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Sample records for plasma lactate levels

  1. Plasma D-lactate levels in diagnosis of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Cağlayan, Fatma; Cakmak, Murat; Cağlayan, Osman; Cavuşoglu, Turgut

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the possible use of D-lactate as a predictor in the diagnosis of appendicitis. C-reactive protein level (CRP) and leukocyte counts were also evaluated. Venous blood D-lactate, CRP, and leukocyte counts were measured preoperatively in 53 patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis, as well as in 20 healthy subjects. Levels of all three parameters in the surgical patients were significantly higher than in the control group (p <.05). Previous studies have shown that venous D-lactate is more specific to the intestine than CPR or leukocyte count. Based on our data, venous D-lactate, which had the lowest false-negative rate among these laboratory parameters, may be a useful diagnostic marker for appendicitis. None of these parameters were helpful in identifying the type of the appendicitis.

  2. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  3. The effect of glycemic index on plasma glucose and lactate levels during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Stannard, S R; Constantini, N W; Miller, J C

    2000-03-01

    Consumption of low glycemic index (GI) foods before submaximal endurance exercise may be beneficial to performance. To test whether this may also be true for high intensity exercise, 10 trained cyclists began an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 65 min after consuming equal carbohydrate portions of glucose (HGI), pasta (LGI), and a noncarbohydrate control (PL). Time to fatigue did not differ significantly (p = 0.05) between treatments. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after LGI vs. HGI from 15 to 45 min of rest postprandial. During exercise, plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after HGI vs. LGI from 200 W until exhaustion. Plasma lactate concentration following HGI was significantly higher than PL from 30 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 200-W workload. Plasma lactate concentration following LGI was significantly lower than after HGI from 45 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 100-W workload. At higher exercise intensities, there was no significant difference in plasma lactate levels between treatments. These findings suggest that a high GI carbohydrate meal (1 g/kg body wt) 65 min prior to exercise decreases plasma glucose and increases plasma lactate levels compared to a low GI meal, but not enough to be detrimental to incremental exercise performance.

  4. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2–75 μM) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 μL/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 μL/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level. PMID:26797108

  5. A Review of the Predictive Role of Plasma D-Lactate Level in Acute Appendicitis: A Myth or Truth?

    PubMed Central

    Unverir, Pinar; Karcioglu, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common condition which warrants emergency surgery. Detailed history, physical exam, and laboratory findings are often nonspecific in suspected patients. There is substantial evidence to indicate that plasma levels of D-lactate were useful to establish a diagnosis of AA in the medical literature. It has been suggested that it is useful for patients with abdominal pain, especially patients with perforated AA. This paper is designed to highlight the value of D-lactate biomarker in establishing a diagnosis of AA. Based on the literature, it is not helpful for a decision of operation in patients with AA. According to the results of the studies, laboratory involvement was observed between plasma D-lactate level and the final diagnosis of AA, particularly in perforated appendices. It can be considered for routine use in patients with undifferentiated abdominal pain in the emergency department setting. PMID:23724288

  6. Plasma glucose, lactate, sodium, and potassium levels in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tõnisson, Mailis; Tillmann, Vallo; Kuudeberg, Anne; Väli, Marika

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our research was to study prevalence of changes in plasma levels of lactate, potassium, glucose, and sodium in relation to alcohol concentration in children hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Data from 194 under 18-year-old children hospitalized to the two only children's hospital in Estonia over a 2-year period were analyzed. The pediatrician on call filled in a special form on the clinical symptoms of AAI; a blood sample was drawn for biochemical tests, and a urine sample taken to exclude narcotic intoxication. The most common finding was hyperlactinemia occurring in 66% of the patients (n=128) followed by hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L) in 50% (n=97), and glucose above of reference value (>6.1 mmol/L) in 40.2% of the children (n=78). Hypernatremia was present in five children. In conclusion, hyperlactinemia, hypokalemia, and glucose levels above of reference value are common biochemical findings in children hospitalized with acute AAI.

  7. [Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: relation to blood parasite counts and lactate levels].

    PubMed

    Abessolo, Félix Ovono; Nguélé, Jean Calvin; Legault, Estelle; Ngou-Milama, Edouard

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection modifies the distribution of phospholipids on both sides of the erythrocyte-plasma membrane. We sought to understand the action of the parasite on both plasma and membrane phospholipids and their relation to parasite counts in the blood. We conducted this study from 1 February through 30 June 2007 in the Malaria Clinical Research Unit of the Libreville General Hospital Centre, measuring phospholipids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes of children affected by P. falciparum malaria and assessing their relation to blood parasites, lactates and hemoglobin. The study included 60 children. The mean blood parasite count was 1.07 x 105 per ml. Mean plasma phospholipids were 2.6+/-0.9 mmol/l and lactates 4.7+/-3.7 mmol/l. At the membrane level, we found 2.8+/-1.2 mmol/l of phospholipids per 106 red blood cells. Phospholipids in these two compartments were positively correlated with one another (r=0.392; p=0.023). Plasma phospholipids were also correlated positively with hemoglobin (r=0.36; p=0.032) and negatively with the number of parasites (r=0.442; p=0.002). The latter, in turn, was positively correlated with lactates (r=0.527; p=0.022) and negatively with membrane phospholipids (r=0.542; p=0.006). The mean hemoglobin level (8.9 g/dl) suggests permanent blood loss in these children, although they may be considered new malaria patients. The relations revealed here between membrane phospholipids, blood parasite counts, and lactate levels are due to the increased energy needs of erythrocytes, but also to the need to synthesize substances intended for cellular defense. P. falciparum thus leads to a decrease in plasma phospholipids, which could be estimated and correlated with blood parasites in a study with a wider range of parasite counts.

  8. The Gonadal Hormone Regulates the Plasma Lactate Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Treated With and Without Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ying; Li, Qing; Tang, Junling; Zheng, Taishan; Lu, Fengdi; Lu, Huijuan; Jia, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our previous study showed there was a gender difference in plasma lactate concentrations in subjects with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the effect of sex hormone levels on plasma lactic acid (LA) levels in type 2 diabetes with and without metformin therapy. Subjects and Methods Fasting whole blood specimens of 392 type 2 diabetes patients treated with metformin (n=199) or not (n=193) were collected. LA was measured with an enzyme-electrode assay. Levels of sex hormones, including testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), were measured with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. Spearman's or Pearson's correlation and logistic regression analysis were performed for the factors associated with LA. Results The LA level in the metformin group was significantly higher than that in the non-metformin group (1.26±0.43 vs. 1.14±0.49 mmol/L, P<0.001), and LA levels of females were significantly higher than those of males (P<0.001). LA concentrations were positively correlated with E2 level but negatively correlated with metformin and T levels (P<0.01). The logistic regression analysis showed that gender, creatinine, E2, metformin, and T were independent factors influencing lactate levels. Analysis of subgroups demonstrated that the LA concentrations increased with the elevation of E2 level (P<0.05) but decreased with the rising of T level (P<0.05). Conclusions Sex hormones play an important role on regulating plasma lactate levels in diabetes patients treated with metformin. E2 up-regulates but T tend to down-regulate lactate levels. PMID:22524632

  9. Plasma lactate, GH and GH-binding protein levels in exercise following BCAA supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    De Palo, E F; Gatti, R; Cappellin, E; Schiraldi, C; De Palo, C B; Spinella, P

    2001-01-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) stimulate protein synthesis, and growth hormone (GH) is a mediator in this process. A pre-exercise BCAA ingestion increases muscle BCAA uptake and use. Therefore after one month of chronic BCAA treatment (0.2 gkg(-1) of body weight), the effects of a pre-exercise oral supplementation of BCAA (9.64 g) on the plasma lactate (La) were examined in triathletes, before and after 60 min of physical exercise (75% of VO2 max). The plasma levels of GH (pGH) and of growth hormone binding protein (pGHBP) were also studied. The end-exercise La of each athlete was higher than basal. Furthermore, after the chronic BCAA treatment, these end-exercise levels were lower than before this treatment (8.6+/-0.8 mmol L(-1) after vs 12.8+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) before treatment; p < 0.05 [mean +/- std. err.]). The end-exercise pGH of each athlete was higher than basal (p < 0.05). Furthermore, after the chronic treatment, this end-exercise pGH was higher (but not significantly, p = 0.08) than before this treatment (12.2+/-2.0 ng mL(-1) before vs 33.8+/-13.6 ngmL(-1) after treatment). The end-exercise pGHBP was higher than basal (p < 0.05); and after the BCAA chronic treatment, this end-exercise pGHBP was 738+/-85 pmol L(-1) before vs 1691+/-555 pmol L(-1) after. pGH/pGHBP ratio was unchanged in each athlete and between the groups, but a tendency to increase was observed at end-exercise. The lower La at the end of an intense muscular exercise may reflect an improvement of BCAA use, due to the BCAA chronic treatment. The chronic BCAA effects on pGH and pGHBP might suggest an improvement of muscle activity through protein synthesis.

  10. Effect of various partial separations of the litters from their mother on plasma prolactin levels of lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Bánky, Z; Nagy, G M; Halász, B

    1994-01-01

    Removal of the pups results in an abrupt and marked depression in plasma prolactin (PRL) level of the lactating mother. The present studies were undertaken to investigate what kind of sensory input (smell, sound, visual, touch etc.) from the pups is essential for the mother to avoid the pituitary PRL response to pup-removal. Therefore, various partial separations were made and their effect on plasma PRL levels tested: a. The pups were placed into a small glass having holes on its cover; b. they were put into a long measuring tube not covered; c. the pups were placed into the feeding trough made of a wireframe; d. a dividing wall made of glass or metal was slowly let down when the mother spontaneously went away from her pups; e. the nipples were covered by a cotton plaster. Pituitary PRL responses were almost identical after all these separations and similar to that one obtained after removal of the pups from the cage. In addition, separation of the mother resulted in a rise in plasma corticosterone concentrations. The findings suggest that the pup-removal induced inhibition of PRL secretion is a very complex event for the mother and cannot be prevented by partial separations when the mother can see, smell her pups, or hear them or even can touch them with her nose. We assume that separation of the pups is a stress for the mother and cannot simply be due to the lack of just one kind of sensory input from the pups. This assumption is in line with our recent observations indicating that in lactating rat stress causes a decrease in plasma PRL level.

  11. Prognostic value of plasma lactate levels in a retrospective cohort presenting at a university hospital emergency department

    PubMed Central

    van den Nouland, Danith P A; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Stassen, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The prognostic value of lactate in the setting of an emergency department (ED) has not been studied extensively. The goal of this study was to assess 28-day mortality in ED patients in whom lactate was elevated (≥4.0 mmol/L), <4.0 mmol/L or not determined and to study the impact of the underlying cause of hyperlactatemia, that is, type A (tissue hypoxia) or type B (non-hypoxia), on mortality. Design Retrospective study. Setting A secondary and tertiary referral centre in the Netherlands. Materials and methods All internal medicine patients with hyperlactatemia (≥4.0 mmol/L) at the ED between January 2011 and October 2014 were included in this study. Samples of patients with lactate levels <4.0 mmol/L and of patients in whom no lactate was measured were included as a reference. Results In 1144 of 19 822 patients (5.8%), lactate was measured. Hyperlactatemia (n=197) was associated with a higher 28-day mortality than in those with lactate <4.0 mmol/L (40.6% vs 18.5%; p<0.001) and in those without lactate measurements (9.5%). Type A hyperlactatemia, present in 84% of those with hyperlactatemia, was associated with higher mortality than type B hyperlactatemia (45.8% vs 12.5%, p=0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the prognostic value of lactate depends largely on the underlying cause and the population in whom lactate has been measured. Prospective studies are required to address the true added value of lactate at the ED. PMID:28137926

  12. Leptin and ghrelin levels in colostrum, milk and blood plasma of sows and pig neonates during the first week of lactation.

    PubMed

    Woliński, Jarosław; Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Radioimmunology was used to determine leptin and ghrelin levels in sow colostrum and milk in relation to those in sow and neonatal pig blood plasma and to the body weight of piglets during the first week of lactation. The highest concentration of leptin was found in colostrum on the second day of lactation (69.3 ± 6.3 ng/mL). Leptin concentrations in sow plasma were significantly lower than in colostrum/milk (2.19 ± 0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.7692) and were stable in the first 7 days of lactation. Total and active ghrelin concentrations in colostrum/milk were stable in the measured time points (6734 ± 261 pg/mL, P = 0.3397; 831 ± 242 pg/mL, P = 0.3988, respectively). Total ghrelin concentrations in sow plasma were lower than in colostrum/milk. These results indicate that pigs follow a unique species-specific pattern of leptin and ghrelin synthesis, release and existence, and that the mammary gland is an important source of leptin and ghrelin contained in colostrum/milk.

  13. Type of cottonseed and level of gossypol in diets of lactating dairy cows: plasma gossypol, health, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Santos, J E P; Villasenor, M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Holmberg, C A

    2003-03-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of altering gossypol intake by feeding whole linted Upland (WUP) or a 1:2 blend of WUP and cracked Pima (BUPCP) cottonseed on plasma gossypol (PG) concentrations, reproduction, and health of Holstein cows. Cows, 813, on three dairy farms were assigned to one of two diets starting at 13 +/- 11 d in milk for a 170-d experiment. Diets contained 717 and 951 mg of free gossypol/kg of dry matter from WUP and BUPCP, respectively. Concentrations of PG, as well as the proportion of total gossypol (TG) as the minus isomer were higher for cows fed BUPCP vs cows fed WUP. Conception rate at the first postpartum artificial insemination did not differ between treatments. However, cows consuming the higher gossypol diet had reduced subsequent conception rates and a lower pregnancy rate. Incidence of abortions increased in the higher gossypol diet, and cows that aborted or remained open had higher PG concentrations. Increasing PG concentrations resulted in reduced conception rates and extended days open. The probability of conception after the first artificial insemination declined at a decreasing rate as the plasma TG increased. Incidence of health disorders were unaffected by gossypol intake and PG concentrations. Similarly, gossypol intake and PG concentrations had no effect on culling or mortality. Six cows died in each diet, and none had postmortem signs compatible with gossypol toxicity. Consumption of a high gossypol diet for 170 d had no effect on health of lactating dairy cows, but it increased PG concentrations and impaired reproductive performance.

  14. Postpartum levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in plasma and milk phospholipid fractions as biomarker of oxidative stress in first-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vernunft, A; Viergutz, T; Plinski, C; Weitzel, J M

    2014-08-01

    F2-isoprostanes such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 (8-iso-PGF2α) are formed by free radical-catalyzed mechanisms from membrane phospholipids and from low density lipoproteins through peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Esterified 8-iso-PGF2α is cleaved by phospholipases, circulates in blood and is excreted as putatively harmful oxidatively modified lipid via the kidney into urine. In this study we demonstrate that 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in plasma samples from heifers are higher (p<0.005) compared to those from first-lactating dairy cows at 71 days postpartum. Furthermore, plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations vary with ovarian activity and differ in response to luteolytic initiation as well as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between heifers and first-lactating cows. Sustainable concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α (50-150 pg/ml) are detectable in the phospholipid fraction of milk, suggesting milk as an additional excretion route for 8-isoprostanes. Plasma levels largely paralleled levels in milk (p<0.001). Plasma phospholipid 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in cyclic cows decreased (p<0.05) from day 38 to day 71 postpartum, whereas milk phospholipid 8-iso-PGF2α rather increased (p<0.05). Cyclic cows tend to have higher 8-isoprostane levels compared to acyclic animals. In contrast to lipohydroperoxides, concentration of 8-iso-PGF2α were not correlated with milk yield (p>0.05). Our data indicate 8-iso-PGF2α may be a novel biomarker of oxidative stress in dairy cow, which is detectable in blood as well as in milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose, lactate and CO2 in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, during peak period of nesting.

    PubMed

    Alkindi, A Y A; Al-Habsi, A A; Mahmoud, I Y

    2008-02-01

    Plasma concentrations of stress hormones [adrenaline (ADR), noradrenaline (NR)], lactate, glucose and CO2 were monitored during peak nesting period (May-October) at different phases of nesting in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas. These include, emergence from sea, excavating body and nest chambers, oviposition, covering and camouflaging the nest and then returning to sea. Turtles that completed all phases of nesting including oviposition before returning to sea were considered "successful" turtles, while those that completed all phases but failed to lay their eggs were "unsuccessful". Blood samples were taken from the cervical sinus within 5min of capture to avoid stress due to handling. The turtles were usually sampled for blood between 20:00 and 1:00h of nesting time to ensure uniformity in the sampling. Plasma ADR and NR values were highly significant (P<0.001) in successful turtles over emergence, excavating and unsuccessful turtles. Plasma glucose levels remained stable throughout the nesting phases while lactate levels were significantly higher in successful turtles over the other phases (P<0.05) which signifies anaerobic metabolism during nesting. Plasma CO2 values were negatively correlated with ADR and NR (r=-0.258, P=0.03; r=-0.304, P=0.010), respectively. Hematocrit was significantly higher in successful phase (P<0.05) compared to other phases, and this may signify a higher degree of stress in successful turtles. Body temperature were significantly lower (P<0.005) in the excavating phase compared to the other three phases. Overall, body temperatures were lower than sand temperatures around the nest, which may indicate a behavioral thermoregulation used by the turtles during nesting. This information will be of value to the ongoing conservation program at Ras Al-Hadd Reserve in the Sultanate of Oman.

  16. Effects of protein level, methionine supplementation and carbohydrate type of the diet on liver lipid and plasma free threonine contents in the lactating rat.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, J; Chanussot, B; Miller, M L; Poisson, J P; Belleville, J

    1989-01-01

    Eight groups of 13-15 female rats were fed purified diets after littering. Four groups received a low protein (8% casein) diet (groups 8) and the others, a normal protein (20% casein) diet (groups 20). Carbohydrates were supplied either as starch (groups S) or as starch plus 40% fructose (groups F). Half the animals received a 0.4% methionine supplementation (groups M). Four or five dams per group were sacrificed on days 2, 7 and 14 after littering. The diet intake was increased by methionine supplementation, substitution of starch for fructose and increased protein content, mainly during the second week of lactation. This influenced weight variation of the dams and litter growth. On all days, the plasma levels of cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids were positively correlated with the dietary protein level. On days 7 and 14, the liver neutral lipid content was increased in rats fed the low protein diets supplemented with methionine (groups 8SM and 8FM) and the normal protein diets containing 40% fructose (groups 20F and 20FM). The plasma free threonine content was positively correlated with the protein level in the diet. On day 14, rats fed a low protein diet had a threonine deficiency, except those in groups 8S and 8F. The plasma free threonine content of these rats was not reduced, possibly due to an impaired utilization of this amino acid. The liver lipidosis observed during lactation, in contrast to that observed during growth with a low protein diet, was not due to a threonine deficiency.

  17. Diving and swimming performance of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas: an assessment of plasma lactate and blood gas levels and respiratory rates.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, S A; Costa, D P; Williams, T M; Ridgway, S H

    1997-12-01

    The white whale Delphinapterus leucas is an exceptional diver, yet we know little about the physiology that enables this species to make prolonged dives. We studied trained white whales with the specific goal of assessing their diving and swimming performance. Two adult whales performed dives to a test platform suspended at depths of 5-300 m. Behavior was monitored for 457 dives with durations of 2.2-13.3 min. Descent rates were generally less than 2 m s-1 and ascent rates averaged 2.2-3 m s-1. Post-dive plasma lactate concentration increased to as much as 3.4 mmol l-1 (4-5 times the resting level) after dives of 11 min. Mixed venous PO2 measured during voluntary breath-holds decreased from 79 to 20 mmHg within 10 min; however, maximum breath-hold duration was 17 min. Swimming performance was examined by training the whales to follow a boat at speeds of 1.4-4.2 m s-1. Respiratory rates ranged from 1.6 breaths min-1 at rest to 5.5 breaths min-1 during exercise and decreased with increasing swim speed. Post-exercise plasma lactate level increased to 1.8 mmol l-1 (2-3 times the resting level) following 10 min exercise sessions at swimming speeds of 2.5-2.8 m s-1. The results of this study are consistent with the calculated aerobic dive limit (O2 store/metabolic rate) of 9-10 min. In addition, white whales are not well adapted for high-speed swimming compared with other small cetaceans.

  18. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  19. Evaluation of the Lactate Plus monitor for plasma lactate concentration measurement in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nye, Carolyn J; Musulin, Sarah E; Hanel, Rita M; Mariani, Christopher L

    2017-01-01

    To compare the Lactate Plus handheld monitor to a reference blood gas analyzer for determining plasma lactate concentrations in canine whole blood. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital. Ninety-four dogs hospitalized or admitted through the emergency service provided 125 blood samples. Only dogs that required a venous or arterial blood gas evaluation as a part of their diagnostic assessment or ongoing management were included. None. Canine whole blood samples were assayed for plasma lactate concentration with a reference blood gas analyzer and the Lactate Plus monitor. Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare results between the 2 methods. A subset of blood samples was repeatedly analyzed with the Lactate Plus to assess monitor precision. Plasma lactate measurements from the Lactate Plus monitor showed excellent correlation with those from the reference analyzer (ρ = 0.98, P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a small bias (0.1296). Agreement between the 2 methods was less consistent for lactate concentrations >5 mmol/L. The coefficient of variation ranged from 0-26.2% (median, 3.7%) and was <15% for 50/53 samples. The Lactate Plus provides a fast and affordable method to measure plasma lactate concentration in dogs. Results showed excellent agreement with the reference analyzer and precision of the instrument was acceptable. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  20. Working memory and blood lactate levels.

    PubMed

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Maci, Tiziana; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Massimino, Simona; Coco, Marinella

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of lactate in the blood after a high-intensity exercise is associated with an increase of lactate extractions by the brain. Previously, a negative influence of blood lactate on attentional processes has been observed. The present study was carried out to examine the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with a maximal cycling, with another cognitive domain: working memory. For evaluation of working memory two different protocols were used: the first (Self-Ordered Pointing Task) capable of analyzing non-spatial working memory requiring the ability to generate and monitor a sequence of responses and the second for evaluating motor working memory necessary to perform a motor task. The study was carried out in 30 students (15 males and 15 females) who performed exhaustive exercise. In each subject, blood lactate was measured and motor as well as non-motor forms of working memory were evaluated before the exercise, at its end as well as 15 min after the exhaustion. It was observed that an increase of blood lactate levels is associated with a worsening of both types of working memory.

  1. Relationship between plasma D(-)-lactate and intestinal damage after severe injuries in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Rong-Zhang; Lü, Yi; Deng, Qun; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Sheng, Zhi-Yong

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To explore the kinetic changes in plasma D(-)-lactate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, and investigate whether D(-)-lactate could be used as a marker of intestinal injury in rats following gut ischemia/reperfusion, burn, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). METHODS: Three models were developed in rats: ① gut ischemia/reperfusion obtained by one hour of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by reperfusion; ② severe burn injury created by 30% of total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness scald burn; and ③ ANP induced by continuous inverse infusion of sodium taurocholate and trypsin into main pancreatic duct. Plasma levels of D(-)-lactate in systemic circulation and LPS in portal circulation were measured by enzymatic-spectrophotometric method and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test kit, respectively. Tissue samples of intestine were taken for histological analysis. RESULTS: One hour gut ischemia followed by reperfusion injuries resulted in a significant elevation in plasma D(-)-lactate and LPS levels, and there was a significant correlation between the plasma D(-)-lactate and LPS (r = 0.719, P < 0.05). The plasma concentrations of D(-)-lactate and LPS increased significantly at 6 h postburn, and there was also a remarkable correlation between them (r = 0.877, P < 0.01). D(-)-lactate and LPS levels elevated significantly at 2 h after ANP, with a similar significant correlation between the two levels (r = 0.798, P < 0.01). The desquamation of intestine villi and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria were observed in all groups. CONCLUSION: The changes of plasma D(-)-lactate levels in systemic blood paralleled with LPS levels in the portal vein blood. The measurement of plasma D(-)-lactate level may be a useful marker to assess the intestinal injury and to monitor an increase of intestinal permeability and endotoxemia following severe injuries in early stage. PMID:11819828

  2. The effect of dry period length and postpartum level of concentrate on milk production, energy balance, and plasma metabolites of dairy cows across the dry period and in early lactation.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-07-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level postpartum on milk yield, feed intake, EB, and plasma metabolites between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving of cows of second parity or higher. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 123) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 DP lengths: 0-d DP (n = 81) or 30-d DP (n = 42). Prepartum, cows with a 0-d DP received a lactation ration based on grass silage and corn silage (6.4 MJ of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter). Cows with a 30-d DP received a dry cow ration based on grass silage, corn silage, and straw (5.4 MJ of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter). Postpartum, all cows received the same basal lactation ration as provided to lactating cows prepartum. Cows with a 0-d DP were fed a low level of concentrate up to 6.7 kg/d based on the requirement for their expected milk yield (0-d DP-L; n = 40) or the standard level of concentrate up to 8.5 kg/d (0-d DP-S; n = 41), which was equal to the concentrate level for cows with a 30-d DP (30-d DP-S; n = 42) based on requirements for their expected milk yield. Prepartum dry matter intake, concentrate intake, basal ration intake, energy intake, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and insulin concentrations were greater and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose concentrations were lower, but EB was not different in cows with a 0-d DP compared with cows with a 30-d DP. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, milk fat yield and plasma BHB concentration were lower and dry matter intake and concentrate intake were greater in cows with a 0-d DP compared with cows with a 30-d DP. During wk 4 to 7 postpartum, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), lactose content, and lactose and fat yield were lower in 0-d DP-L or 0-d DP-S cows compared with 30-d DP

  3. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L.; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S.

    2013-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring. PMID:17963759

  4. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring.

  5. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma – method-comparison evaluations

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Bhatt, Archana; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, Allen; Ellis, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20). Results The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality. PMID:25054981

  6. Concentrations of preptin, salusins and hepcidins in plasma and milk of lactating women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Onder; Gurates, Bilgin; Sahin, Ibrahim; Ulas, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Musa; Kalayci, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Kumru, Selahattin

    2013-11-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain whether human milk contains preptin, salusin-alpha (salusin-α) and -beta (salusin-β) and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25, and whether there are relationships between plasma and milk preptin, salusin-α and -β and pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations in lactating mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Blood was obtained from non-lactating women (n = 12), non-diabetic lactating women (n = 12), and GDM lactating women (n = 12). Colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk samples were collected just before suckling from healthy and GDM lactating women. Peptides concentrations were determined by ELISA and EIA. Mammary gland tissues were screened immunohistochemically for these peptides. Women with GDM had significantly higher plasma and colostum preptin concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral and transitional milk period. Salusin-alpha and -beta levels in milk and plasma were lower in women with GDM. Salusin-α and -β were significantly lower in both plasma and colostrums of GDM than of healthy lactating women. Women with GDM had significantly higher colostum prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 concentrations than healthy lactating women during the colostral period. Plasma prohepcidin was also higher in women with GDM than in healthy lactating women during the colostral period, but plasma prohepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels decreased during mature milk period. Transitional milk pro-hepcidin and hepcidin-25 levels in women with GDM were higher than in healthy lactating women. All these results revealed that the mammary gland produces those peptides, which were present in milk at levels correlating with plasma concentrations.

  7. Inhibition of lactate removal by ketone bodies in rat liver. Evidence for a quantitatively important role of the plasma membrane lactate transporter in lactate metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, H K; Monson, J P; Welch, S G; Cohen, R D

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of DL-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate on lactate transport into isolated hepatocytes and on lactate removal in the isolated perfused rat liver. Ketone bodies inhibited lactate transport into isolated hepatocytes (maximum, 35% at concentrations of 10-20 mM). Lactate removal and glucose production by perfused livers were examined before and after the introduction of a constant infusion of hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, or appropriate control into the portal venous limb. Lactate removal was significantly inhibited within 10 s of the appearance of increasing concentrations of ketone bodies in the effluent. Corresponding decreases in glucose production were observed. The dependence of inhibition on D-3-hydroxybutyrate concentration was documented in isolated perfused livers (maximum inhibition of lactate removal, 58% at 14 mM). This phenomenon could be a factor in the development of lactic acidosis accompanying ketoacidosis, and indicates that plasma membrane lactate transport may determine the rate of hepatic lactate removal. PMID:3745435

  8. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    de Azeredo, Vilma B; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2008-02-01

    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P < 0.001) between milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

  9. Lactation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum

  10. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range <0.8–2.7 mmol l-1). In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range <0.8–2.1 mmol l-1). Of the 31 bitches 19 (61%) fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32%) fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS

  11. Investigation of Risk Factors Affecting Lactate Levels in Japanese Patients Treated with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shota; Tsuji, Hideyuki; Hiraoka, Sachiko; Nishihara, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a biguanaide antidiabetic drug used worldwide, and its effectiveness and benefits have already been established. However, the safety of high doses of metformin in Japanese patients, especially in elderly patients with a decreased renal function, remains unclear. Among the side effects of metformin, lactate acidosis is the most problematic due to a high mortality rate. Therefore, we assessed plasma lactate levels in metformin-treated patients to identify independent risk factors for hyperlactemia. 290 outpatients receiving various doses of metformin at our hospital were enrolled between March and July 2014. Serum electrolytes, Cre (creatinine), BUN (blood urea nitrogen), UA (uric acid), HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c), and lactate levels were investigated. Lactate levels did not significantly differ between the elderly (≥75 years) and non-elderly (<75 years) groups. Patients in the elderly group had a significantly lower daily metformin dose and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), compared with the non-elderly group (both p<0.005). Between with and without hyperlactemia groups, no significant differences were observed in either Cre or age. On the other hand, patients with hyperlactemia had a significantly higher dose of metformin than those without hyperlactemia (p<0.05). In this study, we found that old age and mildly impaired kidney function were not associated with increased lactate levels, and that a higher dose of metformin may be an independent risk factor for elevated lactate levels in Japanese patients.

  12. Photonic non-contact estimation of blood lactate level.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Chen; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Ozana, Nisan; Tenner, Felix; Schmidt, Michael; Sanz, Martin; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-10-01

    The ability to measure the blood lactate level in a non-invasive, non-contact manner is very appealing to the sports industry as well as the home care field. That is mainly because this substance level is an imperative parameter in the course of devolving a personal workout programs. Moreover, the blood lactate level is also a pivotal means in estimation of muscles' performance capability. In this manuscript we propose an optical non-contact approach to estimate the concentration level of this parameter. Firstly, we introduce the connection between the physiological muscle tremor and the lactate blood levels. Secondly, we suggest a photonic optical method to estimate the physiological tremor. Lastly, we present the results of tests conducted to establish proof of concept to this connection.

  13. Photonic non-contact estimation of blood lactate level

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Chen; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Ozana, Nisan; Tenner, Felix; Schmidt, Michael; Sanz, Martin; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    The ability to measure the blood lactate level in a non-invasive, non-contact manner is very appealing to the sports industry as well as the home care field. That is mainly because this substance level is an imperative parameter in the course of devolving a personal workout programs. Moreover, the blood lactate level is also a pivotal means in estimation of muscles' performance capability. In this manuscript we propose an optical non-contact approach to estimate the concentration level of this parameter. Firstly, we introduce the connection between the physiological muscle tremor and the lactate blood levels. Secondly, we suggest a photonic optical method to estimate the physiological tremor. Lastly, we present the results of tests conducted to establish proof of concept to this connection. PMID:26504661

  14. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  15. Plasma lactate concentrations in septic peritonitis: A retrospective study of 83 dogs (2007-2012).

    PubMed

    Cortellini, Stefano; Seth, Mayank; Kellett-Gregory, Lindsay M

    2015-01-01

    To determine if absolute plasma lactate concentration or lactate clearance in dogs with septic peritonitis is associated with morbidity or mortality. Retrospective cohort study from 2007 to 2012. University teaching hospital. Eighty-three dogs with septic peritonitis were included. Patients had at least 1 plasma lactate measurement during the course of the hospitalization. Sixty-four percent of the patients survived to discharge, 22% were euthanized, and 14% died during hospitalization. Plasma lactate concentration >2.5 mmol/L on admission (29% of the patients) was associated with mortality (P = 0.001). Median admission plasma lactate concentration (n = 81) was significantly different between nonsurvivors (2.5 mmol/L, range 0.5-8.4) and survivors (1.4 mmol/L, range 0.5-9.7; P = 0.007). Admission plasma lactate concentration >4 mmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 92% for nonsurvival. The inability to normalize plasma lactate concentration within 6 hours of admission (n = 10/24) yielded a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 100% for nonsurvival. Postoperative hyperlactatemia (plasma lactate concentration >2 mmol/L; n = 18/76) had a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 88% for nonsurvival. Persistent postoperative hyperlactatemia (n = 11/18) had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 100% for nonsurvival. Lactate clearance less than 21% at 6 hours (n = 20) had a sensitivity of 54% and specificity of 91% for nonsurvival. Lactate clearance less than 42% at 12 hours (n = 18) had a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 100% for nonsurvival. Admission plasma lactate concentration and lactate clearance were good prognostic indicators in dogs with septic peritonitis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  16. Validation of lactate measurement in American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) plasma and correlation with duration and difficulty of capture.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Wack, Raymund; Ziccardi, Michael; Larsen, R Scott; Hopper, Kate

    2012-09-01

    Capture myopathy and associated death have been reported with capture and restraint of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). In chickens (Gallus gallus), blood lactate concentration levels have been used as indicators of muscle damage. Lactate has also been used to predict survival in humans and dogs. The goals of this study were to validate two common methods for measuring lactate (i-STAT and VetTest analyzers) in flamingo plasma by comparing measurements to a reference analyzer; and to correlate blood lactate concentration levels in captured flamingos with the duration and difficulty of capture as a possible indicator of capture myopathy. Twenty-seven banked flamingo plasma samples were run in triplicate on each of the three blood analyzers. Values from the i-STAT analyzer were consistently lower than those from the ABL analyzer, while values from the VetTest were consistently higher than those from the ABL analyzer. However, there was a good level of correlation between all three analyzers. Two of the three analyzers were determined to have acceptable total allowable error levels, calculated at 3.6% for the ABL and 10.7% for the VetTest. For clinical purposes, both the i-STAT and the VetTest analyzers provide adequate evaluation of lactate levels when serial samples are measured on the same analyzer. After validating the assay, 34 captive flamingos were captured for routine examinations. Blood lactate concentration levels were positively correlated with the length of time of the individual capture, but lactate did not increase significantly as capture difficulty increased. Only one animal was considered to have a difficult capture. No flamingos demonstrated clinical signs of capture myopathy during this study. Further research is required to determine if blood lactate concentration is a useful indicator of capture myopathy.

  17. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  18. [Fetal distress: Information provided by lactate levels and antioxidant status, compared with the Apgar score].

    PubMed

    Abessolo, Felix Ovono; Ngou, J P J F Ngou-Mve; Meye, J F; Yangou, Jf Moutsinga; Lemamy, G J J F; Ngou-Milama, E J F

    2009-01-01

    The multitude of criteria used to assess fetal distress and the subjective character of the Apgar score led us to compare the information it provides with that from measurements of lactate and two principal antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We measured plasma lactates, SOD, and GPX from the umbilical cord blood of live-born children whose mothers had had at least three prenatal consultations. The correlation of these measurements with the 5-minute Apgar score was tested with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Lactate levels were correlated with the baby's blood glucose (r=0.212; p=0.0084), and GPx activity (r=0.179; p=0.0061), the Apgar score (r=0.258; p=0.001) and the mother's blood glucose (r=0.167; p=0.035). GPx was correlated not only with the lactate level but also with birth weight (r=0.205; p=0.000) and height (r=0.316; p=0.0056), while SOD was correlated only with the mother's blood glucose (r=0.161; p=0.046). In multivariate analysis, followed by stepwise analysis, lactate was the main variable associated with the Apgar score. It thus seems better able to replace the Apgar score than the antioxidant enzyme levels. GPx was higher in children of high birth weight and may make them better able to combat the free radicals due to anoxia or hypoxia.

  19. Plasma lactate concentrations in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine.

    PubMed

    Haga, Henning A; Wenger, Sandra; Hvarnes, Silje; Os, Oystein; Rolandsen, Christer M; Solberg, Erling J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate plasma lactate concentrations of etorphine-immobilized moose in relation to environmental, temporal and physiological parameters. Prospective clinical study. Fourteen female and five male moose (Alces alces), estimated age range 1-7 years. The moose were darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg etorphine per animal using projectile syringes and a dart gun. Once immobilized, the moose were approached, a venous blood sample was obtained and vital signs including pulse oximetry were recorded. Diprenorphine was administered to reverse the effects of etorphine. Timing of events, ambient temperature and snow depth were recorded. Blood samples were cooled and centrifuged before plasma was harvested and frozen. The plasma was thawed later and lactate analysed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. All animals recovered uneventfully and were alive 12 weeks after immobilization. Mean +/- SD plasma lactate was found to be 9.2 +/- 2.1 mmol L(-1). Plasma lactate concentrations were related positively to snow depth and negatively to time from induction of immobilization to blood sampling. The model that best described the variability in plasma lactate concentrations used induction time (time from firing the dart to the moose being immobilized). The second best model included induction time and snow depth. Plasma lactate concentrations in these etorphine-immobilized moose were in the range reported for other immobilized wild ruminants. Decreasing induction time, which may be related to a more profound etorphine effect, and increasing snow depth possibly may increase plasma lactate concentrations in etorphine-immobilized moose.

  20. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer's solution for anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-11-08

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer's solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer's lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer's lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy.

  1. Plasma and milk kinetic of eprinomectin and moxidectin in lactating water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Jacques; Sutra, Jean-François; Alvinerie, Michel; Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mezzino, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2008-11-07

    The pharmacokinetics and mammary excretion of moxidectin and eprinomectin were determined in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) following topical administration of 0.5mgkg(-1). Following administration of moxidectin, plasma and milk concentrations of moxidectin increased to reach maximal concentrations (C(max)) of 5.46+/-3.50 and 23.76+/-16.63ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.20+/-0.33 and 1.87+/-0.77 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) were similar for plasma and milk (5.27+/-0.45 and 5.87+/-0.80 days, respectively). The AUC value was 5-fold higher in milk (109.68+/-65.01ngdayml(-1)) than in plasma (23.66+/-12.26ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for moxidectin was 5.04+/-2.13. The moxidectin systemic availability (expressed as plasma AUC values) obtained in buffaloes was in the same range than those reported in cattle. The faster absorption and elimination processes of moxidectin were probably due to a lower storage in fat associated with the fact that animals were in lactation. Nevertheless, due to its high excretion in milk and its high detected maximum concentration in milk which is equivalent or higher to the Maximal Residue Level value (MRL) (40ngml(-1)), its use should be prohibited in lactating buffaloes. Concerning eprinomectin, the C(max) were of 2.74+/-0.89 and 3.40+/-1.68ngml(-1) at T(max) of 1.44+/-0.20 and 1.33+/-0.0.41 days in plasma and milk, respectively. The MRT and the AUC were similar for plasma (3.17+/-0.41 days and 11.43+/-4.01ngdayml(-1)) and milk (2.70+/-0.44 days and 8.49+/-3.33ngdayml(-1)). The ratio of AUC milk/plasma for eprinomectin was 0.76+/-0.16. The AUC value is 20 times lower than that reported in dairy cattle. The very low extent of mammary excretion and the milk levels reported lower than the MRL (20ngml(-1)) supports the permitted use of eprinomectin in lactating water buffaloes.

  2. Evaluating the influence of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on lactational exposure to chemicals in children.

    PubMed

    Verner, Marc-André; Plouffe, Laurence; Kieskamp, Kyra K; Rodríguez-Leal, Inés; Marchitti, Satori A

    2017-05-01

    Women are exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, many of which are known to transfer to breast milk during lactation. However, little is known about the influence of the different chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters on children's lactational dose. Our objective was to develop a generic pharmacokinetic model and subsequently quantify the influence of three chemical-specific parameters (biological half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution) on lactational exposure to chemicals and resulting plasma levels in children. We developed a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to simulate lifetime maternal exposure, placental transfer, and lactational exposure to the child. We performed 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations where half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution were varied. Children's dose and plasma levels were compared to their mother's by calculating child:mother dose ratios and plasma level ratios. We then evaluated the association between the three chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters and child:mother dose and level ratios through linear regression and decision trees. Our analyses revealed that half-life was the most influential parameter on children's lactational dose and plasma concentrations, followed by milk:plasma partition coefficient and volume of distribution. In bivariate regression analyses, half-life explained 72% of child:mother dose ratios and 53% of child:mother level ratios. Decision trees aiming to identify chemicals with high potential for lactational exposure (ratio>1) had an accuracy of 89% for child:mother dose ratios and 84% for child:mother level ratios. Our study showed the relative importance of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on children's lactational exposure. Developed equations and decision trees will enable the rapid identification of chemicals with a high potential for lactational exposure.

  3. Muscle characteristics and plasma lactate and ammonia response after racing in Standardbred trotters: relation to performance.

    PubMed

    Ronéus, N; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lindholm, A; Persson, S

    1999-03-01

    Blood samples from the jugular vein and muscle biopsies (gluteus medius) in 25 Standardbred trotters were obtained 5-10 min after racing. The biopsies were analysed for fibre type composition and enzymatic profile and blood samples for plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations. Muscle characteristics, plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations after racing were compared with each horse's individual performance index (IPI). The IPI is calculated annually from the individual horse's racing performance (% placing 1, 2 or 3, total annual earnings, average earning per start, and best racing record), respectively, converted to and expressed as a percentage deviation from the average record of the same sex and age group. The IPI values were 100-116. Plasma lactate concentrations were 15.0-42.7 mmol/l (mean 31.3 mmol/l) and ammonia concentrations 65-210 micromol/l (mean 141 micromol/l) after racing. Fibre type composition varied among horses (range 9-27% for Type I, 32-54% for Type IIA, and 27-46% for Type IIB). Fibre type composition, enzyme activities, plasma lactate and ammonia responses to racing were not correlated to IPI. Ten of the horses also performed a submaximal test on the track, consisting of 5 incremental 1000 m heats at approximate speeds of 9.1, 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, and 11.1 m/s. Immediately after each heat a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein for plasma lactate analysis. Plasma lactate response to exercise differed between horses, but no correlation was seen with IPI. Muscle characteristics, plasma lactate and ammonia concentrations after racing and lactate response to a submaximal track test did not correlate with current race performance expressed as IPI in a group of horses with average or better performance capacity at the time of testing. Analysis of lactate and ammonia in blood after racing is not a valuable tool to predict an individual performance index.

  4. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  5. Effect of zinc and selenium supplementation on serum testosterone and plasma lactate in cyclist after an exhaustive exercise bout.

    PubMed

    Shafiei Neek, Leila; Gaeini, Abas Ali; Choobineh, Siroos

    2011-12-01

    Zinc and selenium are essential minerals and have roles for more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate how exhaustive exercise affects testosterone levels and plasma lactate in cyclists who were supplemented with oral zinc and selenium for 4 weeks. For this reason, 32 male road cyclists were selected equally to four groups: PL group, placebo; Zn group, zinc supplement (30 mg/day); Se group, selenium supplement (200 μg/day); and Zn-Se group, zinc-selenium supplement. After treatment, free, total testosterone, and lactate levels of subjects were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Resting total, free testosterone, and lactate levels did not differ significantly between groups, and were increased by exercise (P > 0.05). Serum total testosterone levels in Zn group were higher than in Se group after exercise (P < 0.05). Serum-free testosterone levels in the Zn group were higher than the other groups (P < 0.05).There was an insignificant difference between levels of lactate in the four groups after exercise (P > 0.05). The results showed that 4-week simultaneous and separately zinc and selenium supplementation had no significant effect on resting testosterone and lactate levels of subjects who consume a zinc and selenium sufficient diet. It might be possible that the effect of zinc supplementation on free testosterone depends on exercise.

  6. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Plasma Oxytocin (OT) Concentrations in Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Plaut, Karen; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    From pregnancy to weaning there is a progressive elevation of plasma oxytocin (OT) levels associated with nursing activity, irrespective of litter size. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of continuous 1.5G, 1.75G and 2.0G hypergravity exposure on OT plasma concentration in prepartum (Gestation Day 20) (G20) and lactating (Postnatal day) (P10) rat dams. For this study, litter size was controlled with a yoking procedure established in our lab where individual control litters were yoked-matched to individual hypergravity litters. We reviewed all data at hypergravity irrespective of gravitational level and compared the values with the controls in both G20 (HG, n=15;SC, n=9) and P10 (HG, n=21;SC, n=16). Results showed that over time, we did observe the expected OT increase in both groups. In G20 dams, measurement of OT concentrations showed no significance. However, at P10, measurements of OT concentrations suggest a reduction of about 20% compared to established controls in our laboratory, 0.9+/-0.09 ng/ml for the controls and 0.7+/-0.06 ng/ml for centrifuged animals (p<0.02). These data suggest that exposure to centrifugation may reduce OT levels during lactation. When these plasma samples were obtained, the dams were removed from the litters, and values were not adjusted for the size of the litters. The reduction in OT with centrifugation may reflect a decrease in nursing activity or a decreased responsiveness of the mammary hypothalamic axis. In addition, we have analyzed data on plasma prolactin concentrations and mammary gland development, which may give additional insight to the results of our OT measurements.

  7. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Plasma Oxytocin (OT) Concentrations in Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Plaut, Karen; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    From pregnancy to weaning there is a progressive elevation of plasma oxytocin (OT) levels associated with nursing activity, irrespective of litter size. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of continuous 1.5G, 1.75G and 2.0G hypergravity exposure on OT plasma concentration in prepartum (Gestation Day 20) (G20) and lactating (Postnatal day) (P10) rat dams. For this study, litter size was controlled with a yoking procedure established in our lab where individual control litters were yoked-matched to individual hypergravity litters. We reviewed all data at hypergravity irrespective of gravitational level and compared the values with the controls in both G20 (HG, n=15;SC, n=9) and P10 (HG, n=21;SC, n=16). Results showed that over time, we did observe the expected OT increase in both groups. In G20 dams, measurement of OT concentrations showed no significance. However, at P10, measurements of OT concentrations suggest a reduction of about 20% compared to established controls in our laboratory, 0.9+/-0.09 ng/ml for the controls and 0.7+/-0.06 ng/ml for centrifuged animals (p<0.02). These data suggest that exposure to centrifugation may reduce OT levels during lactation. When these plasma samples were obtained, the dams were removed from the litters, and values were not adjusted for the size of the litters. The reduction in OT with centrifugation may reflect a decrease in nursing activity or a decreased responsiveness of the mammary hypothalamic axis. In addition, we have analyzed data on plasma prolactin concentrations and mammary gland development, which may give additional insight to the results of our OT measurements.

  8. Effect of vitamin A administration on free radicals and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Patlar, Suleyman; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the effect of vitamin A administration on Free Radicals production and antioxidant system activity and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion The study registered 10 healthy sedentary males their mean age was 22,85±0,26 years. The subjects were orally administrated with 300 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 4 weeks and engaged in strenuous exercise (using the Bruce protocol) once a week. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at four different times, before and after the supplementation and before and after exercise to analyze Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels using colorimetric ELISA test kits and plasma lactate levels using an autoanalyzer. Exhaustion exercise leaded to an increase in both MDA, NO, and lactate, and GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels compared to resting levels both before and after supplementation (p<0.05). Increased NO levels found in pre-supplementation exhaustion showed a significant decrease after the supplementation of vitamin A (p<0.05), but the other parameters were not changed after vitamin A administration. The results of our study demonstrate that the increase caused by 4-week strenuous exercise in the levels of the free radical NO was offset by vitamin A supplementation. It can be suggested that supplementation of vitamin A at physiological doses has a limited effect on lipid peroxidation caused by strenuous exercise.

