Science.gov

Sample records for plasma mass spectrometry

  1. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  2. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  3. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Robert W.; McLachlin, Katherine M.; Riquelme, Paloma; Haarer, Jan; Broichhausen, Christiane; Ritter, Uwe; Geissler, Edward K.; Hutchinson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT New analytical techniques for multiparametric characterisation of individual cells are likely to reveal important information about the heterogeneity of immunological responses at the single-cell level. In this proof-of-principle study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied to the problem of concurrently detecting 24 lineage and activation markers expressed by human leucocytes. This approach was sufficiently sensitive and specific to identify subpopulations of isolated T, B, and natural killer cells. Leucocyte subsets were also accurately detected within unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparations. Accordingly, we judge LA-ICP-MS to be a suitable method for assessing expression of multiple tissue antigens in solid-phase biological specimens, such as tissue sections, cytospins, or cells grown on slides. These results augur well for future development of LA-ICP-MS–based bioimaging instruments for general users. PMID:27500232

  4. Plasma source mass spectrometry in experimental nutrition.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R M

    1998-01-01

    The development and commercial availability of plasma ion source, specifically inductively coupled plasma, mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) have significantly extended the potential application of stable isotopes for nutritional modeling. The status of research and commercial ICP-MS instruments, and their applications and limitations for stable isotopic studies are reviewed. The consequences of mass spectroscopic resolution and measurement sensitivity obtainable with quadrupole, sector, time-of-flight, and trap instruments on stable isotope analysis are examined. Requirements for reliable isotope measurements with practical biological samples including tissues and fluids are considered. The possibility for stable isotope analysis in chemically separated compounds (speciation) also is explored. On-line compound separations by chromatography or electrophoresis, for example, have been combined instrumentally with ICP-MS. Som possibilities and requirements are described for stable isotope speciation analysis.

  5. Ion sampling and transport in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative accuracy and high sensitivity in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) depend on consistent and efficient extraction and transport of analyte ions from an inductively coupled plasma to a mass analyzer, where they are sorted and detected. In this review we examine the fundamental physical processes that control ion sampling and transport in ICP-MS and compare the results of theory and computerized models with experimental efforts to characterize the flow of ions through plasma mass spectrometers' vacuum interfaces. We trace the flow of ions from their generation in the plasma, into the sampling cone, through the supersonic expansion in the first vacuum stage, through the skimmer, and into the ion optics that deliver the ions to the mass analyzer. At each stage we consider idealized behavior and departures from ideal behavior that affect the performance of ICP-MS as an analytical tool.

  6. Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry in bioanalytical sciences.

    PubMed

    Smoluch, Marek; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Silberring, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry techniques are gaining growing interest due to their specific features, such as the need for little or no sample preparation, its high analysis speed, and the ambient experimental conditions. Samples can be analyzed in gas, liquid, or solid forms. These techniques allow for a wide range of applications, like warfare agent detection, chemical reaction control, mass spectrometry imaging, polymer identification, and food safety monitoring, as well as applications in biomedical science, e.g., drug and pharmaceutical analysis, medical diagnostics, biochemical analysis, etc. Until now, the main drawback of plasma-based techniques is their quantitative aspect, but a lot of efforts have been done to improve this obstacle.

  7. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  8. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-28

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  9. Inductively Coupled Plasma Zoom-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elise A; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Hieftje, Gary M

    2016-03-01

    A zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been coupled to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source. Zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS) combines two complementary types of velocity-based mass separation. Specifically, zoom-TOFMS alternates between conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and energy-focused, constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) (zoom) TOFMS. The CMA mode provides a mass-resolution enhancement of 1.5-1.7× over CEA-TOFMS in the current, 35-cm ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument geometry. The maximum resolving power (full-width at half-maximum) for the ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument is 1200 for CEA-TOFMS and 1900 for CMA-TOFMS. The CMA mode yields detection limits of between 0.02 and 0.8 ppt, depending upon the repetition rate and integration time-compared with single ppt detection limits for CEA-TOFMS. Isotope-ratio precision is shot-noise limited at approximately 0.2% relative-standard deviation (RSD) for both CEA- and CMA-TOFMS at a 10 kHz repetition rate and an integration time of 3-5 min. When the repetition rate is increased to 43.5 kHz for CMA, the shot-noise limited, zoom-mode isotope-ratio precision is improved to 0.09% RSD for the same integration time.

  10. Toward Plasma Proteome Profiling with Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Plasencia, Manolo D.; Liu, Xiaoyun; Krishnan, Meera; Naylor, Stephen; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.; Clemmer, David E.

    2006-11-01

    Differential, functional, and mapping proteomic analyses of complex biological mixtures suffer from a lack of component resolution. Here we describe the application of ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMSMS) to this problem. With this approach, components that are separated by liquid chromatography are dispersed based on differences in their mobilities through a buffer gas prior to being analyzed by MS. The inclusion of the gas-phase dispersion provides more than an order of magnitude enhancement in component resolution at no cost to data acquisition time. Additionally, the mobility separation often removes high-abundance species from spectral regions containing low-abundance species, effectively increasing measurement sensitivity and dynamic range. Finally, collision-induced dissociation of all ions can be recorded in a single experimental sequence while conventional MS methods sequentially select precursors. The approach is demonstrated in a single, rapid (3.3 h) analysis of a plasma digest sample where abundant proteins have not been removed. Protein database searches have yielded 731 high confidence peptide assignments corresponding to 438 unique proteins. Results have been compiled into an initial analytical map to be used -after further augmentation and refinement- for comparative plasma profiling studies.

  11. Environmental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the numerous ways in which inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of environmental samples since it was commercially introduced in 1983. Its multielemental isotopic capability, high sensitivity and wide linear dynamic range makes it ideally suited for environmental analysis. Provided that some care is taken during sample preparation and that appropriate calibration strategies are used to circumvent non-spectroscopic interferences, the technique is readily applicable to the analysis of a wide variety of environmental samples (natural waters, soils, rocks, sediments, vegetation, etc.), using quadrupole, time-of-flight or double-focusing sector-field mass spectrometers. In cases where spectroscopic interferences arising from the sample matrix cannot be resolved, then separation methods can be implemented either on- or off-line, which can simultaneously allow analyte preconcentration, thus further decreasing the already low detection limits that are achievable. In most cases, the blank, prepared by following the same steps as for the sample but without the sample, limits the ultimate detection limits that can be reached.

  12. Gold fingerprinting by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watling, R. John; Herbert, Hugh K.; Delev, Dianne; Abell, Ian D.

    1994-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to the characterization of the trace element composition "fingerprint" of selected gold samples from Western Australia and South Africa. By comparison of the elemental associations it is possible to relate gold to a specific mineralizing event, mine or bullion sample. This methodology facilitates identification of the provenance of stolen gold or gold used in salting activities. In this latter case, it is common for gold from a number of sources to be used in the salting process. Consequently, gold in the prospect being salted will not come from a single source and identification of multiple sources for this gold will establish that salting has occurred. Preliminary results also indicate that specific elemental associations could be used to identify the country of origin of gold. The technique has already been applied in 17 cases involving gold theft in Western Australia, where it is estimated that up to 2% of gold production is "relocated" each year as a result of criminal activities.

  13. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todorov, Todor; Ejnik, John W.; Guandalini, Gustavo S.; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry W.; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Centeno, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2 g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4–7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97–100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n = 10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans’ semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments.

  14. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Ejnik, John W; Guandalini, Gustavo; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Centeno, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4-7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97-100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n=10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans' semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  16. Characterization of a Distributed Plasma Ionization Source (DPIS) for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Waltman, Melanie J.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert; Blanchard, William C.; Ewing, Robert G.

    2008-10-15

    A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions depending on the polarity of the applied potential. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H2O)nH+ with (H2O)2H+ as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO3-, NO3-, NO2-, O3- and O2- of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and environmental pollutants were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for several months and although deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions. The results indicated that the DPIS may have a longer operating life than a conventional corona discharge.

  17. Characterization of a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS) for ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waltman, Melanie J; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert H; Blanchard, William C; Ewing, Robert G

    2008-10-19

    A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H(2)O)(n)H(+) with (H(2)O)(2)H(+) as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO(3)(-), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), O(3)(-) and O(2)(-) of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and amines were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for 3 months and although surface deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions.

  18. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  19. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  20. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry and the European Discovery of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houk, R. S.

    2000-05-01

    The background and initial experimental results in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are juxtaposed with similar events from the voyages of Christopher Columbus, particularly with the first voyage.

  1. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and the Determination of Neptunium and Plutonium in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Kate

    This project is concerned with the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of neptunium-237, plutonium-239 and plutonium-240 concentrations in the marine environment…

  2. Applications of plasma desorption mass spectrometry to the analysis of bioactive peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Alai, M.

    1988-01-01

    The applications of Cf-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry to the analysis of peptides is evaluated. Sample preparation is a critical stage in such type of analyses. The plasma desorption mass spectra of compounds dissolved and electrosprayed in solutions containing reduced glutathione, showed increased molecular ion signal, reduced peak widths and an increase in multiply charged ions. Plasma desorption mass spectrometry was also evaluated for the analysis of glycopeptides, especially the glycosylation site microheterogeneity. The three N-linked sites of bovine fetuin, as a model glycoprotein, digested with trypsin and treated with neuraminidase, were identified by a combination of amino acid composition, amino acid sequence and molecular ions obtained by mass spectrometry. Methodology has also been developed for the study of mixed disulfides formed between the Cys residue of peptides and glutathione by mass spectrometry.

  3. Measurement of the 135Cs half-life with accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. M.; Cornett, R. J.; Charles, C. R. J.; Zhao, X. L.; Kieser, W. E.

    2016-01-01

    The isotope 135Cs is quoted as having a half-life of 2.3 Myr. However, there are three published values ranging from 1.8 to 3 Myr. This research reviews previous measurements and reports a new measurement of the half-life using newly developed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) techniques along with β and γ radiometric analysis. The half-life was determined to be (1.6 ±0.6 ) ×106 yr by AMS and (1.3 ±0.2 ) ×106 yr by ICPMS with 95% confidence. The two values agree with each other but differ from the accepted value by ˜40 % .

  4. Solid sampling electrothermal vaporization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moens, L.; Verrept, P.; Boonen, S.; Vanhaecke, F.; Dams, R.

    1995-06-01

    Solid sampling using electrothermal vaporization is an attractive sample introduction method for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For AAS, the method is well established. The techniques needed to apply SS-ETV in ICP-based methods are described, with the emphasis on the coupling of different types of ETV-devices to the inductively coupled plasma torch and on the requirements for the spectrometer and the data acquisition and handling system. Though standardization is not straightforward, it is shown that standard addition and external calibration with solid standards yield accurate results. The latter is demonstrated by the analysis of standard reference materials. Figures of merit for SS-ETV-ICP-AES and SS-ETV-ICP-MS are presented. The literature concerning ICP-AES and ICP-MS (methods and applications) is briefly reviewed and new results of SS-ETV-ICP-MS analysis of SRMs are presented.

  5. Modeling the chemistry of plasma polymerization using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ihrig, D F; Stockhaus, J; Scheide, F; Winkelhake, Oliver; Streuber, Oliver

    2003-04-01

    The goal of the project is a solvent free painting shop. The environmental technologies laboratory is developing processes of plasma etching and polymerization. Polymerized thin films are first-order corrosion protection and primer for painting. Using pure acetylene we get very nice thin films which were not bonded very well. By using air as bulk gas it is possible to polymerize, in an acetylene plasma, well bonded thin films which are stable first-order corrosion protections and good primers. UV/Vis spectroscopy shows nitrogen oxide radicals in the emission spectra of pure nitrogen and air. But nitrogen oxide is fully suppressed in the presence of acetylene. IR spectroscopy shows only C=O, CH(2) and CH(3) groups but no nitrogen species. With the aid of UV/Vis spectra and the chemistry of ozone formation it is possible to define reactive traps and steps, molecule depletion and processes of proton scavenging and proton loss. Using a numerical model it is possible to evaluate these processes and to calculate theoretical mass spectra. Adjustment of theoretical mass spectra to real measurements leads to specific channels of polymerization which are driven by radicals especially the acetyl radical. The estimated theoretical mass spectra show the specific channels of these chemical processes. It is possible to quantify these channels. This quantification represents the mass flow through this chemical system. With respect to these chemical processes it is possible to have an idea of pollutant production processes.

  6. Cometary particulate analyzer. [mass spectrometry of laser plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Miller, D. J.; Utterback, N. G.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates was evaluated. The technique utilizes a short, high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. Critical aspects of the development of this system are determining the ionization efficiencies for various atomic species and achieving adequate mass resolution. A technique called energy-time focus, which utilizes static electric fields to alter the length of the ion flight path in proportion to the ion initial energy, was used which results in a corresponding compression to the range of ion flight times which effectively improves the inherent resolution. Sufficient data were acquired to develop preliminary specifications for a flight experiment.

  7. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-01-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  8. Iron-Isotopic Fractionation Studies Using Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Zhang, C.; Barling, J.; Roe, J. E.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of Fe biogeochemistry has stimulated interest in Fe isotope fractionation. Recent studies using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and a "double spike" demonstrate the existence of biogenic Fe isotope effects. Here, we assess the utility of multiple-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(MC-ICP-MS) with a desolvating sample introduction system for Fe isotope studies, and present data on Fe biominerals produced by a thermophilic bacterium. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized bymore » the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was

  10. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer

  11. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    An electrostatic size classification technique was used to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Size-segregated particles were counted with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10- 5 to 10- 11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was applied, but

  12. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Uranium Error Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Maclean, S; Shepley, D; Shaw, R K

    2001-07-01

    The Hazards Control Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP/MS) technology to analyze uranium in urine. The ICP/MS used by the Hazards Control Department is a Perkin-Elmer Elan 6000 ICP/MS. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program requires that the total error be assessed for bioassay measurements. A previous evaluation of the errors associated with the ICP/MS measurement of uranium demonstrated a {+-} 9.6% error in the range of 0.01 to 0.02 {micro}g/l. However, the propagation of total error for concentrations above and below this level have heretofore been undetermined. This document is an evaluation of the errors associated with the current LLNL ICP/MS method for a more expanded range of uranium concentrations.

  13. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoshan

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the "Fassel" TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  14. Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques: The current status and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuelu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry is emerging as a frontier technology for direct analysis of sample that employs low-energy plasma as the ionization reagent. The versatile sources of ambient mass spectrometry (MS) can be classified according to the plasma formation approaches; namely, corona discharge, glow discharge, dielectric barrier discharge, and microwave-induced discharge. These techniques allow pretreatment-free detection of samples, ranging from biological materials (e.g., flies, bacteria, plants, tissues, peptides, metabolites, and lipids) to pharmaceuticals, food-stuffs, polymers, chemical warfare reagents, and daily-use chemicals. In most cases, plasma-based ambient MS performs well as a qualitative tool and as an analyzer for semi-quantitation. Herein, we provide an overview of the key concepts, mechanisms, and applications of plasma-based ambient MS techniques, and discuss the challenges and outlook.

  15. Quantitative lipidomic analysis of plasma and plasma lipoproteins using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serna, Jorge; García-Seisdedos, David; Alcázar, Alberto; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Busto, Rebeca; Pastor, Óscar

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the plasma lipid composition is essential to clarify the specific roles of different lipid species in various pathophysiological processes. In this study, we developed an analytical strategy combining high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and off-line coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) to determine the composition of plasma and major lipoproteins at two levels, lipid classes and lipid species. We confirmed the suitability of MALDI-TOF/MS as a quantitative measurement tool studying the linearity and repeatability for triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Moreover, data obtained with this method were correlated with other lipid classes and species measurements using currently available technologies. To establish the potential utility of our approach, human plasma very low density- (VLDL), low density- (LDL) and high density- (HDL) lipoproteins from 10 healthy donors were separated using ultracentrifugation, and compositions of nine lipid classes, cholesteryl esters (CE), TG, free cholesterol (FC), PE, phosphatidylinositol (PI), sulfatides (S), PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM), analyzed. In total, 157 lipid species in plasma, 182 in LDL, 171 in HDL, and 148 in VLDL were quantified. The lipidomic profile was consistent with known differences in lipid classes, but also revealed unexpected differences in lipid species distribution of lipoproteins, particularly for LPC and SM. In summary, the methodology developed in this study constitutes a valid approach to determine the lipidomic composition of plasma and lipoproteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioimmunoassay and chemical ionization/mass spectrometry compared for plasma cortisol determination

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, C.; Johnson, S.; Hedner, P.; Gustafsson, A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determination of cortisol in plasma and urine, based on chemical ionization/mass spectrometry with deuterium-labeled cortisol as the internal standard. The within-run precision (CV) was 2.5-5.7%, the between-run precision 4.6%. Results by this method were compared with those by a radioimmunological method (RIANEN Cortisol, New England Nuclear) for 395 plasma samples. The latter method gave significantly higher (approx. 25%) cortisol values.

  17. Sample analysis using plasma source mass spectrometry with electrothermal sample introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.J.; Van Loon, J.C.; Arrowsmith, P.; French, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    A detailed procedure is outlined for the analysis of practical samples by plasma mass spectrometry with an electrothermal vaporizer for sample introduction. Results have been obtained for the determination of As, Cu, Mn, Pb, Rb, V, Zn, and Ag in National Bureau of Standards (NBS) orchard leaves (SRM 1571) and oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and of Pb in a human blood sample used in an interlaboratory comparison study. Simultaneous multimass analysis is demonstrated for Pb isotopes in NBS 981. Generally, the results agreed with certified values. Absolute detection limits at the picogram level were obtained that are 10- to 100-fold better than those reported for ICP atomic emission spectrometry and 10-fold better than those obtained by nebulization with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviations ranged from 2% to 13%.

  18. Plasma Ion Sources for Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Guo

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources using direct-current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) plasma have been developed in this thesis work. These ion sources can provide stable discharge currents of ~ 1 mA, 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the corona discharge, a widely used API source. The plasmas can be generated and maintained in 1 atm of various buffer gases by applying -500 to -1000 V (DC plasma) or 1-15 W with a frequency of 165 kHz (RF plasma) on the needle electrode. These ion sources have been used with liquid injection to detect various organic compounds of pharmaceutical, biotechnological and environmental interest. Key features of these ion sources include soft ionization with the protonated molecule as the largest peak, and superb sensitivity with detection limits in the low picogram or femtomole range and a linear dynamic range over ~4 orders of magnitude. The RF plasma has advantages over the DC plasma in its ability to operate in various buffer gases and to produce a more stable plasma. Factors influencing the performance of the ion sources have been studied, including RF power level, liquid flow rate, chamber temperature, solvent composition, and voltage affecting the collision induced dissociation (CID). Ionization of hydrocarbons by the RF plasma API source was also studied. Soft ionization is generally produced. To obtain high sensitivity, the ion source must be very dry and the needle-to-orifice distance must be small. Nitric oxide was used to enhance the sensitivity. The RF plasma source was then used for the analysis of hydrocarbons in auto emissions. Comparisons between the corona discharge and the RF plasma have been made in terms of discharge current, ion residence time, and the ion source model. The RF plasma source provides larger linear dynamic range and higher sensitivity than the corona discharge, due to its much larger discharge current. The RF plasma was also observed to provide longer ion residence times and was not

  19. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Three Plasma Sources for Ambient Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Kirsty; Salter, Tara L.; Bowfield, Andrew; Walsh, James L.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Bradley, James W.

    2014-09-01

    Plasma-based desorption/ionization sources are an important ionization technique for ambient surface analysis mass spectrometry. In this paper, we compare and contrast three competing plasma based desorption/ionization sources: a radio-frequency (rf) plasma needle, a dielectric barrier plasma jet, and a low-temperature plasma probe. The ambient composition of the three sources and their effectiveness at analyzing a range of pharmaceuticals and polymers were assessed. Results show that the background mass spectrum of each source was dominated by air species, with the rf needle producing a richer ion spectrum consisting mainly of ionized water clusters. It was also seen that each source produced different ion fragments of the analytes under investigation: this is thought to be due to different substrate heating, different ion transport mechanisms, and different electric field orientations. The rf needle was found to fragment the analytes least and as a result it was able to detect larger polymer ions than the other sources.

  1. Plasma pencil atmospheric mass spectrometry detection of positive ions from micronutrients emitted from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stein, M Jeanette; Lo, Edward; Castner, David G; Ratner, Buddy D

    2012-02-07

    Analysis and detection of micronutrients is important for the reduction of the global burden of malnutrition-related disease. A relatively new technique, plasma pencil atmospheric mass spectrometry (PPAMS) was applied in a comprehensive evaluation for rapid, simultaneous detection of the key micronutrients zinc, iron, folate, vitamin A, and iodine. PPAMS was performed through the coupling of a low-temperature plasma pencil to an atmospheric mass spectrometer. The effectiveness of the PPAMS system was demonstrated through the generation of characteristic mass spectra and tandem mass spectra on neat micronutrient powders suspended on double-sided tape. The analytical performance and ability to qualitatively separate out the nutrients from a complex biological solution and each other was then assessed through the application of PPAMS on a sample matrix of micronutrients in porcine plasma in which nutrient concentration is varied from high blood level concentrations (HBLCs) to low blood level concentrations (LBLCs). A multivariate analysis method, principal component analysis (PCA), was then used to qualitatively separate the fragments obtained by nutrient type. The resulting plots of PCA scores of the positive-ion spectra from each mixed sample showed excellent separation of HBLCs and LBLCs of single nutrients at the 95% confidence level (Wagner et al. Langmuir 2001, 17, 4649-4660). The associated plots of PCA loadings showed that key loadings could be attributed to the expected micronutrient fragments. The PPAMS technique was successfully demonstrated and compared with traditional MS techniques: time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Separation of the nutrients at concentrations relevant for human blood-based nutrient detection was possible by both ESI-MS and PPAMS. However, only PPAMS could detect the nutrients at physiological concentrations from porcine plasma. ToF-SIMS could detect the

  2. Chemical recoveries of technetium-99 for various procedures using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ihsanullah; East, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The procedure for the determination of {sup 99}Tc inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was based on the modification of a variety of available separation techniques. Standard Ru and Rh solutions were used for checking decontaminations and instrument response respectively. Technetium-99 and {sup 95m}Tc tracers were applied as yield monitors using ICP-MS and gamma-ray spectrometry respectively. Percent recoveries are reported for a variety of radiochemical separation procedures for water (58-83%), seaweed (10-76%), and for soil matrices (19-79%).

  3. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this project, new high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are developed for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and mass spectrometry (MS). These devices offer promise of solving singularly difficult analytical problems that either exist now or are likely to arise in the future in the various fields of energy generation, environmental pollution, biomedicine and nutrition. Emphasis is being placed on: generation of annular, helium inductively coupled plasmas (He ICPs) that are suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements possessing high excitation and ionization energies, with the intent of enhancing the detecting powers of a number of elements; diagnostic studies of high-temperature plasmas to quantify their fundamental properties, with the ultimate aim to improve analytical performance of atomic spectrometry; development and characterization of new sample introduction systems that consume microliter or microgram quantities of samples, and investigation of new membrane separators for striping solvent from sample aerosol to reduce various interferences and to enhance sensitivity in plasma spectrometry.

  4. Mass Spectrometry of 3D-printed plastic parts under plasma and radiative heat environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, W. F.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W.; Takeno, J.; Knop, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present the design and preliminary results of a mass spectrometry system used to assess vacuum compatibility of 3D-printed parts, developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). A decrease in outgassing was observed when electroplated parts were inserted in the test chamber vs. non electroplated ones. Outgassing will also be tested under different environments such as plasma and radiative heat. Heat will be generated by a titanium getter pump placed inside a 90 degree elbow, such that titanium does not coat the part. A mirror inside the elbow will be used to throttle the heat arriving at the part. Plasma exposure of 3D printed parts will be achieved by placing the parts in a separate chamber connected to the spectrometer by a vacuum line that is differentially pumped. The signals from the mass spectrometer will be analyzed to see how the vacuum conditions fluctuate under different plasma discharges.

  5. Quantitative bioanalysis of strontium in human serum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Somarouthu, Srikanth; Ohh, Jayoung; Shaked, Jonathan; Cunico, Robert L; Yakatan, Gerald; Corritori, Suzana; Tami, Joe; Foehr, Erik D

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A bioanalytical method using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to measure endogenous levels of strontium in human serum was developed and validated. Results & methodology: This article details the experimental procedures used for the method development and validation thus demonstrating the application of the inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method for quantification of strontium in human serum samples. The assay was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. Significant endogenous levels of strontium are present in human serum samples ranging from 19 to 96 ng/ml with a mean of 34.6 ± 15.2 ng/ml (SD). Discussion & conclusion: Calibration procedures and sample pretreatment were simplified for high throughput analysis. The validation demonstrates that the method was sensitive, selective for quantification of strontium (88Sr) and is suitable for routine clinical testing of strontium in human serum samples. PMID:28031925

  6. Analysis of estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal serum and plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Bottalico, Lisa; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A

    2015-07-01

    Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry-based methodology has evolved to the point where accurate analyses of trace levels of estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal serum and plasma can be accomplished with high precision and accuracy. A suite of derivatization procedures has been developed, which together with modern mass spectrometry instrumentation provide investigators with robust and sensitive methodology. Pre-ionized derivatives are proving to be useful as they are not subject to suppression of the electrospray signal. Postmenopausal women with elevated plasma or serum estrogens are thought to be at increased risk for breast and endometrial cancer. Therefore, significant advances in risk assessment should be possible now that reliable methodology is available. It is also possible to conduct analyses of multiple estrogens in plasma or serum. Laboratories that are currently employing liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology can now readily implement this strategy. This will help conserve important plasma and serum samples available in Biobanks, as it will be possible to conduct high sensitivity analyses using low initial sample volumes. Reported levels of both conjugated and non-conjugated estrogen metabolites are close to the limits of sensitivity of many assays to date, urging caution in the interpretation of these low values. The analysis of serum androgen precursors in postmenopausal women has not been conducted routinely in the past using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. Integration of serum androgen levels into the panel of metabolites analyzed could provide additional information for assessing cancer risk and should be included in the future.

  7. Diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance using direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lokhov, Petr G; Trifonova, Oxana P; Maslov, Dmitry L; Balashova, Elena E; Archakov, Alexander I; Shestakova, Ekaterina A; Shestakova, Marina V; Dedov, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30) and patients with IGT (n = 20) were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%). The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay.

  8. Diagnosing Impaired Glucose Tolerance Using Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometry of Blood Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Lokhov, Petr G.; Trifonova, Oxana P.; Maslov, Dmitry L.; Balashova, Elena E.; Archakov, Alexander I.; Shestakova, Ekaterina A.; Shestakova, Marina V.; Dedov, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30) and patients with IGT (n = 20) were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%). The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay. PMID:25202985

  9. Electron attachment mass spectrometry as a diagnostics for electronegative gases and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, E.; Stoffels, W. W.; Tachibana, K.

    1998-01-01

    Electron attachment mass spectrometry (EAMS) has been developed to study mixtures of electronegative gases and plasmas. A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been used to detect negative ions, formed from sampled species by attachment of low energy electrons. Varying the electron energy allows to collect the attachment cross section of the considered species. EAMS appears to be a very powerful technique to study the chemistry of electronegative gases. Unlike ionization mass spectrometry, where cross sections are low at the threshold and rather flat over a broad range of electron energies, attachment resonances are sharp and distinct. Also very limited fragmentation of the parent negative ion occurs, so a given molecule yields only a few different negative ions. This facilitates identification of components in a gas mixture. It is particularly advantageous for detection of large, fragile molecules, which break up after ionization, but can be easily transformed into large negative ions. Moreover, sensitive detection of active species is possible due to their relatively high attachment cross sections. A particularly important application of EAMS is the determination of an effective attachment cross section in a plasma. Recording this cross section allows to decide on the actual negative ion formation mechanism in the plasma environment, where active products of plasma conversion can significantly alter the negative ion production channels and consequently the whole balance of charged particles. Examples of EAMS applications to fluorocarbon gases and low-pressure radio-frequency plasmas are discussed. In a CF4 discharge conversion of the parent gas into species like C2F6 and C3F8 is easily visualized. The dominant mechanism of negative ion formation in the plasma is electron attachment to these minority species and not to the parent gas. Also larger polymers are readily formed in fluorocarbon plasmas. In a C2F6 discharge molecules with up to ten carbon atoms (the

  10. Plasma polymerization chemistry of unsaturated hydrocarbons: neutral species identification by mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, X.; Houssiau, L.

    2014-08-01

    Radio frequency discharges ignited in low-pressure and pure hydrocarbon gases were investigated by mass spectrometry. The plasma process was applied to four unsaturated monomers: styrene C8H8, benzene C6H6, ethylene C2H4 and acetylene C2H2. The remote mass spectrometer location restricted species identification to neutral closed-shell molecules in their respective plasmas. Among the peaks in the mass spectra, those directly due to neutrals produced in the plasma were determined following a successful two-step methodology. Firstly, the use of low electron impact energy limited the fragmentation and strongly simplified the cracking patterns. Secondly, attribution of peaks directly due to neutrals was confirmed or ruled out by systematically measuring their appearance potential. In the case of styrene, not less than 48 new molecules were detected. The discussion of the observed stable by-products in each discharge suggested several radicals responsible for their production. Comparing the set of species among the four plasmas showed that the repeated addition of intermediates with one or two carbon atoms and with low H content dominated the chemistry. Under our conditions of intermediate to high W/FM (power over mass flow ratio), the gas-phase plasma polymerization then preferentially occurred through significant fragmentation and recombination. Finally, the measured appearance potentials during plasma provided estimation for the threshold ionization energy of several highly unsaturated hydrocarbons, useful for modeling.

  11. RAPID DETERMINATION OF 237 NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN WATER BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.

    2010-06-23

    A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long and short-lived Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  12. EPA Method 200.8: Determination of Trace Elements in Waters and Wastes by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine metal-containing compounds only as the total metal (e.g., total arsenic), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

  13. Identification of peptidase substrates in human plasma by FTMS based differential mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Nathan A.; Deyanova, Ekaterina G.; Geissler, Wayne; Wiener, Matthew C.; Sachs, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Kenny K.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Sinha Roy, Ranabir; Settlage, Robert E.; Hendrickson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the human genome encodes for proteases. Unfortunately, however, the biological roles of most of these enzymes remain poorly defined, since the physiological substrates are typically unknown and are difficult to identify using traditional methods. We have developed a proteomics experiment based on FTMS profiling and differential mass spectrometry (dMS) to identify candidate endogenous substrates of proteases using fractionated human plasma as the candidate substrate pool. Here we report proof-of-concept experiments for identifying in vitro substrates of aminopeptidase P2, (APP2) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a peptidase of therapeutic interest for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. For both proteases, previously validated peptide substrates spiked into the human plasma pool were identified. Of note, the differential mass spectrometry experiments also identified novel substrates for each peptidase in the subfraction of human plasma. Targeted MS/MS analysis of these peptides in the complex human plasma pool and manual confirmation of the amino acid sequences led to the identification of these substrates. The novel DPP-4 substrate EPLGRQLTSGP was chemically synthesized and cleavage kinetics were determined in an in vitro DPP-4 enzyme assay. The apparent second order rate constant (kcat/KM) for DPP-4-mediated cleavage was determined to be 2.3 x 105 M-1 s-1 confirming that this peptide is efficiently processed by the peptidase in vitro. Collectively, these results demonstrate that differential mass spectrometry has the potential to identify candidate endogenous substrates of target proteases from a human plasma pool. Importantly, knowledge of the endogenous substrates can provide useful insight into the biology of these enzymes and provides useful biomarkers for monitoring their activity in vivo.

  14. Identification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, Uma K.; Lin, Chiann Tso; Kim, Jong Seo; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Wang, Jun; Qian, Weijun; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-04-20

    Paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate) is an active metabolite of the common insecticide parathion and is acutely toxic due to the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous systems. The Inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity by paraoxon is due to the formation of phosphorylated BChE adduct, and the detection of the phosphorylated BChE adduct in human plasma can serve as an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. In this study, we performed immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for identifying phosphorylated BChE in human plasma treated by paraoxon. BChE was captured by biotinylated anti-BChE polyclonal antibodies conjugated to streptavidin magnetic beads. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody was effective to recognize both native and modified BChE with high specificity. The exact phosphorylation site of BChE was confirmed on Serine 198 by MS/MS with a 108 Da modification mass and accurately measured parent ion masses. The phosphorylated BChE peptide was also successfully detected in the immunoaffinity purified sample from paraoxon treated human plasma. Thus, immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry represents a viable approach for the detection of paraoxon-modified BChE and other forms of modified BChE as exposure biomarkers of organophosphates and nerve agents.

  15. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Cyanide and Thiocyanate in Plasma by Chemical Ionization Gas Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (CI-GC-MS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-04

    ORIGINAL PAPER Simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in plasma by chemical ionization gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (CI-GC-MS...chemical ioniza- tion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocya- nate in plasma...Sample preparation for this analysis required essentially one-step by combining the reaction of cyanide and thiocyanate with pentafluorobenzyl bromide

  17. Determination of febuxostat in human plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lukram, Ojikumar; Parmar, Shivaji; Hande, Amit

    2013-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the determination of febuxostat in human plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used for the extraction of febuxostat from human plasma using trandolapril as the internal standard (IS). Chromatography was performed on a ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) BEH C18, 50 mm X 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm particle size column, with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (in a 25:75 ratio), followed by detection using mass spectrometry. The method involves a simple reversed isocratic chromatography condition and mass spectrometry detection, which enables detection at sub-microgram levels. The method was validated and the lower limit of quantification for febuxostat was found to be 0.075 µg/ml. The mean recovery for febuxostat ranged from 100.9 to 106.5%. This method increased the sensitivity and selectivity; resulting in high-throughput analysis of febuxostat using commercially available IS for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, and bioequivalence studies, with a chromatographic run time of 1.5 min only. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Isolation and derivatization of plasma taurine for stable isotope analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, C.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-09-01

    A method for the isolation and derivatization of plasma taurine is described that allows stable isotope determinations of taurine to be made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The isolation procedure can be applied to 0.1 ml of plasma; the recovery of plasma taurine was 70 to 80%. For gc separation, taurine was converted to its dimethylaminomethylene methyl ester derivative which could not be detected by hydrogen flame ionization, but could be monitored readily by NH/sub 3/ chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The derivatization reaction occurred partially on-column and required optimization of injection conditions. Using stable isotope ratiometry multiple ion detection, (M + 2 + H)/sup +//(M + H)/sup +/ ion ratio of natural abundance taurine was determined with a standard deviation of less than +-0.07% of the ratio. The (1,2-/sup 13/C)taurine/taurine mole ratios of standard mixtures could be accurately determined to 0.001. This stable isotope gc-ms method is suitable for studying the plasma kinetics of (1,2-/sup 13/C)taurine in infants who are at risk with respect to taurine depletion.

  19. Identification of novel circulating coffee metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Redeuil, Karine; Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice; Guy, Philippe; Rezzi, Serge; Dionisi, Fabiola; Williamson, Gary; Nagy, Kornél; Renouf, Mathieu

    2011-07-22

    This study reports a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the detection of polyphenol-derived metabolites in human plasma without enzymatic treatment after coffee consumption. Separation of available standards was achieved by reversed-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography and detection was performed by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative electrospray ionization mode. This analytical method was then applied for the identification and relative quantification of circulating coffee metabolites. A total of 34 coffee metabolites (mainly reduced, sulfated and methylated forms of caffeic acid, coumaric acid, caffeoylquinic acid and caffeoylquinic acid lactone) were identified based on mass accuracy (<4 ppm for most metabolites), specific fragmentation pattern and co-chromatography (when standard available). Among them, 19 circulating coffee metabolites were identified for the first time in human plasma such as feruloylquinic acid lactone, sulfated and glucuronidated forms of feruloylquinic acid lactone and sulfated forms of coumaric acid. Phenolic acid derivatives such as dihydroferulic acid, dihydroferulic acid 4'-O-sulfate, caffeic acid 3'-O-sulfate, dimethoxycinnamic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid and coumaric acid O-sulfate appeared to be the main metabolites circulating in human plasma after coffee consumption. The described method is a sensitive and reliable approach for the identification of coffee metabolites in biological fluids. In future, this analytical method will give more confidence in compound identification to provide a more comprehensive assessment of coffee polyphenol bioavailability studies in humans.

  20. Ambient low temperature plasma etching of polymer films for secondary ion mass spectrometry molecular depth profiling.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Shin; Staymates, Matthew E; Brewer, Tim M; Gillen, Greg

    2012-12-18

    The feasibility of a low temperature plasma (LTP) probe as a way to prepare polymer bevel cross sections for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) applications was investigated. Poly(lactic acid) and poly(methyl methacrylate) films were etched using He LTP, and the resulting crater walls were depth profiled using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to examine changes in chemistry over the depth of the film. ToF-SIMS results showed that while exposure to even 1 s of plasma resulted in integration of atmospheric nitrogen and contaminants to the newly exposed surface, the actual chemical modification to the polymer backbone was found to be chemistry-dependent. For PLA, sample modification was confined to the top 15 nm of the PLA surface regardless of plasma exposure dose, while measurable change was not seen for PMMA. The confinement of chemical modification to 15 nm or less of the top surface suggests that LTP can be used as a simple method to prepare cross sections or bevels of polymer thin films for subsequent analysis by surface-sensitive molecular depth profiling techniques such as SIMS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other spatially resolved mass spectrometric techniques.

  1. Plasma ionization under simulated ambient Mars conditions for quantification of methane by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Taghioskoui, Mazdak; Zaghloul, Mona

    2016-04-07

    Ambient ionization techniques enable ion production in the native sample environment for mass spectrometry, without a need for sample preparation or separation. These techniques provide superior advantages over conventional ionization methods and are well developed and investigated for various analytical applications. However, employing ambient ionization techniques for in situ extra-terrestrial chemical analysis requires these techniques to be designed and developed according to the ambient conditions of extra-terrestrial environments, which substantially differ from the ambient conditions of Earth. Here, we report a plasma ionization source produced under simulated ambient Mars conditions for mass spectrometry. The plasma ionization source was coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of trace amounts of methane, as an analyte of interest in Mars discovery missions, were demonstrated. The miniature plasma source was operational at a net power as low as ∼1.7 W in the pressure range of 4-16 Torr. A detection limit as low as ∼0.15 ppm (v/v) at 16 Torr for methane was demonstrated.

  2. Determination of Candesartan in Human Plasma with Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Forjan, Vanja; Cvitkovič Maričič, Lea; Prosen, Helena; Brodnjak Vončina, Darinka

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and rapid liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of candesartan in human plasma. Analyte was separated from endogenous components present in plasma by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on Gemini C18 analytical column using mobile phase acetonitrile - 5 mM ammonium formate pH 2 (90:10, v/v) at flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. For detection, tandem mass spectrometry in SRM mode with positive electrospray ionization was used. The mass transitions m/z 441.1 > 263.1 and 445.1 > 267.1 were used to determine candesartan by using candesartan-d4 as an internal standard. After development, the method was validated according to the requirements of EMA regulatory guidelines in the concentration range 1 - 400 ng/ml in human plasma. Limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/ml. The developed and validated method proved to be very fast and reproducible and was therefore successfully implemented in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies with large number of study samples.

  3. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, Elise

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 ± 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 ± 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 ± 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and β-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of 13C+ with 12C 1H+ comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or β-cyclodextrin.

