane fluidity in living cells.

  19. Oxidized Phospholipids Inhibit the Formation of Cholesterol-Dependent Plasma Membrane Nanoplatforms

    PubMed Central

    Brameshuber, Mario; Sevcsik, Eva; Rossboth, Benedikt K.; Manner, Christina; Deigner, Hans-Peter; Peksel, Begüm; Péter, Mária; Török, Zsolt; Hermetter, Albin; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a single-molecule microscopy method termed TOCCSL (thinning out clusters while conserving stoichiometry of labeling), which allows for direct imaging of stable nanoscopic platforms with raft-like properties diffusing in the plasma membrane. As a consensus raft marker, we chose monomeric GFP linked via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor to the cell membrane (mGFP-GPI). With this probe, we previously observed cholesterol-dependent homo-association to nanoplatforms diffusing in the plasma membrane of live CHO cells. Here, we report the release of this homo-association upon addition of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) or 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, two oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) that are typically present in oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein. We found a dose-response relationship for mGFP-GPI nanoplatform disintegration upon addition of POVPC, correlating with the signal of the apoptosis marker Annexin V-Cy3. Similar concentrations of lysolipid showed no effect, indicating that the observed phenomena were not linked to properties of the lipid bilayer itself. Inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase by NB-19 before addition of POVPC completely abolished nanoplatform disintegration by oxPLs. In conclusion, we were able to determine how oxidized lipid species disrupt mGFP-GPI nanoplatforms in the plasma membrane. Our results favor an indirect mechanism involving acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than a direct interaction of oxPLs with nanoplatform constituents. PMID:26745423

  20. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Scope Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. Methods and results One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: –1.8%, –12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, –7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: –2.1%, –8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, –5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Conclusion Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. PMID:25851421

  1. LIPC variants in the promoter and intron 1 modify HDL-C levels in a sex-specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Mary F; Myers, Richard H; Pankow, James S; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2009-05-01

    We previously reported linkage for plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on 15q21 in Caucasian families from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study (NHLBI FHS). Hepatic lipase gene (LIPC), which has a major role in lipoprotein metabolism, resides within the linkage region and constitutes an obvious candidate gene. While hepatic lipase is a known player in HDL metabolism, the relationship between common LIPC variants and HDL-C levels remains unclear. In the current study, we employed population-based and family-based tests of association with both quantitative HDL-C levels and a dichotomous dyslipidemia trait (affected men: HDL<40 mg/dL and women: HDL<50 mg/dL, denoted as low HDL). We genotyped 19 tag-SNPs spanning 139.9 kb around the LIPC in the 591 families (2238 subjects). Strong association in a proxy-promoter 5' SNP (rs261342) and HDL-C levels was detected in women, but not in men. The less common allele was associated with an increase of approximately 14% in HDL-C levels, and a decrease of approximately 30% in risk of low HDL. In addition, strong association in women of an intron 1 SNP (rs12593008) and low HDL and moderate association in men (rs8028759) with both HDL-C levels and low HDL phenotype were found and may represent either functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or more likely, SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with functional variants. Because of the association of lipid abnormalities with diabetes, and other lifestyle parameters, we also performed association analyses using different covariate adjustments as well as strategically selected sub-samples. The sex-specific association of rs261342, rs12593008 or rs8028759 remained substantially the same through these analyses. Finally, we found that a common haplotype was overtransmitted to offspring with low HDL-C. The sex-specific associations found in our study could be due to the interactions with the endogenous hormonal environment, lifestyle

  2. Separation of the principal HDL subclasses by iodixanol ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Nicola L.; Griffin, Bruce A.; Davies, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    HDL subclasses detection, in cardiovascular risk, has been limited due to the time-consuming nature of current techniques. We have developed a time-saving and reliable separation of the principal HDL subclasses employing iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation (IxDGUC) combined with digital photography. HDL subclasses were separated in 2.5 h from prestained plasma on a three-step iodixanol gradient. HDL subclass profiles were generated by digital photography and gel scan software. Plasma samples (n = 46) were used to optimize the gradient for the resolution of HDL heterogeneity and to compare profiles generated by IxDGUC with gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE); further characterization from participants (n = 548) with a range of lipid profiles was also performed. HDL subclass profiles generated by IxDGUC were comparable to those separated by GGE as indicated by a significant association between areas under the curve for both HDL2 and HDL3 (HDL2, r = 0.896, P < 0.01; HDL3, r = 0.894, P < 0.01). The method was highly reproducible, with intra- and interassay coefficient of variation percentage < 5 for percentage area under the curve HDL2 and HDL3, and < 1% for peak Rf and peak density. The method provides time-saving and cost-effective detection and preparation of the principal HDL subclasses. PMID:23690506

  3. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Boue, Stephen M; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2013-06-19

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy are believed to contribute to the health benefits. Glyceollin is one of the candidate phytochemicals synthesized in stressed soy that may account for many unique biological activities. In this study, the in vivo cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins was investigated. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets including (1) 36 kcal% fat diet, (2) 36 kcal% fat diet containing 250 mg/kg diet glyceollins, or (3) chow for 28 days. Hepatic cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, hepatic total lipid content, plasma lipoproteins, fecal bile acid, fecal total cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolism related gene expressions were measured. Glyceollin supplementation led to significant reduction of plasma VLDL, hepatic cholesterol esters, and total lipid content. Consistent with changes in circulating cholesterol, glyceollin supplementation also altered expression of the genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver. In contrast, no change in plasma LDL and HDL, fecal bile acid, or cholesterol content was observed. The cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins appeared not to go through the increase of bile excretion. These results supported glyceollins' role as novel soy-derived cholesterol-lowering phytochemicals that may contribute to soy's health effects.

  4. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  5. HDL Cholesterol: How to Boost Your 'Good' Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  6. Enhancement by LDL of transfer of L-4F and oxidized lipids to HDL in C57BL/6J mice and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Meriwether, David; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Grijalva, Victor; Hough, Greg; Vakili, Ladan; Anantharamaiah, G M; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Shechter, Ishaiahu

    2011-10-01

    The apoA-I mimetic peptide L-4F [(Ac-D-W-F-K-A-F-Y-D-K-V-A-E-K-F-K-E-A-F-NH2) synthesized from all L-amino acids] has shown potential for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Here, we demonstrate that LDL promotes association between L-4F and HDL. A 2- to 3-fold greater association of L-4F with human HDL was observed in the presence of human LDL as compared with HDL by itself. This association further increased when LDL was supplemented with the oxidized lipid 15S-hydroxy-5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 13E-eicosatetraenoic acid (15HETE). Additionally, L-4F significantly (P = 0.02) promoted the transfer of 15HETE from LDL to HDL. The transfer of L-4F from LDL to HDL was demonstrated both in vitro and in C57BL/6J mice. L-4F, injected into C57BL/6J mice, associated rapidly with HDL and was then cleared quickly from the circulation. Similarly, L-4F loaded onto human HDL and injected into C57BL/6J mice was cleared quickly with T(1/2) = 23.6 min. This was accompanied by a decline in human apoA-I with little or no effect on the mouse apoA-I. Based on these results, we propose that i) LDL promotes the association of L-4F with HDL and ii) in the presence of L-4F, oxidized lipids in LDL are rapidly transferred to HDL allowing these oxidized lipids to be acted upon by HDL-associated enzymes and/or cleared from the circulation.

  7. Interrelationships among HDL metabolism, aging, and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Walter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    HDL plasma concentrations decline with age in prospective studies. Decline in HDL concentration and function may occur secondary because of hormonal changes, inflammatory processes, and diabetes mellitus. Beyond these effects specific aging processes may be involved. Replicative aging, the telomere-driven loss of divisional capacity, is a species-specific aging mechanism that may decrease HDL concentration and function. Cross-sectionally, by contrast, HDL levels do not change much or even slightly increase with age, suggesting that only people with still high HDL concentrations survive. A selection bias by HDL lowering genetic variation may explain why HDL deficiency is extremely rare among centenarians. Vice versa, HDL may modulate the aging process, not only by its well-known antiatherogenic effects, eg, its ability to remove cellular lipids and by antiatherogenic pleiotropic effects on cell survival, but possibly also by direct interfering with aging signaling or survival factor KLOTHO. Most of the current findings, however, are based on cell culture and selected animal experiments and await further confirmation by appropriate in vivo models.

  8. The pleiotropic role of HDL in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Parra, Sandra; Castro, Antoni; Masana, Luis

    2015-01-01

    As is widely known, the classic function of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thus removing cholesterol from peripheral tissues. Early epidemiological studies, such as Framingham's, stated that increased HDL levels were associated with a significant decrease in relative risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, those with heightened expectations in recent years for the development of therapeutic targets to increase HDL levels have been disappointed, because efforts have demonstrated the opposite effect on cardiovascular and global mortality. However, in contrast, studies have highlighted the complexity and the intriguing role of HDL in different pathological conditions, such as infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune diseases. In this review an attempt is made to summarize some biological pathways that link HDL function with the immune system, and its possible clinical repercussions in autoimmune diseases.