  9. Heart Rate and Lactate Levels during Weight-Training Exercise in Trained and Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Michael H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of effects of squatting exercise on heart rate and blood lactate levels in trained and untrained males indicated that trained subjects performed more work and had higher heart rates and lactate levels at exhaustion untrained subjects, though heart rate and lactate levels were lower for trained subjects at a given bar mass or submaximal…

  10. Heart Rate and Lactate Levels during Weight-Training Exercise in Trained and Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Michael H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of effects of squatting exercise on heart rate and blood lactate levels in trained and untrained males indicated that trained subjects performed more work and had higher heart rates and lactate levels at exhaustion untrained subjects, though heart rate and lactate levels were lower for trained subjects at a given bar mass or submaximal…

  11. High serum lactate level may predict death within 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Abd Almajid; Kuria, Shiran; Blum, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Background Unexpected death within 24 hours of admission is a real challenge for the clinician in the emergency room. How to diagnose these patients and the right approach to prevent sudden death with 24 hours is still an enigma. The aims of our study were to find the independent factors that may affect the clinical outcome in the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study defining unexpected death within 24 hours of admission in our Department of Medicine in the last 6 years. We found 43 patients who died within 24 hours of admission, and compared their clinical and biochemical characteristics to 6055 consecutive patients who were admitted in that period of time and did not die within the first 24 hours of admission. The parameters that were used include gender, age, temperature, clinical and laboratory criteria for SIRS, arterial blood lactate, and arterial blood pH. Results Most of the patients who died within 24 hours had sepsis with SIRS. These patients were older (78.6±14.7 vs. 65.2±20.2 years [p<.0001]), had higher lactate levels (8.0±4.8 vs. 2.1±1.8mmol/L [p<.0001]), and lower pH (7.2±0.2 vs. 7.4±0.1 [p<.0001]). Logistic regression analysis found that lactate was the strongest independent parameter to predict death within 24 hours of admission (OR 1.366 [95% CI 1.235–1.512]), followed by old age (OR 1.048 [95% CI 1.048–1.075] and low arterial blood pH (OR 0.007 [CI <0.001–0.147]). When gender was analyzed, pH was not an independent variable in females (only in males). Conclusions The significant independent variable that predicted death within 24 hours of admission was arterial blood lactate level on admission. Older age was also an independent variable; low pH affected only males, but was a less dominant variable. We suggest use of arterial blood lactate level on admission as a bio-marker in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to the hospital for risk assessment and prediction of death within 24

  12. The effect of agility exercise on eicosanoid excretion, oxidant status, and plasma lactate in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective was to determine the effects of agility exercise on dogs of different skill levels with respect to urinary eicosanoids, urinary 15F2t-isoprostane (lipid peroxidation marker) and hematological/biochemical changes in plasma. Fifteen adult dogs had blood and urine samples obtained prior to, immediately and 4-hours following an agility exercise. Results Hematocrit, red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and hemoglobin increased following exercise, with greatest increases correlating to increased skill group (novice, intermediate, masters); at 4-hours post-exercise, hematocrit, RBC, and hemoglobin were decreased. Phosphorus increased following exercise with the greatest increase in novice and intermediates. Plasma lactate increased 3.6-fold in masters, 3.2-fold in intermediates, and 1.2-fold in novice dogs. Urine thromboxane B2 (TXB2) more than tripled 4-hours post-exercise while 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (PGF1α, prostacyclin metabolite), prostaglandin E2 metabolites (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin A2 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin E2), and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2α were unaffected as determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay and standardized by division with urine creatinine. Urine 15F2t-isoprostane increased insignificantly. Conclusions Alterations in the plasma post-exercise were likely due to hemoconcentration from insensible water loss, splenic contraction and sympathetic stimulation while 4-hours later autohemodilution reduced RBC parameters. Elevations in plasma lactate and urinary TXB2 correlated with advanced skill level/speed of the dogs. PMID:23273137

  13. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  14. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  15. The relationship between lactate and thiamine levels in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis⋆

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Ari; Graver, Amanda; Giberson, Tyler; Berg, Katherine; Liu, Xiaowen; Uber, Amy; Gautam, Shiva; Donnino, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Thiamine functions as an important cofactor in aerobic metabolism and thiamine deficiency can contribute to lactic acidosis. Although increased rates of thiamine deficiency have been described in diabetic outpatients, this phenomenon has not been studied in relation to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the present study, we hypothesize that thiamine deficiency is associated with elevated lactate in patients with DKA. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational study of patients presenting to a tertiary care center with DKA. Patient demographics, laboratory results, and outcomes were recorded. A one-time blood draw was performed and analyzed for plasma thiamine levels. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Eight patients (25%) were thiamine deficient, with levels lower than 9 nmol/L. A negative correlation between lactic acid and plasma thiamine levels was found (r = −0.56, P = .002). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for APACHE II scores (P = .009). Thiamine levels were directly related to admission serum bicarbonate (r = 0.44, P = .019), and patients with thiamine deficiency maintained lower bicarbonate levels over the first 24 hours (slopes parallel with a difference of 4.083, P = .002). Conclusions Patients with DKA had a high prevalence of thiamine deficiency. Thiamine levels were inversely related to lactate levels among patients with DKA. A study of thiamine supplementation in DKA is warranted. PMID:23993771

  16. The relationship between lactate and thiamine levels in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Ari; Graver, Amanda; Giberson, Tyler; Berg, Katherine; Liu, Xiaowen; Uber, Amy; Gautam, Shiva; Donnino, Michael W

    2014-02-01

    Thiamine functions as an important cofactor in aerobic metabolism and thiamine deficiency can contribute to lactic acidosis. Although increased rates of thiamine deficiency have been described in diabetic outpatients, this phenomenon has not been studied in relation to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In the present study, we hypothesize that thiamine deficiency is associated with elevated lactate in patients with DKA. This was a prospective observational study of patients presenting to a tertiary care center with DKA. Patient demographics, laboratory results, and outcomes were recorded. A one-time blood draw was performed and analyzed for plasma thiamine levels. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Eight patients (25%) were thiamine deficient, with levels lower than 9 nmol/L. A negative correlation between lactic acid and plasma thiamine levels was found (r = -0.56, P = .002). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for APACHE II scores (P = .009). Thiamine levels were directly related to admission serum bicarbonate (r = 0.44, P = .019), and patients with thiamine deficiency maintained lower bicarbonate levels over the first 24 hours (slopes parallel with a difference of 4.083, P = .002). Patients with DKA had a high prevalence of thiamine deficiency. Thiamine levels were inversely related to lactate levels among patients with DKA. A study of thiamine supplementation in DKA is warranted. © 2013.

  17. Effects of postexercise supplementation of chicken essence on the elimination of exercise-induced plasma lactate and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsin-I; Tsi, Daniel; Tan, Amabel C L; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2005-12-31

    We investigated the effects of chicken essence (CE) supplementation on exercise-induced changes of lactate and ammonia during recovery. In this randomized, double blind, crossover study, twelve healthy subjects performed a single bout of exercise to exhaustion, and then consumed either a placebo or CE within 5-min of the exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected before exercise, at exhaustion (0 minute), and 20, 40, 60, and 120 minutes, respectively during the recovery period. There were no differences in plasma glucose, creatine kinase, or heart rate responses between treatments. The exercise exhaustion significantly increased the levels of lactate and ammonia, and both measured values gradually declined during the recovery period. Ammonia levels at 40, 60, and 120 min. of the recovery period were observed lower significantly in the CE group, as compared to those in the placebo group. Additionally, lactate concentrations at 60 and 120 min were lower in the CE group, as compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the main finding of this study was that CE supplementation after exercise reduces plasma lactate and ammonia levels. The results indicated that CE supplementation after an exhaustive exercise could enhance physiological recovery in humans.

  18. Impact of feeding and post prandial time on plasma ketone bodies in sows during transition and lactation.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Olesen, A K; Flummer, C; Sørensen, G; Kristensen, N B

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with the aim of studying how dietary fat source, reproductive stage (Exp. 1), and diurnal variation (Exp. 2) affect plasma ketone bodies in sows. In Exp. 1, 40 second-parity sows were fed 1 of 5 lactation diets from 7 d prepartum until 28 d postpartum, with low or high levels (3% or 8%) of dietary fats with different proportions of medium- and long-chain fatty acids. Blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture on d 3 and 7 prepartum, and d 1, 10, 17, and 28 postpartum, and concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA), acetoacetate + acetone (AcAc+Ac), glucose, NEFA, lactate, acetate, and butyrate were determined. For 4 out of 5 treatments, plasma BHBA decreased slightly, whereas plasma AcAc+Ac remained stable. However, plasma BHBA (P < 0.01) and AcAc+Ac (P < 0.001) doubled after d 10 of lactation in sows fed 4% octanoic acid and 4% fish oil diet (4+4% FO; P < 0.001), compared with earlier in lactation (P < 0.001). Plasma AcAc+Ac was positively related to BHBA (P < 0.01), glucose (P < 0.05), and butyrate (P < 0.001), and negatively related to the acetate:butyrate ratio (P < 0.001). In addition, plasma BHBA was positively related to lactate (P < 0.01), acetate, and butyrate (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, diurnal variations of plasma metabolites were studied in 5 sows sampled every second hour from a jugular catheter throughout a 24-h period on d 5 and 17 of lactation and analyzed as in Exp. 1. In addition, milk and urine samples were collected and analyzed for BHBA and AcAc+Ac. No diurnal variations in plasma BHBA or AcAc+Ac were observed and plasma AcAc+Ac was unchanged from d 5 to 17 of lactation (3.7 μM), whereas BHBA declined from 58 μM on d 5 of lactation to 52 μM on d 17 of lactation (P < 0.05). Minor amounts of AcAc+Ac were found in urine (8.6 μM) and this was not affected by days in milk, whereas the content of AcAc+Ac in milk and BHBA in milk and urine were less than the detection limit in 4 of 5 sows. In conclusion

  19. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  20. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  1. Corticosteroids in nocturnal blood plasma of cows in the field related to stage of lactation and plasma acetoacetate.

    PubMed

    Blom, A K; Halse, K

    1975-02-01

    Two materials of nocturnal blood plasma samples, each representing more than 100 cows unselected with respect to health condition, showed acetoacetate variations within a wide range, overlapping with the range for animals with clinical ketosis. Within each of the two materials a statistically significant (P smaller than 0.001) negative correlation (r equal to minus 0.30) was obtained between plasma corticosteroids and log acetoacetate. The lowest corticosteroid and the highest acetoacetate averages were obtained for animals which were within the first month of the lactation cycle. With increasing time post-partum the two components varied inversely, a maximum in corticosteroids coinciding with a minimum in acetoacetate in cows which had calved 2 1/2 to 3 months before the date of sampling. At this stage the mean plasma sugar was about 10 per cent higher than in early lactation. The corticosteroid ranges for different levels of acetoacetate overlapped extensively. Still cows with acetoacetate smaller than or equal to 0.6 mg/100 ml gave significantly higher corticosteroid averages than the rest of the material. But in animals exceeding the 0.6 mg limit no relationship was found between the severity of the ketonaemia and the steroid level. Thus, no difference was obtained between cows with clinical ketosis and animals which were moderately ketonaemic. Some change in adrenal function may be associated with the development of ketonaemic conditions in cows. But no proof has been provided of a direct adrenal involvement in the transformation of a case of subclinical ketosis to the clinical stage.

  2. The level of lactic acidosis affects lactate minimum in a heart rate-based lactate minimum test.

    PubMed

    Labruyère, R; Perret, C

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the level of lactic acidosis in the first part of a heart rate-based lactate minimum test affects the lactate minimum heart rate and performance. We tested 15 men (age: 31 ± 6 years, height: 179 ± 6 cm, body mass: 75.6 ± 7.6 kg and V˙O(2peak) 50.3 ± 10.0 ml · min (- 1) · kg( - 1)). They all completed 2 lactate minimum tests following 2 different protocols during the first part of the test, i. e., i) a maximal test until exhaustion to provoke extensive lactacidaemia and ii) a submaximal test abandoned 3 stages earlier than the maximal test to provoke significantly lower but still considerable lactacidaemia. The second part of the lactate minimum test was identical for both runs. It consisted of a heart rate-based incremental test to determine the lactate minimum and the corresponding lactate minimum heart rate and performance. Results showed a significantly higher maximal blood lactate concentration at the end of the maximal test compared to the submaximal test (9.7 ± 2.7 vs. 6.0 ± 2.0 mmol · l( - 1), P<0.001). Also mean lactate minimum heart rate (160 ± 12 vs. 144 ± 13 bpm, P<0.001) and performance (200 ± 40 vs. 170 ± 35 W, P<0.001) were significantly higher after the maximal test compared to the submaximal test. We conclude that the first part of the heart rate-based lactate minimum test needs to be performed until exhaustion to receive reliable and meaningful results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring. PMID:27127509

  4. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring.

  5. Effects of substitution of different levels of steam-flaked corn for finely ground corn on lactation and digestion in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Z; Li, J G; Gao, Y X; Tan, Z L; Ren, G P

    2008-10-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of them fitted with rumen cannulas, were used to test the effects of substitution of steam-flaked corn (SFC) for equal amounts of finely ground corn (FGC) in diets on feed intake and digestion, blood metabolites, and lactation performance in early lactation dairy cows. Cows were fed 4 diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The fistulated cows formed 1 replicate. Each experimental period lasted for 3 wk. The 4 diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 40% SFC and 40, 30, 20, or 0% FGC (dry matter basis), respectively. The milk protein content and yield, milk solid nonfat content and yield, plasma glucose concentration, and dry matter intake increased as the proportion of SFC increased in diets. Apparent total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and average ruminal fluid NH(3)-N concentration decreased with increasing levels of SFC. The ruminal fluid pH was not affected by the substitution of SFC for FGC. The 20% SFC substitution improved digestion of crude protein, yield of fat-corrected milk, milk lactose content, fat, and fat yield. The 40% SFC substitution increased urea concentration in both plasma and milk. It was concluded that 20% of SFC substitution for FGC appeared to be an appropriate level in diet for early lactation dairy cows.

  6. Plasma Lactate and Diabetes Risk in 8,045 Participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Juraschek, Stephen P; Selvin, Elizabeth; Miller, Edgar R; Brancati, Frederick L; Young, J. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determinants of oxidative capacity, such as fitness and level of adiposity, are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes. Whether decreased oxidative capacity itself is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance and diabetes is unknown. Methods We examined the association of plasma lactate, a marker of oxidative capacity, with incident diabetes in 8,045 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study with no history of subclinical or diagnosed diabetes at baseline (1996–1998). Incident diabetes was self-reported during annual telephone calls. Results During a median follow-up of 12 years, there were 1,513 new cases of diabetes. In Cox proportional hazards models, baseline plasma lactate (per 10 mg/dL) was significantly associated with diabetes (HR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.43), even after adjustment for diabetes risk factors, fasting glucose, and insulin. The upper quartile of baseline lactate (≥ 8.1 mg/dL) was also significantly associated with diabetes risk (HR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.41) compared with the lowest quartile (≤ 5.1 mg/dL). Significant associations persisted among persons without insulin resistance (HOMA-IR < 2.6 units) (P-trend <0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that low oxidative capacity may precede diabetes. Future studies should evaluate the physiologic origins of elevated lactate to better understand its possible role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24176820

  7. Detection of Salivary Oxytocin Levels in Lactating Women

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Watanabe, Kaoru; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Schwertz, Dorie; Bell, Aleeca; Carter, C. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide with widespread influence on many physiological and social functions including: labor and birth, lactation, sexual behavior, nurturing maternal behaviors, and stress reduction. However, our understanding of oxytocin’s roles has been hampered by lack of noninvasive methods for assessing oxytocin levels. The goal of the present study was to assess whether oxytocin could be detected in saliva and whether changes occurred in the pattern of oxytocin release among lactating women from before, at initiaton and after breast feeding. Using a prospective repeated measures design, 11 research participants each provided 18 saliva samples during three feeding cycles (before, at initiation and after breast feeding) for two 24-hour data collection periods (Day 1 and 2). Within each day, saliva was collected at late evening, early morning, and late morning. Salivary samples were concentrated four-fold by dehydration prior to analysis and oxytocin was measured in saliva using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Salivary oxytocin values, when reconverted to their original levels, ranged from 6.44 – 61.05 pg/ml. Oxytocin values in saliva varied significantly as a function of the breast feeding cycle, but did not show reliable differences as a function of the time of feeding. Oxytocin was highest before feeding, followed by a decrease at initiation of feeding, and an increase at 30 minutes after feeding. The findings suggest that oxytocin release into saliva increases in anticipation of feedings. This study also supports the potential usefulness of salivary measures of oxytocin as a noninvasive index of changes in this peptide. PMID:19365797

  8. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid lactate and plasma lactate concentrations in anesthetized dogs with and without intracranial disease

    PubMed Central

    Caines, Deanne; Sinclair, Melissa; Wood, Darren; Valverde, Alexander; Dyson, Doris; Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish a reference interval for canine cerebrospinal fluid lactate (CSFL) and to compare CSFL and plasma lactate (PL) concentrations in anesthetized dogs with and without intracranial disease. Using a prospective study, canine blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected for lactate analysis in 11 dogs with intracranial disease after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Group ID-MRI), in 10 healthy dogs post-MRI (Group H-MRI), and in 39 healthy dogs after induction of anesthesia (Group H-Sx). Dogs were anesthetized for the procedures using different anesthetic protocols. Neurological scores (NS) and sedation scores (SS) were assessed pre-anesthesia in ID-MRI dogs. The CSFL reference interval [90% confidence interval (CI) for lower and upper limits] was 1.1 (1.0 to 1.2) to 2.0 (2.0 to 2.1) mmol/L. Mean ± SD CSFL concentrations were: ID-MRI, 2.1 ± 0.8; H-MRI, 1.6 ± 0.4; and H-Sx, 1.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L. There was a tendency for higher CSFL in dogs in the ID-MRI group than in those in the H-MRI or H-Sx groups (P = 0.12). There was agreement between CSFL and PL in ID-MRI dogs (P = 0.007), but not in dogs in H-MRI (P = 0.5) or H-Sx (P = 0.2). Of the ID-MRI dogs, those with worse NS had higher CSFL (r2 = 0.44). The correlation between CSFL and PL in dogs with intracranial disease and between worse NS and higher CSFL warrants further investigation into the use of CSFL and PL for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. PMID:24124273

  9. Transport of fatty acids within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows fed on fish oil and hydrogenated palm oil.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Íñiguez-González, G; Garnsworthy, P C; Loor, J J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary fish oil (FO) and a blend of FO and hydrogenated palm oil (FOPO) on transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Two trials were conducted (one with lactating and another with non-lactating dairy cows) in two 3 × 3 Latin squares that included three periods of 21 days. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (Control; no fat supplement), and fat-supplemented diets containing FO (500 g/day/cow) and FOPO (250 FO + 250 g/day/cow hydrogenated palm oil). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (Control; no fat supplement), and fat-supplemented diets containing FO (170 g/day/cow) and FOPO (85 FO + 85 hydrogenated palm oil g/day/cow). In lactating cows, compared with control and FOPO, FO increased C16:0, C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in plasma and increased C16:0, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, total polyunsaturated and total polyunsaturated n-6 in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), whereas in non-lactating cows, compared with control and FOPO, FO increased C16:0, C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 trans-9, 12, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, C20:5 n-3 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in plasma; C16:0, C18:1 trans-11, C18:1 cis-9, C18:2 trans-9, 12, C20:5 n-3 and total monounsaturated FA in HDL; and C18:1 trans-6-8, C18:1 trans-9, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15 and C20:5 n-3 in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). FO increased C20:5 n-3 in plasma and lipoproteins in non-lactating cows and increased C18:3 cis-9, 12, 15 in plasma (in lactating cows) and LDL (in non-lactating cows). We concluded from results of this study that in bovine plasma, the LDL fraction appears to be the main lipoprotein transporting C18:1 trans isomers and is more responsive than other lipoprotein fractions to variation in supply of dietary lipids. Journal of Animal Physiology and

  10. Effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, plasma lactate and stride length responses to intense treadmill exercise in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Kallings, P; Persson, S G B; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    2010-11-01

    Since nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, on account of their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, are used in both racing and equestrian sport horses, the question has been raised as to whether these drugs affect the physiological responses to exercise and thus performance potential. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and locomotor parameters in horses during intense treadmill exercise. Six Standardbred trotters underwent an incremental treadmill exercise test to fatigue, without drug and then after administration of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg bwt i.m.). Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake and stride length were measured and venous blood samples drawn repeatedly during the test. Heart rates were found to be significantly higher at submaximal speeds, while the velocity causing a HR of 200 beats/min was significantly decreased after treatment with flunixin. Maximal HR and plasma lactate concentration 5 min after exercise were unchanged after medication. Flunixin caused higher plasma lactate concentrations at all speeds and the lactate threshold was decreased, compared with baseline values. Oxygen uptake levelled off at the highest velocities and did not change after flunixin treatment. Stride length was increased after treatment, although not at the highest velocities. The increased HR and lactate responses to exercise after flunixin treatment indicate that it does influence physiological responses, but does not improve the performance potential of clinically healthy horses. However, the lengthened stride during submaximal exercise after medication could imply undetected subclinical lameness, masked in some of the horses, i.e. they have performed with a longer stride at the cost of a higher heart rate and an increased lactate concentration. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Amino acid intake during lactation and amino acids of plasma and human milk.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I; DeSantiago, S; Tovar, A R; Torres, N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the free amino acid pool in plasma and milk in marginally nourished lactating women. Twenty-eight rural women (age, 23.9+/-5y; weight 50.2+/-4.9 kg; height, 148.2+/-4.8 cm) were studied under metabolic balance conditions. Subjects were divided into 6 groups (5-6 women in each), representing rural mothers postweaning and in the 15, 3rd, and 6th months of lactation; nonpregnant, nonlactating controls were from rural and urban areas. Amino acid analyses of diet and of plasma and milk samples were performed using a Beckman 6300 amino acid analyzer. Lysine intakes were lower than the recommended intake for lactating women (RDA). Plasma amino acid profiles differed between the lactating and weaned groups: aspartate and isoleucine increased at the 6th month (P < 0.05), while valine declined over weaning time (P < 0.05). In milk, valine and proline decreased at the 6th month (P < 0.05), while serine rose at the 3rd month. Free amino acid pools were 1- to 15-fold higher in plasma than in milk for branched-chain amino acids and basic, aromatic, and neutral amino acids. In mammary tissue these amino acids can be channeled to tissue and milk protein synthesis or to catabolic pathways. Glutamate was 40-fold higher in milk with respect to plasma content. This was the predominant amino acid in the free amino acid pool in milk. These results suggest selective amino acid transport in mammary tissue during lactation.

  12. Negative correlation between CSF lactate levels and MoCA scores in male Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijun; Tan, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinzhong; Li, Hui; Wang, Meiling; Chen, Suling; Yang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanlong; Wang, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Lactate is a product of glycolysis by astrocytes and can be generated as a primary metabolic energy source by neurons. Lactate plays multifunctional role in human brain energy metabolism and cognitive function. However, no direct evidence demonstrated the link between lactate and cognition in normal condition. In the present study, concentrations of lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were measured to investigate the association of lactate with cognitive ability, which was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in 99 male Chinese subjects. Correlation analyses revealed that serum lactate levels were negatively correlated with age, and CSF lactate levels were negatively correlated with MoCA scores after Box-Cox transformations. But no correlation was found between serum lactate levels and MoCA scores after Box-Cox transformations. In conclusion, the results indicate that CSF lactate levels were negatively correlated with MoCA scores in male Chinese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  14. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  15. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer’s solution for anti-tumor effects

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer’s solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer’s lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer’s lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy. PMID:27824103

  16. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer’s solution for anti-tumor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer’s solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer’s lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer’s lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy.

  17. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Sulfate during Late Gestation and Lactation Affects the Milk Composition and Immunoglobulin Levels in Sows.

    PubMed

    Hou, W X; Cheng, S Y; Liu, S T; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) during late gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance, fecal moisture, blood biochemistry parameters, immunoglobulin levels and milk composition in sows. Forty-eight sows (Yorkshire×Landrace, 4th to 5th parity) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg MgSO4 (n = 12). The experiment started on day 90 of gestation and continued through day 21 of lactation. Blood samples were collected on day 107 of gestation, day 0 (farrowing) and 21 (weaning) of lactation for the analyses of the blood biochemistry parameters and immunoglobulin levels. The colostrum and milk samples were obtained on day 0 and 14 of lactation, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from the sows on day 107 of gestation as well as day 7 and 20 of lactation to determine fecal moisture content. The results showed that the survival percentage of piglets and the litter weight at weaning were decreased linearly (p<0.05) and other parameters of the sow or litter performance were not influenced (p>0.05) by MgSO4 supplementation. The fecal moisture content of the sows were increased (p<0.05) linearly as dietary MgSO4 increased on day 7 and 20 of lactation. Supplementation with MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium (Mg) level linearly (p<0.05) and had a trend to increase total protein level (p>0.05 and p<0.10). However, an increase in the dietary MgSO4 level resulted in a linear decrease in the colostrum fat content (p<0.05). Dietary MgSO4 supplementation enhanced the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level (linear, p<0.05) in plasma on day of farrowing and immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in colostrum (quadratic, p<0.05) and milk (linear, p<0.05) of the sows. These results indicated that supplementation with MgSO4 during late gestation and lactation may have the potential to prevent sow constipation, but may also result in some negative

  19. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Sulfate during Late Gestation and Lactation Affects the Milk Composition and Immunoglobulin Levels in Sows

    PubMed Central

    Hou, W. X.; Cheng, S. Y.; Liu, S. T.; Shi, B. M.; Shan, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) during late gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance, fecal moisture, blood biochemistry parameters, immunoglobulin levels and milk composition in sows. Forty-eight sows (Yorkshire×Landrace, 4th to 5th parity) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg MgSO4 (n = 12). The experiment started on day 90 of gestation and continued through day 21 of lactation. Blood samples were collected on day 107 of gestation, day 0 (farrowing) and 21 (weaning) of lactation for the analyses of the blood biochemistry parameters and immunoglobulin levels. The colostrum and milk samples were obtained on day 0 and 14 of lactation, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from the sows on day 107 of gestation as well as day 7 and 20 of lactation to determine fecal moisture content. The results showed that the survival percentage of piglets and the litter weight at weaning were decreased linearly (p<0.05) and other parameters of the sow or litter performance were not influenced (p>0.05) by MgSO4 supplementation. The fecal moisture content of the sows were increased (p<0.05) linearly as dietary MgSO4 increased on day 7 and 20 of lactation. Supplementation with MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium (Mg) level linearly (p<0.05) and had a trend to increase total protein level (p>0.05 and p<0.10). However, an increase in the dietary MgSO4 level resulted in a linear decrease in the colostrum fat content (p<0.05). Dietary MgSO4 supplementation enhanced the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level (linear, p<0.05) in plasma on day of farrowing and immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in colostrum (quadratic, p<0.05) and milk (linear, p<0.05) of the sows. These results indicated that supplementation with MgSO4 during late gestation and lactation may have the potential to prevent sow constipation, but may also result in some negative

  20. Plasma lactate concentration increases as a parabola with delay during ramp exercise.

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Morton, R H

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an elementary model of a system which relates plasma lactate concentration ([La-]) during ramp exercise to its rate of accumulation (Rc) within its extramuscular distribution space (S). Under the parsimonious assumptions that Rc increases linearly with time (t) with a kinetic delay (delta), and that the volume of S is constant, it is shown that plasma [La-] increases as a parabola with the kinetic delay delta when t increases. This elementary system model describes changes in plasma [La-] observed in five healthy young subjects during ramp exercise on the cycle ergometer (1 W every 2 s) with great accuracy (r > 0.99) with very small residuals (average value less than 0.01 mmol.l-1), randomly distributed around the fitting curves. The delay between the beginning of exercise and the onset of increase in Rc could be due to the fact that at the corresponding work rates: (1) rate of lactate appearance (Ra), which is equal to the rate of lactate disappearance (Rd), is not modified from rest, since the exercising muscles work in fully aerobic conditions (hypothesis of the anaerobic threshold); or (2) the increase in Ra is associated with a similar increase in Rd. An alternate or complementary hypothesis is that, during ramp exercise, plasma [La-] could reflect metabolic events within the muscles, with a significant delay.

  1. Effect of melatonin on hemolymph glucose and lactate levels in the fiddler crab Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Tilden, A; McGann, L; Schwartz, J; Bowe, A; Salazar, C

    2001-09-01

    Melatonin was injected into intact and eyestalk-ablated fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator), and its effects on hemolymph glucose and lactate levels were studied. In intact crabs, glucose and lactate levels cycled simultaneously, with peaks occurring during early and late photophase. Melatonin caused a shift in the glucose and lactate cycles, with only one peak occurring closer to mid-photophase. In eyestalk-ablated animals, the glucose rhythmicity was lost; lactate cycled, but levels were significantly lower than in intact animals. Melatonin caused a delayed hyperglycemia in eyestalk-ablated animals, with concurrent but much lower increases in lactate. Overall, melatonin demonstrated delayed hyperglycemic effects that do not appear to be mediated solely via eyestalk factors such as crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), though involvement of the eyestalks cannot be ruled out. An influence on extra-eyestalk CHH secretion is a potential mechanism of melatonin activity.

  2. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  3. Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, D.L.; Emergy, R.S. ); Palmquist, D.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-({sup 14}C)palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min{sup {minus}1}; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnover incorporated into triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased {sup 14}C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO{sub 2}, and percent of CO{sub 2} from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected.

  4. Longitudinal lactate levels from routine point-of-care monitoring in adult Malawian antiretroviral therapy patients: associations with stavudine toxicities.

    PubMed

    Chagoma, Newton; Mallewa, Jane; Kaunda, Symon; Njalale, Yasin; Kampira, Elizabeth; Mukaka, Mavuto; Heyderman, Robert S; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2013-10-01

    Stavudine is still widely used in under-resourced settings such as Malawi due to its low price. It frequently causes peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy and increases the risk of lactic acidosis and other high lactate syndromes. We studied the association of longitudinal lactate levels, obtained by routine, 3-monthly point-of-care monitoring, with peripheral neuropathy, lipodystrophy and high lactate syndromes in adult Malawians who were in the second year of stavudine containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Point-of-care lactate measurements were feasible in a busy urban ART clinic. Of 1170 lactate levels collected from 253 patients over the course of one year, 487 (41.8%) were elevated (>2.2mg/dl), 58 (5.0%) were highly elevated (>3.5mg/dl). At least one elevated lactate level occurred in 210 (83.0%) of patients and sustained hyperlactatemia in 65 (26.4%). In random effects analyses lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Only five patients developed high lactate syndromes (one lactic acidosis) of whom no preceding lactate measurements were available because events had started before enrolment. Lactate levels significantly decreased over time and no high lactate syndromes were observed after the 15th month on ART. Lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Lactate levels decreased over time, coinciding with absence of new high lactate syndromes after the 15th month on ART.

  5. Plasma cortisol and progesterone responses to low doses of adrenocorticotropic hormone in ovariectmized lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chikako; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the responses of the plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations in ovariectomized lactating cows to low doses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The estrous cycles in 3 lactating cows were synchronized, and the cows were ovariectomized in the luteal phase. ACTH challenge tests were conducted at doses of 3, 6, 12 and 25 IU. Blood samples were collected at 30 min intervals, and the plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations were analyzed by EIA. A concomitant rise in plasma progesterone and plasma cortisol was observed in cows treated with 12 IU or higher doses of ACTH. Significant increments in the plasma cortisol concentrations were observed at all doses of ACTH. The means (+/- SE) of the peak plasma progesterone concentrations after the 3, 6, 12 and 25 IU ACTH challenge tests were 0.6 +/- 0.1, 1.3 +/- 0.4, 1.5 +/- 0.3 and 2.4 +/- 0.3 ng/ml, respectively. The means of the peak plasma cortisol concentrations in the 3 cows after the ACTH challenge were 14.0 +/- 1.5, 17.0 +/- 2.5, 23.3 +/- 3.0, and 33.3 +/- 7.0 ng/ml, respectively. The effects of the doses, time after treatment, and their interaction on the plasma progesterone concentrations after the ACTH challenge were significant (P<0.01). Likewise, the effects of the doses, time after treatment, and their interaction on the plasma cortisol concentrations after the ACTH challenge were significant (P<0.01). The mean AUC values for the plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations after the ACTH treatments were also significantly affected by the dose of ACTH (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). A significantly positive correlation was obtained between the peak plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations after different doses of ACTH (r=0.7, P<0.05). The results suggest that lactating dairy cows are capable of secreting a significant amount of adrenal progesterone, reaching up to the minimal concentration necessary to cause suppression of estrus in response

  6. Do lactate levels in the emergency department predict outcome in adult trauma patients? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Janie; Cranfield, Kristina Rebecca; Clark, Gabrielle; Harris, Tim; Bloom, Ben; Gray, Alasdair James

    2016-09-01

    Serum lactate may be associated with clinical outcomes in trauma, even in the absence of physiological abnormality. Sensitive markers of injury and outcomes are needed to guide triage and management of trauma patients within the Emergency Department. We completed a systematic review to determine if lactate levels in adult trauma patients presenting to the Emergency Department were associated with clinical outcomes including mortality. A systematic literature search was conducted in August 2014, updated in March 2016, using MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Abstracts and full texts were screened for inclusion by two independent reviewers using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment was performed by each reviewer using a standardized form. A total of 998 studies were screened; 28 studies were included and reviewed. The 28 studies recruited 44,154 adults in eight countries between 1997 and 2016. Twenty-one studies found a significant association between elevated Emergency Department lactate and risk of mortality. Three studies looked at lactate clearance; two showed poor clearance was an additional determinant of mortality, but the other found no association. Ten studies also found an association between elevated lactate and other clinical outcomes. These included injury severity, Intensive Care Unit admission, length of hospital stay, organ failure, respiratory complications, blood loss, blood product requirement, catecholamine support, or emergency operation. Two studies concluded that lactate levels do not affect management. This review shows that elevated Emergency Department lactate levels are associated with mortality and may be associated with other clinical outcomes in adult trauma patients. We conclude that lactate is a useful marker of outcome in trauma, in addition to current markers of severity. The potential roles of serial lactate measurement and lactate clearance require further research. Systematic review

  7. Reconstitution of lactate proton symport activity in plasma membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Gerós, H; Cássio, F; Leão, C

    1996-09-30

    Lactic acid transport was studied in plasma membrane vesicles from the yeast Candida utilis IGC 3092 which were fused with liposomes containing cytochrome c oxidase. After the addition of an electron donor system, these hybrid membrane vesicles were able to generate a proton-motive force of about--150 mV, inside alkaline and negative. In vesicles prepared from lactic acid-grown cells, the uptake of labelled lactic acid, at pH 6.2, under energized conditions, was expressed by a kinetics consistent with the involvement of a mediated transport system. This carrier exhibited a substrate specificity pattern identical to the one found for the lactate-proton symport in intact cells. The transport of labelled lactic acid was accumulative and strongly sensitive to the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, consistent with the involvement of the proton-motive force in acid uptake, hence with the presence of a proton symport for lactate. Dissipation of the transmembrane electric potential by valinomycin did not have a significant effect on lactate accumulation, whereas abolishing the transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH) by nigericin prevented the accumulation and led to a rapid efflux of the accumulated acid. The data support that the delta pH is the main component of the proton-motive force involved in the transport of the acid and its accumulation. The lactate-proton symport stoichiometry was 1:1, being independent of the pH. Vesicles prepared from glucose-grown cells did not display the capacity to transport and accumulate lactate. However, activity for the carrier was also reconstituted in vesicles obtained from glucose-grown cells after incubation in buffer containing lactic acid. These results were consistent with those obtained in intact cells, which demonstrated that the lactate-proton symport of the yeast C. utilis is inducible.

  8. Plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins in newborn kids and female Baladi goats during late pregnancy and onset of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, S A; Azab, M E

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of blood lipids and some lipoproteins were investigated in normal female Baladi goats during late pregnancy, parturition and onset of lactation as well as in their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life. A total number of 60 herparinized blood samples was collected from does at 4, 3, 2 and 1 weeks pre-partum, day of parturition and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks postpartum. In addition, blood samples were also collected from their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life (day of birth, 1 and 2 weeks of age). Plasma was separated and analyzed for concentration of total lipid, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and some lipoproteins as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The obtained results revealed that there was a significant decrease in plasma level of total lipids at one week after parturition. Plasma level of triaclyglycerols was significantly higher at 4, 3 and 2 weeks before parturition. This increase became very highly significant at one week before parturition. Meanwhile, plasma phospholipid concentrations showed a significant decrease at 3 weeks before parturition, followed by an significant increase at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition and highly significant increase at 4 weeks after parturition. The concentration of plasma NEFA showed a significant increase at 4 weeks before parturition followed by a very highly significant increase at 2 and 1 week before parturition. On the other hand plasma NEFA was non detected at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-partum when compared with the value reported at day of parturition. Regarding plasma lipoprotein concentrations the obtained results showed that there was a significant increase in plasma HDL-C level at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition, followed by a very highly significant decrease at the fourth week post-partum. However, plasma LDL-C level showed a significant decrease at 3, 2 and 1 weeks

  9. Changes in concentrations of methylglyoxal, D-lactate and glyoxalase activities in liver and plasma of rats fed a 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Kawase, M; Tada, M; Akagi, S; Ohmori, S

    1996-01-01

    Donryu male albino rats were fed a diet containing 0.064% 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (MDAB) for 21 weeks. During the ensuing rat liver carcinogenesis, changes in the concentrations of methylglyoxal, D-lactate and glutathione as well as activities of glyoxalase I and II in liver and plasma were examined. After the start of the diet, hepatic contents of methylglyoxal and D-lactate increased to about 7 and 3 times that of the control, respectively. However, after 21 weeks the D-lactate content decreased from the elevated level, but remained at a higher level of 1.4 times the control. The hepatic glyoxalase I activity increased 1.2 to 1.7 times over the control during carcinogenesis, while glyoxalase II activity increased 160% during the precancerous state and decreased to 55% of control at 21 weeks. the hepatic level of reduced glutathione (GSH) increased and peaked after 4 weeks of the MDAB diet and decreased thereafter to 57% of the control level after 21 weeks. Both pyruvate and L-lactate levels increased in the liver and plasma of MDAB-fed rats when rats had obvious symptoms of hepatoma.

  10. Lactate Testing in Suspected Sepsis: Trends and Predictors of Failure to Measure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Chanu; Murphy, Michael V.; Li, Lingling; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Serum lactate monitoring is central to risk stratification and management of sepsis and is now part of a potential quality measure. We examined 11-year trends in lactate testing and predictors of failure to measure lactates in patients with severe sepsis. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Two U.S. academic hospitals. Patients Adult patients admitted from 2003–2013. Interventions Annual rates of lactate measurement were assessed in patients who had blood cultures ordered and patients with severe sepsis, as defined by concomitant ICD-9 codes for infection and organ dysfunction. The approximate time of suspected sepsis was determined by the first blood culture order with concurrent antibiotic initiation. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure to measure lactates in severe sepsis cases in 2013. Measurements and Results Among hospitalizations with blood culture orders, rates of lactate measurement increased from 11% in 2003 to 48% in 2013 (p<0.001 for linear trend). Rates of repeat lactate measurement within 6 hours after lactate levels ≥ 4.0 mmol/L increased from 23% to 69% (p<0.001). Patients were progressively less likely to be on vasopressors at the time of first lactate measurement (49% in 2003 vs 21% in 2013, p<0.001). Despite these trends, lactates were measured at the time of suspected sepsis in only 65% of patients with severe sepsis in 2013. On multivariate analysis, hospital-onset of sepsis and hospitalization on a nonmedical service were significant predictors of failure to measure lactates (adjusted ORs 7.56, 95% CI 6.31–9.06 and 2.08, 95% CI 1.76–2.24, respectively). Conclusions Lactate testing has increased dramatically over time and is being extended to patients without overt shock. However, rates of serial lactate testing are still suboptimal and lactates are not being measured in many patients with severe sepsis. Hospital-onset sepsis and nonmedical units may be high-yield targets for quality

  11. Lactate Testing in Suspected Sepsis: Trends and Predictors of Failure to Measure Levels.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chanu; Murphy, Michael V; Li, Lingling; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Serum lactate monitoring is central to risk stratification and management of sepsis and is now part of a potential quality measure. We examined 11-year trends in lactate testing and predictors of failure to measure lactates in patients with severe sepsis. Retrospective cohort study. Two U.S. academic hospitals. Adult patients admitted from 2003 to 2013. Annual rates of lactate measurement were assessed in patients who had blood cultures ordered and patients with severe sepsis, as defined by concomitant International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for infection and organ dysfunction. The approximate time of suspected sepsis was determined by the first blood culture order with concurrent antibiotic initiation. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure to measure lactates in severe sepsis cases in 2013. Among hospitalizations with blood culture orders, rates of lactate measurement increased from 11% in 2003 to 48% in 2013 (p < 0.001 for linear trend). Rates of repeat lactate measurement within 6 hours after lactate levels greater than or equal to 4.0 mmol/L increased from 23% to 69% (p < 0.001). Patients were progressively less likely to be on vasopressors at the time of first lactate measurement (49% in 2003 vs 21% in 2013; p < 0.001). Despite these trends, lactates were measured at the time of suspected sepsis in only 65% of patients with severe sepsis in 2013. On multivariate analysis, hospital-onset sepsis and hospitalization on a nonmedical service were significant predictors of failure to measure lactates (adjusted odds ratio, 7.56; 95% CI, 6.31-9.06 and adjusted odds ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.76-2.24, respectively). Lactate testing has increased dramatically over time and is being extended to patients without overt shock. However, rates of serial lactate testing are still suboptimal, and lactates are not being measured in many patients with severe sepsis. Hospital-onset sepsis and nonmedical units may be high

  12. Quantification of plasma lactate concentrations using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Pormsila, Worapan; Morand, Réjane; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Hauser, Peter C

    2011-04-01

    The quantification of plasma lactate and evaluation of the lactate threshold by CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity is demonstrated. The only sample preparation needed was deproteinization with a ACN/methanol mixture. A solution of 10 mmol/L 2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid monohydrate, 10 mmol/L DL-histidine, 70 μmol/L hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, pH 6.0 was found suitable as running buffer. Linearity was achieved for the concentration range of 10-1000 μmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The limit of detection (3 S/N) was determined as 3.2 μmol/L. Intra- and inter-day variabilities were less than 7% RSD. The suitability of the method could be demonstrated by analyzing various clinical samples, where the results correlated satisfactorily with those of an established enzymatic method. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Is there an association between body temperature and serum lactate levels in hip fracture patients?

    PubMed

    Murtuza, F; Farrier, A J; Venkatesan, M; Smith, R; Khan, A; Uzoigwe, C E; Chami, G

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Hyperlactataemia is associated with adverse outcomes in trauma cases. It is thought to be the result of anaerobic respiration during hypoperfusion. This produces much less energy than complete aerobic glycolysis. Low body temperature in the injured patient carries an equally poor prognosis. Significant amounts of energy are expended in maintaining euthermia. Consequently, there may be a link between lactate levels and dysthermia. Hyperlactataemia may be indicative of inefficient energy production and therefore insufficient energy to maintain euthermia. Alternatively, significant amounts of available oxygen may be sequestered in thermoregulation, resulting in anaerobic respiration and lactate production. Our study investigated whether there is an association between lactate levels and admission body temperature in hip fracture patients. Furthermore, it looked at whether there is a difference in the mean lactate levels between hip fracture patients with low (<36.5°C), normal (36.5-37.5°C) and high (>37.5°C) body temperature on admission, and for patients who have low body temperature, whether there is a progressive rise in serum lactate levels as body temperature falls. Methods The admission temperature and serum lactate of 1,162 patients presenting with hip fracture were recorded. Patients were divided into the euthermic (body temperature 36.5-37.5°C), the pyrexial (>37.5°C) and those with low body temperature (<36.5°C). Admission lactate and body temperature were compared. Results There was a significant difference in age between the three body temperature groups (p=0.007). The pyrexial cohort was younger than the low body temperature group (mean: 78 vs 82 years). Those with low body temperature had a higher mean lactate level than the euthermic (2.2mmol/l vs 2.0mmol/l, p=0.03). However, there was no progressive rise in serum lactate level as admission temperature fell. Conclusions The findings suggest that in hip fracture patients, the body

  14. Is there an association between body temperature and serum lactate levels in hip fracture patients?

    PubMed Central

    Murtuza, F; Farrier, AJ; Venkatesan, M; Smith, R; Khan, A; Uzoigwe, CE; Chami, G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlactataemia is associated with adverse outcomes in trauma cases. It is thought to be the result of anaerobic respiration during hypoperfusion. This produces much less energy than complete aerobic glycolysis. Low body temperature in the injured patient carries an equally poor prognosis. Significant amounts of energy are expended in maintaining euthermia. Consequently, there may be a link between lactate levels and dysthermia. Hyperlactataemia may be indicative of inefficient energy production and therefore insufficient energy to maintain euthermia. Alternatively, significant amounts of available oxygen may be sequestered in thermoregulation, resulting in anaerobic respiration and lactate production. Our study investigated whether there is an association between lactate levels and admission body temperature in hip fracture patients. Furthermore, it looked at whether there is a difference in the mean lactate levels between hip fracture patients with low (<36.5°C), normal (36.5–37.5°C) and high (>37.5°C) body temperature on admission, and for patients who have low body temperature, whether there is a progressive rise in serum lactate levels as body temperature falls. Methods The admission temperature and serum lactate of 1,162 patients presenting with hip fracture were recorded. Patients were divided into the euthermic (body temperature 36.5–37.5°C), the pyrexial (>37.5°C) and those with low body temperature (<36.5°C). Admission lactate and body temperature were compared. Results There was a significant difference in age between the three body temperature groups (p=0.007). The pyrexial cohort was younger than the low body temperature group (mean: 78 vs 82 years). Those with low body temperature had a higher mean lactate level than the euthermic (2.2mmol/l vs 2.0mmol/l, p=0.03). However, there was no progressive rise in serum lactate level as admission temperature fell. Conclusions The findings suggest that in hip fracture patients, the body

  15. Serum lactate levels as the predictor of outcome in pediatric septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Jat, Kana Ram; Jhamb, Urmila; Gupta, Vinod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims: An association of high lactate levels with mortality has been found in adult patients with septic shock. However, there is controversial literature regarding the same in children. The aim of this study was to find the correlation of serum lactate levels in pediatric septic shock with survival. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study at PICU of a tertiary care center of North India. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 children admitted to PICU with diagnosis of septic shock were included in the study. PRISM III score and demographic characteristics of all children were recorded. Serum lactate levels were measured in arterial blood at 0-3, 12, and 24 h of PICU admission. The outcome (survival or death) was correlated with serum lactate levels. Results: Septic shock was the most common (79.3%) type of shock and had 50% mortality. Initial as well as subsequent lactate levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors. A lactate value of more than 45 mg/dl (5 mmol/l) at 0–3, 12, and 24 h of PICU admission had an odds ratio for death of 6.7, 12.5, and 8.6 (95% CI: 1.044–42.431, 1.850–84.442, 1.241–61.683) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 38%, 71%, 64% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 80%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. Conclusions: Nonsurvivors had higher blood lactate levels at admission as well as at 12 and 24 h. A lactate value of more than 45 mg/dl (5 mmol/l) was a good predictor of death. PMID:21814374

  16. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor--using the Lactate Scout System.

    PubMed

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating Curves (ROC). Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2)=0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥ 4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH <7.20 were 0.63 and 0.85, respectively. The correlation between scalp lactate measured within 15 min prior to delivery and the umbilical cord SBE was low. Monitoring non-reassuring deliveries with scalp lactate instead of pH would have resulted in more (155 instead of 56) instrumental deliveries with no decrease in newborns with severe metabolic acidosis.

  17. Non-targeted Plasma Metabolome of Early and Late Lactation Gilts.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Lea A; Miles, Jeremy R; Oliver, William T; Broeckling, Corey D

    2016-01-01

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late lactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and (3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts. Twenty first-parity gilts were selected with similar (P ≥ 0.4475) number of piglets born and nursed, and similar (P ≥ 0.3141) body condition traits (e.g., body weight and backfat thickness) post-farrowing, yet exhibited minimal or extreme loss (P ≤ 0.0094) in body weight (8.6 ± 1.48 kg and 26.1 ± 1.90 kg, respectively) and backfat thickness (1.3 ± 0.67 mm and 4.7 ± 0.86 mm, respectively) following lactation (weaning). Plasma samples from first-parity gilts at post-farrowing and weaning were investigated using UPLC-MS and GC-MS to generate a comprehensive metabolic profile. Each approach yielded approximately 700 detected features. An ANOVA was performed on each detected compound in R for time of collection, body condition change, and the interaction, followed by a false discovery correction. Two unknown features were different (P ≤ 0.05) for extreme vs. minimal body condition change. Several compound differences (P ≤ 0.05) were identified between post-farrowing and weaning. Thirty-two features detected by UPLC-MS had at least a log2 fold-change of ±1.0 while only 18 features had a log2 fold-change of ±0.6 or more for the significant GC-MS features. Annotation implicated various metabolic pathways. Creatinine was greater at weaning (P = 0.0224) and others have reported increased serum concentrations of creatinine in response to body weight loss. Hippurate and caprolactam, associated with protein catabolism, were also greater (P ≤ 0

  18. Non-targeted Plasma Metabolome of Early and Late Lactation Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Lea A.; Miles, Jeremy R.; Oliver, William T.; Broeckling, Corey D.

    2016-01-01

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late lactation), (2) degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal), and (3) interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts. Twenty first-parity gilts were selected with similar (P ≥ 0.4475) number of piglets born and nursed, and similar (P ≥ 0.3141) body condition traits (e.g., body weight and backfat thickness) post-farrowing, yet exhibited minimal or extreme loss (P ≤ 0.0094) in body weight (8.6 ± 1.48 kg and 26.1 ± 1.90 kg, respectively) and backfat thickness (1.3 ± 0.67 mm and 4.7 ± 0.86 mm, respectively) following lactation (weaning). Plasma samples from first-parity gilts at post-farrowing and weaning were investigated using UPLC-MS and GC-MS to generate a comprehensive metabolic profile. Each approach yielded approximately 700 detected features. An ANOVA was performed on each detected compound in R for time of collection, body condition change, and the interaction, followed by a false discovery correction. Two unknown features were different (P ≤ 0.05) for extreme vs. minimal body condition change. Several compound differences (P ≤ 0.05) were identified between post-farrowing and weaning. Thirty-two features detected by UPLC-MS had at least a log2 fold-change of ±1.0 while only 18 features had a log2 fold-change of ±0.6 or more for the significant GC-MS features. Annotation implicated various metabolic pathways. Creatinine was greater at weaning (P = 0.0224) and others have reported increased serum concentrations of creatinine in response to body weight loss. Hippurate and caprolactam, associated with protein catabolism, were also greater (P ≤ 0

  19. Triggering for submaximal exercise level in gastric exercise tonometry: serial lactate, heart rate, or respiratory quotient?

    PubMed

    Otte, Johannes A; Oostveen, Ellie; Mensink, Peter B F; Geelkerken, Robert H; Kolkman, Jeroen J

    2007-08-01

    Gastric exercise tonometry is a functional diagnostic test in chronic gastrointestinal ischemia. As maximal exercise can cause false-positive tests, exercise buildup should be controlled to remain submaximal. We evaluated three parameters for monitoring and adjusting exercise levels (heart rate [HR], respiratory quotient [RQ], and serial lactate measurements) in 178 tests in both healthy volunteers and patients suspected of gastrointestinal ischemia. Exercise levels above submaximal occurred in 20% of HR-, 2% of RQ-, and 5% of lactate-monitored tests (P<0.05 for HR vs. RQ and lactate). Low levels were seen in 5% of HR-, 10% of RQ-, and 41% of lactate-monitored tests (P<0.01 for lactate vs. HR and RQ). High levels resulted in 43% false-positive tonometry results compared to 19% of all tests (P<0.001); low levels did not result in more false negatives (5% vs. 6%). Although RQ monitoring yielded the greatest proportion of optimal exercise tests, serial lactate monitoring is our method of choice, combining optimal diagnostic accuracy, low cost, and simplicity.