  4. Afterglow of a microwave microstrip plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuffer, Kevin P.; White, Allen; Broekaert, José A. C.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    A microwave-induced plasma that was previously used for optical emission spectrometry has been repurposed as an afterglow ion source for mass spectrometry. This compact microwave discharge, termed the microstrip plasma (MSP), is operated at 20-50 W and 2.45 GHz in helium at a flow of 300 mL/min. The primary background ions present in the afterglow are ionized and protonated water clusters. An exponential dilution chamber was used to introduce volatile organic compounds into the MSP afterglow and yielded limits of detection in the 40 ppb to 7 ppm range (v/v). A hydride-generation system was also utilized for detection of volatile hydride-forming elements (arsenic, antimony, tin) in the afterglow and produced limits of detection in the 10-100 ppb range in solution. The MSP afterglow was found capable of desorption and ionization of analyte species directly from a solid substrate, suggesting its use as an ion source for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  5. Determination of carbocysteine in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry employing precolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Han, Ying; Xie, Zhiyong

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to determine carbocysteine in human plasma using 2-pyridylacetic acid as the internal standard (IS). The method employed derivatization with 10 M hydrochloric acid/methanol, which significantly improved the ionization efficiency of carbocysteine. After methanol-induced protein precipitation of plasma samples, carbocysteine and the IS were derivatized and subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 20 ng/mL for a 0.2-mL plasma aliquot. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD), calculated from quality control (QC) samples, was less than 7%. The accuracy, determined using QC samples, was within +/- 1%. The method offered increased sensitivity, selectivity and speed of analysis over existing methods. The method was utilized to support clinical pharmacokinetic studies of carbocysteine in volunteers following oral administration.

  6. Multimycotoxin analysis in water and fish plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, J; Font, G; Mañes, J; Ferrer, E

    2016-02-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 15 mycotoxins in water and fish plasma samples, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocistin, fusarenon-X and emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was assessed as a sample treatment for the simultaneous extraction of mycotoxins. Results showed differences in recovery assays when different extraction solvents were employed. Ethyl acetate showed better recoveries for the major part of mycotoxins analyzed, except for aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2, which showed better recoveries when employing chloroform as extractant solvent. Fumonisins and beauvericin exhibited low recoveries in both water and plasma. This method was validated according to guidelines established by European Commission and has shown to be suitable to be applied in dietary and/or toxicokinetic studies in fish where is necessary to check mycotoxin contents in rearing water and fish plasma.

  7. Sequence determination of protected oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing phosphotriester linkages by californium-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    McNeal, C J; Narang, S A; Macfarlane, R D; Hsiung, H M; Brousseau, R

    1980-01-01

    A mass spectrometric method for determining the sequence and molecular weight of protected oligodeoxyribonucleotides is described. By using the method of 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry [Macfarlane, R. D. & Torgerson, D. F. (1976) Science 191, 920--925], positive-ion mass spectra were obtained for a series of protected oligonucleotides extending to a decanucleotide; the spectra were dominated by the presence of the oligonucleotide molecular ion. The negative-ion mass spectra were characterized by a nested set of fragment ions extending from the 3'- or 5'-terminal nucleotide to the opposite terminal nucleotide, thereby identifying the sequence. The utility of this method has been demonstrated by the sequence determination of protected tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides synthesized by the improved phosphotriester method. PMID:6928675

  8. The quantitation of procaine in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zientek, Keith D; Anderson, Danielle F; Wegner, Kirsten; Cole, Cynthia

    2007-03-01

    A method for the extraction and quantitation of procaine in equine plasma was developed for use with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Procaine was isolated from equine plasma by liquid-liquid extraction at pH 11 with dichloromethane using procaine-d10 as an internal standard. Quantitation was achieved by LC-MS using a 3-microm C-18 column coupled to an electrospray ionization source on a linear ion-trap mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation was determined to be 50 and 200 pg/mL, respectively. The lowest limit of detection determined by previous methods was 1 ng/mL. Administration samples were obtained as part of a larger study to determine a regulatory limit for procaine in racehorses and procaine concentrations were determined using this method.

  9. Human Plasma N-Glycoproteome Analysis by Immunoaffinity Subtraction, Hydrazide Chemistry, and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Camp, David G.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-12-01

    The enormous complexity, wide dynamic range of relative protein abundance of interest (over 10 orders of magnitude), and tremendous heterogeneity (due to post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation) of the human blood plasma proteome severely challenges the capabilities of existing analytical methodologies. We describe here the comprehensive analysis of human plasma N-glycoproteins using the combination of immunoaffinity subtraction and glycoprotein capture to reduce both the protein concentration range and the overall sample complexity. Six high-abundance plasma proteins were simultaneously removed using a pre-packed, immobilized antibody column. N-linked glycoproteins were then captured from the depleted plasma using hydrazide resin, enzymatically digested, and the bound, N-linked glycopeptides were released using peptide-N-glycosidase F. Following strong cation exchange (SCX) fractionation, the deglycosylated peptides were analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 2140 different N-glycopeptides were confidently identified using stringent criteria, covering 371 non-redundant N-glycoproteins with the majority of them being extracellular or membrane proteins. The strategy significantly improved the detection, enabling the identification of a number of low-abundance proteins, exemplified by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein ({approx}200 pg/mL), cathepsin L ({approx}1 ng/mL), and transforming growth factor beta 1 ({approx}2 ng/mL). A total of 712 N-glycosylation sites were identified and the confidence of these site identifications was further validated by accurate mass measurements using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR). This study provides the basis for future high-throughput measurements using the accurate mass and time tag approach.

  10. Microfabricated glow discharge plasma (MFGDP) for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuelu; Zhan, Xuefang; Yuan, Xin; Zhao, Zhongjun; Duan, Yixiang

    2013-10-01

    A novel ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry, microfabricated glow discharge plasma (MFGDP), is reported. This device is made of a millimeter-sized ceramic cavity with two platinum electrodes positioned face-to-face. He or Ar plasma can be generated by a direct current voltage of several hundreds of volts requiring a total power below 4 W. The thermal plume temperature of the He plasma was measured and found to be between 25 and 80 °C at a normal discharge current. Gaseous, liquid, creamy, and solid samples with molecular weights up to 1.5 kDa could be examined in both positive and negative mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) at or below the fg/mm(2) level. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of manual sampling ranged from 10% to ~20%, while correlation coefficients of the working curve (R(2)) are all above 0.98 with the addition of internal standards. The ionization mechanisms are examed via both optical and mass spectrometry. Due to the low temperature characteristics of the microplasma, nonthermal momentum desorption is considered to dominate the desorption process.

  11. Quantitation of Free Metanephrines in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Heideloff, Courtney; Payto, Drew; Wang, Sihe

    2016-01-01

    Plasma metanephrines are measured to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas. In patients with pheochromocytomas there is excessive production of catecholamines and metanephrines. Measurement of plasma free metanephrines is one of the first-line clinical tests that are used for the diagnosis and follow-up of pheochromocytoma. We describe here a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to measure free metanephrines in plasma. Free metanephrine and normetanephrine are extracted via solid-phase extraction. After extraction and evaporation, the reconstituted supernatant is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The MS/MS is set to selective reaction monitoring mode (180.1 → 148.1 m/z for metanephrine, 183.1 → 168.1 for d3-metanephrine, 166.1 → 134.1 m/z for normetanephrine, and 169.1 → 137.2 m/z for d3-normetanephrine) with positive electrospray ionization. Quantitation is based on peak area ratio of the analyte to its respective deuterated internal standard. The assay is linear from 5.9 to 4090.0 pg/mL for metanephrine and 22.0 to 4386.7 pg/mL for normetanephrine with precision of <6 % over the ranges.

  12. A new liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of gangliosides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianyang; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Danting; Xin, Baozhong; Cechner, Karen; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Aimin

    2014-06-15

    Gangliosides are a family of glycosphingolipids characterized by mono- or polysialic acid-containing oligosaccharides linked through 1,3- and 1,4-β glycosidic bonds with subtle differences in structure that are abundantly present in the central nervous systems of many living organisms. Their cellular surface expression and physiological malfunction are believed to be pathologically implicated in considerable neurological disorders, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Recently, studies have tentatively elucidated that mental retardation or physical stagnation deteriorates as the physiological profile of gangliosides becomes progressively and distinctively abnormal during the development of these typical neurodegenerative syndromes. In this work, a reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay using standard addition calibration for determination of GM2, GM3, GD2, and GD3 in human plasma has been developed and validated. The analytes and internal standard were extracted from human plasma using a simple protein precipitation procedure. Then the samples were analyzed by reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS/MS interfaced to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization using a multiple reaction monitoring mode to obtain superior sensitivity and specificity. This assay was validated for extraction recovery, calibration linearity, precision, and accuracy. Our quick and sensitive method can be applied to monitor ganglioside levels in plasma from normal people and neurodegenerative patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  14. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the analysis of biological samples and pharmaceutical drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossipov, K.; Seregina, I. F.; Bolshov, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in the analysis of biological samples (whole blood, serum, blood plasma, urine, tissues, etc.) and pharmaceutical drugs. The shortcomings of this method related to spectral and non-spectral interferences are manifested in full measure in determination of the target analytes in these complex samples strongly differing in composition. The spectral interferences are caused by similarity of masses of the target component and sample matrix components. Non-spectral interferences are related to the influence of sample matrix components on the physicochemical processes taking place during formation and transportation of liquid sample aerosols into the plasma, on the value and spatial distribution of plasma temperature and on the transmission of the ion beam from the interface to mass spectrometer detector. The review is devoted to analysis of different mechanisms of appearance of non-spectral interferences and to ways for their minimization or elimination. Special attention is paid to the techniques of biological sample preparation, which largely determine the mechanisms of the influence of sample composition on the results of element determination. The ways of lowering non-spectral interferences by instrumental parameter tuning and application of internal standards are considered. The bibliography includes 189 references.

  15. Human Plasma N-Glycoproteome Analysis by Immunoaffinity Subtraction, Hydrazide Chemistry, and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Camp, David G.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    The enormous complexity, wide dynamic range of relative protein abundances of interest (over 10 orders of magnitude), and tremendous heterogeneity (due to post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation) of the human blood plasma proteome severely challenge the capabilities of existing analytical methodologies. Here, we describe an approach for broad analysis of human plasma N-glycoproteins using a combination of immunoaffinity subtraction and glycoprotein capture to reduce both the protein concentration range and overall sample complexity. Six high-abundance plasma proteins were simultaneously removed using a pre-packed, immobilized antibody column. N-linked glycoproteins were then captured from the depleted plasma using hydrazide resin and enzymatically digested, and the bound N-linked glycopeptides were released using peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F). Following strong cation exchange (SCX) fractionation, the deglycosylated peptides were analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using stringent criteria, a total of 2053 different N-glycopeptides were confidently identified, covering 303 non-redundant N-glycoproteins. This enrichment strategy significantly improved detection and enabled identification of a number of low-abundance proteins, exemplified by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (~200 pg/mL), cathepsin L (~1 ng/mL), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (~2 ng/mL). A total of 639 N-glycosylation sites were identified, and the overall high accuracy of these glycosylation site assignments as assessed by accurate mass measurement using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR) is initially demonstrated. PMID:16335952

  16. Simultaneous determination of beta-blockers in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Hironobu; Lee, Xiao-Pen; Arima, Yoshiko; Hasegawa, Chika; Izawa, Hikaru; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Sato, Keizo

    2008-07-01

    A detailed procedure for the analysis of four beta-blockers, acebutolol, labetalol, metoprolol and propranolol, in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using an MSpak GF column, which enables direct injection of crude plasma samples, is presented. Protein and/or macromolecule matrix compounds were eluted first from the column, while the drugs were retained on the polymer stationary phase of the MSpak GF column. The analytes retained on the column were then eluted into an acetonitrile-rich mobile phase using a gradient separation technique. All drugs showed base peak ions due to [M + H]+ ions by LC-MS with positive ion electrospray ionization, and the product ions were produced from each [M + H]+ ion by LC-MS-MS. Quantification was performed by selected reaction monitoring. The recoveries of the four beta-blockers spiked into plasma were 73.5-89.9%. The regression equations for all compounds showed excellent linearity in the range 10-1000 ng/mL of plasma, with the exception of propranolol (10-800 ng/mL). The limits of detection and quantification for each drug were 1-3 and 10 ng/mL, respectively, of plasma. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation for all drugs in plasma were not greater than 10.9%.

  17. Studies on Mixed-Gas Plasmas and Segmented Flow Injection for Use with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Jane Mary

    In this thesis, mixed gas plasmas and flow injection into air bubbles were investigated for use with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in order to improve the technique's analytical capabilities. The mixed gas plasmas were created in two different ways: (i) by adding another gas, either argon, nitrogen, or hydrogen, to the nebulizer gas flow using a sheathing device or (ii) by adding nitrogen to the plasma gas flow. The introduction of each sheathing gas led to degraded analyte sensitivity but generally improved plasma stability, resulting in improved detection limits for a few elements. Introduction of nitrogen into the plasma gas, under the same operating conditions used for an all-argon plasma, resulted in degraded sensitivity but improved signal-to-noise and signal-to-background ratios for Cr, Fe, and Se. The tolerance of ICP-MS to effects caused by the concomitant elements Na and K was improved by addition of nitrogen to the plasma gas flow. Flow injection using a segmented air/water carrier resulted in improved precision, sensitivity, and detection limits compared to those obtained using an all-water carrier. The enhancement in sensitivity was found to be mass dependent and was attributable to more than simply a reduction in dispersion. Under optimized operating conditions, using segmented flow injection resulted in similar or improved detection limits for all analytes except Se when compared to those obtained using continuous nebulization. Changing the gas used to segment the carrier stream did not result in appreciable changes in analyte signals or positions of maximum ionization within the plasma, indicating that the fundamental properties of the plasma did not change. The tolerance of ICP-MS to effects caused by the concomitant elements Na and Ca was not improved by using a segmented carrier compared to that experienced using an all-water carrier.

  18. Comparative analysis of ancient ceramics by neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Tsolakidou, Alexandra; Kilikoglou, Vassilis

    2002-10-01

    The accurate measurement of the maximum possible number of elements in ancient ceramic samples is the main requirement in provenance studies. For this reason neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been successfully used for most of the studies. In this work the analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been compared with that of XRF and NAA for the chemical characterization of archaeological pottery. Correlation coefficients between ICP techniques and XRF or NAA data were generally better than 0.90. The reproducibility of data calculated on a sample prepared and analysed independently ten times was approximately 5% for most of the elements. Results from the ICP techniques were finally evaluated for their capacity to identify the same compositional pottery groups as results from XRF and NAA analysis, by use of multivariate statistics.

  19. Authenticity of Benin metalworks evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and lead isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, E.; Soffritti, C.; Merlin, M.; Vaccaro, C.; Garagnani, G. L.

    2017-05-01

    Two metal plaques and a cock statuette belonging to a private collection and stylistically consistent with the Royal Art of Benin (Nigeria) were investigated in order to verify their authenticity. The characterization of alloys and patinas were carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy, and X-Ray diffraction spectrometry. Furthermore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundances of lead isotopes and to attempt a dating by the measurement of 210Pb/204Pb ratio. The results showed that all three artefacts were mainly composed of low lead-brass alloys, with relatively high concentrations of zinc, antimony, cadmium and aluminum in the solid copper solution. Microstructures were mostly dendritic, typical of as-cast brasses, and characterized by recrystallized non-homogeneous twinned grains in areas corresponding to surface decorations, probably due to multiple hammering steps followed by partial annealing treatments. The matrix was composed of a cored α-Cu solid solution together with non-metallic inclusions, lead globules and Sn-rich precipitates in interdendritic spaces. On the surface of all metalworks, both copper and zinc oxides, a non-continuous layer of sulphur-containing contaminants and chloride-containing compounds, were identified. The lead isotope results were consistent with brasses produced shortly before or after 1900 CE. Overall, the data obtained by different techniques supported the hypothesis that the three artefacts were not authentic.

  20. Field-assisted paper spray mass spectrometry for the quantitative evaluation of imatinib levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    D'Aronco, Sara; Calandra, Eleonora; Crotti, Sara; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Marangon, Elena; Posocco, Bianca; Traldi, Pietro; Agostini, Marco

    Drug levels in patients' bloodstreams vary among individuals and consequently therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is fundamental to controlling the effective therapeutic range. For TDM purposes, different analytical approaches have been used, mainly based on immunoassay, liquid chromatography- ultraviolet, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. More recently a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation method has been proposed for the determination of irinotecan levels in the plasma of subjects under therapy and this method has been cross- validated by comparison with data achieved by LC-MS/MS. However, to reach an effective point-of-care monitoring of plasma drug concentrations, a TDM platform technology for fast, accurate, low-cost assays is required. In this frame, recently the use of paper spray mass spectrometry, which is becoming a popular and widely employed MS method, has been proposed. In this paper we report the results obtained by the development of a paper spray-based method for quantitative analysis in plasma samples of imatinib, a new generation of anticancer drug. Preliminary experiments showed that poor sensitivity, reproducibility and linear response were obtained by the "classical" paper spray set-up. In order to achieve better results, it was thought of interest to operate in presence of a higher and more homogeneous electrical field. For this aim, a stainless steel needle connected with the high voltage power supply was mounted below the paper triangle. Furthermore, in order to obtain valid quantitative data, we analysed the role of the different equilibria participating to the phenomena occurring in paper spray experiments, depending either on instrumental parameters or on the chemical nature of analyte and solvents. A calibration curve was obtained by spiking plasma samples containing different amounts of imatinib (1) with known amounts of deuterated imatinib (1d3) as

  1. Comparison between liquid chromatography-time of-flight mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantitative determination of idoxifene in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Henion, J

    2001-06-05

    This study compares HPLC electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) LC-MS for high throughput quantitative determination of a small molecule drug in biological samples. A high throughput LC-MS method was developed for quantitatative determination of idoxifene in human plasma and the evaluation was accomplished with the cross-validation of the developed LC-MS method between the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the SRM mode. A simple one-step semi-automated 96-well liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used to prepare 96 samples in approximately 30 min and a rapid gradient was used to shorten the LC run time. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry provides acquisition of full-scan mass spectra and extracted ion current chromatograms, which may be extracted from the total ion current chromatogram for peak area determination. The limit of quantitation for idoxifene in human plasma obtained with the time-of-flight mass spectrometer was 5 ng/ml based on 100-microl aliquots of human plasma, and the linear dynamic range was from 5 ng/ml to 2000 ng/ml. The quantitative LC-MS results from the time-of-flight mass spectrometer demonstrated that precision did not exceed 7.1% and accuracy did not exceed 1.7% with reference to quality control samples at three concentration levels in replicates of six. In contrast, the limit of quantitation for idoxifene in human plasma using a tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was 0.5 ng/ml with a linear dynamic range to 1000 ng/ml. The results from the triple quadrupole instrument show that the precision did not exceed 2.2% and accuracy did not exceed 2.9%. The overall results suggest time-of-flight mass spectrometry may be a viable technique for high throughput bioanalytical work for the quantitative determination of a representative small molecule drug in the low ng/ml range in human plasma.

  2. Determination of ibogaine in plasma by gas chromatography--chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ley, F R; Jeffcoat, A R; Thomas, B F

    1996-02-02

    Ibogaine is naturally occurring indole alkaloid that is currently being considered as a treatment medication for drug dependence. Although there have been a variety of investigations regarding the mechanisms of action and pharmacology of ibogaine, relatively little has been reported regarding quantitative methods. Because of the paucity of analytical methodologies, studies involving the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ibogaine have also been limited. A method is described for the determination of ibogaine levels in plasma by gas chromatography -- methane chemical ionization mass spectrometry. [13C2H3]Ibogaine was synthesized and used as an internal standard to control for recovery during sample preparation. The assay requires one ml of plasma and is shown to be a selective and sensitive means of ibogaine quantitation.

  3. Plasma lipid analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Kudoh, Shinobu; Sato, Taka-Aki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel method for the analysis of endogenous lipids and related compounds was developed employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with carbamoyl stationary phase achieved clear separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and mono-hexsosyl ceramide groups with good peak area repeatability (RSD% < 10) and linearity (R(2) > 0.99). The established method was applied to human plasma assays and a total of 117 endogenous lipids were successfully detected and reproducibly identified. In addition, we investigated the simultaneous detection of small polar metabolites such as amino and organic acids co-existing in the same biological samples processed in a single analytical run with lipids. Our results show that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful tool for human plasma lipidome analysis and offers more comprehensive metabolome coverage.

  4. Graphene matrix for signal enhancement in ambient plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cuilan; Li, Xianjiang; Bai, Yu; Xu, Gege; Feng, Baosheng; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2013-09-30

    In this work, the signal intensity of ambient plasma assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (PALDI-MS) was significantly increased with graphene as matrix. The graphene functions as a substrate to trap analytes, absorb energy from the visible laser irradiation and transfer energy to the analytes to facilitate the laser desorption process. The desorbed analytes are further ionized by helium plasma and analyzed by MS. Compared with a traditional organic matrix, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), graphene exhibited much higher desorption efficiency for most of the compounds benefitting from the strong optical absorption at 532nm. The performance has been confirmed by the facile analysis of more than forty compounds with various structures. Additionally, this method was successfully applied to distinguish three kinds of Chinese tea leaves by detecting the endogenous caffeine and theanine, which proved the utility, facility and convenience of this method for rapid screening of main components in real samples.

  5. Thorium colloid analysis by single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, C; Favarger, P-Y

    2004-04-19

    Thorium colloid analysis in water has been carried out by a single particle mode using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The flash of ions due to the ionisation of a thorium colloidal particle in the plasma torch can be detected and measured in a time scan for (232)Th (+ ) or (248)[ThO] (+ ) according to the sensitivity required by the mass spectrometer. The peaks of the recorded intensity of the MS signal can be analysed as a function of the particle size or fraction of the studied element in the colloid phase. The frequency of the flashes is directly proportional to the concentration of particles in the colloidal suspension. After discussing Th colloid detection, on the basis of the intensity of the ion flashes generated in the plasma torch, tests were performed on thorium dioxide colloidal particles. This feasibility study also describes the experimental conditions and the limitation of the plasma design to detect thorium colloids in a single particle analysis mode down to about 10fg.

  6. Improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of eptifibatide in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Ling; Yu, Xi-Yong; Yang, Min; Mai, Li-Ping; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Deng, Chun-Yu; Shan, Zhi-Xin; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Tie-Feng; Lin, Shu-Guang

    2010-08-01

    A rapid, selective and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of eptifibatide in human plasma. Eptifibatide and the internal standard (IS), EPM-05, were extracted from plasma samples using solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection of eptifibatide and the IS was achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in positive ion mode. Traditional multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 646.4 and m/z 931.6-->m/z 159.4 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 13.3%, while the accuracy was within +/-7.6% of nominal values. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of eptifibatide after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 45 microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide to 8 healthy volunteers.

  7. Determination of typhaneoside in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peidong; Liu, Shijia; Dai, Guoliang; Xie, Liyan; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Ling; Ju, Wenzheng; Ding, Anwei

    2012-11-01

    A highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of typhaneoside in rat plasma using rutin as internal standard. The analyte and rutin (internal standard) were extracted with methanol followed by a rapid isocratic elution with 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer/methanol (v:v, 20:80) on an C(18) column (150 mm × 2.1 mm I.D.) and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry in the multi-reaction-monitoring mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 769.3 → 314.1 and m/z 609.2 → 300.1 were used to measure the analyte and the internal standard. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.01-10 μg/mL for typhaneoside in rat plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 0.01 μg/mL and the extraction recovery was larger than 90.2% for typhaneoside. The inter- and intra-day precision of the method at three concentrations was less than 6.8%. The method was firstly applied to pharmacokinetic study of typhaneoside in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of fluorocarbon plasma in 60 and 100 MHz capacitively coupled discharges using mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, Andrey; Volynets, Vladimir; Jeong, Sangmin; Sung, Dougyong; Ihm, Yongho; Woo, Jehun; Han, Moonhyeong

    2008-09-15

    The signals of positive ions and radicals formed in the fluorocarbon plasma of the capacitively coupled plasma reactor were measured using a quadrupole mass spectrometry and optical emission actinometry. The plasma was produced at 60 and 100 MHz frequencies for the same reactor configuration and gas mixtures. Experiments were performed at 25 mTorr with a SiO{sub 2} wafer on the grounded electrode. Mass spectra of ions were measured in C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/O{sub 2}/Ar and C{sub 4}F{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas mixtures at 500-1500 W generator powers. For 60 and 100 MHz discharges production of fluorocarbon ions and radicals is discussed. It was found that the production of heavy species increases with frequency. The high mass signals such as C{sub 3}F{sub 3}{sup +}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}{sup +}, C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 4}F{sub 7}{sup +} decrease when CHF{sub 3} is added to the gas mixture. However, the signals of CF{sub x}{sup +} (x=1,2,3) do not change significantly. These results are compared to the results of polymer film deposition on the wafer. It was suggested to control the polymerization film formation by adding small amount of CHF{sub 3} to the process mixture.

  9. Quantification of plasma sulfatides by mass spectrometry: Utility for metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Saville, Jennifer T; Smith, Nicholas J C; Fletcher, Janice M; Fuller, Maria

    2017-02-22

    Impaired sulfatide catabolism is the primary biochemical insult in patients with the inherited neurodegenerative disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), and sulfatide elevation in body fluids is useful in the diagnostic setting. Here we used mass spectrometry to quantify fourteen species of sulfatide, in addition to the deacetylated derivative, lyso-sulfatide, using high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion mode. A single phase extraction of 0.01 mL of MLD plasma identified all 14 sulfatide species in the positive ion mode but none in the negative ion mode. Interrogation of seven major and seven hydroxylated molecular species, as well as lyso-sulfatide, identified the C18 isoform as the most informative for MLD. The C18 produced a linear response and was below the limit of quantification (<10 pmol mL(-1)) in control plasma with concentrations in MLD plasma ranging from 12 to 196 pmol mL(-1). Serial plasma samples from an MLD patient post-therapeutic bone marrow transplant proved similar to non-disease controls with C18 sulfatide concentrations below the limit of quantification, as did samples from three individuals with an arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency - a population variant which appears deficient upon enzymatic assay, without manifestation of disease. These findings emphasise the utility of the C18 sulfatide species for the diagnosis of MLD and biochemical monitoring of MLD patients. Extension of this approach to a newborn screening card correctly identified an MLD patient at birth with elevated C18 sulfatide at levels almost double that present in the newborn card from his unaffected sibling, suggesting the methodology may have applicability for newborn screening.

  10. Determination of benidipine in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wonku; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2004-06-15

    We developed a method for determining benidipine, a dihydropyridine analogue calcium-channel blocker, in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Benidipine and benidipine-d5, an internal standard, were extracted from plasma using diethyl ether in the presence of 5M NaOH. After drying the organic layer, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and injected onto a reversed-phase C18 column. The isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile-5mM ammonium acetate, 90:10, v/v) was eluted at 0.2 ml/min. The ion transitions monitored in multiple reaction-monitoring mode were m/z 506-174 for benidipine and m/z 511-179 for the internal standard. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 13%, and the accuracy exceeded 92%, except at the limit of quantification, 0.05 ng/ml with 1ml of plasma, when it was 85%. This method was used to measure the benidipine concentration in plasma from healthy subjects after a single 4-mg oral dose of benidipine. This method is a very simple, sensitive, and accurate way to determine the plasma benidipine concentration.

  11. RAPID DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES IN URINE BY INDUCTIVELY-COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY: A HYBRID APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.

    2009-05-27

    A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by alpha spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long- and short-lived actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and short-lived actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred instead

  12. Rapid determination of actinides in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry: a hybrid approach.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Jones, Vernon D

    2009-11-15

    A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by alpha spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long- and short-lived actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and short-lived actinide isotopes. (239)Pu, (242)Pu, (237)Np, (243)Am, (234)U, (235)U and (238)U were measured by ICP-MS, while (236)Pu, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (241)Am, (243)Am and (244)Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample

  13. Radionuclide detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A comparison of atomic and radiation detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    Radionuclide detection by mass spectrometric techniques offers inherent advantages over conventional radiation detection methods. Since radionuclides decay at variable rates (half-lives) and via various nuclear transformations (i.e. emission of alpha, beta, and/or gamma radiation) their determination via radiation detection depends not only on decay systematics but also on detector technology. Radionuclide detection by direct atom measurement, however, is dependent only on technique sensitivity and is indifferent to decay mode. Evaluation of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) indicates this method to be superior conventional radiation detection techniques for many radionuclides. This work discusses factors which influence detection by both methods. Illustrative applications of ICP/MS to the ultra-trace determination of several radionuclides, including {sup 129}I, are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Application of 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry in dental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Lothar; Köhl, Peter; Jungclas, Hartmut; Duschner, Heins

    1993-07-01

    Topically applied fluorides introduced in dental hygiene products elevate the concentration levels of fluoride in oral fluids and thus also affect chemical reactions of enamel de- and remineralisation. The chemical reactions on the surface of tooth enamel still are a subject of controversy. Here 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry and argon ion etching are used to analyse the molecular structure of the upper layes of enamel. The mass spectrum of untreated enamel is characterised by a series of cluster ions containing phosphate. It is evident that under certain conditions the molecular structure of the surface enamel is completely transformed by treatment with fluorides. The result of the degradation and precipitation processes is reflected by a total replacement of the phosphate by fluoride in the measured cluster ion distribution. Stepwise etching of the upper layers by Ar+ ions reveals the transition from a nearly pure CaF2 structure to the unchanged composition of the enamel mineral.

  15. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of <12%. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) 4-plex, >4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  16. Quantification of human plasma-busulfan concentration by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Soo Young; Lim, Min Kyoo; Hong, Susie; Jeon, Yongbum; Han, Minje; Song, Sang Hoon; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, Ji Won; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Song, Junghan

    2014-01-01

    Busulfan, an alkylating agent administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, has a narrow therapeutic range and wide variability in metabolism. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for rapid and accurate quantification of plasma busulfan. Busulfan was separated and detected using an LC system containing a C18 column equipped with MS/MS. The sample was eluted with a mobile phase gradient for a total run time of 10 min. Plasma busulfan concentration was quantified against a 6-point standard curve in a multiple reaction monitoring mode at mass-to-charge (m/z) 264.1 > 151.1. Precision, recovery, matrix effect, linearity, detection capability, carryover, and stability were evaluated. The range of plasma busulfan concentration was obtained by analyzing samples from 9 children receiving busulfan. The coefficients of variation of within-run and within-laboratory precision were all below 5%. Recoveries were all within the range of 100-105%. Linearity was verified from 0 to 5,000 ng/mL. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 1.56 and 25 ng/mL, respectively. Carryover rate was within allowable limits. Plasma busulfan concentration was stable for 2 weeks at -20℃ and -80℃, but decreased by 25% when the plasma was stored for 24 hr at room temperature, and by <5% in 24 hr at 4℃. The plasma busulfan concentrations were between 347 ng/mL and 5,076 ng/mL. Our method using LC-MS/MS enables highly accurate, reproducible, and rapid busulfan monitoring with minimal sample preparation. The method may also enable safe and proper dosage.

  17. [Determination of Heavy Metal Elements in Diatomite Filter Aid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xi-du; Fu, Liang

    2015-11-01

    This study established a method for determining Be, Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Sb, Sn, Tl, Hg and Pb, total 10 heavy metals in diatomite filter aid. The diatomite filter aid was digested by using the mixture acid of HNO₃ + HF+ H₃PO₄ in microwave system, 10 heavy metals elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The interferences of mass spectrometry caused by the high silicon substrate were optimized, first the equipment parameters and isotopes of test metals were selected to eliminate these interferences, the methane was selected as reactant gas, and the mass spectral interferences were eliminated by dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Li, Sc, Y, In and Bi were selected as the internal standard elements to correct the interferences caused by matrix and the drift of sensitivity. The results show that the detection limits for analyte is in the range of 3.29-15.68 ng · L⁻¹, relative standard deviations (RSD) is less than 4.62%, and the recovery is in the range of 90.71%-107.22%. The current method has some advantages such as, high sensitivity, accurate, and precision, which can be used in diatomite filter aid quality control and safety estimations.

  18. [Selenium determination in plasma/serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): comparison with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS)].

    PubMed

    Janasik, Beata; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Małgorzata; Brodzka, Renata

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing two techniques of selenium (Se) determination in serum/plasma samples: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption (GF-AAS). Blood samples were collected by venipuncture, using Venosafe closed blood sampling system. The samples were centrifuged. The measurements were performed by Elan DRC-e mass spectrometry, Perkin Elmer, SCIEX, USA and Unicam Solar 989 QZ atomic absorption spectrometry. Reference material, Clincheck Serum Control Level 1 (Recipe, Germany), was used to verify the determinations. The Laboratory participates in external quality control (G-EQUAS). Analytical parameters for both techniques are respectively: ICP-MS--precision 5.9%, limit of detection 0.19 microg/l, repeatability 5.5%, trueness 2.4%, bias 97.6%, GF-AAS--precision 8%, limit of detection 3.4 microg/l, repeatability 7.2%, trueness 6.8%, bias 93.2%. The benefits of the ICP-MS technique are high accuracy, low detection limits and the possibility of multi-element analysis.

  19. Reactivity and analytical performance of oxygen as cell gas in inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgilio, Alex; Amais, Renata S.; Amaral, Clarice D. B.; Fialho, Lucimar L.; Schiavo, Daniela; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2016-12-01

    The reactivity and analytical performance of O2 as cell gas in inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry was investigated. Selected analytes in a wide mass range were divided in three groups according to their reactivity: G1 represents elements with high oxygen affinity (Ce, La, P, Sc, Ti, and Y), G2 contains elements that may partially react with oxygen (As, Ba, Mo, Si, Sr, and V), and G3 comprises elements expected to be less reactive towards oxygen (Al, Bi, Cu, Mg, Pb, and Pd). On-mass and mass-shift modes were evaluated by monitoring atomic and metal oxide ions, respectively. Analytical signal profiles, oxide percentages, sensitivities and limits of detection for oxygen flow rates varying from 0.1 to 1.0 mL min- 1 were also studied. Group 1 elements plus As and V presented better sensitivities and LODs when measuring oxides, which were the major species for all flow rates evaluated. Molybdenum and Si oxides presented intermediate behavior and MoO fraction was up to 47% and limit of detection was the same as that obtained in on-mass mode. For others G2 and G3 elements, on-mass mode presented higher sensitivity and better LODs, with estimated oxide contents lower than 10%. In most cases, increasing oxygen flow rates led to lower sensitivities and worse LODs.

  20. Plasma metabolome analysis by integrated ionization rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Bai, Jinfa; An, Zhuoling; Chen, Yanhua; Zhang, Ruiping; He, Jiuming; Bi, Xiaofeng; Song, Yongmei; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-09-30

    Acquiring global information on plasma-endogenous metabolites challenges metabolomics. This study has been designed to investigate the suitability of integrated ionization rapid-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC/MS/MS) for different kinds of metabolites in complex plasma, and provides an approach for plasma metabolomics in acquiring more comprehensive data of metabolites. Integrated ionization of electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) combined with RRLC/MS/MS has been carried out to perform analysis on the global plasma metabolome of healthy volunteers. The contributions to the total numbers of ion features by RRLC/MS with ESI, APCI, and APPI in positive and negative ion modes were calculated. Representative unique and identical ions were identified. The intensities of identical ions were compared. Each of ESI, APCI, and APPI coupled with RRLC/MS has its own advantage over the other two techniques for certain types of metabolites in plasma. LC/ESI-MS is very sensitive for detecting glycerophosphocholines, glycerophosphoethanolamines, acyl carnitines, bile acids, sulfate, etc. LC/APCI-MS is suitable for analyzing cyclic alcohols, fatty acids, and linoleic acids. LC/APPI-MS proves to be appropriate in detecting steroids, sphingolipids, some amino acids, nucleosides, and purines in plasma. It is suggested that the integrated ionization LC/MS approach should be applied for global plasma metabolomics. Moreover, the results obtained demonstrate that it is preferable to choose certain techniques from LC/ESI-MS, LC/APCI-MS, and LC/APPI-MS for metabolite target analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nageotte, S M; Day, J P

    1998-01-01

    A major source of environmental lead, particularly in urban areas, has been from the combustion of leaded petrol. Street dust has previously been used to assess urban lead contamination, and the dust itself can also be a potential source of lead ingestion, particularly to children. The progressive reduction of lead in petrol, in recent years, would be expected to have been reflected in a reduction of lead in urban dust. We have tested this hypothesis by repeating an earlier survey of Manchester street dust and carrying out a comparable survey in Paris. Samples were collected from streets and parks, lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead isotope ratios were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Manchester show that lead concentrations have fallen by about 40% (street dust averages, 941 micrograms g-1 (ppm) in 1975 down to 569 ppm in 1997). In Paris, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between types of street (not seen in Manchester). Additionally, lead levels in parks were much lower than in Manchester. Samples collected under the Eiffel Tower had very high concentrations and lead isotope ratios showed that this was unlikely to be fallout from motor vehicles but could be due to the paint used on the tower. Isotope ratios measurements also revealed that lead additives used in France and the UK come from different sources.

  2. Rapid determination of (237)Np and plutonium isotopes in urine by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Jones, Vernon D; Nichols, Sheldon T; Noyes, Gary W; Bernard, Maureen A

    2011-08-01

    A new rapid separation method was developed for the measurement of plutonium and neptunium in urine samples by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and/or alpha spectrometry with enhanced uranium removal. This method allows separation and preconcentration of plutonium and neptunium in urine samples using stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box flow rates to facilitate rapid separations. There is an increasing need to develop faster analytical methods for emergency response samples. There is also enormous benefit to having rapid bioassay methods in the event that a nuclear worker has an uptake (puncture wound, etc.) to assess the magnitude of the uptake and guide efforts to mitigate dose (e.g., tissue excision and chelation therapy). This new method focuses only on the rapid separation of plutonium and neptunium with enhanced removal of uranium. For ICP-MS, purified solutions must have low salt content and low concentration of uranium due to spectral interference of (238)U(1)H(+) on m/z 239. Uranium removal using this method is enhanced by loading plutonium and neptunium initially onto TEVA resin, then moving plutonium to DGA resin where additional purification from uranium is performed with a decontamination factor of almost 1×10(5). If UTEVA resin is added to the separation scheme, a decontamination factor of ~3 × 10(6) can be achieved.

  3. Quantification of zolmitriptan in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo; Tian, Yuan; Li, Wei; Mao, Guoguang

    2004-12-25

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and quantification of zolmitriptan in human plasma. After the addition of the internal standard (IS) and 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution, plasma samples were extracted with methylene chloride:ethyl acetate mixture (20:80, v/v). The organic layer was evaporated under a stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue was reconstituted with 100 microl mobile phase. The compounds were separated on a prepacked Lichrospher CN (5 microm, 150 mm x 2.0 mm) column using a mixture of methanol:water (10 mM NH(4)AC, pH 4.0) = 78:22 as mobile phase. Detection was performed on a single quadrupole mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The method was proved to be sensitive and specific by testing six different plasma batches. Linearity was established for the range of concentrations 0.30-16.0 ng/ml with a coefficient of determination (r) of 0.9998 and good back-calculated accuracy and precision. The intra- and inter-day precision (R.S.D.%) were lower than 15% and accuracy ranged from 85 to 115%. The lower limit of quantification was identifiable and reproducible at 0.30 ng/ml. The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of zolmitriptan for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies.

  4. Determination of tolperisone in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Ik; Park, Jung-In; Lee, Hye-In; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Bae, Jung-Woo; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2012-12-12

    We have developed and validated a simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography analytical method employing tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of tolperisone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, in human plasma. After liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether, chromatographic separation of tolperisone was performed using a reversed-phase Luna C(18) column (2.0mm×50mm, 5μm particles) with a mobile phase of 10mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5) - methanol (12:88, v/v) and quantified by tandem mass detection in ESI positive ion mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 250μL/min and the retention times of tolperisone and the internal standard (IS, dibucaine) were both 0.6min. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.5-300ng/mL (r>0.999). The lower limit of quantification, using 200μL human plasma, was 0.5ng/mL. The mean accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-day validation of tolperisone were within acceptable limits. The LC-MS/MS method reported here showed improved sensitivity for quantification of tolperisone in human plasma compared with previously described analytical methods. Lastly, the validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans.