  9. Primary hyperlipidemias in children: effect of plant sterol supplementation on plasma lipids and markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption.

    PubMed

    Guardamagna, O; Abello, F; Baracco, V; Federici, G; Bertucci, P; Mozzi, A; Mannucci, L; Gnasso, A; Cortese, C

    2011-06-01

    Plant sterols lower serum cholesterol concentration. Available data have confirmed the lipid-lowering efficacy in adults, while there is a relative dearth of data in children and almost exclusively restricted to subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of plant sterol supplementation in children with different forms of primary hyperlipidemias. The effect of plant sterol consumption on plasma lipids was evaluated in 32 children with heterozygous FH, 13 children with Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia (FCH) and 13 children with Undefined Hypercholesterolemia (UH) in a 12-week open-label intervention study using plant sterol-enriched yoghurt. Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins were measured by routine methods. Markers of cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) and absorption (campesterol and sitosterol) were measured by GC-MS. Tolerability and adherence to recommended regimen was very high. A significant reduction was observed in LDL-cholesterol in the three groups (10.7, 14.2 and 16.0% in FH, FCH and UH, respectively). Lathosterol concentrations were unchanged, reflecting a lack of increased synthesis of cholesterol. Of the two absorption markers, only sitosterol showed a slight but significant increase. Daily consumption of plant sterol dairy products favorably changes lipid profile by reducing LDL-cholesterol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of plant sterols-enriched foods in treating children with primary hyperlipidemia such as FCH and UH, likely to be the most frequent form also in the young age in the western populations.

  10. miRNA Modulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the roles of the SREBP1 and SREBP2 transcription factors in regulating fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and uptake have been known for some time, it was recently discovered that two related microRNAs, miR-33a and miR-33b, are embedded in these genes. Studies indicate that miR-33a and miR-33b act with their host genes, Srebp2 and Srebp1, respectively, to reciprocally regulate cholesterol homeostasis and fatty acid metabolism in a negative feedback loop. miR-33 has been shown to post-transcriptionally repress key genes involved in cellular cholesterol export and HDL metabolism (Abca1, Abcg1, Npc1), fatty acid oxidation (Crot, Cpt1a, Hadhb, Ampk), and glucose metabolism (Sirt6, Irs2). Delivery of inhibitors of miR-33 in vitro and in vivo relieves repression of these genes resulting in up-regulation of the associated metabolic pathways. In mouse models, miR-33 antagonism has proven has proven to be an effective strategy for increasing plasma HDL cholesterol and fatty acid oxidation, and protecting from atherosclerosis. These exciting findings have opened up promising new avenues for the development of therapeutics to treat dyslipidemia and other metabolic disorders. PMID:22011750

  11. HDL measures, particle heterogeneity, proposed nomenclature, and relation to atherosclerotic cardiovascular events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence from epidemiological data, animal studies, and clinical trials supports HDL as the next target to reduce residual cardiovascular risk in statin-treated, high-risk patients. For more than 3 decades, HDL cholesterol has been employed as the principal clinical measure of HDL ...

  12. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X; Park, Youngki; Martin, Derek A; Xie, Liyang; Taheri, Rod; Lee, Jiyoung; Bolling, Bradley W

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich chokeberry extract (CBE) would modulate hepatic lipid metabolism and improve antioxidant function in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed diets containing 15% fat with 0.2% cholesterol alone or supplemented with 0.005% or 0.05% CBE for 4 weeks. CBE polyphenol content was determined by the total phenols, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 0.05% CBE diet provided mice with mean daily doses of 1.2 mg gallic acid equivalents of total phenols, 0.19 mg anthocyanins, 0.17 mg phenolic acids, 0.06 mg proanthocyanidins (as catechin-equivalents), and 0.02 mg flavonols. The 0.05% CBE group had 12% less plasma total cholesterol concentrations than the control. Despite the hypocholesterolemic effect of CBE, hepatic mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in CBE-fed mice were not significantly different from controls. Dietary CBE did not alter hepatic lipid content or the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation such as fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities were significantly increased in mice fed 0.05% CBE. Both CBE diets increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but the 0.05% CBE group had 24% less proximal intestine GPx activity relative to controls. Thus, dietary CBE lowered total cholesterol and improved plasma and hepatic antioxidant function at nutritionally-relevant doses in apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism.

  13. Peptides identified in soybean protein increase plasma cholesterol in mice on hypercholesterolemic diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vitro micellar cholesterol displacement assay has been used to identify peptides that may potentially reduce cholesterol in vivo. We tested two of these peptides, LPYPR and WGAPSI, derived from soybean protein (SP) that have been reported to displace cholesterol from micelles by feeding them...

  14. Therapeutic applications of reconstituted HDL: When structure meets function.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Maryam; Guillas-Baudouin, Isabelle; Le Goff, Wilfried; Chapman, M John; Kontush, Anatol

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituted forms of HDL (rHDL) are under development for infusion as a therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic vascular disease and to reduce cardiovascular risk following acute coronary syndrome and ischemic stroke. Currently available rHDL formulations developed for clinical use contain apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and one of the major lipid components of HDL, either phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin. Recent data have established that quantitatively minor molecular constituents of HDL particles can strongly influence their anti-atherogenic functionality. Novel rHDL formulations displaying enhanced biological activities, including cellular cholesterol efflux, may therefore offer promising prospects for the development of HDL-based, anti-atherosclerotic therapies. Indeed, recent structural and functional data identify phosphatidylserine as a bioactive component of HDL; the content of phosphatidylserine in HDL particles displays positive correlations with all metrics of their functionality. This review summarizes current knowledge of structure-function relationships in rHDL formulations, with a focus on phosphatidylserine and other negatively-charged phospholipids. Mechanisms potentially underlying the atheroprotective role of these lipids are discussed and their potential for the development of HDL-based therapies highlighted.

  15. Action of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase on model lipoproteins. Preparation and characterization of model nascent high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Van Winkle, W B; Pao, Q; Rohde, M; Gotto, A M

    1982-12-13

    Apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein of human plasma high density lipoprotein, is the primary activator of plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. In vitro, the association of apolipoprotein A-I with physiological phosphatidylcholines can be catalyzed by mixing the protein and lipid with sodium cholate, which is removed by chromatography. The apolipoprotein A-I/phospholipid complex has the physical properties of an HDL, and when cholesterol is present the complex is a highly reactive substrate in the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase-catalyzed reaction. The relative reactivity of this complex compared with a number of other lipid-protein complexes is presented and discussed.

  16. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  17. Glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina added to pork significantly block dietary cholesterol effects on lipoproteinemia, arylesterase activity, and CYP7A1 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    González-Torres, Laura; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Olivero-David, Raúl; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González, Rafaela Raposo; González-Muñoz, Ma José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Zucker fa/fa rats easily develop dyslipidemia and obesity. Restructured pork (RP) is a suitable matrix for including functional ingredients. The effects of glucomannan- RP or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched RP on plasma lipid/lipoprotein levels, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) expression, and arylesterase activity in growing fa/fa rats fed high-energy, high-fat cholesterol-enriched diets were tested. Groups of six rats each received diet containing 15% control-RP (C), 15% glucomannan-RP diet (G), 15% glucomannan + spirulina-RP diet (GS), and same diets enriched with 2.4% cholesterol and 0.49% cholic acid (cholesterol-enriched control (HC), cholesterol-enriched glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-enriched glucomannan + spirulina (HGS) diets) over a 7-week period. C diet induced obesity, severe hyperglycemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Those facts were not significantly modified by G or GS diets. G diet increased CYP7A1 expression but decreased the total cholesterol/high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05) vs. C diet. GS vs. G diet increased (p < 0.05) CYP7A1 expression. HC vs. C diet reduced food intake, body weight gain, and plasma glucose (p < 0.01) but increased cholesterolemia (p < 0.01), lipidemia (plasma cholesterol plus triglycerides) (p < 0.001), cholesterol/triglyceride ratio in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL (p < 0.05), cholesterol transported by VLDL and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) + low density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and CYP7A1 expression (at least p < 0.05). HG and HGS diets vs. HC noticeably reduced lipidemia (p < 0.001), normalized VLDL and IDL + LDL lipid composition, and increased CYP7A1 expression (p < 0.01) but did not modify the cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. HGS vs. HG decreased triglyceridemia, the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and increased arylesterase/HDL-cholesterol activity (p < 0

  18. Modifications in high-density lipoprotein lipid composition and structure alter the plasma distribution of free and liposomal annamycin.