  20. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Lactate blood levels in the perioperative period of orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    De Gasperi, A; Mazza, E; Corti, A; Zoppi, F; Prosperi, M; Fantini, G; Scaiola, A; Colella, G; Amici, O; Notaro, P; Rocchini, A; Ceresa, F; Roselli, E; Grugni, M C

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether early postoperative changes in blood lactate concentration indicate the functional recovery of the newly grafted liver, changes in oxygen supply, oxygen consumption, acid-base equilibrium, and blood lactate concentrations were prospectively studied in a group of 53 postnecrotic cirrhotic patients during the various phases of orthotopic liver transplantation (preanhepatic, anhepatic, neohepatic) and for the first 48 h following reperfusion. The patients were divided into two groups according to the quality of the early graft function, as indicated by alanine aminotransferase, bile flow, and prothrombin activity: group A (49 patients), good immediate graft function and group B (4 patients), immediate graft non-function. Lactate levels rose in the same manner during the preanhepatic and anhepatic stages and peaked after revascularization of the graft. Following reperfusion, however, distinctly different blood lactate profiles were recorded in the two groups of patients. A fall in lactate concentration was recorded in group A patients, whereas a continuous rise occurred in group B patients: the difference becoming significant by the end of surgery (P < or = 0.05). During the first 48 h following revascularization of the graft, opposite trends in lactate concentration, bile flow, alanine aminotransferase, and prothrombin activity were evident in the two groups of patients: 24 h after reperfusion, lactate levels were below 2 mmol/l in 47 of 49 patients from group A, while they plateaued above 4 mmol/l in all patients from group B. Group A patients had lower alanine aminotransferase levels (P < or = 0.001), higher prothrombin activity, (P < or = 0.01), and greater bile flow (P < or = 0.02). If validated in larger series, the blood lactate profile, probably more than the absolute level, appears to be a useful indicator of the early recovery of liver metabolic capacities in the immediate postoperative period of orthotopic liver transplantation.

  2. Response of plasma cortisol and progesterone after ACTH challenge in ovariectomized lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chikako; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2005-02-01

    Shortened and weakened estrous expressions could be one of the causes of poor heat detection rate. Non-specific acute stresses are assumed to depress expression of estrus by an increase of plasma progesterone which may originate from the adrenal cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the adrenal cortex can secrete significant amounts of progesterone in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in lactating cows. Four cows had estrus synchronized and were ovariectomized in the luteal phase. The cows were given 25 IU ACTH through an indwelling catheter 5 h after catheterization. Blood samples were collected at an interval of 30 min. In 3 of the 4 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations increased significantly 0.5-1.5 h after the first ACTH challenge with a mean peak value of 4.2 +/- 0.4 (S.D.) ng/ml. A similar response was also observed after the second ACTH challenge. Peak plasma progesterone concentrations in the 3 cows after first ACTH challenge were comparable with the progesterone values in the luteal phase of each cow. The results suggest that lactating cows have the capability to secrete a significant amount of progesterone from the adrenal cortex.

  3. [Physiological significance and interpretation of plasma lactate concentration and pH in clinical exercise testing].

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Aguilaniu, B

    2014-06-01

    According to a widely accepted model, based on the theory of the anaerobic threshold (AT), the increase in plasma lactate concentration which develops after the first ventilatory threshold (VT1, considered as an AT) is due to compensation for insufficient aerobic metabolism by anaerobic glycolysis, with accumulation of lactic acid resulting in a decrease in pH. Bicarbonate is the main buffer of protons (>90%) producing non-metabolic CO2 in muscle and thus increasing the CO2 flux to the lungs. This phenomenon, along with the low pH, triggers hyperventilation. Because of this model, great importance has been placed on plasma lactate and pH. We argue that this importance is excessive and these variables should be used with caution in the interpretation of clinical exercise testing, because the model based on AT is not valid: there is no aerobic failure above VT1 and, thus, there is no evidence of an AT; the increase in plasma lactate does not reflect anaerobiosis but is the marker of the increase in the error signal needed for the stimulation of mitochondrial respiration; bicarbonate is not the main buffer during exercise (these are proteins and phosphocreatine breakdown in the muscle; hemoglobin in the blood); non-metabolic CO2 is not produced in the muscle but in the lung because of the low pH and hyperventilation (the control of which remains unknown); and the flux of CO2 to the lung does not increase at faster rate after than before VT1.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Xiong; Zhang, Junting; Gao, Zhixian; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Liwei

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) lactate level for Post-neurosurgical Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) at a large sample-size of post-neurosurgical patients. The diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level to distinguish between PAM and PBM were evaluated with the values of the Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC-ROC) by retrospectively analyzing the datasets of post-neurosurgical patients in the clinical information databases. The diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low (AUC-ROC<0.7). The CSF lactate level achieved rather high diagnostic accuracy (AUC-ROC=0.891; CI 95%, 0.852-0.922). The variables of patient age, operation duration, surgical diagnosis and postoperative days (the interval days between the neurosurgery and examinations) were shown to affect the diagnostic accuracy of these examinations. The variables were integrated with routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level by Fisher discriminant analysis to improve their diagnostic accuracy. As a result, the diagnostic accuracy of blood examinations and CSF lactate level was significantly improved with an AUC-ROC value=0.760 (CI 95%, 0.737-0.782) and 0.921 (CI 95%, 0.887-0.948) respectively. The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  6. Plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone in the adult female pig during the oestrous cycles, late pregnancy and lactation, and after ovariectomy and pentobarbitone treatment.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, N; Elsaesser, F; Smidt, D; Ellendorff, F

    1976-05-01

    In a series of experiments on female miniature pigs, the pattern of plasma LH and progesterone levels during the oestrous cycle, late pregnancy and lactation and after ovariectomy were characterized, and the effect of pentobarbitone treatment was tested. The preovulatory surge of LH occurred in seven out of eight animals between 00.00 and 12.0 h on day 0 of the oestrous cycle (day 1 of standing heat). Plasma progesterone strated to decline 8 days before oestrus and reached its lowest value 5 days before the preovulatory LH peak. Increases in progesteron concentration were already noticeable 48 h after the LH surge. During late pregnancy, parturition and lactation, plasma LH was low and showed only minor fluctuations, while plasma progesterone declined 4 to 5 days before parturition. Both hormones remained at low levels throughout lactation. Three weeks before parturition increases in LH were always followed by an increase in progesterone. This dependency was greatly diminished immediately before delivery. Four to 12 days after weaning the animals came into oestrus which was followed by an increase in LH and later an increase in progesterone concentrations. Ovariectomy during dioestrus resulted in a steady increase in plasma LH levels of 35-39 days. Ovariectomy caused abortion if performed on day 100 of pregnancy. It was followed by a rapid increase of plasma LH concentration. Normal parturition (around day 115) and lactation took place when animals were spayed on day 112 of pregnancy. In this case, plasma LH levels remained even lower than before ovariectomy as long as lactation was maintained. Immediately after weaning a rapid increase in the normal postovariectomy pattern of LH secretion was observed. Pentobarbitone anaesthesia (30-35 mg/kg body wt, initial dose), during pro-oestrusoestrus, for less than 5 h had no effect on the preovulatory LH increase. However, pentobarbitone anaesthesia for more than 6 h inhibitied the LH peak and ovulation if the animal was

  7. Spinal cord excitability is not influenced by elevated blood lactate levels.

    PubMed

    Coco, Marinella; Alagona, Giovanna; Perciavalle, Valentina; Cicirata, Valentina; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with a maximal cycling or with an intravenous infusion, with spinal cord excitability. The study was carried out on 17 male athletes; all the subjects performed a maximal cycling test on a mechanically braked cycloergometer, while 6 of them were submitted to the intravenous infusion of a lactate solution (3 mg/kg in 1 min). Before the exercise or the injection, also at the end as well as 5 and 10 min after the conclusion, venous blood lactate was measured and excitability of the spinal α-motoneurons was evaluated by using the H reflex technique. In both experimental conditions, it has been observed that an exhaustive exercise is associated with a strong increase of blood lactate (but not of blood glucose) and with a significant reduction of spinal excitability. Since a similar augment of blood lactate induced by an intravenous infusion, in subjects not performing any exercise, is not associated with significant changes of spinal excitability, it can be concluded that the increase of blood lactate levels during a maximal exercise is not per se capable of modifying the excitability of spinal α-motoneurons.

  8. Effects of Systemic Metabolic Fuels on Glucose and Lactate Levels in the Brain Extracellular Compartment of the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Béland-Millar, Alexandria; Larcher, Jeremy; Courtemanche, Justine; Yuan, Tina; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Classic neuroenergetic research has emphasized the role of glucose, its transport and its metabolism in sustaining normal neural function leading to the textbook statement that it is the necessary and sole metabolic fuel of the mammalian brain. New evidence, including the Astrocyte-to-Neuron Lactate Shuttle hypothesis, suggests that the brain can use other metabolic substrates. To further study that possibility, we examined the effect of intraperitoneally administered metabolic fuels (glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and galactose), and insulin, on blood, and extracellular brain levels of glucose and lactate in the adult male CD1 mouse. Primary motor cortex extracellular levels of glucose and lactate were monitored in freely moving mice with the use of electrochemical electrodes. Blood concentration of these same metabolites were obtained by tail vein sampling and measured with glucose and lactate meters. Blood and extracellular fluctuations of glucose and lactate were monitored for a 2-h period. We found that the systemic injections of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate increased blood lactate levels. Apart for a small transitory rise in brain extracellular lactate levels, the main effect of the systemic injection of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate was an increase in brain extracellular glucose levels. Systemic galactose injections produced a small rise in blood glucose and lactate but almost no change in brain extracellular lactate and glucose. Systemic insulin injections led to a decrease in blood glucose and a small rise in blood lactate; however brain extracellular glucose and lactate monotonically decreased at the same rate. Our results support the concept that the brain is able to use alternative fuels and the current experiments suggest some of the mechanisms involved.

  9. Effects of Systemic Metabolic Fuels on Glucose and Lactate Levels in the Brain Extracellular Compartment of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Béland-Millar, Alexandria; Larcher, Jeremy; Courtemanche, Justine; Yuan, Tina; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Classic neuroenergetic research has emphasized the role of glucose, its transport and its metabolism in sustaining normal neural function leading to the textbook statement that it is the necessary and sole metabolic fuel of the mammalian brain. New evidence, including the Astrocyte-to-Neuron Lactate Shuttle hypothesis, suggests that the brain can use other metabolic substrates. To further study that possibility, we examined the effect of intraperitoneally administered metabolic fuels (glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and galactose), and insulin, on blood, and extracellular brain levels of glucose and lactate in the adult male CD1 mouse. Primary motor cortex extracellular levels of glucose and lactate were monitored in freely moving mice with the use of electrochemical electrodes. Blood concentration of these same metabolites were obtained by tail vein sampling and measured with glucose and lactate meters. Blood and extracellular fluctuations of glucose and lactate were monitored for a 2-h period. We found that the systemic injections of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate increased blood lactate levels. Apart for a small transitory rise in brain extracellular lactate levels, the main effect of the systemic injection of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate was an increase in brain extracellular glucose levels. Systemic galactose injections produced a small rise in blood glucose and lactate but almost no change in brain extracellular lactate and glucose. Systemic insulin injections led to a decrease in blood glucose and a small rise in blood lactate; however brain extracellular glucose and lactate monotonically decreased at the same rate. Our results support the concept that the brain is able to use alternative fuels and the current experiments suggest some of the mechanisms involved. PMID:28154523

  10. Effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in Taekwondo contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. C.; Lee, B. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, S.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in the muscle was studied. A 450cm2 large red and near infrared LED pad with its irradiance of 10mW/cm2 was applied for 10 minutes to brachial muscle and quadriceps muscle of thigh to the participants before and after the Taekwondo contest. Blood samples from the participants were taken at 5 minutes after the competition and 10 minutes after the recovery. The test results showed that the LED therapy (LEDT) before and after the competition had a significant effect on the decrease of blood lactate level of the participants.

  11. Responses of blood pressure and lactate levels to various aquatic exercise movements in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chien, K-Y; Chen, W-C; Kan, N-W; Hsu, M-C; Lee, S-L

    2015-12-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women represent the main attending group in head-out aquatic exercise (HOAE). Blood pressure (BP) significantly increases both during water immersion and aquatic walking. Based on risk concerns, it is important to evaluate BP responses in postmenopausal women doing HOAE. The aim of this study was to determine BP, lactate levels, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) changes associated with performing 3 different movements at 3 levels of exercise intensity in water. Twelve postmenopausal women (59.9±0.6 years old) participated in 3 aquatic trials involving running (RU), rocking (RO), and scissor kicks (SK) on separate days. Systolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), lactate levels, RPE, and motion cadence were measured at rest; upon reaching 50%, 65%, and 80% of heart rate reserve for 6 minutes; and 10 and 30 minutes after exercise. Under similar RPE responses at 3 levels of intensity, SK resulted in higher systolic BP, MAP, and lactate levels than RO at 10 minutes after exercise (P<0.05) and the lowest motion cadence (P<0.05). RO resulted in the lowest MAP and diastolic BP responses during exercise (P<0.05). RU resulted in lower responses of lactate levels at high exercise intensity (P<0.05). RO resulted in lower diastolic BP and MAP responses compared with RU and SK during exercise. These findings suggest that RO movement in aquatic exercises is more suitable for people at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in plasma and milk following subcutaneous administration to lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Baoliang, P; Yuwan, W; Zhende, P; Lifschitz, A L; Ming, W

    2006-04-01

    Eprinomectin is only available as a topically applied anthelmintic for dairy cattle. To determine whether eprinomectin can be applied as an injectable formulation in dairy cattle, a novel injectable formulation was developed and was subcutaneously delivered to four lactating dairy cattle at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/ kg. Plasma and milk samples were collected. The concentrations of eprinomectin in all samples were determined by HPLC. The peak plasma concentration (C(max))of 44.0+/-24.2 ng/ml occurred 39+/-19.3 h after subcutaneous administration, equivalent to the C(max) (43.76+/-18.23 ng/ml) previously reported for dairy cattle after a pour-on administration of 0.5 mg/kg eprinomectin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) after subcutaneous administration was 7354+/-1861 (ng h)/ml, higher than that obtained after pour-on delivery (5737.68+/-412.80 (ng h)/ml). The mean residence time (MRT) of the drug in plasma was 211+/-55.2 h. Eprinomectin was detected in the milk at the second sampling time. The concentration of drug in milk was parallel to that in plasma, with a milk to plasma ratio of 0.16+/-0.01. The highest detected concentration of eprinomectin in milk was 9.0 ng/ml, below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of eprinomectin in milk established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2000. The amount of eprinomectin recovered in the milk during this trial was 0.39%+/-0.08% of the total administered dose. This study demonstrates that subcutaneous administration of eprinomectin led to higher bioavailability and a lower dose than a pour-on application, and that an injectable formulation of eprinomectin may be applied in dairy cattle with a zero withdrawal period.

  13. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  14. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  15. Effect of prepartum energy intake and postpartum protein source on plasma somatotropin and insulin in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Seymour, W M; Herbein, J H; Akers, R M; Polan, C E

    1988-11-01

    Forty-two Holstein cows were fed a high or low energy diet during the last third of lactation, then fed soybean meal or dried brewers grains in the subsequent lactation. Responses of plasma somatotropin and insulin to arginine were measured at 6 and 15 wk postpartum. Basal somatotropin, response area, and peak value were greater at 6 versus 15 wk of lactation. Insulation responses were greater at 15 wk of lactation. At 6 wk, basal somatotropin was higher (6.1 versus 4.1 ng/ml) in cows fed the low energy diet prepartum. Shape of somatotropin response curves at 6 wk differed between prepartum energy intakes, but response areas were similar. Plasma insulin at 6 wk tended to be higher (1.0 versus .7 ng/ml) in cows fed dried brewers grains. At 15 wk, both insulin and somatotropin response areas tended to be smaller for cows fed dried brewers grains, and shape of insulin response curves differed between protein sources. Of the observed hormonal responses to diet, only 6-wk plasma somatotropin was associated with differences in production parameters. Somatotropin secretion during early lactation appears to respond to prepartum changes in the energy status.

  16. Effects of a lipid-based nutrient supplement during pregnancy and lactation on maternal plasma fatty acid status and lipid profile: Results of two randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Brietta M; Young, Rebecca R; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Ashorn, Ulla; Jackson, Kristina H; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth; Okronipa, Harriet; Sadalaki, John; Baldiviez, Lacey M; Shahab-Ferdows, Setti; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown whether a novel small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) containing alpha-linolenic (ALA) and linoleic acids impacts maternal plasma lipids and fatty acid status. We measured plasma fatty acids (wt%) and lipid concentrations at 36 wk gestation and breast milk fatty acids (wt%) at 6 months postpartum in a subsample of women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial studying the effects of SQ-LNS on birth outcomes and child growth. Women≤20 wk gestation in Ghana (n=1,320) and Malawi (n=1,391) were assigned to receive daily either: 1) iron-folic acid (pregnancy); 2) multiple micronutrients (pregnancy and lactation); or 3) SQ-LNS (pregnancy and lactation). At 36 wk, plasma ALA levels were higher in those receiving SQ-LNS. SQ-LNS increased breast milk ALA in Ghana but not Malawi. There was no effect on plasma lipids or other selected fatty acids. SQ-LNS may impact plasma and breast milk ALA levels depending on the population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Arterio-venous differences in cord levels of catecholamines, glucose, lactate and blood gases.

    PubMed

    Koh, Daisy K M; Hume, Robert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Fiona L R

    2016-08-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels are higher in cord arterial blood relative to venous blood, consistent with active mechanisms of placental-maternal clearance. There are no contemporary studies of cord arteriovenous blood levels of sulfated and non-sulfated catechols. To assess the arteriovenous differences in cord blood levels of dopamine (DA), the sulfated catecholamines and their sulfated and non-sulfated metabolites. To correlate levels of oxygen, H+/CO2, and glucose with cord catecholamine levels. Fifty-seven term infants, delivered by elective cesarean section, were recruited. Cord arterial and venous blood was sampled; levels of glucose, lactate, blood gases, six catechols and their sulfated conjugates were measured. With one exception (DOPA sulfate), mean cord arterial levels of sulfated and non-sulfated catechols were significantly higher than venous levels. Arterial lactate and glucose levels were independently associated with NE levels, but only lactate was associated with levels of EPI and DA. This study establishes that in vivo metabolic parameters of hypoxia, respiratory and metabolic acidosis are associated with catecholamine levels, a key relationship for perinatal adaptation and homeostasis, and findings that are consistent with in vitro studies of the regulators of catecholamine secretion.

  18. Temporal changes in plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in pasture-fed dairy cows during extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Blache, D; Macmillan, K L; Leury, B J

    2011-10-01

    This experiment measured variations in plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites in cows undergoing extended lactations of up to 670 d at 2 planes of nutrition. Thirty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter were selected for varying milk yield and then managed for a lactation of 670 d by delaying breeding until approximately 450 d in milk (DIM). Cows grazed fresh pasture supplemented with pasture silage or hay and crushed wheat or triticale grain. Dietary intake was reduced by approximately 1.8 kg (dry matter) grain/cow per day for 19 of the cows from 300 DIM until the end of lactation to assess the effect of restricted energy intake on the persistency of milk production. Samples of blood were collected monthly from each cow to measure plasma concentrations of selected hormones and metabolites. Dietary restriction beyond 300 DIM reduced yields of milk, protein, and fat, but did not alter the proportion of cows reaching the 670-d lactation target. Dietary restriction had no effect on cow BW or plasma concentrations of any hormones or metabolites. Overall, blood plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, and glucose were elevated from 301 to 600 DIM compared with 0 to 300 DIM, whereas concentrations of growth hormone and nonesterified fatty acids were lower after 300 DIM. Plasma concentrations of insulin and prolactin were unaffected by stage of lactation, but prolactin concentrations increased during summer. These changes were consistent with a decrease in milk yield and an increase in the partitioning of nutrients to body tissue gain, primarily adipose tissue, throughout the later stages of the extended lactation. Cows that continued milking beyond 600 DIM had increased plasma concentrations of growth hormone and decreased concentrations of glucose and leptin compared with cows that milked <600 DIM. These differences, coupled with reduced body weight gain, indicated an increased priority for nutrient

  19. Recovery of Endothelial Function in Severe Falciparum Malaria: Relationship with Improvement in Plasma L-Arginine and Blood Lactate Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Gitawati, Retno; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; McNeil, Yvette R.; Darcy, Christabelle J.; Granger, Donald L.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Lopansri, Bert K.; Price, Ric N.; Duffull, Stephen B.; Celermajer, David S.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Severe malaria is characterized by microvascular obstruction, endothelial dysfunction, and reduced levels of L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO). L-Arginine infusion improves endothelial function in moderately severe malaria. Neither the longitudinal course of endothelial dysfunction nor factors associated with recovery have been characterized in severe malaria. Methods Endothelial function was measured longitudinally in adults with severe malaria (n = 49) or moderately severe malaria (n = 48) in Indonesia, using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). In a mixed-effects model, changes in RH-PAT index values in patients with severe malaria were related to changes in parasitemia, lactate, acidosis, and plasma L-arginine concentrations. Results Among patients with severe malaria, the proportion with endothelial dysfunction fell from 94% (46/49 patients) to 14% (6/42 patients) before discharge or death (P <.001). In severe malaria, the median time to normal endothelial function was 49 h (interquartile range, 20–70 h) after the start of antimalarial therapy. The mean increase in L-arginine concentrations in patients with severe malaria was 11 μmol/L/24 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 9–13 μmol/L/24 h), from a baseline of 49 μmol/L (95% CI, 37–45 μmol/L). Improvement of endothelial function in patients with severe malaria correlated with increasing levels of L-arginine (r = 0.56; P =.008) and decreasing levels of lactate (r = −0.44; P =.001). Conclusions Recovery of endothelial function in severe malaria is associated with recovery from hypoargininemia and lactic acidosis. Agents that can improve endothelial NO production and endothelial function, such as L-arginine, may have potential as adjunctive therapy early during the course of severe malaria. PMID:18605903

  20. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  1. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Lactate and Glutathione Levels in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder: 1H-MRS Study.

    PubMed

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Pastorello, Bruno F; Leite, Cláudia da Costa; Henning, Anke; Moreno, Ricardo A; Garcia Otaduy, Maria Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enable the measurement of levels of lactate, the main marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutathione, the predominant brain antioxidant. The objective of this study was to measure brain lactate and glutathione levels in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Eighty-eight individuals (50 bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (2x2x4.5cm(3)) using a 2-D JPRESS sequence. Lactate and glutathione were quantified using the ProFit software program. Bipolar disorder patients had higher dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lactate levels compared with controls. Glutathione levels did not differ between euthymic bipolar disorder and controls. There was a positive correlation between lactate and glutathione levels specific to bipolar disorder. No influence of medications on metabolites was observed. This is the most extensive magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of lactate and glutathione in bipolar disorder to date, and results indicated that euthymic bipolar disorder patients had higher levels of lactate, which might be an indication of altered mitochondrial function. Moreover, lactate levels correlated with glutathione levels, indicating a compensatory mechanism regardless of bipolar disorder diagnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  2. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Lactate and Glutathione Levels in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder: 1H-MRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Pastorello, Bruno F.; Leite, Cláudia da Costa; Henning, Anke; Moreno, Ricardo A.; Garcia Otaduy, Maria Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enable the measurement of levels of lactate, the main marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutathione, the predominant brain antioxidant. The objective of this study was to measure brain lactate and glutathione levels in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Methods: Eighty-eight individuals (50 bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (2x2x4.5cm3) using a 2-D JPRESS sequence. Lactate and glutathione were quantified using the ProFit software program. Results: Bipolar disorder patients had higher dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lactate levels compared with controls. Glutathione levels did not differ between euthymic bipolar disorder and controls. There was a positive correlation between lactate and glutathione levels specific to bipolar disorder. No influence of medications on metabolites was observed. Conclusion: This is the most extensive magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of lactate and glutathione in bipolar disorder to date, and results indicated that euthymic bipolar disorder patients had higher levels of lactate, which might be an indication of altered mitochondrial function. Moreover, lactate levels correlated with glutathione levels, indicating a compensatory mechanism regardless of bipolar disorder diagnosis. PMID:27207914

  3. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  4. Elucidation of drivers of high-level production of lactates throughout a cancer development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Liu, Chao; Cao, Sha; Xu, Ying

    2015-06-01

    Lactates play key roles in facilitating or protecting the development of a cancer in most cancer types. While its beneficial effects to cancer development have been extensively studied, very little is known about what derives the high-level production of lactates in a cancer throughout its entire development. Here we present a novel computational analysis of transcriptomic data of nine primary cancer types, plus a few precancerous and metastatic cancer, to address this issue. Our approach is to identify stress types, which are known to play key roles in cancer development and show strong co-expressions with lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA), at different stages of cancer development. A number of interesting observations are made through our analyses, including (i) all nine primary cancer types show similar association patterns between stresses and LDHA, namely the strengths of the associations increase from early- to intermediate-stage cancer tissues but then make a substantial down turn at the most advanced stage; (ii) while the detailed stress types associated with LDHA may vary across different cancer types, stresses induced by apoptosis and adaptive immune responses are present universally, suggesting that these two stresses are possibly two key drivers to keep the high-level production of lactates; and (iii) there is a clear distinction between stress types associated with LDHA in precancerous tissues vs. cancer and metastasis tissues. We anticipate that the analyses can provide highly useful information for designing personalized treatments for different cancers at different stages, as stopping lactate production could have devastating effects on a cancer development. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the relationships among coagulopathy, hyperfibrinolysis, plasma lactate, and protein C in dogs with spontaneous hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Daniel J; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Benjamin M; de Laforcade, Armelle M; Brooks, Marjory B

    2016-01-01

    To relate coagulation and fibrinolysis derangements to shock severity as reflected by plasma lactate concentrations in dogs with spontaneous hemoperitoneum (SHP) and determine the impact on transfusions. Prospective, observational, case-control study. Three veterinary teaching hospitals. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with SHP and 28 breed- and age-matched control dogs. None. Blood samples for platelet counts, coagulation, and anticoagulant assays (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and protein C, thromboelastography [TEG]), fibrinolysis testing (d-dimer and TEG lysis parameters with and without the addition of 50 U/mL of tissue plasminogen activator [TEG LY30 measured with the addition of 50 U/mL of tPA to the blood sample, LY3050 and TEG LY60 measured with the addition of 50 U/mL of tPA to the blood sample, LY6050 ; LY30 and LY60]), and plasma lactate as an indicator of severity of shock were collected from SHP dogs at the time of diagnosis. SHP dogs were hypocoagulable (prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased TEG maximum amplitude) and hyperfibrinolytic (increased LY3050 and TEG LY6050 ) compared to controls. The severity of hypocoagulability was related to protein C activity, while the severity of hyperfibrinolysis was related to plasma lactate concentration. Among the 18 dogs discharged from the hospital, LY3050 was significantly associated with the dose of fresh frozen plasma administered, but none of the parameters were associated with the dose of red blood cells administered. Dogs with SHP have evidence of hypocoagulability, protein C deficiency, and hyperfibrinolysis. Parameters of hyperfibrinolysis were related to plasma lactate concentrations and volume of plasma transfused during hospitalization. These derangements resemble those found in people with acute coagulopathy of trauma and shock, and activation of protein C may be a common feature to both syndromes.

  6. A comparison of lactate concentration in plasma collected from the toe, ear, and fingertip after a simulated rowing exercise

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, J; Farrally, M

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To examine the validity of using blood taken from the toe for the assessment of plasma lactate concentration in rowers. To achieve this, values were compared with those taken from the fingertip and earlobe. Methods—Nine subjects exercised at two separate submaximum workloads on the Concept II rowing ergometer. The loads, each lasting four minutes, elicited mean (SD) heart rate responses of 160.1 (8.5) and 180.1 (5.7) beats/min, which corresponded to 76.4 (6.1)% and 91.9 (4.7)% of the estimated heart rate maximum of the subjects. Blood was simultaneously removed after the cessation of exercise by three experimenters and was analysed for plasma lactate concentration. Results—At 76.4% of estimated heart rate maximum, the mean (SD) plasma lactate concentrations sampled from the fingertip, toe, and earlobe were 6.36 (1.58), 5.81 (1.11), and 5.29 (1.24) mmol/l respectively. At 91.9% of estimated heart rate maximum, respective values were 8.81 (2.30), 8.53 (1.37), and 8.41 (2.35) mmol/l. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between any of the sites at either work intensity. Conclusions—The toe may offer a practical alternative for assessing the concentration of lactate during rowing, having the advantage that repeated blood samples can be removed without interruption of the rowing action. Key Words: blood sampling; lactate; ergometer; rowing PMID:10690448

  7. Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Cuneo, Matthew; Rowe, Joan D; Li, Mengjie; Tell, Lisa A; Allison, Shayna; Carlson, Jan; Riviere, Jim E; Gehring, Ronette

    2016-11-18

    Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood and milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin (i.e., the marker residue CP-60,300), respectively, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based on these new data and related literature data, a NLME-PK compartmental model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to model plasma concentrations and cumulative excreted amount in milk. Monte Carlo simulations with 100 replicates were performed to predict the time when the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of milk concentrations was below the tolerance. All animals were healthy throughout the study with normal appetite and milk production levels, and with mild-moderate injection-site reactions that diminished by the end of the study. The measured data showed that milk concentrations of the marker residue of tulathromycin were below the limit of detection (LOD = 1.8 ng/ml) 39 days after the second injection. A 2-compartment model with milk as an excretory compartment best described tulathromycin plasma and CP-60,300 milk pharmacokinetic data. The model-predicted data correlated with the measured data very well. The NLME-PK model estimated that tulathromycin plasma concentrations were below LOD (1.2 ng/ml) 43 days after a single injection, and 62 days after the second injection with a 95% confidence. These estimated times are much longer than the current meat withdrawal time recommendation of 18 days for tulathromycin in non-lactating cattle. The results suggest that twice subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin are a clinically

  8. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  9. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Choe, J H; Kim, B C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits.

  10. Prognostic values of blood pH and lactate levels in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Momiyama, Yukihiko; Yamada, Wataru; Miyata, Koutaro; Miura, Koutarou; Fukuda, Tadashi; Fuse, Jun; Kikuno, Takaaki

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains difficult. High blood lactate or low pH levels may be associated with poor prognosis in OHCA patients, but these associations remain controversial. We compared blood lactate and pH levels in OHCA patients transferred to our hospital to measure their prognostic performance. We investigated the associations between blood lactate and pH levels on admission and neurological outcomes in 372 OHCA patients who had a return of spontaneous circulation. Of the 372 OHCA patients, 31 had a favorable neurological outcome. Blood lactate levels were lower in patients with a favorable outcome than in those with an unfavorable outcome, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (82 ± 49 vs. 96 ± 41 mg/dL). However, pH levels were significantly higher in patients with a favorable outcome than in those with an unfavorable outcome (7.26 ± 0.16 vs. 6.93 ± 0.19, P < 0.001). The relative cumulative frequency distribution curve analysis showed the optimal cut-off points of lactate and pH to be approximately 80 mg/dL and 7.05, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity to predict a favorable outcome were 61% and 64% for lactate <80 mg/dL and 84% and 80% for pH >7.05, respectively. Areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves were significantly larger for pH than for lactate levels (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, pH >7.05 was an independent predictor for a favorable outcome. After OHCA, patients with a favorable outcome had lower lactate and higher pH levels than those with an unfavorable outcome, but pH level was a much better predictor for neurological outcome than lactate levels.

  11. Non-targeted plasma metabolomic profile at early and late lactation in parity 1 dams with diverging body composition at weaning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactation is an extremely energy demanding event, impacting naïve dams to a greater extent as they are still physiologically immature. The objective of the current study was to determine if a unique plasma metabolome exists at early and late lactation from first parity gilts having similar body meas...

  12. Comparison of cephalic and jugular plasma lactate concentrations in sick cats: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Emily K J; Julius, Tracy M; Claypool, Sean-Paul A; Clare, Monica C

    2017-03-01

    To compare plasma lactate concentration (PLC) in paired cephalic and jugular blood samples from sick cats. An additional objective was to determine whether hypotensive cats (Doppler blood pressure < 90 mm Hg) have a significant difference between cephalic and jugular PLC. Prospective observational pilot study performed from December 2013 to August 2014. Private veterinary referral center. Twenty client-owned cats. Doppler blood pressure measurements were obtained and then blood samples were collected from both a cephalic intravenous catheter at the time of placement and from a jugular vein by direct venipuncture. There was no significant difference between the mean cephalic PLC (2.0 mmol/L, standard deviation [SD]: 1.1, min-max: 0.6-5.3) and the mean jugular PLC (2.1 mmol/L, SD: 1.6, min-max: 0.7-7.8; P = 0.88) in this population of sick cats. Hypotensive cats also had no significant difference between the mean cephalic PLC (2.8 mmol/L, SD: 1.4, min-max: 1.6-5.3) and the mean jugular PLC (3.2 mmol/L, SD: 2.6, min-max: 0.7-7.8; P = 0.77). There was not a significant difference between cephalic and jugular PLC in this population of sick cats. Further studies are needed to confirm whether cephalic and jugular PLCs may be used interchangeably in sick and hypotensive cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  13. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated.

  14. Plasma Ammonia Levels in Newborns with Asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Khalessi, Nasrin; Khosravi, Nastaran; Mirjafari, Maryam; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia may result in hypoxic damage in various body organs, especially in the central nervous system. It could induce cascade of biochemical events leading to the cell death and metabolic changes, eventually may increase plasma ammonia levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hyperammonemia in neonates with asphyxia and to find the relationship between ammonia levels and severity of asphyxia. In this cross-sectional study, we included 100 neonates with perinatal asphyxia in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ali-Asghar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran in 2010-2011. All full term patients diagnosed of asphyxia were enrolled. The relationship between plasma ammonia levels and sex, gestational age, birth weight and severity of asphyxia were determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Fifty six percent of neonates were male. The mean gestational age was 38.0± 1.2 wk. Mean plasma ammonia level was 222 ± 100 μg/dl and 20% of the neonates had hyperammonemia. It was not associated with gender, gestational age, birth weight, and asphyxia severity. Six patients died and mean plasma ammonia levels was 206±122 μg/dl. In this group, there was no significant relation between plasma ammonia levels and severity of asphyxia. No significant different was seen between plasma ammonia in dead and lived neonates. According to high prevalence of hyperammonemia in neonatal asphyxia, measurement of plasma ammonia levels, is suggested to improve management of asphyxia.

  15. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  16. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (-3.0% ± 1.3% and -2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  17. Prognostic value of plasma L-lactate concentration measured cow-side with a portable clinical analyzer in Holstein dairy cattle with abomasal disorders.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Monica D; Nydam, Daryl V; Perkins, Gillian A; Mitchell, Hilda M; Divers, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    L-Lactate has been used as a prognostic indicator for ill humans and animals. A portable analyzer that measures L-lactate could help veterinarians decide to proceed with correction of a displaced abomasum. The likelihood of a dairy cow with a displaced abomasum remaining in the herd can be predicted by lactate concentration and other variables. Thirty-four healthy early-lactation dairy cows, and 131 cows with abomasal displacements (DA) presented to Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Plasma L-lactate was measured using a commercial analyzer (i-STAT). A cow had a positive outcome (PO) if she remained in the herd 30 days after surgical correction of the displaced abomasum and a negative outcome (NO) if she was culled or died in that time. A multivariable model with physical examination and clinicopathologic variables for predicting NO for cows with right-sided abomasal displacements was constructed. The median plasma L-lactate was 0.54 mM/L (interquartile range, 0.42-0.74) in healthy lactating Holstein cows. In cows with right-sided displaced abomasa, median plasma L-lactate concentrations were higher in cows with NO (5.88 mM/L) versus PO (3.23 mM/L) (P = .002). In a multivariable model, which identified chloride, heart rate, and L-lactate as the best fitting variables for cows with right-sided displacements, the probability of NO increased as L-lactate increased. Plasma L-lactate concentration might be a useful predictor of productive outcomes in cows with right-sided abomasal disorders.

  18. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  19. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Tina D; Orngreen, Mette C; Van Hall, Gerrit; Vissing, John

    2013-08-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10 matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial dysfunction, lactate was oxidized in muscle to the same extent as in healthy control subjects. This surprisingly high ability to burn lactate in working muscle with defective mitochondria, probably relates to the variability of oxidative capacity among muscle fibers. The data suggests that lactate is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function.

  20. Cell-cell and intracellular lactate shuttles.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2009-12-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other.

  1. Cell–cell and intracellular lactate shuttles

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, George A

    2009-01-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. ‘Cell–cell’ and ‘intracellular lactate shuttle’ concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of the cell–cell shuttles include lactate exchanges between between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed, and between working skeletal muscle and heart, brain, liver and kidneys. Examples of intracellular lactate shuttles include lactate uptake by mitochondria and pyruvate for lactate exchange in peroxisomes. Lactate for pyruvate exchanges affect cell redox state, and by itself lactate is a ROS generator. In vivo, lactate is a preferred substrate and high blood lactate levels down-regulate the use of glucose and free fatty acids (FFA). As well, lactate binding may affect metabolic regulation, for instance binding to G-protein receptors in adipocytes inhibiting lipolysis, and thus decreasing plasma FFA availability. In vitro lactate accumulation upregulates expression of MCT1 and genes coding for other components of the mitochondrial reticulum in skeletal muscle. The mitochondrial reticulum in muscle and mitochondrial networks in other aerobic tissues function to establish concentration and proton gradients necessary for cells with high mitochondrial densities to oxidize lactate. The presence of lactate shuttles gives rise to the realization that glycolytic and oxidative pathways should be viewed as linked, as opposed to alternative, processes, because lactate, the product of one pathway, is the substrate for the other. PMID:19805739

  2. Impaired lactation performance following elective delivery at term: role of maternal levels of cortisol and prolactin.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Savona, Valentina; Cavallin, Francesco; D'Antona, Donato; Giustardi, Arturo; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    Lactation performance depends on stress surrounding labor and delivery, and it is likely to be different in women who underwent elective cesarean delivery (ECD) or vaginal (VD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cortisol and human prolactin (hPRL), following ECD and lactation performance, from the delivery room to the 6th month of life. A total of 106 mothers were consecutively enrolled: 38 after ECD, 28 after emergency cesarean delivery (EmCD), and 40 after VD. Basal stress-, lactogenic-hormones, cortisol, and hPRL were comparable on day 3 postpartum in all the women. Multivariate analysis indicated that ECD has a negative impact (OR; 95% CI) on breastfeeding prevalence on the seventh day (0.14; 0.0-0.44, p=0.008) and at third month post partum (0.19; 0.05-0.71, p=0.05) in comparison to VD. In addition, hPRL levels proved to have a statistically significant role in early breastfeeding (1.01; 1-1.01, p=0.002). ECD is a risk factor for successful lactation performance. This information should be provided to mothers and caregivers for extra breastfeeding guidance.

  3. [Plasma homocysteine levels in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Berriotxoa, Agustín; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Egurbide Arberas, María Victoria; Rueda Gutiérrez, Miguel; Aguirre Errasti, Ciriaco

    2003-05-17

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An association between hyperhomocysteinemia and increased cardiovascular risk has been reported. On the other hand, renal failure and deficiency of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid are common causes of hyperhomocysteinemia. The aims of this study were to determine plasma total homocystein (tHcy) concentrations in SLE patients and to analyze the association of plasma tHcy with age, sex, plasma creatinine, vitamin B12, folates and total cholesterol, as well as with other clinical conditions linked to atherothrombosis in SLE patients. Fasting plasma levels of tHcy, vitamin B12, folates, total cholesterol and creatinine were measured in 94 SLE patients (11 males, 83 females) and in a control group of 308 healthy volunteers (122 males, 186 females). A review of the medical records of SLE patients was performed. Plasma tHcy concentrations were higher in patients with SLE (median 10.54 (mol/L) than in controls (median 8.49 (mol/L, p < 0.001). Hyperhomocysteinemia (tHcy >=15 (mol/L) was found in 17.02% SLE patients. In a multivariate analysis, plasma creatinine (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p = 0.038), male sex (p = 0.003) and smoking (p = 0.001) were associated with higher plasma tHcy concentrations. No associations were found between plasma tHcy and hypertension, SLE duration, prednisone therapy and antiphospholipid antibodies. Plasma tHcy concentrations are higher in SLE patients than in healthy controls. High concentrations of plasma creatinine and total plasma cholesterol, male sex and smoking are associated with a higher concentration of plasma tHcy in SLE. Since the clinical consequences of hyperhomocysteinemia are not well established, routine determination of plasmatic tHcy and supplemental therapy in patients with high levels of tHcy are not recommended.

  4. Combining mass spectrometry diagnostic and density functional theory calculations for a better understanding of the plasma polymerization of ethyl lactate.

    PubMed

    Ligot, S; Guillaume, M; Gerbaux, P; Thiry, D; Renaux, F; Cornil, J; Dubois, P; Snyders, R

    2014-04-17

    The focus of this work is on the growth mechanism of ethyl lactate-based plasma polymer film (ELPPF) that could be used as barrier coatings. In such an application, the ester density of the plasma polymer has to be controlled to tune the degradation rate of the material. Our strategy consists of correlating the plasma chemistry evaluated by RGA mass spectrometry and understanding, via DFT calculations, the chemistry of the synthesized thin films. The theoretical calculations helped us to understand the plasma chemistry in plasma ON and OFF conditions. From these data it is unambiguously shown that the signal m/z 75 can directly be correlated with the precursor density in the plasma phase. The combination of XPS and chemical derivatization experiments reveal that the ester content in the ELPFF can be tailored from 2 to 18 at. % by decreasing the RF power, which is perfectly correlated with the evolution of the plasma chemistry. Our results also highlight that the ELPPF chemistry, especially the ester content, is affected by the plasma mode of operation (continuous or pulsed discharge, at similar injected mean power) for similar ester content in the plasma. This could be related to different energy conditions at the interface of the growing films that could affect the sticking coefficient of the ester-bearing fragments.

  5. The influence of season of lambing and lactation on reproductive activity and plasma LH concentrations in Merino ewes.

    PubMed

    Restall, B J; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    Groups of Merino ewes which were lactating for 40 days (Group I) or had had their lambs removed at birth (Group II) after lambing in the winter (June) or spring (November) were fed on a high plane of nutrition. Ovarian inspections were carried out at 15 and 30 days after lambing and plasma LH levels were measured at 6-h intervals for 20-30 days. First ovulation was earlier in ewes lambing in the winter (16-6 days, range 11-26) than in the spring (24-7 days, range 15-30) but there was no difference in the number of ewes ovulating. LH levels were higher in winter-lambing ewes (2-79 +/- 3-4 ng/ml) than in those lambing in the spring (1-78 +/- 0-23 ng/ml). LH peaks were usually associated with an ovulation in spring lambing ewes but were not consistently so in the others. More ewes ovulated in Group II (72%) than in Group I (40%) but the mean time of first ovulation was similar. In the winter-lambing ewes the mean daily LH concentration was 2-40 +/- 0-32 ng/ml in Group I and 3-18 +/- 0-31 ng/ml in Group II but there were no differences between the spring-lambing ewes, (I, 1-75 +/- 0-20 ng/ml; II, 1-80 +/- 0-26 ng/ml). There were more elevations in LH levels in Group II ewes (64%) than in Group I ewes (43-8%). After lambing the LH levels increased slowly, indicating a gradual recovery of pituitary function.

  6. Prehospital Lactate Improves Accuracy of Prehospital Criteria for Designating Trauma Activation Level

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Lerner, E. Brooke; Sperry, Jason L.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Guyette, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma activation level is determined by prehospital criteria. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) recommends trauma activation criteria; however, their accuracy may be limited. Prehospital lactate has shown promise in predicting trauma center resource requirements. Our objective was to investigate the added value of incorporating prehospital lactate in an algorithm to designate trauma activation level. Methods Air medical trauma patients undergoing prehospital lactate measurement were included. Algorithms using ACS activation criteria (ACS) and ACS activation criteria plus prehospital lactate (ACS+LAC) to designate trauma activation level were compared. Test characteristics and net reclassification improvement (NRI), which evaluates reclassification of patients among risk categories with additional predictive variables, were calculated. Algorithms were compared to predict trauma center need (TCN) defined as >1unit of blood in the ED; spinal cord injury; advanced airway; thoracotomy or pericardiocentesis; ICP monitoring; emergent operative or interventional radiology procedure; or death. Results There were 6,347 patients included. Twenty-eight percent had TCN. The ACS+LAC algorithm upgraded 256 patients and downgraded 548 patients compared to the ACS algorithm. The ACS+LAC algorithm versus ACS algorithm had a NRI of 0.058 (95%CI 0.044, 0.071; p<0.01), with an event NRI of −0.5% and non-event NRI of 6.2%. When weighted to favor changes in under-triage, the ACS+LAC still had a favorable overall reclassification (wNRI 0.041; 95%CI 0.028, 0.054; p=0.01). The ACS+LAC algorithm increased PPV, NPV, and accuracy. Over-triage was reduced 7.2%, while under-triage only increased 0.7%. The area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher for the ACS+LAC algorithm (0.79 vs. 0.76, p<0.01). Conclusions The ACS+LAC algorithm reclassified patients to more appropriate levels of trauma activation when compared to the ACS algorithm. This overall benefit is achieved

  7. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24 h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles.

  8. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24 h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles. PMID:25992482

  9. Effects and Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Cold Plasma on Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Zimu; Shen, Jie; Li, Xu; Ding, Lili; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xia, Weidong; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Zelong; Chu, Paul K

    2015-05-20

    Proteins are carriers of biological functions and the effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasmas on proteins are important to applications such as sterilization and plasma-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Herein, we report our detailed investigation of the effects of helium-oxygen non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas on the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme solutions. Circular dichroism (CD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicate that the loss of activity stems from plasma-induced modification of the secondary molecular structure as well as polymerization of the peptide chains. Raising the treatment intensity leads to a reduced alpha-helix content, increase in the percentage of the beta-sheet regions and random sequence, as well as gradually decreasing LDH activity. However, the structure of the LDH plasma-treated for 300 seconds exhibits a recovery trend after storage for 24 h and its activity also increases slightly. By comparing direct and indirect plasma treatments, plasma-induced LDH inactivation can be attributed to reactive species (RS) in the plasma, especially ones with a long lifetime including hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and nitrate ion which play the major role in the alteration of the macromolecular structure and molecular diameter in lieu of heat, UV radiation, and charged particles.

  10. Strong associations among rumen endotoxin and acute phase proteins with plasma minerals in lactating cows fed graded amounts of concentrate.

    PubMed

    Zebeli, Q; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine associations among rumen endotoxin, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with plasma Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in lactating cows challenged with graded amounts of rolled barley grain in the diet (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of DMI). Correlative relationships among variables were determined by linear and nonlinear regression procedures adjusted for the effects of day, animal, and experimental period. Increasing the amount of grain in the diet was successful in inducing an acute phase response, as assessed by augmentation of rumen endotoxin and plasma CRP and SAA (P < 0.01). The correlative analysis revealed inverse, nonlinear relationships of rumen endotoxin and plasma SAA with circulating Ca. Interestingly, plasma Ca reached the asymptotic plateau at 10.6 mg/dL. The increase in rumen endotoxin was associated with an abrupt decrease in plasma Fe (R(2) = 0.91; P < 0.001). A similar relationship, although at a reduced estimation accuracy (R(2) = 0.21; P < 0.01), was observed between rumen endotoxin and plasma Zn. Augmentation of rumen endotoxin and plasma CRP resulted in a positive, biphasic response of plasma Cu. In conclusion, the increase in rumen endotoxin in response to high-grain diets, and the resulting increases in plasma SAA and CRP, were strongly correlated with fluctuations of plasma minerals. Results suggest that new feeding strategies should be developed to curb the release of endotoxin in the rumen fluid to prevent perturbing minerals in the plasma.

  11. Increased Lactate Levels and Reduced pH in Postmortem Brains of Schizophrenics: Medication Confounds

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Nader D.; Lipska, Barbara K.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Saylor, E. Michael; Herman, Mary; Thakar, Jay; Verma, Ajay; Kleinman, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of postmortem studies have found decreased pH in brains of patients with schizophrenia. Insofar as lower pH has been associated with decreased mRNA expression in postmortem human brain, decreased pH in schizophrenia may represent an important potential confound in comparisons between patients and controls. We hypothesized that decreased pH may be related to increased concentration of lactic acid. However, in contrast to the previous notion that an increase in lactic acid represents evidence for primary metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia, we hypothesized that this increase is secondary to prior antipsychotic treatment. We have tested this by first demonstrating that lactate levels in the cerebellum of patients with schizophrenia (n=35) are increased relative to control subjects (n=42) by 28%, p=0.001. Second, we have shown that there is an excellent correlation between lactate levels in the cerebellum and pH, and that this correlation is particularly strong in patients (r=− 0.78, p=3e-6). Third, we have shown in rats that chronic haloperidol (0.8 mg/kg/day) and clozapine (5 mg/kg/day) increase lactic acid concentration in the frontal cortex relative to vehicle (by 31% and 22% respectively, p<0.01). These data suggest that lactate increases in postmortem human brain of patients with schizophrenia are associated with decreased pH and that these changes are possibly related to antipsychotic treatment rather than a primary metabolic abnormality in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:18177946

  12. Association between serum lactate levels and early neurogenic pulmonary edema after nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Etsuko; Tagami, Takashi; Watanabe, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Gaku; Suzuki, Go; Onda, Hidetaka; Fuse, Akira; Gemma, Akihiko; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have described the risk factors associated with the development of neurological pulmonary edema (NPE) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We have hypothesized that acute-phase increases in serum lactate levels are associated with the early development of NPE following SAH. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between lactic acidosis and NPE in patients with nontraumatic SAH. We retrospectively evaluated 140 patients with nontraumatic SAH who were directly transported to the Nippon Medical School Hospital emergency room by the emergency medical services. We compared patients in whom NPE developed (NPE group) and those in whom it did not (non-NPE group). The median (quartiles 1-3) arrival time at the hospital was 32 minutes (28-38 minutes) after the emergency call was received. Although the characteristics of the NPE and non-NPE groups, including mean arterial pressure (121.3 [109.0-144.5] and 124.6 [108.7-142.6] mm Hg, respectively; P=0.96), were similar, the median pH and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) concentrations were significantly lower in the NPE group than in the non-NPE group (pH, 7.33 [7.28-7.37] vs. 7.39 [7.35-7.43]); P=0.002; HCO3(-), 20.8 [18.6-22.6] vs. 22.8 [20.9-24.7] mmol/L; P=0.01). The lactate concentration was significantly higher in the NPE group (54.0 [40.3-61.0] mg/dL) than in the non-NPE group (28.0 [17.0-37.5] mg/dL; P<0.001). Multivariable regression analysis indicated that younger age and higher glucose and lactate levels were significantly associated with the early onset of NPE in patients with SAH. The present findings indicate that an increased serum lactate level, occurring within 1 hour of the ictus, is an independent factor associated with the early onset of NPE. Multicenter prospective studies are required to confirm our results.