  5. Study of RF-excited Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether Plasmas by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algatti, M. A.; Mota, R. P.; Moreira Júnior, P. W. P.; Honda, R. Y.; Kayama, M. E.; Kostov, K. G.

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the study of the fragmentation process of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (CH3O(CH2CH2O)2CH3) (diglyme here in) molecule in low pressure RF excited plasma discharges. The study was carried out using mass spectrometry. The results showed that for a fixed pressure, the increase of the RF power coupled to the plasma chamber from 1 to 35 W produced a plasma environment much more reactive which increases the population of the ionized species like CH2+ (15 amu), C2H4+ (28 amu), CH3O+ (31 amu), C2H4O+ (44 amu), CH3OCH2CH2+ (59 amu) and CH3OCH2CH2O+ (75 amu). This fact may be attributed to the increase of the electronic temperature that makes predominant the occurrence of inelastic processes that promotes molecular fragmentation. For a fixed value of RF power the increase of pressure from 50 mTorr to 100 mTorr produces the decreasing of the above mentioned chemical species due the lower electronic mean free path. These results suggest that if one wants to keep the monomer's functionality within the plasma deposited films resulting from such kind of discharges one must operate in low power conditions.

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of Low-Molecular-Weight Human Plasma Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Dong Huey; Nam, Eun Ji; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hee Cheol; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Lee, Cheolju; Lee, Ji Eun

    2016-01-04

    While human plasma serves as a great source for disease diagnosis, low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteome (<30 kDa) has been shown to contain a rich source of diagnostic biomarkers. Here we employ top-down mass spectrometry to analyze the LMW proteoforms present in four types of human plasma samples pooled from three healthy controls (HCs) without immunoaffinity depletion and with depletion of the top two, six, and seven high-abundance proteins. The LMW proteoforms were first fractionated based on molecular weight using gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis (GELFrEE). Then, the GELFrEE fractions containing up to 30 kDa were subjected to nanocapillary-LC-MS/MS, and the high-resolution MS and MS/MS data were processed using ProSightPC 3.0. As a result, a total of 442 LMW proteins and cleaved products, including those with post-translational modifications and single amino acid variations, were identified. From additional comparative analysis of plasma samples without immunoaffinity depletion between HCs and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients via top-down approach, tens of LMW proteoforms, including platelet factor 4, were found to show >1.5-fold changes between the plasma samples of HCs and CRC patients, and six of the LMW proteins were verified by Western blot analysis.

  7. Investigation of a measure of robustness in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makonnen, Yoseif; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In industrial/commercial settings where operators often have minimal expertise in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS), there is a prevalent need for a response factor indicating robust plasma conditions, which is analogous to the Mg II/Mg I ratio in ICP optical emission spectrometry (OES), whereby a Mg II/Mg I ratio of 10 constitutes robust conditions. While minimizing the oxide ratio usually corresponds to robust conditions, there is no specific target value that is widely accepted as indicating robust conditions. Furthermore, tuning for low oxide ratios does not necessarily guarantee minimal matrix effects, as they really address polyatomic interferences. From experiments, conducted in parallel for both MS and OES, there were some element pairs of similar mass and very different ionization potential that were exploited for such a purpose, the rationale being that, if these elements were ionized to the same extent, then that could be indicative of a robust plasma. The Be II/Li I intensity ratio was directly related to the Mg II/Mg I ratio in OES. Moreover, the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was inversely related to the CeO+/Ce+ and LaO+/La+ oxide ratios in MS. The effects of different matrices (i.e. 0.01-0.1 M Na) were also investigated and compared to a conventional argon plasma optimized for maximum sensitivity. The suppression effect of these matrices was significantly reduced, if not eliminated in the case of 0.01 M Na, when the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was around 0.30 on the Varian 820 MS instrument. Moreover, a very similar ratio (0.28) increased robustness to the same extent on a completely different ICP-MS instrument (PerkinElmer NEXION). Much greater robustness was achieved using a mixed-gas plasma with nitrogen in the outer gas and either nitrogen or hydrogen as a sheathing gas, as the 9Be+/7Li+ ratio was then around 1.70. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using a simple analyte intensity ratio, 9Be+/7Li+, to gauge plasma robustness.

  8. [Analysis of Trace Inorganic Elements in Castor Oil by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Tan-ping; Xie, Hua-lin; Nie, Xi-du

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in castor oil after direct dilution with ethanol by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The sample was diluted by ethanol before ICP-MS determination. The condensation and deposition of high concentrations of carbon in mass cone interface and ion lens, which will decrease the sensitivity of element analysis, were avoided effectively by introducing O2 to plasma. The mass spectral interferences were eliminated by octopole reaction system (ORS). The matrix effects were calibrated to using Sc, Ge, Rh and Ir as internal standard elements. Au standard solution, which could form amalgam alloy with Hg, was dropped to eliminate the memory effect of Hg. The results show that the correlation coefficient for analyte is no less than 0.999 5, the detection limits is in the range of 0.06 - 20.1 ng x L(-1), the recovery is in the range of 990.4% - 110.2%, and the RSD is less than 4.8%. This method was very fast, simple and accurate to simultaneously analyze multi-elements in castor oil.

  9. [Mass spectrometry analysis of blood plasma lipidome as method of disease diagnostics, evuation of effectiveness and optimization of drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Lokhov, P G; Maslov, D L; Balashova, E E; Trifonova, O P; Medvedeva, N V; Torkhovskaya, T I; Ipatova, O M; Archakov, A I; Malyshev, P P; Kukharchuk, V V; Shestakova, E A; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of blood lipid based on direct mass spectrometry of lipophilic low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma has been considered. Such technique allows quantification of hundreds of various types of lipids and this changes existing concepts on diagnostics of lipid disorders and related diseases. The versatility and quickness of the method significantly simplify its wide use. This method is applicable for diagnostics of atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Detalization of plasma lipid composition at the molecular level by means of mass spectrometry allows to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to optimize the drug treatment of cardiovascular diseases by phospholipid preparations.

  10. Multiplex bio-assay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Towards a massively multivariate single-cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Scott D.; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry R.; Baranov, Vladimir I.

    2007-03-01

    Recent progress in the development of massively multiplexed bioanalytical assays using element tags with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection is reviewed. Feasibility results using commercially available secondary immunolabeling reagents for leukemic cell lines are presented. Multiplex analysis of higher order is shown with first generation tag reagents based on functionalized carriers that bind lanthanide ions. DNA quantification using metallointercalation allows for cell enumeration or mitotic state differentiation. In situ hybridization permits the determination of cellular RNA. The results provide a feasibility basis for the development of a multivariate assay tool for individual cell analysis based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in a cytometer configuration.

  11. An argon-nitrogen-hydrogen mixed-gas plasma as a robust ionization source for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makonnen, Yoseif; Beauchemin, Diane

    2014-09-01

    Multivariate optimization of an argon-nitrogen-hydrogen mixed-gas plasma for minimum matrix effects, while maintaining analyte sensitivity as much as possible, was carried out in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In the presence of 0.1 M Na, the 33.9 ± 3.9% (n = 13 elements) analyte signal suppression on average observed in an all-argon plasma was alleviated with the optimized mixed-gas plasma, the average being - 4.0 ± 8.8%, with enhancement in several cases. An addition of 2.3% v/v N2 in the outer plasma gas, and 0.50% v/v H2 to the central channel, as a sheath around the nebulizer gas flow, was sufficient for this drastic increase in robustness. It also reduced the background from ArO+ and Ar2+ as well as oxide levels by over an order of magnitude. On the other hand, the background from NO+ and ArN+ increased by up to an order of magnitude while the levels of doubly-charged ions increased to 7% (versus 2.7% in an argon plasma optimized for sensitivity). Furthermore, detection limits were generally degraded by 5 to 15 fold when using the mixed-gas plasma versus the argon plasma for matrix-free solution (although they were better for several elements in 0.1 M Na). Nonetheless, the drastically increased robustness allowed the direct quantitative multielement analysis of certified ore reference materials, as well as the determination of Mo and Cd in seawater, without using any matrix-matching or internal standardization.

  12. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  13. Speciation of chromium in waste water using ion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2007-04-30

    Ion chromatography (IC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was systematically investigated for determining the speciation of chromium in environmental samples. Firstly, the stability of complexes formed by Cr(III) with various aminopolycarboxylic acids was studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that [Cr(EDTA)](-) was stable in solution. Secondly, various mobile phases were examined to separate Cl(-) from chromium species by IC to avoid Cl(-) interference. The separation of [Cr(EDTA)](-) and Cr(VI) was achieved on a new anion-exchange column (G3154A/102) using a mobile phase containing 20mM NH(4)NO(3) and 10mM NH(4)H(2)PO(4) at pH 7.0 without Cl(-) interference. Detection limits for chromium species were below 0.2 microg/L with a direct injection of sample and without prior removal of interferences from the matrix. Finally, the proposed method was used for the determination of chromium species in contaminated waters.

  14. Sulfur-based absolute quantification of proteins using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon

    2015-10-01

    An element-based reductive approach provides an effective means of realizing International System of Units (SI) traceability for high-purity biological standards. Here, we develop an absolute protein quantification method using double isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave-assisted acid digestion for the first time. We validated the method and applied it to certify the candidate protein certified reference material (CRM) of human growth hormone (hGH). The concentration of hGH was determined by analysing the total amount of sulfur in hGH. Next, the size-exclusion chromatography method was used with ICP-MS to characterize and quantify sulfur-containing impurities. By subtracting the contribution of sulfur-containing impurities from the total sulfur content in the hGH CRM, we obtained a SI-traceable certification value. The quantification result obtained with the present method based on sulfur analysis was in excellent agreement with the result determined via a well-established protein quantification method based on amino acid analysis using conventional acid hydrolysis combined with an ID liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The element-based protein quantification method developed here can be generally used for SI-traceable absolute quantification of proteins, especially pure-protein standards.

  15. Switched ferroelectric plasma ionizer (SwiFerr) for ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neidholdt, Evan L; Beauchamp, J L

    2011-01-01

    We present the implementation of a switched ferroelectric plasma ionizer (SwiFerr) for ambient analysis of trace substances by mass spectrometry. The device utilizes the ferroelectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) to take advantage of the high electric field resulting from polarization switching in the material. The source comprises a [001]-oriented barium titanate crystal (5 × 5 × 1 mm) with a metallic rear electrode and a metallic grid front electrode. When a high voltage AC waveform is applied to the rear electrode to switch polarization, the resulting electric field on the face of the crystal promotes electron emission and results in plasma formation between the crystal face and the grounded grid at ambient pressure. Interaction with this plasma and the resulting reagent ions effects ionization of trace neutrals. The source requires less than 1 W of power to operate under most circumstances, ionizes molecules with acidic and basic functional groups easily, and has proven quite versatile for ambient analysis of both vapor phase and aspirated powdered solid samples. Ionization of vapor phase samples of the organics triethylamine, tripropylamine, tributylamine, and pyridine results in observation of the singly protonated species in the positive ion mass spectrum with sensitivity extending into the high ppb range. With acetic acid, deprotonated clusters dominate the negative ion mass spectrum. Aerodynamic sampling of powdered samples is used to record mass spectra of the pharmaceuticals loperamide and ibuprofen. Chemical signatures, including protonated loperamide and deprotonated ibuprofen, are observed for each drug. The robust, low power source lends itself easily to miniaturization and incorporation in field-portable devices used for the rapid detection and characterization of trace substances and hazardous materials in a range of different environments.

  16. Simultaneous determination of plasma total homocysteine and methionine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Mistretta, Brandon; Elsea, Sarah; Sun, Qin

    2017-01-01

    The sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine is a cardiac risk factor and a biomarker for several inborn errors of metabolism in methionine synthesis. A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of homocysteine and methionine in human plasma. Rapid separation was achieved using a reverse phase liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry identification was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode for homocysteine and methionine. Accuracy, precision, linearity, recovery and sample stability were evaluated in the method validation. The test is applied in diagnosis of homocystinuria and monitoring total homocysteine levels. Moreover, simultaneous measurement of methionine helps in the differentiation of homocystinuria and some cobalamin disorders (such as cblC and cblD defects) without additional amino acid testing. Lastly, this assay is sensitive to detect reduced total homocysteine levels that are possibly seen in sulfocysteinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiencies.

  17. Stable isotope dilution analysis of hydrologic samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is employed in the determination of Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Ti, and Pb in nonsaline, natural water samples by stable isotope dilution analysis. Hydrologic samples were directly analyzed without any unusual pretreatment. Interference effects related to overlapping isobars, formation of metal oxide and multiply charged ions, and matrix composition were identified and suitable methods of correction evaluated. A comparability study snowed that single-element isotope dilution analysis was only marginally better than sequential multielement isotope dilution analysis. Accuracy and precision of the single-element method were determined on the basis of results obtained for standard reference materials. The instrumental technique was shown to be ideally suited for programs associated with certification of standard reference materials.

  18. [Study on the determination of 14 inorganic elements in coffee by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xi-Du; Fu, Liang

    2013-07-01

    Samples of coffee were digested by microwave digestion, and inorganic elements amounts of Na, Mg, P, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo and Pb in sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 was used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The results showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 3.84% for all the elements, and the recovery was found to be 92.00% -106.52% by adding standard recovery experiment. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of coffee, which could satisfy the sample examination request and provide scientific rationale for determining inorganic elements of coffee.

  19. Determination of elemental content off rocks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of analysis for rocks and soils is presented using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is based on a lithium borate fusion and the free-running mode of a Nd/YAG laser. An Ar/N2 sample gas improves sensitivity 7 ?? for most elements. Sixty-three elements are characterized for the fusion, and 49 elements can be quantified. Internal standards and isotopic spikes ensure accurate results. Limits of detection are 0.01 ??g/g for many trace elements. Accuracy approaches 5% for all elements. A new quality assurance procedure is presented that uses fundamental parameters to test relative response factors for the calibration.

  20. Determination of mercury in fish samples by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Ming-Jyh; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Li, Yi-Ching

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of mercury in several fish samples. The effects of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals are reported. Palladium was used as modifier to delay the vaporization of mercury in this study. As the vaporization behavior of mercury in fish slurry and aqueous solution is quite different, the standard addition method was used for the determination of mercury in reference materials. The detection limit of mercury estimated from the standard addition curve was in the range 0.002-0.004 μg g -1 for different samples. This method has been applied to the determination of mercury in dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1 and DORM-2) and dogfish liver reference material (DOLT-1). Accuracy was better than 4% and precision was better than 7% with the USS-ETV-ICP-MS method.

  1. Assessment of the analytical capabilities of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, H.E.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A thorough assessment of the analytical capabilities of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was conducted for selected analytes of importance in water quality applications and hydrologic research. A multielement calibration curve technique was designed to produce accurate and precise results in analysis times of approximately one minute. The suite of elements included Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. The effects of sample matrix composition on the accuracy of the determinations showed that matrix elements (such as Na, Ca, Mg, and K) that may be present in natural water samples at concentration levels greater than 50 mg/L resulted in as much as a 10% suppression in ion current for analyte elements. Operational detection limits are presented.

  2. Development of analytical methods for multiplex bio-assay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ornatsky, Olga I; Kinach, Robert; Bandura, Dmitry R; Lou, Xudong; Tanner, Scott D; Baranov, Vladimir I; Nitz, Mark; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the development of highly multiplexed bio-analytical assays with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection are discussed. Use of novel reagents specifically designed for immunological methods utilizing elemental analysis is presented. The major steps of method development, including selection of elements for tags, validation of tagged reagents, and examples of multiplexed assays, are considered in detail. The paper further describes experimental protocols for elemental tagging of antibodies, immunostaining of live and fixed human leukemia cells, and preparation of samples for ICP-MS analysis. Quantitative analysis of surface antigens on model cell lines using a cocktail of seven lanthanide labeled antibodies demonstrated high specificity and concordance with conventional immunophenotyping.

  3. Development of analytical methods for multiplex bio-assay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ornatsky, Olga I.; Kinach, Robert; Bandura, Dmitry R.; Lou, Xudong; Tanner, Scott D.; Baranov, Vladimir I.; Nitz, Mark; Winnik, Mitchell A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the development of highly multiplexed bio-analytical assays with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection are discussed. Use of novel reagents specifically designed for immunological methods utilizing elemental analysis is presented. The major steps of method development, including selection of elements for tags, validation of tagged reagents, and examples of multiplexed assays, are considered in detail. The paper further describes experimental protocols for elemental tagging of antibodies, immunostaining of live and fixed human leukemia cells, and preparation of samples for ICP-MS analysis. Quantitative analysis of surface antigens on model cell lines using a cocktail of seven lanthanide labeled antibodies demonstrated high specificity and concordance with conventional immunophenotyping. PMID:19122859

  4. Multielement analysis of deep-sea sediments by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ning; Wu, Zhaohui; Guo, Dongfa; Yao, De

    2008-05-01

    Marine sediments were dissolved by HNO3-HF-HClO4 in a sealed container at low pressure; HF was evaporated in an open container and salts were dissolved in HCl by heating, then transferred to 2% HNO3 solution. A total of 45 elements, including Li, Be, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Cd, In, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U, were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Conditions and sample experiments showed that this procedure defines a good experimental method which has the advantages of clear interference, easy operation and reliable results. The concentrations of the 45 elements could be used for resource exploration, environmental assessment and academic research.

  5. Analysis of iodine in food samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Gray, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This work shows a method for the determination of iodine in a variety of food samples and reference materials using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following alkaline extraction. Optimisation of the addition of organic carbon showed that a minimum of 3% 2-propanol was necessary for a constant ratio of iodine to internal standard. The limit of quantification (LOQ), calculated as 30σ for the method, was 36 ng g(-1) in solid food samples. For method validation, seven standard reference materials (SRM) and 21 fortified food samples were used. The precision (%RSD) of the measurements was in the 2-7% range. Accuracies for the SRMs were 85-105%, while the fortified food samples showed 81-119% recoveries, including a number of samples fortified at 50% of the LOQ.

  6. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: An Emerging Technology for Multiparametric Analysis of Tissue Antigens.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Robert W; McLachlin, Katherine M; Riquelme, Paloma; Haarer, Jan; Broichhausen, Christiane; Ritter, Uwe; Geissler, Edward K; Hutchinson, James A

    2015-09-01

    New analytical techniques for multiparametric characterisation of individual cells are likely to reveal important information about the heterogeneity of immunological responses at the single-cell level. In this proof-of-principle study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied to the problem of concurrently detecting 24 lineage and activation markers expressed by human leucocytes. This approach was sufficiently sensitive and specific to identify subpopulations of isolated T, B, and natural killer cells. Leucocyte subsets were also accurately detected within unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparations. Accordingly, we judge LA-ICP-MS to be a suitable method for assessing expression of multiple tissue antigens in solid-phase biological specimens, such as tissue sections, cytospins, or cells grown on slides. These results augur well for future development of LA-ICP-MS-based bioimaging instruments for general users.

  7. Pulsed radio-frequency discharge inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for oxide analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Yin, Zhibin; Hang, Wei; Li, Bin; Huang, Benli

    2016-08-01

    A direct solid sampling technique has been developed based on a pulsed radio-frequency discharge (RFD) in mixture of N2 and Ar environment at atmospheric pressure. With an averaged input power of 65 W, a crater with the diameter of 80 μm and depth of 50 μm can be formed on sample surface after discharge for 1 min, suggesting the feasibility of the pulsed RFD for sampling nonconductive solids. Combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), this technique allows to measure elemental composition of solids directly with relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~ 20%. Capability of quantitative analysis was demonstrated by the use of soil standards and artificial standards. Good calibration linearity and limits of detection (LODs) in range of 10- 8-10- 9 g/g were achieved for most elements.

  8. Analysis of biological reference materials, prepared by microwave dissolution, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Friel, J K; Skinner, C S; Jackson, S E; Longerich, H P

    1990-03-01

    A procedure has been developed for the analysis of biological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fast, efficient and complete sample digestion is achieved by a combined microwave-nitric acid/open beaker-nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide procedure. The ICP-MS analysis is performed with an on-line five-element internal standard to correct for matrix and instrumental drift effects. Results are presented for 24 elements in three biological reference materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials 5277a Liver and 1566 Oyster and International Atomic Energy Agency Certified Reference Material H4 Animal Muscle). For all elements significantly above the detection limit and reagent blank concentrations, good agreement exists between ICP-MS and certified values.

  9. Accurate determination of silver nanoparticles in animal tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverková, Lenka; Hradilová, Šárka; Milde, David; Panáček, Aleš; Skopalová, Jana; Kvítek, Libor; Petrželová, Kamila; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-12-01

    This study examined recoveries of silver determination in animal tissues after wet digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The composition of the mineralization mixture for microwave assisted digestion was optimized and the best recoveries were obtained for mineralization with HNO3 and addition of HCl promptly after digestion. The optimization was performed on model samples of chicken meat spiked with silver nanoparticles and a solution of ionic silver. Basic calculations of theoretical distribution of Ag among various silver-containing species were implemented and the results showed that most of the silver is in the form of soluble complexes AgCl2- and AgCl32 - for the optimized composition of the mineralization mixture. Three animal tissue certified reference materials were then analyzed to verify the trueness and precision of the results.

  10. [Study on the determination of trace elements in bitter almond by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Xie, Hua-Lin; Nie, Xi-Du

    2013-05-01

    Samples of bitter almond were digested by microwave digestion, and trace elements amounts of B, Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba and Pb in sample solutions were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 was used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The working parameters of the instrument were optimized. The result showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 4.79% for all the elements, and the recovery was 90.00%-109.30% by adding standard recovery experiment. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneo multi-elements determination for bitter almond, which could satisfy the sample examination request and provide scientific rationale for determining inorganic elements in bitter almond.

  11. Plutonium bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Wyse, E.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    The determination of plutonium in urine poses several analytical challenges, e.g., detectability, matrix, etc. We have investigated the feasibility of analyzing plutonium in processed urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). The urine samples are first spiked with [sup 244]Pu as a tracer and internal standard, then processed by co-precipitation and column chromatography using TRU-Spec[trademark], an extraction resin. By enhancing ICP/MS detection capabilities via improved sample introduction and data acquisition efficiencies, an instrumental detection limit of 5 to 50 fg (0.3 to 3 fCi for [sup 239]pu) is typically obtained, depending on the desired degree of quantitation. A brief summary of the analytical method as well as the basis for measuring radionuclides by ICP/MS are submitted; the separation procedure, methods of sample introduction, and data acquisition techniques are then highlighted.

  12. Plutonium bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Wyse, E.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    The determination of plutonium in urine poses several analytical challenges, e.g., detectability, matrix, etc. We have investigated the feasibility of analyzing plutonium in processed urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). The urine samples are first spiked with {sup 244}Pu as a tracer and internal standard, then processed by co-precipitation and column chromatography using TRU-Spec{trademark}, an extraction resin. By enhancing ICP/MS detection capabilities via improved sample introduction and data acquisition efficiencies, an instrumental detection limit of 5 to 50 fg (0.3 to 3 fCi for {sup 239}pu) is typically obtained, depending on the desired degree of quantitation. A brief summary of the analytical method as well as the basis for measuring radionuclides by ICP/MS are submitted; the separation procedure, methods of sample introduction, and data acquisition techniques are then highlighted.

  13. Determination of metals in composite diet samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Morgan, Jeffrey N; Fernando, Reshan; Pellizzari, Edo D; Akinbo, Olujide

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques for determination of metals in composite diets. Aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, vanadium, and zinc were determined by this method. Atmospheric pressure microwave digestion was used to solubilize analytes in homogenized composite diet samples, and this procedure was followed by ICP-MS analysis. Recovery of certified elements from standard reference materials ranged from 92 to 119% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-1.9%. Recovery of elements from fortified composite diet samples ranged from 75 to 129% with RSDs of 0-11.3%. Limits of detection ranged from 1 to 1700 ng/g; high values were due to significant amounts of certain elements naturally present in composite diets. Results of this study demonstrate that low-resolution quadrupole-based ICP-MS provides precise and accurate measurements of the elements tested in composite diet samples.

  14. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Saetveit, Nathan Joe

    2008-01-01

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 μg L-1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 μL injection in a physiological saline matrix.

  15. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  16. Bioimaging of metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Zoriy, Miroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Wu, Bei; Salber, Dagmar; Palm, Christoph; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The distribution analysis of (essential, beneficial, or toxic) metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, and others), metalloids, and non-metals in biological tissues is of key interest in life science. Over the past few years, the development and application of several imaging mass spectrometric techniques has been rapidly growing in biology and medicine. Especially, in brain research metalloproteins are in the focus of targeted therapy approaches of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, or stroke, or tumor growth. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole-based mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) has been successfully applied as a powerful imaging (mapping) technique to produce quantitative images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin tissue sections of human or rodent brain. Imaging LA-ICP-QMS was also applied to investigate metal distributions in plant and animal sections to study, for example, the uptake and transport of nutrient and toxic elements or environmental contamination. The combination of imaging LA-ICP-MS of metals with proteomic studies using biomolecular mass spectrometry identifies metal-containing proteins and also phosphoproteins. Metal-containing proteins were imaged in a two-dimensional gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS or Blue Native PAGE). Recent progress in LA-ICP-MS imaging as a stand-alone technique and in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS for selected life science applications is summarized. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Plasma free and total carnitine measured in children by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J H; Pourfarzam, M

    2002-11-01

    Free and total carnitine quantification is important as a complementary test for the diagnosis of unusual metabolic diseases, including fatty acid degradation disorders. The present study reports a new method for the quantification of free and total carnitine in dried plasma specimens by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with sample derivatization. Carnitine is determined by looking for the precursor of ions of m/z = 103 of N-butylester derivative, and the method is validated by comparison with radioenzymatic assay. We obtained an inter- and intra-day assay coefficient of variation of 4.3 and 2.3, respectively. Free and total carnitine was analyzed in 309 dried plasma spot samples from children ranging in age from newborn to 14 years using the new method, which was found to be suitable for calculating reference age-related values for free and total carnitine (less than one month: 19.3 +/- 2.4 and 23.5 +/- 2.9; one to twelve months: 28.8 +/- 10.2 and 35.9 +/- 11.4; one to seven years: 30.7 +/- 10.3 and 38.1 +/- 11.9; seven to 14 years: 33.7 +/- 11.6, and 43.1 +/- 13.8 micro M, respectively). No difference was found between males and females. A significant difference was observed between neonates and the other age groups. We compare our data with reference values in the literature, most of them obtained by radioenzymatic assay. However, this method is laborious and time consuming. The electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method presented here is a reliable, rapid and automated procedure for carnitine quantitation.

  18. Importance of sample form and surface temperature for analysis by ambient plasma mass spectrometry (PADI).

    PubMed

    Salter, Tara La Roche; Bunch, Josephine; Gilmore, Ian S

    2014-09-16

    Many different types of samples have been analyzed in the literature using plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry sources; however, comprehensive studies of the important parameters for analysis are only just beginning. Here, we investigate the effect of the sample form and surface temperature on the signal intensities in plasma-assisted desorption ionization (PADI). The form of the sample is very important, with powders of all volatilities effectively analyzed. However, for the analysis of thin films at room temperature and using a low plasma power, a vapor pressure of greater than 10(-4) Pa is required to achieve a sufficiently good quality spectrum. Using thermal desorption, we are able to increase the signal intensity of less volatile materials with vapor pressures less than 10(-4) Pa, in thin film form, by between 4 and 7 orders of magnitude. This is achieved by increasing the temperature of the sample up to a maximum of 200 °C. Thermal desorption can also increase the signal intensity for the analysis of powders.

  19. Lansoprazole quantification in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Celso H; Barrientos-Astigarraga, Rafael E; Abib, Eduardo; Mendes, Gustavo D; da Silva, Débora R; de Nucci, Gilberto

    2003-01-15

    An analytical method based on liquid chromatography with positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection was developed for the determination of lansoprazole in human plasma using omeprazole as the internal standard. The analyte and internal standard were extracted from the plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl-ether-dichloromethane (70:30; v/v) and chromatographed on a C(18) analytical column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (90:10; v/v)+10 mM formic acid. The method has a chromatographic total run time of 5 min and was linear within the range 2.5-2000 ng/ml. Detection was carried out on a Micromass triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM). The intra- and inter-run precision, calculated from quality control (QC) samples, was less than 3.4%. The accuracy as determined from QC samples was less than 9%. The method herein described was employed in a bioequivalence study of two capsule formulations of lansoprazole.

  20. Sensitive sandwich immunoassay based on single particle mode inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Zhi; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2010-11-15

    A sensitive sandwich type immunoassay has been proposed with the detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in a single particle mode (time resolved analysis). The signal induced by the flash of ions ((197)Au(+)) due to the ionization of single Au-nanoparticle (Au-NP) label in the plasma torch can be measured by the mass spectrometer. The frequency of the transient signals is proportional to the concentration of Au-NPs labels. Characteristics of the signals obtained from Au-NPs of 20, 45 and 80 nm in diameters were discussed. The analytical figures for the determination of Au-labeled IgG using ICP-MS in conventional integral mode and single particle mode were compared in detail. Rabbit-anti-human IgG was used as a model analyte in the sandwich immunoassay. A detection limit (3 σ) of 0.1 ng mL(-1) was obtained for rabbit-anti-human IgG after immunoreactions, with a linear range of 0.3-10 ng mL(-1) and a RSD of 8.1% (2.0 ng mL(-1)). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to spiked rabbit-anti-human IgG samples and rabbit-anti-human serum samples. The method resulted to be a highly sensitive ICP-MS based sandwich type immunoassay.

  1. Determination and pharmacokinetic studies of arecoline in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Zhou, Xu-Zheng; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Ya-Jun; Niu, Jian-Rong; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Xi-Wang; Li, Jin-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2014-10-15

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of arecoline concentration in dog plasma. Plasma sample was prepared by protein precipitation using n-hexane (containing 1% isoamyl alcohol) with β-pinene as an internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent C18 column (4.6×75mm, 3.5μm) using methanol: 5mM ammonium acetate as the mobile phase with isocratic elution. Mass detection was carried out using positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve for arecoline was linear over a concentration range of 2-500ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within the acceptable limits of ±10% at all concentrations. In summary, the LC-MS/MS method described herein was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of arecoline hydrobromide tablets in dogs after oral administration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Chromatographic behavior of selenoproteins in rat serum detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Hatakeyama, Yoshiko; Tokumoto, Maki; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-01-01

    Two major selenoproteins are present in mammalian serum: extracellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx) and selenoprotein P (Sel P). The chromatographic behaviors of the two serum selenoproteins were compared in four rodent species, and the selenoproteins in rat serum were identified by measuring enzyme activity and Western blotting. The selenoproteins in rat serum showed a specific chromatographic behavior. In particular, rat eGPx was eluted faster than eGPxs of the other rodent species, although the amino-acid sequences of the rodent species were identical. The elution profiles of Se in rat serum obtained by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS-MS) and ICP-MS were compared. The tandem quadrupoles and the O₂ reaction/collision gas completely removed severe interferences with the Se speciation originating from the plasma source and the biological sample matrix. ICP-MS-MS under the O₂ mass shift mode gave us more accurate abundance ratios of Se than ICP-MS.

  3. Sensitive quantification of omeprazole and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ute; Schwab, Matthias; Treiber, Gerd; Klotz, Ulrich

    2006-02-02

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of omeprazole and its major metabolites 5-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulfone in human plasma by HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry. Following liquid-liquid extraction HPLC separation was achieved on a ProntoSil AQ, C18 column using a gradient with 10 mM ammonium acetate in water (pH 7.25) and acetonitrile. The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected ion monitoring mode using the respective MH(+) ions, m/z 346 for omeprazole, m/z 362 for 5-hydroxy-omeprazole and omeprazol-sulfone and m/z 300 for the internal standard (2-{[(3,5-dimethylpyridine-2-yl)methyl]thio}-1H-benzimidazole-5-yl)methanol. The limit of quantification (LOQ) achieved with this method was 5 ng/ml for 5-hydroxyomeprazole and 10 ng/ml for omeprazole and omeprazole-sulfone using 0.25 ml of plasma. Intra- and inter-assay variability was below 11% over the whole concentration range from 5 to 250 ng/ml for 5-hydroxyomeprazol and from 10 to 750 ng/ml for omeprazole and omeprazole-sulfone. The method was successfully applied to the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters of esomeprazole and the two major metabolites after a single dose and under steady state conditions.

  4. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of cobinamide in pig plasma.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Brent A; Brittain, Matthew K

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been widely utilized for the analysis of compounds in biological matrices due to its selectivity and sensitivity. This study describes the application of an LC-MS/MS-based approach toward the analysis of cobinamide in Yorkshire pig plasma. The selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, range, carryover, sensitivity, matrix effect, interference, stability, reproducibility, and ruggedness of the method were investigated in pig plasma. The accuracy and precision of the method was determined to be within 10% over three different days over a range of concentrations (25-10,000ng/mL) that spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for dicyanocobinamide was determined to be 25ng/mL in pig plasma. Carryover was acceptable, as the area response of the carryover blanks were ≤15% of the area response of the nearest LLOQ standard for the analyte, while it was nonexistent for the internal standard. Specificity was ensured using six different lots of pig plasma. While the matrix effects of dicyanocobinamide in plasma were enhanced, ginsenoside Rb1 experienced signal suppression under the described conditions. The absolute recovery results for both compounds were consistent, precise, and reproducibly lower than expected at ∼60% for dicyanocobinamide and ∼22% for ginsenoside Rb1, confirming that a matrix standard curve was required for accurate quantitation. Cobinamide was shown to be very stable in matrix at various storage conditions including room temperature, refrigerated, and frozen at time intervals of 20h, 4 days, and 60 days respectively. This method was demonstrated to be sensitive, reproducible, stable, and rugged, and it should be applicable to the analysis of cobinamide in other biological matrices and species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for the Determination of Cobinamide in Pig Plasma

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Brent A.; Brittain, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been widely utilized for the analysis of compounds in biological matrices due to its selectivity and sensitivity. This study describes the application of an LC-MS/MS-based approach toward the analysis of cobinamide in Yorkshire pig plasma. The selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity, range, carryover, sensitivity, matrix effect, interference, stability, reproducibility, and ruggedness of the method were investigated in pig plasma. The accuracy and precision of the method was determined to be within 10% over three different days over a range of concentrations (25–10,000 ng/mL) that spanned more than two orders of magnitude. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for dicyanocobinamide was determined to be 25 ng/mL in pig plasma. Carryover was acceptable, as the area response of the carryover blanks were ≤15% of the area response of the nearest LLOQ standard for the analyte, while it was nonexistent for the internal standard. Specificity was ensured using six different lots of pig plasma. While the matrix effects of dicyanocobinamide in plasma were enhanced, ginsenoside Rb1 experienced signal suppression under the described conditions. The absolute recovery results for both compounds were consistent, precise, and reproducibly lower than expected at ~60% for dicyanocobinamide and ~22% for ginsenoside Rb1, confirming that a matrix standard curve was required for accurate quantitation. Cobinamide was shown to be very stable in matrix at various storage conditions including room temperature, refrigerated, and frozen at time intervals of 20 hours, 4 days, and 60 days respectively. This method was demonstrated to be sensitive, reproducible, stable, and rugged, and it should be applicable to the analysis of cobinamide in other biological matrices and species. PMID:26540437

  6. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  7. Bioimaging of metals and biomolecules in mouse heart by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Breuer, Uwe; Hsieh, Hui-Fang; Osterholt, Tobias; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, Bei; Matusch, Andreas; Caruso, Joseph A; Qin, Zhenyu

    2010-11-15

    Bioimaging mass spectrometric techniques allow direct mapping of metal and biomolecule distributions with high spatial resolution in biological tissue. In this study laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) was used for imaging of transition metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ti), alkali and alkaline-earth metals (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, respectively), and selected nonmetals (such as C, P, and S) in native cryosections of mouse heart. The metal and nonmetal images clearly illustrated the shape and the anatomy of the samples. Zinc and copper were inhomogeneously distributed with average concentrations of 26 and 11 μg g(-1), respectively. Titanium and manganese were detected at concentrations reaching 1 and 2 μg g(-1), respectively. The highest regional metal concentration of 360 μg g(-1)was observed for iron in blood present in the lumen of the aorta. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as an elemental and biomolecular mass spectrometric technique was employed for imaging of Na, K, and selected biomolecules (e.g., phosphocholine, choline, cholesterol) in adjacent sections. Here, two different bioimaging techniques, LA-ICPMS and SIMS, were combined for the first time, yielding novel information on both elemental and biomolecular distributions.

  8. Determination of mercury in whole blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bonnie Mei Wah; Siu, Tak Shing; Lee, Joseph Sai Kit; Tam, Sidney

    2007-06-01

    The conventional method for the determination of mercury in clinical samples is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample digestion or pretreatment require large sample volume and long sample preparation time. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method developed in this study requires only 100 microL of sample with practically no preparation, except for dilution with diluent. Significant savings in sample volumes, reagents, technician time, and analysis time are realized. Among different types of diluents, the one containing acid, tert-butanol, and potassium dichromate gave the best results to remove the mercury memory effect. The interassay precisions for whole blood and urine were < 5% and < 8%, respectively, and the intra-assay precisions were < 3% and < 7%, respectively. The lower limits of detection were 0.13, 0.17, and 0.26 microg/L for aqueous standard, urine, and whole blood, respectively. The developed ICP-MS method correlated well with the atomic absorption method and can offer an alternative to the atomic absorption method for mercury analysis with less sample volume requirement as well as shorter analysis time.

  9. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination of metals in honeybee venom.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Zenon J; Matysiak, Jan

    2008-11-04

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique was used to analyze the contamination of selected 20 metals in 32 samples of honeybee venom and to demonstrate differences in the content of these elements. Among the analyzed metal microelements (Al, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B, V, Sr and Ni), macro-elements (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and toxic metals (As, Ba, Pb, Cd, Sb and Cr) were identified. The presented results showed that the metal levels in honeybee venom are much lower than the tolerable upper intake levels for the elements. Also the toxic metal contamination is much lower than the permissible levels for drugs established by the United States Pharmacopeia and the European Pharmacopeia. As opposed to the pharmacopeial tests for metals, a multi-element ICP-MS method has been developed. In order to confirm data obtained, the following steps and parameters were taken into account for the validation of the method: calibration verification, recovery, accuracy, precision, detection limit (LOD), quantitation limit (LOQ), spectral and matrix interference and comparison between ICP-MS and GFAAS (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) for Mn. All steps of validation proved the accuracy of the results. This is most likely the first study in which the metal content in honeybee venom was evaluated by ICP-MS.

  10. Determination of metals in marine species by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Karl X.; Swami, Kamal

    2007-10-01

    A microwave digestion method suitable for determination of multiple elements in marine species was developed, with the use of cold vapor atomic spectrometry for the detection of Hg, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for all of the other elements. An optimized reagent mixture composed of 2 ml of HNO 3, 2 ml of H 2O 2 and 0.3 ml of HF used in microwave digestion of about 0.15 g (dry weight) of sample was found to give the best overall recoveries of metals in two standard reference materials. In the oyster tissue standard reference material (SRM 1566b), recoveries of Na, Al, K, V, Co, Zn, Se, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ni, and Pb were between 90% and 110%; Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, As, and Ba recoveries were between 85% and 90%; Hg recovery was 81%; and Ca recovery was 64%. In a dogfish certified reference material (DORM-2), the recoveries of Al, Cr, Mn, Se, and Hg were between 90% and 110%; Ni, Cu, Zn, and As recoveries were about 85%; and Fe recovery was 112%. Method detection limits of the elements were established. Metal concentrations in flounder, scup, and blue crab samples collected from coastal locations around Long Island and in the Hudson River estuary were determined.