    PubMed

    Wasan, K M; Ng, S; Cassidy, S M

    1997-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentration alters the plasma distribution of free (Ann.) and liposomal annamycin (LAnn) and that the majority of Ann. is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) following the incubation in plasma of LAnn. To demonstrate that alterations in HDL lipid composition and HDL structure may influence the plasma distribution of Ann. and LAnn, Ann. and LAnn (20 micrograms/mL) were incubated in plasma pretreated with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB, a compound which inhibits the conversion of free cholesterol to esterified cholesterol) 18 h prior to the experiment or in untreated plasma for 60 min at 37 degrees C. In addition, Ann. and LAnn were co-incubated with DTNB in plasma for 60 min at 37 degrees C. Following incubation the plasma was separated into its HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and lipoprotein-deficient plasma (LPDP) fractions by ultracentrifugation and assayed for Ann. by fluorimetry. The HDL plasma cholesterol:triglyceride concentration ratio was significantly decreased following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment compared to untreated plasma controls. No significant differences in LDL/VLDL plasma cholesterol:triglyceride concentration ratio following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment was observed. An increased number of discoidal HDL particles were observed following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment. When Ann. was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h the percentage of Ann. recovered in the HDL, LDL, and VLDL fractions significantly increased. However, the percentage of Ann. recovered within the LPDP fraction was significantly decreased. When LAnn was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h the percentage of Ann. recovered in the HDL fraction significantly decreased. The percentage of Ann. recovered in the LPDP fraction significantly increased when LAnn was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h. No significant differences

  19. ABCA1-dependent sterol release: sterol molecule specificity and potential membrane domain for HDL biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells synthesize various sterol molecules, including the C30 sterol, lanosterol, as cholesterol precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum. The build-up of precursor sterols, including lanosterol, displays cellular toxicity. Precursor sterols are found in plasma HDL. How these structurally different sterols are released from cells is poorly understood. Here, we show that newly synthesized precursor sterols arriving at the plasma membrane (PM) are removed by extracellular apoA-I in a manner dependent on ABCA1, a key macromolecule for HDL biogenesis. Analysis of sterol molecules by GC-MS and tracing the fate of radiolabeled acetate-derived sterols in normal and mutant Niemann-Pick type C cells reveal that ABCA1 prefers newly synthesized sterols, especially lanosterol, as the substrates before they are internalized from the PM. We also show that ABCA1 resides in a cholesterol-rich membrane domain resistant to the mild detergent, Brij 98. Blocking ACAT activity increases the cholesterol contents of this domain. Newly synthesized C29/C30 sterols are transiently enriched within this domain, but rapidly disappear from this domain with a half-life of less than 1 h. Our work shows that substantial amounts of precursor sterols are transported to a certain PM domain and are removed by the ABCA1-dependent pathway. PMID:26497474

  20. Liver LXRα expression is crucial for whole body cholesterol homeostasis and reverse cholesterol transport in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Breevoort, Sarah R.; Angdisen, Jerry; Fu, Mingui; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Kliewer, Steven A.; Mangelsdorf, David J.; Schulman, Ira G.

    2012-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are important regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and their activation has been shown to inhibit cardiovascular disease and reduce atherosclerosis in animal models. Small molecule agonists of LXR activity are therefore of great therapeutic interest. However, the finding that such agonists also promote hepatic lipogenesis has led to the idea that hepatic LXR activity is undesirable from a therapeutic perspective. To investigate whether this might be true, we performed gene targeting to selectively delete LXRα in hepatocytes. Liver-specific deletion of LXRα in mice substantially decreased reverse cholesterol transport, cholesterol catabolism, and cholesterol excretion, revealing the essential importance of hepatic LXRα for whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Additionally, in a pro-atherogenic background, liver-specific deletion of LXRα increased atherosclerosis, uncovering an important function for hepatic LXR activity in limiting cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, synthetic LXR agonists still elicited anti-atherogenic activity in the absence of hepatic LXRα, indicating that the ability of agonists to reduce cardiovascular disease did not require an increase in cholesterol excretion. Furthermore, when non-atherogenic mice were treated with synthetic LXR agonists, liver-specific deletion of LXRα eliminated the detrimental effect of increased plasma triglycerides, while the beneficial effect of increased plasma HDL was unaltered. In sum, these observations suggest that therapeutic strategies that bypass the liver or limit the activation of hepatic LXRs should still be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22484817

  1. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Abbey, M; Noakes, M; Belling, G B; Nestel, P J

    1994-05-01

    Sixteen normolipidemic male volunteers aged 41 +/- 9 y (mean +/- SD) consumed a diet providing 36% of energy as fat (92 g fat/d) for 9 wk. A daily supplement of nuts (providing half of the total fat intake) was provided against a common background diet. In the first 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with raw peanuts (50 g/d), coconut cubes (40 g/d), and a coconut confectionary bar (50 g/d), designed to provide 47 g fat with a ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P:M:S) to match the Australian diet (reference diet). During the following 3 wk the background diet was supplemented with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich raw almonds (84 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat, and during the final 3-wk period the background diet was supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich walnuts (68 g/d), equivalent to 46 g fat. Compared with the reference diet there were significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol, 7% and 10%, respectively, after supplementation with almonds, and 5% and 9%, respectively, after supplementation with walnuts.

  2. Parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol in familial combined hyperlipidaemia: the multiple-type hyperlipidaemia explained?

    PubMed

    Brouwers, Martijn C G J; de Graaf, Jacqueline; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; Georgieva, Anna M; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Ter Avest, Ewoud; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Stalenhoef, Anton F; de Bruin, Tjerk W A

    2008-03-01

    FCHL (familial combined hyperlipidaemia) is a highly prevalent genetic lipid disorder that accounts for a substantial number of premature cardiovascular events. To date, FCHL has been complicated by the different lipid phenotypes that are present within one family and one individual patient over time. In the present study, we hypothesized that a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol can explain this so-called 'multiple-type hyperlipidaemia' in FCHL. Our hypothesis was tested in two well-documented FCHL cohorts [Maastricht (n=145) and Nijmegen (n=299)] that were followed over a 5-year interval. Three groups were constructed depending on plasma triacylglycerols: group A (individuals with both measurements below 1.5 mmol/l), group B (one measurement below and one measurement above 1.5 mmol/l) and group C (both measurement above 1.5 mmol/l). In both male, but not female, cohorts, a significant positive relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol was observed in group A (P=0.02 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.001 for the Nijmegen cohort), a significant negative relationship in group C (P=0.01 for Maastricht cohort and P=0.02 for the Nijmegen cohort), and a relationship intermediate to group A and C in group B. In contrast, both apoB (apolipoprotein B) levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease were related with plasma triacylglycerols in a more linear fashion. In conclusion, a parabolic relationship between plasma triacylglycerols and LDL-cholesterol explains the 'multiple-type hyperlipidaemia' in FCHL. In addition, the linear relationship between triacylglycerols and both apoB levels and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease substantiate the use of apoB instead of LDL-cholesterol in the diagnosis of FCHL and the prediction of cardiovascular disease.

  3. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.

  4. Procollagen C-endopeptidase Enhancer Protein 2 (PCPE2) Reduces Atherosclerosis in Mice by Enhancing Scavenger Receptor Class B1 (SR-BI)-mediated High-density Lipoprotein (HDL)-Cholesteryl Ester Uptake.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Ricquita D; Blesso, Christopher N; Zabalawi, Manal; Fulp, Brian; Gerelus, Mark; Zhu, Xuewei; Lyons, Erica W; Nuradin, Nebil; Francone, Omar L; Li, Xiang-An; Sahoo, Daisy; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G

    2015-06-19

    Studies in human populations have shown a significant correlation between procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer protein 2 (PCPE2) single nucleotide polymorphisms and plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations. PCPE2, a 52-kDa glycoprotein located in the extracellular matrix, enhances the cleavage of C-terminal procollagen by bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1). Our studies here focused on investigating the basis for the elevated concentration of enlarged plasma HDL in PCPE2-deficient mice to determine whether they protected against diet-induced atherosclerosis. PCPE2-deficient mice were crossed with LDL receptor-deficient mice to obtain LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice, which had elevated HDL levels compared with LDLr(-/-) mice with similar LDL concentrations. We found that LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice had significantly more neutral lipid and CD68+ infiltration in the aortic root than LDLr(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, in light of their elevated HDL levels, the extent of aortic lipid deposition in LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice was similar to that reported for LDLr(-/-), apoA-I(-/-) mice, which lack any apoA-I/HDL. Furthermore, LDLr(-/-), PCPE2(-/-) mice had reduced HDL apoA-I fractional clearance and macrophage to fecal reverse cholesterol transport rates compared with LDLr(-/-) mice, despite a 2-fold increase in liver SR-BI expression. PCPE2 was shown to enhance SR-BI function by increasing the rate of HDL-associated cholesteryl ester uptake, possibly by optimizing SR-BI localization and/or conformation. We conclude that PCPE2 is atheroprotective and an important component of the reverse cholesterol transport HDL system.

  5. Plasma lipids in beta-thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Maioli, M; Pettinato, S; Cherchi, G M; Giraudi, D; Pacifico, A; Pupita, G; Tidore, M G

    1989-02-01

    Because total cholesterol levels have been found to be lower in patients affected by thalassemia major and intermedia, we examined the plasma lipid pattern of 628 beta-thalassemia trait carriers and 4552 controls in order to evaluate whether the plasma lipid impairment is also present in the heterozygous state. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in beta-thalassemia trait carriers when compared to controls, whereas plasma triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels did not differ between the two groups. We suggest that accelerated erythropoiesis and increased uptake of LDL by macrophages and histiocytes of the reticuloendothelial system are the main determinants of low plasma cholesterol levels in heterozygous thalassemia.