  13. Effects of dietary tallow level on performance of Alpine does in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown-Crowder, I E.; Hart, S P.; Cameron, M; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L.

    2001-03-01

    Sixty Alpine does (initial BW 47+/-1.3kg) were used to determine effects of dietary inclusion of different levels of partially hydrogenated tallow on performance in early lactation (weeks 3-11). Treatments entailed a 30% concentrate, negative control (NC) diet and five diets higher in concentrate (42-46%) with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 or 6.0% DM of partially hydrogenated tallow (0T, 1.5T, 3.0T, 4.5T and 6.0T, respectively). DM intake was 1.54kg per day for the NC and 1.86, 1.80, 1.99, 2.17 and 1.96kg per day for the five tallow treatments, respectively, BW was similar among treatments and increased as the trial progressed (47.4, 48.4, 49.8, 50.4, 50.8 and 51.3kg at weeks 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13, respectively). Milk yield was lower (P<0.05) for NC (2.61kg per day) compared with the mean of the other diets and changed quadratically (P<0.05) as tallow level increased (2.85, 3.08, 3.14, 3.21 and 2.69kg per day for the five tallow treatments, respectively). Milk fat concentration was lower (P<0.05) for NC (2.94%) than for the mean of other diets and increased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing tallow level (3.00, 3.17, 3.34, 3.48 and 3.58%) whereas, milk protein concentration was not affected by level of tallow (2.72, 2.80, 2.93, 2.85, 2.90 and 2.90% for NC, and the five tallow treatments, respectively). The estimated NE(l):4% fat-corrected milk yield ratio was 0.93Mcal/kg for NC and 1.30, 1.11, 1.21, 1.37 and 1.44Mcal/kg for the five tallow treatments, respectively. The results indicated that in Alpine does, milk yield in early lactation increased as dietary tallow level was increased to 3 and 4.5% but decreased when the level was increased to 6%, although milk fat concentration increased linearly and the protein level was unchanged. These results suggest beneficial usage by lactating Alpine does of low to moderate levels of partially hydrogenated tallow in diets moderate in concentrate level, although ingredient availability and costs will influence ultimate dietary ingredient

  14. Validation of modified early warning score using serum lactate level in community-acquired pneumonia patients. The National Early Warning Score-Lactate score.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sion; Jeong, Taeoh; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Youngho; Yoon, Jaechol; Park, Boyoung

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic prediction power of a newly introduced early warning score modified by serum lactate level, the National Early Warning Score-Lactate (NEWS-L) score, among community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. We also compared the NEWS-L score with the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. We designed a retrospective observational study and collected data on confirmed adult CAP patients who visited the study hospital between October 2013 and September 2014. Variables relevant to, the NEWS-L score, PSI, and CURB-65 were extracted from electronic medical records. Survival status at hospital discharge was determined in the same manner. The NEWS-L score was calculated as NEWS-L=NEWS+serum lactate level (mmol/L). The NEWS-L was divided into quartiles. The ability to predict mortality was assessed through area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and calibration analysis. A total of 553 patients were enrolled, and the inpatient mortality rate was 10.8% (n=60). Mortality rates increased incrementally in conjunction with the NEWS-L quartiles: first quartile, 2.2%; second quartile, 7.9%; third quartile, 9.6%; and fourth quartile, 23.9%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the NEWS-L score was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.80), which showed no significant difference from that of the PSI (0.68; 95% CI, 0.61-0.76; P=.28) and CURB-65 (0.66; 95% CI, 0.59-0.73; P=.06). The newly introduced early warning score modified by serum lactate level, NEWS-L score, was comparable to PSI and CURB-65, for predicting inpatient mortality among adult CAP patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    PubMed Central

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  16. Trend analysis of plasma insulin level around parturition in relation to parity in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Rosi, F

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of parity on plasma insulin level around parturition in Saanen goats. On d -14, -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 from parturition, plasma glucose, NEFA, free AA, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were analyzed in 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous goats. At parturition, BW of primiparous goats was about 75% of that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001) and then their milk production was lower than that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001). At parturition, glucose increased (P < 0.01) in both primiparous and multiparous goats and then decreased (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation, remaining higher (P < 0.01) in primiparous than multiparous goats until the end of the study period. In both groups, free AA decreased (P < 0.01) at parturition, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation without difference between groups. Only in multiparous goats, plasma NEFA increased at parturition (P < 0.01), returning to prepartum levels on d 14 (P < 0.01). Changes in glucose and AA could have been caused by cortisol, which increased (P < 0.01) at parturition in both primiparous and multiparous goats, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 7 of lactation, without difference between the parity groups. In multiparous goats, insulin decreased soon after parturition (P < 0.05), remaining at low levels until the end of the study period, whereas in primiparous goats, insulin did not vary until d 14 of lactation, when it decreased (P < 0.05) also in this group. Therefore, between d 3 and 14 of lactation, insulin was higher in primiparous than multiparous goats (P < 0.05). Only in primiparous goats, at kidding, insulin was negatively correlated to BW (P < 0.01), and after parturition it was negatively correlated with milk yield (P < 0.05) and plasma NEFA (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that higher insulin levels in primiparous Saanen goats, which are still immature at their first breeding season, acted to limit both the mobilization of bodily reserves

  17. Within-day variation and effect of acute stress on plasma and milk cortisol in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Restrepo, I; Muelas, R; Bueso-Ródenas, J; Roca, A; Díaz, J R

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of acute stress on cortisol concentration in goat milk (milk cortisol; MC) and its suitability for stress assessment. Additional variables studied were plasma cortisol (PC), blood glucose (BG), and somatic cell count (SCC). Ten goats free of mastitis at 2 mo of lactation were divided into 2 groups. One group of animals was exposed to acute stress (visual and auditory, but not physical, contact with a barking dog for 3 min) immediately before the 1000 h sampling (STR), and the other group was considered as the control group, not exposed to acute stress (CON). The animals were gradually accustomed to the sampling schedule for 1 wk before the stress treatment (pre-experimental period). The variables PC, MC, BG, SCC, and milk composition (fat, lactose, whey protein, true protein, and casein) were recorded at 0600, 1000, 1130, 1400, 1800, 2200, and 0200 h. Milk variables were recorded in both glands separately. The right gland (n=10) was completely milked and the left gland (n=10) was milked to 30 mL at every sampling except at 1000 h, when complete milking was carried out on both glands. Variables were analyzed by using a linear mixed model. Both PC and MC concentrations varied throughout the day, with values being highest in the morning. Higher PC levels were recorded in the STR group immediately after treatment compared with CON (36.9 vs 16.3 ng/mL). For MC, differences between treatments were noted 1.5h after STR treatment (1.27 vs 0.25 ng/mL). Blood glucose increased immediately after treatment in STR animals, being different from CON until 1.5h after treatment sampling (101 vs. 58 mg/dL). The SCC was not increased by STR treatment, showing higher values in the morning and afternoon compared with evening and night (5.6±0.13 to 5.87±0.13 log10 SCC). The STR treatment had no significant effect on milk composition, and overall milk yield of a complete day after stress stimulus of both groups was similar (STR: 2,067

  18. The effects of supplementation of a novel bacterial 6-phytase on mineral digestibility and plasma minerals in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Z; Broz, J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Pigs digest P in plant feedstuffs poorly because pigs do not produce sufficient endogenous phytase to hydrolyze P from phytate (inositol hexaphosphate). Supplementation of phytase to diets of piglets and grower-finisher pigs increased digestibility of minerals including P and Ca; however, data on phytase efficacy in lactating sows are scarce. Therefore, effects of adding a bacterial 6-phytase expressed in a strain of Aspergillus oryzae (Ronozyme HiPhos; DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was assessed in 45 lactating sows. Three diets were prepared: (i) positive control (PC; 0.52% available P), a regular sow diet containing inorganic P, (ii) negative control (NC; 0.20% available P) without inorganic P, and (iii) NC + 500 units of phytase/kg diet. Each diet was fed randomly to 15 sows for 21 d (from 5 d prior to farrowing to 15 d after farrowing). At day 15 after farrowing, ATTD of P did not differ between PC and NC. Phytase supplementation to NC increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of P from 34 to 46% compared to NC but did not affect (P > 0.05) ATTD of CP and Ca. On day 1 after farrowing, plasma P was 0.66 mmol/L lower (P < 0.05) in sows fed NC than PC. Phytase supplementation to NC increased (P < 0.05) plasma P by 0.40 mmol/L on day 1 but not on day 15 after farrowing. In conclusion, phytase supplementation increased P bioavailability in lactating sows.

  19. Prognostic significance of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in Ewing's sarcoma: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Suoyuan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhuoying; Zuo, Dongqing; Cai, Zhengdong; Hua, Yingqi

    2016-12-01

    A number of studies have investigated the role of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma, although these have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. Therefore, the present study aimed to systematically review the published studies and conduct a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic value more precisely. Cohort studies assessing the prognostic role of LDH levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma were included. A pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overall survival (OS) or 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was used to assess the prognostic role of the levels of serum LDH. Nine studies published between 1980 and 2014, with a total of 1,412 patients with Ewing's sarcoma, were included. Six studies, with a total of 644 patients, used OS as the primary endpoint and four studies, with 795 patients, used 5-year DFS. Overall, the pooled HR evaluating high LDH levels was 2.90 (95% CI: 2.09-4.04) for OS and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.93-2.98) for 5-year DFS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of serum LDH are associated with lower OS and 5-year DFS rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, serum LDH levels are an effective biomarker of Ewing's sarcoma prognosis.

  20. Validity of a New Kit Measuring Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Level for Screening Gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamane-Takeuchi, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Yokoi, Aya; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Sugiura, Yoshio; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of a new kit that can evaluate salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level in real time for screening gingivitis. Materials and Methods. The study included 70 systemic healthy volunteers [29 males and 41 females; mean age ± SD: 24.1 ± 2.6 years]. Resting saliva was collected from each participant and LD level was evaluated in real time using the kit (a color-changing sheet with an integer scale ranging from 1 to 10). A dentist measured probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and the proportion of sites with bleeding on probing (% BOP) at six sites on all teeth. Gingivitis was diagnosed when the BOP value was ≥20%. Results. Salivary LD level was positively correlated with mean % BOP (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.132-1.916, and P < 0.001) in a logistic regression model. The sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 0.89 and 0.98, respectively, at a cut-off value of 8.0 for LD level. Conclusions. The new kit for measurement of salivary LD level may be a useful tool to screen for gingivitis in young adults, which contributes to early detection of future periodontitis.

  1. Validity of a New Kit Measuring Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Level for Screening Gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kota; Yokoi, Aya; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Sugiura, Yoshio; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of a new kit that can evaluate salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level in real time for screening gingivitis. Materials and Methods. The study included 70 systemic healthy volunteers [29 males and 41 females; mean age ± SD: 24.1 ± 2.6 years]. Resting saliva was collected from each participant and LD level was evaluated in real time using the kit (a color-changing sheet with an integer scale ranging from 1 to 10). A dentist measured probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and the proportion of sites with bleeding on probing (% BOP) at six sites on all teeth. Gingivitis was diagnosed when the BOP value was ≥20%. Results. Salivary LD level was positively correlated with mean % BOP (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.132–1.916, and P < 0.001) in a logistic regression model. The sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 0.89 and 0.98, respectively, at a cut-off value of 8.0 for LD level. Conclusions. The new kit for measurement of salivary LD level may be a useful tool to screen for gingivitis in young adults, which contributes to early detection of future periodontitis. PMID:28337048

  2. Prognostic significance of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in Ewing's sarcoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suoyuan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhuoying; Zuo, Dongqing; Cai, Zhengdong; Hua, Yingqi

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the role of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma, although these have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. Therefore, the present study aimed to systematically review the published studies and conduct a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic value more precisely. Cohort studies assessing the prognostic role of LDH levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma were included. A pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overall survival (OS) or 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was used to assess the prognostic role of the levels of serum LDH. Nine studies published between 1980 and 2014, with a total of 1,412 patients with Ewing's sarcoma, were included. Six studies, with a total of 644 patients, used OS as the primary endpoint and four studies, with 795 patients, used 5-year DFS. Overall, the pooled HR evaluating high LDH levels was 2.90 (95% CI: 2.09–4.04) for OS and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.93–2.98) for 5-year DFS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of serum LDH are associated with lower OS and 5-year DFS rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, serum LDH levels are an effective biomarker of Ewing's sarcoma prognosis. PMID:28105365

  3. Effect of anthocyanin-rich corn silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Kenji; Eruden, Bayaru; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Shioya, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin in purple corn (Zea mays L.) has been reported to show several functional and biological attributes, displaying antioxidant, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in monogastric animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays L., Choko C922) silage on digestibility, milk production and plasma enzyme activities in lactating dairy cows. The cows were fed diets based on the control corn or the anthocyanin-rich corn silage (AR treatment) in a crossover design. The anthocyanin-rich corn silage-based diet had a lower starch content, nutrient digestibility and total digestible nutrients content when compared to the control diet. The milk yield, lactose and solids-not-fat contents in the AR-treatment cows were lower than in the control cows. The feeding of the anthocyanin-rich corn silage led to a reduction in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma. These data suggest that the anthocyanin-rich corn has a lowering effect on AST activity with concomitant enhancement of SOD activity in lactating dairy cows. However, a new variety of anthocyanin-rich corn with good nutritional value is needed for practical use as a ruminant feed.

  4. Prognostic value of preoperative serum lactate dehydrogenase levels for resectable gastric cancer and prognostic nomograms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Xin; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Feng-Hua; Li, Yu-Hong; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative serum lactate dehydrogenase (SLDH) levels for resected gastric cancer and construct prognostic nomograms for risk prediction. The study cohort consisted of 619 patients with D2-resected gastric cancer. The relationship of SLDH levels with clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes was evaluated. Prognostic nomograms were created using identified prognosticators to predict 3-year overall survival (OS) and 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), and bootstrap validation was performed. High SLDH levels were correlated with old age but not depth of invasion or lymph node metastasis. When assessed as a continuous variable, high SLDH levels were independently associated with poor OS and DFS. Internal validation of the developed nomograms revealed good predictive accuracy (bootstrap-corrected concordance indices: 0.77 and 0.75, respectively for prediction of OS and DFS). The preoperative SLDH levels, an identified unfavorable prognosticator, were incorporated into nomograms along with other clinicopathological features to refine the prediction of clinical outcomes for patients with D2-resected gastric cancer. PMID:27223065

  5. Caffeine poisoning and lactate rise: an overlooked toxic effect?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Karlson-Stiber, C

    2008-08-01

    Severe caffeine poisoning is rare but associated with a high mortality. The symptoms are mainly attributable to hyperadrenergic stimulation, are relatively well known and described in the literature. Transient rises in plasma lactate levels may occur but are, however, less well described. We present a case of serious caffeine poisoning with a concomitant rise in lactate treated with a non-selective beta-blocker and discuss briefly the symptomatology, the management of caffeine poisoning and the association between lactate and metabolic acidosis.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels and brain [18F]FDG PET hypometabolism within the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Claudio; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Stefani, Alessandro; Sancesario, Giulia Maria; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Schillaci, Orazio; Pierantozzi, Mariangela

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that neuronal energy metabolism may be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this view, the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate levels in AD patients has been considered the result of energetic metabolism dysfunction. Here, we investigated the relationship between neuronal energy metabolism, as measured via CSF lactate levels, and cerebral glucose metabolism, as stated at the 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) in AD patients. AD patients underwent lumbar puncture to measure CSF lactate levels and [18F]FDG PET to assess brain glucose metabolism. CSF and PET data were compared to controls. Since patients were studied at rest, we specifically investigated brain areas active in rest-condition owing to the Default Mode Network (DMN). We correlated the CSF lactate concentrations with the [18F]FDG PET data in brain areas owing to the DMN, using sex, age, disease duration, Mini Mental State Examination, and CSF levels of tau proteins and beta-amyloid as covariates. AD patients (n = 32) showed a significant increase of CSF lactate levels compared to Control 1 group (n = 28). They also showed brain glucose hypometabolism in the DMN areas compared to Control 2 group (n = 30). Within the AD group we found the significant correlation between increased CSF lactate levels and glucose hypometabolism in Broadman areas (BA) owing to left medial prefrontal cortex (BA10, mPFC), left orbitofrontal cortex (BA11, OFC), and left parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35, PHG). We found high CSF levels of lactate and glucose hypometabolism within the DMN in AD patients. Moreover, we found a relationship linking the increased CSF lactate and the reduced glucose consumption in the left mPFC, OFC and PHG, owing to the anterior hub of DMN. These findings could suggest that neural glucose hypometabolism may affect the DMN efficiency in AD, also proposing the possible role of damaged brain energetic machine in

  7. Plasma level monitoring of antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T B

    1978-01-01

    Psychotic patients treated with identical doses of antipsychotic drugs have been shown to have great interindividual differences in their steady state plasma concentration. Therefore, monitoring treatment by dosage adjustment alone is of little value. If antipsychotic blood levels can be related to clinical response then their routine measurement may well result in well defined guidelines to individualised optimal dosage. Despite the considerable effort expended in this field and the many interesting testable hypotheses generated, little substantive evidence for an acceptable plasma level monitoring guide has been reported to date. Work on metabolite level profiles, intra- and extracellular drug concentration differences, more detailed clinical rating scales, and improved experimental design, all show great promise for the future. Investigation of the pharmacokinetics and the elucidation of the often complex metabolic pathways of individual antipsychotic drugs are generating the data base required for the rational pharmacotherapy of these most severely ill patients. Until more data are available, routine monitoring of antipsychotic drug plasma levels remains of research interest.

  8. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure On Plasma Oxytocin Concentrations In Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rat dams and offspring were exposed to 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g hypergravity (hg) from Gestational day (G) 11 until Postnatal day (P) 10. To ascertain the role of maternal factors in reduced postnatal body weights of offspring developed in hg, the dams' lactational hormones were measured. Oxytocin (OT), the major hormone responsible for milk ejection, was reduced in hg dams whereas prolactin (Prl), involved in milk production, was unchanged. Video analyses of nursing behavior revealed that hg dams spent more time nursing relative to 1-g controls. We hypothesized impaired milk transfer from dam to pup, however pup body weight gains following a discrete suckling episode were comparable across conditions. Changes in lactational hormones and nursing behavior by dams exposed to hg do not account for reduced body masses of their offspring.

  9. High levels of DDT in breast milk: intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-11-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk - requiring further investigation.

  10. Lead levels in breast milk, blood plasma and intelligence quotient: a health hazard for women and infants.

    PubMed

    Isaac, C Prince Jebadass; Sivakumar, A; Kumar, C Rebecca Prem

    2012-02-01

    Lead levels in human breast milk and blood plasma or serum were analyzed and qualitatively their intelligence quotient (I.Q.) studied. Samples at different stages of lactation, from 5 days to 51 weeks post partum, were collected from 25 healthy breast-feeding mothers in Ranipet Industrial area of Vellore district of Tamil Nadu and from 25 lactating mothers in the non-industrial areas of the same district. The samples from mothers in non-industrial area showed lower lead levels ranging from 5 to 25 μg/L whereas samples from mothers in industrial area showed higher lead levels ranging between 15 and 44.5 μg/L. It was generally noticed that the lactating mothers from industrial area have lower I.Q. levels compared to mothers from non-industrial area.

  11. Effect of thiamine pyrophosphate on levels of serum lactate, maximum oxygen consumption and heart rate in athletes performing aerobic activity.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Hernández, V M; López-Ascencio, R; Del Toro-Equihua, M; Vásquez, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) on serum lactate levels, maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) and heart rate in male athletes performing aerobic activity. A double-blind, randomized, crossover study was performed in which lactate levels, Vo(2max) and heart rates in 27 male athletes were compared at rest and after exercise, following administration of placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) or TPP (1 mg/kg). At rest, serum lactate levels after placebo or TPP were similar; however, after exercise, the levels were lower in the athletes after taking TPP than after placebo. During exercise, Vo(2max) in athletes on TPP was higher than on placebo. At rest, heart rate after taking placebo or TPP was similar but, after exercise, heart rate was lower after taking TPP than after placebo. It is concluded that TPP caused serum lactate levels and heart rate to be lower than placebo and Vo(2max) to be higher in athletes performing aerobic physical activity.

  12. Effects of urea treatment of straw and dietary level of vegetable oil on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2010-12-01

    Four crossbreds (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows were used to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil (SFO) levels and roughage source on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Four milking cows with average liveweight of 410 ± 25 kg and 18 ± 11 days in milk were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with SFO levels (3% or 6%) in the concentrate and the roughage source [rice straw (RS) or urea-treated RS (UTRS)] being the main factors. Four dietary treatments as (1) 3% SFO + RS, (2) 6% SFO + RS, (3) 3% SFO + UTRS, and (4) 6% SFO + UTRS were offered ad libitum total mixed ration, with a concentrate/roughage ratio of 60:40. The results were found that UTRS as a roughage source significantly increased feed intake, digestibility, concentration of acetic acid in rumen fluid, rumen ammonia-nitrogen, blood-urea nitrogen, milk urea-nitrogen, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with cows fed on untreated RS. Supplementation of SFO at 3% in the concentrate-supplemented group having increased dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with 6% SFO supplementation. However, there were no interaction effects between level of SFO in the concentrate and roughage source in any of the factors studied.

  13. Levels of coplanar PCBs in human breast milk at different times of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    PCBs are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners which exhibit wide differences in their toxic and biological effects. The coplanar PCB (non-, mono- and di-ortho Chlorine substituted) congeners, the most toxic ones, induce similar toxic effects as 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Thus for risk assessment of exposure to PCBs, the analysis of these coplanar congeners is required. The PCB levels in human breast milk are of specific concern because of the potential health damage which may be caused to the nursing baby. The PCB levels in this sample come from previously accumulated quantities in body fat whose principal source is food, and pass directly to the nursing baby who accumulates the PCBs in adipose tissue. The amount of total PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCC) in human milk at different time intervals after birth was reported earlier, but data concerning individual and coplanar PCBs are sparse in the literature. The results from some studies showed a gradual decrease of residual levels in milk and milk fat. However, other research has shown differences in this respect. We present our first result concerning the concentration of 14 individual PCBs (13 coplanars) in breast milk from the same mother, during weeks 8 to 12 of lactation. We related the different concentration variations observed among the individual PCBs to their molecular structure and % fat in human breast milk. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Lactation Intensity and Fasting Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins, Non-esterified Free Fatty Acids, Leptin and Adiponectin in Postpartum Women with Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The SWIFT cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Erica P.; Kim, Catherine; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Marcovina, Santica; Walton, David; Azevedo, Robert A.; Fox, Gary; Elmasian, Cathie; Young, Stephen; Salvador, Nora; Lum, Michael; Crites, Yvonne; Lo, Joan C.; Ning, Xian; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Lactation may influence future progression to type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, biomarkers associated with progression to glucose intolerance have not been examined in relation to lactation intensity among postpartum women with previous GDM. This study investigates whether higher lactation intensity is related to more favorable blood lipids, lipoproteins and adipokines after GDM pregnancy independent of obesity, socio-demographics and insulin resistance. Methods The Study of Women, Infant Feeding, and Type 2 Diabetes (SWIFT) is a prospective cohort study that recruited 1,035 women diagnosed with GDM by the 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) after delivery of a live birth in 2008–2011. Research staff conducted 2-hour 75 gram OGTTs, and assessed lactation intensity, anthropometry, lifestyle behaviors and socio-demographics at 6–9 weeks postpartum (baseline). We assayed fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, non-esterified free fatty acids, leptin and adiponectin from stored samples obtained at 6–9 weeks postpartum for in 1,007 of the SWIFT participants who were free of diabetes at baseline. Mean biomarker concentrations were compared among lactation intensity groups using multivariable linear regression models. Results Increasing lactation intensity showed graded monotonic associations with fully adjusted mean biomarkers: 5–8% higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), 20–28% lower fasting triglycerides, 15–21% lower leptin (all trend P-values<0.01), and with 6% lower adiponectin, but only after adjustment for insulin resistance (trend P-value=0.04). Conclusion Higher lactation intensity was associated with more favorable biomarkers for type 2 diabetes, except for lower plasma adiponectin, after GDM delivery. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess whether these effects of lactation persist to predict progression to glucose intolerance. PMID:24931281

  15. Influence of Endurance Exercise Overloading Patterns on the Levels of Left Ventricular Catechoamines After a Bout of Lactate Threshold Test in Male Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is well known that exercise training has positive effect on catecholamine response to a given work load. But in this regard, the effective method of training needs to be studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks endurance exercise with two overloading patterns on the left ventricular catecholamine levels. Materials and Methods: 29 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (n = 9), daily sinusoidal overloading (n = 10) and weekly sinusoidal overloading (n = 10) groups. After the last exercise session, left ventricular blood samples were obtained immediately after lactate threshold test. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured by ELISA method. One way analysis of variance was used for analysis of the data. Results: Immediately after lactate threshold test, adrenaline level was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in weekly loading group than in control and daily loading groups. Adrenaline was higher in the daily loading group compared with control group but did not reach the significant level. Noradrenaline levels were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between three study groups. Conclusions: The results showed 8 weeks of endurance exercise with weekly sinusoidal overloading pattern could induce a lower adrenal medulla activity (reflection of physical and physiological improvement) than daily sinusoidal loading pattern in response to the same absolute work load. PMID:26715962

  16. Possible mechanisms for lactate's induction of panic.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, M R; Gorman, J M; Fyer, A; Dillon, D; Levitt, M; Klein, D F

    1986-04-01

    Forty-three patients with panic disorder or agoraphobia with panic attacks and 20 control subjects received 0.5 M racemic sodium lactate intravenous infusions, single-blind as to duration and sequence. During the procedure, pulse; blood pressure; blood L-lactate and pyruvate; plasma ionized calcium, phosphate, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol levels; and venous PCO2, pH, and bicarbonate were measured in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of lactate-induced panic attacks. During the infusion, 72% of the patients but none of the control subjects had panic attacks. The laboratory findings suggest that peripheral catecholamine surge is not the mechanism by which lactate causes panic, although elevated epinephrine may be a predisposing factor. Heightened central noradrenergic activity was present in many but not all of the attacks. Contrary to previous hypotheses, neither depression of ionized calcium nor induction of metabolic alkalosis appears sufficient to cause panic during lactate infusion.

  17. Plasma adropin level in patients with pseudoexfoliation.

    PubMed

    Oğurel, Tevfik; Oğurel, Reyhan; Topuz, Mustafa; Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma adropin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This retrospective case-control study included 35 patients with PEX and 35 individuals without PEX who served as controls. Plasma adropin levels with triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and haemoglobin A1c (HGBA1C) concentrations were measured in both groups. The mean serum adropin levels were 3.24 ± 0.95 ng/mL (range, 1.90-7.88 ng/mL) in patients with PEX syndrome and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 2.08-5.41 ng/mL) in PEX glaucoma patients. There was no statistically significant difference in mean adropin levels between PEX syndrome and PEX glaucoma patients. However, similar adropin levels were found in the PEX glaucoma patients and the control group (P > 0.05). The mean serum adropin levels were 3.34 ± 0.89 ng/mL (range, 1.90-5.39 ng/mL) in the PEX group and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 3.08-11.06 ng/mL) in the control group. The mean serum adropin level of the PEX group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HGBA1C, triglycerides levels, or body mass index (all P > 0.05). Adropin level is lower in patients with PEX.

  18. Relation between leptin and estradiol levels in Egyptian lactating Arab mares during foaling heat.

    PubMed

    El-Maaty, Amal M Abo; Gabr, Faten I

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen Arab lactating mares belonging to Al-Zahraa Arab Horse Stud underwent two ultrasound examinations at 3 weeks interval starting from the day of demonstration of foaling heat. In addition, daily blood samples were collected from parturition until after exhibiting first postpartum estrus (day 11) with daily observation of estrous signs. Both leptin and estradiol hormones were assayed. Mean day of foaling heat was 8.9+/-0.9 day. Most mares came in foaling heat during days 9 and 10 had high conception rate compared to those who came in estrus earlier or later. Estradiol levels were high after day of foaling then decrease after expression of foaling heat. But leptin levels increase from day 8 to day 10 compared to other days before and after the first ovulation. A significant positive correlation was found between estradiol and leptin (r=0.58, p<0.025). The positive correlation between leptin and estradiol led us to suggest that leptin hormone plays an important role in ovulation of the first postpartum estrus in mares.

  19. Blood Lactate Levels Cutoff and Mortality Prediction in Sepsis—Time for a Reappraisal? a Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Roberto Rabello; Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Colombo, Giancarlo; Assuncao, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the initial value of blood lactate that best correlates with 28-day mortality in resuscitated septic shock patients. This was a retrospective cohort study including 443 patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with severe sepsis or septic shock from the emergency department. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to obtain the best cutoff value for initial blood lactate associated with 28-day mortality. Patients were then dichotomized according to the chosen lactate cutoff, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Baseline blood lactate level more than 2.5 mmol/L showed the largest area under the ROC curve to predict 28-day mortality (ROC area, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62–0.79), with sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of 67.4%, 61.7%, and 94.2%, respectively. Mortality at 28 days was 16.9% (31/183) in patients with initial lactate more than 2.5 mmol/L and 5.8% (15/260) in patients with initial lactate at most 2.5 mmol/L (relative risk, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.63–5.28; P < 0.001). Initial blood lactate levels more than 2.5 mmol/L (hazard ratio [HR], 2.86; 95% CI, 1.53–5.33; P = 0.001) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09–1.27; P < 0.001) were associated with increased 28-day mortality in the adjusted Cox regression. In this retrospective cohort study, a lactate level more than 2.5 mmol/L was the best threshold to predict 28-day mortality among severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Further prospective studies should address the impact on morbidity and mortality of this threshold as a trigger to resuscitation in this population of critically ill patients. PMID:27380535

  20. Plasma disposition and faecal excretion of eprinomectin following topical and subcutaneous administration in non-lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Aksit, D; Korkut, O; Aksoz, E; Gokbulut, C

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the plasma disposition and faecal excretion of eprinomectin (EPM) in non-lactating dairy cattle following topical and S/C administration. Holstein dairy cows, 3.5-5 years-old, were selected 20-25 days after being dried off and were randomly allocated to receive EPM either topically (n=5) or S/C (n=5) at dose rates of 0.5 and 0.2 mg/kg bodyweight, respectively. Heparinised blood and faecal samples were collected at various times between 1 hour and 30 days after treatment, and were analysed for concentrations of EPM using high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The maximum concentration of EPM in plasma (Cmax) and the time to reach Cmax were both greater after S/C administration (59.70 (SD 12.90) ng/mL and 1.30 (SD 0.27) days, respectively) than after topical administration (20.73 (SD 4.04) ng/mL and 4.40 (SD 0.89) days, respectively) (p<0.001). In addition, S/C administration resulted in greater plasma availability (area under the curve; AUC), and a shorter terminal half-life and mean residence time (295.9 (SD 61.47) ng.day/mL; 2.95 (SD 0.74) days and 4.69 (SD 1.01) days, respectively) compared with topical administration (168.2 (SD15.67) ng.day/mL; 4.63 (SD 0.32) days, and 8.23 (SD 0.57) days, respectively) (p<0.01). EPM was detected in faeces between 0.80 (SD 0.45) and 13.6 (SD 4.16) days following S/C administration, and between 1 (SD 0.5) and 20.0 (SD 3.54) days following topical administration. Subcutaneous administration resulted in greater faecal excretion than topical administration, expressed as AUC adjusted for dose (1188.9 (SD 491.64) vs. 311.5 (SD 46.90) ng.day/g; p<0.05). Maximum concentration in faeces was also higher following S/C than topical administration (223.0 (SD 63.96) vs. 99.47 (SD 43.24) ng/g; p<0.01). Subcutaneous administration of EPM generated higher plasma concentrations and greater plasma availability compared with topical administration in non-lactating cattle. Although the S/C route

  1. The effectiveness of two energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Nader; Gaeini, Abbas Ali; Kazemi, Fahimeh

    2010-05-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become widespread among athletes. The effectiveness of Red Bull and Hype energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes was examined in this study. TEN MALE STUDENT ATHLETES (AGE: 22.4 ± 2.1 years, height: 180.8 ± 7.7 cm, weight: 74.2 ± 8.5 kg) performed three randomized maximal oxygen consumption tests on a treadmill. Each test was separated by four days and participants were asked to ingest Red Bull, Hype or placebo drinks 40 minutes before the exercise bout. The VO (2max), time to exhaustion, heart rate and lactate were measured to determine if the caffeine-based beverages influence performance. ANOVA test was used for analyzing data. A greater value was observed in VO (2max)and time to exhaustion for the Red Bull and Hype trial compared to the placebo trial (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in pre-and post-test heart rate for two drinks (p > 0.05). For blood lactate levels no significant changes were observed before and two minute after the test (p > 0.05). Ingestion of Red Bull and Hype prior to exercise testing is effective on some indices of cardiorespiratory fitness but not on the blood lactate levels.

  2. Effect of marathon training on the plasma lactate response to submaximal exercise in middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Rumley, A G; Taylor, R; Grant, S; Pettigrew, A R; Findlay, I; Dargie, H

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one previously sedentary male volunteers (aged 35-50 years) undertook a defined marathon training programme lasting 30 weeks. At weeks 0 (T1), 15 (T2) and 30 (T3) they underwent measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), submaximal VO2 and submaximal plasma lactate concentration during cycle ergometry. No exercise was taken for 24-48 hours prior to testing. During training aerobic power increased significantly (p less than 0.001) from an initial VO2 max at T1 of 33.9 +/- 6 (mean +/- sd) ml.kg-1min-1 to 39 +/- 5.6 ml.kg-1min-1 at T2 but the T3 value of 39.2 +/- 5.2 ml.kg-1min-1 was not significantly different from that at T2. Plasma lactate concentration of 4 mmol.l-1 (OBLAw) occurred at a significantly (P less than 0.05) higher workload (155 +/- 28 w) at T2 compared with T1 (132 +/- 30 w) but the T3 figure was 137 +/- 34 w. OBLA VO2 at T1 was 2.04 +/- 0.42 l.min-1, at T2 was 2.24 +/- 0.04 l.min-1 but at T3 was 2.03 +/- 0.30 l.min-1 (T1:T2 P less than 0.05, T1:T3 NS). OBLA % VO2 max at T1 was 75 +/- 12%, at T2 was 73 +/- 11% but at T3 was 62 +/- 10% (T1:T2 NS, T1:T3 P less than 0.01). PMID:3370400

  3. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  4. Effect of dietary crude protein level and degradability on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Etter, R P; Ropp, J K; Grandeen, K L

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of two ruminally degradable protein (RDP) levels in diets containing similar ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) and metabolizable protein (MP) concentrations on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and transfer of ruminal ammonia N into milk protein in dairy cows. Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows were allocated to two dietary treatments in a crossover design. The diets (adequate RDP [ARDP] and high RDP [HRDP]), had similar concentrations of RUP and MP, but differed in CP/RDP content. Ruminal ammonia was labeled with 15N and secretion of tracer in milk protein was determined for a period of 120 h. Ammonia concentration in the rumen tended to be greater (P = 0.06) with HRDP than with ARDP. Microbial N flow to the duodenum, ruminal digestibility of dietary nutrients, DMI, milk yield, fat content, and protein content and yield were not statistically different between diets. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for increased urinary N excretion, and blood plasma and milk urea N concentrations were greater (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively) with HRDP compared with ARDP. Milk N efficiency was decreased (P = 0.01) by the HRDP diet. The cumulative secretion of ammonia 15N into milk protein, as a proportion of 15N dosed intraruminally, was greater (P = 0.003) with ARDP than with HRDP. The proportions of bacterial protein originating from ammonia N and milk protein originating from bacterial or ammonia N averaged 43, 61, and 26% and were not affected by diet. This experiment indicated that excess RDP in the diet of lactating dairy cows could not be efficiently utilized for microbial protein synthesis and was largely lost through urinary N excretion. At a similar MP supply, increased CP or RDP concentration of the diet would result in decreased efficiency of conversion of dietary N into milk protein and less efficient use of ruminal ammonia N for milk protein syntheses.

  5. The presence of vaginal Lactobacillus species does not contribute to a measureable difference in amniotic fluid lactate levels collected from the vaginal tract of laboring women.

    PubMed

    Hall, Beverley; Wong, Diana; Healy, Clare; Tracy, Mark B; Tracy, Sally K; Rawlinson, William D

    2017-04-01

    Amniotic fluid lactate research is based on the hypothesis that a relationship exists between fatigued uterine muscles and raised concentrations of the metabolite lactate, which is excreted into the amniotic fluid during labor. To assess potentially confounding effects of lactate-producing organisms on amniotic fluid lactate measurements, we aimed to determine if the presence of vaginal Lactobacillus species was associated with elevated levels of amniotic fluid lactate, measured from the vaginal tract of women in labor. Results from this study contribute to a large prospective longitudinal study of amniotic fluid lactate at a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Amniotic fluid lactate measurement was assessed at the time of routine vaginal examination, after membranes had ruptured, using a hand-held lactate meter StatStripXPress (Nova Biomedical). Vaginal swab samples were collected at the time of the first amniotic fluid lactate measurement and stored for later detection and quantification of Lactobacillus species using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Swab sample and amniotic fluid lactate results were paired and analyzed. The PCR assay detected Lactobacillus species in 48 of 388 (12%) vaginal swab specimens (8% positive, 4% low positive) collected from women in labor after membranes had ruptured. There was no significant difference in median and mean (respectively) amniotic fluid lactate levels with (8.35 mmol/L; 8.95 mmol/L) or without (8.5 mmol/L; 9.08 mmol/L) Lactobacillus species detected. There was no association between the presence or level of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the measurement of amniotic fluid lactate collected from the vaginal tract of women during labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, S. O.; Ulyanova, Y. V.; Figueroa-Teran, R.; Bhatt, K. H.; Singhal, S.; Atanassov, P.

    2016-01-01

    An NAD+-dependent enzymatic sensor with biofuel cell power source system for non-invasive monitoring of lactate in sweat was designed, developed, and tested. The sensor component, based on lactate dehydrogenase, showed linear current response with increasing lactate concentrations with limits of detection from 5 to 100 mM lactate and sensitivity of 0.2 µA.mM−1 in the presence of target analyte. In addition to the sensor patch a power source was also designed, developed and tested. The power source was a biofuel cell designed to oxidize glucose via glucose oxidase. The biofuel cell showed excellent performance, achieving over 80 mA at 0.4 V (16 mW) in a footprint of 3.5 × 3.5 × 0.7 cm. Furthermore, in order to couple the sensor to the power source, system electronic components were designed and fabricated. These consisted of an energy harvester (EH) and a micropotentiostat (MP). The EH was employed for harvesting power provided by the biofuel cell as well as up-converting the voltage to 3.0 V needed for the operation of the MP. The sensor was attached to MP for chronoamperometric detection of lactate. The Sensor Patch System was demonstrated under laboratory conditions. PMID:27375962

  7. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat.

    PubMed

    Garcia, S O; Ulyanova, Y V; Figueroa-Teran, R; Bhatt, K H; Singhal, S; Atanassov, P

    An NAD(+)-dependent enzymatic sensor with biofuel cell power source system for non-invasive monitoring of lactate in sweat was designed, developed, and tested. The sensor component, based on lactate dehydrogenase, showed linear current response with increasing lactate concentrations with limits of detection from 5 to 100 mM lactate and sensitivity of 0.2 µA.mM(-1) in the presence of target analyte. In addition to the sensor patch a power source was also designed, developed and tested. The power source was a biofuel cell designed to oxidize glucose via glucose oxidase. The biofuel cell showed excellent performance, achieving over 80 mA at 0.4 V (16 mW) in a footprint of 3.5 × 3.5 × 0.7 cm. Furthermore, in order to couple the sensor to the power source, system electronic components were designed and fabricated. These consisted of an energy harvester (EH) and a micropotentiostat (MP). The EH was employed for harvesting power provided by the biofuel cell as well as up-converting the voltage to 3.0 V needed for the operation of the MP. The sensor was attached to MP for chronoamperometric detection of lactate. The Sensor Patch System was demonstrated under laboratory conditions.

  8. Restricted peri-operative fluid administration adjusted by serum lactate level improved outcome after major elective surgery for gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wenkui, Yu; Ning, Li; Jianfeng, Gong; Weiqin, Li; Shaoqiu, Tang; Zhihui, Tong; Tao, Gao; Juanjuan, Zhang; Fengchan, Xi; Hui, Shi; Weiming, Zhu; Jie-Shou, Li

    2010-04-01

    Our objective was to compare the effect of a restricted intravenous fluid regimen adjusted by serum lactate level with a standard restricted regimen on complications after major elective surgery for gastrointestinal malignancy. This is a randomized, observer-blinded, single-center trial conducted across a time span of 13 months. A total of 299 patients were allocated to either a restricted intravenous fluid regimen with supplementary intravenous fluids given based on serum lactate level (group A) or a standard restricted regimen (group R). In group A, the serum lactate level was monitored closely postoperatively to maintain a normal pre-operative serum lactate level. Group R involved patients treated with a restricted fluid regimen in whom additional fluid and electrolytes were administered when deemed necessary based on the usual clinical criteria. The primary outcome measure was complications; the secondary measures were death and adverse effects. Additional fluid supplementation was needed in some patients in both groups (group A [28%] vs group R [26%]). In group A, the time for additional fluid infusion occurred earlier in the postoperative period than group R. Patients in group A received their first supplementary fluid treatment within the first 12 h more commonly than those in group R (74% vs 37%, respectively; P < .004). The regimen adjusted by serum lactate decreased systemic postoperative complications in group A versus group R (10% vs 22%, respectively; P = .023) but not overall total complications (23% vs 33%, respectively; P = .090). In contrast, in patients who required additional fluid infusion, the difference in complications between the 2 groups was greater (overall complication, 45% vs 85%, respectively; P = .023; major complication, 16% vs 44%, respectively; P = .018; systemic complications, 19% vs 63%, respectively; P = .001). One patient died in group A and 4 died in group R (1% vs 4%, respectively; P = .206). A fluid-restricted regimen after

  9. Effects of prepartum roughage neutral detergent fiber levels on periparturient dry matter intake, metabolism, and lactation in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapruthipong, J; Homwong, N; Buatong, N

    2010-06-01

    Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in dry matter intake (DMI). As a result, energy input cannot satisfy energy needs and thus accelerates body fat mobilization. Decreasing the level of roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in prepartum diets, and thereby increasing the amount of nonfiber carbohydrates, may provide an adequate supply of energy and glucose precursors to maintain and minimize the decrease in DMI while reducing mobilization of adipose tissue. The effects of 3-wk prepartum diets containing different amounts of roughage NDF on DMI, blood metabolites, and lactation performance of dairy cows were investigated under summer conditions in Thailand. Thirty cross-bred cows (87.5% Holstein x 12.5% Sahiwal) were dried off 60 d before their expected calving date and were assigned immediately to a nonlactating cow diet containing the net energy for lactation recommended by the National Research Council (2001) model. The treatment diets contained 17.4, 19.2, and 21.0% DM as roughage NDF from bana grass (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum glaucum) silage. Levels of concentrate NDF were 39.8, 40.2, and 38.6% of dietary NDF, so the levels of dietary NDF were 28.9, 32.1, and 34.2% of DM. After parturition, all cows received a lactating cow diet containing 12.7% roughage NDF and 23% dietary NDF. During the entire experiment, the minimum and maximum temperature-humidity index averaged 77.7 and 86.8, respectively, indicating conditions appropriate for the induction of extreme heat stress. As parturition approached, DMI decreased steadily, resulting in a 12.9, 25, and 32.8% decrease in DMI from d -21 until calving for nonlactating cows fed prepartum diets containing 17.4, 19.2, and 21% roughage NDF, respectively. During the 3-wk prepartum period, intakes of DM and net energy for lactation and concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin were higher for cows fed diets containing less roughage NDF. In cows fed the 3-wk prepartum diets

  10. Pharmacokinetics of caffeine in breast milk and plasma after single oral administration of caffeine to lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Stavchansky, S; Combs, A; Sagraves, R; Delgado, M; Joshi, A

    1988-01-01

    Six healthy lactating women ranging in age from 28 to 35 years were selected to participate in the study. The women had been nursing their infants from 3 1/2 weeks up to 17 weeks. On the morning of the study each participant received 100 mg dose of caffeine. The oral dose of caffeine was taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach. Blood samples were collected from zero time to 24 h after caffeine administration. Each subject aseptically collected breast milk from the right and left breasts by manual expression or using a mechanical breast pump, from zero time to 24 h after caffeine administration. Caffeine in plasma and breast milk was determined by gas liquid chromatography using nitrogen phosphorous detection. Caffeine was rapidly absorbed producing plasma time to peaks ranging from 0.50 to 1.00 h, with values for peak concentrations between 3.60 and 6.15 micrograms ml-1 in plasma. In breast milk, time to peak ranged from 0.75 to 2.00 h and concentration values between 1.98 and 4.30 micrograms ml-1. No significant differences were found between attainment of the time of the peak in plasma and breast milk, p greater than 0.05. In addition, peak concentration for the right and left breast were not statistically different, p greater than 0.05. However, significant differences, p less than 0.05, between plasma and both breasts in regards to the peak concentrations were found. The overall breast milk/plasma ratio obtained from the respective area under the curves were 0.815 +/- 0.0521 and 0.809 +/- 0.202 for the right and left breast, respectively, and no statistical differences were observed between the right and left breasts, p greater than 0.05. In summary, caffeine is rapidly transferred to breast milk. Multiple dose studies are needed to provide more information about caffeine concentration in breast milk of women who receive multiple doses of caffeine or who chronically consume caffeine.

  11. Effect of feeding sorghum ergot (Claviceps africana) to sows during mid-lactation on plasma prolactin and litter performance.

    PubMed

    Kopinski, J S; Blaney, B J; Murray, S-A; Downing, J A

    2008-10-01

    Diets containing 3% sorghum ergot (16 mg alkaloids/kg, including 14 mg dihydroergosine/kg) were fed to 12 sows from 14 days post-farrowing until weaning 14 days later, and their performance was compared with that of 10 control sows. Ergot-fed sows displayed a smaller weight loss during lactation of 24 kg/head vs. 29 kg/head in control sows (p > 0.05) despite feed consumption being less (61 kg/head total feed intake vs. 73 kg/head by control sows; p < 0.05). Ergot-fed sows had poorer weight gain of litters over the 14-day period (16.6 kg/litter vs. 28.3 kg/litter for controls; p < 0.05) despite an increase in consumption of creep feed by the piglets from the ergot-fed sows (1.9 kg/litter compared with 1.1 kg/litter by the control; p > 0.05). Sow plasma prolactin was reduced with ergot feeding after 7 days to 4.8 microg/l compared with 15.1 microg/l in the control sows (p < 0.01) and then at weaning was 4.9 microg/l compared with 8.0 microg/l (p < 0.01) in the control sows. Two sows fed ergot ceased lactation early, and the above sow feed intakes, body weight losses with litter weight gains and creep consumption indirectly indicate an ergot effect on milk production.

  12. Non-targeted plasma metabolome of early and late lactation gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late l...

  13. Effects of short-term oilseed supplementation on plasma fatty acid composition in lactating beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-four three-year old Angus cows (512.2 ± 21.6 kg) and six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (523.1 ± 16.9 kg) were used to determine the impact of feeding oilseeds starting at the beginning of estrus synchronization until maternal recognition of pregnancy on plasma fatty acid composition. Star...

  14. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in lactating Japanese Black cows under negative energy balance.

    PubMed

    Shingu, H; Hodate, K; Kushibiki, S; Touno, E; Oshibe, A; Ueda, Y; Shinoda, M; Ohashi, S

    2009-04-01

    The current study was performed to clarify the effects of GHRH treatment on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in lactating Japanese Black cows (a beef breed) under negative energy balance (EB). Ten multiparous lactating beef cows were offered a normal-energy diet daily (110% of ME requirements for maintenance and lactation) until 5 d in milk (DIM) to standardize the cows before dietary treatment. From 6 DIM to the final days (63 DIM) of the experiment, the cows were allotted to experimental dietary treatments: 5 cows were offered a diet formulated for 130% [high-energy diet (HED)] and the remaining 5 cows were offered a diet formulated for 80% [low-energy diet (LED)] of ME requirements for maintenance and lactation. In addition, all cows received daily subcutaneous injections of 3 mg of bovine GHRH from 36 to 56 DIM (GHRH treatment period). Differences in BW of HED- and LED-fed cows at 63 DIM were +28.4 and -7.2 kg compared with BW at 6 DIM, and HED- and LED-fed cows were under positive EB (+23.7 MJ/d) and negative EB (-11.6 MJ/d) throughout the experiment period. Treatment with GHRH increased (P<0.01) the average daily milk yield to 6.2 kg in HED-fed cows compared with a milk yield of 5.3 kg for 7 d before the GHRH treatment period (pretreatment period); LED-fed cows had no increase in milk production from GHRH treatment. Plasma GH, IGF-1, insulin, and glucose concentrations increased (P<0.05) after GHRH treatment in both HED- and LED-fed cows; GHRH treatment also induced an increase (P<0.05) in the net area under the curve of plasma insulin after glucose challenge in both HED- and LED-fed cows. Plasma urea N concentrations were decreased (P<0.05) by GHRH treatment in HED-fed cows, but not in LED-fed cows. Plasma NEFA concentration was unaffected by GHRH treatment in both HED- and LED-fed cows. We conclude that GHRH treatment of lactating Japanese Black cows stimulates endogenous GH and subsequent IGF-1 secretion and might induce an increase in

  15. Plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant female rat-kangaroo (Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Rose, R W

    1992-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels were measured in female bettongs (small macropodid marsupials) under two natural regimes: (1) during "delayed" gestation (initiated by removal of pouch young, RPY) and (2) during the pregnancy prior to pouch vacation when a young still occupies the pouch (i.e., during lactation). Basal levels of progesterone were 0.15-0.5 ng/ml. There was a transient peak of progesterone (0.7 ng/ml) early in gestation at Day 4 RPY. After Day 6 RPY, progesterone levels remained elevated (1.2-1.5 ng/ml) until they dropped sharply to basal levels on the day of birth. This pattern of progesterone secretion during delayed gestation is similar to that seen in other marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby. There was no significant difference between the progesterone profiles of the two experimental groups. We deduce, then, that lactation had no effect on corpus luteum function (as assessed by plasma progesterone levels) in the pregnant bettong.