  11. Scandium analysis in silicon-containing minerals by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Drouin, Elisabeth; Constantin, Marc; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on the development of a new method for the accurate and precise determination of the amount of scandium, Sc, in silicon-containing minerals, based on the use of tandem quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The tandem quadrupole instrument enables new mass filtering configurations, which can reduce polyatomic interferences during the determination of Sc in mineral matrices. He and O2 were used and compared as collision and reaction gases for the removal of interferences at m/z 45 and 61. Using helium gas was ineffective to overcome all of the spectral interferences observed at m/z 45 and particularly for Si-based interferences. However, conversion of Sc+ ions into ScO+ ions (after bombardment with O2 in the octopole reaction system coupled with the use of the instrument in MS/MS mass-shift mode) provided interference-free conditions and sufficiently low limits of detection, down to 3 ng L- 1, to accurately detect Sc. The accuracy of the proposed methodology was assessed by analyzing five different reference materials (BX-N, OKA-2, NIM-L, SY-3 and GH).

  12. Precise determination of seawater calcium using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hou-Chun; You, Chen-Feng; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Chen, Bao-Shan; Li, Yen

    2014-02-21

    We describe a method for rapid, precise and accurate determination of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentration in seawater using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). A 10 μL aliquot of seawater was spiked with an appropriate (43)Ca enriched solution for (44)Ca/(43)Ca ID-ICP-MS analyses, using an Element XR (Thermo Fisher Scientific), operated at low resolution in E-scan acquisition mode. A standard-sample bracketing technique was applied to correct for potential mass discrimination and ratio drift at every 5 samples. A precision of better than 0.05% for within-run and 0.10% for duplicate measurements of the IAPSO seawater standard was achieved using 10 μL solutions with a measuring time less than 3 minutes. Depth profiles of seawater samples collected from the Arctic Ocean basin were processed and compared with results obtained by the classic ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) titration. Our new ID-ICP-MS data agreed closely with the conventional EGTA data, with the latter consistently displaying 1.5% excess Ca(2+) values, possibly due to a contribution of interference from Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) in the EGTA titration. The newly obtained Sr/Ca profiles reveal sensitive water mass mixing in the upper oceanic column to reflect ice melting in the Arctic region. This novel technique provides a tool for seawater Ca(2+) determination with small sample size, high throughput, excellent internal precision and external reproducibility.

  13. Identification of Estrogen-responsive Vitelline Envelope Protein Fragments from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Plasma Using Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasma protein biomarkers associated with exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol were isolated and identified using novel sample preparation techniques and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile male and female trout ...

  14. Identification of Estrogen-responsive Vitelline Envelope Protein Fragments from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Plasma Using Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasma protein biomarkers associated with exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol were isolated and identified using novel sample preparation techniques and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile male and female trout ...

  15. Determination of lamotrigine and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Ohman, Inger; Nordgren, Helena K

    2006-10-01

    A method based on electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative determination of lamotrigine and three of its reported metabolites, lamotrigine-2-N-glucuronide, lamotrigine-2-N-methyl, and lamotrigine-2-N-oxide in human blood plasma. The method utilized sample preparation by precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile, chromatographic separation on a reversed-phase system by gradient elution, and monitoring of the protonated molecular ions. Two internal standards, 3,5-diamino-6-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazine and morphine-3-glucuronide-D3, were utilized to achieve precise quantification. The method validation comprised a demonstration of an agreement in the quantification of lamotrigine with that of a routine HPLC-UV method. The limits of detection were between 0.05 and 0.16 micromol/L. The method was employed for the measurement of clinical samples collected from 55 patients in steady-state prior to the dose intake (trough level). Lamotrigine and the 2-N-glucuronide were typically detected, while the N-methyl and N-oxide metabolites were detected only rarely. The median lamotrigine plasma level was 24.0 micromol/L (range, 4.3 to 64 micromol/L), the median 2-N-glucuronide level was 2.4 micromol/L (range, <0.05 to 24 micromol/L), and the median lamotrigine 2-N-glucuronide/lamotrigine ratio was 0.11 (range, <0.01 to 0.64). In conclusion, this liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method is suitable for simultaneous determination of lamotrigine and its metabolites in human plasma.

  16. Improved Mass Spectrometry Assay For Plasma Hepcidin: Detection and Characterization of a Novel Hepcidin Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Klaver, Siem; Kolodziejczyk, Maria; Gille, Hendrik; Hohlbaum, Andreas M.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays for the quantification of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin are pivotal to discriminate between the bioactive 25-amino acid form that can effectively block the sole iron transporter ferroportin and other naturally occurring smaller isoforms without a known role in iron metabolism. Here we describe the design, validation and use of a novel stable hepcidin-25+40 isotope as internal standard for quantification. Importantly, the relative large mass shift of 40 Da makes this isotope also suitable for easy-to-use medium resolution linear time-of-flight (TOF) platforms. As expected, implementation of hepcidin-25+40 as internal standard in our weak cation exchange (WCX) TOF MS method yielded very low inter/intra run coefficients of variation. Surprisingly, however, in samples from kidney disease patients, we detected a novel peak (m/z 2673.9) with low intensity that could be identified as hepcidin-24 and had previously remained unnoticed due to peak interference with the formerly used internal standard. Using a cell-based bioassay it was shown that synthetic hepcidin-24 was, like the -22 and -20 isoforms, a significantly less potent inducer of ferroportin degradation than hepcidin-25. During prolonged storage of plasma at room temperature, we observed that a decrease in plasma hepcidin-25 was paralleled by an increase in the levels of the hepcidin-24, -22 and -20 isoforms. This provides first evidence that all determinants for the conversion of hepcidin-25 to smaller inactive isoforms are present in the circulation, which may contribute to the functional suppression of hepcidin-25, that is significantly elevated in patients with renal impairment. The present update of our hepcidin TOF MS assay together with improved insights in the source and preparation of the internal standard, and sample stability will further improve our understanding of circulating hepcidin and pave the way towards further optimization and standardization of

  17. Quantitative analysis of diclazuril in animal plasma by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Croubels, Siska; Cherlet, Marc; De Backer, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    A novel, sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of diclazuril in animal plasma using liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) with negative ion detection is presented. Extraction of the samples was performed with a rapid deproteinization step using acetonitrile. Chromatography of diclazuril and the internal standard was achieved on a Nucleosil ODS 5-microm column, using a gradient elution with 0.01 M ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. To obtain the highest sensitivity and specificity possible, the mass spectrometer was operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was validated according to the requirements defined by the European Community. Calibration curves using plasma fortified between 1-100 ng/mL and 100-2000 ng/mL showed good linear correlation (r >or= 0.9991, goodness-of-fit coefficient plasma samples from treated sheep, demonstrating the usefulness of the developed method for application in the field of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymers as selective adsorbents for ambient plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2017-05-01

    The application of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as molecular scavengers for ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry has been reported for the first time. MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer; nicotine, propyphenazone, or methylparaben as templates; ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker; and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as polymerization initiator. To perform ambient plasma ionization experiments, a setup consisting of the heated crucible, a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) plasma ion source, and a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer has been used. The heated crucible with programmable temperature allows for desorption of the analytes from MIPs structure which results in their direct introduction into the ion stream. Limits of detection, linearity of the proposed analytical procedure, and selectivities have been determined for three analytes: nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben. The analytes used were chosen from various classes of organic compounds to show the feasibility of the analytical procedure. The limits of detections (LODs) were 10 nM, 10, and 0.5 μM for nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben, respectively. In comparison with the measurements performed for the non-imprinted polymers, the values of LODs were improved for at least one order of magnitude due to preconcentration of the sample and reduction of background noise, contributing to signal suppression. The described procedure has shown linearity in a broad range of concentrations. The overall time of single analysis is short and requires ca. 5 min. The developed technique was applied for the determination of nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben in spiked real-life samples, with recovery of 94.6-98.4%. The proposed method is rapid, sensitive, and accurate which provides a new option for the detection of small organic compounds in various samples. Graphical abstract The experimental setup used for analysis.

  19. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  20. Simultaneous determination of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Dafang

    2004-05-01

    A sensitive and specific procedure for simultaneous quantitation of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in human plasma has been developed and validated. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction, separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) and detected by tandem mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. Diphenhydramine was used as the internal standard. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 0.2 and 2.0 ng/mL for chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation, calculated from quality control (QC) samples were below 4.3% for chlorpheniramine and below 9.5% for pseudoephedrine. The inter-day relative error as determined from QC samples was within 4.7% for each analyte. The overall extraction recoveries of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine were 77 and 61% on average, respectively. The method was successfully applied to pharmaockinetic study of chlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine in volunteers receiving formulations containing 4 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate and 60 mg of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.

  1. Enantioselective analysis of zopiclone and its metabolites in plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tonon, Milena Araújo; Jabor, Valquíria A P; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2011-07-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the first time for the simultaneous quantification of zopiclone and its metabolites in rat plasma samples. The analytes were isolated from rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction and separated using a chiral stationary phase based on an amylose derivative, Chiralpak ADR-H column, and ethanol-methanol-acetonitrile (50:45:5, v/v/v) plus 0.025% diethylamine as the mobile phase, at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Moclobemide was used as the internal standard. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 7.5-500 ng mL(-1). The mean absolute recoveries were 74.6 and 75.7; 61.6 and 56.9; 72.5, and 70.7 for zopiclone enantiomers, for N-desmethyl zopiclone enantiomers and for zopiclone-N-oxide enantiomers, respectively, and 75.9 for the internal standard. Precision and accuracy were within acceptable levels of confidence (<15%). The method application in a pilot study of zopiclone kinetic disposition in rats showed that the levels of (+)-(S)-zopiclone were always higher than those of (-)-R-zopiclone. Higher concentrations were also observed for (+)-(S)-N-desmethyl zopiclone and (+)-(S)-N-oxide zopiclone, confirming the stereoselective disposition of zopiclone.

  2. Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.; Meier, A.L.; Crock, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of 2-11 ng/g, precision of ?? 2.5% relative standard deviation, and accuracy comparable to inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. A commercially available ICP-MS instrument is used with modifications to the sample introduction system, torch, and sampler orifice to reduce the effects of high salt content of sample solutions prepared from geologic materials. Corrections for isobaric interferences from oxide ions and other diatomic and triatomic ions are made mathematically. Special internal standard procedures are used to compensate for drift in metahmetal oxide ratios and sensitivity. Reference standard values are used to verify the accuracy and utility of the method.

  3. Quantitation of slow release triptorelin in beagle dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiangbin; Sun, Jiye; Sha, Chunjie; Zhang, Jinfeng; Gai, Yunyun; Li, Youxin; Liu, Wanhui

    2012-07-01

    A sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of triptorelin levels in beagle dog plasma. Plasma samples were applied to Oasis(®) HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Extracted samples were evaporated under a stream of nitrogen and then reconstituted with 100 μl methanol:water:formic acid (60:40:0.08, v/v/v). The separation was achieved on a Venusil MP-C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 3 μm, Agela) with a gradient elution. Detection utilized a Qtrap5500 system operated in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring of the analyte at m/z 656.5→249.1 and of the I.S. at m/z 510.8→120.1. The proposed method was validated by assessing the specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy, recovery, matrix effects, and stability. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.01-10 ng/ml (the correlation coefficients were above 0.995). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was 0.01 ng/ml. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of a slow release triptorelin formulation in beagle dogs following a single intramuscular injection. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave plasma ion sources for selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanel, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, David

    2007-11-01

    The performance of the ion sources used in selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, instruments is paramount in determining their sensitivities and detection limits for trace gas analysis. The microwave discharge plasma ion source that is currently used for the production of currents of the precursor H3O+, NO+ and O2+ ions for SIFT-MS is described, and the ion chemistry occurring within the plasma and the dissociation of the precursor ions on the helium carrier gas are considered. Thus, it is shown that the most suitable ion source gas composition is a mixture comprising maximal water vapour and minimal air at the lowest total pressure at which the discharge is sustained and stable. It is also shown that the injection energies of the precursor ions into the helium carrier gas must be kept low to minimize collisional dissociation of the ions and thus to minimize the fraction of reactive impurity ions in the carrier gas. Under these conditions, count rates greater than 106 s-1 of all three precursor ion species with less than 1% of impurity ions have been achieved, which has moved the detection limit of SIFT-MS analyses of the volatile metabolites present in exhaled breath and ambient air into the 0.1-1 parts-per-billion concentration regime.

  5. Quantification of busulfan in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following derivatization with tetrafluorothiophenol.

    PubMed

    Quernin, M H; Poonkuzhali, B; Montes, C; Krishnamoorthy, R; Dennison, D; Srivastava, A; Vilmer, E; Chandy, M; Jacqz-Aigrain, E

    1998-05-08

    A specific and highly sensitive method has been developed for the determination of busulfan in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a deuterium-labeled busulfan (busulfan-d8) as internal standard. Plasma containing busulfan and busulfan-d8 were extracted with ethyl acetate and derivatized with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorothiophenol prior to the monitoring of specific ions. The limit of quantification of the assay was 20 ng/ml and the calibration curve was linear over the range of 10 to 2000 ng/ml of derivatized busulfan. This method was in good agreement with the GC-MS assay using derivatization with sodium iodide and measuring diiodobutane. In addition, a pharmacokinetic study of busulfan was conducted in six children. The apparent oral clearance was 5.7+/-1.9 ml/kg/min and the volume of distribution was 1.0+/-0.4 l/kg and were similar to those previously reported in pediatric patients.

  6. A direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McLean, J A; Zhang, H; Montaser, A

    1998-03-01

    A simple, relatively low-cost direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN) is introduced for argon inductively coupled plasma (Ar ICP) spectrometry. The DIHEN may be operated at solution uptake rates of 1-100 microL/min. Analytical performance indexes for the DIHEN and fundamental characteristics of the aerosol produced are obtained using an ICP mass spectrometer (ICPMS) and a two-dimensional phase Doppler particle analyzer (2D PDPA), respectively. Results are compared to those obtained with a conventional crossflow pneumatic nebulizer (PN), equipped with a Scott-type spray chamber. Droplet sizes and velocities produced with the DIHEN are smaller than those reported for the direct injection nebulizer (DIN). The DIHEN offers optimal sensitivity at low injector gas flow rates (approximately 0.25 L/min) and high rf power (approximately 1.5 kW). For the 17 elements tested, detection limits (ppt) and sensitivities achieved with the DIHEN (at 85 microL/min) are similar to, or better than, those obtained on the same instrument using the PN (at 1 mL/min). However, because the primary aerosol is injected directly into the plasma, oxide-to-metal ion ratios (MO+/M+) are high, as in the case of the DIN. The utility of the DIHEN for the analysis of small-volume samples is demonstrated by microscale flow injection analysis (muFIA) of Cr bound to human lung DNA. Detection of Cr at the femtogram level is feasible.

  7. Plasma Lipidomics Investigation of Hemodialysis Effects by Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lichao; Hu, Chunxiu; Liu, Shuxin; Chang, Ming; Gao, Peng; Wang, Lili; Pan, Zaifa; Xu, Guowang

    2016-06-03

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been a global health problem that has a great possibility of being developed into uremia in the end. Hemodialysis (HD) is the most commonly used strategy for treating uremic patients; however, the patients still have a high risk of suffering various complications. It is well recognized that lipid disorder usually occurs in maintenance HD patients. To systemically study the effects of HD on lipid metabolism associated with uremia, we employed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based lipidomics method. A total of 87 human plasma samples from patients with prehemodialysis (pre-HD)/posthemodialysis (post-HD) treatment and the healthy controls were enrolled in the study. As compared with pre-HD patients, many plasma lipids showed significant changes (p < 0.05) in patients receiving HD therapy. Specifically, sum of free fatty acids (FFA) as well as saturated FFA and eicosanoids and sums of lyso-phosphatidylinositols and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamines, FFA 16:1/FFA 16:0, and FFA 18:1/FFA 18:0 were obviously higher in the pre-HD group than in the controls while they were significantly lower in patients after HD. These results indicated that UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based lipidomics is a promising approach to investigate lipid alterations in relation to uremia and it is helpful to understand complex complications involved in HD patients.

  8. Controlled Dissolution of Surface Layers for Elemental Analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lorge, Susan Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Determining the composition of thin layers is increasingly important for a variety of industrial materials such as adhesives, coatings and microelectronics. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are some of the techniques that are currently employed for the direct analysis of the sample surface. Although these techniques do not suffer from the contamination problems that often plague sample dissolution studies, they do require matrix matched standards for quantification. Often, these standards are not readily available. Despite the costs of clean hoods, Teflon pipette tips and bottles, and pure acids, partial sample dissolution is the primary method used in the semiconductor industry to quantify surface impurities. Specifically, vapor phase decomposition (VPD) coupled to ICP-MS or total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) provides elemental information from the top most surface layers at detection sensitivities in the 107-1010atoms/cm2 range. The ability to quantify with standard solutions is a main advantage of these techniques. Li and Houk applied a VPD-like technique to steel. The signal ratio of trace element to matrix element was used for quantification. Although controlled dissolution concentrations determined for some of the dissolved elements agreed with the certified values, concentrations determined for refractory elements (Ti, Nb and Ta) were too low. LA-ICP-MS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements indicated that carbide grains distributed throughout the matrix were high in these refractory elements. These elements dissolved at a slower rate than the matrix element, Fe. If the analyte element is not removed at a rate similar to the matrix element a true

  9. Determination of silver in nano-plastic food packaging by microwave digestion coupled with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Q-B; Li, B; Song, H; Wu, H-J

    2011-08-01

    The detection of silver in nano-plastic food packaging by microwave digestion coupled with either inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was investigated. Microwave digestion was optimised by trialling different acid mixtures. Both ICP-AES and ICP-MS showed good reproducibility, repeatability and recovery. For ICP-AES the limit of detection of the method (LODm) was 25.0 µg g(-1), the limit of detection of the instrument (LODi) was 30.0 ng ml(-1), the linear range was 0.10-10.0 µg ml(-1). The average recoveries for blank samples spiked with silver at 100, 250 and 500 µg g(-1) ranged from 82.53% to 87.60%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were from 1.79% to 8.30%. For ICP-MS analysis the LODm was 0.75 µg g(-1), the LODi was 0.04 ng ml(-1), the linear range was 0.20-500.0 ng ml(-1), the RSDs were 2.26-4.79%, and the recoveries were 78.09-92.72% (spiked concentrations of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 µg g(-1)). These results indicate that the proposed method could be employed to analyse silver in nano-plastic food packaging.

  10. Plutonium determination in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liguo; Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    Knowing the concentration and isotopic ratio of Pu in seawater is of critical importance for assessing Pu contamination and investigating oceanic processes. In recent decades, the concentration of (239+240)Pu in seawater, particularly for surface seawater, has presented an exponential decreasing trend with time; thus determination of Pu in seawater has become a challenge nowadays. Here, we have summarized and critically discussed a variety of reported analytical methods for Pu determination in seawater sample based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analytical technique for rapid ultra-trace detection of Pu. Generally, pretreatments for seawater sample include co-precipitation, valence adjustment and chemical separation and purification procedures, all of which are comprehensively reviewed. Overall, the selected anion-exchange, extraction resins and operation condition are important for decontamination of interference from matrix elements and achieving satisfactory chemical yields. In addition, other mass spectrometric and radiometric detections are briefly addressed and compared with the focus on assessing ICP-MS. Finally, we discuss some issues and prospects in determination and application of Pu isotopes in seawater samples for future research.

  11. Differentiation Using Microwave Plasma Torch Desorption Mass Spectrometry of Navel Oranges Cultivated in Neighboring Habitats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinchen; Yang, Meiling; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Guofeng; Deng, Min; Chen, Huanwen; Luo, Liping

    2017-03-22

    The molecular fingerprinting of intact fruit samples combined with statistical data analysis can allow the assessment of fruit quality and location of origin. Herein, microwave plasma torch desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MPT-MS) was applied to produce molecular fingerprints for the juice sac and exocarp of navel oranges cultivated in three closely located habitats, and the mass spectrometric fingerprints were differentiated by principal component analysis (PCA). Because of the relatively high temperature and high ionization efficiency of MPT, the volatile aroma compounds and semivolatile chemicals in the navel oranges were sensitively detected and confidently identified by collision induced dissociation (CID). The limit of detection (LOD) of MPT-MS for vanillin was 0.119 μg/L, with the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 10) of 1.7%. The results showed that MPT-MS could be a powerful analytical platform for the sensitive molecular analysis of fruits at molecular level with high chemical specificity, allowing differentiation between the same sorts grown in neighboring habitats.

  12. Atomic Mineral Characteristics of Indonesian Osteoporosis by High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Zairin; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang; Hidayat, Mohammad; Rahim, Agus Hadian; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Umemura, Tomonari

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research indicates that negative calcium balance is associated with low bone mass, rapid bone loss, and high fracture rates. However, some studies revealed that not only calcium is involved in bone strengthening as risk factor of fracture osteoporosis. Thus, in this report, the difference of metallic and nonmetallic elements in osteoporosis and normal bones was studied by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). The influence of these elements on bone metabolic processes is also discussed. Inclusion criteria of bone samples consist of postmenopausal woman, trabecular bone fracture, normal and osteoporosis BMD value, and no history of previous disease. The results showed that the concentration of B, Al, S, V, Co, Mo, Te, Ba, La, Ni, As, and Ca/P ratio is higher in osteoporosis than normal. These atomic minerals have negative role to imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation activity. Conversely, concentrations of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cr, Pd, Ag, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Se are lower in osteoporosis than in normal bones. Among these atoms, known to have important roles in bone structure, we found involvement of atomic mineral and calcium which are considerable to contribute to osteoporotic phenomena. PMID:22654598

  13. Cadmium measurements in coral skeleton using isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kathryn A.; McDonough, William F.; Grottoli, AndréA. G.

    2006-11-01

    Here a method for the precise analysis of Cd/Ca in coral skeleton using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is presented. Isotope dilution and gravimetric standards with internal standardization were used for Cd and Ca determination, respectively. Separation of alkaline earth metals from Cd using ion chromatography reduced the high total dissolved solids while maintaining a strong Cd signal. Repeated Cd/Ca measurements of a coral standard yielded a precision of ±2.2% (one standard deviation as a fraction of signal). Analyses of reference materials (BCR-1, BHVO-1, W-2, GSR-3, GSR-6, CACB-1, JCp-1, and JCt-1) fell within established ranges, with a precision comparable to other ICP-MS measurements. Advantages of this approach over existing methods for corals are as follows: (1) reduced introduction of high-concentration elements into the mass spectrometer, (2) sample requirements as low as 15 mg (i.e., ≥1 pmol Cd/sample), and (3) determination of multiple element ratios on the same sample aliquot with a precision of ±7% or better.

  14. Studies of selenium and xenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, Tonya

    1994-07-27

    Since its development, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been a widely used analytical technique. ICP-MS offers low detection limits, easy determination of isotope ratios, and simple mass spectra from analyte elements. ICP-MS has been successfully employed for many applications including geological, environmental, biological, metallurgical, food, medical, and industrial. One specific application important to many areas of study involves elemental speciation by using ICP-MS as an element specific detector interfaced to liquid chromatography. Elemental speciation information is important and cannot be obtained by atomic spectrometric methods alone which measure only the total concentration of the element present. Part 1 of this study describes the speciation of selenium in human serum by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and detection by ICP-MS. Although ICP-MS has been widely sued, room for improvement still exists. Difficulties in ICP-MS include noise in the background, matrix effects, clogging of the sampling orifice with deposited solids, and spectral interference caused by polyatomic ions. Previous work has shown that the addition of xenon into the central channel of the ICP decreases polyatomic ion levels. In Part 2 of this work, a fundamental study involving the measurement of the excitation temperature is carried out to further understand xenon`s role in the reduction of polyatomic ions. 155 refs.

  15. Determination of omeprazole and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hideko; Okada, Akiko; Matsushima, Yoshikazu; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Okubo, Shigeo; Mashige, Fumiko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko

    2002-03-08

    Omeprazole is a benzimidazole compound that acts as a proton-pump inhibitor. Because the metabolism of omeprazole is mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C19. the genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 could be of clinical concern in the treatment of acid-related diseases with omeprazole. Therefore, a reliable method for omeprazole phenotyping is desirable in clinical situations. This study has demonstrated the determination of omeprazole and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-three-dimensional quadrupole mass spectrometry with a sonic spray ionization interface. The analytical column was YMC-Pack Pro C18(50x2.0 mm I.D.) using acetonitrile-50 mM ammonium acetate (pH 7.25) (1:4) at a flow-rate of 0.2 ml/min. The drift voltage was 30 V. The sampling aperture was heated at 110 degrees C and Shield temperature was 230 degrees C. In the mass spectrum, the molecular ions of omeprazole, hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulfone were clearly observed as base peaks. This method is sufficiently sensitive and accurate for pharmacokinetic studies of omeprazol.

  16. Direct solid sampling of fire assay beads by spark ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoven, R. L.; Nam, Sang-Ho; Montaser, Akbar; Doughten, M. W.; Dorrzapf, A. F.

    1995-06-01

    A spark-based, solid-sampling cell is described for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The cell is devised for the direct sampling of gold and silver beads produced by the classical lead fire assay procedure. The sampler produces a solid aerosol composed of submicron-sized vapor condensates and small (< 2 μm) spherules. In contrast to solution nebulization, the mass spectrum for spark-ICP-MS is relatively free of interfering metal oxide, polyatomic, and multiply-charged ions. The measurement precision is 3% RSD for Pt, Pd, and Rh preconcentrated into fire assay beads, but is 6% RSD for Ir due to its heterogeneous distribution in a silver bead. Detection limits determined for Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ir in fire assay beads range from 0.6 μg/g (Pt) to 1.2 μg/g (Pd). Calibration curves for these elements are linear up to the highest concentration in the bead studied (2000 μg/g). The quantitative potential of the method is evaluated using the South African Reference Material (SARM-7) geologic standard.

  17. Determination of thalidomide concentration in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Nan; Cui, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Jin; Sun, Chun-Guang; Mei, He-Kun; Liang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Yun; Song, Xiu-Jie; Gu, Jing-Kai; Wang, Rui

    2013-02-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of thalidomide concentration in human plasma. The analyte and internal standard were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ether-dichloromethane (3:2, v/v) and separated on a TC-C(18) column using methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (60:40:0.04, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min. The detection was performed using an API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode and completed within 3.0 min. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were m/z 259.1→84.0 for the analyte and m/z 195.9→138.9 for temozolomide. The calibration curve exhibited a linear dynamic range of 2-1500 ng/ml (r>0.9991). The intra-and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation; RSD) were 6.8-13.5% and 4.3-5.0% respectively and the accuracy (as relative error; RE) was 2.0-3.5%. The recoveries and matrix effects were satisfactory in all the biological matrices examined. This method was successfully used in a pharmacokinetic study of thalidomide in healthy male volunteers receiving an oral administration of a 200-mg dose.

  18. Quantitative analysis of plasma caffeic and ferulic acid equivalents by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guy, Philippe A; Renouf, Mathieu; Barron, Denis; Cavin, Christophe; Dionisi, Fabiola; Kochhar, Sunil; Rezzi, Serge; Williamson, Gary; Steiling, Heike

    2009-12-01

    A validated method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the hydroxycinnamates caffeic acid (CA), dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), ferulic acid (FA), dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), and isoferulic acid (IFA) in human plasma as metabolites derived from coffee consumption. The method includes a protein precipitation step prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites (sulfate, glucuronide, and/or ester) back to their aglycone forms. After liquid-liquid extraction, the reconstituted extract was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves were constructed from spiked human plasma samples in the range of 0-4800 nM for each of the targeted analytes. Two internal standards, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid (500 nM) and 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (200 nM), were spiked at the beginning of the sample preparation and before analysis, respectively. Good performance data were obtained with limits of detection and quantification of the five hydroxycinnamates ranging between 1-15 nM and 3-50 nM, respectively. Within and between-days precisions were respectively calculated between 8-18% and 8-30% (at 50 nM added initially), between 6-9% and 6-12% (at 200 nM), and between 5-9% and 5-9% (at 500 nM). Precision calculated from different analysts ranged from 18% to 44% (at 50 nM), from 8% to 16% (at 200 nM), and from 4% to 8% (at 500 nM). Using this method, we determined plasma levels in humans and measured the efficiency of deconjugation using our enzymatic cocktail.

  19. Simultaneous determination of 3-mercaptopyruvate and cobinamide in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stutelberg, Michael W; Dzisam, Joseph K; Monteil, Alexandre R; Petrikovics, Ilona; Boss, Gerry R; Patterson, Steven E; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    The current suite of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antidotes (i.e., sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and hydroxocobalamin) are effective for treating cyanide poisoning, but individually, each antidote has major limitations (e.g., large effective dosage or delayed onset of action). To mitigate these limitations, next-generation cyanide antidotes are being investigated, including 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP) and cobinamide (Cbi). Analytical methods capable of detecting these therapeutics individually and simultaneously (for combination therapy) are essential for the development of 3-MP and Cbi as potential cyanide antidotes. Therefore, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of 3-MP and Cbi was developed. Sample preparation of 3-MP consisted of spiking plasma with an internal standard ((13)C3-3-MP), precipitation of plasma proteins, and derivatizing 3-MP with monobromobimane to produce 3-mercaptopyruvate-bimane. Preparation of Cbi involved denaturing plasma proteins with simultaneous addition of excess cyanide to convert each Cbi species to dicyanocobinamide (Cbi(CN)2). The limits of detection for 3-MP and Cbi were 0.5μM and 0.2μM, respectively. The linear ranges were 2-500μM for 3-MP and 0.5-50μM for Cbi. The accuracy and precision for 3-MP were 100±9% and <8.3% relative standard deviation (RSD), respectively. For Cbi(CN)2, the accuracy was 100±13% and the precision was <9.5% RSD. The method presented here was used to determine 3-MP and Cbi from treated animals and may ultimately facilitate FDA approval of these antidotes for treatment of cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of triapine, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, in human plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Kunos, Charles A; Xu, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Triapine is an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Studies have shown that triapine significantly decreases the activity of RNR and enhanced the radiation-mediated cytotoxicity in cervical and colon cancer. In this work, we have developed and validated a selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of triapine in human plasma. In this method, 2-[(3-fluoro-2-pyridinyl)methylene] hydrazinecarbothioamide (NSC 266749) was used as the internal standard (IS); plasma samples were prepared by deproteinization with acetonitrile; tripaine and the IS were separated on a Waters Xbridge Shield RP18 column (3.5 µm; 2.1 × 50 mm) using a mobile phase containing 25.0% methanol and 75.0% ammonium bicarbonate buffer (10.0 mM, pH 8.50; v/v); column eluate was monitored by positive turbo-ionspray tandem mass spectrometry; and quantitation of triapine was carried out in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. The method developed had a linear calibration range of 0.250-50.0 ng/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999 for triapine in human plasma. The IS-normalized recovery and the IS-normalized matrix factor of triapine were 101-104% and 0.89-1.05, respectively. The accuracy expressed as percentage error and precision expressed as coefficient of variation were ≤±6 and ≤8%, respectively. The validated LC-MS/MS method was applied to the measurement of triapine in patient samples from a phase I clinical trial.

  1. Delta34S measurements of sulfur by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clough, Robert; Evans, Peter; Catterick, Tim; Evans, E Hywel

    2006-09-01

    An accurate and precise method for the determination of delta34S measurements by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed. Full uncertainty budgets, taking into consideration all the uncertainties of the measurement process, have been calculated. The technique was evaluated by comparing measured values with a range of isotopically enriched sulfur solutions prepared by gravimetric addition of a 34S spike. The gravimetric and measured results exhibited a correlation of R2 >0.999. Repeat measurements were also made after adding Na (up to 420 microg g(-1)) and Ca (up to 400 microg g(-1)) salts to the sulfur standard. No significant deviations in the delta34S values were observed. The Russell correction expression (Ingle, C.; Sharp, B.; Horstwood, M.; Parrish, R.; Lewis, D. J. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2003, 18, 219) was used to correct for mass bias on the 34S/32S isotope amount ratio from the mass bias observed for the 30Si/28Si isotope amount ratio. Consistent compensation for instrumental mass bias was achieved. Resolution of the measured delta34S values was better than 1 per thousand after consideration of all uncertainty components. The technique was evaluated for practical applications by measurement of delta34S for a range of mineral waters by pneumatic nebulization sample introduction and the analysis of genuine and counterfeit pharmaceuticals using both laser ablation sample introduction and liquid chromatography. For the former two cases polyatomic interferences were resolved by operating the MC-ICPMS in medium resolution, while for the chromatographic analyses polyatomic interferences were minimized by the use of a membrane desolvator, allowing the instrument to be operated at a resolution of 400.

  2. Determination of eptifibatide concentration in human plasma utilizing the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Duan, Xiaotao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang

    2009-02-15

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the concentration of eptifibatide in human plasma. Following protein precipitation, the analyte was separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column. Acetonitrile:5mM ammonium acetate:acetic acid (30:70:0.1, v/v/v) was used at a flow-rate of 0.5mL/min with the isocratic mobile phase. An API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with a Turbo IonSpray ionization source was used as the detector and was operated in the positive ion mode. "Truncated" multiple reaction monitoring using the transition of m/z 832.6-->m/z 832.6 and m/z 931.3-->m/z 931.3 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the internal standard (EPM-05), respectively. The method had a lower limit of quantification of 4.61ng/mL for eptifibatide. The calibration curve was demonstrated to be linear over the concentration range of 4.61-2770ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 10.5% for each QC level, and the inter-day relative errors were 2.0%, 5.6%, and 2.8% for 9.22, 184, and 2490ng/mL, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the quantification of eptifibatide concentration in human plasma after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 270-microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide and i.v. administration of eptifibatide at a constant rate of infusion of 2microg/(kgmin) for 18h in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics.

  3. Screening of agrochemicals in foodstuffs using low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua S; García-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-05-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) permits direct ambient ionization and mass analysis of samples in their native environment with minimal or no prior preparation. LTP utilizes dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to create a low power plasma which is guided by gas flow onto the sample from which analytes are desorbed and ionized. In this study, the potential of LTP-MS for the detection of pesticide residues in food is demonstrated. Thirteen multi-class agricultural chemicals were studied (ametryn, amitraz, atrazine, buprofezin, DEET, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, imazalil, isofenphos-methyl, isoproturon, malathion, parathion-ethyl and terbuthylazine). To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach, LTP-MS experiments were performed directly on fruit peels as well as on fruit/vegetable extracts. Most of the agrochemicals examined displayed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) for the direct measurement in the low picogram range. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm identification of selected pesticides by using for these experiments spiked fruit/vegetable extracts (QuEChERS, a standard sample treatment protocol) at levels as low as 1 pg, absolute, for some of the analytes. Comparisons of the data obtained by direct LTP-MS were made with the slower but more accurate conventional LC-MS/MS procedure. Herbicides spiked in aqueous solutions were detectable at LODs as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) without the need for any sample preparation. The results demonstrate that ambient LTP-MS can be applied for the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased produce and in natural water samples. Quantitative analysis was also performed in a few selected cases and displayed a relatively high degree of linearity over four orders of magnitude.

  4. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Hongsen

    1995-02-10

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (Te) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (ne) is in the range 108--1010 -cm at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 104--105 downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z2 intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z2 fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

  5. [Determination of 24 minerals in human milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with microwave digestion].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongqing; Yue, Bing; Yang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaowei; Wu, Yongning; Yin, Shian

    2013-05-01

    To determine the levels of 24 minerals in human milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with microwave digestion. The samples were digested by microwave. The contents of minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The standard reference minerals of 1849a and 1568a from National Institute of Science and Technology were used for quality control. The accuracy and reproduability for this method were evaluated with mix standards and 1849a and 1568a standard reference materials. The ranges of the levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, aluminum, chromium, arsenic, selenium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, cobalt, nickel, gallium, cadmium, silver, strontium, cesium, barium, lead in human milk was 34.97-415.83 mg/kg, 19.00-39.52 mg/kg, 102.13-274.53 mg/kg, 351.19-713.99 mg/kg, 180.08-349.64 mg/kg, 0.06-0.44 mg/kg, 0.9-7.37 microg/kg, 0.92-2.72 microg/kg, 0.20-21.15 microg/kg, 0.10-0.70 mg/kg, 0.56-3.25 mg/kg, 3.00-16.12 micro.g/kg, 62.16-591.69 microg/kg, 0.02-6.91 microg/kg, 5.99-13.70 microg/kg, 0.07-2.11 microg/kg, 0.77-209.26 microg/kg, 0.005-0.28 microg/kg, 0.02-0.23 microg/kg, 0.02-0.71 microg/kg, 36.89-132.26 microg/kg, 0.01-4.72 microg/kg, 0.83-28.16 microg/kg, 2.5-5.3 microg/kg, respectively. The levels of minerals in human milk in present study were consisted with other similar studies. The experiment examined the levels of minerals in human milk satisfactorily. The method has high accuracy and good reproducibility, which could be used for understanding the levels of minerals in human milk.

  6. Speciation of arsenic in marine food (Anemonia sulcata) by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and organic mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Acuña, M; García-Barrera, T; García-Sevillano, M A; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2013-03-22

    Arsenic species have been investigated in Anemonia sulcata, which is frequently consumed food staple in Spain battered in wheat flour and fried with olive oil. Speciation in tissue extracts was carried out by anion/cation exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-(AEC/CEC)-ICP-MS). Three methods for the extraction of arsenic species were investigated (ultrasonic bath, ultrasonic probe and focused microwave) and the optimal one was applied. Arsenic speciation was carried out in raw and cooked anemone and the dominant species are dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) followed by arsenobetaine (AB), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO). In addition, arsenocholine (AsC), glyceryl phosphorylarsenocholine (GPAsC) and dimethylarsinothioic acid (DMAS) were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). These results are interesting since GPAsC has been previously reported in marine organisms after experimental exposure to AsC, but not in natural samples. In addition, this paper reports for the first time the identification of DMAS in marine food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Speciation analysis of inorganic tin by on-column complexation ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Yang, Die; Guo, Xiangquan; Chen, Zuliang

    2014-11-14

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used as complementary methods to identify Sn-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex formation. ESI-MS was used to initially confirm the formation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) and their MS spectra suggest these tin complexes were stable in solution. On-column complexation of tin with DTPA and the separation of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was performed on anion-exchange chromatography with an mobile phase containing 20mM NH4NO3 and 3mM DTPA at pH 6.0, and the subsequent detection of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) was achieved by ICP-MS. Linear plots were obtained in a concentration range of 1.0-1000 μg L(-1) with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L(-1). The developed procedure allows the simultaneous determination of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) in less than 5 min with a RSD between 2.1 and 2.7%. The recoveries of [Sn(DTPA)](3-) and [Sn(DTPA)](1-) were found to be 96.8 and 99.4%, respectively, when the sample was spiked with 20 μg L(-1) standard. Finally, the proposed procedure was used for the determination of tin species in contaminated water.

  8. Determination of cobalamins using capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. A.; Miller-Ihli, N. J.

    2000-12-01

    The determination of cobalamins using capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) was investigated. Both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) modes of operation were studied. The optimal separation of four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) and a potentially harmful corrinoid analogue (cobinamide dicyanide) was obtained using CZE at a pH of 2.5. Both 20 mM phosphate and 20 mM formate buffers were used with success, although the formate buffer provided improved resolution. The CZE-ICP-MS method was used to quantify cyanocobalamin in a vitamin supplement and the analytical results were in good agreement (±5%) with values obtained by ICP-MS for total Co levels. The solution detection limits for cobalamins using CZE-ICP-MS were approximately 50 ng/ml. MEKC was found to be useful for the screening of vitamin preparations because it provided a rapid means of distinguishing cyanocobalamin (the form most commonly used in vitamin preparations) from free cobalt. The separation of free cobalt and cyanocobalamin using MEKC was achieved in less than 10 min.