  6. Cell Cholesterol Homeostasis: Mediation by Active Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Theodore L.; Lange, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the major pathways mediating cell cholesterol homeostasis respond to a common signal: active membrane cholesterol. Active cholesterol is that fraction which exceeds the complexing capacity of the polar bilayer lipids. Increments in plasma membrane cholesterol exceeding this threshold have an elevated chemical activity (escape tendency) and redistribute via diverse transport proteins to both circulating plasma lipoproteins and intracellular organelles. Active cholesterol prompts several feedback responses thereby. It is the substrate for its own esterification and for the synthesis of regulatory side-chain oxysterols. It also stimulates manifold pathways that down-regulate the biosynthesis, curtail the ingestion and increase the export of cholesterol. Thus, the abundance of cholesterol is tightly coupled to that of its polar lipid partners through active cholesterol. PMID:20843692

  7. Type I diabetes mellitus decreases in vivo macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport despite increased biliary sterol secretion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Freark de Boer, Jan; Annema, Wijtske; Schreurs, Marijke; van der Veen, Jelske N.; van der Giet, Markus; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) increases atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. We investigated whether experimental T1DM impacts HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). C57BL/6J mice with alloxan-induced T1DM had higher plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.05), particularly within HDL, and increased hepatic cholesterol content (P < 0.001). T1DM resulted in increased bile flow (2.1-fold; P < 0.05) and biliary secretion of bile acids (BA, 10.5-fold; P < 0.001), phospholipids (4.5-fold; P < 0.001), and cholesterol (5.5-fold; P < 0.05). Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was unaltered, whereas BA synthesis was increased in T1DM (P < 0.001). Mass fecal BA output was significantly higher in T1DM mice (1.5-fold; P < 0.05), fecal neutral sterol excretion did not change due to increased intestinal cholesterol absorption (2.1-fold; P < 0.05). Overall in vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT, using [3H]cholesterol-loaded primary mouse macrophage foam cells, was 20% lower in T1DM (P < 0.05), mainly due to reduced tracer excretion within BA (P < 0.05). In vitro experiments revealed unchanged cholesterol efflux toward T1DM HDL, whereas scavenger receptor class BI-mediated selective uptake from T1DM HDL was lower in vitro and in vivo (HDL kinetic experiments) (P < 0.05), conceivably due to increased glycation of HDL-associated proteins (+65%, P < 0.01). In summary, despite higher mass biliary sterol secretion T1DM impairs macrophage-to-feces RCT, mainly by decreasing hepatic selective uptake, a mechanism conceivably contributing to increased cardiovascular disease in T1DM. PMID:22180634

  8. Cholesterol metabolism is altered in Rett syndrome: a study on plasma and primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Marco; Trapani, Laura; Di Tunno, Ilenia; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Hayek, Joussef; Pallottini, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Rett (RTT) syndrome is a severe neurological disorder that affects almost exclusively females. Several detectable mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) are responsible for the onset of the disease. MeCP2 is a key transcription regulator involved in gene silencing via methylation-dependent remodeling of chromatin. Recent data highlight that lipid metabolism is perturbed in brains and livers of MECP2-null male mice. In addition, altered plasma lipid profile in RTT patients has been observed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the protein network involved in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance on freshly isolated fibroblasts and plasma from both RTT and healthy donors. To this end, protein expression of 3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and scavenger receptor B-1 (SRB-1) was assessed in cultured skin fibroblasts from unaffected individuals and RTT patients. In addition, lipid profile and the abundance of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) were analyzed on plasma samples. The obtained results demonstrate that the main proteins belonging to cholesterol regulatory network are altered in RTT female patients, providing the proof of principle that cholesterol metabolism may be taken into account as a new target for the treatment of specific features of RTT pathology.

  9. Cholesterol Metabolism Is Altered in Rett Syndrome: A Study on Plasma and Primary Cultured Fibroblasts Derived from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Marco; Trapani, Laura; Di Tunno, Ilenia; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Hayek, Joussef; Pallottini, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Rett (RTT) syndrome is a severe neurological disorder that affects almost exclusively females. Several detectable mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) are responsible for the onset of the disease. MeCP2 is a key transcription regulator involved in gene silencing via methylation-dependent remodeling of chromatin. Recent data highlight that lipid metabolism is perturbed in brains and livers of MECP2-null male mice. In addition, altered plasma lipid profile in RTT patients has been observed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the protein network involved in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance on freshly isolated fibroblasts and plasma from both RTT and healthy donors. To this end, protein expression of 3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and scavenger receptor B-1 (SRB-1) was assessed in cultured skin fibroblasts from unaffected individuals and RTT patients. In addition, lipid profile and the abundance of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) were analyzed on plasma samples. The obtained results demonstrate that the main proteins belonging to cholesterol regulatory network are altered in RTT female patients, providing the proof of principle that cholesterol metabolism may be taken into account as a new target for the treatment of specific features of RTT pathology. PMID:25118178

  10. Lipoprotein hydrophobic core lipids are partially extruded to surface in smaller HDL: "Herniated" HDL, a common feature in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amigó, Núria; Mallol, Roger; Heras, Mercedes; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Blanco Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Plana, Núria; Yanes, Óscar; Masana, Lluís; Correig, Xavier

    2016-01-18

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological increases in HDL cholesterol concentrations do not necessarily translate into clinical benefits for patients, raising concerns about its predictive value for cardiovascular events. Here we hypothesize that the size-modulated lipid distribution within HDL particles is compromised in metabolic disorders that have abnormal HDL particle sizes, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). By using NMR spectroscopy combined with a biochemical volumetric model we determined the size and spatial lipid distribution of HDL subclasses in a cohort of 26 controls and 29 DM2 patients before and after two drug treatments, one with niacin plus laropiprant and another with fenofibrate as an add-on to simvastatin. We further characterized the HDL surface properties using atomic force microscopy and fluorescent probes to show an abnormal lipid distribution within smaller HDL particles, a subclass particularly enriched in the DM2 patients. The reduction in the size, force cholesterol esters and triglycerides to emerge from the HDL core to the surface, making the outer surface of HDL more hydrophobic. Interestingly, pharmacological interventions had no effect on this undesired configuration, which may explain the lack of clinical benefits in DM2 subjects.

  11. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the “normal” metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the “normal” metabolome and its main sources of variation. PMID:28278231

  12. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    PubMed

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  13. Cholesterol transport from plasma membranes to intracellular membranes is inhibited by 3 beta-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one.

    PubMed

    Härmälä, A S; Pörn, M I; Mattjus, P; Slotte, J P

    1994-03-24

    The compound U1866A (3 beta-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one) has been shown to inhibit the cellular transfer of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes to plasma membranes (Liscum and Faust (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 11796-806). We have in this study examined the effects of U18666A on cholesterol translocation from plasma membranes to intracellular membranes. Translocation of plasma membrane cholesterol was induced by degradation of plasma membrane sphingomyelin. The sphingomyelinase-induced activation of the acyl-CoA cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) reaction was completely inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by U18666A, both in cultured human skin fibroblasts and baby hamster kidney cells. Half-maximal inhibition (within 60 min) was obtained with 0.5-1 microgram/ml of U18666A. A time-course study indicated that the onset of inhibition was rapid (within 10-15 min), and reversible if U18666A was removed from the incubation mixture. Using a cholesterol oxidase assay, we observed that the extent of plasma membrane cholesterol translocation in sphingomyelinase-treated HSF cells was significantly lowered in the presence of U18666A (at 3 micrograms/ml). The effect of U18666A on cholesterol translocation was also fully reversible when the drug was withdrawn. In mouse Leydig tumor cells, labeled to constant specific activity with [3H]cholesterol, the compound U18666A inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the cyclic AMP-stimulated secretion of [3H]steroid hormones. The effects seen with compound U18666A appeared to be specific for this molecule, since another hydrophobic amine, imipramine, did not in our experiments affect cholesterol translocation or ACAT activation. Since different cell types display sensitivity to U18666A in various intracellular cholesterol transfer processes, they appear to have a common U18666A-sensitive regulatory mechanism.

  14. Evaluation of HDL-modulating interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction using a systems pharmacology approach.