  16. Dinosaur lactation?

    PubMed

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  17. Human Milk Analyser shows that the lactation period affects protein levels in preterm breastmilk.

    PubMed

    Kreissl, Alexandra; Zwiauer, Valentina; Repa, Andreas; Binder, Christoph; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Jilma, Bernd; Berger, Angelika; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the composition of preterm human breastmilk, particularly the protein content, with the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser, compared our results with published values and determined the relationship between protein content and lactation period. We analysed 83 samples of 24-hour pooled human milk from 76 mothers who delivered preterm infants weighing under 1500 g at less than 32 weeks of gestational age. The milk's protein, fat and energy were measured by the MIRIS Human Milk Analyser and compared to reference values. The relationship between protein content and lactation period was quantified. On average, the samples contained 1.1 ± 0.37 g (0.2-2.2 g) of protein, 3.2 ± 0.85 g (range 1.1-6.1 g) of fat, 6.6 ± 0.34 g of lactose (5.5-8.0 g) and 60 ± 11 kcal (39-94 kcal) of energy per 100 mL. The wide variations in macronutrient content were not influenced by the gestational age of the infant and the lactation day results from 70 of the mothers correlated inversely with the protein content (p < 0.0001; r = -0.42). The MIRIS proved useful, but some adjustments are needed. Variations in macronutrients were high in the breastmilk of women who delivered preterm babies and the protein content decreased with lactation. With adjustments, the MIRIS might provide a helpful tool for individualised fortification. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of postpartum dietary fat and body condition score at parturition on plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Lake, S L; Weston, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Murrieta, C M; Alexander, B M; Rule, D C; Moss, G E; Hess, B W

    2007-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted with lactating Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows to determine the effects of postpartum lipid supplementation, BCS at parturition, and day of lactation on fatty acid profiles in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk. In Exp. 1, 36 pri-miparous cows (488 +/- 10 kg of initial BW; 5.5 +/- 0.02 initial BCS) were given ad libitum access to hay and assigned randomly to a low-fat (control) supplement or supplements with cracked, high-linoleate safflower seeds (linoleate) or cracked, high-oleate safflower seeds (oleate) from d 3 to 90 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric; safflower seed diets provided 5% of DMI as fat. Plasma and milk samples were collected on d 30, 60, and 90 of lactation. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected near the tail-head region of cows on d 45 and 90 of lactation. In Exp. 2, 3-yr-old cows achieving a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479 +/- 36 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (580 +/- 53 kg of BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr). Beginning 3 d postpartum through d 61 of lactation, cows were fed diets similar to those of Exp. 1. Adipose tissue and milk samples were collected on d 30 and 60, and plasma was collected on d 31 and 61 of lactation. Responses to postpartum dietary treatment were comparable in both experiments. Cows fed linoleate and oleate had greater (P < 0.001) total fatty acid concentrations in plasma than cows fed control. Except for 15:1, milk fatty acids with <18 carbons were greatest (P < or = 0.01) for cows fed control, whereas milk from cows fed linoleate had the greatest (P < or = 0.02) 18:1trans-11, 18:2n-6, and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Milk from cows fed oleate had the greatest (P < 0.001) 18:1cis-9. In Exp. 1, total fatty acid concentrations in adipose tissue samples decreased at d 90 compared with d 45 of lactation, but the fatty acid profile of cow adipose tissue was not affected (P = 0.14 to 0.80) by dietary treatment. In Exp. 2, the percentage of cis-9, trans-11 CLA

  19. Lactation Consultant

    MedlinePlus

    ... human lactation. Job description Lactation consultants educate women, families, health professionals, and the community about breast feeding and human lactation; facilitate the development of policies which protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; ...

  20. Unusually high serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase without perivalvular leakage following double valve replacement: predictor of tetany attack after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohata, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Hiroe

    2006-11-01

    A 57-year-old woman who complained of exertional dyspnea was diagnosed as having severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation. The patient underwent double valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Postoperative laboratory data showed unusually high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, even though no perivalvular leakage was detected by echocardiography. Tetany occurred suddenly owing to hypoparathyroidism, which seemed to be a late complication after thyroidectomy. After calcium administration, the symptoms dramatically diminished, as did the serum LDH levels. Hypoparathyroidism should be doubted if serum LDH levels increase higher than the normal range following valve replacement without obvious perivalvular leakage.

  1. Vertical jump performance and blood ammonia and lactate levels during typical training sessions in elite 400-m runners.

    PubMed

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Asiáin, Xabier; Izquierdo, Mikel; Postigo, Antonio; Aguado, Roberto; Alonso, Juan M; Ibáñez, Javier

    2010-04-01

    This study described the effects of 6 typical high-intensity intermittent running training sessions of varying distances (60-300 m) and intensities (80-105% of the individual best 400-m record time) on blood ammonia and lactate concentration changes and on vertical jumping height, in twelve 400-m elite male runners. At the end of the training sessions, similar patterns of extremely high blood lactate (14-23 mmol.L) and ammonia levels (50-100 mumol.L) were observed. Vertical jumping performance was maintained during the initial exercise bouts up to a break zone of further increase in the number of exercise bouts, which was associated, especially in subjects with the highest initial vertical jump, with a pronounced decrease (6-28%) in vertical jumping performance, as well as with blood lactate concentrations exceeding 8-12 mmol.L, and blood ammonia levels increasing abruptly from rest values. This break zone may be related to signs of energetic deficiency of the muscle contractile machinery associated with the ability to regenerate adenosine triphosphate at high rates. It is suggested that replacing some of these extremely demanding training sessions with other intermittent training sessions that preserve muscle generating capacity should allow elite athletes to practice more frequently at competitive intensity with lower fatigue.

  2. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm).

  3. Effect of motivational music on lactate levels during recovery from intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Michal; Bodner, Ehud; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Meckel, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    The effects of music played during an exercise task on athletic performance have been previously studied. Yet, these results are not applicable for competitive athletes, who can use music only during warm-up or recovery from exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of motivational music (music that stimulates or inspires physical activity) during recovery from intense exercise, on activity pattern, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration. Twenty young, active men (mean age 26.2 ± 2.1 years) performed a 6-minute run at peak oxygen consumption speed (predetermined from the VO(2) max test). The mean heart rate (HR), RPE, number of steps (determined by step counter), and blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes during the recovery from the exercise, with and without motivational music (2 separate sessions, at random order). There was no difference in the mean HR during the recovery with and without music. Listening to motivational music during the recovery was associated with increased voluntary activity of the participants, determined by increased number of steps (499.4 ± 220.1 vs. 413.2 ± 150.6 steps, with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The increased number of steps during the recovery was accompanied by a significantly greater decrease in blood lactate concentration percentage (28.1 ± 12.2 vs. 22.8 ± 10.9%, with and without music, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). This was associated with a greater decrease in RPE (77.7 ± 14.4 vs. 73.1 ± 14.7% with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Our results suggest that listening to motivational music during nonstructured recovery from intense exercise leads to increased activity, faster lactate clearance, and reduced RPE and therefore may be used by athletes in their effort to enhance recovery.

  4. Locomotor response to exercise in relation to plasma lactate accumulation and heart rate in Andalusian and Anglo-Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A; Santisteban, R; Rubio, M D; Riber, C; Agüera, E I; Castejón, F M

    1999-10-01

    To establish the effect of the locomotor pattern on heart rate (HR) and plasma lactate (LA), 28 horses, 18 Andalusian (AN) and 10 Anglo-Arabian (AA), aged 3-4 years, were studied. After a warm-up period, the horses performed a four-step test at 5, 6, 7 and 8 m/s, covering 1000 m at each velocity. HR was monitored, LA was analysed at rest and after each workload, and images were filmed. The locomotor parameters determined were stride duration (SD), frequency (SF) and length (SL), step and bipedal support durations, stance (restraint and propulsion) and swing phase durations, and stride vertical component. The HR and LA were significantly higher in the AN horses from velocities of 5 m/s. Similarly, the stride vertical component was higher in the AN horses at the trot and in the leading forelimbs at the gallop. Conversely, at all the galloping velocities, swing phase duration and stride length were longer in the AA horses. Significant correlations between HR, LA and locomotor pattern were only found in the AN horses. It was concluded that the greater stride vertical component in the AN horses limits SL and the cranial advancement of the hoof, with the result that reaching a longer SL triggers an increase in HR and LA. AA horses reach a balance between SL and SF, improving the efficiency of the gait.

  5. Plasma first resuscitation reduces lactate acidosis, enhances redox homeostasis, amino acid and purine catabolism in a rat model of profound hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Angelo; Moore, Hunter B; Moore, Ernest E; Wither, Matthew J.; Nemkov, Travis; Morton, Alexander P; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Chapman, Michael P; Fragoso, Miguel; Slaughter, Anne; Sauaia, Angela; Silliman, Christopher C; Hansen, Kirk C; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    The use of aggressive crystalloid resuscitation to treat hypoxemia, hypovolemia and nutrient deprivation promoted by massive blood loss may lead to the development of the blood vicious cycle of acidosis, hypothermia, and coagulopathy and, utterly, death. Metabolic acidosis is one of the many metabolic derangements triggered by severe trauma/hemorrhagic shock, also including enhanced proteolysis, lipid mobilization, as well as traumatic diabetes. Appreciation of the metabolic benefit of plasma first resuscitation is an important concept. Plasma resuscitation has been shown to correct hyperfibrinolysis secondary to severe hemorrhage better than normal saline. Here we hypothesize that plasma first resuscitation corrects metabolic derangements promoted by severe hemorrhage better than resuscitation with normal saline. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analyses were performed to screen plasma metabolic profiles upon shock and resuscitation with either platelet-free plasma or normal saline in a rat model of severe hemorrhage. Of the 251 metabolites that were monitored, 101 were significantly different in plasma vs normal saline resuscitated rats. Plasma resuscitation corrected lactate acidosis by promoting glutamine/amino acid catabolism and purine salvage reactions. Plasma first resuscitation may benefit critically injured trauma patients by relieving the lactate burden and promoting other non-clinically measured metabolic changes. In the light of our results, we propose that plasma resuscitation may promote fueling of mitochondrial metabolism, through the enhancement of glutaminolysis/amino acid catabolism and purine salvage reactions. The treatment of trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock with plasma first resuscitation is likely not only to improve coagulation, but also to promote substrate-specific metabolic corrections. PMID:26863033

  6. Plasma First Resuscitation Reduces Lactate Acidosis, Enhances Redox Homeostasis, Amino Acid and Purine Catabolism in a Rat Model of Profound Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Moore, Hunter B; Moore, Ernest E; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Morton, Alexander P; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Chapman, Michael P; Fragoso, Miguel; Slaughter, Anne; Sauaia, Angela; Silliman, Christopher C; Hansen, Kirk C; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-08-01

    The use of aggressive crystalloid resuscitation to treat hypoxemia, hypovolemia, and nutrient deprivation promoted by massive blood loss may lead to the development of the blood vicious cycle of acidosis, hypothermia, and coagulopathy and, utterly, death. Metabolic acidosis is one of the many metabolic derangements triggered by severe trauma/hemorrhagic shock, also including enhanced proteolysis, lipid mobilization, as well as traumatic diabetes. Appreciation of the metabolic benefit of plasma first resuscitation is an important concept. Plasma resuscitation has been shown to correct hyperfibrinolysis secondary to severe hemorrhage better than normal saline. Here, we hypothesize that plasma first resuscitation corrects metabolic derangements promoted by severe hemorrhage better than resuscitation with normal saline. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analyses were performed to screen plasma metabolic profiles upon shock and resuscitation with either platelet-free plasma or normal saline in a rat model of severe hemorrhage. Of the 251 metabolites that were monitored, 101 were significantly different in plasma versus normal saline resuscitated rats. Plasma resuscitation corrected lactate acidosis by promoting glutamine/amino acid catabolism and purine salvage reactions. Plasma first resuscitation may benefit critically injured trauma patients by relieving the lactate burden and promoting other non-clinically measured metabolic changes. In the light of our results, we propose that plasma resuscitation may promote fueling of mitochondrial metabolism, through the enhancement of glutaminolysis/amino acid catabolism and purine salvage reactions. The treatment of trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock with plasma first resuscitation is likely not only to improve coagulation, but also to promote substrate-specific metabolic corrections.

  7. Nasal cannula end-tidal CO2 correlates with serum lactate levels and odds of operative intervention in penetrating trauma patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Nicholas D; Fraser, Robert M; Paliga, Andrew; Matarlo, Jennifer; Kanter, Marc; Hosford, Karlene; Madlinger, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Penetrating trauma patients in shock often require urgent operative intervention. Studies have demonstrated that variables obtained in the emergency department, such as lactate levels, can help the physician determine the presence of hemorrhagic shock, leading to more rapid intervention and improve prognosis in trauma patients. The purpose of the study is to determine if end-tidal (ET) CO2 correlates with serum lactate levels, a measure of tissue hypoxia and subsequently shock, in penetrating trauma patients. Secondarily, we sought to determine whether ET CO2 could be used to determine the patient's odds of requiring operative intervention. A prospective observational cohort study was undertaken at an urban Level 1 trauma center. Baseline ET CO2 from nasal cannula and serum lactate level were recorded in all patients in whom the trauma team was activated. Outcomes defined were whether operative intervention was needed. Pearson correlation (R), correlation coefficient (r(2)), and odds ratio were calculated. One hundred five patients were enrolled. Pearson correlations and coefficients calculated for serum lactate level to ET CO2 were R = -0.86 (r(2) = 0.74, p < 0.0001). Of patients requiring operative intervention, 81.97% had abnormally low ET CO2 and 54.1% had abnormally high serum lactate levels. Odds ratios of patients needing an emergent operation with abnormally low ET CO2 was 20.4 (95% confidence interval, 7.47-55.96) and with abnormally high serum lactate levels was 4 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.93). ET CO2 has a strong inverse correlation to serum lactate levels. Abnormally low ET CO2 values were associated with greater increased odds compared with serum lactate levels of penetrating trauma patients requiring operative intervention. Prognostic/diagnostic study, level I.

  8. Brain lactate metabolism: the discoveries and the controversies.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-07-01

    Potential roles for lactate in the energetics of brain activation have changed radically during the past three decades, shifting from waste product to supplemental fuel and signaling molecule. Current models for lactate transport and metabolism involving cellular responses to excitatory neurotransmission are highly debated, owing, in part, to discordant results obtained in different experimental systems and conditions. Major conclusions drawn from tabular data summarizing results obtained in many laboratories are as follows: Glutamate-stimulated glycolysis is not an inherent property of all astrocyte cultures. Synaptosomes from the adult brain and many preparations of cultured neurons have high capacities to increase glucose transport, glycolysis, and glucose-supported respiration, and pathway rates are stimulated by glutamate and compounds that enhance metabolic demand. Lactate accumulation in activated tissue is a minor fraction of glucose metabolized and does not reflect pathway fluxes. Brain activation in subjects with low plasma lactate causes outward, brain-to-blood lactate gradients, and lactate is quickly released in substantial amounts. Lactate utilization by the adult brain increases during lactate infusions and strenuous exercise that markedly increase blood lactate levels. Lactate can be an 'opportunistic', glucose-sparing substrate when present in high amounts, but most evidence supports glucose as the major fuel for normal, activated brain.

  9. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rezanejad, Saber; Mousavinasab, Firouzeh

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell blood count among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell blood counts were measured and compared between the two areas. The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  10. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P < 0.05). No differences were found in HC levels between BH and WH groups (P > 0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

  11. Effects of concurrent drug therapy and of feeding on plasma chloramphenicol levels after oral administration of chloramphenicol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D

    1977-01-01

    On separate occasions, five fasted adult greyhounds were dosed orally with 50 mg chloramphenicol/kg, both alone and in conjunction with other drugs. The same five dogs were later given 50 mg chloramphenicol/kg when fed ad lib. Chloramphenicol levels in plasma were determined at intervals after dosing. The intial plasma chloramphenicol levels were higher when the drug was administered concurrently with calcium lactate tablets (50 mg/kg) or a proprietary enteric mixture containing kaolin, pectin, aluminium hydroxide and belladonna extract. Lower plasma levels resulted when the antibiotic was given with dry extract of belladonna (20 mg/dog) or intravenous chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg). There was no significant effect with coated ferrous gluconate tablets (30 mg/kg). Feeding ad lib increased the initial chloramphenicol levels, but produced lower levels subsequently.

  12. Fish consumption and plasma levels of organochlorines in a female population in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sandanger, Torkjel; Thune, Inger; Burkow, Ivan C; Lun, Eiliv

    2002-02-01

    Increased cancer incidence and mortality have been found among humans exposed to high levels of organochlorines (OCs), either accidentally or as industrial workers. In order to assess levels of OCs in Norwegian women north of the Arctic Circle and validate self-reported fish consumption as a surrogate measure of organochlorine body burden, concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners [IUPAC Nos. CB-105, CB-118, CB-138 (+ CB-163), CB-153, CB-180, CB-183, CB-187], beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), 2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and cis- and trains-chlordane (c-CD and t-CD) were examined in plasma samples of middle-aged women attending for health screening. Altogether, 47 of those invited (81%) completed a questionnaire and donated a suitable blood sample. The ability of questionnaire data to predict plasma levels of OCs was tested in linear and logistic regression analyses. Measured plasma concentrations were in the range reported for the general female population of other Western countries and the relative amounts of PCBs were similar to the circumpolar pattern. Intake of seagulls' eggs was a predictor of PCB congeners CB-138 (+CB-163) (p<0.05) and CB-153 (p<0.01). No other food category was positively associated with any compound. In contrast, duration of residence in the study municipality, body mass index (BMI) and lifetime lactation (months) were the best univariate predictors. There was an increase in beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and most of the PCBs (p<0.05 for all) with increasing length of time a subject had lived in the municipality. BMI was a positive predictor for beta-HCH (OR=3.10, 95% CI 1.50-6.43, per 5 kgm(-2)), chlordane (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.05, per 5 kgm(-2)) and CB-105 and CB-153 (p<0.05 for both). Lactation was negatively associated with all OCs (p<0.05), except chlordane and two of the PCB congeners. Time living in the municipality and lactation explained 34%, of the variance in concentration of total

  13. Melatonin exacerbates acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by enhancing the serum levels of lactate: A potential biomarker of multiple sclerosis progression.

    PubMed

    Ghareghani, Majid; Dokoohaki, Shima; Ghanbari, Amir; Farhadi, Naser; Zibara, Kazem; Khodadoust, Saeid; Parishani, Mohammad; Ghavamizadeh, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Heibatollah

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin has a beneficial role in adult rat models of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg/d) was investigated in young age (5-6 weeks old) Lewis rat model of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) followed by assessing serum levels of lactate and melatonin. Results showed that clinical outcomes were exacerbated in melatonin- (neurological score = 6) vs PBS-treated EAE rats (score = 5). Melatonin caused a significant increase in serum IFN-γ, in comparison to PBS-treated EAE rats whereas no considerable change in IL-4 levels were found, although they were significantly lower than those of controls. The ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4, an indicator of Th-1/Th-2, was significantly higher in PBS- and melatonin- treated EAE rats, in comparison to controls. Moreover, results showed increased lymphocyte infiltration, activated astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) but also higher demyelinated plaques (MBP-deficient areas) in the lumbar spinal cord of melatonin-treated EAE rats. Finally, serum levels of lactate, but not melatonin, significantly increased in the melatonin group, compared to untreated EAE and normal rats. In conclusion, our results indicated a relationship between age and the development of EAE since a negative impact was found for melatonin on EAE recovery of young rats by enhancing IFN-γ, the ratio of Th1/Th2 cells, and astrocyte activation, which seems to delay the remyelination process. While melatonin levels decline in MS patients, lactate might be a potential diagnostic biomarker for prediction of disease progression. Early administration of melatonin in the acute phase of MS might be harmful and needs further investigations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Effect of whole body vibration on lactate level recovery and heart rate recovery in rest after intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Rok; Min, Jin-Young; Yu, Changho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, we investigated the recovery of the lactate level, muscular fatigue, and heart rate recovery (HRR) with respect to whole body vibration (WBV) during the rest stage after a gait exercise. A total of 24 healthy subjects with no medical history of exercise injury participated. The participants were divided into a training group with vibration during rest and a control group with the same conditions but without vibration. The subjects performed a gait exercise with a slope of 15% and velocity of 4 km/h to consume 450 kcal in 30 min. Then, they rested on a vibrating chair or on a chair without vibrations for 30 min. The vibration protocol consists of a frequency of 10 Hz and amplitude of 5 mm. To estimate the recovery effect, we measured the lactate levels in blood, spectral edge frequency (SEF) of MVIC, and HRR before, immediately after exercise, and after rest. The results showed that the lactate level in the training group decreased more (93.8%) than in the control group (32.8%). Also, HRR showed a similar trend with a recovery of 88.39% in the training group but 64.72% in the control group. We considered that whole-body vibrations during rest would help remove lactic acid by improving the level of lactic acid oxidation with stimulated blood vessels in the muscles and by helping to maintain blood flow. Also, WBV would lead to compensation to actively decrease the fast excess post-exercise oxygen consumption from blood circulation. We suggest that whole-body vibrations during rest can provide fast, efficient fatigue recovery as a cool down exercise for women, the elderly, and patients without other activity after intense exercise.

  15. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  16. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring's microbiota activity, blood lipid levels, cognitive responses, and hippocampal neurogenesis in Yucatan pigs.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, David; Besson, Marie; Guérin, Sylvie; Coquery, Nicolas; Randuineau, Gwénaëlle; Kanzari, Ameni; Quesnel, Hélène; Bonhomme, Nathalie; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Blat, Sophie; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Clouard, Caroline

    2017-02-06

    A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny. Milk dry matter and lipid content, as well as plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations (P < 0.05) were higher in WD than in SD sows. Microbiota activity decreased in both WD sows and 100-d-old piglets (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10, depending on short-chain FAs [SCFAs]). At weaning [postnatal day (PND) 25], WD piglets had increased blood triglyceride and FFA levels (P < 0.01). Both SD and WD piglets consumed more of a known SD than an unknown high-fat/-sucrose (HFS) diet (P < 0.0001), but were quicker to obtain HFS rewards compared with SD rewards (P < 0.01). WD piglets had higher working memory (P = 0.015) and reference memory (P < 0.001) scores, which may reflect better cognitive abilities in the task context and a higher motivation for the food rewards. WD piglets had a smaller hippocampal granular cell layer (P = 0.03) and decreased neurogenesis (P < 0.005), but increased cell proliferation (P < 0.001). A maternal WD during gestation and lactation, even in the absence of obesity, has significant consequences for piglets' blood lipid levels, microbiota activity, gut-brain axis, and neurocognitive abilities after weaning.-Val-Laillet, D., Besson, M., Guérin, S., Coquery, N., Randuineau, G., Kanzari, A., Quesnel, H., Bonhomme, N., Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Blat, S., Le Huërou-Luron, I., Clouard, C. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring

  17. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS <3.0; n=10) or overweight (BCS >4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as

  18. Low arginine plasma levels in patients after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nijveldt, R J; Prins, H A; Siroen, M P; Rauwerda, J A; Teerlink, T; van Leeuwen, P A

    2000-08-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic surgery is a high-risk procedure and associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Ischemia reperfusion of visceral organs and lower extremities is one of the most important determinants of this morbidity. Arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide and arginine plasma levels are important in maintaining organ blood flow. Furthermore, arginine is important in wound healing and the immune system. Because of increased utilization of arginine, low arginine plasma levels could be expected after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. We therefore measured arginine plasma levels in these patients. Six patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm were included in this study. University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Six patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Plasma levels of arginine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Very low arginine plasma levels were seen on the first postoperative day. From day 1 arginine slowly increased, but did not reach normal plasma levels on day 6. A significant decrease of arginine plasma levels was found and because of the fact that arginine has multiple functions, it may be important to keep these arginine plasma levels at normal or even higher levels in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 615-617.

  19. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-04-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation.

  20. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g−1 body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  1. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-an; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0–330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15–180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates. PMID:26186707

  2. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0-330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15-180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates.

  3. Genetic and nongenetic variation in plasma and milk β-hydroxybutyrate and milk acetone concentrations of early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; van Hulzen, K J E; Teweldemedhn, T G; Jorritsma, R; Nielen, M; Heuven, H C M

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed genetic variation, heritability estimates, and genetic correlations for concentrations of plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), milk BHBA, and milk acetone in early lactation to investigate differences between cows in susceptibility to hyperketonemia and possibilities to use test-day milk ketone bodies for genetic improvement. Blood and test-day milk samples were collected on randomly selected dairy farms in the Netherlands from cows of various parities between 5 and 60 d in milk. Plasma samples were analyzed for BHBA (reference test for hyperketonemia) and test-day milk samples were analyzed for BHBA and acetone using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The final data set consisted of plasma BHBA concentrations of 1,615 cows from 122 herds. Milk BHBA and milk acetone concentrations were determined for 1,565 cows. Genetic variation, heritability, and proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to the herd were estimated using an animal model with fixed effects for parity and season, a covariate for days in milk, and random effects for herd, animal, and error. Genetic correlations for plasma BHBA, milk BHBA, and milk acetone were estimated using bivariate analyses. The heritability estimate for plasma BHBA concentrations in early lactation was 0.17, whereas heritability estimates for milk BHBA and milk acetone were 0.16 and 0.10, respectively. This indicates that selective breeding may contribute to a lower incidence of hyperketonemia in early lactation. For the 3 traits, the proportion of variance attributable to herd was larger than the additive genetic variance, underlining the importance of on-farm feeding and management in the etiology of hyperketonemia in fresh cows. Prevention strategies for hyperketonemia can, therefore, include both feeding and management strategies at dairy farms (short-term) and genetic improvement through breeding programs (long-term). Genetic correlations between concentrations of plasma BHBA and milk BHBA (0

  4. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Jin Oh; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Jeong, Hoe Su

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Twenty-two female patients with functional dyspepsia and twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. The functional dyspepsia patients were each diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Eligible patients completed a questionnaire concerning the severity of 10 symptoms. Plasma acylated ghrelin levels before and after a meal were determined in the study participants using a commercial human acylated enzyme immunoassay kit; electrogastrograms were performed for 50 min before and after a standardized 10-min meal containing 265 kcal. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma acylated ghrelin levels between healthy volunteers and patients with functional dyspepsia. However, in patients with functional dyspepsia, there was a negative correlation between fasting plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the sum score of epigastric pain (r = -0.427, P = 0.047) and a positive correlation between the postprandial/fasting plasma acylated ghrelin ratio and the sum score of early satiety (r = 0.428, P =0.047). Additionally, there was a negative correlation between fasting acylated ghrelin plasma levels and fasting normogastria (%) (r = -0.522, P = 0.013). Interestingly, two functional dyspepsia patients showed paradoxically elevated plasma acylated ghrelin levels after the meal. CONCLUSION: Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:22611317

  5. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed varying levels of total mixed ration and pasture.

    PubMed

    Vibart, Ronaldo E; Fellner, Vivek; Burns, Joseph C; Huntington, Gerald B; Green, James T

    2008-11-01

    Two, 8-week experiments, each using 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high-quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assigned to either a 100% TMR diet (100:00, no access to pasture) or one of the following three formulated partial mixed rations (PMR) targeted at (1) 85% TMR and 15% pasture, (2) 70% TMR and 30% pasture and (3) 55% TMR and 45% pasture. Based on actual TMR and pasture intake, the dietary TMR and pasture proportions of the three PMR in Experiment 1 were 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21), 68% TMR and 32% pasture (68:32), and 59% TMR and 41% pasture (59:41), respectively. Corresponding proportions in Experiment 2 were 89% TMR and 11% pasture (89:11), 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21) and 65% TMR and 35% pasture (65:35), respectively. Reducing the proportion of TMR in the diets increased pasture consumption of cows on all PMR, but reduced total dry matter intake compared with cows on 100:00. An increase in forage from pasture increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk. Although milk and milk protein yields from cows grazing spring pastures (Experiment 2) increased with increasing intakes of TMR, a partial mixed ration that was composed of 41% pasture grazed in the fall (Experiment 1) resulted in a similar overall lactation performance with increased feed efficiency compared to an all-TMR ration.

  6. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  7. Plasma vasopressin levels in induced migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Peatfield, R C; Hampton, K K; Grant, P J

    1988-03-01

    Vasopressin (aVP) at low concentrations functions as an antidiuretic hormone and has vasoconstrictive effects. To investigate the possible role of aVP in the pathogenesis of migraine, six patients with a history of induced migraine were given 100 g chocolate, and blood samples for plasma aVP were taken before ingestion and every hour for 4 h. In one patient who presented with severe headache and nausea the base-line plasma aVP concentration was 15.2 pg/ml; it fell to 3.2 pg/ml at 2 h before rising to 10 pg/ml at 3 h and 4 h as the symptoms worsened. In the five patients with moderate or no headache plasma aVP concentrations remained in the normal range (less than 3 pg/ml) throughout. The results suggest that aVP does not have a role in the aetiology of migraine. The possibility exists that during severe attacks of nausea there is release of aVP, which may be responsible for the facial pallor, antidiuresis, and coagulation abnormalities occasionally observed in migraine.

  8. Can the Preoperative Serum Lactate Level Predict the Extent of Bowel Ischemia in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kai; Papadakis, Marios; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Early recognition of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) can be challenging. Extensive bowel necrosis secondary to AMI is associated with high rates of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative serum lactate level and the extent of bowel ischemia in patients with AMI. Methods. Data of patients with abdominal pain and elevated serum lactate undergoing emergency laparotomy for suspected AMI within 24 hours of presentation was retrospectively abstracted. The length of the ischemic bowel segment was compared with the preoperative serum lactate level. Results. 36 female and 39 male patients, with median age 73.1 ± 12.3 years, were included for analysis. The median preoperative lactate was 2.96 ± 2.59 mmol/l in patients with ≤50 cm, 6.86 ± 4.08 mmol/l in patients with 51–100 cm, 4.73 ± 2.76 mmol/l in patients with >100 cm ischemic bowel, and 14.07 ± 4.91 mmol/l in the group with multivisceral ischemia. Conclusion. Although elevated serum lactate might permit an early suspicion and thus influence the clinical decision-making with regard to prioritization of surgery in patients with suspected AMI, a linear relationship between serum lactate and the extent of bowel ischemia could not be established in this study. PMID:28261615

  9. Low plasma progranulin levels in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Mostafa, Gehan A

    2011-09-05

    Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Local administration of recombinant progranulin, which is an anti-inflammatory neurotrophic factor, potently inhibit neutrophilic inflammation in vivo, demonstrating that progranulin represents a crucial inflammation-suppressing mediator. We are the first to measure plasma progranulin levels in autism. Plasma levels of progranulin were measured, by ELISA, in 40 autistic patients, aged between 3 and 12 years, and 40 healthy-matched children. Autistic children had significantly lower plasma progranulin levels, P = 0.001. Reduced plasma progranulin levels were found in 65% (26/40) of autistic children.On the other hand, there was a non significant difference between plasma progranulin levels of children with mild to moderate autism and patients with severe autism, P = 0.11. Plasma progranulin levels were reduced in a subgroup of patients with autism. Progranulin insufficiency in some patients with autism may result in many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation that may have a role in autism. However, these data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed, with a larger subject population, to determine whether the decrease of plasma progranulin levels is a mere consequence of autism or has a pathogenic role in the disease. The role of progranulin therapy should also be studied in autism.

  10. Elevated plasma interleukin-37 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, G-C; Li, H-M; Wang, J-B; Leng, R-X; Wang, D-G; Ye, D-Q

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the plasma interleukin (IL)-37 levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as its association with major clinical and laboratory features. Ninety consecutively selected SLE patients and 78 community-based healthy controls were recruited. Plasma IL-37 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The major clinical and laboratory data of SLE patients were also recorded. The results showed that IL-37 level was significantly higher in the plasma of patients with SLE compared with controls (p = 0.028). The correlation of plasma IL-37 levels with major clinical and laboratory data of SLE patients was also analyzed, and the results showed that anti-Sm and anti-RNP were negatively associated with plasma IL-37 levels of SLE patients, while C3 was positively associated with plasma IL-37 levels of SLE patients. No significant associations of IL-37 with other clinical and laboratory parameters were observed (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, elevated plasma IL-37 level and its associations with anti-Sm, anti-RNP and C3 in SLE patients suggest that IL-37 may be implicated in this disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Lactational hexavalent chromium exposure-induced oxidative stress in rat uterus is associated with delayed puberty and impaired gonadotropin levels.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jawahar B; Stanley, Jone A; Roopha, Dailiah P; Vengatesh, Ganapathy; Anbalagan, Jaganathan; Banu, Sakhila K; Aruldhas, Michael M

    2011-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a transition element utilized in many fields of modern industries. CrVI is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the CrVI-induced utero-toxicity. In the present study, lactating rats received drinking water containing CrVI (50 mg/L and 200 mg/L) from postnatal days (PND) 1-21. During PND 1-21, the pups received CrVI via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards and euthanized on PND-45 and -65. Specific activities antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were estimated. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and serum gonadotropins viz. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were also assayed. Specific activities of SOD, CAT, GPX, GR and GST and serum testosterone and progesterone were significantly decreased, while H₂O₂, LPO and serum FSH was increased in 50-parts per million (ppm) and 200 ppm-treated rats in an age-dependent manner. These results suggest that lactational CrVI exposure induces oxidative stress in rat uterus by decreasing antioxidant enzymes, which were associated with delayed puberty and altered steroids and gonadotrophin levels.

  12. Effect of potato ethanol residue on rat plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Shinomiya, Noriyuki; Saito, Katsuichi; Noda, Takahiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effect of a potato ethanol residue (PER). The plasma cholesterol levels excluding high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were lower in the rats given a PER-containing diet for 6 weeks than in the control group, whereas the fecal cholesterol levels were higher. These results suggest that PER partially reduced plasma cholesterol levels via excretion of cholesterol into the feces.

  13. Is venous blood drawn from femoral access adequate to estimate the central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels in critically ill patients?

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Yara Nishiyama; de Freitas, Flávio Geraldo Rezende; de Azevedo, Rodrigo Palácio; Leão, Milena; Bafi, Antônio Tonete; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to test if venous blood drawn from femoral access can be used to estimate the central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels in critically ill patients. Methods Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman correlations were used to compare the femoral venous oxygen saturation and central venous oxygen saturation as well as arterial lactate levels and femoral lactate. A pre-specified subgroup analysis was conducted in patients with signs of hypoperfusion. In addition, the clinical agreement was also investigated. Results Blood samples were obtained in 26 patients. In 107 paired samples, there was a moderate correlation (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001) between the central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation with a bias of 8.24 ± 10.44 (95% limits of agreement: -12.23 to 28.70). In 102 paired samples, there was a strong correlation between the arterial lactate levels and femoral lactate levels (r = 0.972, p < 0.001) with a bias of -2.71 ± 9.86 (95% limits of agreement: -22.03 to 16.61). The presence of hypoperfusion did not significantly change these results. The clinical agreement for venous saturation was inadequate, with different therapeutic decisions in 22.4% of the situation; for lactate, this was the case only in 5.2% of the situations. Conclusion Femoral venous oxygen saturation should not be used as a surrogate of central venous oxygen saturation. However, femoral lactate levels can be used in clinical practice, albeit with caution. PMID:26761471

  14. Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

    2014-03-01

    Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by

  15. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

    2013-07-01

    A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This

  16. Metabonomics Analysis of Plasma Reveals the Lactate to Cholesterol Ratio as an Independent Prognostic Factor of Short-Term Mortality in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Desmoulin, Franck; Galinier, Michel; Trouillet, Charlotte; Berry, Matthieu; Delmas, Clément; Turkieh, Annie; Massabuau, Pierre; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mortality in heart failure (AHF) remains high, especially during the first days of hospitalization. New prognostic biomarkers may help to optimize treatment. The aim of the study was to determine metabolites that have a high prognostic value. Methods We conducted a prospective study on a training cohort of AHF patients (n = 126) admitted in the cardiac intensive care unit and assessed survival at 30 days. Venous plasmas collected at admission were used for 1H NMR–based metabonomics analysis. Differences between plasma metabolite profiles allow determination of discriminating metabolites. A cohort of AHF patients was subsequently constituted (n = 74) to validate the findings. Results Lactate and cholesterol were the major discriminating metabolites predicting 30-day mortality. Mortality was increased in patients with high lactate and low total cholesterol concentrations at admission. Accuracies of lactate, cholesterol concentration and lactate to cholesterol (Lact/Chol) ratio to predict 30-day mortality were evaluated using ROC analysis. The Lact/Chol ratio provided the best accuracy with an AUC of 0.82 (P < 0.0001). The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system provided an AUC of 0.76 for predicting 30-day mortality. APACHE II score, Cardiogenic shock (CS) state and Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 (cutoff value with 82% sensitivity and 64% specificity) were significant independent predictors of 30-day mortality with hazard ratios (HR) of 1.11, 4.77 and 3.59, respectively. In CS patients, the HR of 30-day mortality risk for plasma Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 was 3.26 compared to a Lact/Chol ratio of < 0.4 (P  =  0.018). The predictive power of the Lact/Chol ratio for 30-day mortality outcome was confirmed with the independent validation cohort. Conclusion This study identifies the plasma Lact/Chol ratio as a useful objective and simple parameter to evaluate short term prognostic and could be integrated into quantitative

  17. Metabonomics analysis of plasma reveals the lactate to cholesterol ratio as an independent prognostic factor of short-term mortality in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Desmoulin, Franck; Galinier, Michel; Trouillet, Charlotte; Berry, Matthieu; Delmas, Clément; Turkieh, Annie; Massabuau, Pierre; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mortality in heart failure (AHF) remains high, especially during the first days of hospitalization. New prognostic biomarkers may help to optimize treatment. The aim of the study was to determine metabolites that have a high prognostic value. We conducted a prospective study on a training cohort of AHF patients (n = 126) admitted in the cardiac intensive care unit and assessed survival at 30 days. Venous plasmas collected at admission were used for (1)H NMR--based metabonomics analysis. Differences between plasma metabolite profiles allow determination of discriminating metabolites. A cohort of AHF patients was subsequently constituted (n = 74) to validate the findings. Lactate and cholesterol were the major discriminating metabolites predicting 30-day mortality. Mortality was increased in patients with high lactate and low total cholesterol concentrations at admission. Accuracies of lactate, cholesterol concentration and lactate to cholesterol (Lact/Chol) ratio to predict 30-day mortality were evaluated using ROC analysis. The Lact/Chol ratio provided the best accuracy with an AUC of 0.82 (P < 0.0001). The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system provided an AUC of 0.76 for predicting 30-day mortality. APACHE II score, Cardiogenic shock (CS) state and Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 (cutoff value with 82% sensitivity and 64% specificity) were significant independent predictors of 30-day mortality with hazard ratios (HR) of 1.11, 4.77 and 3.59, respectively. In CS patients, the HR of 30-day mortality risk for plasma Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 was 3.26 compared to a Lact/Chol ratio of < 0.4 (P = 0.018). The predictive power of the Lact/Chol ratio for 30-day mortality outcome was confirmed with the independent validation cohort. This study identifies the plasma Lact/Chol ratio as a useful objective and simple parameter to evaluate short term prognostic and could be integrated into quantitative guidance for decision making in heart failure care.

  18. The prognostic role of non-critical lactate levels for in-hospital survival time among ED patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Aluisio, Adam R; Jain, Ashika; Baron, Bonny J; Sarraf, Saman; Sinert, Richard; Legome, Eric; Zehtabchi, Shahriar

    2016-02-01

    This study describes emergency department (ED) sepsis patients with non-critical serum venous lactate (LAC) levels (LAC <4.0 mmol/L) who suffered in-hospital mortality and examines LAC in relation to survival times. An ED based retrospective cohort study accrued September 2010 to August 2014. Inclusion criteria were ED admission, LAC sampling, >2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria with an infectious source (sepsis), and in-hospital mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves were used for survival estimates. An a priori sub-group analysis for patients with repeat LAC within 6 hours of initial sampling was undertaken. The primary outcome was time to in-hospital death evaluated using rank-sum tests and regression models. One hundred ninety-seven patients met inclusion criteria. Pulmonary infections were the most common (44%) and median LAC was 1.9 mmol/L (1.5, 2.5). Thirteen patients (7%) died within 24 hours and 79% by ≤28 days. Median survival was 11 days (95% CI, 8.0-13). Sixty-two patients had repeat LAC sampling with 14 (23%) and 48 (77%) having decreasing increasing levels, respectively. No significant differences were observed in treatment requirements between the LAC subgroups. Among patients with decreasing LAC, median survival was 24 days (95% CI, 5-32). For patients with increasing LAC median survival was significantly shorter (7 days; 95% CI, 4-11, P = .04). Patients with increasing LAC had a non-significant trend toward reduced survival (HR = 1.6 95% CI, 0.90-3.0, P = .10). In septic ED patients experiencing in-hospital death, non-critical serum venous lactate may be utilized as a risk-stratifying tool for early mortality, while increasing LAC levels may identify those in danger of more rapid deterioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic profiling of plasma from sows before parturition and during lactation using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based approach.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Flummer, C; Kristensen, N B; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    During transition from late gestation to lactation, the sow undergoes large and sudden metabolic changes to adapt from anabolic to catabolic metabolism. Little is known about changes in nutrient uptake and intermediary metabolism of transition sows. This study was undertaken to screen the metabolic profile for qualitative changes in nutrient uptake and metabolism during transition. Four sows were fitted with permanent catheters in artery femoralis (AF), portal vein (PV), and hepatic vein (HV) (sampling sites). Sows were fed a standard lactation diet from 15 d prior to 28 d after parturition. Blood samples were taken 1.5 h after feeding on days -10, -3, 3, and 17 relative to parturition and plasma metabolites were analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based approach. Principal components analysis was performed to visualize the metabolic profiles and to screen for intermediary metabolites altered during the transition period. The metabolic profile of sows on day 3 after parturition was distinct from other days. Plasma betaine, Pro, and some unidentified lipid compounds contributed to the separation on day 3; betaine and Pro were lowered by 30% at day 3 compared to day -10 and day -3 (P < 0.001). Plasma choline, Pro, creatine, and unidentified lipid compounds contributed to the separation due to sampling sites. Plasma choline was lowest in HV, intermediate in AF, and highest in PV (P < 0.001) plasma, indicating net absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (PV vs. AF) and liver metabolism (HV vs. PV). The majority of unidentified metabolites found using the loadings plots that were affected by day or sampling site or both were revealed as lipid compounds, that is, bile acid, cholesterol, glycerol, phosphatidyl, sphingomyelin, or acylglycerol derivatives. In conclusion, the intermediary metabolism of sows, especially for fat, changed during transition, and a deeper understanding and detection of involved metabolites are needed to optimize sow feeding

  20. Comprehensive Interpretation of Central Venous Oxygen Saturation and Blood Lactate Levels During Resuscitation of Patients With Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Gun; Jo, Ik Joon; Hwang, Sung Yeon; Jeon, Kyeongman; Suh, Gee Young; Choe, Euna; Lee, Young Kun; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Sim, Min Seob

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated central venous oxygen saturation (Scvo2) and lactate levels as a combination measure to predict mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. We included patients older than 18 years of age who presented to a single tertiary emergency center with septic shock or severe sepsis and received early goal-directed therapy. We classified the sample into four groups according to lactate (cut-off: 4 mmol/L) and Scvo2 (cut-off: 70%) levels at the time of initial resuscitation: Group 1, high-Scvo2, and low-lactate; Group 2, low-Scvo2, and low-lactate; Group 3, high-Scvo2, and high-lactate; Group 4, low-Scvo2, and high-lactate. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality determined by multivariable Cox-regression analysis. A total of 880 patients were included in this study. The 28-day mortality was 6.7% in Group 1, 15.7% in Group 2, 26.7% in Group 3, and 25.5% in Group 4 (P < 0.01). Compared with Group 1, all other groups showed significant differences in mortality (P < 0.01 by the log-rank test). There was, however, no difference between Groups 3 and 4. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that all other groups exhibited significantly increased hazard ratios for 28-day mortality, compared with Group 1. Oxygenation category, as represented by initial Scvo2 and lactate levels, was significantly associated with 28-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Associations between Scvo2 ≥70% and 28-day survival were observed only in patients without severe lactic acidosis.

  1. Markedly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels are a clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, G R; Al-Abdely, H; Flanders, C D; Geimer, J; Patterson, T F

    1997-05-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is a common late manifestation of AIDS, but the diagnosis may be unsuspected in some patients because the clinical presentation of histoplasmosis may mimic other opportunistic infections. High serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels have been associated with disseminated histoplasmosis. We therefore evaluated whether markedly increased LDH levels were useful for making a diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis by comparing admission LDH levels for 15 patients with culture-proven disseminated histoplasmosis with those for 30 patients with advanced AIDS who were admitted to the hospital for evaluation of pulmonary infiltrates and fever. The mean admission LDH level in patients with disseminated histoplasmosis was 1,356 IU/L (range, 145-5,410 IU) whereas it was 332 (range, 77-832 IU) in the patients with other pulmonary processes. Admission LDH levels were >600 IU in 11 (73%) of the 15 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis vs. 3 (10%) of controls (P < .001). We conclude that markedly elevated admission LDH levels may be a clinical clue to the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

  2. Gestational and lactational exposure to di-isobutyl phthalate via diet in maternal mice decreases testosterone levels in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Nan; Cui, Ruina; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-04-01

    Phthalates are a large family of ubiquitous environmental chemicals suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with exposure to these chemicals during prenatal and postnatal development possibly resulting in reproductive disorders. Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) is widely used in consumer and industrial products, and although its exposure in the general population has increased in recent years, the mechanisms behind DiBP-induced reproductive disorders in male offspring remain unclear. Here, pregnant mice were exposed to 0 or 450 mg/kg bw/day DiBP via diet from gestation day (GD) 0 to GD21. Until postnatal day 21 (PD21), half of the exposed pups were also exposed to DiBP by lactation (TT), while the rest were not (TC). Half of each group were sacrificed on PD21, with the remaining mice fed a normal diet until PD80 (TCC and TTC, respectively). Reproductive toxicological parameters such as relative organ weights and testosterone levels were determined in male offspring on PD21 and PD80 and sperm quality was tested on PD80. Maternal exposure (pregnancy and lactation) led to decreased serum and testis testosterone concentrations, accompanied by decreased expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 (CYP11A1) in PD21 pups and PD80 adults. Furthermore, the TTC group showed decreased epididymis sperm concentration and motility. Taken together, DiBP exposure in early life (prenatal and postnatal) impaired male reproductive function in later life, possibly by interfering with testosterone levels and CYP11A1, which might be a major steroidogenic enzyme targeted by DiBP or other phthalates.

  3. Plasma-based proteomics reveals immune response, complement and coagulation cascades pathway shifts in heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jianbo; Zhao, Shengguo; Tian, He; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Yang, Hongjian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-09-02

    Heat stress (HS) has an enormous economic impact on the dairy industry. In recent years, many researchers have investigated changes in the gene expression and metabolomics profiles in dairy cows caused by HS. However, the proteomics profiles of heat-stressed dairy cows have not yet been completely elucidated. We compared plasma proteomics from HS-free and heat-stressed dairy cows using an iTRAQ labeling approach. After the depletion of high abundant proteins in the plasma, 1472 proteins were identified. Of these, 85 proteins were differentially abundant in cows exposed to HS relative to HS-free. Database searches combined with GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that many components of the complement and coagulation cascades were altered in heat-stressed cows compared with HS-free cows. Of these, many factors in the complement system (including complement components C1, C3, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, complement factor B, and factor H) were down-regulated by HS, while components of the coagulation system (including coagulation factors, vitamin K-dependent proteins, and fibrinogens) were up-regulated by HS. In conclusion, our results indicate that HS decreases plasma levels of complement system proteins, suggesting that immune function is impaired in dairy cows exposed to HS. Though many aspects of heat stress (HS) have been extensively researched, relatively little is known about the proteomics profile changes that occur during heat exposure. In this work, we employed a proteomics approach to investigate differential abundance of plasma proteins in HS-free and heat-stressed dairy cows. Database searches combined with GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that HS resulted in a decrease in complement components, suggesting that heat-stressed dairy cows have impaired immune function. In addition, through integrative analyses of proteomics and previous metabolomics, we showed enhanced glycolysis, lipid metabolic pathway shifts, and nitrogen

  4. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-05-20

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  5. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05). The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05), which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day), followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day), and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day). The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  6. Hydroxy-selenomethionine: A novel organic selenium source that improves antioxidant status and selenium concentrations in milk and plasma of mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Wang, J; Liu, W; Bu, D P; Liu, S J; Zhang, K Z

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroxy-selenomethionine (HMSeBA), a novel organic selenium (Se) source, on milk performance, antioxidative status, and Se concentrations in the milk and plasma of mid-lactation dairy cows compared with that of sodium selenite (SS). Fifty mid-lactation dairy cows with similar days in milk, milk yield, and parity received the same basal diet containing 0.06 mg of Se/kg of DM. They were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments according to a randomized complete block design: negative control (without Se supplementation), SS supplementation (0.3 mg of Se/kg of DM; SS-0.3) or HMSeBA supplementation (0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 mg of Se/kg of DM: SO-0.1, SO-0.3, and SO-0.5, respectively). The experiment lasted for 10 wk, including a pretrial period of 2 wk. The results indicated that neither Se supplementation nor Se source affected dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, or blood biochemical parameters, except for milk fat percentage. Simultaneously, milk fat percentage and milk fat yield increased linearly as the quantity of HMSeBA supplementation was increased. Production of 4% FCM and ECM was elevated linearly as dietary HMSeBA increased. The SO-0.3 group showed higher serum activity of glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase than the SS-0.3 group, but malondialdehyde content was not affected by Se source. Furthermore, HMSeBA supplementation linearly increased the activities of serum glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, but decreased malondialdehyde content. Compared with the SS-0.3 group, the SO-0.3 group showed augmented concentrations of total Se in milk and plasma, and total Se milk-to-plasma concentration ratio. In addition, increasing doses of HMSeBA linearly increased the concentrations of total Se in the milk and plasma. This study demonstrates that HMSeBA improves antioxidant status and increases milk and plasma Se concentrations more effectively than SS, indicating that HMSe

  7. Effects of niacin source on epinephrine stimulation of plasma nonesterified fatty acid and glucose concentrations, on diet digestibility and on rumen protozoal numbers in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Erickson, P S; Trusk, A M; Murphy, M R

    1990-12-01

    Effects of niacin (nicotinic acid or nicotinamide) supplementation of dairy cow diets on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and milk composition were determined using six mid-lactation Holstein cows in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design arranged to test for residual treatment effects. Treatments were control, 12 g/d of nicotinic acid or 12 g/d of nicotinamide. Periods were 14 d long; d 1 to 4 served as an adaptation period before treatment administration commenced (d 5 to 14). Effects of supplemental niacin on plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations were tested following saline injection on d 10. Blood was then sampled for 5.5 h at 15-min intervals. On d 13, cows were treated similarly except that epinephrine replaced saline. The area below d-10 curves was subtracted from the area below d-13 curves to serve as an indicator of niacin's effect on plasma NEFA and glucose concentration responses to epinephrine injection. Niacin treatments did not change the area differences for plasma glucose compared to the control treatment; however, there was a trend for niacin to reduce the area difference compared to the control treatment for plasma NEFA. Niacin treatments did not alter dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield or composition. Niacin supplementation increased the number of entodinia protozoa in rumen fluid.