  9. Determination of essential and toxic elements in Cordyceps kyushuensis Kawam by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Zhao, Yanxin; Liu, Fengjun; Ling, Jianya; Lin, Jianqiang; Zhang, Changkai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 20 elements (essential, non-essential and toxic): lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), gallium (Ga), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), barium (Ba), tin (Sn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in natural and cultured Cordyceps kyushuensis have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cultured stroma, natural stroma and natural worm were digested by microwave-assisted method before analysis. The proposed ICP-MS method was validated by analyzing a certified reference material (CRM) GBW10015 (spinach). The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the element concentrations in the three kinds of samples were significantly different (p<0.05). Except for Mg, Zn, Cu, the values of other elemental contents were the highest in the stroma of natural C. kyushuensis. In comparison with the worm, the concentrations of determined elements in wild stroma were higher. The remarkable difference of elemental contents between cultured and natural stroma may be caused by distinct growing environment. This finding highlighted the usefulness of ICP-MS elemental analysis and enhanced the value of C. kyushuensis as a candidate for nourishing food based on its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of total iodine in foods and dietary supplements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Darryl; Zywicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of total iodine in a wide variety of food products and dietary supplements. The method involves a unique sample digestion with a KOH solution in an oven or by using an open-vessel microwave system. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume, then filtered and analyzed either directly or after dilution. The amount of iodine is determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by experiments to determine its precision, accuracy, linearity, specificity, ruggedness, and robustness. The LOQ of this method is 25-50 microg/kg. The method demonstrated an average RSD of 2.27% during analysis of milk powder and 4.30% during analysis of a dietary supplement tablet reference material. The accuracy of the method as determined with these same reference materials was 100 and 94.2%, respectively. The method has been used successfully on commodity foods, processed foods, dairy products, pet food, infant formula, animal feed, mineral premixes, and a variety of dietary supplements.

  11. An improved candidate reference method for serum potassium measurement by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Ma, Huaian; Li, Huiling; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jianping; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Qingtao

    2013-05-01

    In 2002, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) established a reference method for serum potassium based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive and improved candidate reference method for accurate and precise determination of serum potassium. Serum samples were diluted with 1% HNO3 supplemented with (59)Cobalt as isotope internal standard, and potassium was measured by ICP-MS. The new method was evaluated with NIST standard reference materials (SRMs), according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute's evaluation protocols. At 4.300 and 4.678 mmol/l levels, the present method demonstrated analytical imprecision of 0.09% and 0.14%, and recoveries of 99.67% to 99.88%, respectively. The bias between the target values of SRMs were -0.02% to +0.28%, respectively. This method was linear between 0.0000 and 6.87 mmol/l (R(2)=1.000). The method had an uncertainty (U95%) of 0.76%. The proposed ICP-MS method to measure serum potassium is precise and accurate, with high sensitivity and specificity. It may be considered as a candidate reference method for the determination of serum potassium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of rare earth elements in environmental materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Panday, V.K.; Hoppstock, K.; Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1996-09-01

    Despite the fact that rare earth elements (REE) have found increasing use in modern technology only few data are available on their concentrations in biological and environmental samples. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been employed to study the concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in various environmental materials (e.g., pine needles, mussel tissue, apple leaves) available from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Bureau of European Communities (BCR), and the German Environmental Specimens Bank. After the decomposition of the environmental samples with HNO{sub 3}, the REE (present mostly in the ng/g-range) were separated from the matrix and simultaneously preconcentrated using liquid-liquid extraction with bis(2-ethyl hexyl)-ortho-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene as a selective reagent at pH = 2 and subsequent back extraction of the elements into the aqueous by 6M HNO{sub 3}. Recoveries of better 90% were obtained for almost all REE. A Perkin Elmer/Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP-MS and HR-ICP-MS ELEMENT from Finnigan MAT were used for quantitative analysis (by external calibration and ID-ICP-MS) of REE. The results of determination of REE concentrations agree well with the data available on some of these materials. Further supplement information on the contents of various REE in these materials.

  13. Determination of platinum in human subcellular microsamples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Björn, Erik; Nygren, Yvonne; Nguyen, Tam Trinh Thi Nhu; Ericson, Christer; Nöjd, Mikael; Naredi, Peter

    2007-04-01

    A fast and robust method for the determination of platinum in human subcellular microsamples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed, characterized, and validated. Samples of isolated DNA and exosome fractions from human ovarian (2008) and melanoma (T289) cancer cell lines were used. To keep the sample consumption to approximately 10 microl and obtain a high robustness of the system, a flow injection sample introduction system with a 4.6-microl sample loop was used in combination with a conventional pneumatic nebulizer and a spray chamber. The system was optimized with respect to signal/noise ratio using a multivariate experimental design. The system proved to be well suited for routine analysis of large sample series, and several hundreds of samples could be analyzed without maintenance or downtime. The detection limit of the method was 0.12 pg (26 pg/g) platinum. To avoid systematic errors from nonspectral interferences, it was necessary to use reagent matched calibration standards or isotope dilution analysis. An uncertainty budget was constructed to estimate the total expanded uncertainty of the method, giving a quantification limit of 2.3 pg (0.5 ng/g) platinum in DNA samples. The uncertainty was sufficiently low to study quantitative differences in the formation of Pt-DNA adducts after treatment with cisplatin using different exposure times and concentrations.

  14. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Applications in Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Chahrour, Osama; Malone, John

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) hyphenated to different separation techniques have promoted it as a valuable tool in protein/peptide quantification. These emerging ICP-MS applications allow absolute quantification by measuring specific elemental responses. One approach quantifies elements already present in the structure of the target peptide (e.g. phosphorus and sulphur) as natural tags. Quantification of these natural tags allows the elucidation of the degree of protein phosphorylation in addition to absolute protein quantification. A separate approach is based on utilising bi-functional labelling substances (those containing ICP-MS detectable elements), that form a covalent chemical bond with the protein thus creating analogs which are detectable by ICP-MS. Based on the previously established stoichiometries of the labelling reagents, quantification can be achieved. This technique is very useful for the design of precise multiplexed quantitation schemes to address the challenges of biomarker screening and discovery. This review discusses the capabilities and different strategies to implement ICP-MS in the field of quantitative proteomics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: An emerging method for analysis of long-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.R.; Noyce, J.R.; Lardy, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a relatively new technique that can analyze for most of the elements in the periodic table at parts per billion (ng/mL) to parts per trillion (pg/mL). Already in use several years for trace analysis of stable isotopes, ICP-MS is becoming a powerful, complementary method to the counting of decay radiations for the analysis of radionuclides. Most radionuclides with half-lives longer than approximately 1x10{sup 3} years can be quantitatively detected on ICP-MS instruments that have an electrothermal vaporization unit for the injection of sample aliquants. Radionuclides with half-lives greater than approximately 1x10{sup 4} years can be measured routinely with greater sensitivity and more quickly by ICP-MS than by radiation counting. Examples from the literature of applying ICP-MS to radionuclides are the bioassay of uranium in urine, measurement of {sup 237}Np in soil and silt, and analysis for {sup 99}Tc in sea water, seaweed, and marine sediment. This paper discusses the instrumentation, advantages and limitations, and present and potential applications of ICP-MS for radionuclide measurements.

  16. Arsenic speciation in soil using high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; Yaeger, J.S.; Parish, K.J.; Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Gowdy, M.J.; Mohrman, G.B.; Besmer, M.G.

    1996-08-01

    A method has been developed to identify and quantify As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic compounds in soil samples from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) by high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP/MS). The soils were extracted using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) and sonication. The percentages of As(III), As(V), and organoarsenic species extracted from soil samples were 30, 50, and 100 respectively. The arsenic species were not altered during the extraction process. They were separated by reversed-phase, ion-pairing, HPLC using a microbore Inertsil-ODS{trademark} column. The HPLC column effluent was introduced into an ICP/MS system using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Detection limits of less than 1 pg were readily obtained for each arsenic species. Internal standards are recommended to increase accuracy and precision. Soil samples spiked with arsenic oxide, sodium arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and chlorovinyl arsenious acid (CVAA) were extracted, identified and quantified with the HPLC/ICP/MS system. The soil samples were analyzed in support of the analytical needs of a thermal desorption treatability study being conducted at the RMA.

  17. Characterization of microconcentric nebulizer uptake rates for capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2003-05-01

    There is demonstrated interest in combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for speciation determinations. When self-aspirating nebulizers are used for this application, it is important to offset the suction effect to avoid degradation of the separation. In this study, sample uptake rates for three microconcentric nebulizers of the same model, in combination with a cyclonic spray chamber, were characterized and compared for future utilization in CE-ICP-MS interfaces. The specific model studied was a MicroMist with a nominal uptake rate of 100 μl/min at 1 l/min argon gas flow rate per the manufacturer's specifications. Sample uptake rates at various nebulizer gas flows were measured by aspirating water from a weighed container and calculating the uptake rate in microliter per minute. The nebulizers studied provided good reproducibility from day to day, but a comparison of the different nebulizers reflected a significant difference in performance. A characteristic observed during the study was that uptake rates decreased with increasing nebulizer gas flow. This can be used for sample introduction for CE-ICP-MS. Interestingly, very different performance was observed when comparing the three different nebulizers of the same model. Uptake rates showed strong dependence on argon gas flow rates and the dimensions of the sample uptake tubing.

  18. Improving sensitivity for microchip electrophoresis interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using parallel multichannel separation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Wang, Yuanchao; Ye, Meiying

    2016-08-26

    We reported sensitivity enhancement using multichannel parallel separation for microchip electrophoresis hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MCE-ICP-MS) in this study. By using 2-20 array lanes for parallel separation, the sensitivity of the MCE-ICP-MS system was proportionally improved by 2-20 folds. No significantly adverse effect of parallel separation on column efficiency and resolution was observed. Rapid separation of Hg(2+) and methylmercuric (MeHg) ion within 36s under an electric field of 800Vcm(-1) was achieved in the 2-cm twenty-channels with a background electrolyte of 5mmolL(-1) borate buffer (pH 9.2). Detection limits of Hg(2+) and MeHg by the proposed system were decreased to 6.8-7.1ngL(-1). Good agreement between determined values and certified values of a certified reference fish was obtained with recoveries ranged between 94-98%. All results prove its advantages including high sensitivity, high efficiency and low operation cost, which are beneficial to routine analysis of metal speciation in environmental, biological and food fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microfluidic high performance liquid chromatography-chip hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David P; Blanes, Lucas; Wilson, Alexander B; Wilbanks, Thor; Killeen, Kevin; Grimm, Rudolf; Wenzel, Ross; Major, Derek; Macka, Mirek; Clarke, David; Schmid, Robin; Cole, Nerida; Doble, Philip A

    2017-05-12

    The Agilent Chip Cube Interface is a microfluidic chip-based technology originally designed for nanospray molecular mass spectrometry in which the sample enrichment, nano-column, tubing, connectors and spray tip were integrated into a single biocompatible chip. Here we describe the hyphenation of the Chip Cube Interface to ICP-MS via modification of the standard HPLC chip design and a new total consumption nebuliser suitable for flow rates as low as 300nLmin(-1). The potential of the instrument to eliminate common nanoLC - ICP-MS shortcomings such as leaks, blockages and band-broadening was demonstrated via analysis of cyanocobalamin in equine plasma. The method was linear over three orders of magnitude with an r(2) of 0.9999, the peak area repeatability was 1.9% (n=7), and the detection limit was 14ngmL(-1). This novel configuration of the Chip Cube Interface coupled to ICP-MS is a suitable platform for the analysis of biomolecules associated with trace metals and speciation applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  1. Element fingerprinting of marine organisms by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cubadda, Francesco; Raggi, Andrea; Coni, Ettore

    2006-02-01

    A method for the determination of sixteen elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, V, Zn) in seafood by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) is presented. A preliminary study of polyatomic interferences was carried out in relation to the chemical composition of marine organisms belonging to different taxa. Acid effects and other matrix effects in marine organisms submitted to closed-vessel microwave digestion were investigated as well. Ammonia was the reactive gas used in the DRC to remove polyatomic ions interfering with 27Al, 52Cr, 56Fe and 51V. Optimal conditions for the simultaneous determination of analytes were identified in order to develop a fast multielement method. A suite of real samples (mussels and various fish species) were used during method development along with three certified reference materials: BCR CRM 278R (mussel tissue), BCR CRM 422 (cod muscle) and DORM-2 (dogfish muscle). The proposed analytical approach can be used in conjunction with suitable chemometric procedures to address quality and safety issues in aquaculture and fisheries. As an example, a case study is described in which mussels from three farming sites in the Venice Lagoon were distinguished by multivariate analysis of element fingerprints.

  2. [Determination of blue ballpoint pen ink by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong; Shen, Min; Luo, Yi-wen; Bo, Jun; Xu, Che; Zhuo, Xian-yi

    2010-10-01

    To establish an identification method for the forensic analysis of blue ballpoint ink by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), 95 kinds of blue ballpoint pen from different manufacturers were detected. These blue ballpoint pens were classified into 34 groups according to their metal element components, among which, 26 groups can be directly distinguished according to the types of metal element components contained in the ballpoint pen, the other groups can be distinguished by different element response ratios. Meanwhile the examination result on the papers showed that the papers have no impact on the ink handwriting analysis. Experimental results showed that the method's reproducibility is good and precision is less than 10%. This method has better identification ability than traditional identification technology for questioned document. Eighty eight kinds of blue ballpoint pen out of the total 95 selected kinds can be distinguished with this method. The established method is simple, rapid, with good precision, and almost has no damage to the sample. It is particularly suitable for the demand of identification of blue ballpoint pen in forensic science.

  3. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for calibration transfer between environmental CRMs.

    PubMed

    Turk, G C; Yu, L L; Salit, M L; Guthrie, W F

    2001-06-01

    Multielement analyses of environmental reference materials have been performed using existing certified reference materials (CRMs) as calibration standards for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analyses have been performed using a high-performance methodology that results in comparison measurement uncertainties that are significantly less than the uncertainties of the certified values of the calibration CRM. Consequently, the determined values have uncertainties that are very nearly equivalent to the uncertainties of the calibration CRM. Several uses of this calibration transfer are proposed, including, re-certification measurements of replacement CRMs, establishing traceability of one CRM to another, and demonstrating the equivalence of two CRMs. RM 8704, a river sediment, was analyzed using SRM 2704, Buffalo River Sediment, as the calibration standard. SRM 1632c, Trace Elements in Bituminous Coal, which is a replacement for SRM 1632b, was analyzed using SRM 1632b as the standard. SRM 1635, Trace Elements in Subbituminous Coal, was also analyzed using SRM 1632b as the standard.

  4. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging of metals in experimental and clinical Wilson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Boaru, Sorina Georgiana; Merle, Uta; Uerlings, Ricarda; Zimmermann, Astrid; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Willheim, Claudia; Eder, Elisabeth; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the liver does not properly release copper into bile, resulting in prominent copper accumulation in various tissues. Affected patients suffer from hepatic disorders and severe neurological defects. Experimental studies in mutant mice in which the copper-transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b) is disrupted revealed a drastic, time-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper that is accompanied by formation of regenerative nodes resembling cirrhosis. Therefore, these mice represent an excellent exploratory model for Wilson's disease. However, the precise time course in hepatic copper accumulation and its impact on other trace metals within the liver is yet poorly understood. We have recently established novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry protocols allowing quantitative metal imaging in human and murine liver tissue with high sensitivity, spatial resolution, specificity and quantification ability. By use of these techniques, we here aimed to comparatively analyse hepatic metal content in wild-type and Atp7b deficient mice during ageing. We demonstrate that the age-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper is strictly associated with a simultaneous increase in iron and zinc, while the intrahepatic concentration and distribution of other metals or metalloids is not affected. The same findings were obtained in well-defined human liver samples that were obtained from patients suffering from Wilson's disease. We conclude that in Wilson's disease the imbalances of hepatic copper during ageing are closely correlated with alterations in intrahepatic iron and zinc content. PMID:25704483

  5. Thin-layer chromatography combined with diode laser thermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bednařík, Antonín; Tomalová, Iva; Kanický, Viktor; Preisler, Jan

    2014-10-17

    Here we present a novel coupling of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to diode laser thermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DLTV ICP MS). DLTV is a new technique of aerosol generation which uses a diode laser to induce pyrolysis of a substrate. In this case the cellulose stationary phase on aluminum-backed TLC sheets overprinted with black ink to absorb laser light. The experimental arrangement relies on economic instrumentation: an 808-nm 1.2-W continuous-wave infrared diode laser attached to a syringe pump serving as the movable stage. Using a glass tubular cell, the entire length of a TLC separation channel is scanned. The 8-cm long lanes were scanned in ∼35 s. The TLC - DLTV ICP MS coupling is demonstrated on the separation of four cobalamins (hydroxo-; adenosyl-; cyano-; and methylcobalamin) with limits of detection ∼2 pg and repeatability ∼15% for each individual species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of platinum surface contamination in seven Dutch hospital pharmacies using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Huitema, A. D. R.; Bakker, E. N.; Douma, J. W.; Schimmel, K. J. M.; van Weringh, G.; de Wolf, P. J.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To develop, validate, and apply a method for the determination of platinum contamination, originating from cisplatinum, oxaliplatinum, and carboplatinum. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine platinum in wipe samples. The sampling procedure and the analytical conditions were optimised and the assay was validated. The method was applied to measure surface contamination in seven Dutch hospital pharmacies. Results: The developed method allowed reproducible quantification of 0.50 ng l−1 platinum (5 pg/wipe sample). Recoveries for stainless steel and linoleum surfaces ranged between 50.4 and 81.4% for the different platinum compounds tested. Platinum contamination was reported in 88% of the wipe samples. Although a substantial variation in surface contamination of the pharmacies was noticed, in most pharmacies, the laminar-airflow (LAF) hoods, the floor in front of the LAF hoods, door handles, and handles of service hatches showed positive results. This demonstrates that contamination is spread throughout the preparation rooms. Conclusion: We developed and validated an ultra sensitive and reliable ICP-MS method for the determination of platinum in surface samples. Surface contamination with platinum was observed in all hospital pharmacies sampled. The interpretation of these results is, however, complicated. PMID:17377802

  7. Comparison of sample preservation methods for clinical trace element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Joshua A; Hunt, John W; Urry, Francis M; McMillin, Gwen A

    2005-04-01

    The effects of chemical additives and storage temperatures on measurement of 16 trace elements in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were evaluated. A 24-hour urine specimen was supplemented with concentrations of the elements. Aliquots containing 1 of 4 chemical additives were stored at 3 different temperatures in sealed polypropylene containers. Elemental concentrations were determined by ICP-MS for the resulting samples after 1, 2, 8, and 65 days of storage. Initial element concentrations measured within 8 hours of specimen preparation were consistent with expected concentrations (except for aluminum). For most elements, preservation and storage conditions yielded consistent measured concentrations throughout the experiment. Notable exceptions were for aluminum (general rise over time) and mercury (general decrease over time). Adding boric acid and potassium pyrosulfate resulted in sample contamination; elemental contamination was concentration-dependent for both. Although little microbial contamination was observed during the experiment, refrigeration of samples is recommended to curtail bacterial growth in nonsterile specimens. In light of these results, refrigerated urine storage without the use of chemical additives is an effective preservation method for ICP-MS analysis of many trace elements.

  8. Determination of vanadium by reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J

    2009-04-30

    Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have included the addition of interference reduction technologies, such as collision and reaction cells, to improve its detection capability for certain elements that suffer from polyatomic interferences. The principle behind reaction cell (RC)-ICP-MS is to remove a particular polyatomic interference by dissociation or formation of a different polyatomic species that no longer interferes with the analyte of interest. However, some interferences cannot be removed by commonly reported reaction gases, such as hydrogen, oxygen, or methane, necessitating using more reactive and hazardous gases, such as ammonia. The current study investigates oxygen as a reaction gas in RC-ICP-MS to specifically react with vanadium analyte ions, rather than the interferents, to produce a polyatomic analyte species and thereby provide a way to analyze for vanadium in complex environmental matrices. The technique has been tested on a series of river water, tap water, and synthetic laboratory samples, and shown to be successful in vanadium analyses in high chloride and sulfate matrices. The zinc isobaric interference on the new vanadium oxide analyte at m/z 67 is also investigated, and can be corrected by using a standard mathematical correction equation. The results of this study further increase the utility of RC-ICP-MS analytical techniques for complex environmental matrices.

  9. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging of metals in experimental and clinical Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Boaru, Sorina Georgiana; Merle, Uta; Uerlings, Ricarda; Zimmermann, Astrid; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Willheim, Claudia; Eder, Elisabeth; Ferenci, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the liver does not properly release copper into bile, resulting in prominent copper accumulation in various tissues. Affected patients suffer from hepatic disorders and severe neurological defects. Experimental studies in mutant mice in which the copper-transporting ATPase gene (Atp7b) is disrupted revealed a drastic, time-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper that is accompanied by formation of regenerative nodes resembling cirrhosis. Therefore, these mice represent an excellent exploratory model for Wilson's disease. However, the precise time course in hepatic copper accumulation and its impact on other trace metals within the liver is yet poorly understood. We have recently established novel laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry protocols allowing quantitative metal imaging in human and murine liver tissue with high sensitivity, spatial resolution, specificity and quantification ability. By use of these techniques, we here aimed to comparatively analyse hepatic metal content in wild-type and Atp7b deficient mice during ageing. We demonstrate that the age-dependent accumulation of hepatic copper is strictly associated with a simultaneous increase in iron and zinc, while the intrahepatic concentration and distribution of other metals or metalloids is not affected. The same findings were obtained in well-defined human liver samples that were obtained from patients suffering from Wilson's disease. We conclude that in Wilson's disease the imbalances of hepatic copper during ageing are closely correlated with alterations in intrahepatic iron and zinc content.

  10. [Determination of arsenic speciation in Scomberomorus niphonius by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fa-rong; Zheng, Li; Wang, Zhi-Guang; Sun, Jie; Han, Li-Hui; Wang, Xiao-ru

    2014-06-01

    A method for the detection of arsenocholine (AsC), arsenobetaine (AsB), As(III), dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic (MMA) and As (V) by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) was established. The results showed that the six species of arsenic were separated within 20 min under the optimized conditions. Good linearities of 6 arsenic species were observed in the range from 2 to 50 μg x L(-1) with the linear correlation greater than 0.996, the detection limits were 0.10-1.08 μg x L(-1) and the RSDs (n = 5) of the peak areas were smaller than 7%. The method was successfully adopted to the determination of the species in Scomberomorus niphonius. The recoveries were between 93% and 98%, and we found the arsenobetaine (AsB) was the main species in the sample. The method was suitable for the analysis of other biological samples with the advantages of good stability, less sample consumption, short analysis time and convenience.

  11. Studying Arsenite-Humic Acid Complexation Using Size Exclusion Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) can form complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM), which affects the fate of arsenic in waste sites and natural environments. It remains a challenge to analyze DOM-bound As, in particular by using a direct chromatographic separation method. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) hyphenated with UV spectrophotometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to characterize the complexation of arsenite (AsIII) with DOM. This SEC-UV-ICP-MS method is able to differentiate AsIII-DOM complexes from free As species and has the advantage of direct determination of both free and DOM-bound AsIII through mild separation. The suitability of this method for studying AsIII-DOM complexation was demonstrated by its application, in combination with the Scatchard plot and nonlinear regression of ligand binding model, for characterizing AsIII complexation with humic acid (HA) in the absence or presence of natural sand. The results suggest that, consistent with polyelectrolytic nature of HA, the AsIII-HA complexation should be accounted for by multiple classes of binding sites. By loosely classifying the binding sites into strong (S1) and weak (S2) sites, the apparent stability constants (Ks) of the resulting As-DOM complexes were calculated as log Ks1 = 6.5–7.1 while log Ks2 = 4.7–5.0. PMID:22664255

  12. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Havrilla, George Joseph; McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Judge, Elizabeth; Dirmyer, Matthew R.; Campbell, Keri; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.

    2016-10-20

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers the potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.

  13. Determination of selenium urinary metabolites by high temperature liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terol, A; Ardini, F; Basso, A; Grotti, M

    2015-02-06

    The coupling of high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of selenium metabolites in urine samples is reported for the first time. In order to achieve "ICPMS-friendly" chromatographic conditions, the retention on a graphite stationary phase of the major selenium urinary metabolites using only plain water with 2% methanol as the mobile phase was investigated. Under the optimal conditions (T=80°C, Ql=1.2 mL min(-1)), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-galactopyranoside (selenosugar 1), methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-glucosopyranoside (selenosugar 2) and trimethylselenonium ion were efficiently separated in less than 7 min, without any interferences due to other common selenium species (selenite, selenate, selenocystine and selenomethionine) or detectable effect of the urine matrix. The limits of detection were 0.3-0.5 ng Se mL(-1), and the precision of the analytical procedure was better than 3% (RSD%, n=5). The HTLC-ICPMS method was applied to the analysis of urine samples from two volunteers before and after ingestion of Brazil nuts or selenium supplements. The developed procedure proved to be adequate for the analytical task, providing results consistent with previous studies.

  14. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Sulfur analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giner Martínez-Sierra, J.; Galilea San Blas, O.; Marchante Gayón, J. M.; García Alonso, J. I.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years the number of applications of sulfur (S) analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector has increased significantly. In this article we describe in some depth the application of ICP-MS for S analysis with emphasis placed on the sulfur-specific detection by hyphenated techniques such as LC, GC, CE and LA coupled on-line to ICP-MS. The different approaches available for sulfur isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS are also detailed. Particular attention has been paid to the quantification of peptides/proteins and the analysis of metallopeptides/metalloproteins via sulfur by LC-ICP-MS. Likewise, the speciation analysis of metal-based pharmaceuticals and metallodrugs and non-metal selective detection of pharmaceuticals via S are highlighted. Labeling procedures for metabolic applications are also included. Finally, the measurement of natural variations in S isotope composition with multicollector ICP-MS instruments is also covered in this review.

  16. Determination of stable cesium and strontium in rice samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinuttrakul, W.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-06-01

    For long-term radiation dose assessment models, food ingestion is one of the major exposure pathways to human. In general, the stable isotopes can serve as analogues of radioisotopes. In this study, rice samples were collected from 30 paddy fields in Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et in the northeast of Thailand in November 2014. The concentrations of stable cesium (Cs-133) and strontium (Sr-88) in polished rice were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The standard reference material of rice flour (NIST 1568a) with spiked Cs and Sr was used to validate the analytical method. The concentration of Cs in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.158 ± 0.167 mg kg-1, 0.090 ± 0.117 mg kg-1 and 0.054 ± 0.031 mg kg-1, respectively. The concentration of Sr in polished rice from Si Sa Ket, Yasothon and Roi Et was 0.351 ± 0.108 mg kg-1, 0.364 ± 0.215 mg kg-1 and 0.287 ± 0.102 mg kg-1, respectively. Comparison of the results with Japanese data before the Fukushima Di-ichi nuclear power plant accident showed that the concentrations of both Cs and Sr for Thai rice were higher than those for Japanese rice.

  17. The effect of pre-evaporation on ion distributions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shulan; Beauchemin, Diane

    2006-02-01

    The connecting tube (2 or 5-mm i. d., 11-cm long) between the spray chamber and the torch was heated (to 400 °C) to investigate the effect of pre-evaporation on the distribution of ions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Axial and radial profiles of analyte ions (Al +, V +, Cr +, Ni +, Zn +, Mn +, Zn +, As +, Se +, Mo +, Cd +, Sb +, La +, Pb +) in 1% HNO 3 as well as some polyatomic ions (LaO +, ArO +, ArN +, CO 2+) were simultaneously obtained on a time-of-flight ICP-MS instrument. Upon heating the connecting tube, the optimal axial position of all elements shifted closer to the load coil. Without the heated tube, 3.5 mm was the compromise axial position for multielemental analysis, which was optimal for 6 analytes. With the heated tube, this position became 1.5 mm, which was then optimal for 9 of the 14 analytes. Furthermore, the radial profiles, which were wide with a plateau in their middle without heating, became significantly narrower and Gaussian-like with a heated tube. This narrowing, which was most important for the 5-mm tube, slightly (by a factor of two at the most) yet significantly (at the 95% confidence level) improved the sensitivity of all elements but Mn upon optimisation of the axial position for compromise multi-element analysis. Furthermore, a concurrent decrease in the standard deviation of the blank was significant at the 95% confidence level for 9 of the 14 analytes. For most of the analytes, this translated into a two-fold to up to an order of magnitude improvement in detection limit, which is commensurate with a reduction of noise resulting from the smaller droplets entering the plasma after traversing the pre-evaporation tube.

  18. Reliable and sensitive determination of dutasteride in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Pritesh; Kurani, Hemal; Guttikar, Swati; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-09-01

    An accurate and precise method was developed and validated using LC-MS/MS to quantify dutasteride in human plasma. The analyte and dutasteride-13C6 as internal standard (IS) were extracted from 300 μL plasma volume using methyl tert-butyl ether-n-hexane (80:20, v/v). Chromatographic analysis was performed on a Gemini C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using acetonitrile-5 mm ammonium formate, pH adjusted to 4.0 with formic acid (85:15, v/v) as the mobile phase. Tandem mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode was used to quantify dutasteride by multiple reaction monitoring. The entire data processing was done using Watson LIMS(TM) software, which provided excellent data integrity and high throughput with improved operational efficiency. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-25 ng/mL, with intra-and inter-batch values for accuracy and precision (coefficient of variation) ranging from 95.8 to 104.0 and from 0.7 to 5.3%, respectively. The mean overall recovery across quality controls was ≥95% for the analyte and IS, while the interference of matrix expressed as IS-normalized matrix factors ranged from 1.01 to 1.02. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 0.5 mg dutasteride capsules in 24 healthy subjects. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 103 incurred samples.

  19. [Measurement of sialic acid from lipoproteins and human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shoudong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Kan, Yujie; Li, Fuyu; Li, Yu; Li, Fangyuan; Qin, Shucun

    2014-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established to quantify sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) from lipoproteins and human plasma. The method was used to investigate the different contents of NANA from lipoproteins between diabetic with an average age of 51.6 years and healthy participants with an average age of 50.7 years. The NANA from lipoprotein samples was hydrolyzed by acetic acid (pH = 2) at 80 °C for 2 h and analyzed by the optimized LC-MS/MS method after high speed centrifugation and filtration. The limits of detection and quantification of NANA were 7.4 and 24.5 pg, respectively. The linear range was 2.5-80 ng/mL for NANA and the correlation coefficient (R2) was more than 0.998. The levels of NANA in the plasma of type II diabetics and healthy participants were (548.3 ± 88.9) and (415.3 ± 55.5) mg/L, respectively; and the levels of NANA from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) of the type II diabetics and the healthy participants were (4.91 ± 0.19), (6.95 ± 0.28), (3.61 ± 0.22) μg/mg and (2.90 ± 0.27), (7.03 ± 0.04), (2.40 ± 0.09) μg/mg, respectively. The sialic acid levels of VLDL and HDL from the type II diabetics were markedly higher than those of the corresponding healthy participants with the similar ages (P < 0.01). The method can rapidly determine the sialic acid from lipoproteins, and is reproducible and time saving.

  20. Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. Results A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver–operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, α-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and α-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences

  1. Integrated approach for the comprehensive characterization of lipoproteins from human plasma using FPLC and nano-HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lisamarie A; Mirza, Shama P; Kissebah, Ahmed H; Olivier, Michael

    2010-02-04

    The implication of the various lipoprotein classes in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has served to focus a great deal of attention on these particles over the past half-century. Using knowledge gained by the sequencing of the human genome, recent research efforts have been directed toward the elucidation of the proteomes of several lipoprotein subclasses. One of the challenges of such proteomic experimentation is the ability to initially isolate plasma lipoproteins subsequent to their analysis by mass spectrometry. Although several methods for the isolation of plasma lipoproteins are available, the most commonly utilized techniques require large sample volumes and may cause destruction and dissociation of lipoprotein particle-associated proteins. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) is a nondenaturing technique that has been validated for the isolation of plasma lipoproteins from relatively small sample volumes. In this study, we present the use of FPLC in conjunction with nano-HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry as a new integrated methodology suitable for the proteomic analysis of human lipoprotein fractions. Results from our analysis show that only 200 microl of human plasma suffices for the isolation of whole high density lipoprotein (HDL) and the identification of the majority of all known HDL-associated proteins using mass spectrometry of the resulting fractions.

  2. Direct solution introduction using conventional nebulizers with a short torch for plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Craig S.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-06-01

    -high efficiency nebulizer-short torch system is 3.1% and 3.7% based on peak areas and heights, respectively, at a solution uptake rate of 85 μL/min. Good agreement is obtained between certified and measured concentrations for several elements across the mass range (e.g., Al, V, Mn, As, Cd, Pb, U). The proposed system is novel because it potentially offers a lower-cost and a more universal arrangement for improved direct solution introduction in plasma mass spectrometry using off-the-shelf commercial nebulizers.

  3. Determination of procarbazine in human plasma by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, X; Batchelor, T T; Grossman, S; Supko, J G

    2004-01-25

    Procarbazine is a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of lymphomas and brain tumors. Its pharmacokinetic behavior remains poorly understood even though more than 30 years have elapsed since the drug was approved for clinical use. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of procarbazine in brain cancer patients during a phase I trial, a method for determining the drug in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was developed and thoroughly validated. Plasma samples were prepared for analysis by precipitating proteins with trichloroacetic acid and washing the protein-free supernatant with methyl tert-butyl ether to remove excess acid. The solution was separated on a Luna C-18 analytical column using methanol-25 mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5.1 (22:78, v/v) as the mobile phase at 1.0 ml/min. A single-quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray interface was operated in the selected-ion monitoring mode to detect the [M+H](+) ions at m/z 222.2 for procarbazine and at m/z 192.1 for the internal standard (3-dimethylamino-2-methylpropiophenone). Procarbazine and the internal standard eluted as sharp, symmetrical peaks with retention times (mean+/-S.D.) of 6.3+/-0.1 and 9.9+/-0.3 min, respectively. Calibration curves of procarbazine hydrochloride in human plasma at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 50 ng/ml exhibited excellent linearity. The mean absolute recovery of the drug from plasma was 102.9+/-1.0%. Using a sample volume of 150 microl, procarbazine was determined at the 0.5 ng/ml (1.9 nM) lower limit of quantitation with a mean accuracy of 105.2% and an interday precision of 3.60% R.S.D. on 11 different days over 5 weeks. During this same time interval, the between-day accuracy for determining quality control solutions of the drug in plasma at concentrations of 2.0, 15 and 40 ng/ml ranged from 97.5 to 98.2% (mean+/-S.D., 97.9+/-0.4%) and the precision

  4. Comparison of isotope dilution mass spectrometry methods for the determination of total homocysteine in plasma and serum.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Mary B; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Welch, Michael J; Nelson, Bryant C; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2003-09-01

    Two independent methods have been critically evaluated and applied to the measurement of total homocysteine in serum and plasma: solid-phase anion extraction (SPAE) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and protein precipitation liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In addition, analysis of samples prepared by SPAE was accomplished by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. These methods have been used to determine total homocysteine levels in several existing serum-based Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and in patient plasma samples provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The precision of the homocysteine measurements in serum and plasma was critically evaluated, and method comparisons were carried out using Bland-Altman plots and bias analysis. On the basis of the excellent precision and close agreement of the mass spectrometric (MS) methods, the MS-based methods will be used for certification of a serum-based SRM for homocysteine and folates.

  5. The effect of plasma operating parameters on analyte signals in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlick, G.; Tan, S. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Rose, C. A.

    Utilizing the SCIEX ICP-MS an extensive study of the effects that plasma operating parameters have on analyte ion signals in ICP-MS has been carried out. Parameters studied included aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure), auxiliary flow rate, power and sampling depth (sampling position from the load coil). The two key parameters are aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure) and power. Elements can be grouped into characteristic behaviour patterns based on the overall dependence of their ion count signal on these two parameters. The nebulizer pressure-power behavior patterns allow a sensible selection of compromise operating conditions and significantly clarify single parameter observations which often indicate confusing trends in behavior. In addition to characterizing analyte ion signals the parameter behavior plots have also been used to study oxide species and plus two ions in ICP-MS. While aerosol flow rate and power appear to be the key ICP parameters in ICP-MS, ion signals are dependent on sampling depth and auxiliary flow rate and some data are also presented illustrating the signal dependence on these two parameters.

  6. Fractionation analysis of manganese in Turkish hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Umran Seven; Gucer, Seref

    2014-11-05

    In this study, an analytical fractionation scheme based on water, diethyl ether, n-hexane, and methanol extractions has been developed to identify manganese-bound fractions. Additionally, in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion, n-octanol extraction, and activated carbon adsorption were used to interpret the manganese-bound structures in hazelnuts in terms of bioaccessibility. The total content of manganese in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion, and additional validation was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water fractions were further evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the identification of water-soluble manganese fractions in hazelnut samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.6 and 12.0 μg L(-1), respectively, based on peak height.

  7. Measurement of Pyrethroid, Organophosphorus, and Carbamate Insecticides in Human Plasma using Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, José J.; Williams, Megan K.; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Smith, Kimberly; Whyatt, Robin M.; Needham, Larry L.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for measuring pyrethroid, organophosphorus, carbamate and fipronil pesticides and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in human plasma. Plasma samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and were then concentrated for injection and analysis using isotope dilution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The limits of detection ranged from 10 to 158 pg/mL with relative recoveries at concentrations near the LODs (e.g., 25 or 250 pg/mL) ranging from 87% to 156% (9 of the 16 compounds were withing ± 15% of 100%). The extraction recoveries ranged from 20% to 98% and the overall method relative standard deviations were typically less than 20% with some exceptions. Analytical characteristics were determined at 25, 250, and 1000 pg/mL. PMID:20434413

  8. Pharmacokinetic analysis of levo-tetrahydropalmatine in rabbit plasma by rapid sample preparation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Son Cao; Duc, Nguyen Dinh; Tung, Nguyen-Thach

    2016-01-01

    A rapid extraction method was developed and validated for levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) determination in rabbit plasma by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation included a single-step acetonitrile extraction and salting out liquid-liquid partitioning from the water in plasma with MgSO4. Berberine was used as internal standard. The mass spectrometry source was negative electrospray ionization. The method showed good performance in the concentration range from 5 to 200ngmL(-1). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1ngmL(-1). The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rabbit comparing the two drug formulation of l-THP including the raw material and the self-microemulsifying drug delivery system pellet.

  9. Fast quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in plasma using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Li, Xituo; Wang, Yan; Gu, Xue; Dai, Jieyu; Wang, Guiming; Cheng, Yu; Yan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrates in biosamples are frequently highlighted as the most differential metabolites in many metabolomics studies. A simple, fast, simultaneous quantitative method for 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma has been developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. In order to quantify 16 endogenous carbohydrates in plasma, various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometry conditions, and plasma preparation methods, were investigated. Different conditions in this quantified analysis were performed and optimized. The reproducibility, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and stability of the method were verified. The results indicated that a methanol/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) mixture could effectively and reproducibly precipitate rat plasma proteins. Cold organic solvents coupled with vortex for 1 min and incubated at -20°C for 20 min were the most optimal conditions for protein precipitation and extraction. The results, according to the linearity, recovery, precision, matrix effect, and stability, showed that the method was satisfactory in the quantification of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma. The quantified analysis of endogenous carbohydrates in rat plasma performed excellently in terms of sensitivity, high throughput, and simple sample preparation, which met the requirement of quantification in specific expanded metabolomic studies after the global metabolic profiling research.