    PubMed

    Gadkar, Kapil; Lu, James; Sahasranaman, Srikumar; Davis, John; Mazer, Norman A; Ramanujan, Saroja

    2016-01-01

    The recent failures of cholesteryl ester transport protein inhibitor drugs to decrease CVD risk, despite raising HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, suggest that pharmacologic increases in HDL-C may not always reflect elevations in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the process by which HDL is believed to exert its beneficial effects. HDL-modulating therapies can affect HDL properties beyond total HDL-C, including particle numbers, size, and composition, and may contribute differently to RCT and CVD risk. The lack of validated easily measurable pharmacodynamic markers to link drug effects to RCT, and ultimately to CVD risk, complicates target and compound selection and evaluation. In this work, we use a systems pharmacology model to contextualize the roles of different HDL targets in cholesterol metabolism and provide quantitative links between HDL-related measurements and the associated changes in RCT rate to support target and compound evaluation in drug development. By quantifying the amount of cholesterol removed from the periphery over the short-term, our simulations show the potential for infused HDL to treat acute CVD. For the primary prevention of CVD, our analysis suggests that the induction of ApoA-I synthesis may be a more viable approach, due to the long-term increase in RCT rate.

  15. Volumetric determination of apolipoprotein stoichiometry of circulating HDL subspecies1[S

    PubMed Central

    Segrest, Jere P.; Cheung, Marian C.; Jones, Martin K.

    2013-01-01

    Although HDL is inversely correlated with coronary heart disease, elevated HDL-cholesterol is not always protective. Additionally, HDL has biological functions that transcend any antiatherogenic role: shotgun proteomics show that HDL particles contain 84 proteins (latest count), many correlating with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of HDL. ApoA-I has been suggested to serve as a platform for the assembly of these protein components on HDL with specific functions - the HDL proteome. However, the stoichiometry of apoA-I in HDL subspecies is poorly understood. Here we use a combination of immunoaffinity chromatography data and volumetric analysis to evaluate the size and stoichiometry of LpA-I and LpA-I,A-II particles. We conclude that there are three major LpA-I subspecies: two major particles, HDL[4] in the HDL3 size range (d = 85.0 ± 1.2 Å) and HDL[7] in the HDL2 size range (d = 108.5 ± 3.8 Å) with apoA-I stoichiometries of 3 and 4, respectively, and a small minor particle, HDL[1] (d = 73.8 ± 2.1Å) with an apoA-I stoichiometry of 2. Additionally, we conclude that the molar ratio of apolipoprotein to surface lipid is significantly higher in circulating HDL subspecies than in reconstituted spherical HDL particles, presumably reflecting a lack of phospholipid transfer protein in reconstitution protocols. PMID:23883582

  16. High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) – Nature’s Multi-Functional Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Rui; Li, Dan; Chen, Y. Eugene; Moon, James J.; Schwendeman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are endogenous nanoparticles involved in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. HDL is well known as the ―good‖ cholesterol because it not only removes excess cholesterol from atherosclerotic plaques but also has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, which protect the cardiovascular system. Circulating HDL also transports endogenous proteins, vitamins, hormones, and microRNA to various organs. Compared with other synthetic nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles, HDL has unique features that allow them to deliver cargo to specific targets more efficiently. These attributes include their ultra-small size (8-12 nm in diameter), high tolerability in humans (up to 8 g of protein per infusion), long circulating half-life (12-24 hours), and intrinsic targeting properties to different recipient cells. Various recombinant ApoA proteins and ApoA mimetic peptides have been recently developed for the preparation of reconstituted HDL that exhibits properties similar to endogenous HDL and has a potential for industrial scale-up. In this review, we will summarize: a) clinical pharmacokinetics and safety of reconstituted HDL products, b) comparison of HDL with inorganic and other organic nanoparticles, c) the rationale for using HDL as drug delivery vehicles for important therapeutic indications, d) the current state-of-the-art in HDL production, and e) HDL-based drug delivery strategies for small molecules, peptides/proteins, nucleic acids, and imaging agents targeted to various organs. PMID:26889958

  17. The Effect of Residing Altitude on Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Pilot Study From the Omani Arab Population.

    PubMed

    Al Riyami, Nafila B; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Waili, Khalid; Rizvi, Syed G; Al-Yahyaee, Said; Hassan, Mohammed O; Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Bayoumi, Riad A

    2015-07-01

    Lower mortality rates from coronary heart disease and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been observed in populations residing at high altitude. However, this effect has not been investigated in Arab populations, which exhibit considerable genetic homogeneity. We assessed the relationship between residing altitude and HDL-C in 2 genetically similar Omani Arab populations residing at different altitudes. The association between the levels of HDL-C and other metabolic parameters was also investigated. The levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in the high-altitude group compared with the low-altitude group. Stepwise regression analysis showed that altitude was the most significant factor affecting HDL-C, followed by gender, serum triglycerides, and finally the 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose. This finding is consistent with previously published studies from other populations and should be taken into consideration when comparing cardiovascular risk factors in populations residing at different altitudes.

  18. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Disappearing HDL Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Swetha; Joshi, Avni Y; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Kumar, Seema

    2016-01-01

    The term disappearing HDL syndrome refers to development of severe high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) deficiency in noncritically ill patients with previously normal HDL-C and triglyceride levels. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis resulting in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. We describe a 17-year-old boy who was evaluated in the lipid clinic for history of undetectable or low HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Past medical history was significant for ALPS IA diagnosed at 10 years of age when he presented with bilateral cervical adenopathy. He was known to have a missense mutation in one allele of the FAS protein extracellular domain consistent with ALPS type 1A. HDL-C and LDL-C levels had been undetectable on multiple occasions, though lipids had not been measured prior to the diagnosis of ALPS. He had been receiving sirolimus for immunosuppression. The HDL-C and LDL-C levels correlated with disease activity and improved to normal levels during times when the activity of ALPS was controlled. This case highlights the importance of considering ALPS as a cause of low HDL-C and LDL-C levels in a child with evidence of lymphoproliferation.

  19. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Disappearing HDL Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Swetha; Joshi, Avni Y.; Rodriguez, Vilmarie

    2016-01-01

    The term disappearing HDL syndrome refers to development of severe high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) deficiency in noncritically ill patients with previously normal HDL-C and triglyceride levels. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis resulting in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. We describe a 17-year-old boy who was evaluated in the lipid clinic for history of undetectable or low HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Past medical history was significant for ALPS IA diagnosed at 10 years of age when he presented with bilateral cervical adenopathy. He was known to have a missense mutation in one allele of the FAS protein extracellular domain consistent with ALPS type 1A. HDL-C and LDL-C levels had been undetectable on multiple occasions, though lipids had not been measured prior to the diagnosis of ALPS. He had been receiving sirolimus for immunosuppression. The HDL-C and LDL-C levels correlated with disease activity and improved to normal levels during times when the activity of ALPS was controlled. This case highlights the importance of considering ALPS as a cause of low HDL-C and LDL-C levels in a child with evidence of lymphoproliferation. PMID:27579193

  20. High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in heparin-MnCl2 supernates determined with the Dow enzymic method after precipitation of Mn2+ with HCO3-.

    PubMed

    Bachorik, P S; Walker, R E; Virgil, D G

    1984-06-01

    Manganese interferes with enzymic cholesterol methods. In this study, we enzymically measured high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in heparin-Mn2+ supernates that had been treated with NaHCO3 (91 mmol/L) to precipitate Mn2+, and compared results with those by an automated Liebermann- Burchard method. For untreated supernates of 96 fresh plasma samples, the enzymic values were 10.4% higher than comparison-method values, a bias that declined to +2.3% for treated supernates. For 72 sera promptly frozen and stored after collection, the enzymic values for untreated and treated supernates were, respectively, 6.0% and 0.5% higher than comparison-method values. In all cases, the magnitude of the bias was independent of the concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Enzymic HDL-cholesterol measurements in NaHCO3-treated heparin-Mn2+ supernates prepared from four pooled serum controls agreed within 21 mg/L with values established for these pools by the Centers for Disease Control. We conclude that the accuracy of enzymic HDL cholesterol measurements in heparin-Mn2+ supernates in considerably increased by treatment with NaHCO3.

  1. Genetic alterations of IL-1 receptor antagonist in mice affect plasma cholesterol level and foam cell lesion size.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Cecilia M; Kuriakose, George; Hirsch, Emmet; Tabas, Ira

    2002-04-30

    Inflammatory cytokines have been linked to atherosclerosis by using cell culture models and acute inflammation in animals. The goal of this study was to examine lipoprotein levels and early atherosclerosis in chronic animal models of altered IL-1 physiology by using mice with deficient or excess IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). IL-1ra knockout C57BL/6J mice fed a cholesterol/cholate diet for 3 mo had a 3-fold decrease in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a trend toward increased foam-cell lesion area compared to wild-type littermate controls. IL-1ra transgenic/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice fed a cholesterol-saturated fat diet for 10 wk showed a 40% increase in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, consistent with the IL-1ra knockout data, although there was no change in lesion size. When these IL1-ra overexpressing transgenic mice on the LDLR knockout background were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet containing cholate, however, a statistically significant 40% decrease in lesion area was observed compared to LDLR knockout mice lacking the transgene. By immunohistochemistry, IL-1ra was present in C57BL/6J and LDLR knockout aortae, absent in IL-1ra knockout aortae, and present at high levels in LDLR knockout/IL-1ra transgene aortae. In summary, IL-1ra tended to increase plasma lipoprotein levels and, when fed a cholate-containing diet, decrease foam-cell lesion size. These data demonstrate that in selected models of murine atherosclerosis, chronic IL-1ra depletion or overexpression has potentially important effects on lipoprotein metabolism and foam-cell lesion development.