  8. Effect of PCBs on the lactational transfer of methyl mercury in mice: PBPK modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Ku; Hamer, Dwayne; Bedwell, Cathy L.; Lohitnavy, Manupat; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2009-01-01

    MeHg and PCB exposure to lactating mice were analyzed and a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to describe the lactational transfer of MeHg in mice. The influence of albumin on the lactational transfer of MeHg was incorporated into the PBPK model. Experimental results with lactating mice and their pups showed that co-exposure with PCB congeners increased the lactational transfer of MeHg to the pups, which was associated with the rise of albumin levels in maternal blood. Observed results were matched with PBPK model simulations conducted under the assumptions that (1) MeHg bound to plasma albumin is transferred to maternal milk, and (2) PCB congeners may increase the lactational transfer of MeHg by escalating albumin levels in maternal blood. Further refinement of PBPK model quantitatively described the pharmacokinetic changes of MeHg by co-exposure with PCBs in pup’s tissues. PMID:20046988

  9. Effect of Vitamin B Deprivation during Pregnancy and Lactation on Homocysteine Metabolism and Related Metabolites in Brain and Plasma of Mice Offspring

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vanessa Cavalcante; Fernandes, Leandro; Haseyama, Eduardo Jun; Agamme, Ana Luiza Dias Abdo; Shinohara, Elvira Maria Guerra; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that the altered fetal and neonatal environment influences physiological functions and may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. Because homocysteine (Hcy) metabolic imbalance is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether maternal Vitamin B deficiency during early development alters the offspring's methionine-homocysteine metabolism in their brain. To this end, the dams were submitted to experimental diet one month before and during pregnancy or pregnancy/lactation. After birth, the offspring were organized into the following groups: control (CT), deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation (DPL) and deficient diet during pregnancy (DP). The mice were euthanized at various stages of development. Hcy, cysteine, glutathione (GSH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), folate and cobalamin concentrations were measured in the plasma and/or brain. At postnatal day (PND) 0, total brain of female and male offspring exhibited decreased SAM/SAH ratios. Moreover, at PND 28, we observed decreased GSH/GSSG ratios in both females and males in the DPL group. Exposure to a Vitamin B-deficient diet during the ontogenic plasticity period had a negative impact on plasma folate and brain cortex SAM concentrations in aged DPL males. We also observed decreased plasma GSH concentrations in both DP and DPL males (PND 210). Additionally, this manipulation seemed to affect the female and male offspring differently. The decreased plasma GSH concentration may reflect redox changes in tissues and the decreased brain cortex SAM may be involved in changes of gene expression, which could contribute to neurodegenerative diseases over the long term. PMID:24695104

  10. Models to Estimate Lactation Curves of Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows at the Herd Level for the Use in Simulations and Predictive Models

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count for fitting to sparse data to parameterize herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds. Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second, and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for somatic cell count. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two, or one parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and somatic cell count were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring. The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and somatic cell count was 0.2–0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the somatic cell count, and the total somatic cell count was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per milliliter. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total somatic cell count and the milk yield. The variation of lactation and somatic cell count curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible

  11. Chemotherapy and plasma adipokines level in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Słomian, Grzegorz; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Nowak, Grzegorz; Pawlas, Krystyna; Żelazko, Aleksandra; Nowak, Przemysław

    2017-04-12

    Adipokines are molecules produced and secreted by adipose tissue and are linked to multiple malignancies. Adipokines can suppress or promote particular cell behaviors in different types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chemotherapy on select adipokines in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Blood samples were collected from 42 patients with pathologically documented advanced CRC, who required palliative chemotherapy. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels were measured by ELISA before and 3 months after the administration of chemotherapy. Among the 42 patients evaluated, 18 achieved a partial response (PR), 16 achieved stable disease (SD) and 8 patients experienced disease progression (PD). We found that 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens significantly increased plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin and decreased plasma levels of resistin and visfatin in PR and SD patients, whereas the plasma levels of these molecules were not affected in PD patients. Furthermore, the mean plasma levels of leptin were significantly lower, and the mean plasma levels of resistin and visfatin were significantly greater in patients with PD compared with PR and SD both before and after chemotherapy treatment. We conclude that palliative chemotherapy in CRC patients, in addition to providing clinical benefits, positively affects cytokine production and secretion in PR and SD patients. Specifically, we found that palliative chemotherapy increased plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin and decreased the plasma levels of visfatin and resistin, molecules known to promote angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation in PR and SD patients. Moreover, the baseline values of leptin, visfatin and resistin might serve as prognostic indicators of a poor response to chemotherapy.

  12. Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilová, H; Hainer, V; Sedlácková, D; Papezová, H; Kunesová, M; Bellisle, F; Hill, M; Nedvídková, J

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered peptide produced in the stomach, which was originally described to suppress food intake and decrease body weight in experimental animals. We investigated fasting plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women and associations of plasma obestatin levels with anthropometric and hormonal parameters. Hormonal (obestatin, ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and anthropometric parameters and body composition were examined in 15 normal weight, 21 obese and 15 anorectic women. Fasting obestatin levels were significantly lower in obese than in normal weight and anorectic women, whereas ghrelin to obestatin ratio was increased in anorectic women. Compared to leptin, only minor differences in plasma obestatin levels were observed in women who greatly differed in the amount of fat stores. However, a negative correlation of fasting obestatin level with body fat indexes might suggest a certain role of obestatin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A significant relationship between plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels, independent of anthropometric parameters, supports simultaneous secretion of both hormones from the common precursor. Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies.

  13. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    PubMed

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of low dietary calcium during pregnancy and lactation on zinc levels in maternal blood and bone in rats.

    PubMed

    Weisstaub, Adriana; de Ferrer, Patricia Ronayne; Zeni, Susana; de Portela, María Luz

    2003-01-01

    The effect of low dietary calcium on maternal zinc nutritional status was studied. Two groups of 6 adult female Wistar rats were fed during pregnancy and lactation with experimental diets containing either 0.2 g (LCa) or 0.6 g (NCa) of calcium/100 g. Both diets contained/100 g: 20.0 g protein (potassium caseinate), 3.5 mg Zn, 0.6 g P. A third group (n = 6) was fed a "stock diet" (SG), containing/100 g: 24.8 g protein, 1.5 g Ca, 0.6 g P, 11.6 mg Zn. Maternal blood samples were drawn from the tail before mating (To), at delivery (D) and at weaning (W); dams were sacrificed at weaning and the right femur was excised. Determinations (atomic absorption spectrometry) were: Zinc in red blood cells (RBC), Zn and Ca in ashed femur. The results (mean +/- SD) were: RBCZn (microg/mL) at To: 8.65 +/- 1.80, which did not change in the SG or in the NCa groups, but increased significantly in the LCa group (p < 0.001) (D: 18.20 +/- 4.63; W: 26.70 +/- 6.02), regarding To. Femur Zn (microg/100 mg) showed an increase (p < 0.001) in the LCa group (30.2 +/- 2.1) regarding both SG (25.3 +/- 0.7) and NCa groups (24.1 +/- 0.7). Femur Ca (mg/100 mg) decreased (p < 0.05) in the LCa group (19.2 +/- 0.9) regarding both SG (24.0 +/- 0.5) and NCa groups (21.4 +/- 0.7) and leading to a significant increase in Zn/Ca ratio (p < 0.001) in the LCa group. Therefore, dietary calcium deficiency during pregnancy and lactation would produce an increase of Zn utilization, reflected in the increase of maternal blood Zn levels and in femur Zn content.

  15. Excess nicotinamide increases plasma serotonin and histamine levels.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan-Jie; Li, Da; Ma, Qiang; Gu, Xin-Yi; Guo, Ming; Lun, Yong-Zhi; Sun, Wu-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2013-02-25

    Methylation, a methyl group-consuming reaction, plays a key role in the degradation (i.e., inactivation) of monoamine neurotransmitters, including catecholamines, serotonin and histamine. Without labile methyl groups, the methylation-mediated degradation cannot take place. Although high niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) intake, which is very common nowadays, is known to deplete the body's methyl-group pool, its effect on monoamine-neurotransmitter degradation is not well understood. The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of excess nicotinamide on the levels of plasma serotonin and histamine in healthy subjects. Urine and venous blood samples were collected from nine healthy male volunteers before and after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide. Plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide, urinary N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and plasma betaine levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma concentrations of choline, serotonin and histamine were measured using commercial kits. The results showed that the plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide level and the urinary excretion of 2-Py significantly increased after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide, which was accompanied with a decrease in the methyl-group donor betaine. Compared with those before nicotinamide load, five-hour postload plasma serotonin and histamine levels significantly increased. These results suggest that excess nicotinamide can disturb monoamine-neurotransmitter metabolism. These findings may be of significance in understanding the etiology of monoamine-related mental diseases, such as schizophrenia and autism (a neurodevelopmental disorder).

  16. Clinical significance of plasma metastin level in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2009-03-01

    Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening.

  17. [Relationship between clozapine plasma levels and withdrawal symptoms].

    PubMed

    Berecz, R; de la Rubia Martínez, A; Norberto Gamero, M J; Gutiérrez Casares, J R; Glaub, T; Degrell, I; Llerena, A

    2002-01-01

    Discontinuation of clozapine and an attempt to change his medication to sertindol has led to serious psychotic and somatic symptoms in an schizophrenic patient treated with clozapine for five years, however after readministration of clozapine these symptoms rapidly disappeared. To further analyse the case we have developed an HPLC method for the measurement of plasma levels of clozapine and its main metabolite N-desmethyl clozapine in order to monitor the plasma levels of clozapine and to correlate with the clinical symptoms. The present results confirmed that after discontinuation of clozapine no measurable amount of drug or its main metabolite were present in the plasma of the patient. The correlation between the plasma levels of clozapine and the changes in the clinical state of the patient confirmed that the patient's severe psychotic and somatic symptoms were the result of discontinuation of clozapine treatment. The clozapine plasma concentration of the patient reported here was low (100 ng/ml) compared to the generally accepted plasma levels for antipsychotic action of clozapine (350 ng/ml), however the somatic and psychotic clozapine withdrawal symptoms rapidly and completely disappeared.

  18. Supplementation with RRR- or all-rac-α-Tocopherol Differentially Affects the α-Tocopherol Stereoisomer Profile in the Milk and Plasma of Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Shashank; Kuchan, Matthew J; Lai, Chron-Si; Jensen, Soren K; Sherry, Christina L

    2017-07-01

    Background: The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol is known to be more bioactive than synthetic α-tocopherol (all-rac-α-tocopherol). However, the influence of this difference on the α-tocopherol stereoisomer profile of human milk is not understood.Objective: We investigated whether supplemental RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol differentially affected the distribution of α-tocopherol stereoisomers in milk and plasma from lactating women.Methods: Eighty-nine lactating women aged 19-40 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) ≤30 were randomly assigned at 4-6 wk postpartum to receive a daily supplement containing 45.5 mg all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate (ARAC), 22.8 mg all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate + 20.1 mg RRR-α-tocopherol (MIX), or 40.2 mg RRR-α-tocopherol (RRR). Milk and plasma were analyzed for α-tocopherol structural isomers and α-tocopherol stereoisomers at baseline and after 6 wk supplementation with the use of chiral HPLC.Results: There were no significant treatment group or time-dependent changes in milk or plasma α, γ, or δ-tocopherol. RRR-α-tocopherol was the most abundant stereoisomer in both milk and plasma in each group. Supplementation changed both milk and plasma percentage RRR-α-tocopherol (RRR > MIX > ARAC) (P < 0.05) and percentage non-RRR-α-tocopherol (ARAC > MIX > RRR) (P < 0.05). In the RRR group, percentage RRR-α-tocopherol increased in milk (mean ± SEM: 78% ± 2.3% compared with 82% ± 1.7%) (P < 0.05) and plasma (mean ± SEM: 77% ± 1.8% compared with 87% ± 1%) (P < 0.05). In contrast, the percentage RRR-α-tocopherol decreased in the MIX and ARAC groups (MIX, P < 0.05; ARAC, P < 0.0001), and percentage non-RRR-α-tocopherol stereoisomers increased (MIX, P < 0.05; ARAC, P < 0.0001) commensurate with an accumulation of 2S-α-tocopherol stereoisomers (P < 0.05) in both milk and plasma. Milk and plasma RRR-α-tocopherol was positively correlated at baseline (r = 0.67; P < 0.0001) and 6 wk

  19. Dietary and environmental determinants of blood and bone lead levels in lactating postpartum women living in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Avila, M; Gonzalez-Cossio, T; Palazuelos, E; Romieu, I; Aro, A; Fishbein, E; Peterson, K E; Hu, H

    1996-01-01

    Despite the recent declines in environmental lead exposure in the United States and Mexico, the potential for delayed toxicity from bone lead stores remains a significant public health concern. Some evidence indicates that mobilization of lead from bone may be markedly enhanced during the increased bone turnover of pregnancy and lactation, resulting in lead exposure to the fetus and the breast-fed infant. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of the interrelationships between environmental, dietary, and lifestyle histories, blood lead levels, and bone lead levels among 98 recently postpartum women living in Mexico City. Lead levels in the patella (representing trabecular bone) and tibia (representing cortical bone) were measured by K X-ray fluorescence (KXRF). Multivariate linear regression models showed that significant predictors of higher blood lead included a history of preparing or storing food in lead-glazed ceramic ware, lower milk consumption, and higher levels of lead in patella bone. A 34 micrograms/g increase in patella lead (from the medians of the lowest to the highest quartiles) was associated with an increase in blood lead of 2.4 micrograms/dl. Given the measurement error associated with KXRF and the extrapolation of lead burden from a single bone site, this contribution probably represents an underestimate of the influence of trabecular bone on blood lead. Significant predictors of bone lead in multivariate models included years living in Mexico City, lower consumption of high calcium content foods, and nonuse of calcium supplements for the patella and years living in Mexico City, older age, and lower calcium intake for tibia bone. Low consumption of milk and cheese, as compared to the highest consumption category (every day), was associated with an increase in tibia bone lead of 9.7 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that patella bone is a significant contributor to blood lead during lactation

  20. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, W.; Zhang, B. X.; Yao, K. Y.; Yoon, I.; Chung, Y. H.; Wang, J. K.; Liu, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  1. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Zhang, B X; Yao, K Y; Yoon, I; Chung, Y H; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of SCFP. Feed efficiency (milk yield/dry matter intake) was highest (p<0.05) for cows fed 240 g/d SCFP. Cows supplemented with SCFP gained (p<0.01) body weight, while cows in the control lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of SCFP. Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (p<0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SCFP, while no difference (p>0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and

  2. Feeding rumen-inert fats differing in their degree of saturation decreases intake and increases plasma concentrations of gut peptides in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2007-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of feeding rumen-inert fats differing in their degree of saturation on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in lactating dairy cows. Four midlactation, primiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 2-wk periods. Cows were fed a control mixed ration ad libitum, and treatments were the dietary addition (3.5% of ration dry matter) of 3 rumen-inert fats as sources of mostly saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Daily DMI, milk yield, and composition were measured on the last 4 d of each period. Jugular vein blood was collected every 30 min over a 7-h period on d 12 and 14 of each period for analysis of plasma concentrations of hormones, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids. Feeding fat decreased DMI, and the decrease tended to be greater for MUFA and PUFA compared with SFA. Plasma concentration of GLP-1 increased when fat was fed and was greater for MUFA and PUFA. Feeding fat increased plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and CCK concentrations and decreased plasma insulin concentration. Plasma CCK concentration was greater for MUFA and PUFA than for SFA and was greater for MUFA than PUFA. Decreases in DMI in cows fed fat were associated with increased plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and CCK and a decreased insulin concentration. The role of these peptides in regulating DMI in cattle fed fat requires further investigation.

  3. Short-wave solar radiation level willingly tolerated by lactating Holstein cows in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; Costa, Cíntia Carol de Melo; de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Costa, Leonardo Lelis de Macedo

    2014-12-01

    The amount of short-wave solar radiation willingly tolerated by lactating Holstein cows on pasture was determined in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The study was carried out on a dairy farm located in Limoeiro do Norte, CE, northeastern Brazil. The observed behaviours were as follows: grazing, under the sun, under the shade, standing, lying, ruminating, idling and wallowing in the water. The behaviours were recorded using instantaneous scan sampling at regular intervals of 15 min from 0600 to 1800 hours over 5 days. On all sampling days, the meteorological variables, including local short-wave solar radiation (R S-W, W m(-2)), were recorded. The R S-W data were divided into five levels. The sun exposure was more frequent under low (100 %) and moderately low (97 %) levels, when R S-W remained below 500 W m(-2). The grazing was more intense under low (100 %) and moderately low (93 %) levels. Above 500 W m(-2), the grazing time significantly decreased (11 %). The cows avoided grazing under high (0 %) and very high (0 %) levels, when R S-W exceeded 700 W m(-2). The ruminating behaviour was more frequent under high (33 %) and very high (37 %) levels, in which the highest averages of R S-W were recorded (815 and 958 W m(-2), respectively). The standing posture was more frequent under low (100 %) and moderately low (97 %) levels. Therefore, the critical R S-W level that motivates cows to stop grazing and seek shade was in the interval between 500 and 700 W m(-2).

  4. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. Piccolotto; Lemos, J.R. Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R. Souza; Martins, M. Gassen; Nascimento, C.H.; Bayona, M.; Marcon, J.L.; Monteiro, J. Barros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Objective Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Research Methods Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. Results There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating

  5. Leptin, GH, PRL, insulin and metabolic parameters throughout the dry period and lactation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, P A; Govoni, N; Gaiani, R; Pezzi, C; Seren, E; Tamanini, C

    2005-06-01

    Leptin may play a role in the endocrine-metabolic processes that guarantee the physiological course of lactation in dairy cattle. This study was aimed at determining the changes in plasma concentrations of leptin and some of the main hormones and metabolites involved in the lactogenetic process in high-yielding dairy cows throughout lactation; we also wanted to assess whether leptin secretion is subjected to seasonal influences. Blood samples were collected from 23 Italian Friesian dairy cows from the end of a lactation to the ninth month of the subsequent one; in addition, blood was sampled from 47 dairy cows in different phases of lactation during February and July. Plasma concentrations of leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin, prolactin (PRL), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and urea were quantified by either validated radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzymatic colorimetric methods. At the beginning of lactation, GH concentrations significantly increased, while a significant reduction occurred in leptin and insulin. This endocrine condition, such as the significant increase in NEFA plasma concentrations, is indicative of a marked lipid mobilization. In the more advanced stages of lactation, when both energy and protein balances become positive, leptin plasma concentrations increased, whereas GH and NEFA concentrations declined. During the summer months, a significant increase in leptin plasma concentrations, irrespective of the phase of lactation, was observed. Collectively, our findings suggest that, in dairy cows, leptin may represent a 'metabolic signal' of animal's status of fattening and nutritional level; in addition, leptin seems to be influenced by photoperiod and environmental temperature.

  6. Study of plasma adrenomedullin level in normal pregnancy and preclampsia.

    PubMed

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; el-Salam, Gamal E Abd; el-Mashad, Ashraf I

    2008-02-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy.

  7. Study of Plasma Adrenomedullin Level In Normal Pregnancy and Preclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; Abd El Salam, Gamal E.; El Mashad, Ashraf I.

    2008-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. Subjects and Methods In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Results Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy. PMID:18382699

  8. NORMAL MAMMARY GLAND MORPHOLOGY IN PUBERTAL FEMALE MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENISTEIN AT LEVELS COMPARABLE TO HUMAN DIETARY EXPOSURE. (R827402)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbest...

  9. The occurrence of Listeria monocytogens in retail ready-to-eat meat and poultry products related to the levels of Acetate and Lactate in the products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from ready-to-eat meat and poultry products (RTE meats). The purpose of this study was to quantify lactate and acetate levels in retail RTE meats that had been tested in a previous study for the presence of L. mono...

  10. Analysis of production responses to changing crude protein levels in lactating dairy cow diets when evaluated in continuous or change-over experimental designs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by meta-analysis the effect of experimental design on the production response functions obtained when changing crude protein levels in lactating dairy cow diets. The final database of studies that met the selection criteria contained 55 publications with 2...

  11. Monitoring of vitamin E status of dry, early and mid-late lactating organic dairy cows fed conserved roughages during the indoor period and factors influencing forage vitamin E levels.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, A; Vicca, J; Van Ranst, G; Janssens, G P J; Fievez, V

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of blood plasma of 60 cows selected on six Flemish organic dairy farms revealed that on average 12% of all samples and on one farm up to 28% of the organic cows showed plasma vitamin E concentrations less than 3.0 μg/ml, which is considered the minimum level to avoid health risks due to vitamin E shortages. Furthermore, this study showed early lactating and dry cows to be more at risk in relation to animals in mid-late lactation. In European organic farming, vitamin supplements are only allowed if granted by the local authority to satisfy daily requirements. Therefore, the vitamin E content of the feedstuffs used on the farms was determined. Grass clover silage (GCS) and mixed silage had significantly more vitamin E than hay, maize or grain (p < 0.05) [mean (SD): 52 (35), 29 (20), 4.5 (1.7), 4.9 (4.4) and 7.1 (3.8) mg/kg DM, respectively]. Apparently, variation in the vitamin E content in the silage samples was huge. Hence, the vitamin E content of ryegrass, white and red clover was determined in a second lab scale experiment and the effects of wilting, DM content and supplementation of ensiling additives were investigated. Fresh ryegrass had a higher vitamin E content than white and red clover (p < 0.05) [156 (11.3), 49.3 (0.67) and 74.3 (5.73) μg/g DM, respectively]. These differences remained after the wilting or ensiling. Supplementation of formic acid or lactic acid bacteria at ensiling had no significant effect on the vitamin E content. Overall, it can be concluded that GCS is the most important source of vitamin E in organic dairy farming. A legal possibility for case-related supplementation should be retained in organic dairy farming as approximately 18% of all dry and early lactating cows were at risk of vitamin E shortage.

  12. Plasma amino acid response to graded levels of escape protein.

    PubMed

    Gibb, D J; Klopfenstein, T J; Britton, R A; Lewis, A J

    1992-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the potential of using plasma amino acid responses to graded levels of escape protein to determine limiting amino acids in cattle. Growing calves (n = 120; mean BW = 220 +/- 21 kg) were fed a basal diet of corncob:sorghum silage (61:39) and were individually supplemented with distillers' dried grains (DDG), heat-damaged DDG (H-DDG), feather meal (FTH), or urea. The urea supplement was mixed with DDG and H-DDG to allow 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, or 80% of the supplemental CP to come from distillers' protein and maintain an 11.5% CP diet. Urea supplement was mixed with FTH to allow 0, 22, 39, 56, 73, or 90% of the supplemental CP to come from FTH. Dietary CP ranged from 11.5% at the 0% level to 17.3% at the 90% level. Plasma concentration of most essential plasma amino acids responded (P less than .10) linearly and(or) quadratically to increased escape protein. The broken-line response of plasma methionine at low DDG intake suggested that methionine was limiting at low levels of escape protein. An initial decrease followed by a plateau fit by a broken line indicated that histidine became limiting in FTH diets, and lysine eventually became limiting for DDG, H-DDG, and FTH diets before maximum BW gain was reached. Results indicate that plasma amino acid responses may identify amino acids that become limiting with increasing escape protein.

  13. Plasma BDNF levels following weight recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kathryn E; Jimerson, David C; Pillai, Anilkumar; Wolfe, Barbara E

    2016-10-15

    Preclinical studies have implicated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of eating behavior and body weight. As reviewed in this report, prior studies of BDNF levels in anorexia nervosa have yielded variable results, perhaps reflecting effects of malnutrition and psychiatric comorbidity. The goal of the current report was to assess plasma BDNF as a biomarker in weight-recovered individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa (ANWR). Study groups included women meeting criteria for ANWR and healthy female controls. Participants were in a normal weight range, free of current major psychiatric disorder, and free of medication. Self-ratings included eating disorder symptoms, depression and anxiety. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme linked immunoassay. Plasma BDNF levels were not significantly different for ANWR and control groups. Plasma BDNF levels were inversely correlated with anxiety ratings in controls (p<0.02) but not in the ANWR group. This report provides new evidence that circulating BDNF concentrations do not differ in healthy controls and ANWR free of psychiatric comorbidity. Additionally, the data provide new information on the relationship between plasma BDNF and anxiety in these two study groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between plasma and saliva quinine levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Dixon, P A

    1996-02-01

    The relationship between saliva and plasma levels of quinine was studied in four healthy volunteers. After a single oral dose of quinine sulfate (600 mg) to the volunteers, quinine was determined in both saliva and plasma simultaneously over a 48-h period by an ion pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography method. The tmax (4.3 +/- 0.5 h) and elimination half-life (11.8 +/- 2.9 h) of quinine derived from saliva levels were comparable with those obtained from plasma levels (tmax = 2.8 +/- 0.2 h, t1/2 = 12.9 +/- 2.3 h). A significant correlation existed between the plasma and saliva concentrations of the drug (r = 0.93, n = 20, p < 0.001). The mean saliva/plasma quinine concentration ratio was 0.24 +/- 0.02. The results suggest that quinine is passively secreted into saliva and that saliva level determination may be useful as a noninvasive method in the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters and therapeutic drug monitoring of quinine.

  15. Plasma ionized magnesium levels in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarici, S Umit; Serdar, Muhittin A; Erdem, Gülşen; Alpay, Faruk; Tekinalp, Gülsevin; Yurdakök, Murat; Yigit, Sule; Gökcay, Erdal

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of ionized magnesium (IMg) provides an accurate assessment of the free form of Mg, which is the physiologically active form and is most reflective of the biologically active and not easily measurable intracellular Mg fraction. Plasma levels of IMg were measured by ion-selective electrode method in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and relationships and correlations between IMg levels and various demographic, prognostic and laboratory characteristics were investigated by comparing the premature newborns with (study group; n = 19) and without RDS (control group; n = 20) in the present study. The values of the postnatal arterial pH and base excess and plasma IMg levels were significantly different between the study and control groups, and the number of newborns with any morbidity was significantly higher in the study group. Within the study group there were significant negative correlations between the plasma IMg levels and the values of the umbilical cord arterial pH (r = -0.621, p = 0.005) and base excess (r = -0.746, p = 0.001), and the value of the postnatal arterial base excess (r = -0.585, p = 0.008). The newborns who died later had higher plasma IMg levels than those who survived (0.89 +/- 0.45 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.24 mmol/l, p = 0.026). These findings suggest that increase of plasma IMg may be due to extracellular movement of Mg, which is a principally intracellular ion, as a result of acidosis, hypoxia and probable cellular injury during the early course of RDS. The exact pathophysiological mechanism responsible for IMg increase, and whether determination of plasma IMg level, including umbilical cord blood IMg measurement, can be used as an early or predictive indicator of RDS in the diagnosis remain to be determined in further large-scale studies. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Relationship of blood cadmium level to hypertension and plasma norepinephrine level: a Romanian study (41159)

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; Zinsmeister, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    The associations of blood cadmium levels with hypertension and plasma norepinephrine concentrations were determined in normotensive and hypertensive nonsmokers and smokers. Statistical analysis showed that after adjustment for age alone, the estimated mean values of blood cadmium and plasma norepinephrine in nonsmokers were significantly lower than in smokers. However, after adjustment for age and blood cadmium, the estimated mean values for plasma norepinephrine were not significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers or normotensives and hypertensives. In contrast the estimated mean value for blood cadmium as a function of blood pressure and smoking habit was still significant after adjustment for age and plasma norepinephrine. We suggest that smoking and blood pressure affect the level of blood cadmium, and through this change in blood cadmium the level of plasma norepinephrine is affected.

  17. Impact of probiotic-supplemented diet on the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase in the leukocytes of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Magdy A E; Moselhy, Said S

    2014-04-01

    Probiotics are known as living, nonpathogenic microorganisms that colonize the intestine and provide benefit to the host. The present study aims to measure one important energy metabolism-related enzyme activity in blood of rabbits fed on probiotics of recommended concentration. In addition, it also aims for the evaluation of the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Two groups of rabbits are used: control group receiving normal standardized diet and the other probiotic-supplemented group receiving the same diet containing probiotic, namely, Mega acidophilus (200 million cfu/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that the rabbits supplemented with probiotics showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) when compared with control group. Risk factors detected by measuring TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios showed statistically significant decrease in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. In addition, blood glucose and total LDH activity were elevated in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. RT-PCR products of LDH-M gene produced two specific amplicons. One amplicon has the expected size of 243 bp from all samples of rabbits as revealed by GelPro software. The level of LDH-M expression was found to be increased in the probiotic-supplemented group. However, unexpected amplicons are produced at 586 bp in all the samples, which may be a dimeric form of the amplified region. It was concluded that this probiotic blend is beneficiary for the metabolic reactions of lipids in the body. Moreover, LDH expression level can be considered as a biomarker for the effect of probiotic and hence monitoring the metabolic changes as reflected from its administration.

  18. Vitamin B12 levels in human milk during the first nine months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Ford, C; Rendle, M; Tracy, M; Richardson, V; Ford, H

    1996-01-01

    Vitamin B12 concentration was measured by competitive binding radioassay in 48 samples of human milk from healthy mothers eating unrestricted diets. Specimens were collected 1-35 weeks after full-term delivery and were subjected to proteolytic digestion before radioassay in order to destroy binding proteins. The distribution of the results was skewed, but the distribution of the logged values was not significantly different from normal. The geometric mean vitamin B12 level remained almost unchanged during the first 12 weeks postpartum (261-297 pmol/l) and then declined to a low of 139 pmol/l at 27-35 weeks. A significant (P = 0.033) decline in vitamin B12 concentration between 6-12 weeks and 19-25 weeks postpartum was observed.

  19. Involvement of plasma adipokines in metabolic and reproductive parameters in Holstein dairy cows fed with diets with differing energy levels.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, N; Rame, C; Touzé, J L; Briant, E; Ma, L; Guillaume, D; Lomet, D; Caraty, A; Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Dupont, J

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between plasma adipokine concentrations and metabolic and reproductive parameters in Holstein dairy cows fed diets with different energy levels during the peripartum period. The experiment started 1 mo before first calving and was maintained for 2 lactations. Dry matter intake and energy balance in animals fed a low-energy (LE) diet were significantly lower than that of animals fed a high-energy (HE) diet in the first lactation. Body weight, milk production, back fat thickness, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, glucose, and insulin were not affected by diet, whereas plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were lower and plasma resistin concentrations higher in animals fed the LE diet. Unlike concentrations of adiponectin, plasma resistin concentrations were positively correlated with back fat thickness and plasma fatty acids concentrations and negatively correlated with dry matter intake and plasma leptin concentrations. No effect of diet was found on reproductive variables; that is, pregnancy rates at 35 or 90 d after artificial insemination (AI); numbers of small (3-5 mm), medium (>5 and ≤7 mm), and large (>7 mm) follicles; calving-to-AI and calving-to-calving intervals; and magnitude and duration of the LH surge. However, the commencement of luteal activity after first calving occurred sooner and the frequency of LH pulses was higher in the HE group than in the LE group. A significant positive correlation was found between the number of follicles (of any size) and the area under the curve of plasma resistin concentrations. The number of small follicles was also positively correlated with the nadir of plasma resistin concentrations. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary energy content in the range applied here can alter the resumption of ovarian activity and LH pulsatility without affecting fat mobilization. Plasma adipokine profiles (leptin, resistin, and adiponectin) were significantly

  20. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  1. Effects of monensin and starch level in early lactation diets on indices of immune function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; McCarthy, M M; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Felippe, M J B; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch level and monensin on immune function. Prior to parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400 mg/d monensin. From 1 to 21 d in milk (DIM), cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0 or 450 mg of monensin/d continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From 22 through 63 DIM, all cows were fed HS and continued with assigned topdress treatment until 63 DIM. Endometrial cytology and whole-blood immune function were assessed at 8 DIM and on 1 d between 40 and 60 DIM. At 8 DIM, cows fed HS had an increased percentage (%) of phagocytic monocytes and tended to have a greater phagocytosis index (% of positive cells × mean fluorescence intensity) in monocytes compared with cows fed LS. At 8 DIM, cows fed HS also tended to have a higher percentage of monocytes involved in oxidative burst and a higher monocyte oxidative burst index compared with LS cows. At 8 DIM, blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from cows fed monensin during the periparturient period tended to have higher PMN glycogen content compared with control cows. At 40 to 60 DIM, the incidence of cytological endometritis as diagnosed by uterine cytology was not affected by dietary treatment. However, at 40 to 60 DIM, cows fed monensin had an increased percentage of Escherichia coli-stimulated PMN, tended to have a greater percentage of monocytes involved in oxidative burst, and tended to have an increased E. coli-stimulated monocyte oxidative burst index. At 40 to 60 DIM, blood PMN isolated from cows fed HS during early lactation had higher PMN glycogen content compared with cows fed LS during early lactation. Overall, results suggest that feeding higher starch diets postpartum and peripartal supplementation with monensin may

  2. Stretching and deep and superficial massage do not influence blood lactate levels after heavy-intensity cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Maggioni, Martina A; Rampichini, Susanna; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the role of deep and superficial massage and passive stretching recovery on blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]) kinetics after a fatiguing exercise compared to active and passive recovery. Nine participants (age 23 ± 1 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.02 m; body mass 74 ± 4 kg) performed on five occasions an 8-min fatiguing exercise at 90% of maximum oxygen uptake, followed by five different 10-min interventions in random order: passive and active recovery, deep and superficial massage and stretching. Interventions were followed by 1 hour of recovery. Throughout each session, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles, [La(-)], cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables were determined. Electromyographic signal (EMG) from the quadriceps muscles was also recorded. At the end of the fatiguing exercise, [La(-)], MVC, EMG amplitude, and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were similar among conditions. During intervention administration, [La(-)] was lower and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were higher in active recovery compared to the other modalities (P < 0.05). Stretching and deep and superficial massage did not alter [La(-)] kinetics compared to passive recovery. These findings indicate that the pressure exerted during massage administration and stretching manoeuvres did not play a significant role on post-exercise blood La(-) levels.

  3. A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: a 3-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of urinary output and vital signs to guide initial burn resuscitation may lead to suboptimal resuscitation. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may result in over-resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the results of a goal-directed burn resuscitation protocol that used standard measures of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output, plus transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and lactate levels to adjust fluid therapy to achieve a minimum level of preload to allow for sufficient vital organ perfusion. Methods We conducted a three-year prospective cohort study of 132 consecutive critically burned patients. These patients underwent resuscitation guided by MAP (>65 mmHg), urinary output (0.5 to 1 ml/kg), TPTD and lactate levels. Fluid therapy was adjusted to achieve a cardiac index (CI) >2.5 L/minute/m2 and an intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) >600 ml/m2, and to optimize lactate levels. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models. We also used Pearson or Spearman methods and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results A total of 98 men and 34 women (mean age, 48 ± 18 years) was studied. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 35% ± 22%. During the early resuscitation phase, lactate levels were elevated (2.58 ± 2.05 mmol/L) and TPTD showed initial hypovolemia by the CI (2.68 ± 1.06 L/minute/m2) and the ITBVI (709 ± 254 mL/m2). At 24 to 32 hours, the CI and lactic levels were normalized, although the ITBVI remained below the normal range (744 ± 276 ml/m2). The mean fluid rate required to achieve protocol targets in the first 8 hours was 4.05 ml/kg/TBSA burned, which slightly increased in the next 16 hours. Patients with a urine output greater than or less than 0.5 ml/kg/hour did not show differences in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CI, ITBVI or lactate levels. Conclusions Initial hypovolemia may be detected by TPTD monitoring during the early resuscitation phase. This hypovolemia might not be reflected by blood

  4. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  5. Plasma bilirubin level and oxidative stress in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Dani, C; Martelli, E; Bertini, G; Pezzati, M; Filippi, L; Rossetti, M; Rizzuti, G; Rubaltelli, F

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hypothesis that changes in plasma total bilirubin levels (Btot) can influence the antioxidant system and oxidative stress in preterm infants. Methods: Twenty two healthy preterm infants who presented with visible non-haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia were studied at the mean (SD) age of 3.7 (1.5) days. Btot, plasma total hydroperoxide concentration (TH), plasma protein SH group concentration, and total antioxidant capacity of the plasma (TAC) were measured at study entry and after 24 hours. Results: Btot did not correlate with TH, TAC, or protein SH group concentration, but a significant correlation was found between TH and TAC, TH and protein SH groups, and TAC and protein SH groups, both at study entry and after 24 hours. Conclusion: The decrease in plasma bilirubin was contemporary with an increase in plasma antioxidant capacity and decrease in oxidative stress in preterm infants. This may be the result of the pro-oxidant effect of haem oxygenase, mediated by iron release, which may outcompete the antioxidant properties of bilirubin. PMID:12598500

  6. Plasma bilirubin level and oxidative stress in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Dani, C; Martelli, E; Bertini, G; Pezzati, M; Filippi, L; Rossetti, M; Rizzuti, G; Rubaltelli, F F

    2003-03-01

    To assess the hypothesis that changes in plasma total bilirubin levels (Btot) can influence the antioxidant system and oxidative stress in preterm infants. Twenty two healthy preterm infants who presented with visible non-haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia were studied at the mean (SD) age of 3.7 (1.5) days. Btot, plasma total hydroperoxide concentration (TH), plasma protein SH group concentration, and total antioxidant capacity of the plasma (TAC) were measured at study entry and after 24 hours. Btot did not correlate with TH, TAC, or protein SH group concentration, but a significant correlation was found between TH and TAC, TH and protein SH groups, and TAC and protein SH groups, both at study entry and after 24 hours. The decrease in plasma bilirubin was contemporary with an increase in plasma antioxidant capacity and decrease in oxidative stress in preterm infants. This may be the result of the pro-oxidant effect of haem oxygenase, mediated by iron release, which may outcompete the antioxidant properties of bilirubin.

  7. Venous lactate, pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide levels as prognostic indicators in 110 premature calves with respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, R; Aydogdu, U; Guzelbektes, H; Coskun, A; Sen, I

    2017-06-24

    Hyperlactatemia, hypercapnia, low pH and low oxygen saturation (SatO2) are commonly observed in premature calves. These clinical indicators are associated with increased mortality in preterm human newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic importance of venous pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and lactate level and which parameters are related with mortality in premature calves with RDS. All premature calves (52 male/58 female) were admitted to clinic within 12-24 hours after birth and blood samples were also taken into heparinised plastic syringes from the jugular vein within 30 minutes following admission. Diagnosis of RDS was made by both clinical signs and blood gas results. For the evaluation of independent samples, t test was used to compare the venous blood gas indicators of surviving and non-surviving premature calves. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to determine a cut-off value in terms of lactate and pCO2 measurements among non-surviving and surviving calves. Venous pH, pCO2, SatO2, base deficit, bicarbonate (HCO3) and lactate levels showed a significant variance between surviving and non-surviving calves. Mean venous pH, pCO2, SatO2, lactate levels in non-surviving premature calves was 7.05, 78.9 mm Hg, 16.1 per cent and 9.50 mmol/l, respectively. Mean pH, pCO2, SatO2 and lactate levels in surviving premature calves were 7.29, 56.3 mm Hg, 25.5 per cent and 5.1 mmol/l, respectively. The cut-off values for lactate and pCO2 were 7.5 mmol/l and 63.5 mm Hg, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the study show that venous blood lactate and pCO2 have prognostic importance in premature calves with RDS. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Increased lactate/pyruvate ratio augments blood flow in physiologically activated human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintun, Mark A.; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Rundle, Melissa M.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2004-01-01

    The factors regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in physiological activation remain the subject of great interest and debate. Recent experimental studies suggest that an increase in cytosolic NADH mediates increased blood flow in the working brain. Lactate injection should elevate NADH levels by increasing the lactate/pyruvate ratio, which is in near equilibrium with the NADH/NAD+ ratio. We studied CBF responses to bolus lactate injection at rest and in visual stimulation by using positron-emission tomography in seven healthy volunteers. Bolus lactate injection augmented the CBF response to visual stimulation by 38-53% in regions of the visual cortex but had no effect on the resting CBF or the whole-brain CBF. These lactate-induced CBF increases correlated with elevations in plasma lactate/pyruvate ratios and in plasma lactate levels but not with plasma pyruvate levels. Our observations support the hypothesis that an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio activates signaling pathways to selectively increase CBF in the physiologically stimulated brain regions.

  9. Plasma lipid levels in preterm neonates receiving parenteral fat emulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, J L; Shannon, D L; Hunter, M A; Brans, Y W

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of various plasma lipid fractions were determined during 96 hours of continuous parenteral infusions of lipid emulsions in 10 normally-grown neonates whose birth-weights ranged from 960 to 1760 g and whose gestational ages ranged from 26 to 32 weeks. Total lipid, triglyceride, free glycerol, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. During lipid infusions, mean plasma concentrations of all lipid fractions increased above the mean preinfusion values if 2 g/kg a day or more of lipid emulsion was used. There were no further significant increases in mean plasma lipid levels if the infused dosage was increased to 3 or 4 g/kg a day. At these higher infusion rates however, there were considerable individual variations. The only neonate less than 27 weeks of gestation had plasma lipid levels severalfold higher than any of his peers, his plasma was frankly creamy on visual inspection, and the study had to be stopped. Further investigations are needed to determine the optimal modalities of parenteral nutrition with fat emulsions. PMID:6402989

  10. Modulation of Human Plasma Fibronectin Levels Following Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    increased under conditions of pathology, such as in obesity (6). cancer (3). proteinuria (4). diabetic retinopathy (5). and preeclampsia (27). in the absence...Res. 1977: 22:709-716. 27. Stubbs. T.M.. Lazarchick. J.. and Horger. E.O. Plasma fibronectin levels in preeclampsia : A possible biochemical marker

  11. Elevated plasma ammonia level in hepatic cirrhosis: role of glucagon.

    PubMed

    Kabadi, U M; Eisenstein, A B; Konda, J

    1985-03-01

    Elevated plasma ammonia level in hepatic cirrhosis has been attributed to a lack of conversion of enteric ammonia into urea or to its entry into systemic circulation via portasystemic shunting, or to both. It is exaggerated by excessive protein intake. Because hyperglucagonemia is well documented in cirrhosis and a protein meal is an effective glucagon secretagogue, plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and ammonia levels were determined in 50 cirrhotic patients after an overnight fast. Effects of a protein meal were also assessed in 20 of these patients. Plasma glucose was normal and remained unaltered after a protein meal. Insulin, glucagon, and ammonia levels were elevated, but only in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. Ammonia levels correlated significantly with glucagon (r = 0.61, p less than 0.001), but not with insulin or glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon levels rose after a protein meal in all patients and controls; whereas a significant rise in the ammonia level occurred only in decompensated cirrhotics. Elevation of the ammonia level was significantly correlated with fasting glucagon (r = 0.54, p less than 0.05), as well as with glucagon response (r = 0.65, p less than 0.01), but not with basal insulin or insulin response. Furthermore, the rise in ammonia level occurred too early to be accounted for by enteric generation. Finally, direct effects of glucagon administration on plasma glucose and serum ammonia were examined in 15 cirrhotic patients. Glucose response was significantly blunted in cirrhotic patients as compared with normal subjects, whereas serum ammonia rose promptly but only in cirrhotics, with maximum rise being noted in cirrhotic patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This study, therefore, suggests that hyperglucagonemia may contribute significantly to hyperammonemia in hepatic cirrhosis.

  12. Progesterone and estradiol plasma levels in neonatally irradiated cycling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freud, A.; Sod-Moriah, U.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Female rats which were exposed to a single low dose of gamma irradiation (6R or 15R) at the age of 8 days produce smaller litters when mature than untreated controls. The possibility that the impaired fertility resulted from altered ovarian activity as reflected by changes in plasma levels of progesterone or estardiol was investigated. Plasma levels of both steroids were determined throughout the day of proestrus. Progesterone level was also determined in 6R animals on the day of weaning. The maturity of such irradiated rats was assessed by observing the time of vaginal opening. The results indicated that the preovulatory peak of progesterone was delayed in the 6R rats whereas in the 15R group its levels were significantly lower. On the other hand no differences in estradiol plasma levels were noticed between the groups. The higher level of progesterone in the 6R animals was not evident on the day of weaning and was even in both groups, but vaginal opening in the irradiated rats was significantly delayed. The elevated level of progesterone might be responsible, among other endocrine changes, for the lower fertility of neonatally irradiated mature female rats.

  13. Plasma ghrelin levels in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Göksal; Inal, Ali; Ilikçi, Rahşan; Baysal, Ozan

    2009-01-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) is a familial disease characterized by recurrent episodes of febrile serositis, peritonitis, arthritis and pleuritis. Many studies have been performed is an attempt to understand the basis of the inflammatory attacts in FMF. Ghrelin, a recently described orexigene peptide is predominantly produced by stomach. Ghrelin also exerts multiple regulatory effects on immune system. It has reported that grelin has anti-inflammatory effects. There is currently no published evidence demonstrating a role for anti-inflammatory effects of ghrelin in FMF. For this reason, we investigated the role of plasma ghrelin levels in patients with FMF. Thirty seven patients with FMF and 10 healthy controls (5 female, 5 male; mean age 35.4 +/- 5.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Twenty-one patients were in active stage (10 female, 11 male, mean age; 31.0 +/- 5.4 years, mean disease duration 7.2 +/- 3.3 years) and 16 patients were in inactive stage (7 female,9 male, mean age; 33.0 +/- 6.0 years, mean disease duration; 8.7 +/- 3.2 years). Plasma ghrelin levels were determined by EIA. The mean plasma ghrelin levels were 158.4 +/- 52.9 pg/ml in patients with FMF and 56.7 +/- 7.5 pg/ml in healthy controls. The mean plasma ghrelin levels were 190.5 +/- 49.4 pg/ml in the active patients and 116.2 +/- 11.7 pg/ml in the inactive patients. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly high in patients with FMF compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly high in the active patients compared to in the inactive patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). There was significantly difference between in active and inactive patients with FMF (p<0.001). As a results; Plasma ghrelin levels were high both in active and inactive patients with FMF. It is showed that ghrelin may play significant role of the pathogenesis of FMF.

  14. Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tékus, Éva; Váczi, Márk; Horváth-Szalai, Zoltán; Ludány, Andrea; Kőszegi, Tamás; Wilhelm, Márta

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p < 0.05), as well as baseline and the highest value of post-exercise AGP (p < 0.05). Relationships were found between GSN levels and other indirect EIMD markers (between all GSN levels at post-exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p < 0.05; GSNMIN and muscle soreness at post-exercise, p < 0.04), GSN and AGP; however, actin did not correlate at any time points with GSN. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK responses after eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury.

  15. Effect of dietary level of rumen-degraded protein on production and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reynal, S M; Broderick, G A

    2005-11-01

    Twenty-eight (8 with ruminal cannulas) lactating Holstein cows were assigned to 4 x 4 Latin squares and fed diets with different levels of rumen-degraded protein (RDP) to study the effect of RDP on production and N metabolism. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 37% corn silage, 13% alfalfa silage, and 50% concentrate. The concentrate contained solvent and lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal and urea, and was adjusted to provide RDP at: 13.2, 12.3, 11.7, and 10.6% of DM in diets A to D, respectively. Intake of DM and yield of milk, fat-corrected milk, and fat were not affected by treatments. Dietary RDP had positive linear effects on milk true protein content and microbial non-ammonia N (NAN) flow at the omasal canal, and a quadratic effect on true protein yield, with maximal protein production at 12.3% RDP. However, dietary RDP had a positive linear effect on total N excretion, with urinary N accounting for most of the increase, and a negative linear effect on environmental N efficiency (kg of milk produced per kg of N excreted). Therefore, a compromise between profitability and environmental quality was achieved at a dietary RDP level of 11.7% of DM. Observed microbial NAN flow and RDP supply were higher and RUP flow was lower than those predicted by the NRC (2001) model. The NRC (2001) model overpredicted production responses to RUP compared with the results in this study. Replacing default NRC degradation rates for protein supplements with rates measured in vivo resulted in similar observed and predicted values, suggesting that in situ degradation rates used by the NRC are slower than apparent rates in this study.