  10. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry - Critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bings, N. H.; Orlandini von Niessen, J. O.; Schaper, J. N.

    2014-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally suited

  11. Optimization of plasma sampling depth and aerosol gas flow rates for single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Kálomista, Ildikó; Kéri, Albert; Galbács, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    We performed experiments to assess the separate and also the combined effect of the sampling depth and the aerosol gas flow rates on the signal formation in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) measurements by using dispersions containing Ag and Au NPs. It was found that the NP signal can significantly be improved by the optimization of the sampling depth. With respect to the "robust" setting, a signal improvement of nearly 100% could be achieved, which translates into a 25-30% improvement in size detection limits. It was also found that the shape of the spICP-MS signal histograms also change with the change of the plasma sampling depth. It was demonstrated that nanoparticle peak separation can also be significantly enhanced by using sampling depth optimization. The effect of the aerosol dilution gas flow, now standard in most ICP-MS instruments, on the spICP-MS signal formation was also studied for the first time in the literature, as this flow was hoped to make spICP-MS measurements more practical and faster via the on-line dilution of the aerosol generated from nano-dispersions. Our experimental results revealed that the dilution gas flow can only be used for a moderate aerosol dilution in spICP-MS measurements, if the gas flow going to the pneumatic nebulizer is proportionally lowered at the same time. This however was found to cause a significant worsening in the operation of the sample introduction system, which gives rise to a strong NP signal loss. Thus it was concluded that the use of the aerosol dilution gas flow, in its present form, can not be suggested for spICP-MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of chromium in airborne particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hoi-Ling; Tanner, Peter A

    2008-10-01

    A modified three-stage microwave-assisted digestion protocol for chromium analysis in airborne total suspended particulate matter (TSP) with recovery > 90%, which utilizes inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS), has been developed and validated. Similar results were obtained for 52Cr and 53Cr analyses, with a method detection limit of 950 ng g(-1) (0.38 ng ml(-1)) for 52Cr. The method is applicable to the analyses of a suite of other elements in TSP, particularly for Al, Fe and Ti. A comparison of the method with various other extraction and digestion procedures has been given. Our results highlight the difficulties in Cr analyses. Concentrations of Cr in TSP at two urban sites in Hong Kong were determined in the range from 5.8-32.3 ng m(-3), with an average value of 13.2 ng m(-3). The mean concentration of Cr was found to be 10.7 ng m(-3) at a residential/commercial site and 15.6 ng m(-3) at a mixed industrial/residential/commercial site. Ambient Cr concentrations did not reach maxima at vehicular rush-hour times but peaked at combined vehicle and industrial activity. The Cr concentrations at each site were strongly correlated with the total PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) concentrations and inversely correlated with ambient relative humidity. Relationships of Cr with ambient pollutant gases and other elements in TSP suggest that there is no single source which dominates the concentration of Cr in aerosol. There are several contributing sources and their relative proportions vary at different locations.

  13. Fast screening of analytes for chemical reactions by reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Guangming

    2015-11-15

    Approaches for analyte screening have been used to aid in the fine-tuning of chemical reactions. Herein, we present a simple and straightforward analyte screening method for chemical reactions via reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry (reactive LTP-MS). Solution-phase reagents deposited on sample substrates were desorbed into the vapor phase by action of the LTP and by thermal desorption. Treated with LTP, both reagents reacted through a vapor phase ion/molecule reaction to generate the product. Finally, protonated reagents and products were identified by LTP-MS. Reaction products from imine formation reaction, Eschweiler-Clarke methylation and the Eberlin reaction were detected via reactive LTP-MS. Products from the imine formation reaction with reagents substituted with different functional groups (26 out of 28 trials) were successfully screened in a time of 30 s each. Besides, two short-lived reactive intermediates of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation were also detected. LTP in this study serves both as an ambient ionization source for analyte identification (including reagents, intermediates and products) and as a means to produce reagent ions to assist gas-phase ion/molecule reactions. The present reactive LTP-MS method enables fast screening for several analytes from several chemical reactions, which possesses good reagent compatibility and the potential to perform high-throughput analyte screening. In addition, with the detection of various reactive intermediates (intermediates I and II of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation), the present method would also contribute to revealing and elucidating reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Multielemental analyses of environmental and geological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaowen.

    1993-01-01

    The technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to determine trace elements in environmental (drinking water and tree rings) and geological (soil) samples. Most of this monograph is focused on analysis in these samples of rare-earth elements and lead, which have lower detection limits in ICP-MS than in other analytical techniques. A brief history of ICP-MS and discussions of fundamental principles of the instrument, interferences of the method, and common analytical protocols are provided. The application of the technique to four projects is described: (1) Quantitative analysis of rare-earth elements in individual tree rings of fire-scarred trees was performed. The result showed that the concentrations of La, Pr, and Nd are highest in the ring corresponding to the fire year. (2) Lead pollution in drinking water from New York City was investigated by measuring lead concentration and the isotope ratio of [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb in drinking water samples and in the suspected polluting sources. It was found that lead in drinking water mainly comes from lead pipe and plumbing materials containing high concentrations of lead. In addition, optimization of the operating parameters and enhancement of lead signal were also discussed in the chapter. (3) Lead concentration in soil and in annual-growth rings of trees from streets in Brookyln, New York were analyzed. The change of lead concentration in the rings from 1952 to 1991 correlates with the consumption of lead in gasoline in the United States during the same period. The study showed that tree rings can be used as an indirect historical indicator of environmental changes during the tree's lifetime. (4) Rare-earth-element ratios in archaeological tree samples were measured to determine the original locations of the samples. In Appendix I, application of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analysis of wood samples is briefly discussed.

  15. Detecting nanoparticulate silver using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mitrano, Denise M; Lesher, Emily K; Bednar, Anthony; Monserud, Jon; Higgins, Christopher P; Ranville, James F

    2012-01-01

    The environmental prevalence of engineered nanomaterials, particularly nanoparticulate silver (AgNP), is expected to increase substantially. The ubiquitous use of commercial products containing AgNP may result in their release to the environment, and the potential for ecological effects is unknown. Detecting engineered nanomaterials is one of the greatest challenges in quantifying their risks. Thus, it is imperative to develop techniques capable of measuring and characterizing exposures, while dealing with the innate difficulties of nanomaterial detection in environmental samples, such as low-engineered nanomaterial concentrations, aggregation, and complex matrices. Here the authors demonstrate the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, operated in a single-particle counting mode (SP-ICP-MS), to detect and quantify AgNP. In the present study, two AgNP products were measured by SP-ICP-MS, including one of precisely manufactured size and shape, as well as a commercial AgNP-containing health food product. Serial dilutions, filtration, and acidification were applied to confirm that the method detected particles. Differentiation of dissolved and particulate silver (Ag) is a feature of the technique. Analysis of two wastewater samples demonstrated the applicability of SP-ICP-MS at nanograms per liter Ag concentrations. In this pilot study, AgNP was found at 100 to 200 ng/L in the presence of 50 to 500 ng/L dissolved Ag. The method provides the analytical capability to monitor Ag and other metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in fate, transport, stability, and toxicity studies using a commonly available laboratory instrument. Rapid throughput and element specificity are additional benefits of SP-ICP-MS as a measurement tool for metal and metal oxide engineered nanoparticles.

  16. Documenting utility of paddlefish otoliths for quantification of metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Schaffler, James J.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE The otoliths of the inner ear of fishes record the environment of their surrounding water throughout their life. For paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), otoliths have not been routinely used by scientists since their detriments were outlined in the early 1940s. We sought to determine if paddlefish otoliths were useful for resolving elemental information contained within. METHODS Adult paddlefish were collected from two wild, self-sustaining populations in Oklahoma reservoirs in the Arkansas River basin. Juveniles were obtained from a hatchery in the Red River basin of Oklahoma. Otoliths were removed and laser ablation, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to quantify eight elements (Li, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and Pb) along the core and edge portions, which were analyzed for differences between otolith regions and among paddlefish sources. RESULTS Differences were found among samples for six of the eight elements examined. Otoliths from Red River basin paddlefish born in a hatchery had significantly lower amounts of Mg and Mn, but higher levels of Rb than otoliths from wild paddlefish in the Arkansas River basin. Concentrations of Y, Sr, and Ba were reduced on the edges of adult paddlefish from both reservoirs compared with the cores. CONCLUSIONS This research shows the utility of using an ICP-MS analysis of paddlefish otoliths. Future research that seeks to determine sources of paddlefish production, such as which reservoir tributaries are most important for reproduction or what proportion of the population is composed of wild versus hatchery-produced individuals, appears promising. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Detection of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in equine plasma by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Andrew R; Suann, Craig J; Stenhouse, Allen M

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of the synthetic progestin 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in equine plasma following its administration by intramuscular injection. The method employed a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction followed by enol-trimethylsilylation and analysis by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The intact ester was detectable in the plasma for up to 2 weeks after a single therapeutic dose, and was found to be stable in equine whole blood for at least 2 months. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Iván; Bermejo, Ana María; Tabernero, María Jesús; Fernández, Purificación; López, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes a method for the simultaneous determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in plasma. It was based in the extraction of the analytes by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method showed to be very simple, rapid and sensitive. The method was validated for the two compounds, including linearity (range 25-1000 ng/mL) and the main precision parameters. It was applied to ten plasma samples from cocaine and alcohol users, obtaining positive results in all cases.

  19. Quantitative analysis of aberrant protein glycosylation in liver cancer plasma by AAL-enrichment and MRM mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Shin, Park Min; Kim, Yong-Sam; Oh, Na Ree; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Kwang Hoe; Lee, Yeon Jung; Kim, Sung Ho; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2013-11-07

    A lectin-coupled mass spectrometry (MS) approach was employed to quantitatively monitor aberrant protein glycosylation in liver cancer plasma. To do this, we compared the difference in the total protein abundance of a target glycoprotein between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) plasmas and hepatitis B virus (HBV) plasmas, as well as the difference in lectin-specific protein glycoform abundance of the target glycoprotein. Capturing the lectin-specific protein glycoforms from a plasma sample was accomplished by using a fucose-specific aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) immobilized onto magnetic beads via a biotin-streptavidin conjugate. Following tryptic digestion of both the total plasma and its AAL-captured fraction of each HCC and HBV sample, targeted proteomic mass spectrometry was conducted quantitatively by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technique. From the MRM-based analysis of the total plasmas and AAL-captured fractions, differences between HCC and HBV plasma groups in fucosylated glycoform levels of target glycoproteins were confirmed to arise from both the change in the total protein abundance of the target proteins and the change incurred by aberrant fucosylation on target glycoproteins in HCC plasma, even when no significant change occurs in the total protein abundance level. Combining the MRM-based analysis method with the lectin-capturing technique proved to be a successful means of quantitatively investigating aberrant protein glycosylation in cancer plasma samples. Additionally, it was elucidated that the differences between HCC and control groups in fucosylated biomarker candidates A1AT and FETUA mainly originated from an increase in fucosylation levels on these target glycoproteins, rather than an increase in the total protein abundance of the target glycoproteins.

  20. Rapid determination of (237)Np in soil samples by multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaowei; Shi, Yanmei; Xu, Jiang; He, Xiaobing; Zhang, Haitao; Lin, Jianfeng

    A radiochemical procedure is developed for the determination of (237)Np in soil with multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and gamma-spectrometry. (239)Np (milked from (243)Am) was used as an isotopic tracer for chemical yield determination. The neptunium in the soil is separated by thenoyl-trifluoracetone extraction from 1 M HNO3 solution after reducing Np to Np(IV) with ferrous sulfamate, and then purified with Dowex 1 × 2 anion exchange resin. (239)Np in the resulting solution is measured with gamma-spectrometry for chemical yield determination while the (237)Np is measured with MC-ICP-MS. Measurement results for soil samples are presented together with those for two reference samples. By comparing the determined value with the reference value of the (237)Np activity concentration, the feasibility of the procedure was validated.

  1. Characterization of cobalt pigments found in traditional Valencian ceramics by means of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arantegui, J; Resano, M; García-Ruiz, E; Vanhaecke, F; Roldán, C; Ferrero, J; Coll, J

    2008-02-15

    In this work, a comparison of the performances of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for the characterization of cobalt blue pigments used in the decoration of Valencian ceramics is presented. Qualitative data on the elemental composition of the blue pigments obtained using both techniques show a good agreement. Moreover, the results clearly illustrate that potters utilized different kinds of cobalt pigments in different historical periods. While both techniques seem suitable for the proposed task, they show different strengths and weaknesses. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a cheaper and totally non-destructive technique, capable of providing fast and reliable results at the mgg(-1) level. LA-ICPMS, on the other hand, offers a much higher detection power and better spatial resolution, but its use results in some sample damage (sample consumption at the mug level), while it is a more expensive and non-portable technique.

  2. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  3. Characterization of isomeric VX nerve agent adducts on albumin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saeidian, Hamid; Mirkhani, Valioallah; Mousavi Faraz, Sajjad; Taghi Naseri, Mohammad; Babri, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    This study includes the characterization of isomeric VX organophosphorus adducts on albumin in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). VX or its structural isomers were spiked into a vial containing plasma in order to obtain phosphorylated albumin. After pronase and trypsin digestion, the resulting solutions were analyzed to confirm adduct formation with the amino acid tyrosine on the albumin in human plasma. The LC-MS/MS experiments show that VX and its isomers can be attached to tyrosine on the albumin in human blood. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as ethylene, formic acid and ammonia elimination and an intermolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The proposed mechanisms for the formation of the fragments were confirmed through the analysis of fragments of deuterated adducts.

  4. Identification of organically associated trace elements in wood and coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richaud, R; Lazaro, M J; Lachas, H; Miller, B B; Herod, A A; Dugwell, D R; Kandiyoti, R

    2000-01-01

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to extract samples of wood (forest residue) and coal; the extracts were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using two different sample preparation methods, in order to identify trace elements associated with the organic part of the samples. A sample of fly ash was similarly extracted and analysed in order to assess the behaviour of the mineral matter contained within the wood and coal samples. 32% of the biomass was extracted at the higher temperature and 12% at room temperature while only 12% of the coal was extracted at the higher temperature and 3% at room temperature. Less than 2% of the ash dissolved at the higher temperature. Size exclusion chromatograms of the extracts indicated the presence of significant amounts of large molecular mass materials (>1000 mu) in the biomass and coal extracts but not in the ash extract. Trace element analyses were carried out using ICP-MS on the acid digests prepared by 'wet ashing' and microwave extraction. Sixteen elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were quantified, in the samples before extraction, in the extracts and in the residues. Concentrations of trace elements in the original biomass sample were lower than in the coal sample while the concentrations in the ash sample were the highest. The major trace elements in the NMP extracts were Ba, Cu, Mn and Zn from the forest residue; Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from the coal; Cu and Zn from the ash. These elements are believed to be associated with the organic extracts from the forest residue and coal, and also from the ash. Be and Sb were not quantified in the extracts because they were present at too low concentrations; up to 40% of Mn was extracted from the biomass sample at 202 degrees C, while Se was totally extracted from the ash sample. For the forest residue, approximately 7% (at room temperature) and 45% (at 202 degrees C) of the total trace elements studied were

  5. {sup 99}Tc bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.

    1998-05-01

    A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. In a urine matrix, the analysis of{sup 99}Tc is plagued with many difficulties using conventional radiometric methods. Difficulties originate during chemical separation due to the volatile nature of Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} or during radiation detection due to color or chemical quenching. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard quench correction and a quench curve correction method are compared to results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results, however the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results. Limits of detection (LOD) for ICP-MS and liquid scintillation detection are 14.67 and 203.4 dpm/L, respectively, in a real urine matrix. In order to determine the basis for the increased precision of the ICP-MS results, the detection sensitivity for each method is derived and measured. The detection sensitivity for the {sup 99}Tc isotope by ICP-MS is 2.175 x 10{sup {minus}7} {+-} 8.990 x 10{sup {minus}9} and by liquid scintillation is 7.434 x 10{sup {minus}14} {+-} 7.461 x 10{sup {minus}15}. A difference by seven orders of magnitude between the two detection systems allows ICP-MS samples to be analyzed for a period of 15 s compared to 3,600 s by liquid scintillation counting with a lower LOD.

  6. Diagnostics of reactive pulsed plasmas by UV and VUV absorption spectroscopy and by modulated beam Mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, Gilles

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed plasmas are promising for etching applications in the microelectronic industry. However, many new phenomena are involved when a high density discharge is pulsed. To better understand these processes it is necessary to probe the radicals' kinetics with a microsecond resolution. We have developed several diagnostics to reach this goal including broad band absorption spectroscopy with UV LEDs to detect small polyatomic radicals and with a deuterium VUV source to detect larger closed shell molecules and the modulated mass spectrometry to monitor atomic species. We will discuss the impact of the plasma pulsing frequency and duty cycle on the radical densities in Cl2 based plasmas, and the consequences on plasma processes. Work done in collaboration with Paul Bodart, Melisa Brihoum, Maxime Darnon, Erwin Pargon, Olivier Joubert, and Nader Sadeghi, CNRS/LTM.

  7. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M.

    2013-08-08

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  8. Combining mass spectrometry diagnostic and density functional theory calculations for a better understanding of the plasma polymerization of ethyl lactate.

    PubMed

    Ligot, S; Guillaume, M; Gerbaux, P; Thiry, D; Renaux, F; Cornil, J; Dubois, P; Snyders, R

    2014-04-17

    The focus of this work is on the growth mechanism of ethyl lactate-based plasma polymer film (ELPPF) that could be used as barrier coatings. In such an application, the ester density of the plasma polymer has to be controlled to tune the degradation rate of the material. Our strategy consists of correlating the plasma chemistry evaluated by RGA mass spectrometry and understanding, via DFT calculations, the chemistry of the synthesized thin films. The theoretical calculations helped us to understand the plasma chemistry in plasma ON and OFF conditions. From these data it is unambiguously shown that the signal m/z 75 can directly be correlated with the precursor density in the plasma phase. The combination of XPS and chemical derivatization experiments reveal that the ester content in the ELPFF can be tailored from 2 to 18 at. % by decreasing the RF power, which is perfectly correlated with the evolution of the plasma chemistry. Our results also highlight that the ELPPF chemistry, especially the ester content, is affected by the plasma mode of operation (continuous or pulsed discharge, at similar injected mean power) for similar ester content in the plasma. This could be related to different energy conditions at the interface of the growing films that could affect the sticking coefficient of the ester-bearing fragments.

  9. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Metformin and Gliclazide in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Y. K.; Gogoi, P. J.; Manna, K.; Bhatt, H. G.; Jain, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Present study reports the development and validation of a simultaneous estimation of metformin and gliclazide in human plasma using supercritical fluid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetonitrile:water (80:20) mixture was used as a mobile phase along with liquid CO2 in supercritical fluid chromatography and phenformin as an internal standard. The modified plasma samples were analyzed by electro-spray ionization method in selective reaction monitoring mode in tandem mass spectrometry. Supercritical fluid chromatographic separation was performed using nucleosil C18 containing column as a stationary phase. The separated products were identified by characteristic peaks and specific fragments peaks in tandem mass spectrometry as m/z 130 to 86 for metformin, m/z 324 to 110 for gliclazide and m/z 206 to 105 for phenformin. The present method was found linear in the concentration ranges of 6.0-3550 ng/ml and 7.5-7500 ng/ml for metformin and gliclazide, respectively. Pharmacokinetic study was performed after an oral administration of dispersible tablets containing 500 mg of metformin and 80 mg of gliclazide using same techniques. PMID:20582190

  10. Elemental labelling combined with liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantification of biomolecules: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kretschy, Daniela; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews novel quantification concepts where elemental labelling is combined with flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS) or liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS), and employed for quantification of biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and related molecules in challenging sample matrices. In the first sections an overview on general aspects of biomolecule quantification, as well as of labelling will be presented emphasizing the potential, which lies in such methodological approaches. In this context, ICP-MS as detector provides high sensitivity, selectivity and robustness in biological samples and offers the capability for multiplexing and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Fundamental methodology of elemental labelling will be highlighted and analytical, as well as biomedical applications will be presented. A special focus will lie on established applications underlining benefits and bottlenecks of such approaches for the implementation in real life analysis. Key research made in this field will be summarized and a perspective for future developments including sophisticated and innovative applications will given. PMID:23062431

  11. Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Desflurane, Propofol and Fentanyl in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid for Estimation BBB Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cherebillo, Vyacheslav Yu.; Polegaev, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    A possibility to use the Membrane-Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) with membrane separator interface has evolved into a powerful method for measurement of anaesthetic agents absolute concentration in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid for the study of blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties. Recent advanced a new membrane material was used for drug concentration measurement in biologic fluids. A hydrophobic membrane was used in the interface to separate anaesthetic agents from biological fluids: inhalational anaesthetic desflurane,hypnotic propofol, analgesic fentanyl. The selective detection of volatile anesthetic agents in blood does not require long-term sample processing before injecting the sample into mass-spectrometer interface, in contrast to chromatographic methods. Mass-spectrometric interface for the measurement of anaesthetic agent concentration in biological fluids (blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid) is described. Sampling of biological fluids was performed during balanced inhalational (desflurane, fentanyl) anaesthesia and total intravenous (propofol, fentanyl) anaesthesia. PMID:26412969

  12. Detection of chemical warfare agent degradation products in foods using liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubachka, Kevin M; Richardson, Douglas D; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Caruso, Joseph A

    2008-08-22

    The following work presents the exploration of three chromatographic separations in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of chemical warfare agent degradation products (CWADPs). The robust ionization of ICP is virtually matrix independent thus enabling the examination of sample matrices generally considered too complicated for analysis by electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS with little to no sample preparation. The analysis was focused on detecting CWADPs in food matrices, as they present possible vehicles for terrorist contamination. Due to the specific detection of (31)P by ICP-MS, resolution of analytes of interest from other P-containing interferences (H(3)PO(4)) was a crucial part of each separation. Up to 10 CWADPs were separated in the presence of H(3)PO(4) with detection limits in the low part per billion levels using the methods described. Additionally, one method was tailored to be compatible with both ICP-MS and ESI-MS making structural verification possible.

  13. Screening hydrolysis products of sulfur mustard agents by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Kroening, Karolin K; Richardson, Douglas D; Afton, Scott; Caruso, Joseph A

    2009-04-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, is one of a class of mustard agents which are chemical warfare agents. The main chemical warfare hydrolysis degradation products of sulfur mustards are: thiodiglycol, bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)methane, 1,2-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)ethane, 1,3-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)propane, and 1,4-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)butane. The aim of this study is to identify these five hydrolysis degradation products utilizing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for element-specific sulfur detection using a collision/reaction cell and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to confirm the identification. To date, this is the first study utilizing ICP-MS with (32)S element-specific detection for the analysis of vesicant chemical warfare agent degradation products.

  14. A New Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of Bisoprolol in Human Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Peste, Gabriela; Bibire, Nela; Apostu, Mihai; Vlase, Aurel; Oniscu, Corneliu

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) detection is one of the most powerful analytical tools for organic compound analysis. The advantages of using LC/MS methods over HPLC methods include: selectivity, chromatographic integrity, peak assignment, structural information, and rapid method development. In this paper, a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of bisoprolol in human plasma samples, using metoprolol as internal standard and liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The assay has proven to be sensitive, specific and reproducible, suitable to determine the bisoprolol concentration, following a single oral administration of a 10 mg bisoprolol tablet in 22 healthy volunteers, in the bioequivalence study of Bisoprolol 10 mg coated tablets, produced by Antibiotice S.A. versus Concor 10 mg, produced by Merck. PMID:19696905

  15. Interface-free capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry system with nanospray ionization-Analysis of dexrazoxane in blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Tycova, Anna; Vido, Marek; Kovarikova, Petra; Foret, Frantisek

    2016-09-30

    The newly developed interface-free capillary electrophoresis-nanospray/mass spectrometry system (CE-nESI/MS) was applied for rapid analysis of the cardioprotective drug dexrazoxane and its hydrolysed form ADR-925 in deproteinized blood plasma samples. The aim of this study was to test the simplest possible CE-nESI/MS instrumentation for analyses of real samples. This interface-free system, utilizing single piece of a narrow bore capillary as both the electrophoretic separation column and the nanospray emitter, was operated at a flow rate of 30nL/min. Excellent electrophoretic separation and sensitive nanospray ionization was achieved with the use of only one high voltage power supply. In addition, hydrophobic external coating was developed and tested for additional stability of the nanospray ionization. To our knowledge this is the first study devoted to the analysis of dexrazoxane and ADR-925 by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

  16. Accuracy and Reproducibility in Quantification of Plasma Protein Concentrations by Mass Spectrometry without the Use of Isotopic Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Gertjan; Woolerton, Yvonne; van Straalen, Jan P.; Vissers, Johannes P. C.; Dekker, Nick; Langridge, James I.; Beynon, Robert J.; Speijer, Dave; Sturk, Auguste; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantitative proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry holds great promise for simultaneously quantifying proteins in various biosamples, such as human plasma. Thus far, studies addressing the reproducible measurement of endogenous protein concentrations in human plasma have focussed on targeted analyses employing isotopically labelled standards. Non-targeted proteomics, on the other hand, has been less employed to this end, even though it has been instrumental in discovery proteomics, generating large datasets in multiple fields of research. Results Using a non-targeted mass spectrometric assay (LCMSE), we quantified abundant plasma proteins (43 mg/mL—40 ug/mL range) in human blood plasma specimens from 30 healthy volunteers and one blood serum sample (ProteomeXchange: PXD000347). Quantitative results were obtained by label-free mass spectrometry using a single internal standard to estimate protein concentrations. This approach resulted in quantitative results for 59 proteins (cut off ≥11 samples quantified) of which 41 proteins were quantified in all 31 samples and 23 of these with an inter-assay variability of ≤ 20%. Results for 7 apolipoproteins were compared with those obtained using isotope-labelled standards, while 12 proteins were compared to routine immunoassays. Comparison of quantitative data obtained by LCMSE and immunoassays showed good to excellent correlations in relative protein abundance (r = 0.72–0.96) and comparable median concentrations for 8 out of 12 proteins tested. Plasma concentrations of 56 proteins determined by LCMSE were of similar accuracy as those reported by targeted studies and 7 apolipoproteins quantified by isotope-labelled standards, when compared to reference concentrations from literature. Conclusions This study shows that LCMSE offers good quantification of relative abundance as well as reasonable estimations of concentrations of abundant plasma proteins. PMID:26474480

  17. Investigation of lanthanum-strontium-cobalt ferrites using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Óvári, Mihály; Tarsoly, Gergely; Németh, Zoltán; Mihucz, Victor G.; Záray, Gyula

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, suitability of laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for characterization of the purity and homogeneity of lanthanum-strontium-cobalt ferrite (LSCF) ceramic microsamples with general formula La1 - xSrxFe0.025Co0.975O3 (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) was studied through determination of their Sr:La ratios as well as Sr content either in depth or line profiling mode. The Sr content of the LSCF samples expressed as weight percent ranged between 5.8% and 9.7% in the case of wet chemical ICP-MS analysis, while theoretical values varied from 5.5% to 9.4%. In the case of LA-ICP-MS, relative standard deviation of the La-normalized Sr intensities was sufficient to characterize the homogeneity of the studied samples. Major and trace element (Mn, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ba) concentrations could be detected at medium resolution of the applied sector field ICP-MS instrument after microwave-assisted acid digestion. For depth and line profiling, a successful approach consisted of the normalization of intensities of Sr, Fe and Co with the corresponding La counts. For the determination of the elemental ratios of La and Sr, the methods involving LA were in good agreement with theoretical values by standardization to an in-house standard corresponding to the LSCF sample having the highest x value (i.e., 0.50) checked by wet chemical ICP-MS measurements. Thus, assessment of fine scale doping of synthesized perovskite type of microsamples could be achieved by the proposed LA-ICP-MS based on a novel calibration approach applying an in-house perovskite standard. Therefore, LA-ICP-MS can be recommended for quality control of perovskite-based products. In memoriam Attila Vértes (1934-2011), full professor of the Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

  18. Ultracentrifugation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for metal-protein equilibrium studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Holcombe, James A.

    2012-10-01

    The coupling of separation by preparative ultracentrifugation and metal detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been explored for metal-protein equilibrium determinations. This study characterizes the stoichiometry as well as apparent (Kapp) and intrinsic (Kint) binding affinities of the metal-protein association for a model protein. In particular, the affinity of Cu2 + for the high affinity binding site in bovine serum albumin (BSA) is determined. Once equilibrium is established between Cu2 + and BSA, preparative ultracentrifugation moves the metalloprotein away from the meniscus, leaving unbound equilibrium copper in the protein free solution. Since the initial (total) concentrations of purified BSA and Cu2 + can be determined, the free copper concentration at equilibrium can also be determined by taking a small aliquot above the sedimenting boundary for analysis using ICP-MS. This analysis allows for the determination of free Cu2 + ion, which is identical to the equilibrium concentration prior to ultracentrifugation. From these data Kapp and Kint were determined at two different conditions, 100 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93. log Kapp values of 17.6 and 14.6 were determined at pH 9.53 and pH 7.93, respectively. Furthermore, pH-independent log Kint values of - 1.43 and - 1.04 were determined at pH 9.53 and 7.93, respectively. While the log Kint at pH 9.53 was in good agreement with literature values obtained from alternative methods, Kint at pH 7.93 was about 2.5 × larger than previously reported. BSA undergoes a structural rearrangement between pH 7-9, and the generally accepted pH-dependency of protein tertiary structure may be responsible for the variations in the "intrinsic" binding constant. The Cu-BSA binding affinity was also monitored in 100 mM Tris 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution at pH 7.93 in order to determine the effect of a denaturant on metal binding. Results for both log

  19. Novel Imprinted Polymer for the Preconcentration of Cadmium with Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Yilmaz, Hayriye; Arslan, Zikri; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    A novel Cd(II)-imprinted polymer was prepared with chemical immobilization approach by using N-methacryloyl-L-histidine as a vinylated chelating agent for on-line solid phase extraction of Cd(II) for determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cd(II)-monomer complex was synthesized and copolymerized via bulk polymerization method in the presence of ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate cross-linker. The resulting polymer was leached with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 to generate the cavities in the polymer for Cd(II) ions. The experimental conditions, including load pH, solution flow rate, and eluent concentration for effective sorption of Cd(II) were optimized using a minicolumn of the imprinted polymer. A volume of 5.0 mL sample 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) solution at pH 6.5 was loaded onto the column at 2.0 mL min(-1) by using a sequential injection system (FIALab 3200) followed by elution with 1.0 mL of 0.75 mol L(-1) HNO3. The relative selectivity coefficients of the imprinted polymer for Cd(II) were 38.5, 3.5, 3.0, 2.5 and 6.0 in the presence of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II) and Pb(II), respectively. Computational calculations revealed that the selectivity of the imprinted polymer was mediated by the stability of Cd(II)-N-methacryloyl-L-histidine complex which was far more stable than those of commonly used monomers, such as 4-vinyl pyridine, methacrylic acid and vinylimidazole. The detection limit (3s) and relative standard deviation (%) were found to be 0.004 μg L(-1) and 3.2%, respectively. The method was validated by analysis of seawater certified reference material (CASS-4) and successfully applied to the determination of Cd(II) in coastal seawater and estuarine water samples.

  20. Elemental fingerprint analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Husted, Søren; Mikkelsen, Birgitte F; Jensen, Jacob; Nielsen, Niels Erik

    2004-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS) have been used to examine the multi-elemental composition and (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of three spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes (Orthega, Barke, and Bartok) grown in three typical Danish agricultural soils (North Jutland, West Jutland, and East Zealand) differing in soil fertility. The aim of the study was to examine whether it was possible to generate a unique elemental fingerprint of individual barley genotypes irrespective of the elemental imprint plants had received from soils differing in fertility and agricultural practice. Multivariate statistics were used to analyze the elemental fingerprints of the barley genotypes at different times during a full growing season from early tillering to full maturity of the barley grains. Initially, 36 elements were analyzed in the plant samples but this number was subsequently reduced to 15 elements: B, Ba, C, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn. These elements exceeded the limit of detection ( LOD) for all genotypes, soil types, and plant growth stages and for these elements the accuracy was better than 90% compared with apple leaf certified reference material (CRM). Principal component analysis (PCA) separated multi-elemental data in accordance with soil type when plants of similar physiological age were compared, whereas this separation disappeared if plants of all ages were compared simultaneously. Isotope ratios (delta(15)N) of plants also proved to be a highly accurate property for classification of samples according to soil type. In contrast, the differences in delta(13)C were too small to enable such classification. The differences in delta(15)N among soils were so pronounced that separation of samples according to the physiological age of plants became redundant. However, delta(15)N and the multi-elemental analysis revealed no differences between the three barley genotypes

  1. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  2. ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION AND ARSENIC VALENCE STATE CONSIDERATIONS PRIOR TO DETERMINATION VIA INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was utilized as a sample introduction device for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in an attempt to increase the sensitivity for As. The USN produced a valence state response difference for As. The As response was suppressed approximate...

  3. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  4. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  5. ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION AND ARSENIC VALENCE STATE CONSIDERATIONS PRIOR TO DETERMINATION VIA INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was utilized as a sample introduction device for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in an attempt to increase the sensitivity for As. The USN produced a valence state response difference for As. The As response was suppressed approximate...

  6. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS COUPLED ON-LINE WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ELEMENTAL SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel interface to connect a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detector is reported here. The interface was built using a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) system. In this interface, the CE capillary was placed co...

  7. Determination of glufosfamide in rat plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yuming; Cao, Xueqin; Jin, Fengdan; Zhong, Dafang

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive and selective high-performance analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of glufosfamide in rat plasma. Zidovudine was employed as internal standard. Glufosfamide was determined after methanol-mediated plasma protein precipitation using LC/MS/MS with an electrospray ionization interface in negative ion mode. Two sets of standard curves were developed, from 0.005 to 1.0 microg/mL and from 1.0 to 50.0 microg/mL. The assay was accurate (% deviations from nominal concentrations < 5%), precise and reproducible (intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation < 10%). Glufosfamide in rat plasma was stable over three freeze/thaw cycles, and at ambient temperatures, for at least 2 h. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of glufosfamide plasma concentrations in rats for 24 h following an intravenous administration of 25 mg/kg.

  8. Selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of levonorgestrel in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Theron, H B; Coetzee, C; Sutherland, F C W; Wiesner, J L; Swart, K J

    2004-12-25

    A selective, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of levonorgestrel in plasma was developed. An Applied Biosystems API 3000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer set to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, using atmospheric pressure photospray ionisation (APPI) in the positive mode. Using 17-alpha-methyltestosterone as internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction was followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a phenyl-hexyl column and tandem mass spectrometric detection. The mean recovery for levonorgestrel and 17-alpha-methyltestosterone was 99.5 and 62.9%, respectively. The method was validated from 0.265 to 130 ng levonorgestrel/ml plasma with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) set at 0.265 ng/ml. This assay method makes use of the increased sensitivity and selectivity of tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection, allowing for a rapid (extraction and chromatography) and selective method for the determination of levonorgestrel in human plasma. The assay method was used in a pharmacokinetic study to quantify levonorgestrel in human plasma samples generated after administrating a single oral dose of 1.5 mg levonorgestrel to healthy female volunteers for up to five half lives. The total chromatographic runtime of this method was 5.0 min per sample, allowing for analysis of a large number of samples per batch.

  9. Quantitative analysis of [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma by capillary liquid chromatography-nanospray ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haibao; Umstot, Edward S; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2004-04-15

    The synthetic opioid peptide analog Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA; [Dmt= 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) is a highly potent and selective mu opioid-receptor agonist. A very sensitive and robust capillary liquid chromatography/nanospray ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometry method has been developed to quantify [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma, using deuterated [Dmt(1)]DALDA as the internal standard. The standard MS/MS spectra of d(0)- and d(5)-[Dmt(1)]DALDA were obtained, and the collision energy was experimentally optimized to 25%. The product ion [ M + 2H-NH(3)](2+) (m/z 312.2) was used to identify and to quantify the synthetic opioid peptide analog in ovine plasma samples. The MS/MS detection sensitivity for [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 625 amol. A calibration curve was constructed, and quantitative analysis was performed on a series of ovine plasma samples.

  10. Measurement of free radical kinetics in pulsed plasmas by UV and VUV absorption spectroscopy and by modulated beam mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, G.; Bodart, P.; Brihoum, M.; Boulard, F.; Chevolleau, T.; Sadeghi, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of time-resolved diagnostics to probe high-density pulsed plasma sources. We focus on time-resolved measurements of radicals' densities in the afterglow of pulsed discharges to provide useful information on production and loss mechanisms of free radicals. We show that broad-band absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral domain and threshold ionization modulated beam mass spectrometry are powerful techniques for the determination of the time variation of the radicals' densities in pulsed plasmas. The combination of these complementary techniques allows detection of most of the reactive species present in industrial etching plasmas, giving insights into the physico-chemistry reactions involving these species. As an example, we discuss briefly the radicals' kinetics in the afterglow of a SiCl4/Cl2/Ar discharge.

  11. Simultaneous assay of sildenafil and desmethylsildenafil in neonatal plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Witjes, Bregje C; Ahsman, Maurice J; van der Nagel, Bart C; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A

    2010-02-01

    Sildenafil is used to treat pulmonary hypertension in neonatal and pediatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies in these patients are complicated by the limited sample volume. We present the validation results of an assay method to quantitate sildenafil and desmethylsildenafil simultaneously in 50 microL of plasma. Deuterated sildenafil was used as an internal standard. After liquid-liquid extraction, analytes were separated on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-column and quantified via tandem mass spectrometry. The calibration range was linear, with acceptable accuracy and a precision of <15% for both compounds. The lower limits of quantification were 1 ng/mL. Matrix effects were present, but inter-plasma batch variability was under 12%. The method was successfully applied to samples from a pharmacokinetic study into sildenafil pharmacokinetics in neonates, making maximum use of the limited number and amount of plasma samples available. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  13. Profiling B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Cleavage Peptidoforms in Human Plasma by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenyan; Raedschelders, Koen; Santos, Marcia; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2017-10-02

    B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is a biologically active circulating hormone. Plasma concentrations of BNP are routinely used in the diagnosis of heart failure, and the intravenous infusion of recombinant BNP can be used for heart failure treatment. Like many bioactive polypeptides, multiple plasma enzymes are known to cleave circulating BNP, and as part of the CVD-B/D-HPP mandate, we sought to develop a technique capable of profiling these catabolic processes in plasma. We used a neutral-coated capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CESI) separation system coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to profile the proteolysis of exogenous recombinant BNP1-32 in plasma. Our method utilizes electrokinetic injection of minimally processed plasma samples to simultaneously monitor the dynamic generation and breakdown of at least five BNP peptidoforms in plasma. By integrating multisegment injection, our method can produce a multipoint BNP proteolytic profile for one sample within an hour. We envision applying this method to assess the potential relation between plasma-based BNP proteolysis and heart failure as well as a means of monitoring BNP bioavailability after therapeutic infusion.