  2. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  3. Serum IF1 concentration is independently associated to HDL levels and to coronary heart disease: the GENES study[S

    PubMed Central

    Genoux, Annelise; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Ferrières, Jean; Combes, Guillaume; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Pons, Véronique; Laffargue, Muriel; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Carrié, Didier; Elbaz, Meyer; Perret, Bertrand; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2013-01-01

    HDL is strongly inversely related to cardiovascular risk. Hepatic HDL uptake is controlled by ecto-F1-ATPase activity, and potentially inhibited by mitochondrial inhibitor factor 1 (IF1). We recently found that IF1 is present in serum and correlates with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Here, we have evaluated the relationship between circulating IF1 and plasma lipoproteins, and we determined whether IF1 concentration is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Serum IF1 was measured in 648 coronary patients ages 45–74 and in 669 matched male controls, in the context of a cross-sectional study on CHD. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented for each participant, including life-style habits and biological and clinical markers. In controls, multivariate analysis demonstrated that IF1 was independently positively associated with HDL-C and apoA-I (r = 0.27 and 0.28, respectively, P < 0.001) and negatively with triglycerides (r = −0.23, P < 0.001). Mean IF1 concentration was lower in CHD patients than in controls (0.43 mg/l and 0.53 mg/l, respectively, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, following adjustments on cardiovascular risk factors or markers, IF1 was negatively related to CHD (P < 0.001). This relationship was maintained after adjustment for HDL-C or apoA-I. This study identifies IF1 as a new determinant of HDL-C that is inversely associated with CHD. PMID:23794714

  4. Kidney Function as a Determinant of HDL and Triglyceride Concentrations in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael; Ray, Udayan; Yu, Richard; Hudspeth, Andrew; Smillie, Michael; Jordan, Neville; Bartle, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD risk increases in a stepwise manner with increasing kidney impairment and is significantly reduced by kidney transplantation, suggesting a causal relationship. Dyslipidemia, a well recognised CVD risk factor, is highly prevalent in CKD. While dyslipidemia is a risk factor for CKD, kidney impairment can also induce a dyslipidemic state that may contribute to the excess burden of CVD in CKD. We utilised a multipronged approach to determine whether a causal relationship exists. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case-control analysis of 816 patients admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital in 2008–2009 with different degrees of kidney impairment and retrospective before-after cohort analysis of 60 patients who received a transplanted kidney between 1999 and 2009. Results: Decreased estimated GFR (eGFR) was independently associated with decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL, p < 0.0001) and increased triglyceride concentrations (p < 0.01) in multivariate analysis. There was no significant relationship between eGFR and low density lipoprotein (LDL) or total cholesterol in multivariate analysis. Kidney transplantation increased HDL (p < 0.0001) and decreased triglyceride (p = 0.007) concentration, whereas there was no significant change in LDL and total cholesterol. These effects were dependent on maintenance of graft function, statin therapy (those who were on) if graft failure occurred then HDL again decreased and triglycerides increased. Conclusions: Kidney transplantation ameliorated alterations in plasma lipoprotein profile associated with kidney impairment, an effect that was dependent on the maintenance of graft function. These data suggest that kidney function is a determinant of HDL and triglyceride concentrations in patients with CKD. PMID:27005668

  5. Increased activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase during short-term oral estrogen progestin replacement therapy in a group of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, N; Verdugo, C; Rios, M; Sepúlveda, J; Sepúlveda, S; Naveas, R; Calvo, C

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the short-term effect of estrogen-progestin therapy on the plasma level of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase ([LCAT] EC 2.3.1.43), a key enzyme in the cholesterol reverse-transport process. The trial included 21 women with at least 6 months of menopause, which was confirmed by anamnesis, physical evaluation, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) determination. Women receiving pharmacological treatment or who had any kind of endocrine disorder were excluded. In addition, we evaluated and confirmed normal Papanicolaou and mammography tests in all 21 women included in the trial. They received conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg daily, plus cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg daily) for 12 days each month. Plasma levels of LCAT, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, apoB, and apoAI were evaluated before and after 1 and 3 months of therapy. Pretherapy and posttherapy results were analyzed statistically by Wilcoxon's rank-sum test for paired samples. No significant changes were observed either for body mass index or for blood pressure. A significant increase in plasma LCAT activity was found at the first and third month posttherapy (P < .005). In addition, after 3 months of therapy, HDL-C significantly increased (P < .005), in contrast to the significant decrease detected in total cholesterol (P < .025), LDL-C (P < .005), cholesterol to HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P < .005). Triglyceride levels did not show significant modification. In conclusion, our results indicate that short-term estrogen-progestin therapy produces a significant increase in plasma LCAT activity, as well as beneficial changes in the lipid profile, in postmenopausal women.

  6. Enhanced efficacy of sitostanol-containing versus sitostanol-free phytosterol mixtures in altering lipoprotein cholesterol levels and synthesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ling, W H; Jones, P J

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the action and mechanism of a dietary phytosterol mixture naturally containing sitostanol, derived from tall-oil, on circulating cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, five groups of rats were fed a control elemental diet (group 1), a control elemental diet with 1% cholesterol alone (group 2) or with sitostanol mixtures or a sitostanol-free mixture supplemented at 0.2% (group 3), 0.5% (group 4) or 1% (group 5) of dietary levels. One per cent supplementation of sitostanol (21%) compared with sitostanol-free mixtures decreased (P < 0.02) total serum cholesterol. Dietary sitostanol (16% or 21%) mixture at 1% dietary levels decreased (P < 0.05) low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increased (P < 0.05) high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. The decrease of LDL and increase of HDL cholesterol were correlated (P < 0.01) with the level of sitostanol mixture in the diet. Consumption of the sitostanol-containing mixture (1% dietary levels) caused a compensatory increase in cholesterol synthesis as indicated by elevated (P < 0.05) lathosterol/ cholesterol ratios in plasma and hepatic cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (P < 0.02). Both sitostanol and sitostanol-free mixtures at 0.5% or 1% dietary intake levels increased plasma campesterol and beta-sitosterol levels, while plasma sitostanol levels were negligible. The absence of sitostanol in plasma and the increase in cholesterol synthesis induced by dietary sitostanol mixtures in addition to elevation of plasma campesterol and beta-sitosterol by sitostanol or sitostanol-free mixtures suggest that sitostanol mixtures effectively modify circulating lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations at the level of the intestine, rather than internally at the level of cholesterogenesis.

  7. Cooperation between hepatic cholesteryl ester hydrolase and scavenger receptor BI for hydrolysis of HDL-CE.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Bie, Jinghua; Wang, Jing; Ghosh, Siddhartha S; Ghosh, Shobha

    2013-11-01

    Liver is the sole organ responsible for the final elimination of cholesterol from the body either as biliary cholesterol or bile acids. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-derived cholesterol is the major source of biliary sterols and represents a mechanism for the removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues including artery wall-associated macrophage foam cells. Via selective uptake through scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), HDL-cholesterol is thought to be directly secreted into bile, and HDL cholesteryl esters (HDL-CEs) enter the hepatic metabolic pool and need to be hydrolyzed prior to conversion to bile acids. However, the identity of hepatic CE hydrolase (CEH) as well as the role of SR-BI in bile acid synthesis remains elusive. In this study we examined the role of human hepatic CEH (CES1) in facilitating hydrolysis of SR-BI-delivered HDL-CEs. Over-expression of CEH led to increased hydrolysis of HDL-[³H]CE in primary hepatocytes and SR-BI expression was required for this process. Intracellular CEH associated with BODIPY-CE delivered by selective uptake via SR-BI. CEH and SR-BI expression enhanced the movement of [³H]label from HDL-[³H]CE to bile acids in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that SR-BI-delivered HDL-CEs are hydrolyzed by hepatic CEH and utilized for bile acid synthesis.

  8. Extended-release niacin alters the metabolism of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I- and apoB-containing lipoproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extended-release niacin effectively lowers plasma TG levels and raises plasma HDL cholesterol levels, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear. We examined the effects of extended-release niacin (2 g/d) and extended-release niacin (2 g/d) plus lovastatin (40 mg/d), relative to pl...

  9. Observations of HDL components in female probands following an ultra-long distance run of 100 miles.

    PubMed

    Schriewer, H; Jung, K; Emke, F; Assmann, G

    1985-01-01

    The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides as well as the cholesterol, phosphatidyl choline, and apolipoprotein components of HDL were tested in 19 participants immediately before and immediately after a 100-mile run. After the run, taking into account any alterations in total protein, the following changes were observed: a decrease in total cholesterol (p less than 0.001), as well as in triglycerides (p less than 0.05), and an increase in HDL cholesterol (p less than 0.05), and HDL phosphatidyl choline (p less than 0.01). The concentrations of HDL apolipoprotein A-I and HDL apolipoprotein A-II were not affected. The results indicate a change in composition of HDL following extreme prolonged physical exercise in women.