  16. Effect of dietary roughage level on chewing activity, ruminal pH, and saliva secretion in lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jiang, F G; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Hu, Z Y; Liu, G M; Sun, Y D; Liu, X W; Wang, Z H

    2017-04-01

    Increasing dietary roughage level is a commonly used strategy to prevent subacute ruminal acidosis. We hypothesized that high-roughage diets could promote chewing activity, saliva secretion, and hence more alkaline to buffer rumen pH. To verify the hypothesis, 12 multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a triplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with one cow in each treatment surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula. Treatments were diets containing 40, 50, 60, or 70% of roughage on a DM basis. Increasing dietary roughage level decreased DM, CP, OM, starch, and NEL intake, increased ADF intake, and decreased milk yield linearly. Intake of NDF was quite stable across treatments and ranged from 7.8 to 8.1 kg/d per cow. Daily eating time increased linearly with increased roughage level. The increase in eating time was due to increased eating time per meal but not number of meals per day, which was stable and ranged from 8.3 to 8.5 meals per day across treatments. Increasing dietary roughage level had no effect on ruminating time (min/d), the number of ruminating periods (rumination periods per d), and chewing time per ruminating period (min/ruminating period). Ruminating time per kilogram of NDF intake and total chewing time per kilogram of ADF intake were similar across treatments (57.4 and 183.8 min/kg, respectively). Increasing dietary roughage level linearly increased daily total chewing time; linearly elevated the mean, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH; and linearly decreased total VFA concentration and molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid. Saliva secretion during eating was increased, the secretion during rumination was unaffected, but the secretion during resting tended to decrease with increased dietary roughage level. As a result, total saliva secretion was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, the results of the present study did not support the concept that high-roughage diets elevated ruminal p

  17. Level shifts and inelastic electron scattering in dense plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J.; Blaha, M.

    1982-01-01

    A completely quantum mechanical formalism has been developed to describe the high density plasma effects on fundamental atomic parameters. Both the bound and free electrons are treated by a method which in principle is similar to Hartree's self-consistent field method. The free plasma electrons' wavefunction is obtained from the Schroedinger equation with the effective potential representing the spherically averaged Coulomb interaction with bound and free electrons. Results are given for level shifts, coefficients of transition probabilities, and electron collision cross sections of Ne(9+) for temperatures of 200 and 500 eV for an electron density range of 1-6 x 10 to the 24th per cu cm.

  18. Human traumatic brain injury alters plasma microRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Ward, Norman H; Hergenroeder, Georgene W; Dash, Pramod K

    2010-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) present in the serum/plasma are characteristically altered in many pathological conditions, and have been employed as diagnostic markers for specific diseases. We examined if plasma miRNA levels are altered in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to matched healthy volunteers, and explored their potential for use as diagnostic TBI biomarkers. The plasma miRNA profiles from severe TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) and age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy volunteers were compared by microarray analysis. Of the 108 miRNAs identified in healthy volunteer plasma, 52 were altered after severe TBI, including 33 with decreased and 19 with increased relative abundance. An additional 8 miRNAs were detected only in the TBI plasma. We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine if plasma miRNAs could identify TBI patients within the first 24 h post-injury. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that miR-16, miR-92a, and miR-765 were good markers of severe TBI (0.89, 0.82, and 0.86 AUC values, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that combining these miRNAs markedly increased diagnostic accuracy (100% specificity and 100% sensitivity), compared to either healthy volunteers or orthopedic injury patients. In mild TBI patients (GCS score > 12), miR-765 levels were unchanged, while the plasma levels of miR-92a and miR-16 were significantly increased within the first 24 h of injury compared to healthy volunteers, and had AUC values of 0.78 and 0.82, respectively. Our results demonstrate that circulating miRNA levels are altered after TBI, providing a rich new source of potential molecular biomarkers. Plasma-derived miRNA biomarkers, used in combination with established clinical practices such as imaging, neurocognitive, and motor examinations, have the potential to improve TBI patient classification and possibly management.

  19. Smoking, COPD and 3-Nitrotyrosine Levels of Plasma Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hongjun; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Peterson, Elena S.; Tan, Ruimin; Bigelow, Diana J.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Hoidal, John R.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide is a physiologically regulator of endothelial function and hemodynamics. Oxidized products of nitric oxide can form nitrotyrosine, which is a marker of nitrative stress. Cigarette smoking decreases exhaled nitric oxide, and the underlying mechanism may be important in the cardiovascular toxicity of cigarette smoke, although it is not clear if this effect results from decreased nitric oxide production or oxidation of nitric oxide to reactive, nitrating, species. These processes would be expected to have opposite effects on nitrotyrosine levels, a marker of nitrative stress. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we determine the effects of smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on circulating levels of nitrotyrosine, and thereby gain insight into the processes regulating nitrotyrosine formation. METHODS: A custom antibody microarray platform was used to analyze the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine modifications on 24 proteins in plasma. Plasma samples from 458 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Nitrotyrosine levels in circulating proteins were uniformly reduced in smokers but increased in COPD patients. We also observed a persistent suppression of nitrotyrosine in former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking broadly suppresses the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma proteins, suggesting that cigarette smoke suppresses endothelial nitric oxide production. In contrast, the increase in nitrotyrosine levels in COPD patients most likely results from inflammatory processes. This study provides the first evidence that smoking has irreversible effects on endothelial production of nitric oxide, and provides insight into how smoking could induce a loss of elasticity in the vasculature and a long-term increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Evaluation of urinary S100B protein level and lactate/creatinine ratio for early diagnosis and prognostic prediction of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zheng, Chong-Xun; Peng, Shu-Feng; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Su, Zu-You; He, Li; Ai, Ting

    2010-01-01

    Early identification and prevention of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns may reduce neonatal mortality and neurological dysfunction. To analyze the diagnostic and prognostic values of urinary S100B level and lactate/creatinine ratio in newborns with HIE. Seventy-eight full-term newborns with HIE and 25 normal newborns were enrolled. The Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) and Developmental Screening Test were scored. The concentration of urinary S100B protein was determined using the S100B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the levels of urinary lactate and creatinine were measured with the enzyme colorimetric method. Urinary S100B level on days 1-3 after birth and lactate/creatinine ratio on day 1 were significantly higher in newborns with HIE than those in the control group. Both indexes were positively correlated with the clinical grading of HIE. A cutoff value for the S100B level of 0.47 microg/l on day 3 after birth had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 92% for prediction of HIE. A lactate/creatinine ratio of more than 0.55 on day 1 showed the highest sensitivity (92%) and specificity (90%). A combination of both indexes improved the sensitivity and specificity to 99 and 97%, respectively. A negative correlation of both lactate/creatinine ratio on day 1 and S100B level on days 1-3 after birth with the NBNA score was identified on days 3, 7 and 14 after birth. The Developmental Screening Test score of 36 newborns with HIE within 6 months after birth showed that 65% of infants with moderate and high HIE had an abnormal developmental quotient. These data suggest that early measurement of both S100B level and lactate/creatinine ratio in the urine of newborns with HIE is a practical convenient and sensitive way to improve diagnosis on the third day of life and prognostic prediction of HIE. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Acute effects of low-level laser therapy irradiation on blood lactate and muscle fatigue perception in hospitalized patients with heart failure-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Caroline; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ramos, Rodrigo Santin; Assis, Livia; Sellera, Carlos Alberto Cyrillo; Trimer, Renata; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Arena, Ross; Guizilini, Solange

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the acute effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on functional capacity, perceived exertion, and blood lactate in hospitalized patients with heart failure (HF). Patients diagnosed with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction <45 %) were randomized and allocated prospectively into two groups: placebo LLLT group (n = 10)-subjects who were submitted to placebo laser and active LLLT group (n = 10)-subjects who were submitted to active laser. The 6-min walk test (6MWT) was performed, and blood lactate was determined at rest (before LLLT application and 6MWT), immediately after the exercise test (time 0) and recovery (3, 6, and 30 min). A multi-diode LLLT cluster probe (DMC, São Carlos, Brazil) was used. Both groups increased 6MWT distance after active or placebo LLLT application compared to baseline values (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively); however, no difference was observed during intergroup comparison. The active LLLT group showed a significant reduction in the perceived exertion Borg (PEB) scale compared to the placebo LLLT group (p = 0.006). In addition, the group that received active LLLT showed no statistically significant difference for the blood lactate level through the times analyzed. The placebo LLLT group demonstrated a significant increase in blood lactate between the rest and recovery phase (p < 0.05). Acute effects of LLLT irradiation on skeletal musculature were not able to improve the functional capacity of hospitalized patients with HF, although it may favorably modulate blood lactate metabolism and reduce perceived muscle fatigue.

  2. Plasma immunoreactive relaxin levels in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, E M; Carriere, B T; Sorensen, L; Segaloff, A; Schwabe, C; Steinetz, B G

    1978-11-01

    Immunoreactive relaxin was measured in plasma samples obtained from human volunteers utilizing the RIA procedure of Sherwood et al., as modified by O'Byrne and Steinetz for heterologous plasma samples. Immunoreactive hormone was not detected in samples obtained from men, and only rarely in plasma of nonpregnant women. Immunoreactive relaxin was present as early as the fourth week of pregnancy and was detectable throughout the course of gestation. Immunoreactive relaxin tended to be higher early in pregnancy, and there was no peak just before parturition as occurs in many other species. Our results are at variance with those of Bryant and coworkers, who reported high levels of immunoreactive relaxin in men and nonpregnant as well as pregnant women. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are presented.

  3. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    PubMed

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  4. Influence of maternal bone lead burden and calcium intake on levels of lead in breast milk over the course of lactation.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Peterson, Karen E; Schwartz, Joel; Aro, Antonio; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied 367 women who were breastfeeding their infants in Mexico City, Mexico, between 1994 and 1995 to evaluate the effect of cumulative lead exposure, breastfeeding practices, and calcium intake on breast milk lead levels over the course of lactation. Maternal blood and breast milk lead levels were measured at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum. Bone lead measurements were obtained at 1 month postpartum. At 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum, respectively, the mean breast milk lead levels were 1.4 (standard deviation (SD), 1.1), 1.2 (SD, 1.0), and 0.9 (SD, 0.8) microg/liter and showed a significant decreasing trend over the course of lactation (p < 0.00001). The relations of bone lead and blood lead to breast milk lead were modified by breastfeeding practice, with the highest breast milk lead levels among women with a high level of patella lead who were exclusively breastfeeding. Dietary calcium supplementation increased the rate of decline in breast milk lead by 5-10%, in comparison with a placebo, over the course of lactation, suggesting that calcium supplementation may constitute an important intervention strategy, albeit with a modest effect, for reducing lead in breast milk and thus the potential for exposure by infants.

  5. Disuse atrophy, plasma corticosterone, and muscle glucocorticoid receptor levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole-body suspension on the time course and the extent of plasma corticosterone changes and the tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were investigated in rats subjected to seven days of whole-body suspension. Plasma corticosterone increased significantly on the first and the third days of suspension, but returned to control levels by day seven. Muscle glucocorticoid receptors exhibited a characteristic hormonal specificity (evaluated in competitive-displacement experiments). In controls, receptor site concentration in the slow-twitch soleus was comparable to that in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius and plantaris, but was significantly less than in the extensor; seven days of suspension resulted in significant differential effects on muscle receptor levels. The largest increase in receptor concentration was observed in the soleus in which it remained elevated after the receptor levels in other muscles returned to normal.

  6. Plasma levels of S100A4 in portopulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tien; Zamanian, Roham; Krowka, Michael J; Benza, Raymond L; Roberts, Kari E; Taichman, Darren B; Rybak, Debbie; Trotter, James F; Brown, Robert S; Fallon, Michael B; Kawut, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    We previously showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in S100A4 was associated with portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) in patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to determine the association between plasma levels of S100A4 and PPHTN. We performed a case-control study of patients with advanced liver disease. Cases with PPHTN had mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg, pulmonary vascular resistance >240 dynes s cm(-5) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Plasma samples were assayed for S100A4. The study sample included 14 cases with PPHTN and 32 controls with liver disease. There was no difference in mean age between cases and controls (p = 0.52). Seventy-nine percent of cases were female compared with 44% of controls (p = 0.03). There was no difference in S100A4 levels between cases and controls (p = 0.58). Both groups had significantly higher S100A4 levels than healthy volunteers (p <0.05). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of S100A4 between PPHTN patients and controls with liver disease, although liver disease itself was associated with increased S100A4 levels.

  7. Plasma Levels of S100A4 in Portopulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tien; Zamanian, Roham; Krowka, Michael J.; Benza, Raymond L.; Roberts, Kari E.; Taichman, Darren B.; Rybak, Debbie; Trotter, James F.; Brown, Robert S.; Fallon, Michael B.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in S100A4 was associated with developing portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) in patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to determine the association between plasma levels of S100A4 and PPHTN. We performed a case-control study of patients with advanced liver disease. Cases with PPHTN had mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance > 240 dynes-sec · cm−5, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15 mm Hg. Controls with liver disease had right ventricular systolic pressure < 40 mm Hg and normal right atrial and ventricular morphology by echocardiography. Plasma samples were assayed for S100A4. The study sample included 14 cases with PPHTN and 32 liver disease controls. The mean age for both cases and controls was 52 ± 9 yrs. Eighty percent of cases were female compared to 42% of controls (p = 0.02). There was no difference in S100A4 levels between cases and controls (p = 0.53). Both groups had significantly higher S100A4 levels than healthy volunteers (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of S100A4 between PPHTN patients and controls with liver disease, although liver disease itself was associated with increased S100A4 levels. PMID:19399660

  8. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  9. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mikobi, Tite Minga; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Mvumbi Lelo, Georges; Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean Jacques; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; Mbuyi Mwamba, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA) were selected as a control group. Results The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 *) between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *), and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *). A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease. PMID:25946088

  10. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing in plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sauchyn, V.; Khvedchyn, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-07-01

    Methods of low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing comprise: cementation, bituminization, curing in polymer matrices, combustion and pyrolysis. All these methods are limited in their application in the field of chemical, morphological, and aggregate composition of material to be processed. The thermal plasma method is one of the universal methods of RAW processing. The use of electric-arc plasma with mean temperatures 2000 - 8000 K can effectively carry out the destruction of organic compounds into atoms and ions with very high speeds and high degree of conversion. Destruction of complex substances without oxygen leads to a decrease of the volume of exhaust gases and dimension of gas cleaning system. This paper presents the plasma reactor for thermal processing of low and intermediate level radioactive waste of mixed morphology. The equipment realizes plasma-pyrolytic conversion of wastes and results in a conditioned product in a single stage. As a result, the volume of conditioned waste is significantly reduced (more than 10 times). Waste is converted into an environmentally friendly form that suits long-term storage. The leaching rate of macro-components from the vitrified compound is less than 1.10{sup -7} g/(cm{sup 2}.day). (authors)

  11. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens.

  12. Elevated plasma tricyclic levels with therapeutic doses of imipramine.

    PubMed

    Garvey, M J; Tuason, V B; Johnson, R A; Valentine, R H; Cooper, T B

    1984-07-01

    Nine (15%) of 59 patients treated with imipramine at doses of 150 to 300 mg/day had steady-state plasma levels greater than 500 ng/ml. Low capacity for hydroxylation was found in all six patients for whom hydroxy metabolites were measured. Maximum tricyclic levels in the nine study patients were comparable to levels found in tricyclic antidepressant overdoses (651-2439 ng/ml). No study patient experienced any adverse effects: QRS durations were all less than 100 msec, and a mildly dry mouth was the most commonly reported side effect (five of nine patients). Depressive symptoms recurred in three patients when their imipramine dose was decreased.

  13. Injected phytosterols/stanols suppress plasma cholesterol levels in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, C A.; Raeini-Sarjaz, M; Jones, P J.H.

    2001-10-01

    Although plant sterols are known to suppress intestinal cholesterol absorption, whether plasma and hepatic lipid levels are influenced through non-gut related internal mechanisms has not been established. To examine this question 50 male hamsters were divided into 5 groups and fed semi-purified diets containing 20% energy as fat and 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol ad libitum for 60 days. The control group (i) received diet alone, while four additional groups consumed the diet plus one of four equivalent phytosterol mixtures (5 mg/kg/day) given either as (ii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols mixed with diet (oralSA), (iii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols subcutaneously injected (subSA), (iv) soybean oil phytosterols alone mixed with diet (oralSE), or (v) soybean oil subcutaneous injected phytosterols alone (subSE). The control group and both orally supplemented groups also received placebo subcutaneous sham injections. Neither food consumption, body weight, nor liver weight differed across treatment groups. Subcutaneous administration of SA and SE decreased plasma total cholesterol levels by 21% and 23% (p < 0.0001) and non-apolipoprotein-A cholesterol concentrations by 22% and 15% (p < 0.0002), respectively, compared to control. HDL cholesterol and TG concentrations remained unchanged across all groups, except for a decline of 25% (p < 0.0001) in HDL concentration in the subSE group versus control. Plasma campesterol levels were lower (p < 0.05) in the subSA group relative to all other groups. Plasma campesterol:cholesterol and campesterol:sitosterol ratios were, however, higher (p < 0.0001) for both the oral and subSE groups. Hepatic cholesterol levels were higher (p < 0.0001) in the oral and subSE phytosterol groups by 30% and 31%, respectively, relative to control. We conclude that low doses of subcutaneously administered plant sterols reduce circulating cholesterol levels through mechanisms other than inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  14. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu

    2011-12-01

    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Periodontal treatment was associated with a significant reduction in plasma levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL)(p < 0.001) and oxidative stress (p < 0.001). At 2 months after periodontal treatment, the degree of change in the oxLDL was positively correlated with that in the oxidative stress (r = 0.593, p = 0.004). These observations indicate that periodontitis patients showed higher levels of circulating oxLDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects. In addition, improved oral hygiene and non-surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  15. High plasma adenosine levels in overweight/obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Badillo, Priscila; Salgado, Paola; Bravo, Patricia; Guevara, Katherine; Acurio, Jesenia; Gonzalez, Maria Angelica; Oyarzun, Carlos; San Martin, Rody; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-18

    We aim to investigate whether overweight/obese pregnant women have elevated plasma levels of adenosine associated with increased consumption of high-calorie food. Sixty women were included. They were divided into lean (n = 23 and n = 12) or overweight/obese (n = 7 and n = 18) non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. Clinical records and maternal blood samples were collected after informed consent. A self-reported dietary questionnaire was also completed. Plasma adenosine levels were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Biochemical parameters, including glucose, total protein, and lipid profile, were determined using standard colorimetric assays. Adenosine levels were higher in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (18.7 ± 1.6 vs 10.8 ± 1.3 nM/μg protein, respectively, p < 0.0001). Overweight/obese pregnant women (21.9 ± 2.5 nM/μg protein) exhibited higher adenosine levels than lean pregnant (14.5 ± 1.0 nM/μg protein, p = 0.04) or non-pregnant women (11.7 ± 1.5 nM/μg protein, p = 0.0005). Also, pregnant women with elevated weight gain exhibited higher (26.2 ± 3.7 nM/μg protein) adenosine levels than those with adequate weight gain (14.9 ± 1.4 nM/μg protein, p = 0.03). These differences were not statistically significant compared with those of pregnant women with reduced weight gain (17.4 ± 2.1 nM/μg protein, p = 0.053). Body mass index and adenosine only in pregnant women were positively correlated (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). While, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption was negatively correlated with plasma adenosine levels only in non-pregnant women (r = -0.33, p = 0.03). Pregnancy is associated with high plasma adenosine levels, which are further elevated in pregnant women who are overweight/obese. High PUFA intake might reduce plasma adenosine levels in non-pregnant women.

  16. The Role of Regional Oxygen Saturation Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Blood Lactate Levels as Early Predictors of Outcome After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Tessari, Chiara; Cristante, Alessia; Nori, Roberta; Pittarello, Demetrio; Ori, Carlo; Cogo, Paola E; Perissinotto, Egle; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) desaturation score (calculated by multiplying the rSO2 < 50% by time in seconds the preoperative baseline value) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and the peak of lactate with postoperative major morbidities in pediatric patients who undergo cardiac surgery. We retrospectively analyzed the postoperative course of 152 patients between January 2012 and December 2013, for whom we continuously monitored cerebral rSO2 using near-infrared spectroscopy and serial arterial blood lactate levels for at least 48 hours. The median age at surgery was 128 days (interquartile range [IQR], 17-537 days). Thirty-nine patients had a single ventricle physiology (26%) and 135 patients (89%) required the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (median time of 130 minutes; IQR, 93-172 minutes). Median postoperative peak lactate level was 3 mmol/L (IQR, 2-5.3 mmol/L); 52 patients (34%) had a postoperative lactate level > 4.6 mmol/L. The median postoperative rSO2 desaturation score was 157 (IQR, 0-2050); 62 patients (41%) had an rSO2 desaturation score > 345. Fifty-seven patients (37%) had postoperative major morbidities. Using a multivariable regression model only rSO2 desaturation score > 345 was independently associated with major morbidities after surgery (odds ratio, 27.26; 95% confidence interval, 10.18-73.00). The proportion of patients with an rSO2 desaturation score > 345 within 240 minutes after surgery was higher than the rate of those who showed a peak of lactate > 4.6 mmol/L (84% vs 59%; P = 0.05). The postoperative rSO2 desaturation score has a stronger association with major postoperative morbidities than lactate and it also provides an earlier warning sign of hemodynamic or metabolic compromise. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of acute L-carnitine intake on metabolic and blood lactate levels of elite badminton players.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Hüseyin; Senel, Omer; Güzel, Nevin A

    2008-04-01

    Purpose of this study is to research the effects of acute L-Carnitine intake on badminton players' metabolic and blood lactate values. A total of 16 Turkish national badminton players (8 male, 8 female) were voluntarily participated into study. MaxVO2, MET, energy consumption, HR (heart rate), VE (minute ventilation), R (respiratory exchange ratio), AT (anaerobic threshold), oxygen pulse and blood lactate (LA) of subjects were measured by Sensormedics VmaxST and Accutrend Lactate Analyzer. The participants were subjected to the test protocol twice before and after 2g of L-Carnitine intake. The data were evaluated by the use of SPSS 13.0 for Windows. No significant differences were found between 1st. (without L-Carnitine intake) and 2nd. (with L-Carnitine intake) measurements of female participants as regards to all measured parameters. There was a significant difference in EMHR (exercise maximum heart rate) of males between two measurements (p<0.05). However the differences in other parameters were not significant. AT values of female subjects were not significant difference (p>0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio of males was significantly different at anaerobic threshold (p<0.05). Results of this study show that L-carnitine intake one hour prior to the exercise has no effect on the metabolic and blood lactate values of badminton players.

  18. FATE OF DIETARY PERCHLORATE IN LACTATING DAIRY COWS: RELEVANCE TO ANIMAL HEALTH AND LEVELS IN THE MILK SUPPLY.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for fiv...

  19. Determination of plasma kinin and kininogen levels in man

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, W. E.; Zeitlin, I. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. A method for the estimation of free plasma kinin and kininogen is described, which is suitable for samples of blood taken in hospital. 2. The method permits the assay of very low levels of kinin and substantially eliminates errors due to the presence of amines and other interfering substances. 3. In normal subjects the mean value of free kinin is 2·8 ng (bradykinin equivalent)/ml. plasma, and 6·1 μg kininogen/ml. 4. In vasovagal fainting, carcinoid flush, and dumping syndrome, during the phase of peripheral vasodilatation, the free kinin exceeds 10 ng/ml., and is often in excess of 30 ng/ml. 5. Sudden release of free kinin is accompanied by a fall in kininogen level. PMID:6050112

  20. The regulation of plasma relaxin levels during human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Abbas, A A; Allman, A C; Nicolaides, K H; Lightman, S L

    1994-08-01

    The factors that determine the circulating levels of relaxin during pregnancy have been investigated by comparing the plasma levels of relaxin throughout pregnancy in women who became pregnant spontaneously (singleton, n = 240) or following superovulation (singleton and multifetal pregnancies (two to ten conceptuses), n = 83). Some of the women with multifetal pregnancies underwent selective fetal reduction to twin pregnancies. Relaxin levels were higher at 7-34 weeks of gestation in singleton pregnancies achieved following superovulation when compared with levels in spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies (p < 0.05-0.001). In samples obtained between 10 and 12 weeks of gestation (before fetal reduction for the multifetal pregnancies), plasma relaxin levels correlated with fetal number (r = 0.526, P = 0.0001). Reduction in fetal number to a twin pregnancy did not alter relaxin levels. These data suggest that the circulating levels of relaxin throughout pregnancy are determined during the cycle of conception by gonadotrophin stimulation, and within the first 10 weeks of pregnancy by the luteotrophic stimulus from the conceptus. Furthermore, once corpus luteum synthesis of relaxin is established, then reduction in the luteotrophic stimulus does not appear to affect it.

  1. Level Shifts and Inelastic Electron Scattering in Dense Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-10

    similar ionized emitters are much smaller or zero. 4 iTheimer and Kepple have shown that the theory using the Debye - Huckel potential is inadequate because...the bound electrons in the Debye - I, Huckel potential. This leads to red shifts of the lines because it causes large shifts of the lower levels...V is the self-consistent potential (2) with pb O. These results are com- pared with the Debye -Ruckel theory of plasma screening, which agrees well

  2. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N

    1976-09-01

    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  3. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setarah; Hampel, Daniela; Chasela, Charles S; Tegha, Gerald; Daza, Eric J; Corbett, Amanda; Davis, Nicole L; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kourtis, Athena P; van der Horst, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of antiretroviral therapy with or without micronutrient supplementation on the micronutrient concentrations of HIV-infected lactating women in resource-constrained settings. We examined associations of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with concentrations of selected micronutrients in HIV-infected Malawian women at 24 wk postpartum. Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor-based triple therapy. LNS (140 g/d) met energy and micronutrient requirements of lactation. Multivariable linear regression tested the association of HAART and LNS, plus their interaction, with micronutrient concentrations, controlling for season, baseline viral load, and baseline CD4 count. We found significant HAART by LNS interactions for folate (P = 0.051), vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001), and transferrin receptors (TfRs) (P = 0.085). HAART was associated with lower folate (with LNS: -27%, P < 0.001; without LNS: -12%, P = 0.040) and higher TfR concentrations (with LNS: +14%, P = 0.004; without LNS: +28%, P < 0.001), indicating iron deficiency. LNS increased folate (with HAART: +17%, P = 0.037; without HAART: +39%, P < 0.001) and decreased TfR concentrations (with HAART only: -12%, P = 0.023). HAART was associated with lower vitamin B-12 concentrations only when LNS was present (-18%, P = 0.001), whereas LNS increased vitamin B-12 only when no HAART was present (+27%, P < 0.001). HAART, but not LNS, was associated with higher retinol-binding protein (RBP; +10%, P = 0.007). We detected no association of HAART or LNS with selenium, ferritin, or hemoglobin. The association of HAART with lower folate, iron deficiency, and higher RBP plus the attenuation of LNS effects on

  4. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setarah; Hampel, Daniela; Chasela, Charles S; Tegha, Gerald; Daza, Eric J; Corbett, Amanda; Davis, Nicole L; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kourtis, Athena P; van der Horst, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of antiretroviral therapy with or without micronutrient supplementation on the micronutrient concentrations of HIV-infected lactating women in resource-constrained settings. Objective: We examined associations of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with concentrations of selected micronutrients in HIV-infected Malawian women at 24 wk postpartum. Methods: Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor–based triple therapy. LNS (140 g/d) met energy and micronutrient requirements of lactation. Multivariable linear regression tested the association of HAART and LNS, plus their interaction, with micronutrient concentrations, controlling for season, baseline viral load, and baseline CD4 count. Results: We found significant HAART by LNS interactions for folate (P = 0.051), vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001), and transferrin receptors (TfRs) (P = 0.085). HAART was associated with lower folate (with LNS: −27%, P < 0.001; without LNS: −12%, P = 0.040) and higher TfR concentrations (with LNS: +14%, P = 0.004; without LNS: +28%, P < 0.001), indicating iron deficiency. LNS increased folate (with HAART: +17%, P = 0.037; without HAART: +39%, P < 0.001) and decreased TfR concentrations (with HAART only: −12%, P = 0.023). HAART was associated with lower vitamin B-12 concentrations only when LNS was present (−18%, P = 0.001), whereas LNS increased vitamin B-12 only when no HAART was present (+27%, P < 0.001). HAART, but not LNS, was associated with higher retinol-binding protein (RBP; +10%, P = 0.007). We detected no association of HAART or LNS with selenium, ferritin, or hemoglobin. Conclusion: The association of HAART with lower folate, iron

  5. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  6. Decreased Plasma BDNF Levels of Patients with Somatization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most abundant and important neurotrophins, is known to be involved in the development, survival, maintenance, and plasticity of neurons in the nervous system. Some studies have suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia. Similarly, it is likely that the alteration of BDNF may be associated with the neuro-modulation that contributes to the development of somatization disorder. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an abnormality of plasma BDNF levels in patients with somatization disorder, and to analyze the nature of the alteration after pharmacotherapy using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The plasma BDNF levels of the patients with a somatization disorder were significantly lower compared with those of the control volunteers (83.61±89.97 pg/mL vs. 771.36±562.14 pg/mL); moreover, the plasma BDNF levels of those patients who received an antidepressant were significantly increased after the treatment (118.13±91.45 pg/mL vs. 72.92±88.21 pg/mL). Conclusion These results suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of somatization disorder. PMID:27757131

  7. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  8. Hip Osteonecrosis Is Associated with Increased Plasma IL-33 Level

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinhui; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Li, Shirui; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered IL-33 as an IL-1 cytokine family member has been proved to be specifically released from osteonecrotic bones. We aimed to investigate the potential role of IL-33 in the development of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Forty patients diagnosed with ONFH and forty age-, sex-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study between March 2016 and September 2016. A commercially available ELISA kit was used to test the level of plasma IL-33. The IL-33 levels were compared among different ARCO stages, CJFH types, and etiology groups. Plasma IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the ONFH patients than that in the control subjects. The levels of IL-33 did not differ significantly among the ONFH patients with different ARCO stages. The IL-33 levels of patients with CJFH type L3 were significantly higher than that of patients with types L1 and L2. No significant differences were observed in IL-33 levels between steroid-induced, alcohol-induced, and idiopathic patients. Our findings seem to indicate that IL-33 effects may be detrimental during ONFH, which appeared to be associated with the prognosis of ONFH. The IL-33 deserves particular attention in the pathogenesis of ONFH. PMID:28167850

  9. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  10. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C L; Maude, M; Anderson, R E; Heird, W C

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of breast-feeding mothers increases the DHA contents of breast milk and infant plasma phospholipids (PPs), breast-feeding women were randomly assigned to 3 DHA-supplementation groups (170-260 mg/d) or a control group. Group 1 (n = 6) consumed an algae-produced high-DHA triacylglycerol; group 2 (n = 6) consumed high-DHA eggs; group 3 (n = 6) consumed a high-DHA, low-eicosapentaenoic acid marine oil; and group 4 (n = 6) received no supplementation. From before to after supplementation (2 and 8 wk postpartum), mean (+/-SD) maternal PP DHA increased in groups 1, 2, and 3 by 1.20 +/- 0.53, 0.63 +/- 0.82, and 0.76 +/- 0.35 mol% of fatty acids, respectively (23-41%), but decreased in group 4 by 0.44 +/- 0.34 mol% (15%). Breast-milk DHA of groups 1, 2, and 3 increased by 0.21 +/- 0.16, 0.07 +/- 0.11, and 0. 12 +/- 0.07 mol%, respectively (32-91%) but decreased in group 4 by 0.03 +/- 0.04 mol% (17%). Mean infant PP DHA in groups 1, 2, and 3 increased by 1.63 +/- 0.79, 0.40 +/- 1.0, and 0.98 +/- 0.61 mol%, respectively (11-42%), but only by 0.18 +/- 0.74 mol% (5%) in group 4. Correlations between the DHA contents of maternal plasma and breast milk and of milk and infant PPs were significant. Breast-milk and maternal and infant PP 22:5n-6 concentrations were lowest in group 2. DHA supplementation increases the plasma and breast-milk DHA concentrations of lactating women, resulting in higher PP DHA concentrations in infants.

  11. Ghrelin plasma levels and appetite in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Cirugeda, Antonio; Amair, Ruth; Sansone, Gabriela; Alegre, Laura; Codoceo, Rosa; Bajo, M Auxiliadora; del Peso, Gloria; Díez, Juan J; Sánchez-Tomero, José A; Selgas, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Anorexia-associated malnutrition is a severe complication that increases mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Ghrelin is a recently-discovered orexigenic hormone with actions in brain and stomach. We analyzed, in 42 PD patients, the possible relationship between ghrelin and appetite regulation with regard to other orexigens [neuropeptide Y (NPY), NO3] and anorexigens [cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)]. All orexigens and anorexigens were determined in plasma. Eating motivation was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). The patients were divided into three groups: those with anorexia (n = 12), those with obesity associated with high intake (n = 12), and those with no eating behavior disorders (n = 18). A control group of 10 healthy volunteers was also evaluated. Mean plasma levels of ghrelin were high (3618.6 +/- 1533 mg/mL), with 36 patients showing values above the normal range (< 2600 mg/mL). Patients with anorexia had lower ghrelin and NPY levels and higher peptide-C, CCK, interleukin-1 (IL-1), TNFalpha, and GIP levels than did the other patients. Patients with anorexia also had an early satiety score and low desire and pleasure in eating on the VAS and diet survey. We observed significant positive linear correlations between ghrelin and albumin (r = 0.43, p < 0.05), prealbumin (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), transferrin (r = 0.4, p < 0.05), growth hormone (r = 0.66, p < 0.01), NO3 (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), and eating motivation (VAS). At the same time, negative relationships were observed between blood ghrelin and GIP (r = -0.42, p < 0.05), insulin (r = -0.4, p < 0.05), leptin (r = -0.45, p < 0.05), and creatinine clearance [r = -0.33, p = 0.08 (nonsignificant)]. Ghrelin levels were not related to Kt/V or to levels of CCK and cytokines. Ghrelin plasma levels are elevated in PD patients. Uremic patients with anorexia show relatively lower ghrelin plasma levels than the levels

  12. Monitoring blood glucose levels in female mink during the reproductive cycle: 2. Effects of short-term fish oil, chromium picolinate, and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation during late lactation

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Amber M.J.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Mink nursing sickness is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia that is similar to the metabolic syndrome associated with type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus. This research studied the effects of short-term administration of antidiabetic supplements on the blood glucose concentration in female mink during late lactation. Female mink that had blood glucose levels < 5.5 mmol/L (normoglycemic [NG]) or ≥ 5.5 mmol/L (hyperglycemic [HG]) early in lactation were given daily supplements of various combinations of herring oil (HerO, 3% in diet), chromium picolinate (CrPic, 200 μg), and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg) for 1 wk starting at day 21 post partum. In the NG mink, most of the treatments did not significantly change the blood glucose concentration from day 28 to 42 post partum. However, treatment with ASA alone and treatment with the combination HerO-CrPic-ASA elevated the blood glucose levels when compared with those of the control group, which had received just the basal diet. In the HG mink, all treatment combinations except CrPic alone and ASA alone, reduced the blood glucose concentration. Thus, in lactating mink with hyperglycemia, the blood glucose concentration may be effectively lowered by dietary antidiabetic supplementation; however, because hyperglycemia also occurs before nursing, preventive measures are recommended throughout the year. PMID:17955898

  13. Lactational exposure of mice to low levels of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls increases susceptibility to neuronal stress at a mature age.

    PubMed

    Elnar, Arpiné Ardzivian; Allouche, Ahmad; Desor, Frédéric; Yen, Frances T; Soulimani, Rachid; Oster, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    Lactational exposure to low levels of the sum of the six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ6 NDL-PCBs, 10ng/kg/day) is known to lead to persistent anxious behavior in young and adult offspring mice at postnatal days 40 and 160, respectively. At more advanced life stages, we evaluated the effects on the mouse brain of neuronal stress induced by the synaptotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. Perinatal exposure of lactating mice to Σ6 NDL-PCBs did not affect short-term memory performances of their offspring male mice aged 14 months as compared to control PCB-naive mice. However, following intracerebroventricular injection of soluble Aβ oligomers, significant impairments in long-term memory were detected in the mice that had been lactationally treated with Σ6 NDL-PCBs. In addition, immunoblot analyses of the synaptosomal fraction of hippocampal tissues from treated mice revealed a lower expression of the synaptic proteins synaptophysin and PSD-95. Though preliminary, our findings suggest for the first time that early exposure to low levels of NDL-PCBs induce late neuronal vulnerability to amyloid stress. Additional experiments are needed to confirm whether early environmental influences are involved in the etiology of brain aging and cognitive decline.

  14. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  15. Plasma endothelin level in the acute stage of Bell palsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Iijima, M; Kukimoto, N; Kuga, M

    1996-08-01

    To determine the plasma endothelin level in the acute stage in patients with Bell palsy (based on the hypothesis that endothelin, which is a potent vasoconstrictor, may play a role in the mechanism of the onset of facial nerve paralysis and in view of the fact that the etiology of Bell palsy is still a maze of unknowns). The study involved 62 patients with the acute stage (tested within 10 days of onset) of Bell palsy (i.e., idiopathic acute peripheral facial paralysis) and an additional 36 healthy persons who served as control subjects. To determine the content of endothelin, 2 ml of plasma samples was collected from each subject. Endothelin-1 was extracted and analyzed by a radioimmunoassay by using anti-endothelin-1 antibody. Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, a referral and institutional center in Tokyo, Japan. The patients who were suffering from Bell palsy exhibited a statistically significant (P < .01) increase in the endothelin level compared with that in the 36 normal control subjects. An age-matched comparison (ranges, 20-29 years and 30-39 years) of patients with Bell palsy with normal control subjects revealed a significant difference between the normal group and the group with Bell palsy in the plasma endothelin level for both age groups that were tested (P < .01). The mean value of the endothelin level in patients with Bell palsy was maximal on day 5, and the percentage of patients with abnormally elevated endothelin levels was 100% from days 6 to 9. Endothelin, which has potent vasoconstrictive effects, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the microcirculatory impairment that occurs in patients with Bell palsy, mainly by promoting secondary ischemia.

  16. Tocopherols and tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Xu, Weili; Kivipelto, Miia; Costanzi, Emanuela; Ercolani, Sara; Pigliautile, Martina; Cecchetti, Roberta; Baglioni, Mauro; Simmons, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Tsolaki, Magda; Kloszewska, Iwona; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin E includes 8 natural compounds (4 tocopherols, 4 tocotrienols) with potential neuroprotective activity. α-Tocopherol has mainly been investigated in relation to cognitive impairment. We examined the relation of all plasma vitamin E forms and markers of vitamin E damage (α-tocopherylquinone, 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Within the AddNeuroMed-Project, plasma tocopherols, tocotrienols, α-tocopherylquinone, and 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol were assessed in 168 AD cases, 166 MCI, and 187 cognitively normal (CN) people. Compared with cognitively normal subjects, AD and MCI had lower levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, and total vitamin E. In multivariable-polytomous-logistic regression analysis, both MCI and AD cases had 85% lower odds to be in the highest tertile of total tocopherols and total vitamin E, and they were, respectively, 92% and 94% less likely to be in the highest tertile of total tocotrienols than the lowest tertile. Further, both disorders were associated with increased vitamin E damage. Low plasma tocopherols and tocotrienols levels are associated with increased odds of MCI and AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short communication: Plasma progesterone concentration and ovarian dynamics of lactating Jersey cows treated with 1 or 2 intravaginal progesterone inserts.

    PubMed

    Moraes, João G N; Silva, Paula R B; Bortoletto, Nathália; Scanavez, Alexandre L A; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to determine circulating progesterone concentrations and ovarian follicle development of lactating Jersey cows treated with 1 or 2 controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone during proestrus. Cows were enrolled in the experiment at 34 ± 3 d in milk and were paired by parity, body condition score, body weight, and milk yield. Estrous cycles were presynchronized with an injection of GnRH concurrent with a new CIDR insert (study d -7) and 2 injections of PGF2α given 5 and 6 d after the GnRH injection (study d -2 and -1, respectively). Cows assigned to the 1CIDR treatment (n=30) or 2CIDR treatment (n=30) received 1 and 2 CIDR inserts, respectively, from study d 0 through 7. Control cows (n=10) did not receive further treatment. On study d -2 and daily from study d 0 through 7, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound and blood samples were collected for determination of progesterone. On study d 7, CIDR inserts were removed after ultrasound exam and blood sample collection. Progesterone concentration from study d 0 through 7 was greatest for 2CIDR cows (2.17 ± 0.09 ng/mL), followed by 1CIDR cows (1.37 ± 0.10 ng/mL) and control cows (0.62 ± 0.21 ng/mL). The interaction between treatment and study day affected progesterone concentration from study d 0 through 7. The average increase in progesterone concentration from study d 1 through 7 was 0.80 ng/mL for 1CIDR and 1.72 ng/mL for 2CIDR cows compared with control cows. The percentage of cows that ovulated between study d 0 and 7 was greatest for control cows (80%), but it did not differ between 1CIDR (12%) and 2CIDR (3.7%) cows. Growth of class III follicles (10-17 mm) identified on study d 0 was affected by treatment because 1CIDR cows had larger class III follicles than 2CIDR cows on study d 5, 6 and 7. A larger proportion of control cows developed a new follicular wave between study d 0 and 7 (control=60.0%, 1CIDR=12.0%, 2

  18. Associations between meal size, gastric emptying and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in meal-fed cats.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Filippich, L J; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are increased for 12-24 h in healthy cats following moderate- to high-carbohydrate meals. This study investigated associations between gastric emptying time and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in cats fed an extruded dry, high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, low-protein diet (51, 28, 21% metabolizable energy, respectively) once daily by varying meal volume. Eleven healthy, non-obese, neutered adult cats were enrolled in a prospective study and fed to maintain body weight. Ultrasound examinations were performed for up to 26 h, and blood collections over 24 h after eating meals containing approximately 100% and 50% of the cats' daily caloric intake (209 and 105 kJ/kg BW, respectively). Gastric emptying time was increased after a meal of 209 kJ/kg BW compared with 105 kJ/kg BW (median gastric emptying times 24 and 14 h, respectively; p = 0.03). Time for glucose to return to fasting was longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal (median 20 h; 25th and 75th percentiles 15 and 23 h, respectively) than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (13, 12 and 14 h; p < 0.01); however, peak glucose was not higher after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal compared with the 105 kJ/kg BW meal [(mean ± SD) 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.8 ± 1.2 mmol/l, respectively, p = 0.07]. Times for insulin to return to fasting were not significantly longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (p = 0.29). d- and l-lactate concentrations were not associated with gastric emptying time or post-prandial blood glucose and insulin. Based on results obtained, prolonged gastric emptying contributes to prolonged post-prandial hyperglycemia in cats meal fed a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, dry diet and fasting times for cats' meal-fed diets of similar composition should be 14-26 h, depending on meal size.

  19. Plasma debrisoquin levels in the assessment of reduction of plasma homovanillic acid. The debrisoquin method.

    PubMed

    Riddle, M A; Jatlow, P I; Anderson, G M; Cho, S C; Hardin, M T; Cohen, D J; Leckman, J F

    1989-06-01

    Plasma concentrations of unconjugated homovanillic acid (pHVA) reflect both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral dopamine metabolism. Debrisoquin sulfate (DBQ) blocks peripheral, but not CNS, production of HVA from dopamine. Administration of DBQ has been used to decrease the proportion of peripherally produced HVA in pHVA measurements, making such measurements more reflective of CNS turnover of dopamine. We studied the relationships between DBQ dose, plasma DBQ (pDBQ) levels, and changes in pHVA in a group of 21 subjects (9 normal controls and 12 with Tourette's syndrome). DBQ dose was moderately correlated with pDBQ levels (r = 0.63, p = 0.002). Subjects (n = 8) with mean pDBQ levels above 60 ng/ml had a 48% to 66% decrease in mean pHVA levels; this may reflect nearly complete inhibition of peripheral HVA production. Subjects (n = 13) with mean pDBQ levels below 55 ng/ml had decreases in pHVA levels from 10% to 58%. No debrisoquin was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples. These data suggest that pDBQ levels above 60 ng/ml are sufficient to assure substantial inhibition of peripheral HVA production and that monitoring pDBQ levels may be useful when employing this method for studying CNS metabolism.

  20. Hyperglycemia may determine fibrinopeptide A plasma level increase in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Marchi, E; Torella, R

    1989-12-01

    The effects of hyperglycemia on plasma fibrinopeptide A (FPA) levels in normal subjects are reported. An increase of FPA concentration parallel to sustained hyperglycemia was observed; when the glycemia returned to basal values, FPA showed values in normal range. Heparin infusion was able to significantly decrease the hyperglycemia-induced augment of FPA levels. Isovolumic-isotonic NaCl solution infusion produced a slight (NS) increase in FPA levels; however, mild hyperglycemia, achieved by glucagon, was also able to produce a significant increase in FPA concentration. These data demonstrate the direct role of hyperglycemia in conditioning FPA level, and suggest that hyperglycemia, by itself, is a sufficient stimulus to produce thrombin activation in humans.

  1. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  2. Assessment of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes level in ready-to-cook poultry meat: effect of various high pressure treatments and potassium lactate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lerasle, M; Guillou, S; Simonin, H; Anthoine, V; Chéret, R; Federighi, M; Membré, J-M

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model in order to determine the contamination level of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-cook poultry meat, after a high pressure (HP) treatment. The model included four steps: i) Reception of raw meat materials, mincing and mixing meat, ii) Partitioning and packaging into 200-g modified atmosphere packs, iii) High pressure treatment of the meat, and iv) Storage in chilled conditions until the end of the shelf-life. The model excluded the cooking step and consumption at consumer's home as cooking practices and heating times are highly variable. The initial contamination level of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes was determined using data collected in meat primary processing plants. The effect of HP treatment and potassium lactate on microbial reduction was assessed in minced meat, using a full factorial design with three high pressure treatments (200, 350 and 500 MPa), three holding times (2, 8 and 14 min) and two potassium lactate concentrations (0 or 1.8% w/w). The inactivation curves fitted with a Weibull model highlighted that the inactivation rate was significantly dependent on the HP treatment. From the literature, it was established that Salmonella was not able to grow in the presence of lactate, under modified atmosphere and chilled conditions whereas the growth of L. monocytogenes was determined using an existing model validated in poultry (available in Seafood Spoilage and Safety Predictor software, V. 3.1). Once implemented in the Excel add-in @Risk, the model was run using Monte Carlo simulation. The probability distribution of contamination levels was determined for various scenarios. For an average scenario such as an HP treatment of 350 MPa for 8 min, of 200 g minced meat containing 1.8% lactate (pH 6.1; aw 0.96), conditioned under 50% CO2, the prevalence rate of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, after a 20-day storage at 6 °C was estimated to be 4.1% and 7.1%, respectively. The

  3. Low degradable protein supply to increase nitrogen efficiency in lactating dairy cows and reduce environmental impacts at barn level.

    PubMed

    Edouard, N; Hassouna, M; Robin, P; Faverdin, P

    2016-02-01

    Generally, <30% of dairy cattle's nitrogen intake is retained in milk. Large amounts of nitrogen are excreted in manure, especially in urine, with damaging impacts on the environment. This study explores the effect of lowering dietary degradable nitrogen supplies--while maintaining metabolisable protein--on dairy cows' performance, nitrogen use efficiency and gas emissions (NH3, N2O, CH4) at barn level with tied animals. Two dietary N concentrations (CP: 12% DM for LowN; 18% DM for HighN) were offered to two groups of three lactating dairy cows in a split-plot design over four periods of 2 weeks. Diets were formulated to provide similar metabolisable protein supply, with degradable N either in deficit or in excess (PDIN of 84 and 114 g/kg DM for LowN and HighN, respectively). Cows ingested 0.8 kg DM/day less on the LowN diet, which was also 2.5% less digestible. Milk yield and composition were not significantly affected. N exported in milk was 5% lower (LowN: 129 g N/day; HighN: 136 g N/day; P<0.001) but milk protein yield was not significantly affected (LowN: 801 g/day; HighN: 823 g/day; P=0.10). Cows logically ingested less nitrogen on the LowN diet (LowN: 415 g N/day; HighN: 626 g N/day; P<0.001) resulting in a higher N use efficiency (N milk/N intake; LowN: 0.31; HighN: 0.22; P<0.001). N excreted in urine was almost four times lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 65 g N/day; HighN: 243 g N/day; P<0.001) while urinary urea N concentration was eightfold lower (LowN: 4.6 g/l; HighN: 22.9 g/l; P<0.001). Ammonia emission (expressed in g/h in order to remove periods of the day with potential interferences with volatile molecules from feed) was also lower on the LowN diet (LowN: 1.03 g/h per cow; HighN: 1.25 g/h per cow; P<0.05). Greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4) at barn level were not significantly affected by the amount of dietary N. Offering low amounts of degradable protein with suitable metabolisable protein amounts to cattle improved nitrogen use efficiency and

  4. Metabolic side-effects of injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, 150 mg three-monthly, in undernourished lactating women

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Results of a study on the metabolic side-effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in undernourished lactating women, compared with non-lactating women, in three centres in India and Thailand are reported. Analysis of the data on anthropometric and biochemical parameters at the time of recruitment indicated that the lactating women were lighter and had lower plasma glucose and triglyceride levels and a higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Serum cholesterol levels tended to be higher during the first six months of lactation. Use of DMPA over a period of one year was not associated with any alteration in glucose tolerance and in the serum triglyceride, total protein and albumin levels. The observed fall in the cholesterol level and alkaline phosphatase activity in DMPA users might be attributed to waning lactation. PMID:3490928

  5. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Aroner, Sarah A; Rosner, Bernard A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Baur, Nadja; Joos, Thomas O; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is an enzyme with important functions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether circulating MMP2 levels may predict breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis in the Nurses' Health Study among 1136 cases who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2004 and 1136 matched controls. All participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990, and a subset (170 cases, 170 controls) contributed an additional sample in 2000-2002. Pre-diagnostic plasma MMP2 levels were measured via immunoassay, and conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma MMP2 levels and risk of total invasive breast cancer (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.2; p-trend=0.89). Findings did not vary significantly by time since blood draw, body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, or menopausal status at either blood draw or breast cancer diagnosis. MMP2 was associated with a greater risk of nodal metastases at diagnosis (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2; p-heterogeneity, any vs. no lymph nodes=0.002), but no significant associations were observed with other tumor characteristics or with recurrent or fatal cancers. Plasma MMP2 levels do not appear to be predictive of total invasive breast cancer risk, although associations with aggressive disease warrant further study.