  14. [Screening differentially expressed plasma proteins in cold stress rats based on iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry technology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-zhi; Guo, Jing-ru; Peng, Meng-ling; Ma, Li; Zhen, Li; Ji, Hong; Yang, Huan-min

    2015-09-01

    Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with mass spectrometry were used to screen differentially expressed plasma proteins in cold stress rats. Thirty health SPF Wistar rats were randomly divided into cold stress group A and control group B, then A and B were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 5): A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3. The temperature of room raising was (24.0 +/- 0.1) degrees C, and the cold stress temperature was (4.0 +/- 0.1) degrees C. The rats were treated with different temperatures until 12 h. The abdominal aortic blood was collected with heparin anticoagulation suction tube. Then, the plasma was separated for protein extraction, quantitative, enzymolysis, iTHAQ labeling, scx fractionation and mass spectrometry analysis. Totally, 1085 proteins were identified in the test, 39 differentially expressed proteins were screened, including 29 up-regulated proteins and 10 down-regulated proteins. Three important differentially expressed proteins related to cold stress were screened by bioinfonnatics analysis (Minor histocompatihility protein HA-1, Has-related protein Rap-1b, Integrin beta-1). In the experiment, the differentially expressed plasma proteins were successfully screened in cold stress rats. iTRAQ technology provided a good platform to screen protein diaguostic markers on cold stress rats, and laid a good foundation for further. study on animal cold stress mechanism.

  15. Affinity depletion of plasma and serum for mass spectrometry-based proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaros, Julian A J; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Protein biomarker discovery in blood plasma and serum is severely hampered by the vast dynamic range of the proteome. With protein concentrations spanning 12 orders of magnitude, conventional mass spectrometric analysis allows for detection of only a few low-abundance proteins. Prior depletion of high-abundant proteins from the sample can increase analytical depth considerably and has become a widely used practice. We describe in detail an affinity depletion method that selectively removes 14 of the most abundant proteins in plasma and serum.

  16. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geochemical samples by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Typically, quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to determine as many as 57 major, minor, and trace elements in aqueous geochemical samples, including natural surface water and groundwater, acid mine drainage water, and extracts or leachates from geological samples. The sample solution is aspirated into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) which is an electrodeless discharge of ionized argon gas at a temperature of approximately 6,000 degrees Celsius. The elements in the sample solution are subsequently volatilized, atomized, and ionized by the ICP. The ions generated are then focused and introduced into a quadrupole mass filter which only allows one mass to reach the detector at a given moment in time. As the settings of the mass analyzer change, subsequent masses are allowed to impact the detector. Although the typical quadrupole ICP-MS system is a sequential scanning instrument (determining each mass separately), the scan speed of modern instruments is on the order of several thousand masses per second. Consequently, typical total sample analysis times of 2–3 minutes are readily achievable for up to 57 elements.

  17. Quantification of plasma homocitrulline using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jaisson, Stéphane; Gorisse, Laëtitia; Pietrement, Christine; Gillery, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Homocitrulline (HCit), an amino acid formed by the carbamylation of ε-amino groups of lysine residues, is considered a promising biomarker for monitoring diseases such as chronic renal failure and atherosclerosis. This paper describes a tandem mass spectrometric method for total, protein-bound and free HCit measurement in plasma samples. HCit was separated from other plasma components by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Detection was achieved by monitoring transitions of 190.1 > 127.1 and 190.1 > 173.1 for HCit, and 183.1 > 120.2 for d(7)-citrulline used as internal standard. This method allowed HCit quantification within 5.2 min and was precise (inter-assay CV < 5.85%), accurate (mean recoveries ranging from 97% to 106%), and exhibited a good linearity from 10 nmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. Plasma samples from control and uremic mice (n = 10) were analyzed. In control mice, mean total plasma HCit concentration was 0.78 ± 0.12 μmol/mol amino acids, whereas it was increased 2.7-fold in uremic mice plasma, reaching 2.10 ± 0.50 μmol/mol amino acids (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this method exhibits good analytical performances and meets the criteria of sensitivity suitable for HCit concentration assessment in plasma samples.

  18. A critical review of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for geoanalysis, geochemistry and hydrology, Part 1. Analytical performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, I.B.; Taylor, H.E.

    1992-01-01

    Present-day inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrumentation is described briefly. Emphasis is placed on performance characteristics for geoanalysis, geochemistry, and hydrology. Applications where ICP-MS would be indispensable are indicated. Determination of geochemically diagnostic trace elements (such as the rare earth elements [REE], U and Th), of isotope ratios for fingerprinting, tracer and other geo-isotope applications, and benchmark isotope dilution determinations are considered to be typical priority applications for ICP-MS. It is concluded that ICP-MS furnishes unique geoanalytical and environmental data that are not readily provided by conventional spectroscopic (emission and absorption) techniques.

  19. Metabolomic study in plasma, liver and kidney of mice exposed to inorganic arsenic based on mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Sevillano, M A; Contreras-Acuña, M; García-Barrera, T; Navarro, F; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-02-01

    The mechanism of arsenic toxicity still remains unclear, although enzymatic inhibition, impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. The toxicological effects of trivalent inorganic arsenic on laboratory mouse Mus musculus after oral administration (3 mg/kg body weight/day) were investigated along 12 days, using a metabolomic approach based on direct infusion mass spectrometry to polar and lipophilic extracts from different organs and fluids (liver, kidney, and plasma). Positive and negative acquisition modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)) were used throughout the experiments. The most significant endogenous metabolites affected by exposure were traced by partial least square-discriminant analysis and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and gas chromatography coupled to MS. In this work, the toxic effect of arsenic has been related with important metabolic pathways, such as energy metabolism (e.g., glycolysis, Krebs cycle), amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism, methionine cycle, and degradation of membrane phospholipids (cell apoptosis). In addition, this work illustrates the high reliability of mass spectrometry based on a metabolomic approach to study the biochemical effects induced by metal exposure.

  20. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  1. Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50μl sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated.

  2. Performance of plasma free metanephrines measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Peaston, Robert T; Graham, Kendon S; Chambers, Erin; van der Molen, Jan C; Ball, Stephen

    2010-04-02

    Plasma free metanephrines have proved a highly sensitive biochemical test for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. We have developed and validated a simple, LC-MS/MS method to determine plasma metanephrines and compared the diagnostic efficacy of the method with an enzyme immunoassay procedure in 151 patients, 38 with histologically confirmed pheochromocytoma. Off-line solid phase extraction in a 96-well plate format was used to isolate metanephrines from 100-microL of plasma, followed by rapid separation with hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Mass spectrometry detection was performed in multiple-reaction monitoring mode using a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization. Detection limits were <0.1nmol/l with method linearity up to 23.0nmol/L for normetanephrine (NMN), metanephrine (MN) and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT). Method comparison with an automated LC-MS/MS yielded Deming regression slopes of r=0.94 for NMN, r=0.98 for MN and r=0.94 for 3-MT. Method comparison with enzyme immunoassay revealed regression slope of r=1.28 (NMN) and 1.25 (MN) with values approximately 25% lower than LC-MS/MS. Plasma metanephrines by LC-MS/MS identified all 38 patients with phaeochromocytoma compared with 36 cases by immunoassay. Plasma metanephrines measured by LC-MS/MS are a reliable and sensitive test for the biochemical detection of pheochromocytoma. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct determination of recombinant bovine somatotropin in plasma from a treated goat by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Marie-Hélène; Rochereau-Roulet, Sandrine; Pinel, Gaud; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Rychen, Guido; Jurjanz, Stefan; Goldmann, Till; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2008-10-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is used in dairy cattle to enhance milk production. Despite the ban on this hormone in some countries, especially in Europe, there is so far no method available for the direct detection of rbST either in milk or in plasma. An analytical strategy has been developed to analyze rbST in plasma, including a purification procedure based on a precipitation with ammonium sulphate, followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based clean-up on C4 sorbent and precipitation with cold methanol. The hormone was then digested with trypsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMSn) on a linear ion trap coupled with an Orbitrap. The tryptic N-terminal peptide, specific to the difference between the endogenous and recombinant form of the somatotropin, was fragmented and product ions were analyzed at high mass resolution. Applying this approach to goat plasma allowed the direct detection of 10 ng mL(-1) of rbST in fortified samples. It also showed the presence of rbST in plasma collected from a goat treated with the hormone, even 2 days after administration. These results are of a great interest in the field of somatotropin control and undoubtedly constitute a first step in the development of a method for the detection of rbST not only in bovine plasma, but also in other biological matrices such as milk.

  4. Determination of exogenous epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kai On; Man, Gene Chi Wai; Chan, Kwok Ping; Chu, Ching Yan; Chan, Tak Hang; Pang, Chi Pui; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2014-12-01

    A robust method for the quantitation of epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in plasma for pharmacokinetic studies is lacking. We have developed a validated method to quantify this compound using liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with isopropanol and tert-butyl methyl ether (3:10) extraction and thin-layer chromatography purification. The epigallocatechin gallate peracetate-1-(13) C8 isotope was used as an internal standard. The linear range (r(2) > 0.9950) was from 0.05 to 100.00 μg/mL. The lower limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 μg/mL. Reproducibility, coefficient of variation, was between 0.7 and 12.6% (n = 6), accuracy between 83.7 and 104.6% (n = 5), and recovery ranged from 82.4 to 109.0% (n = 4). Ion suppression was approximately 40%. No mass spectral peaks were found to interfere between the standard and internal standard or the blank plasma extracts. Epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in plasma was stably stored at -80°C over three months even after three freeze-thaw cycles. Extracts were stable in the sampler at 4°C for over 48 h. Plasma levels were maintained at 1.36 μg/mL for 360 min after intraorbital intravenous injection at 50 mg/kg in mice. This method can be used to reliably measure epigallocatechin gallate peracetate in plasma for pharmacokinetic studies.

  5. Optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem high resolution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haihua; Yu, Jing; Wu, Linlin; Xing, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Huang, Peipei; Zhang, Jinsong; Xiao, Hang; Gao, Rong

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS) method has been developed and validated for quantification of paraquat in plasma and urine. The sample preparation was carried out by one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The paraquat was separated with a HILIC column in 10min. Detection was performed using Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer by Targeted-MS/MS scan mode. Methodological parameters, such as ammonium formate concentration, formic acid concentration, spray voltage, capillary temperature, heater temperature and normalized collision energy were optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of LOQ-1000ng/mL. LOD was 0.1 and 0.3ng/mL, LOQ was 0.3 and 0.8ng/mL for urine and plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <7.97% and 4.78% for plasma and urine. The accuracies were within the range 93.51-100.90%. The plasma and urine matrices had negligible relative matrix effect in this study. This method was successfully applied to determine paraquat concentration in plasma samples with hemoperfusion from 5 suspected paraquat poisoning patients.

  6. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumann, Klaus G.

    1992-09-01

    In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g. of heavy metals in Antarctic ice and in aerosols in remote areas down to the sub-pg g-1 and sub-pg m-3 levels respectively, in the analysis of uranium and thorium at concentrations of a few pg g-1 in sputter targets for the production of micro- electronic devices or in the determination of sub-picogram amounts of230Th in corals for geochemical age determinations and of226Ra in rock samples. During the last few years negative thermal ionization IDMS has become a frequently used method. The determination of very small amounts of selenium and technetium as well as of other transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are important examples in this field. Also the measurement of silicon in connection with a re-determination of Avogadro's number and osmium analyses for geological age determinations by the Re/Os method are of special interest. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being used for multi-element analyses by the isotope dilution technique. Determinations of heavy metals in samples of marine origin are representative examples for this type of multi-element analysis by IDMS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems have also been successfully applied after chelation of metals (for example Pt determination in clinical samples) or for the determination of volatile element species in the environment, e.g. dimethyl sulfide. However, IDMS--specially at low concentration levels in the environment--seems likely to be one of the most powerful analytical methods for speciation in the future. This has been shown, up to now, for species of

  7. Some Rare Earth Elements Analysis by Microwave Plasma Torch Coupled with the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaohong; Jiang, Tao; Qi, Wenhao; Zuo, Jun; Yang, Meiling; Fei, Qiang; Xiao, Saijin; Yu, Aimin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive mass spectrometric analysis method based on the microwave plasma technique is developed for the fast detection of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in aqueous solution. The plasma was produced from a microwave plasma torch (MPT) under atmospheric pressure and was used as ambient ion source of a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ). Water samples were directly pneumatically nebulized to flow into the plasma through the central tube of MPT. For some REEs, the generated composite ions were detected in both positive and negative ion modes and further characterized in tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was at the level 0.1 ng/mL using MS2 procedure in negative mode. A single REE analysis can be completed within 2~3 minutes with the relative standard deviation ranging between 2.4% and 21.2% (six repeated measurements) for the 5 experimental runs. Moreover, the recovery rates of these REEs are between the range of 97.6%–122.1%. Two real samples have also been analyzed, including well and orange juice. These experimental data demonstrated that this method is a useful tool for the field analysis of REEs in water and can be used as an alternative supplement of ICP-MS. PMID:26421013

  8. Measurement of femtogram quantities of protactinium in silicate rock samples by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Regelous, Marcel; Turner, Simon P; Elliott, Tim R; Rostami, Kia; Hawkesworth, Chris J

    2004-07-01

    We describe a new method for the chemical separation and analysis of Pa in silicate rock samples by isotope dilution. Our new technique has the following advantages over previous methods: (a) The initial separation of Pa from the rock matrix is carried out using anionic exchange resin and HCl-HF mixtures, avoiding the need to remove F(-) quantitatively from the sample solution prior to this step, (b) Efficient ionization of Pa is achieved using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, so that smaller sample sizes and shorter measurement times are required, compared to previous methods using thermal ionization mass spectrometry or alpha spectrometry. (c) Plasma ionization requires less efficient separation of the high field strength elements from Pa, thus reducing reagent volumes, blanks, and sample preparation times. Instrumental mass fractionation can be corrected for using admixed U of known isotopic composition. Using this method, Pa concentrations can be measured to a precision of approximately 0.5% and an accuracy of approximately 1% using only a few tens of femtograms of Pa.

  9. New approach to the determination phosphorothioate oligonucleotides by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Studzińska, Sylwia; Mounicou, Sandra; Szpunar, Joanna; Łobiński, Ryszard; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2015-01-15

    This text presents a novel method for the separation and detection of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides with the use of ion pair ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry The research showed that hexafluoroisopropanol/triethylamine based mobile phases may be successfully used when liquid chromatography is coupled with such elemental detection. However, the concentration of both HFIP and TEA influences the final result. The lower concentration of HFIP, the lower the background in ICP-MS and the greater the sensitivity. The method applied for the analysis of serum samples was based on high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Utilization of this method allows determination of fifty times lower quantity of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides than in the case of quadrupole mass analyzer. Monitoring of (31)P may be used to quantify these compounds at the level of 80 μg L(-1), while simultaneous determination of sulfur is very useful for qualitative analysis. Moreover, the results presented in this paper demonstrate the practical applicability of coupling LC with ICP-MS in determining phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and their metabolites in serum within 7 min with a very good sensitivity. The method was linear in the concentration range between 0.2 and 3 mg L(-1). The limit of detection was in the range of 0.07 and 0.13 mg L(-1). Accuracy varied with concentration, but was in the range of 3%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of vaporization of yttrium and rare earth elements in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, D. M.; Grégoire, D. C.; Chakrabarti, C. L.

    1995-09-01

    The mechanism of vaporization of yttrium and the rare earth elements (REEs) has been studied using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The appearance temperatures for Y and the REEs obtained by GFAAS were generally identical to the appearance temperatures obtained using ETV-ICP-MS. At lower temperatures, Y and the REEs are predominantly vaporized in atomic form or as oxides, while at temperatures above 2500°C, the elements are vaporized as oxides and/or carbides. This accounts for the very high sensitivity of ETV-ICP-MS compared to GFAAS for the determination of these elements. Absolute limits of detection for Y and all of the REEs using ETV-ICP-MS ranged from 0.002 pg for Tm to 0.2 pg for Ce. The use of freon as a chemical modifier was effective in controlling analyte carbide formation and reducing memory effects.

  11. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dennis D.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    Atomic spectroscopy has played a major role in the development of our current database for mineral nutrients and toxicants in foods. When atomic absorption spectrometers became widely available in the 1960s, the development of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods for accurately measuring trace amounts of mineral elements in biological samples paved the way for unprecedented advances in fields as diverse as food analysis, nutrition, biochemistry, and toxicology (1). The application of plasmas as excitation sources for atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) led to the commercial availability of instruments for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) beginning in the late 1970s. This instrument has further enhanced our ability to measure the mineral composition of foods and other materials rapidly, accurately, and precisely. More recently, plasmas have been joined with mass spectrometers (MS) to form inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer ICP-MS instruments that are capable of measuring mineral elements with extremely low detection limits. These three instrumental methods have largely replaced traditional wet chemistry methods for mineral analysis of foods, although traditional methods for calcium, chloride, iron, and phosphorus remain in use today (see Chap. 12).

  12. Reduction of plyatomic ion interferences in indictively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Luis C.

    1993-09-01

    A desolvation scheme for introducing aqueous and organic samples into an argon inductively coupled plasma is described; the aerosol generated by nebulizer is heated (+140 C) and cooled (-80 C) repeatedly, and the dried aerosol is then injected into the mass spectrometer. Polyatomic ions are greatly suppressed. This scheme was validated with analysis of seawater and urine reference samples. Finally, the removal of organic solvents by cryogenic desolvation was studied.

  13. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated.

  14. Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with IonCCD Detection and an Inductively Coupled Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Elise A.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-03-01

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is demonstrated for the first time with a commercially available ion detector—the IonCCD camera. Because DOFMS is a velocity-based MS technique that provides spatially dispersive, simultaneous mass spectrometry, a position-sensitive ion detector is needed for mass-spectral collection. The IonCCD camera is a 5.1-cm long, 1-D array that is capable of simultaneous, multichannel ion detection along a focal plane, which makes it an attractive option for DOFMS. In the current study, the IonCCD camera is evaluated for DOFMS with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source over a relatively short field-free mass-separation distance of 25.3-30.4 cm. The combination of ICP-DOFMS and the IonCCD detector results in a mass-spectral resolving power (FWHM) of approximately 900 and isotope-ratio precision equivalent to or slightly better than current ICP-TOFMS systems. The measured isotope-ratio precision in % relative standard deviation (%RSD) was ≥0.008%RSD for nonconsecutive isotopes at 10-ppm concentration (near the ion-signal saturation point) and ≥0.02%RSD for all isotopes at 1-ppm. Results of DOFMS with the IonCCD camera are also compared with those of two previously characterized detection setups.

  15. Laser mass-spectrometry for online diagnosis of reactive plasmas with many species

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Chunlei; Gao Liang; Liu Jiahong; Zhang Lei; Ding Hongbin

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to design a diagnostic system for reactive plasma environment by combining molecular-beam time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy with laser spectroscopy technique. The combination of TOF mass spectrometers and pulsed lasers is favorable in the diagnosis of intermediate species distribution since they allow the simultaneous but separate recording of the spectra of different species. In the plasma system, the intermediate species in electronic ground state or low lying excited state is pumped to higher energy level with resonant laser excitation, and then, the ionization with a second laser system is possible which can readily be detected by the TOF analyzer. The ionization itself is only used as a detection mechanism for the observation of the excitation of these states. In this manner, the population distribution of intermediate species can be determined with state-selective and mass-selective feature. Also, in this article, a flexible data acquisition and automatic control system based on LABVIEW was designed to integrate all the stand-alone measurement instruments including a TOF spectrometer, a laser system, a high performance oscilloscope, and a digital delay generator into a single personal computer-based control unit. Moreover, a virtual Boxcar integrator with hundreds of channels has been developed to enhance the signal while filtering out the random noises. Finally, the many potentials of this technique in the application of plasma diagnosis will be discussed.

  16. Laser mass-spectrometry for online diagnosis of reactive plasmas with many species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chun-Lei; Gao, Liang; Liu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Hongbin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a diagnostic system for reactive plasma environment by combining molecular-beam time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy with laser spectroscopy technique. The combination of TOF mass spectrometers and pulsed lasers is favorable in the diagnosis of intermediate species distribution since they allow the simultaneous but separate recording of the spectra of different species. In the plasma system, the intermediate species in electronic ground state or low lying excited state is pumped to higher energy level with resonant laser excitation, and then, the ionization with a second laser system is possible which can readily be detected by the TOF analyzer. The ionization itself is only used as a detection mechanism for the observation of the excitation of these states. In this manner, the population distribution of intermediate species can be determined with state-selective and mass-selective feature. Also, in this article, a flexible data acquisition and automatic control system based on LABVIEW was designed to integrate all the stand-alone measurement instruments including a TOF spectrometer, a laser system, a high performance oscilloscope, and a digital delay generator into a single personal computer-based control unit. Moreover, a virtual Boxcar integrator with hundreds of channels has been developed to enhance the signal while filtering out the random noises. Finally, the many potentials of this technique in the application of plasma diagnosis will be discussed.

  17. Meningococcal endotoxin in lethal septic shock plasma studied by gas chromatography, mass-spectrometry, ultracentrifugation, and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brandtzaeg, P; Bryn, K; Kierulf, P; Ovstebø, R; Namork, E; Aase, B; Jantzen, E

    1992-03-01

    We have compared gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay to quantify native meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in five patient plasmas containing greater than 5 micrograms/liter by LAL. 3-Hydroxy lauric acid (3-OH-12:0) was used as a specific lipid A marker of neisserial LPS. The quantitative LAL results were confirmed by GC-MS (r = 0.98, P = 0.006). Seven patient plasmas were centrifuged at 103,000 g and the sedimentation behavior of native LPS compared with reference plasma proteins and with apo A1 and apo B100 representing high and low density lipoproteins. After 15 min of centrifugation, 84 +/- 2% (mean +/- SE) of the recovered LPS were found in the lower one-third of the centrifuged volume, whereas 6 +/- 1% remained in the upper one-third volume, indicating that meningococcal endotoxin circulates as complexes with high sedimentation coefficients. Bacterial outer membrane fragments were detected in the bottom fractions of three patient plasmas examined by means of electron microscopy. In three patient plasmas ultracentrifuged for 60 min at 103,000 g, the levels of apo A1 and apo B100 revealed minor changes, whereas only 1 +/- 1% of the recovered LPS remained in the upper one-third and 91 +/- 2% were found in the lower one-third volume. Few bioreactive LPS appear to be complexed with high and low density lipoproteins in meningococcal septic shock plasma.

  18. Meningococcal endotoxin in lethal septic shock plasma studied by gas chromatography, mass-spectrometry, ultracentrifugation, and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Brandtzaeg, P; Bryn, K; Kierulf, P; Ovstebø, R; Namork, E; Aase, B; Jantzen, E

    1992-01-01

    We have compared gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay to quantify native meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in five patient plasmas containing greater than 5 micrograms/liter by LAL. 3-Hydroxy lauric acid (3-OH-12:0) was used as a specific lipid A marker of neisserial LPS. The quantitative LAL results were confirmed by GC-MS (r = 0.98, P = 0.006). Seven patient plasmas were centrifuged at 103,000 g and the sedimentation behavior of native LPS compared with reference plasma proteins and with apo A1 and apo B100 representing high and low density lipoproteins. After 15 min of centrifugation, 84 +/- 2% (mean +/- SE) of the recovered LPS were found in the lower one-third of the centrifuged volume, whereas 6 +/- 1% remained in the upper one-third volume, indicating that meningococcal endotoxin circulates as complexes with high sedimentation coefficients. Bacterial outer membrane fragments were detected in the bottom fractions of three patient plasmas examined by means of electron microscopy. In three patient plasmas ultracentrifuged for 60 min at 103,000 g, the levels of apo A1 and apo B100 revealed minor changes, whereas only 1 +/- 1% of the recovered LPS remained in the upper one-third and 91 +/- 2% were found in the lower one-third volume. Few bioreactive LPS appear to be complexed with high and low density lipoproteins in meningococcal septic shock plasma. Images PMID:1541674

  19. 'Plug and Play' assembly of a low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) system.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Torres, Mauricio; López-Hernández, José Fabricio; Jiménez-Sandoval, Pedro; Winkler, Robert

    2014-05-06

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is of high and growing interest in life science research, but the investment for necessary equipment is often prohibitive for small research groups. Therefore, we developed a basic MSI system from low cost 'Plug and Play' components, which are connected to the Universal Serial Bus (USB) of a standard computer. Our open source software OpenMZxy (http://www.bioprocess.org/openmzxy) enables automatic and manual sampling, as well as the recording of position data. For ionization we used a low-temperature plasma probe (LTP), coupled to a quadrupole mass analyzer. The current set-up has a practical resolution of 1mm, and a sampling area of 100×100mm, resulting in up to 10,000 sampling points. Our prototype is easy and economical to adopt for different types of mass analyzers. We prove the usability of the LTP-MSI system for macroscopic samples by imaging the distribution of metabolites in the longitudinal cross-cut of a chili (Capsicum annuum, 'Jalapeño pepper') fruit. The localization of capsaicin in the placenta could be confirmed. But additionally, yet unknown low molecular weight compounds were detected in defined areas, which underline the potential of LTP-MSI for the imaging of volatile and semi-volatile metabolites and for the discovery of new natural products. Biological significance Knowledge about the spatial distribution of metabolites, proteins, or lipids in a given tissue often leads to novel findings in medicine and biology. Therefore, mass spectrometry based imaging (MSI) is becoming increasingly popular in life science research. However, the investment for necessary equipment is often prohibitive for small research groups. We built a prototype with an ambient ionization source, which is easy and economical to adopt for different types of mass analyzers. Therefore, we hope that our system contributes to a broader use of mass spectrometry imaging for answering biological questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Application of inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry for low-level environmental americium-241 analysis.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt

    2007-03-28

    An improved and novel sample preparation method for (241)Am analysis by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry has been developed. The procedure involves a selective CaF(2) pre-concentration followed by an extraction chromatographic separation using TRU resin. The achieved absolute detection limit of 0.86 fg (0.11 mBq) is comparable to that of alpha spectrometry (0.1 mBq) and suitable for low-level environmental measurements. Analysis of different kinds of environmental standard reference materials (IAEA-384--Fangataufa lagoon sediment, IAEA-385--Irish Sea sediment and IAEA-308--Mixed seaweed from the Mediterranean Sea) and alpha spectrometry were used to validate the procedure. The chemical recovery of sample preparation ranged between 72 and 94%. The results obtained are in good agreement with reference values and those measured by alpha spectrometry. The proposed method offers a rapid and less labor-intensive possibility for environmental (241)Am analysis than the conventionally applied radioanalytical techniques.

  1. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  2. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  3. Characterization of Plasma Membrane Proteins from Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Springer, David L.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Ahram, Mamoun; ...

    2004-01-01

    To determine how the repertoire of plasma membrane proteins change with disease state, specifically related to cancer, several methods for preparation of plasma membrane proteins were evaluated. Cultured cells derived from stage IV ovarian tumors were grown to 90% confluence and harvested in buffer containing CHAPS detergent. This preparation was centrifuged at low speed to remove insoluble cellular debris resulting in a crude homogenate. Glycosylated proteins in the crude homogenate were selectively enriched using lectin affinity chromatography. The crude homogenate and the lectin purified sample were prepared for mass spectrometric evaluation. The general procedure for protein identification began with trypsinmore » digestion of protein fractions followed by separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography that was coupled directly to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer (i.e. LCQ ion trap). Mass and fragmentation data for the peptides were searched against a human proteome data base using the informatics program SEQUEST. Using this procedure 398 proteins were identified with high confidence, including receptors, membrane-associated ligands, proteases, phosphatases, as well as structural and adhesion proteins. Results indicate that lectin chromatography provides a select subset of proteins and that the number and quality of the identifications improve as does the confidence of the protein identifications for this subset. These results represent the first step in development of methods to separate and successfully identify plasma membrane proteins from advanced ovarian cancer cells. Further characterization of plasma membrane proteins will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying progression of this deadly disease and may lead to new targeted interventions as well as new biomarkers for diagnosis.« less

  4. Characterization of Plasma Membrane Proteins from Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David L.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Ahram, Mamoun; Adkins, Joshua N.; Feldhaus, Jane M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wunsch, David M.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-01-01

    To determine how the repertoire of plasma membrane proteins change with disease state, specifically related to cancer, several methods for preparation of plasma membrane proteins were evaluated. Cultured cells derived from stage IV ovarian tumors were grown to 90% confluence and harvested in buffer containing CHAPS detergent. This preparation was centrifuged at low speed to remove insoluble cellular debris resulting in a crude homogenate. Glycosylated proteins in the crude homogenate were selectively enriched using lectin affinity chromatography. The crude homogenate and the lectin purified sample were prepared for mass spectrometric evaluation. The general procedure for protein identification began with trypsin digestion of protein fractions followed by separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography that was coupled directly to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer (i.e. LCQ ion trap). Mass and fragmentation data for the peptides were searched against a human proteome data base using the informatics program SEQUEST. Using this procedure 398 proteins were identified with high confidence, including receptors, membrane-associated ligands, proteases, phosphatases, as well as structural and adhesion proteins. Results indicate that lectin chromatography provides a select subset of proteins and that the number and quality of the identifications improve as does the confidence of the protein identifications for this subset. These results represent the first step in development of methods to separate and successfully identify plasma membrane proteins from advanced ovarian cancer cells. Further characterization of plasma membrane proteins will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying progression of this deadly disease and may lead to new targeted interventions as well as new biomarkers for diagnosis.

  5. Characterization of Plasma Membrane Proteins from Ovarian Cancer Cells Using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Springer, David L.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Ahram, Mamoun; Adkins, Joshua N.; Feldhaus, Jane M.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wunschel, David S.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2004-01-01

    To determine how the repertoire of plasma membrane proteins change with disease state, specifically related to cancer, several methods for preparation of plasma membrane proteins were evaluated. Cultured cells derived from stage IV ovarian tumors were grown to 90% confluence and harvested in buffer containing CHAPS detergent. This preparation was centrifuged at low speed to remove insoluble cellular debris resulting in a crude homogenate. Glycosylated proteins in the crude homogenate were selectively enriched using lectin affinity chromatography. The crude homogenate and the lectin purified sample were prepared for mass spectrometric evaluation. The general procedure for protein identification began with trypsin digestion of protein fractions followed by separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography that was coupled directly to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer (i.e. LCQ ion trap). Mass and fragmentation data for the peptides were searched against a human proteome data base using the informatics program SEQUEST. Using this procedure 398 proteins were identified with high confidence, including receptors, membrane-associated ligands, proteases, phosphatases, as well as structural and adhesion proteins. Results indicate that lectin chromatography provides a select subset of proteins and that the number and quality of the identifications improve as does the confidence of the protein identifications for this subset. These results represent the first step in development of methods to separate and successfully identify plasma membrane proteins from advanced ovarian cancer cells. Further characterization of plasma membrane proteins will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying progression of this deadly disease and may lead to new targeted interventions as well as new biomarkers for diagnosis. PMID:15258336

  6. Characterization of plasma membrane proteins from ovarian cancer cells using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Springer, David L; Auberry, Deanna L; Ahram, Mamoun; Adkins, Joshua N; Feldhaus, Jane M; Wahl, Jon H; Wunschel, David S; Rodland, Karin D

    To determine how the repertoire of plasma membrane proteins change with disease state, specifically related to cancer, several methods for preparation of plasma membrane proteins were evaluated. Cultured cells derived from stage IV ovarian tumors were grown to 90% confluence and harvested in buffer containing CHAPS detergent. This preparation was centrifuged at low speed to remove insoluble cellular debris resulting in a crude homogenate. Glycosylated proteins in the crude homogenate were selectively enriched using lectin affinity chromatography. The crude homogenate and the lectin purified sample were prepared for mass spectrometric evaluation. The general procedure for protein identification began with trypsin digestion of protein fractions followed by separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography that was coupled directly to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer (i.e. LCQ ion trap). Mass and fragmentation data for the peptides were searched against a human proteome data base using the informatics program SEQUEST. Using this procedure 398 proteins were identified with high confidence, including receptors, membrane-associated ligands, proteases, phosphatases, as well as structural and adhesion proteins. Results indicate that lectin chromatography provides a select subset of proteins and that the number and quality of the identifications improve as does the confidence of the protein identifications for this subset. These results represent the first step in development of methods to separate and successfully identify plasma membrane proteins from advanced ovarian cancer cells. Further characterization of plasma membrane proteins will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying progression of this deadly disease and may lead to new targeted interventions as well as new biomarkers for diagnosis.

  7. Rapid identification and analysis of airborne plutonium using a combination of alpha spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Dennis E; Steed, Amber C; Sobus, Jon; Stetzenbach, Klaus; Lindley, Kaz; Hodge, Vernon F

    2003-10-01

    Recent wildland fires near two U.S. nuclear facilities point to a need to rapidly identify the presence of airborne plutonium during incidents involving the potential release of radioactive materials. Laboratory turn-around times also need to be shortened for critical samples collected in the earliest stages of radiological emergencies. This note discusses preliminary investigations designed to address both these problems. The methods under review are same day high-resolution alpha spectroscopy to screen air filter samples for the presence of plutonium and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to perform sensitive plutonium analyses. Thus far, using modified alpha spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to reliably identify the approximately 5.2 MeV emission of 239Pu on surrogate samples (air filters artificially spiked with plutonium after collection) even though the primary alpha-particle emissions of plutonium are, as expected, superimposed against a natural alpha radiation background dominated by short-lived radon and thoron progeny (approximately 6-9 MeV). Several processing methods were tested to prepare samples for analysis and shorten laboratory turn-around time. The most promising technique was acid-leaching of air filter samples using a commercial open-vessel microwave digestion system. Samples prepared in this way were analyzed by both alpha spectroscopy (as a thin-layer iron hydroxide co-precipitate) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection levels achieved for 239Pu--approximately 1 mBq m(-3) for alpha spectroscopy screening, and, < 0.1 mBq m(-3) for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis--are consistent with derived emergency response levels based on EPA's Protective Action Guides, and samples can be evaluated in 36 to 72 h. Further, if samples can be returned to a fixed-laboratory and processed immediately, results from mass spectrometry could be available in as little as 24 h. When fully implemented

  8. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    The reaction of sunflower oil with selenite produces a complex mixture of selenitriglycerides with antioxidant and anticancer properties. To obtain insight into the identity and characteristics of the species formed, an analytical approach based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with (78)Se-specific selenium detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-resolution (100 000), high mass accuracy (<1 ppm) molecule-specific detection by electrospray-Orbitrap MS(3) was developed. For the first time, a non-aqueous mobile phase gradient was used in reversed-phase HPLC-ICP MS for the separation of a complex mixture of selenospecies and a mathematical correction of the background signal was developed. The identical chromatographic conditions served for the sample introduction into electrospray MS. Two types of samples were analyzed: sunflower oil dissolved in isopropanol and methanol extract of the oil containing 65% selenium. HPLC-ICP MS showed 14 peaks, 11 of which could also be detected in the methanol extract. Isotopic patterns corresponding to molecules with one or two selenium atoms could be attributed by Orbitrap MS at the retention times corresponding to the HPLC-ICP MS peak apexes. Structural data for these species were acquired by MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of protonated or sodiated ions using high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD). A total of 11 selenium-containing triglycerol derivatives resulting from the oxidation of one or two double bonds of linoleic acid and analogous derivatives of glycerol-mixed linoleate(s)/oleinate(s) have been identified for the first time. The presence of these species was confirmed by the targeted analysis in the total oil isopropanol solution. Their identification corroborated the predicted elution order in reversed-phase chromatography: LLL (glycerol trilinoleate), LLO (glycerol dilinoleate-oleinate), LOO (glycerol linoleate-dioleinate), OOO (glycerol

  9. Determination of 237Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Jones, Vernon D; Nichols, Sheldon T; Bernard, Maureen A; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-03

    A new method for the determination of (237)Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of (237)Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. (238)U can interfere with (239)Pu measurement by ICP-MS as (238)UH(+) mass overlap and (237)Np via (238)U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1×10(6). Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived (238)Pu isotope can be measured successfully. (239) Pu, (242)Pu and (237)Np were measured by ICP-MS, while (236)Pu and (238)Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DETERMINATION OF 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-07-26

    A new method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via {sup 238}U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1 x 10{sup 6}. Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived {sup 238}Pu isotope can be measured successfully. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu and {sup 238}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  11. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-09-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  12. Quantitation of drugs via molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: benzodiazepines in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Sparrapan, Regina; Sanvido, Gustavo Braga; Santos, Mariane Gonçalves; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2011-09-21

    The association of solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is applied to the direct extraction and quantitation of benzodiazepines in human plasma. The target analytes are sequestered by MIP and directly analyzed by ESI-MS. Due to the MIP highly selective extraction, ionic suppression during ESI is minimized; hence no separation is necessary prior to ESI-MS, which greatly increases analytical speed. Benzodiazepines (medazepam, nitrazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam and midazolam) in human plasma were chosen as a proof-of-principle case of drug analyses by MIP-ESI-MS in a complex matrix. MIP-ESI-MS displayed good figures of merits for medazepam, nitrazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and midazolam, with analytical calibration curves ranging from 10 to 250 μg L(-1) (r > 0.98) with limit of quantification <10 μg L(-1) and acceptable within-day and between-day precision and accuracy.

  13. Sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for estimation of fulvestrant in rabbit plasma.

    PubMed

    Balaram, Varanasi Murali; Parmar, Dharmesh; Teja, Bulusu B; Rathnam, Shivprakash; Rao, Jangala Venkateswara; Dasandi, Bhavesh

    2010-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for estimation of fulvestrant in rabbit plasma using liquid-liquid extraction. The separation and quantification of fulvestrant were achieved by reverse-phase chromatography on a Sunfire C18 column (50 x 2.1. i.d., 3.5 microm) with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 300 microL/min using norethistrone as an internal standard from 500 microL plasma sample. The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.092 to 16.937 ng/mL with a lower limit of detection of 0.023 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within 10%. The recovery was 85 and 90% for fulvestrant and norethistrone respectively. The chromatographic run time was only 2.5 min.

  14. Determination of dexamethasone and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in human plasma and cochlear perilymph by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Moore, Grant A; Jensen, Berit P; Begg, Evan J; Bird, Philip A

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed for the determination of dexamethasone (Dex) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Dex SP) in plasma and human cochlear perilymph. After proteins were precipitated with a mixture of acetonitrile and methanol, Dex, Dex SP and flumethasone, the internal standard, were resolved on a C18 column using gradient elution of 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The three compounds were detected using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range 0.5-500 μg/L (r>0.99), bias was <±10%, intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (imprecision) were <10%, and the limit of quantification was 0.5 μg/L for both Dex and Dex SP. The assay has been used successfully in a clinical pharmacokinetics study of Dex and Dex SP in cochlear perilymph and plasma.

  15. [Search for potential gastric cancer biomarkers using low molecular weight blood plasma proteome profiling by mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, V E; Arnotskaia, N E; Ogorodnikova, E V; Davydov, M M; Ibraev, M A; Turkin, I N; Davydov, M I

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most widespread malignant tumors, still lacks reliable serum/plasma biomarkers of its early detection. In this study we have developed, unified, and tested a new methodology for search of gastric cancer biomarkers based on profiling of low molecular weight proteome (LMWP) (1-17 kDa). This approach included three main components: sample pre-fractionation, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), data analysis by a bioinformatics software package. Applicability and perspectives of the developed approach for detection of potential gastric cancer markers during LMWP analysis have been demonstrated using 69 plasma samples from patients with gastric cancer (stages I-IV) and 238 control samples. The study revealed peptides/polypeptides, which may be potentially used for detection of this pathology.

  16. Multielemental analysis of prehistoric animal teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Galiova, Michaela; Kaiser, Jozef; Fortes, Francisco J.; Novotny, Karel; Malina, Radomir; Prokes, Lubomir; Hrdlicka, Ales; Vaculovic, Tomas; Nyvltova Fisakova, Miriam; Svoboda, Jiri; Kanicky, Viktor; Laserna, Javier J.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) were utilized for microspatial analyses of a prehistoric bear (Ursus arctos) tooth dentine. The distribution of selected trace elements (Sr, Ba, Fe) was measured on a 26 mmx15 mm large and 3 mm thick transverse cross section of a canine tooth. The Na and Mg content together with the distribution of matrix elements (Ca, P) was also monitored within this area. The depth of the LIBS craters was measured with an optical profilometer. As shown, both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS can be successfully used for the fast, spatially resolved analysis of prehistoric teeth samples. In addition to microchemical analysis, the sample hardness was calculated using LIBS plasma ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios of Mg (or Ca). To validate the sample hardness calculations, the hardness was also measured with a Vickers microhardness tester.