  10. HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Meng; Charles, River; Tong, Huimin; Zhang, Lei; Patel, Mili; Wang, Francis; Rames, Matthew J.; Ren, Amy; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Qiu, Xiayang; Johns, Douglas G.; Charles, M. Arthur; Ren, Gang

    2015-03-04

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobic environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.

  11. HDL/ApoA-1 infusion and ApoA-1 gene therapy in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Shah, Prediman K.

    2015-01-01

    The HDL hypothesis stating that simply raising HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) may produce cardiovascular benefits has been questioned recently based on several randomized clinical trials using CETP inhibitors or niacin to raise HDL-C levels. However, extensive pre-clinical data support the vascular protective effects of administration of exogenous ApoA-1 containing preβ-HDL like particles. Several small proof-of-concept clinical trials using such HDL/ApoA-1 infusion therapy have shown encouraging results but definitive proof of efficacy must await large scale clinical trials. In addition to HDL infusion therapy an alternative way to exploit beneficial cardiovascular effects of HDL/ApoA-1 is to use gene transfer. Preclinical studies have shown evidence of benefit using this approach; however clinical validation is yet lacking. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the aforementioned strategies. PMID:26388776

  12. HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Charles, River; Tong, Huimin; Zhang, Lei; Patel, Mili; Wang, Francis; Rames, Matthew J.; Ren, Amy; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Qiu, Xiayang; Johns, Douglas G.; Charles, M. Arthur; Ren, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobic environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.

  13. HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Meng; Charles, River; Tong, Huimin; ...

    2015-03-04

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobicmore » environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.« less

  14. Increased Free Cholesterol in Plasma Low and Very Low Density Lipoproteins in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Its Role in the Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Christopher J.; Reaven, Gerald M.; Liu, George; Fielding, Phoebe E.

    1984-04-01

    Recombination of low and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) from normal subjects with plasma from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus significantly increased the reduced rate of transfer of cholesteryl ester to these lipoproteins, which is characteristic of diabetic plasma, whereas diabetic VLDL and LDL reduced cholesteryl ester transfer rates in normal plasma. VLDL and LDL from diabetic plasma had an increased ratio of free cholesterol to phospholipid compared to normal, and unlike normal VLDL and LDL spontaneously lost free cholesterol to high density lipoprotein. These data suggest that the block to cholesteryl ester transfer to these lipoproteins in non-insulin-dependent diabetes is mediated by their increased free cholesterol content and may be related to the increased risk of these patients for developing atherosclerosis.

  15. Cholesterol lowering benefits of soy and linseed enriched foods.

    PubMed

    Ridges, L; Sunderland, R; Moerman, K; Meyer, B; Astheimer, L; Howe, P

    2001-01-01

    Foods such as breads and breakfast cereals enriched with a combination of soy protein (soy grits and/or soy flour) and whole linseed are gaining popularity. Regular consumption of either whole grains or soy protein can lower risk factors for coronary heart disease. Furthermore, linseed is a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid. alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), with purported cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of daily consumption of soy and linseed containing foods and Canola (as an added source of LNA) on plasma lipid concentrations in 20 mildly hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women. Fasted blood samples were taken initially and after 3 and 8 weeks to assay plasma lipids and both plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. Urinary isoflavones were also measured. Data from 18 subjects were used for analysis. Plasma total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations fell significantly (10, 12.5 and 12%, respectively) within 3 weeks. Although attenuated, there were still significant reductions in total and non-HDL cholesterol (5 and 6.5%, respectively) after 8 weeks of intervention. These reductions were associated with increases in urinary isoflavone excretion. This pilot study indicates that regular inclusion of foods containing soy and linseed in the diet may improve plasma lipids in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia.

  16. HDL-Mimetic PLGA Nanoparticle To Target Atherosclerosis Plaque Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E.; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E. M.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA–HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA–HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers. PMID:25650634

  17. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-03-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers.

  18. Selective association of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters with liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Rinninger, F; Jaeckle, S; Greten, H; Windler, E

    1993-02-24

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl esters are taken up by hepatocytes without parallel uptake of HDL apolipoproteins. This selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters is mediated by a non-endocytotic mechanism. Recently, selective uptake of cholesteryl esters also from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was demonstrated. In this study, the role of the plasma membrane in selective uptake by the liver was investigated. Plasma membranes were prepared from rat liver or from human Hep G2 hepatoma cells. Human HDL3 (d = 1.125-1.21 g/ml) was either radioiodinated or labeled with [3H]cholesteryl oleate. Human low-density lipoprotein (d = 1.019-1.05 g/ml) was labeled in its protein and in its lipid moiety as well. Labeled lipoproteins, unlabeled lipoproteins and membranes were incubated. After separation by ultracentrifugation, apparent lipoprotein particle association with membranes was determined. Plasma membranes from rat liver and Hep G2 cells bound 125I-HDL3, indicating specific HDL3 particle binding. With both types of membrane, apparent HDL3 particle association according to [3H]cholesteryl oleate-labeled HDL3 was in significant excess on that due to 125I-HDL3. This indicates selective, i.e., particle binding independent, association of cholesteryl esters with the membrane. Excess unlabeled HDL3 competed for selective association, indicating a specific process. Selective association of HDL3 cholesteryl esters was concentration-, time-, temperature-dependent; however, parameters differed from HDL3 particle binding. HDL3 was modified by nitration; this modification inhibited HDL3 particle binding in contrast to unchanged selective association. These results suggested distinct membrane sites for HDL3 particle binding and selective cholesteryl ester association. Regulation of selective association was investigated. Hep G2 cells were cholesterol-loaded or cholesterol-depleted. Cellular cholesterol-loading down-regulated selective association of HDL3 cholesteryl esters

  19. Maternal Plasma Cholesterol and Duration of Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low serum cholesterol may be associated with preterm birth, however results are mixed and limited primarily to high-income countries. Our objective was to determine whether maternal blood lipid concentrations are associated with duration of gestation. We performed a nested cohort (n=320) study of pr...

  20. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  1. Gel coating of edible Brasenia schreberi leaves lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. Since some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated the cholesterol lowering properties in male h...

  2. Lack of effect of oral supplementation with antioxidants on cholesterol oxidation product concentration of human plasma, as revealed by an improved gas chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Francesc; Tres, Alba; Codony, Rafael; Addis, Paul B; Bergmann, Scott D; Zavoral, James H

    2007-09-01

    A gas chromatographic method was successfully applied to determine cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in human plasma. The linearity, precision, recovery and sensitivity of the method were determined. Oral supplementation with a combination of vitamin E (800 IU), C (1 g) and beta-carotene (24 mg), given for 21 days to 21 patients, did not significantly decrease plasma COP content. No correlations (n = 26) were found between initial plasma COP content and the following parameters: age, body mass index, plasma content of alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and fat, natural antioxidant and oxidized lipid intake. Differences in plasma COP content between type 2 diabetic (n = 6) and nondiabetic (n = 20) patients were not statistically significant. The results from this study lead us to hypothesize that the nonenzymatic oxidation of cholesterol in plasma is negligible compared to COPs originating from the diet. This article also includes a comprehensive review of the drawbacks of the analytical methods of COP determination in plasma and serum.

  3. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed in hamsters fed with high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongyan; Bartley, Glenn E; Yokoyama, Wallace; Pan, Zhongli; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Ang

    2013-08-15

    The cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) were determined in male Golden Syrian hamsters. Hamsters fed high-fat diets containing 10% TSO or 18% DTS were compared to a diet containing 10% corn oil and 10% microcrystalline cellulose (control 1), 42% TP were compared to 25% microcrystalline cellulose (control 2). TP, TSO and DTS reduced hepatic total cholesterol (TC) content. DTS also lowered plasma TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Fecal excretion of lipid, bile acid and cholesterol increased in the DTS group compared to control 1. DTS-fed hamsters had higher levels of hepatic CYP7A1, CYP51, ABCB11, and ABCG5 gene expression than control, suggesting both hepatic bile acid and cholesterol synthesis increased due to increased fecal excretion of bile acid and cholesterol. The results suggest that protein, dietary fibre or phenolic compounds in DTS may be responsible for plasma cholesterol decrease.

  4. The influence of natural short photoperiodic and temperature conditions on plasma thyroid hormones and cholesterol in male Syrian hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, M. K.; Brainard, G. C.; Reiter, R. J.

    1984-09-01

    Adult male Syrian hamsters were subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7 or 11 weeks of either natural winter conditions or rigorously controlled laboratory conditions (LD 10∶14; 22 ± 2‡C). Although both groups of hamsters gained weight over the course of the experiment, hamsters housed indoors were significantly heavier after 5 weeks of treatment compared to their outdoors counterparts. Animals housed under natural conditions exhibited a significant decrease in circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) and a rapid rise in triiodothyronine (T3) levels; the free T4 and free T3 index (FT4I and FT3I) mirrored the changes in circulating levels of the respective hormones. Laboratory-housed animals had a slight rise in T4 and FT4I at 3 weeks followed by a slow steady decline in these values; T3 and FT3I values did not change remarkably in these animals. Plasma cholesterol declined steadily over the course of the experiment in laboratory-maintained animals but increased slightly during the first 5 weeks in animals under natural conditions. Since the photoperiodic conditions were approximately of the same duration in these 2 groups, it is concluded that the major differences in body weight, thyroid hormone values and plasma cholesterol are due to some component (possibly temperature) in the natural environment.