  6. Simultaneous assay of glucose, lactate, L-glutamate and hypoxanthine levels in a rat striatum using enzyme electrodes based on neutral red-doped silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fen-Fen; Wan, Qiao; Li, Chen-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Zi-Qiang; Xian, Yue-Zhong; Jin, Li-Tong; Yamamoto, Katsunobu

    2004-10-01

    An electrochemical method suitable for the simultaneous measurement of cerebral glucose, lactate, L-glutamate and hypoxanthine concentrations from in vivo microdialysis sampling has been successfully performed for the first time using a neutral red-doped silica (NRDS) nanoparticle-derived enzyme sensor system. These uniform NRDS nanoparticles (about 50 +/- 3 nm) were prepared by a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion method, and characterized by a TEM technique. The neutral red-doped interior maintained its high electron-activity, while the exterior nano-silica surface prevented the mediator from leaching out into the aqueous solution, and showed high biocompability. These nanoparticles were then mixing with the glucose oxidase (GOD), lactate oxidase (LOD), L-glutamate oxidase (L-GLOD) or xanthine oxidase (XOD), and immobilized on four glassy carbon electrodes, respectively. A thin Nafion film was coated on the enzyme layer to prevent interference from molecules such as ascorbic acid and uric acid in the dialysate. The high sensitivity of the NRDS modified enzyme electrode system enables the simultaneous monitoring of trace levels of glucose, L-glutamate, lactate and hypoxanthine in diluted dialysate samples from a rat striatum.

  7. Plasma levels of endothelin-1 and thrombomodulin in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Nakae, H; Endo, S; Inada, K; Yamada, Y; Takakuwa, T; Yoshida, M

    1996-12-01

    Plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thrombomodulin (TM) were determined in patients with burns to examine their relation to the severity of illness. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also measured, and its relationship to ET-1 and TM determined. Twenty-three burn patients were evaluated, who had a total burn surface area (TBSA) of at least 20 per cent. ET-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). TM and TNF-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the ET-1 and TM concentrations were significantly higher in the patients who developed sepsis than in those who did not and in the patients who eventually died than in those who survived. Maximum plasma concentrations of ET-1 and TM were significantly correlated with the acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II score. There was also a significant correlation between the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and both ET-1 and TM. ET-1 and TM closely reflect the severity of illness in patients with burns in the infectious stage; TNF-alpha may be involved in the production of ET-1 and TM.

  8. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  9. Glucose plasma levels and pregnancy outcomes in women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Alberico, Salvatore; Tamburrini, Enrica; Pinnetti, Carmela; Bucceri, Anna; Masuelli, Giulia; Viganò, Alessandra; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Antoni, Anna Degli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spinillo, Arsenio; Marocco, Raffaella; Dalzero, Serena; Ravizza, Marina

    2011-01-01

    There is limited information on the relation between glucose levels in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women. To evaluate the potential impact of fasting glucose levels on pregnancy outcomes in a large sample of pregnant women with HIV from a national study, adjusting for potential confounders. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. The main outcomes evaluated in univariate and multivariable analyses were birthweight for gestational age>90th percentile (large for gestational age [LGA]), nonelective cesarean delivery, and preterm delivery. Glucose measurements were considered both as continuous and as categorical variables, following the HAPO study definition. Overall, 1,032 cases were eligible for the analysis. In multivariable analyses, a birthweight>90th percentile was associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per unitary (mg/dL) increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P=.005), a higher body mass index, and parity of 1 or higher. A lower risk of LGA was associated with smoking and African ethnicity. A higher fasting plasma glucose category was significantly associated with LGA occurrence, and AORs for the glucose categories of 90-94 mg/ dL and 95-99 mg/dL were 3.34 (95% CI, 1.09-10.22) and 6.26 (95% CI, 1.82-21.58), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose showed no association with nonelective cesarean section [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02] or preterm delivery [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02]. In pregnant women with HIV, glucose values below the threshold usually defining hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of delivering LGA infants. Other conditions may independently contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in women with HIV and should be considered to identify pregnancies at risk.

  10. Plasma bupivacaine levels associated with extradural anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E M; Wilson, C M; Moore, J; McClean, E

    1985-05-01

    Plasma bupivacaine levels were measured in 47 women undergoing extradural Caesarean delivery. They were divided into four groups according to the following dose regimens using 0.5% bupivacaine. Group A were given a bolus of 20 ml with increment after 20 minutes. Groups B and C were given 10 ml initially with further increments if required at 10 minutes (group B) and 20 minutes (group C); Group D consisted of patients who had an extradural block extended for emergency Caesarean delivery. In the elective groups the highest and most rapidly achieved values were associated with group A and the lowest levels found in group C. The highest levels of all were found in the emergency group. The investigation indicates that slow controlled induction of extradural anaesthesia for Caesarean section greatly reduces the risk of local anaesthetic toxicity.

  11. Exposure of perfluorinated chemicals through lactation: levels of matched human milk and serum and a temporal trend, 1996-2004, in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kärrman, Anna; Ericson, Ingrid; van Bavel, Bert; Darnerud, Per Ola; Aune, Marie; Glynn, Anders; Lignell, Sanna; Lindström, Gunilla

    2007-02-01

    Only limited data exist on lactation as an exposure source of persistent perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) for children. We studied occurrence and levels of PFCs in human milk in relation to maternal serum together with the temporal trend in milk levels between 1996 and 2004 in Sweden. Matched, individual human milk and serum samples from 12 primiparous women in Sweden were analyzed together with composite milk samples (25-90 women/year) from 1996 to 2004. Eight PFCs were detected in the serum samples, and five of them were also above the detection limits in the milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all milk samples at mean concentrations of 0.201 ng/mL and 0.085 ng/mL, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected less frequently. The total PFC concentration in maternal serum was 32 ng/mL, and the corresponding milk concentration was 0.34 ng/mL. The PFOS milk level was on average 1% of the corresponding serum level. There was a strong association between increasing serum concentration and increasing milk concentration for PFOS (r(2) = 0.7) and PFHxS (r(2) = 0.8). PFOS and PFHxS levels in composite milk samples were relatively unchanged between 1996 and 2004, with a total variation of 20 and 32% coefficient of variation, respectively. The calculated total amount of PFCs transferred by lactation to a breast-fed infant in this study was approximately 200 ng/day. Lactation is a considerable source of exposure for infants, and reference concentrations for hazard assessments are needed.

  12. HETEROGENEITY IN PLASMA HOMOVANILLIC ACID LEVELS IN SCHIZOPHRENIFORM DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, N.; Harihar, C.; Das, P.; Andrade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were estimated in 20 cases of schizophreniform disorder, 14 cases of schizophrenia ‘on medication’ and 17 cases of schizophrenia ‘off medication’. A bimodal distribution of pHVA was seen in schizophreniform disorder subjects, suggesting heterogenous groups in terms of dopaminergic function. No significant difference in the pHVA values was seen in the 3 groups, nor was there a relationship between the severity of the illness and the pHVA values; these results suggest plasticity of the dopaminergic system to neuroleptics. PMID:21776112

  13. Heterogeneity in plasma homovanillic Acid levels in schizophreniform disorder.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, N; Harihar, C; Das, P; Andrade, C

    1992-04-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were estimated in 20 cases of schizophreniform disorder, 14 cases of schizophrenia 'on medication' and 17 cases of schizophrenia 'off medication'. A bimodal distribution of pHVA was seen in schizophreniform disorder subjects, suggesting heterogenous groups in terms of dopaminergic function. No significant difference in the pHVA values was seen in the 3 groups, nor was there a relationship between the severity of the illness and the pHVA values; these results suggest plasticity of the dopaminergic system to neuroleptics.

  14. Antimullerian Hormone Level and Endometrioma Ablation Using Plasma Energy

    PubMed Central

    Bubenheim, Michael; Auber, Mathieu; Marpeau, Loïc; Puscasiu, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of ovarian endometrioma vaporization using plasma energy on antimullerian hormone (AMH) level. Method: We report a prospective, noncomparative series (NCT01596985). Twenty-two patients with unilateral ovarian endometriomas ≥30 mm, with no surgical antecedent and no ongoing pregnancy, underwent vaporization of ovarian endometriomas using plasma energy during the period of November 29, 2010 to November 28, 2012. We assessed AMH levels before surgery, 3 months postoperatively, and at the end of follow-up. Results: The mean length of postoperative follow-up was 18.2 ± 8 months. AMH level significantly varied through the 3 assessments performed in the study, as the mean values ± SD were 3.9 ± 2.6 ng/mL before the surgery, 2.3 ± 1.1 ng/mL at 3 months, and 3.1 ± 2.2 ng/mL at the end of the follow-up (P = .001). There was a significant increase from 3 months postoperatively to the end of follow-up (median change 0.7 ng/mL, P = .01). Seventy-one percent of patients had an AMH level >2 ng/mL at the end of the follow-up versus 76% before the surgery (P = 1). During the postoperative follow-up, 11 patients tried to conceive, of whom 8 (73%) became pregnant. Conclusions: The ablation of unilateral endometriomas is followed in a majority of cases by a significant decrease in AMH level 3 months after surgery. In subsequent months, this level progressively increases, raising questions about the real factors that impact postoperative ovarian AMH production. PMID:25392649

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandre G; Ney, Jacqueline G; Meneses, Flávia; Trugo, Nádia M F

    2006-03-01

    Maternal adipose tissue is a major contributor to breast milk long-chain fatty acids, probably through the pool of plasma NEFA. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane (EM) is a biochemical index of the intake of fatty acids not synthesized endogenously and of PUFA and long-chain PUFA fatty acid status. The present study investigated the associations between breast milk fatty acid composition and the composition of plasma NEFA and of EM fatty acids with special reference to PUFA, long-chain PUFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The detailed fatty acid composition of mature breast milk was also reported. Thirty-three healthy, lactating Brazilian women donated milk samples; of these, twenty-four also donated blood samples in an observational cross-sectional study. Breast milk fatty acid composition presented several associations with NEFA and EM composition, which explained most (> or =50 %) of the variability of selected milk PUFA, long-chain PUFA and CLA. Milk CLA was associated with fatty acids that are markers of dairy fat intake in the diet, NEFA and EM. In general, breast milk n-3 fatty acids and CLA, but not n-6 fatty acids, were associated with EM composition, whereas both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and CLA in milk were associated with NEFA composition, possibly owing to its role as a direct source of fatty acids for breast milk. These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk.

  16. The demands of lactation promote differential regulation of lipid stores in fasting elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Fasting animals must ration stored reserves appropriately for metabolic demands. Animals that experience fasting concomitant with other metabolically demanding activities are presented with conflicting demands of energy conservation and expenditure. Our objective was to understand how fasting northern elephant seals regulate the mobilization of lipid reserves and subsequently milk lipid content during lactation. We sampled 36 females early and 39 at the end of lactation. To determine the separate influences of lactation from fasting, we also sampled fasting but non-lactating females early and late (8 and 6 seals, respectively) in their molting fasting period. Mass and adiposity were measured, as well as circulating non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triacylglycerol (TAG), cortisol, insulin and growth hormone levels. Milk was collected from lactating females. Milk lipid content increased from 31% in early to 51% in late lactation. In lactating females plasma NEFA was positively related to cortisol and negatively related to insulin, but in molting seals, only variation in cortisol was related to NEFA. Milk lipid content varied with mass, adiposity, NEFA, TAG, cortisol and insulin. Surprisingly, growth hormone concentration was not related to lipid metabolites or milk lipid. Suppression of insulin release appears to be the differential regulator of lipolysis in lactating versus molting seals, facilitating mobilization of stored lipids and maintenance of high NEFA concentrations for milk synthesis. Milk lipid was strongly impacted by the supply of substrate to the mammary gland, indicating regulation at the level of mobilization of lipid reserves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in serum sodium, sodium balance, water balance, and plasma hormone levels as the result of pelvic surgery in women.

    PubMed

    Amede, Francis J; James, Kenneth A; Michelis, Michael F; Gleim, Gilbert W

    Postoperative hyponatremia in women has been associated with the development of serious neurological disorders and even death, with a predisposition for menstruant women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate hormonal, water and electrolyte responses to pelvic surgery in both pre and postmenopausal women. Of the twenty-five consecutive women studied, twenty were premenopausal while five were postmenopausal. Mean age was 45.4 +/- 1.6 years. Measurements of plasma renin activity, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone showed no significant change pre to postoperatively. There was a significant decrease in pre to postoperative values of estrogen, 97.4 +/- 20.3 to 36.3 +/- 7.5 pg/mL (p < 0.05). There was also a significant decline in postoperative values for plasma aldosterone and plasma progesterone. Data were similar in pre and postmenopausal patients. Serum sodium levels decreased from 141.5 +/- 0.5 to 137.2 +/- 0.5 mEq/L (p < 0.01). During the twenty-four hours following surgery, mean net sodium balance was positive 122 mEq and mean measured fluid balance was positive 1108 mL. Ringers lactate or normal saline were used. On the first postoperative day, plasma arginine vasopressin levels were elevated at 4.0 +/- 0.8 pg/mL, with a mean urine osmolality of 504 +/- 29 mOsm/kg H2O. The data illustrate that women undergoing pelvic surgery decrease their serum sodium in the immediate postoperative period. Despite both positive sodium and water balance, there is a stronger tendency to conserve water. Decreased estrogen levels occur and this decrease may facilitate brain cell adaptation to plasma hypotonicity. Since the administration of isotonic fluid will not protect against the decrease in serum sodium, postoperative sodium concentration should be carefully monitored.

  18. Effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid flows and fatty acid profiles of plasma and milk fat in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sterk, A; Vlaeminck, B; van Vuuren, A M; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid (FA) flows, and plasma and milk FA profiles in dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crushed linseed (CL), extruded whole linseed (EL), formaldehyde-treated linseed oil (FL) and linseed oil in combination with marine algae rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DL). Each period in the Latin square design lasted 21 d, with the first 16 d for adaptation. Omasal flow was estimated by the omasal sampling technique using Cr-EDTA, Yb-acetate, and acid detergent lignin as digesta flow markers. The average DM intake was 20.6 ± 2.5 kg/d, C18:3n-3 intake was 341 ± 51 g/d, and milk yield was 32.0 ± 4.6 kg/d. Milk fat yield was lower for the DL treatment (0.96 kg/d) compared with the other linseed treatments (CL, 1.36 kg/d; EL, 1.49 kg/d; FL, 1.54 kg/d). Omasal flow of C18:3n-3 was higher and C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation was lower for the EL treatment (33.8 g/d; 90.9%) compared with the CL (21.8 g/d; 94.0%), FL (15.5 g/d; 95.4%), and DL (4.6 g/d; 98.5%) treatments, whereas whole-tract digestibility of crude fat was lower for the EL treatment (64.8%) compared with the CL (71.3%), FL (78.5%), and DL (80.4%) treatments. The proportion of C18:3n-3 (g/100 g of FA) was higher for the FL treatment compared with the other treatments in plasma triacylglycerols (FL, 3.60; CL, 1.22; EL, 1.35; DL, 1.12) and milk fat (FL, 3.19; CL, 0.87; EL, 0.83; DL, 0.46). Omasal flow and proportion of C18:0 in plasma and milk fat were lower, whereas omasal flow and proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat were higher for the DL treatment compared with the other linseed treatments. The results demonstrate that feeding EL did not result in a higher C18:3n-3 proportion in plasma and milk fat despite the higher omasal C18:3n-3 flow

  19. Heritability of plasma neopterin levels in the Old Order Amish.

    PubMed

    Raheja, Uttam K; Fuchs, Dietmar; Lowry, Christopher A; Stephens, Sarah H; Pavlovich, Mary A; Mohyuddin, Hira; Yousufi, Hassaan; Ryan, Kathleen A; O'Connell, Jeff; Brenner, Lisa A; Punzalan, Cecile; Hoisington, Andrew J; Nijjar, Gursharon K; Groer, Maureen; Shuldiner, Alan R; Pollin, Toni I; Stiller, John W; Mitchell, Braxton D; Postolache, Teodor T

    2017-06-15

    We examined the heritability of neopterin, a biomarker for cell-mediated immunity and oxidative stress, and potentially for psychiatric disorders, in the Old Order Amish. Plasma neopterin levels were determined in 2015 Old Order Amish adults. Quantitative genetic procedures were used to estimate heritability of neopterin. Heritability of log-neopterin was estimated at 0.07 after adjusting for age, gender, and household (p=0.03). The shared household effect was 0.06 (p<0.02). We found a low heritability of neopterin and small household effect, suggesting that non-household environmental factors are more important determinants of variance of neopterin levels in the Amish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations Reference values for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are not available for Colombian populations. A representative sample of a working-class population was used to establish these values to provide reference data for use by the social security system. Two working-class populations were sampled from the Aburrá Valley (Aburrá) and eastern Antioquia (Oriente). Cholinesterase activity was measured in 827 workers, with ages spanning 18-49 years, 415 from Aburrá and 412 people from Oriente. Three methods were used to measure cholinesterase: Michel, EQM and Monotest The average values by Michel and EQM were not statistically different between regions (Michel: Aburrá, 1.11, and East, 1.13 deltas pH/hora; EQM: Aburrá, 2.55, and Oriente, 2.48 U/ml). By the Monotest, the enzyme average was statistically higher in Aburra than in Oriente (5,743 and 5,459 U/L respectively; p = 0 .012). By region and technique, men had significantly higher enzymatic levels than women. Within both regions and sexes, no statistically significant difference among the three aged groups was noted. Our obtained Colombian values differed significantly from foreign reference values: Michel and Monotest levels were higher and EQM levels were lower. For making clinical and epidemiologic decisions in Colombia related to these data, the values obtained for the Colombian populations are preferred over values derived from external sources.

  1. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    PubMed

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P < 0.001) were associated with higher plasma irisin level in the whole study group. The association of plasma FA composition with plasma irisin level was stronger among overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight

  2. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source.

  3. DETERMINANTS OF PLASMA PARATHYROID HORMONE LEVELS IN YOUNG WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Julie M.; Curhan, Gary C.; Forman, John P.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While the effects of calcium, phosphorus intake, and vitamin D on parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been well studied, less is known about other factors that impact PTH. Our goal was to delineate associations between demographic, dietary, and plasma factors and PTH. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of intact PTH among 1,288 non-black women in the Nurses Health Study II aged 33–53 with BMI < 30kg/m2 and eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results Median PTH was 30.7pg/ml. After adjusting for 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other factors, PTH was 4.1pg/ml lower (95% CI −7.7 to −0.5) in women who smoked 1–14 cigarettes/day and 6.4pg/ml lower (95% CI −11.2 to −1.7) in women who smoked >15 cigarettes/day compared to non-smokers. After multivariate adjustment, women whose BMI was 27–29 kg/m2 had PTH levels 2.0pg/ml higher (95% CI 0.2–3.9) compared to BMI of 21–22 kg/m2, and women in the highest quartile of plasma phosphorus had PTH levels 4.1pg/ml lower (95% CI −5.8 to −2.4) than women in the lowest quartile. Higher vitamin A intake was independently associated with lower PTH whereas lower calcium intake, lower plasma calcium, lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and winter blood draw were associated with higher PTH. Intakes of phosphorus, animal protein, magnesium, alcohol, and caffeine were not associated with PTH. Conclusions Factors not classically associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism impact PTH. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby smoking, vitamin A, and phosphorus affect PTH and to examine how body size and season may affect PTH independent of 25(OH)D. PMID:20631996

  4. Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. The causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis B in one case, hepatitis C in 20 cases, alcohol in 15 cases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in eight cases, and other conditions in four cases. The Child-Pugh classes were A in 24 cases, B in 23 cases, and C in one case. The indication for BRTO was gastric varices in 40 cases and hepatic encephalopathy in eight cases. Testing was conducted before and 1 month after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of a clinically significant decline in ammonia levels after BRTO. Occlusion of PSS resulted in a clinically significant decrease in ammonia levels accompanied by increased portal venous flow and improved Child-Pugh score. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in ammonia levels due to BRTO was significantly related to lower plasma glucose levels, higher RBC counts, and higher hemoglobin concentration before the treatment. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative plasma glucose level as the strongest independent predictor of a significant ammonia reduction in response to BRTO. In addition, although BRTO resulted in significantly declined ammonia levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance before the procedure, ammonia levels were not significantly decreased after shunt occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance before BRTO, according to 75-g oral glucose tolerance test results. Preoperative plasma glucose level is a useful predictor of clinically significant ammonia reduction resulting from occlusion of PSS in patients with cirrhosis. Even if PSS are present, control

  5. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in plasma and milk samples after a single subcutaneous injection in lactating goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Grismer, B; Rowe, J D; Carlson, J; Wetzlich, S E; Tell, L A

    2014-04-01

    Eight adult female dairy goats received one subcutaneous administration of tulathromycin at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Blood and milk samples were assayed for tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin, respectively, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic disposition of tulathromycin was analyzed by a noncompartmental approach. Mean plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following single-dose administration of tulathromycin were as follows: C(max) (121.54 ± 19.01 ng/mL); T(max) (12 ± 12-24 h); area under the curve AUC(0→∞) (8324.54 ± 1706.56 ng·h/mL); terminal-phase rate constant λz (0.01 ± 0.002 h⁻¹); and terminal-phase rate constant half-life t1/2λz (67.20 h; harmonic). Mean milk pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) following 45 days of sampling were as follows: Cmax (1594 ± 379.23 ng/mL); Tmax (12 ± 12-36 h); AUC(0→∞) (72,250.51 ± 18,909.57 ng·h/mL); λz (0.005 ± 0.001 h⁻¹); and t(1/2λz) (155.28 h; harmonic). All goats had injection-site reactions that diminished in size over time. The conclusions from this study were that tulathromycin residues are detectable in milk samples from adult goats for at least 45 days following subcutaneous administration, this therapeutic option should be reserved for cases where other treatment options have failed, and goat milk should be withheld from the human food chain for at least 45 days following tulathromycin administration.

  6. Effects of intraruminal loads of saline or water followed by voluntary drinking in the dehydrated lactating goat.

    PubMed

    Dahlborn, K; Holtenius, K; Olsson, K

    1988-01-01

    In five goats water deprivation for 26 h increased plasma osmolality, total plasma protein concentration, and plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration to higher levels during lactation compared to nonlactation. At the end of the dehydration period intraruminal loads of saline or water (corresponding to 50% of the body weight loss) were given to lactating goats. The saline load decreased the plasma protein concentration below control levels, while plasma osmolality, Na concentration and AVP did not change. After the water load the plasma protein concentration stayed elevated. Plasma osmolality, Na concentration and AVP fell, but remained significantly above control levels. Both plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone (PA) concentration increased after water, but decreased after saline administration. Three hours after the fluid loads the goats were offered water to drink. AVP decreased at the sight of water. After drinking, plasma osmolality, Na and AVP continued to decrease in water loaded animals, and fell also in saline loaded goats. PRA remained elevated, and PA increased in water loaded goats, while these hormones still were depressed in saline loaded goats. Mean renal 'free water clearance' became positive after drinking in both groups. It is concluded that the water losses with the milk cause lactating goats to become dehydrated more rapidly than non-lactating goats during water deprivation. Lowering of the plasma osmolality and Na concentration are more important than restoration of the plasma volume in suppressing the high plasma AVP concentration in the dehydrated lactating goat. The water diuresis, which occurred after voluntary drinking, indicates that the goats had not been able to anticipate their water deficit accurately.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Joanne R; Cleveland, John L

    2013-09-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.

  8. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joanne R.; Cleveland, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics. PMID:23999443

  9. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  10. Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2013-01-01

    . The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified FA (101 vs. 90.0 μEq/L) and cholecystokinin (19.7 vs. 17.6 pmol/L), and tended to increase plasma concentration of insulin (10.7 vs. 9.57 μ IU/mL). Results show that palmitic acid fed at 2% of diet DM has the potential to increase yields of milk and milk fat, independent of production level without increasing body condition score or body weight. However, a small percentage of the supplemented FA was partitioned to milk.

  11. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P < .01). These patients had higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission and continued to have an increase in levels throughout hospital course. The median

  12. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  13. [Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer].

    PubMed

    Lamônica-Garcia, Vânia Cristina; Marin, Flávia Andréa; Lerco, Mauro Masson; Moreto, Fernando; Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho Arruda; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old) and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old) were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts), general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases) and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50) and survival (r = 0.81). Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins) of these patients.

  14. Chromium Supplements in the Feed for Lactating Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): Influence on Nutrient Utilization, Lactation Performance, and Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Mani, Veena; Kumar, Muneendra; Shiwajirao, Zade Satish; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of inorganic chromium (Cr) on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, milk mineral contents, and blood biochemical in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Twenty-four multifarious Murrah buffaloes were blocked into four groups having six animals in each group and fed for 150 days post-partum. Feeding regimen was same in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg inorganic Cr/kg dry matter (DM) in the four respective groups. Group fed on basal diet supplemented with 0.0 mg Cr/kg DM served as a control. Adding inorganic Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes increased feed intake, milk yield, and nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen (N) and Cr balance were significantly increased (P<0.05) by adding Cr. Milk and plasma Cr concentration could be increased by adding Cr (P<0.001), while no significant differences were found between the four treatments in milk and plasma concentration of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Feeding of diet supplemented with inorganic Cr decreased plasma insulin concentration (P=0.016). Concentration of blood glucose and the ratio of blood glucose to insulin were increased by adding Cr (P=0.037 and P=0.011, respectively). Adding Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes did not show any effect on blood hemoglobin (Hb), while plasma concentration of progesterone and antioxidant status was increased (P<0.05). It could be concluded that adding Cr to the diet of lactating buffaloes improved nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, and lactation performance.

  15. CGRP and ET-1 plasma levels in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Paoletti, V; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Labbadia, G; Califano, F; Donnarumma, L; Musca, A

    1999-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid peptide displaying about 50% homology with amylin which is secreted from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The main form, the beta-CGRP, is produced by the enteric nervous system and perivascular nerves of the vasa-vasorum. It represents one of the most powerful vasodilator yet discovered but its role is not yet completely clarified. High levels of this peptide have been shown in patients affected with thyroid medullary carcinoma, phaemocromocytoma and lung carcinoma. Recently circulating levels of CGRP have been found in normal subjects. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, isolated from porcine endothelial cells, is an important regulator of the vascular tone acting in physiological antagonism with atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). With this study we intended to investigate the presence of any correlation between CGRP and ET-1 in normal subjects. For the study we considered 20 normal subjects (11 males and 9 females) aged 23 to 50. Plasma levels of CGRP and ET-1 were measured by radioimmunological Kit. A positive and significant correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and endothelin-1 was found. Our results confirms that CGRP and ET-1 have opposing actions on vessels and that they can act together in haemodinamic regulation.

  16. Pentaerythritol tetranicotinate (niceritrol) decreases plasma lipoprotein(a) levels.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Hayashi, K; Shingu, T; Kuga, Y; Okura, Y; Yasunobu, Y; Ohtani, H; Nomura, S; Kurushima, H; Saeki, M; Kambe, M; Kajiyama, G

    1997-04-01

    We determined the most effective dosage of pentaerythritol tetranicotinate (niceritrol) to reduce plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in 44 Japanese patients (16 men and 28 women; mean age, 59.2 +/- 10.8 years) with hyperlipidemia types IIa, IIb, and IV. Patients received oral niceritrol at a dosage of 750 mg (3 tablets)/d for 8 weeks, followed by 1,500 mg (6 tablets)/d for 8 weeks. Administration of niceritrol 750 mg/d for 8 weeks decreased total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with type IIa hyperlipidemia and decreased triglycerides in patients with type IV hyperlipidemia, but did not affect Lp(a). However, niceritrol 1,500 mg/d for 8 weeks decreased Lp(a) in patients with initial Lp(a) levels greater than 30 mg/dL in addition to decreasing total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. These results suggest that the effective dosage of niceritrol to reduce the serum Lp(a) concentration in Japanese hyperlipidemic patients with a high Lp(a) level (> or = 30 mg/dL) is greater than 1,500 mg/d.

  17. Effects of hemoperfusion with an immobilized polymyxin-B fiber column on cytokine plasma levels in patients with abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zagli, G; Bonizzoli, M; Spina, R; Cianchi, G; Pasquini, A; Anichini, V; Matano, S; Tarantini, F; Di Filippo, A; Maggi, E; Peris, A

    2010-06-01

    The beneficial role of hemofiltration with immobilized polymyxin-B fiber (PMX) columns in sepsis, especially sepsis due to gram-negative bacteria, has previously been emphasized. Although the efficacy of PMX-B fiber-mediated hemofiltration in reducing plasma levels of cytokines has been reported, other studies did not confirm this observation. Here we report the effects of PMX-B fiber-mediated hemofiltration on outcome and cytokine plasma levels in patients with abdominal sepsis. Twelve consecutive patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (October 2006-December 2007) for severe sepsis/septic shock from abdominal infection were treated with standard therapy and 2 cycles of hemofiltration with PMX cartridges. Clinical data and plasma levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a were measured 24 hours before and after PMX treatment. Plasma concentrations (pg/mL) of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a were significantly lower after hemofiltration with a PMX fiber column (279.9+/-69.2 vs. 130.9+/-18.4, 166.4+/-36.7 vs. 45.5+/-12.2, 83.1+/-13.5 vs. 23.9+/-5.1 pg/mL, respectively; P<0.05). After treatment, patients required lower doses of norepinephrine (0.3+/-0.1 vs. 0.8+/-0.1 mg/kg/min) and reduced lactate levels, recovery of respiratory function and improved Simplified Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. After 28 days, 6 patients (50%) had survived. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that survivors had higher IL-6 and lower IL-10 and TNF-a pre-treatment plasma levels (pg/mL) compared with deceased patients (324.4+/-41.1 vs.235.3+/-38.4; 98.5+/-16.1 vs. 234.3+/-48.6, 44.5+/-9.0 vs.121.6+/-52.3 pg/mL, respectively; P<0.05). No adverse events imputable to the treatment were recorded. Hemofiltration with a PMX fiber column was able to reduce plasma levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a, especially in patients surviving at 28 days. Use of the technique was associated with lower norepinephrine support and an increased PaO2/FiO2 ratio.

  18. The effects of different levels of calcium supplementation on the bone mineral status of postpartum lactating Chinese women: a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Wang, Ruo-Qin; Huang, Zhen-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2016-01-14

    Increasing dietary Ca intake may prevent the excessive mobilisation of bone mineral in nursing mothers. We aimed to investigate whether higher Ca intake could positively modulate the bone mineral changes in Chinese postpartum lactating women. The study was a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, parallel group trial conducted over 12 months. A total of 150 postpartum women were randomly selected to receive either 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of Ca and 5 μg of vitamin D (Low-Ca group) or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of Ca (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of Ca (High-Ca group). Bone mineral density (BMD) for the whole body, the lumbar spine, the total left hip and its sub-regions was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 102 subjects completed the whole trial. The duration of total lactating time was 7·9 (SD 2·8) months on average. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded the following mean percentage changes in BMD for the whole body, the lumbar spine and the total left hip, respectively: -0·93 (SD 1·97), 2·11 (SD 4·90) and -1·60 (SD 2·65)% for the Low-Ca group; -0·56 (SD 1·89), 2·21 (SD 3·77) and -1·43 (SD 2·30)% for the Mid-Ca group; and -0·44 (SD 1·67), 2·32 (SD 4·66) and -0·95 (SD 4·08)% for the High-Ca group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P: 0·5-0·9). The results of the complete case analysis were similar. In sum, we found no significant differences in the bone mineral changes from baseline to 12 months in postpartum lactating women consuming milk powder fortified with different levels of Ca.

  19. Comparison of the trauma and injury severity score and modified early warning score with rapid lactate level (the ViEWS-L score) in blunt trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sion; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Young Ho; Jeong, Taeoh; Yoon, Jaechol; Choi, Seok Jin; Park, Boyoung

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of the VitalPAC Early Warning Score-lactate (ViEWS-L) score with that of the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS), which is a pre-existing risk scoring system used in trauma patients. The patients were blunt trauma victims admitted consecutively to the study hospital between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2011, who were 15 years or older and had an injury severity score of 9 or higher. The lactate level, the ViEWS and revised trauma score upon arrival at the emergency department, and the injury severity score and TRISS were evaluated. The ViEWS-L score was calculated according to the formula: ViEWS-L=ViEWS+lactate (mmol/l). The ability to predict mortality was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis and calibration analysis. A total of 299 patients were available for analysis, of whom 33 died (11.0%). The median ViEWS-L score was 3.7 (interquartile range:1.8-6.4) and the median TRISS was 96.8 (interquartile range: 93.4-98.6). The ViEWS-L score was better than TRISS at predicting hospital mortality (AUC, 0.838; 95% confidence interval, 0.771-0.906 vs. AUC, 0.734; 95% confidence interval, 0.635-0.833, P=0.031). Calibration of the ViEWS-L score (χ=11.13, P=0.194) was good but that of TRISS was not (χ=16.97, P=0.018). The prognostic value of the ViEWS-L score in terms of discrimination was better than that of TRISS in the blunt trauma patients admitted to the emergency department with an injury severity score of 9 or higher, and the ViEWS-L score showed good calibration.

  20. Plasma Intermedin Level Indicates Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Septic Shock in Sprague-Dawley (SD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Xian; Chen, Yun-Xiu; Xu, Jing; Yang, Zhao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the value of plasma intermedin (IMD) in assessing severity and treatment efficacy of septic shock. Material/Methods Healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen and divided into a normal control group (n=15) and a shock model group (n=27) that received intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Then, 3 specimens were taken from each group. The shock model group rats were divided into an LPS group and a treatment group with 12 rats each. The treatment group received intravenous injection of compound sodium lactate solution. Plasma IMD and IMD1-47 mRNA expressions were compared and analyzed. Results Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was lower while white blood cell count and TNF-α were higher in the shock model group than in the normal control group (P<0.05). After 10 h and 20 h, the treatment group had lower plasma IMD and IMD1-47 mRNA expressions compared with the LPS group (P<0.05). Plasma IMD and IMD1-47 mRNA expressions in the LPS group after 20 h were significantly higher than after 10 h (P<0.05). IMD was positively correlated with interleukins (IL-3, IL-6, and IL-8), white blood cell count, and body temperature (all P<0.05), but were negatively correlated with systolic pressure (r=−0.8474, P=0.0040). Conclusions Plasma IMD level can effectively reflect the severity of septic shock and can be used as an important indicator of septic shock treatment effectiveness. PMID:27999422

  1. Hsp72 is present in plasma from Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, and the concentration level is repeatable across days and age classes.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Berg, Peer; Loeschcke, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Although heat shock proteins (Hsps) are primarily considered as being intracellular, this study identified the presence of Hsp72 in plasma from female Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Plasma samples were collected from the same animals at different ages and on different days after calving and accordingly divided into 5 age classes. The age classes were calves less than 235 days of age, young heifers between 235 and 305 days of age, older heifers between 305 and 560 days of age, cows early in lactation, and cows later in lactation. For a subsample of animals within each age class, replicate plasma samples were collected from 1 to 7 days apart to test whether the Hsp72 concentration levels are repeatable on this shorter timescale. Hsp72 was observed in plasma samples from animals of all 5 age classes. For animals with blood samples taken a few days apart, the repeatability (within age class) of the Hsp72 concentration was 0.52 +/- 0.06. Age and days from calving significantly affected the Hsp72 concentration level. The highest Hsp72 level was observed in older heifers (305-560 days of age). The repeatability of Hsp72 concentrations across age classes within animal was 0.22 +/- 0.06. High environmental sensitivity and negative genetic associations between production and health traits in this high-producing breed have been documented earlier. Hsp72 is believed to be strictly stress inducible, and the finding of Hsp72 in plasma indicates that even apparently healthy individuals may experience extrinsic or intrinsic stress (or both).

  2. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K

    2015-09-08

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC's content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  3. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  4. Serum lactate dehydrogenase levels significantly correlate with radiological extent of disease and spirometric values in patients with silicosis due to denim sandblasting.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Omer; Gumus, Seyfettin; Ors, Fatih; Yaman, Halil; Battal, Bilal; Karaman, Bulent; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Ucar, Ergun; Cakir, Erdinc; Tozkoparan, Ergun; Bilgic, Hayati

    2012-01-31

    The aim of the present study was to investigate serum lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels in patients with silicosis due to denim sandblasting (SDDS) and also to investigate possible correlations between serum LD levels and the degree of radiological extent of disease (RED) and pulmonary function tests. Forty-four males with SDDS and 32 healthy male subjects were included in the study. Patients and healthy controls were compared for serum LD levels. Correlations between serum LD levels, RED and spirometric values were investigated. Patients with SDDS had significantly higher serum LD levels than healthy controls. Patients with complicated SDDS had significantly higher serum LD levels than patients with simple SDDS. Significant correlations were found between serum LD levels and RED values. Significant correlations were found between serum LD levels and spirometric parameters. High serum LD levels might be considered as a marker of pulmonary parenchymal involvement in patients with SDDS. This study also suggests that the increase in serum LD levels might be closely related to the degree of pulmonary involvement in SDDS patients.

  5. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  6. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  7. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  8. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  9. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.

    1987-06-29

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field. 5 figs.

  10. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1989-01-01

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  11. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  12. Towards improved prognostic scores predicting survival in patients with brain metastases: a pilot study of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Carsten; Marienhagen, Kirsten; Dalhaug, Astrid; Norum, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prognostic information is desirable when counselling patients with brain metastases regarding their therapeutic options and life expectancy. Based on previous studies, we selected serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a promising factor on which we perform a pilot study investigating methodological aspects of biomarker studies in patients with brain metastases, before embarking on large-scale studies that will look at a larger number of candidate markers in an expanded patient cohort. For this retrospective analysis, 100 patients with available information on LDH treated with palliative whole-brain radiotherapy were selected. A comprehensive evaluation of different LDH-based variables was performed in uni- and multivariate tests. Probably, the most intriguing finding was that LDH kinetics might be more important, or at least complement, information obtained from a single measurement immediately before radiotherapy. LDH and performance status outperformed several other variables that are part of prognostic models such as recursive partitioning analyses classes and graded prognostic assessment score. LDH kinetics might reflect disease behaviour in extracranial metastatic and primary sites without need for comprehensive imaging studies and is a quite inexpensive diagnostic test. Based on these encouraging results, confirmatory studies in a larger cohort of patients are warranted.

  13. Effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate and performance during simulated competition in high level gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Jemni, Monèm; Sands, William A; Friemel, Françoise; Delamarche, Paul

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two recovery strategies between men's gymnastics events on blood lactate removal (BL) and performance as rated by expert "blind" judges. Twelve male gymnasts (21.8 +/- 2.4 years) participated. The sessions were composed of routine performances in the six Olympic events, which were separated by 10 min of recovery. All gymnasts performed two recovery protocols between events on separate days: Rest protocol, 10 min rest in a sitting position; Combined protocol, 5 min rest and 5 min self-selected active recovery. Three blood samples were taken at 2, 5, and 10 min following each event. Gymnasts produced moderate values of BL following each of the six events (2.2 to 11.6 mmol.L-1). There was moderate variability in BL values between events that could not be accounted for by the athlete's event performance. Gymnasts showed higher BL concentration (p > .05) and significantly (p < .05) higher scoring performances (as rated by a panel of certified judges) when they used a combined recovery between gymnastics events rather than a passive recovery (delta BL = 40.51% vs. 28.76% of maximal BL, p < .05, and total score = 47.28 +/- 6.82 vs. 38.39 +/- 7.55, p < .05, respectively).

  14. Effects of exogenous hormones and glucose on plasma levels and hepatic metabolism of amino acids in the fetus and in the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Girard, J R; Guillet, I; Marty, J; Assan, R; Marliss, E B

    1976-08-01

    The present study examines the role of insulin, glucagon and cortisol in the regulation of gluconeogenesis from lactate and amino acids in fetal and newborn rats. Injection of glucagon in the full-term fetal rat caused a rise in glucose (and insulin) and a fall in blood levels of most individual amino acids, stimulated hepatic accumulation of 14C-amino isobutyric acid and 14C-cycloleucine and increased the conversion of 14C lactate, alanine and serine to glucose in vivo and in vitro (liver slices). Such changes were equivalent to the changes seen in 4 h old newborn rats. When glucagon was administered at birth, little difference was observed between control and treated animals in plasma amino acids and a smaller increment in conversion of 14C substrate to glucose occurred. By contrast, insulin injection at birth caused hypoglycemia, suppression of levels of certain amino acids and inhibition of conversion of 14C substrates into glucose. Glucose injection at birth caused elevated glycemia and plasma insulin and suppression of most amino acid levels and of conversion of 14C substrate into glucose. Cortisol injection at birth caused a marked, generalized by hyperaminoacidemia, a stimulation of glucagon secretion and of conversion of 14C substrates into glucose. These observations support the thesis that glucagon plays a major role in the induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis and that insulin acts as an antagonist hormone.

  15. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  16. Plasma levels of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and beta-endorphin as indicators of stress, pain and prognosis in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Niinistö, Kati E; Korolainen, Raija V; Raekallio, Marja R; Mykkänen, Anna K; Koho, Ninna M; Ruohoniemi, Mirja O; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Pösö, A Reeta

    2010-04-01

    A prospective observational study was performed to evaluate whether the plasma concentration of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) or beta-endorphin is related to clinical signs, blood chemistry, or severity of pain of colic. Seventy-seven horses with colic and 15 clinically healthy controls were studied. The horses were divided into four groups which reflected increasing severity of colic, from normal control horses to horses with mild, moderate and severe colic. Blood samples were collected before any treatment. Packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma HSP72, beta-endorphin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and lactate concentrations were measured. Plasma beta-endorphin was related with severity of colic and survival, as well as with plasma cortisol, ACTH and lactate concentrations, heart rate, PCV and pain score. High plasma HSP72 concentration may indicate circulatory deficits, but was not associated with clinical signs of colic. Plasma lactate still seemed to be the most useful single prognostic parameter in horses with colic.

  17. Green tea extract intake during lactation modified cardiac macrophage infiltration and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in weanling rats from undernourished mother during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, E; Kataoka, S; Mukai, Y; Sato, M; Sato, S

    2017-04-01

    Maternal dietary restriction is often associated with cardiovascular disease in offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation on macrophage infiltration, and activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and serine-threonine kinase Akt (Akt) in the hearts of weanlings exposed to maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed control (C) or low-protein diets (LP) throughout gestation. Following delivery, the dams received a control or a GTE-containing control diet during lactation: control diet during gestation and lactation (CC), low-protein diet during gestation and lactation (LPC), low-protein diet during gestation and 0.12% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPL), and low-protein diet during gestation and 0.24% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPH). The female offspring were sacrificed at day 22. Biochemical parameters in the plasma, macrophage infiltration, degree of fibrosis and expression levels of AMPK and Akt were examined. The plasma insulin level increased in LPH compared with LPC. Percentage of the fibrotic areas and the number of macrophages in LPC were higher than those in CC. Conversely, the fibrotic areas and the macrophage number in LPH were smaller (21 and 56%, respectively) than those in LPC. The levels of phosphorylated AMPK in LPL and LPH, and Akt in LPH were greater than those in LPC. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction may induce macrophage infiltration and the decrease of insulin levels. However, GTE intake during lactation may suppress macrophage infiltration and restore insulin secretion function via upregulation of AMPK and insulin signaling in weanlings.

  18. Baseline Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels for Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Predictor of Poor Prognosis and Subsequent Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Guanqun; Tang Linglong; Mao Yanping; Chen Lei; Li Wenfei; Sun Ying; Liu Lizhi; Li Li; Lin Aihua; Ma Jun

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Cases of NPC (n = 465) that involved treatment with IMRT with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) and median baseline serum LDH levels for this cohort were 172.77 {+-} 2.28 and 164.00 IU/L, respectively. Levels of LDH were significantly elevated in patients with locoregionally advanced disease (p = 0.016). Elevated LDH levels were identified as a prognostic factor for rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), with p values <0.001 in the univariate analysis and p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively, in the multivariate analysis. Correspondingly, the prognostic impact of patient LDH levels was found to be statistically significant for rates of OS, DFS, and DMFS (p = 0.028, 0.024, and 0.020, respectively). For patients who experienced subsequent liver failure after treatment, markedly higher pretreatment serum LDH levels were detected compared with patients experiencing distant metastasis events at other sites (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Elevated baseline LDH levels are associated with clinically advanced disease and are a poor prognosticator for OS, DFS, and DMFS for NPC patients. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of LDH should be considered when evaluating treatment options.

  19. Combination of arterial lactate levels and venous-arterial CO2 to arterial-venous O 2 content difference ratio as markers of resuscitation in patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo A; Umaña, Mauricio; Bermúdez, William; Bautista-Rincón, Diego F; Hernandez, Glenn; Bruhn, Alejandro; Granados, Marcela; Salazar, Blanca; Arango-Dávila, César; De Backer, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of the Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio combined with lactate levels during the early phases of resuscitation in septic shock. Prospective observational study in a 60-bed mixed ICU. One hundred and thirty-five patients with septic shock were included. The resuscitation protocol targeted mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure variations or central venous pressure, mixed venous oxygen saturation, and lactate levels. Patients were classified into four groups according to lactate levels and Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio at 6 h of resuscitation (T6): group 1, lactate ≥2.0 mmol/L and Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 >1.0; group 2, lactate ≥2.0 mmol/L and Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ≤1.0; group 3, lactate <2.0 mmol/L and Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 >1.0; and group 4, lactate <2.0 mmol/L and Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ≤1.0. Combination of hyperlactatemia and high Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio was associated with the worst SOFA scores and lower survival rates at day 28 [log rank (Mantel-Cox) = 31.39, p < 0.0001]. Normalization of both variables was associated with the best outcomes. Patients with a high Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio and lactate <2.0 mmol/L had similar outcomes to hyperlactatemic patients with low Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio. The multivariate analysis revealed that Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio at both T0 (RR 3.85; 95 % CI 1.60-9.27) and T6 (RR 3.97; 95 % CI 1.54-10.24) was an independent predictor for mortality at day 28, as well as lactate levels at T6 (RR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.13-2.22). Complementing lactate assessment with Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio during early stages of resuscitation of septic shock can better identify patients at high risk of adverse outcomes. The Cv-aCO2/Da-vO2 ratio may become a potential resuscitation goal in patients with septic shock.

  20. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  1. Caffeine suppresses β-amyloid levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer’s transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R.; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W.; Holtzman, David M.; Potter, Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain β-amyloid (Aβ) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Aβ levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Aβ elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Aβ, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Aβ in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasmalevels did not correlate with brain Aβ levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Aβ1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated — both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold. First, that both plasma and brain Aβ levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD. Second, that plasmalevels are not an accurate index of brain Aβ levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice. PMID:19581723

  2. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W; Holtzman, David M; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Abeta levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Abeta elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Abeta, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Abeta in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasma Abeta levels did not correlate with brain Abeta levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Abeta1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated, both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold: first, that both plasma and brain Abeta levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD; and second, that plasma Abeta levels are not an accurate index of brain Abeta levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice.

  3. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  4. Plasma level of atropine after accidental ingestion of Atropa belladonna.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Reinhard; Zimmermann, Thomas; Zilker, Thomas; Eyer, Florian; Thiermann, Horst

    2009-07-01

    Ingestion of toxic plant constituents still poses a challenge in clinical management. The amount of berries ingested is often unclear and in the case of Atropa belladonna may affect clinical outcome. Plasma levels of atropine may thus be useful in confirming the cause of intoxication. A 48-year-old man had ingested three handfuls of Atropa belladonna. Within 6 h he experienced phases of disorientation, aggressiveness, and tachycardia. He was initially treated with diazepam, an intravenous infusion of physostigmine and activated charcoal. After temporary improvement his clinical condition worsened and he was transferred to our toxicological intensive care unit. Here, ongoing sedation and continuous administration of physostigmine was necessary because of disorientation. In the early phase of hospitalization, a blood sample was taken and a muscarinic receptor total binding equivalent to binding of 130 microg/L atropine was determined by a radio receptor technique. Within 2 days the patient recovered completely and was discharged in a good general condition. Receptor binding may help confirm diagnosis and elucidate mechanisms in this type of exposure.

  5. Prognostic value of combined preoperative lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase levels in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fei; Fu, Shun-Jun; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Pang, Hui; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Dong-Ping; Hua, Yun-Peng; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serum enzymes, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), have recently been reported to play important roles in tumor growth. Increases in LDH and ALP have been confirmed to predict poor prognosis in patients with various cancers. However, their prognostic value in pancreatic cancer has not been well studied. Therefore, we reviewed the preoperative data on LDH and ALP in 185 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients who underwent surgery between July 2005 and December 2010 to explore the prognostic value of these markers. The cutoff points were determined based on the upper limit of their normal values. The Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationships between LDH/ALP and clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive value of the above factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). We found that elevation of LDH was related to carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), lymph node involvement, tumor size, TNM, distant metastasis, and recurrence. Additionally, ALP was correlated to perineural invasion. After multivariate analysis, LDH and ALP were identified as independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS, and elevation of LDH/ALP was correlated with poor DFS and OS. Notably, there was a positive correlation between LDH and ALP. The predictive power of LDH combined with ALP was more sensitive than that of either one alone. Therefore, we conclude that the preoperative LDH and ALP values are prognostic factors for PADC, and the prognostic accuracy of testing can be enhanced by the combination of LDH and ALP PMID:27399091

  6. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  7. Differences in Plasma Cytokine Levels between Elite Kayakers and Nonathletes

    PubMed Central

    Borges, G. F.; Rama, L.; Pedreiro, S.; Alves, F.; Santos, A.; Massart, A.; Paiva, A.; Teixeira, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects that help prevent several chronic diseases. However, the effects of chronic training an elite athletes have not been the focus of much research. This study aimed to determine whether there were differences in cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in circulating peripheral blood (PB) between elite kayakers and nonathletes. Subjects were 13 elite male kayakers, aged 20.0 ± 3 years, with average body mass of 75.0 ± 7.9 kg and 177.3 ± 7.1 cm height and with a VO2max of 58.3 ± 7.8 mL·kg−1·min−1. The nonathletes were 7 men, aged 18.2 ± 1.1 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 13.8 kg, and 171.9 ± 4.5 cm height. Blood samples were collected after six weeks of offtraining and before the start of a new training season. PB leukocyte populations were determined by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were quantified by ELISA. When nonathletes were compared with the kayakers, the latter exhibited lower plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-18, and IFN-γ as well as a lower concentration of IL-1ra. Positive correlations between IL-18 and B cells in the athletes were also found. These results seem to reinforce the anti-inflammatory role of regular training. PMID:23781501