  5. Oxidative modification and poor protective activity of HDL on LDL oxidation in thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Unchern, Supeenun; Laohareungpanya, Narumon; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Tanratana, Pansakorn; Chantharaksri, Udom; Sibmooh, Nathawut

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported in thalassemia, which is a consequence of oxidative stress. However, the levels of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in thalassemia have not been evaluated and it is unclear whether HDL oxidation may be linked to LDL oxidation. In this study, the levels of total cholesterol, iron, protein, conjugated diene (CD), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were determined in HDL from healthy volunteers and patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia with hemoglobin E (beta-thal/Hb E). The protective activity of thalassemic HDL on LDL oxidation was also investigated. The iron content of HDL(2) and HDL(3) from beta-thal/HbE patients was higher while the cholesterol content was lower than those in healthy volunteers. Thalassemic HDL(2) and HDL(3) had increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers i.e., conjugated diene, LOOH, and TBARs. Thalassemic HDL had lower peroxidase activity than control HDL and was unable to protect LDL from oxidation induced by CuSO(4). Our findings highlight the oxidative modification and poor protective activity of thalassemic HDL on LDL oxidation which may contribute to cardiovascular complications in thalassemia.

  6. SR-BI mediates high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyun Jee; Kim, Seong-Min; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-30

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), mediates selective cholesteryl ester uptake from lipoproteins into the liver as well as cholesterol efflux from macrophages to HDL. Recently, strong evidence has demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of HDL, although the mechanism of action is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of HDL are dependent on SR-BI expression in THP-1 macrophages. Consistent with earlier findings, pretreatment of macrophages with HDL abolished LPS-induced TNFα production. HDL also inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. In addition, knockdown of SR-BI or inhibition of SR-BI ligand binding abolished the anti-inflammatory effect of HDL. SR-BI is a multi-ligand receptor that binds to modified lipoproteins as well as native HDL. Since modified lipoproteins have pro-inflammatory properties, it is unclear whether SR-BI activated by modified HDL has an anti- or pro-inflammatory effect. Glycated HDL induced NF-κB activation and cytokine production in macrophages in vitro, suggesting a pro-inflammatory effect for modified HDL. Moreover, inhibition of SR-BI function or expression potentiated glycated HDL-induced TNF-α production, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect for SR-BI. In conclusion, SR-BI plays an important function in regulating HDL-mediated anti-inflammatory response in macrophages.

  7. sHDL Nanoparticles: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Adrenocortical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Chitra; Kuai, Rui; Zhu, Qing; White, Peter; Moon, James; Schwendeman, Anna; Cohen, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemotherapeutic strategies for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) carry significant toxicities. Cholesterol is critical for ACC cell growth and steroidogenesis and ACC cells over-express scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) that uptakes cholesterol from circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We hypothesize that cholesterol-free synthetic-HDL nanoparticles (sHDL) will deplete cholesterol and synergize with chemotherapeutics to achieve enhanced anticancer effects at lower (less toxic) drug levels. Methods Anti proliferative efficacy of ACC cells for the combinations of sHDL with chemotherapeutics was tested by cell-Titer Glo. Cortisol levels were measured from the culture media. Effect on steroidogenesis was measured by RT-PCR. Induction of apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results Combination-Index (CI) for sHDL and either etoposide(E), cisplatin(P) or mitotane(M) demonstrated synergy (CI<1) for anti-proliferation. sHDL alone or in combination with chemo drugs was able to reduce cortisol production by 70-90% compared to cisplatin alone or controls (p<0.01). RT-PCR indicated significant inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes for sHDL (p<0.01 vs. no sHDL). Combination therapy with sHDL increased apoptosis by 30-50% compared to drug or sHDL alone (p<0.03) confirmed by mitochondrial potential decrease. Conclusion sHDL can act synergistically and lower the amount of M/E/P needed for anticancer efficacy in ACC in part due to cholesterol starvation. This novel treatment strategy warrants further investigation translationally. PMID:26582501

  8. The thyroid hormone mimetic compound KB2115 lowers plasma LDL cholesterol and stimulates bile acid synthesis without cardiac effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Berkenstam, Anders; Kristensen, Jens; Mellström, Karin; Carlsson, Bo; Malm, Johan; Rehnmark, Stefan; Garg, Neeraj; Andersson, Carl Magnus; Rudling, Mats; Sjöberg, Folke; Angelin, Bo; Baxter, John D

    2008-01-15

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major problem despite the availability of drugs that influence major risk factors. New treatments are needed, and there is growing interest in therapies that may have multiple actions. Thyroid hormone modulates several cardiovascular risk factors and delays atherosclerosis progression in humans. However, use of thyroid hormone is limited by side effects, especially in the heart. To overcome this limitation, pharmacologically selective thyromimetics that mimic metabolic effects of thyroid hormone and bypass side effects are under development. In animal models, such thyromimetics have been shown to stimulate cholesterol elimination through LDL and HDL pathways and decrease body weight without eliciting side effects. We report here studies on a selective thyromimetic [KB2115; (3-[[3,5-dibromo-4-[4-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethyl)-phenoxy]-phenyl]-amino]-3-oxopropanoic acid)] in humans. In moderately overweight and hypercholesterolemic subjects KB2115 was found to be safe and well tolerated and elicited up to a 40% lowering of total and LDL cholesterol after 14 days of treatment. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated without evidence of increased cholesterol production, indicating that KB2115 induced net cholesterol excretion. KB2115 did not provoke detectable effects on the heart, suggesting that the pharmacological selectivity observed in animal models translates to humans. Thus, selective thyromimetics deserve further study as agents to treat dyslipidemia and other risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  9. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol esterification and transfer rates to lighter density lipoproteins mediated by cholesteryl ester transfer protein in the fasting and postprandial periods are not altered in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Medina; Nunes; Carrilho; Shimabukuru; Lottenberg; Lottenberg; McPherson; Krauss; Quintão

    2000-10-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with atherosclerosis that has, in part, been ascribed to abnormalities in the reverse cholesterol transport system. Methods: We determined, in the fasting and post-alimentary periods, rates of HDL cholesterol esterification and transfer to apoB-containing lipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration, and apoB lipoprotein size in 10 type 1 diabetics and 10 well-matched controls. Autologous HDL was labeled with [14C]cholesterol and incubated at 37 degrees C during a period of 30 min for measurement of the cholesterol esterification rate (CER), as well as for 24 h for measurement of the endogenous HDL [14C]cholesteryl ester ([14C]CE) transfer rate to apoB-containing lipoproteins after 2- and 4-h incubations with the subject's own plasma. Exogenous cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was estimated by incubation of the participant's plasma (CETP source) with [14C]CE-HDL and VLDL from a pool of plasma donors. ApoB lipoprotein size was determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis of whole plasma. Results: Contrary to previous studies, we showed that even not well-controlled type 1 diabetics did not differ from lipid-matched, non-diabetic subjects in HDL-[14C]cholesterol esterification rate, transfer rates, or CETP concentration. CETP concentration correlates with the exogenous method of [14C]CE transfer and with the endogenous method only when the latter is corrected for plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentration. In addition, during the postprandial phase, diabetic patients' VLDL are smaller and IDL size increases less than in controls. Conclusion: In type 1 diabetes mellitus, CETA is not altered when the plasma levels of donor and/or acceptor lipoproteins are within the normal range.

  10. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  11. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Peng, Hongchun; Peng, Ran; Fan, Qingsong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan; Morisseau, Christophe; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is the body largest free cholesterol reservoir and abundantly expresses ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which maintains plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. HDLs have a protective role in atherosclerosis by mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The sEH is highly expressed in adipocytes, and it converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. We previously showed that increasing EETs levels with a sEH inhibitor (sEHI) (t-AUCB) resulted in elevated ABCA1 expression and promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study investigates the impacts of t-AUCB in mice deficient for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-) mice) with established atherosclerotic plaques. The sEH inhibitor delivered in vivo for 4 weeks decreased the activity of sEH in adipose tissue, enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux from adipose depots, and consequently increased HDL levels. Furthermore, t-AUCB enhanced RCT to the plasma, liver, bile and feces. It also showed the reduction of plasma LDL-C levels. Consistently, t-AUCB-treated mice showed reductions in the size of atherosclerotic plaques. These studies establish that raising adipose ABCA1 expression, cholesterol efflux, and plasma HDL levels with t-AUCB treatment promotes RCT, decreasing LDL-C and atherosclerosis regression, suggesting that sEH inhibition may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.