  17. Determination of dexmedetomidine in children's plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Cheng; Sun, Wei; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Ying, Wei-Yang; Zheng, Li-Dan; Zeng, Rui-Feng; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-06-15

    A rapid, sensitive, and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of dexmedetomidine in children's plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with 0.2mL of acetonitrile to a 0.1mL plasma sample. Plasma samples were separated by UPLC on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. The total run time was 3.1min and the elution of dexmedetomidine was at 1.24min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the respective transitions m/z 201.3→95.1 for dexmedetomidine and m/z 204.2→98.0 for the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.05-10ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.05ng/mL. Mean recovery rate of dexmedetomidine in plasma was in the range of 86.7-89.1%. Intra-day and inter-day precision were both <11.6%. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after commencement of 1.0μg/kg dexmedetomidine infusion in children.

  18. Rapid determination of tafenoquine in small volume human plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Doyle, E; Fowles, S E; Summerfield, S; White, T J

    2002-03-25

    A method was developed for the determination of tafenoquine (I) in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Prior to analysis, the protein in plasma samples was precipitated with methanol containing [2H3(15N)]tafenoquine (II) to act as an internal standard. The supernatant was injected onto a Genesis-C18 column without any further clean-up. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ion mode, employing a heat assisted nebulisation, electrospray interface. Ions were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The assay required 50 microl of plasma and was precise and accurate within the range 2 to 500 ng/ml. The average within-run and between-run relative standard deviations were < 7% at 2 ng/ml and greater concentrations. The average accuracy of validation standards was generally within +/- 4% of the nominal concentration. There was no evidence of instability of I in human plasma following three complete freeze-thaw cycles and samples can safely be stored for at least 8 months at approximately -70 degrees C. The method was very robust and has been successfully applied to the analysis of clinical samples from patients and healthy volunteers dosed with I.

  19. Comparison of Analytical Methods for the Determination of Uranium in Seawater Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Jordana R.; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Choe, Key-Young

    2016-04-20

    Trace element determinations in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are analytically challenging due to the typically very low concentrations of the trace elements and the potential interference of the salt matrix. In this study, we did a comparison for uranium analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of Sequim Bay seawater samples and three seawater certified reference materials (SLEW-3, CASS-5 and NASS-6) using seven different analytical approaches. The methods evaluated include: direct analysis, Fe/Pd reductive precipitation, standard addition calibration, online automated dilution using an external calibration with and without matrix matching, and online automated pre-concentration. The method which produced the most accurate results was the method of standard addition calibration, recovering uranium from a Sequim Bay seawater sample at 101 ± 1.2%. The on-line preconcentration method and the automated dilution with matrix-matched calibration method also performed well. The two least effective methods were the direct analysis and the Fe/Pd reductive precipitation using sodium borohydride

  20. Controlled dissolution of silicon dioxide layers for depth resolved multielement analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorge, Susan E.; Houk, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Dissolution procedures were developed to control the number of surface layers removed, in an attempt to achieve depth resolved analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). NIST 612 glass was chosen because it is a homogeneous material with many elements at interesting concentrations, ~ 50 ppm. Varying dissolution time and HF concentration resulted in the reproducible removal of SiO 2 layers as thin as 70 Å deep. Dissolved trace metals were determined after dilution by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a magnetic sector instrument. The amount removed was determined from the concentration of a major element, Ca. With the exception of Zn, trace metal concentrations agreed reasonably well with their certified values for removal depths of 500, 300 and 150 Å. Zinc concentration was significantly high in all dissolutions indicating either a contamination problem or that Zn is removed at a faster rate than Ca. For the dissolutions that removed 70 Å of SiO 2, Cr, Mn, Co, Sr, Cd, Ce, Dy, Er, Yb and U recovery results agreed with their certified values (~ 50 ppm); Ti, As, Mo, Ba, and Th could not be determined because net intensities were below 3 σ of the blank; and measured concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn were well above the certified values.

  1. Determination of Hg in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after on-line pre-concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Edson Luiz; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; Pozebon, Dirce; Curtius, Adilson José

    2001-10-01

    A method for the determination of Hg in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, after an on-line separation and pre-concentration, is described. The matrix separation was accomplished by retention of the Hg complex with the ammonium salt of O, O-diethyl dithiophosphoric acid on C 18 immobilized on silica in a micro-column. Before pre-concentration, the seawater sample was acidified with HNO 3 to 0.14 mol l -1. Methanol was used as the eluent, which was introduced into the conventional pneumatic nebulizer of the instrument. External calibration with aqueous analytical solutions, submitted to the same procedure, was used. An enhancement factor of 16 was obtained, and the limit of detection was 5 ng l -1. The sample consumption was 2.3 ml per determination, and the sampling frequency was 21 h -1. The accuracy was tested by comparison with vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The agreement between the Hg concentrations measured by the two methods in the seawater samples was good.

  2. Calibration of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for the quantitative analysis of solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, James

    1999-02-12

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become the method of choice for elemental and isotopic analysis. Several factors contribute to its success. Modern instruments are capable of routine analysis at part per trillion levels with relative detection limits in part per quadrillion levels. Sensitivities in these instruments can be as high as 200 million counts per second per part per million with linear dynamic ranges up to eight orders of magnitude. With standards for only a few elements, rapid semiquantitative analysis of over 70 elements in an individual sample can be performed. Less than 20 years after its inception ICP-MS has shown to be applicable to several areas of science. These include geochemistry, the nuclear industry, environmental chemistry, clinical chemistry, the semiconductor industry, and forensic chemistry. In this introduction, the general attributes of ICP-MS will be discussed in terms of instrumentation and sample introduction. The advantages and disadvantages of current systems are presented. A detailed description of one method of sample introduction, laser ablation, is given. The paper also gives conclusions and suggestions for future work. Chapter 2, Quantitative analysis of solids by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using dried solution aerosols for calibration, has been removed for separate processing.

  3. Determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Li, Li-Min; Xia, Jing; Cao, Shuai; Hu, Xin; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Ji, Shen

    2015-12-01

    An analytical method that combined high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines. Hexavalent chromium was extracted using the alkaline solution. The parameters such as the concentration of alkaline and the extraction temperature have been optimized to minimize the interconversion between trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. The extracted hexavalent chromium was separated on a weak anion exchange column in isocratic mode, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination. To obtain a better chromatographic resolution and sensitivity, 75 mM NH4 NO3 at pH 7 was selected as the mobile phase. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 0.2-5.0 μg L(-1) (r(2) = 0.9999) for hexavalent chromium. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.1 and 0.3 μg L(-1) , respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of hexavalent chromium in Chloriti lapis and Lumbricus with satisfactory recoveries of 95.8-112.8%.

  4. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  5. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  6. High Resolution Studies of the Origins of Polyatomic Ions in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Jill Wisnewski

    2006-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Traditionally, the plasma is sampled via a sampler cone. A supersonic jet develops behind the sampler, and this region is pumped down to a pressure of approximately one Torr. A skimmer cone is located inside this zone of silence to transmit ions into the mass spectrometer. The position of the sampler and skimmer cones relative to the initial radiation and normal analytical zones of the plasma is key to optimizing the useful analytical signal [1]. The ICP both atomizes and ionizes the sample. Polyatomic ions form through ion-molecule interactions either in the ICP or during ion extraction [l]. Common polyatomic ions that inhibit analysis include metal oxides (MO+), adducts with argon, the gas most commonly used to make up the plasma, and hydride species. While high resolution devices can separate many analytes from common interferences, this is done at great cost in ion transmission efficiency--a loss of 99% when using high versus low resolution on the same instrument [2]. Simple quadrupole devices, which make up the bulk of ICP-MS instruments in existence, do not present this option. Therefore, if the source of polyatomic interferences can be determined and then manipulated, this could potentially improve the figures of merit on all ICP-MS devices, not just the high resolution devices often utilized to study polyatomic interferences.

  7. Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-07-01

    Cost effective and a very simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for thin film deposition and mass spectroscopic analysis of organic gas mixture has been described. The interesting features of the apparatus are the construction of the dielectric electrodes made of aluminum oxide or alumina (Al2O3) and glass and the generation of high ignition voltage from the spark plug transformer taken from car. Metal capacitor is introduced in between ground and oscilloscope to measure the executing power during the discharge and the average electron density in the plasma region. The organic polymer films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate using several organic gas compositions. The experimental setup provides a unique drainage system from the reaction chamber controlled by a membrane pump to suck out and remove the poisonous gases or residuals (cyanogens, H-CN, CHxNH2, etc.) which have been produced during the discharge of CH4/N2 mixture.

  8. Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-07-01

    Cost effective and a very simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for thin film deposition and mass spectroscopic analysis of organic gas mixture has been described. The interesting features of the apparatus are the construction of the dielectric electrodes made of aluminum oxide or alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and glass and the generation of high ignition voltage from the spark plug transformer taken from car. Metal capacitor is introduced in between ground and oscilloscope to measure the executing power during the discharge and the average electron density in the plasma region. The organic polymer films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate using several organic gas compositions. The experimental setup provides a unique drainage system from the reaction chamber controlled by a membrane pump to suck out and remove the poisonous gases or residuals (cyanogens, H-CN, CH(x)NH(2), etc.) which have been produced during the discharge of CH(4)N(2) mixture.

  9. Handheld low-temperature plasma probe for portable "point-and-shoot" ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua S; Shelley, Jacob T; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-07-16

    We describe a handheld, wireless low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization source and its performance on a benchtop and a miniature mass spectrometer. The source, which is inexpensive to build and operate, is battery-powered and utilizes miniature helium cylinders or air as the discharge gas. Comparison of a conventional, large-scale LTP source against the handheld LTP source, which uses less helium and power than the large-scale version, revealed that the handheld source had similar or slightly better analytical performance. Another advantage of the handheld LTP source is the ability to quickly interrogate a gaseous, liquid, or solid sample without requiring any setup time. A small, 7.4-V Li-polymer battery is able to sustain plasma for 2 h continuously, while the miniature helium cylinder supplies gas flow for approximately 8 continuous hours. Long-distance ion transfer was achieved for distances up to 1 m.

  10. Extraction and quantitation of carfentanil and naltrexone in goat plasma with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert P; Koch, David E; Mutlow, Adrian; Isaza, Ramiro

    2003-08-15

    This method is the first analytical method for the detection and quantitation of carfentanil and naltrexone at clinically relevant concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples were alkalinized with 100 microl of 1 M NaOH and extracted 2x with 2 ml of toluene. The extractions were combined and dried under N(2) at 40 degrees C in a H(2)O bath. Chromatography was performed using a Zirchrom PBD column and a mobile phase of 30:70 acetonitrile/10 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1 mM citrate (pH=4.4) at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. The lower limit of quantitation was 8.5 pg/ml for carfentanil and 0.21 ng/ml for naltrexone.

  11. Determination of famotidine in low-volume human plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Eisenhandler, R; Yeh, K C

    2001-07-01

    A rapid, sensitive and robust assay procedure using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the determination of famotidine in human plasma and urine is described. Famotidine and the internal standard were isolated from plasma samples by cation-exchange solid-phase extraction with benzenesulfonic acid (SCX) cartridges. The urine assay used direct injection of a diluted urine sample. The chromatographic separation was accomplished by using a BDS Hypersil silica column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water containing trifluoroacetic acid. The MS/MS detection of the analytes was set in the positive ionization mode using electrospray ionization for sample introduction. The analyte and internal standard precursor-product ion combinations were monitored in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Assay calibration curves were linear in the concentration range 0.5--500 ng ml(-1) and 0.05--50 microg ml(-1) in plasma and urine, respectively. For the plasma assay, a 100 microl sample aliquot was subjected to extraction. To perform the urine assay, a 50 microl sample aliquot was used. The intra-day relative standard deviations at all concentration levels were <10%. The inter-day consistency was assessed by running quality control samples during each daily run. The limit of quantification was 0.5 ng ml(-1) in plasma and 0.05 microg ml(-1) in urine. The methods were utilized to support clinical pharmacokinetic studies in infants aged 0-12 months.

  12. Quantification of horse plasma proteins altered by xylazine using the fluorogenic derivatization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Miwako; ICHIBANGASE, Tomoko; YAMASHITA, Shozo; KIJIMA-SUDA, Isao; KAWAHARA, Masahiro; IMAI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the doping tests currently used in horse racing, prohibited substances or their metabolites are usually directly detected in urine or blood samples. However, despite their lasting pharmaceutical effects, some prohibited substances are rapidly eliminated from horse urine and blood, making them difficult to detect. Therefore, new indirect biomarkers for doping, such as plasma proteins that are increased by the prohibited substances, have recently attracted much attention. Here, a fluorogenic derivatization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (FD-LC-MS/MS) method was adopted for horse plasma proteomics analysis, in order to identify plasma proteins whose concentrations were altered in response to xylazine in Thoroughbred horses. Xylazine, which is rapidly absorbed and eliminated and has possibility of the change in the levels of plasma proteins, was selected as a model drug. Of the ten plasma proteins identified, four proteins, including three acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and α-2-macroglobulin-like), were significantly increased after xylazine administration. Therefore, our present approach might be useful in identifying indirect biomarkers of drug administration. PMID:26858580

  13. Comprehensive screening of acidic and neutral drugs in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nola H; Ho, Emmie N M; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, April S Y

    2008-05-02

    A multi-target high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the detection of low ppt to low ppb levels of anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, anti-diabetics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in equine plasma was developed for the purpose of doping control. Plasma samples were first deproteinated by addition of trichloroacetic acid. Drugs were then extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Bond Elut Certify cartridges, and the extracts were analysed by a triple-quadrupole/linear ion trap LC-MS-MS instrument in positive electrospray ionization (+ESI) mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) scan function. Chromatographic separation of the targeted drugs was achieved using a reverse phase 3.3 cm L x 2.1 mm ID, 3 microm particle size LC column with gradient elution. Plasma samples fortified with 66 targeted drugs including betamethasone, boldione, capsaicin, flunisolide, gestrinone, gliclazide, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate, isoflupredone and triamcinolone acetonide, etc. at low ppt to low ppb levels could be consistently detected. No significant matrix interference was observed at the retention time of the targeted ion transitions when blank plasma samples were analysed. The method has been validated for its extraction recoveries, precision and sensitivity, and is used regularly in the authors' laboratory to screen for the presence of these drugs in plasma samples from racehorses.

  14. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dominic S; Montoya, Velma M

    2009-08-01

    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on capillary extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study, we compare 30-cm long, 4.6 mm i.d. columns to capillary columns (750 microm i.d.) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ((232)Th, (238)U, (237)Np, (239)Pu, and (241)Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as automated separations of actinide materials.

  15. Study on Mass Discrimination Effect of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2009-03-17

    We have proposed a novel concept of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry using an Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS). Isotope ratio analysis using ICP-RIMS is expected to be a convenient and precise technique with high throughput. However, the mass discrimination effect caused from difference in kinetic energy of neutral atoms in ICP-RIMS is crucial for precise isotope analysis. We, therefore, investigated the atom kinetic energy distribution introduced into the laser ionization region. The mass-dependent kinetic energy was confirmed in the initial kinetic energy distributions. We preliminary estimated a mass discrimination effect caused by mass-dependent kinetic energy in ICP-RIMS for various detector sizes. We proposed that this effect can be suppressed by selecting the appropriate detector size and adopting the scanning mode of the deflecting voltage.

  16. Analysis of lignans in Schisandra chinensis and rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection, time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ziyang; Zhang, Hai; Gong, Chungui; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Yuanjie; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guoqing

    2009-03-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD), time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOFMS) and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/QIT-MS) were used for separation, identification and structural analysis of lignans in Schisandra chinensis and rat plasma after oral administration of the herbal extract. Six lignans in Schisandra chinensis extract were identified unambiguously by comparing the retention time, their characteristic ultraviolet (UV) absorption and accurate mass measurement. A formula database of known lignans in Schisandra chinensis was established, against which the other 15 lignans were identified effectively based on the accurate extract masses and formulae acquired by HPLC/TOFMS. In order to distinguish the isomers, multi-stage mass spectrometry (ion trap mass spectrometry, MSn) was also used. The fragmentation behavior of the lignans in the ion trap mass spectrometer was studied by the six lignan standards, and their fragmentation rules in MSn spectra were summarized. These deduced fragmentation rules of lignans were successfully implemented in distinguishing the three groups of isomers in Schisandra chinensis by HPLC/QIT-MS. By using the three different analytical techniques, 21 lignans in Schisandra chinensis were identified within 30 min. After oral administration of the extract, 11 lignans in rat plasma were detected and identified by comparing their retention time, characteristic UV absorption and accurate mass measurement of peaks in HPLC/TOFMS chromatograms of the herbal extract. Finally, HPLC/TOFMS fingerprints of Schisandra chinensis in vitro and rat plasma in vivo were established. It is concluded that a rapid and effective method based on three analytical techniques for identification of chemical components was established, which is useful for rapid identification of multiple components in Schisandra chinensis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, it can provide help for further pharmacology and action

  17. Efficient Polyatomic Interference Reduction in Plasma-Source Mass Spectrometry Via Collision Induced Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Glen P.; King, Fred L; Duckworth, Douglas {Doug} C

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is provided that illustrates quadrupole ion traps can be used to selectively attenuate strongly bound diatomic ions occurring at the same nominal mass as an analyte ion of interest. Dissociation rates for TaO{sup +} (D{sub 0} {approx} 750 kJ mol{sup -1}) are found to be at least an order of magnitude larger than the loss rate of Au{sup +} due to scattering under 'slow heating' resonance excitation conditions at q{sub z} {approx} 0.67 and using neon as the bath gas. This rate difference is sufficient for the selective removal of this strongly-bound diatomic ion over the loss of the Au{sup +} at the same mass-to-charge ratio. Other examples of quadrupole ion trap CID for the selective reduction of common plasma-generated species are also evaluated by examining the dissociation of GdO{sup +} in the presence of Yb{sup +}, and Cu{sub 2}{sup +} in the presence of Te{sup +}. In each case, a different method of applying the excitation signals is presented, and the attenuation rates for the diatomic species due to CID are substantially larger than scattering losses for the bare metal ions. Evidence is also presented that demonstrates CID can be accomplished in concert with a slow mass analysis scan, thereby providing a means of (1) eliminating polyatomic ions (formed in the plasma or reaction cell) over an extended mass range, (2) recovering metal ion signal from the metal-containing polyatomic ions, and (3) minimizing deleterious secondary reactions of product ions.

  18. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  19. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  20. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of diethylcarbamazine in human plasma for clinical pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mark S; King, Christopher L; Thomsen, Edward K; Siba, Peter M; Sanuku, Nelly; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic method using mass spectrometric detection was developed for the determination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in human plasma. DEC and its stable isotope internal standard d3-DEC were extracted from 0.25mL of human plasma using solid phase extraction. Chromatography was performed using a Phenomenex Synergi 4μ Fusion-RP column (2mm×250mm) with gradient elution. The retention time was approximately 4.8min. The assay was linear from 4 to 2200ng/mL. Analysis of quality control samples at 12, 300, and 1700ng/mL (N=15) had interday coefficients of variation of 8.4%, 5.4%, and 6.2%, respectively (N=15). Interday bias results were -2.2%, 6.0%, and 0.8%, respectively. Recovery of DEC from plasma ranged from 84.2% to 90.1%. The method was successfully applied to clinical samples from patients with lymphatic filariasis from a drug-drug interaction study between DEC and albendazole and/or ivermectin.

  1. Plasma free metanephrine measurement using automated online solid-phase extraction HPLC tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; Graham, Kendon S; van der Molen, Jan C; Links, Thera P; Morris, Michael R; Ross, H Alec; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Kema, Ido P

    2007-09-01

    Quantification of plasma free metanephrine (MN) and normetanephrine (NMN) is considered to be the most accurate test for the clinical chemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and follow-up of pheochromocytoma patients. Current methods involve laborious, time-consuming, offline sample preparation, coupled with relatively nonspecific detection. Our aim was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and highly selective automated method for plasma free MNs in the nanomole per liter range. We used online solid-phase extraction coupled with HPLC-tandem mass spectrometric detection (XLC-MS/MS). Fifty microliters plasma equivalent was prepurified by automated online solid-phase extraction, using weak cation exchange cartridges. Chromatographic separation of the analytes and deuterated analogs was achieved by hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Mass spectrometric detection was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring mode using a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization mode. Total run-time including sample cleanup was 8 min. Intra- and interassay analytical variation (CV) varied from 2.0% to 4.7% and 1.6% to 13.5%, respectively, whereas biological intra- and interday variation ranged from 9.4% to 45.0% and 8.4% to 23.2%. Linearity in the 0 to 20 nmol/L calibration range was excellent (R(2) > 0.99). For all compounds, recoveries ranged from 74.5% to 99.6%, and detection limits were <0.10 nmol/L. Reference intervals for 120 healthy adults were 0.07 to 0.33 nmol/L (MN), 0.23 to 1.07 nmol/L (NMN), and <0.17 nmol/L (3-methoxytyramine). This automated high-throughput XLC-MS/MS method for the measurement of plasma free MNs is precise and linear, with short analysis time and low variable costs. The method is attractive for routine diagnosis of pheochromocytoma because of its high analytical sensitivity, the analytical power of MS/MS, and the high diagnostic accuracy of free MNs.

  2. Controlled ex-vivo plasma hydrolysis of valaciclovir to acyclovir demonstration using tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dipanjan; Khuroo, Arshad; Gurule, Sanjay; Modhave, Yogesh; Monif, Tausif

    2011-11-01

    Plasma estimation of valaciclovir, an antiviral drug, is challenging due to both in-vivo and ex-vivo hydrolysis to active metabolite acyclovir. A simultaneous method is described involving the solid-phase ion-exchange extraction procedure requiring 100 μL of plasma volume, a reverse-phase Lichrosphere RP Select B (125 × 6 mm, 5 μm) column and isocratic mobile phase to achieve the desired chromatographic separation. ESI-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring in positive polarity, detected mass pairs for valaciclovir (m/z 325.5 → 152.2), acyclovir (m/z 226.3 → 152.2) and respective internal standards valganciclovir (m/z 307.1 → 220.3) and acyclovir-d4 (m/z 230.2 → 152.0). Fully fledged method validation was evaluated as per current regulatory requirements and results were deemed acceptable. The plasma samples showed extensive hydrolysis of valaciclovir when collected or processed at room temperature, without buffer stabilization prior to storage at -15°C. Our results showed that using prechilled K3 EDTA vacutainers immersed in an iced-water bath during blood sample collection, and addition of 50% orthophosphoric acid solution to plasma samples prior to storage at -50°C for at least 120 days controlled the hydrolysis of valaciclovir to acyclovir. While monitoring drug absorption into systematic circulation, the valaciclovir to acyclovir formation ratio was improved to 1:20 in healthy volunteers for the first time.

  3. Comparison of two enzymatic immunoassays, high resolution mass spectrometry method and radioimmunoassay for the quantification of human plasma histamine.

    PubMed

    Poli, Caroline; Laurichesse, Mathieu; Rostan, Octavie; Rossille, Delphine; Jeannin, Pascale; Drouet, Martine; Renier, Gilles; Chevailler, Alain; Tarte, Karin; Bendavid, Claude; Beauvillain, Céline; Amé-Thomas, Patricia

    2016-01-25

    Histamine (HA) is one of the main immediate mediators involved in allergic reactions. HA plasma concentration is well correlated with the severity of vascular and respiratory signs of anaphylaxis. Consequently, plasma quantification of HA is useful to comfort the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Currently, radioimmunoassay (RIA) is the gold standard method to quantify HA due to its high sensitivity, but it is time consuming, implicates specific formations and cautions for technicians, and produces hazardous radioactive wastes. The aim of this study was to compare two enzymatic immunoassays (EIA) and one in-house liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry method (LC-HRMS) with the gold standard method for HA quantification in plasma samples of patients suspected of anaphylaxis reactions. Ninety-two plasma samples were tested with the 4 methods (RIA, 2 EIA and LC-HRMS) for HA quantification. Fifty-eight samples displayed HA concentrations above the positive cut-off of 10nM evaluated by RIA, including 18 highly positive samples (>100 nM). This study shows that Immunotech(®) EIA and LC-HRMS concentrations were highly correlated with RIA values, in particular for samples with a HA concentration around the positive cut-off. In our hands, plasma concentrations obtained with the Demeditec Diagnostics(®) EIA correlated less with results obtained by RIA, and an underestimation of plasma HA levels led to a lack of sensitivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Immunotech(®) EIA and LC-HRMS method could be used instead of RIA to assess plasma HA in human diagnostic use.

  4. Time-resolved measurements with single droplet introduction to investigate space-charge effects in plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stewart, I I; Olesik, J W

    1999-02-01

    An investigation of the space-charge induced effects of high concentrations of Pb+ matrix ions on Li+ analyte ions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is presented using a vertically oriented mass spectrometer with single droplet introduction. Greater reproducibility and stability in droplet-to-droplet sample introduction using the monodisperse microparticulate injector (MDMI) was achieved with the vertical orientation. Typical variation (%RSD) in the droplet-to-droplet arrival times, and mass spectrometry peak analytical areas are better than 5%. With this precision, a more quantitative description of the space-charge effect on a single cloud of ions is obtained. Both radial and axial space-charge effects were found to occur in the ion beam. Radial effects result in a loss in intensity because of poor transmission or collisions at surfaces within the mass spectrometer. Axial effects modify the kinetic energy distribution of background ion beam components (e.g., 16O+ and 40Ar+) and sampled ion cloud constituents (e.g., 7Li+). However, axial effects do not appear to generate significant broadening of sampled ion clouds within the mass spectrometer. At the point of charge separation and high ion-beam charge density, the ion cloud maxima for Li and Pb are not coincident. This is because of mass dependent diffusion in the ICP as the ion clouds approach the sampling orifice. Space-charge induced ion loss occurs predominantly at a localized region after the Li+ sampled cloud peak maximum. When the Pb concentration in the sample is sufficiently high the 7Li+ sampled signal has a bimodal peak shape. The existence of the dip and its relative location in the bimodal 7Li+ sampled signal suggests that space-charge effects are localized to the region of high charge density occurring just after charge separation.

  5. Analysis of phenolic and triterpenoid compounds in licorice and rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection, time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guangguo; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Hai; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Yi; Dong, Xin; Lou, Ziyang; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng

    2010-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD), time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOFMS) and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/QITMS) were used for separation and identification of several compounds in licorice and rat plasma after oral administration of the herbal extract. Three phenolic compounds and one triterpenoid in licorice extract were unambiguously identified by comparing with the standard compounds. A formula database of known compounds in licorice was established, against which the other 42 compounds were identified effectively based on the accurate extract masses and formulae acquired by HPLC/TOFMS. In order to differentiate the isomers, tandem mass spectrometry was also used. The deduced fragmentation behaviors in QITMS were used to distinguish seven groups of isomers in licorice. By means of the three detectors, 46 compounds in licorice were identified. After oral administration of the extract, 25 compounds in rat plasma were detected and identified by comparing and contrasting the compounds measured in licorice with those in the plasma samples by HPLC/TOFMS. It is concluded that a rapid and effective method based on three analytical techniques was established, which is useful for identification of multiple compounds in licorice in vitro and in vivo. The result should be very useful for the quality control and curative mechanism study of licorice.

  6. Mass spectrometry of positive ions and neutral species in the effluent of an atmospheric pressure plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, J.; Ellerweg, D.; Schneider, S.; Rügner, K.; R, Reuter; Kersten, H.; Benter, T.

    2013-11-01

    The effluent of a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet in He with admixture of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and O2 has been investigated by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry. Positive ions and neutral plasma chemistry products have been detected and their possible role in the deposition of good-quality SiO2 films is discussed. Positive ion spectra reveal the presence of protonated water clusters and H+ : HMDSO and H3O+ : HMDSO ions. These ions are most probably produced by photoionization. This is corroborated by optical emission spectroscopy data obtained in the wavelength range of 50-300 nm, where helium excimer continuum emission centred around 84 nm has been observed. No ion driven polymerization products of HMDSO have been detected. Measurements of neutral species have allowed the quantification of the HMDSO depletion and absolute densities of trimethylsilanol and pentamethyldisiloxane. Two neutral polymerization products have been observed as well. The results indicate that the Si-O bond of HMDSO is preferentially broken. Additionally, the mass balance of plasma chemistry products is discussed.

  7. Quantitative determination of oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Vivekanandan; Gadamsetty, Deepak; Rose, Madhankumar; Maria, Stella; Mustafa, Imran; Khedkar, Anand; Dave, Nitesh; Arumugam, Muruganandam; Iyer, Harish

    2010-05-01

    A kinetic study of atosiban was conducted following repeated intravenous administration in Wistar rats. Sample analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following full validation of an in-house method. Eptifibatide, a cyclic peptide, was used as an internal standard (IS). The analyte and internal standard were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) method. Chromatographic separation was carried out using an ACE C18 5 microm 50 mm x 4.6 mm column with gradient elution. Mass spectrometric detection was performed using TSQ Quantum ultra AM. The lower limit of quantification was 0.01 microg/ml when 100 microl rat plasma was used. Plasma concentrations of atosiban were measured at 0 (pre-dose), 2, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min at the dosage levels of 0.125 mg/kg (low dose), 0.250 mg/kg (mid dose), and 0.500 mg/kg (high dose), respectively. Atosiban plasma concentration measured at Day 1 showed mean peak atosiban concentration (C(max)) 0.40, 0.57, 1.95 microg/ml for low, mid and high dose treated animals and mean peak concentration on Day 28 was 0.41, 0.88, 1.31microg/ml on Day 28 for low, mid and high dose treated animals.

  8. Determination of dimenhydrinate in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to a relative bioavailability study.

    PubMed

    Tavares, V; Macedo, C C; Montanhez, L; Barros, F A P; Meurer, E C; Campos, D R; Coelho, E C; Calaffati, S A; Pedrazzoli, J

    2007-06-15

    Here we present a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of dimenhydrinate (I) in human plasma. Sample preparation is conducted using citalopram (II) addition as an internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction with basified plasma using a mixture hexane/acetate (1:1, v/v) as the extracting solvent, and the final extract reconstituted in the mobile phase. I and II (IS) were injected in a C8 column with the mobile phase composed of methanol:isopropanol:water:formic acid (78.00:19.92:2.00:0.08, v/v/v/v) and monitored using a positive electrospray source with tandem mass spectrometry analyses. The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was set using precursor ion and product ion combinations of m/z 256.0>167.0 and m/z 325.0>109.0 for I and II, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.4 ng/mL, the dynamic range being 0.4-200 ng/mL. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision and stability, as well as on application to the analysis of plasma samples taken up to 24 h after oral administration of 100 mg of dimenhydrinate in healthy volunteers demonstrated its applicability to bioavailability studies.

  9. Simultaneous detection of xenon and krypton in equine plasma by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for doping control.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Wai Him; Choi, Timmy L S; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-02-01

    Xenon can activate the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). As such, it has been allegedly used in human sports for increasing erythropoiesis. Krypton, another noble gas with reported narcosis effect, can also be expected to be a potential and less expensive erythropoiesis stimulating agent. This has raised concern about the misuse of noble gases as doping agents in equine sports. The aim of the present study is to establish a method for the simultaneous detection of xenon and krypton in equine plasma for the purpose of doping control. Xenon- or krypton-fortified equine plasma samples were prepared according to reported protocols. The target noble gases were simultaneously detected by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry using headspace injection. Three xenon isotopes at m/z 129, 131, and 132, and four krypton isotopes at m/z 82, 83, 84, and 86 were targeted in selected reaction monitoring mode (with the precursor ions and product ions at identical mass settings), allowing unambiguous identification of the target analytes. Limits of detection for xenon and krypton were about 19 pmol/mL and 98 pmol/mL, respectively. Precision for both analytes was less than 15%. The method has good specificity as background analyte signals were not observed in negative equine plasma samples (n = 73). Loss of analytes under different storage temperatures has also been evaluated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Identification of estrogen-responsive vitelline envelope protein fragments from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) plasma using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salinas, K; Hemmer, M J; Serrano, J; Higgins, L; Anderson, L B; Benninghoff, A D; Williams, D E; Walker, C

    2010-11-01

    Plasma peptides previously associated with exposure of juvenile male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to the hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Specifically, plasma peptides of interest were fractionated and subsequently identified via spectra obtained by MALDI QqTOF MS/MS and LC-MALDI TOFTOF MS/MS analysis, de novo sequencing and database matching. The two peptide masses were identified as significant matches for fragments of the C-terminal propeptides from rainbow trout vitelline envelope protein (VEP)α and VEPγ isoforms. Our findings document the presence of the C-terminal propeptides from rainbow trout VEPα and VEPγ proteins in the bloodstream of juvenile male rainbow trout exposed to E2 via MALDI-TOF-MS detection. We provide three possible explanations for the presence of C-terminal propeptides in the bloodstream, as well as compare previously obtained hepatic transcriptomic results with the plasma proteomic results obtained in the present study.

  11. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  12. Rapid chiral separation of racemic cetirizine in human plasma using subcritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eom, Han Young; Kang, Myunghee; Kang, Seung Woo; Kim, Unyong; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Jung, Yura; Yang, Dong-Hyug; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-01-05

    A method for fast chiral separation of cetirizine and quantitation of levocetirizine in human plasma using subcritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Chiralpak IE column (2.1 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) with an isocratic elution of CO2/organic modifier (55/45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The organic modifier was composed of water/methanol (5/95, v/v). The makeup flow was optimized at water/methanol (10/90, v/v) and 0.2 mL/min. The most influential parameters on the separation of cetirizine affecting resolution, retention time and sensitivity were selected by fractional factorial design. The 3 selected factors were optimized by response surface methodology. Tandem mass spectrometry was used at electrospray ionization, positive ion mode, and multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Isotope-labeled cetirizine-d4 was used as the internal standard. The sample preparation of human plasma was conducted by solid phase extraction of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) type. The developed method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of quantitation (LOQ), and limit of detection (LOD). The real human plasma samples were analyzed and the pharmacokinetic results were compared with results of previous research. The developed method was found to be reliable based on the similarity between the results of the current and previous methods. The chiral separation for cetirizine and economic feasibility were compared with those of previous studies using normal phase-HPLC or reversed phase-HPLC. The established analytical method could be successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study with reduction in the analysis time and costs.

  13. Determination of trace rare earth elements in gadolinium aluminate by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S. B.; Nagar, B. K.; Saxena, M. K.

    An analytical methodology was developed for the precise quantification of ten trace rare earth elements (REEs), namely, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Tm, in gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3) employing an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN)-desolvating device based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A microwave digestion procedure was optimized for digesting 100 mg of the refractory oxide using a mixture of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and water (H2O) with 1400 W power, 10 min ramp and 60 min hold time. An USN-desolvating sample introduction system was employed to enhance analyte sensitivities by minimizing their oxide ion formation in the plasma. Studies on the effect of various matrix concentrations on the analyte intensities revealed that precise quantification of the analytes was possible with matrix level of 250 mg L- 1. The possibility of using indium as an internal standard was explored and applied to correct for matrix effect and variation in analyte sensitivity under plasma operating conditions. Individual oxide ion formation yields were determined in matrix matched solution and employed for correcting polyatomic interferences of light REE (LREE) oxide ions on the intensities of middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs). Recoveries of ≥ 90% were achieved for the analytes employing standard addition technique. Three real samples were analyzed for traces of REEs by the proposed method and cross validated for Eu and Nd by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The results show no significant difference in the values at 95% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor 1σ) in the determination of trace REEs in the samples were found to be between 3 and 8%. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the ten REEs lie in the ranges 1-5 ng L- 1 and 7-64 μg kg- 1 respectively.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, C M; Haverkate, H; Rosing, H; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2016-06-05

    Dabrafenib (Tafinlar(®)) and trametinib (Mekinist(®)) are registered for the treatment of patients with BRAF V600 mutation positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. To support therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and clinical pharmacological trials, an assay to simultaneously quantify dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Human plasma samples were collected on an outpatient base and stored at nominally -20°C. Analytes and internal standards (stable isotope labeled compounds) were extracted with TBME. After snap freezing the samples in a dry ice-ethanol bath, the organic layer was transferred to a clean tube and evaporated under a gentle stream of nitrogen gas. The dry extract was then reconstituted with 100μL acetonitrile and 5μL of the final extract was injected and separated on a C18 column with gradient elution, and analyzed with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive-ion mode. The validated assay ranges from 50 to 5000ng/mL for dabrafenib and 0.5-50ng/mL for trametinib were linear, and correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.996 or better. At all concentrations of both analytes the biases were within ±15% of the nominal concentrations and precisions were ≤15%. All results were within the acceptance criteria of the latest US FDA guidance and EMA guidelines on method validation. Dabrafenib was found to degrade under the influence of light in different organic solvents and at least seven degradation products were detected. In conclusion, the described method to simultaneously quantify dabrafenib and trametinib in human plasma was successfully validated and applied for therapeutic drug monitoring in cancer patients treated with dabrafenib and trametinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent developments in inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, A.N.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, J.C.; Jones, C.E.; Hall, C.M.; Yi, Wen; Teagle, D.; Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes advances in isotopic measurements that have been made with an inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometer and presents results of new experiments aimed at further evaluating the instrument`s capability. It is shown using standard solutions that trace element ratios such as Rb/Sr can be measured precisely without isotope dilution by comparison with reference solutions of known composition. Similarly, using a new wide flight tube, Pb isotopic compositions and U/Pb ratios can be accurately measured simultaneously without isotope dilution. The effects of deliberately inducing changes in the running conditions (RF power) are shown to be significant for measuring trace element ratios but not for mass bias and interference corrected isotopic compositions. Finally, it is demonstrated that precise and accurate isotopic compositions of elements as refractory as W can be determined relatively easily by solution nebulization and even by direct laser ablation of complex silicates. Isobaric interferences in such experiments are negligible. These experiments serve to highlight the remarkable potential that this new field offers for hitherto difficult isotopic measurements in nuclear, earth, environmental and medical sciences. Isotopic measurements can be made that are reproducible at high precision through a range of running conditions, even in the presence of isobaric interferences. The ability to correct for mass discrimination accurately using a second element of similar mass, the very high sensitivity for elements that are otherwise difficult to ionize, the demonstrated capability for laser ablation work and the ability to measure through a wide mass range simultaneously give this instrument major advantages over other more traditional techniques of isotopic measurement.

  16. A new mass spectrometry-based method for the quantification of histones in plasma from septic shock patients.

    PubMed

    García-Giménez, J L; Romá-Mateo, C; Carbonell, N; Palacios, L; Peiró-Chova, L; García-López, E; García-Simón, M; Lahuerta, R; Gimenez-Garzó, C; Berenguer-Pascual, E; Mora, M I; Valero, M L; Alpízar, A; Corrales, F J; Blanquer, J; Pallardó, F V

    2017-09-06

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel method to detect circulating histones H3 and H2B in plasma based on multiple reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry and a multiple reaction monitoring approach (MRM-MS) for its clinical application in critical bacteriaemic septic shock patients. Plasma samples from 17 septic shock patients with confirmed bacteraemia and 10 healthy controls were analysed by an MRM-MS method, which specifically detects presence of histones H3 and H2B. By an internal standard, it was possible to quantify the concentration of circulating histones in plasma, which were significantly higher in patients, and thus confirmed their potential as biomarkers for diagnosing septic shock. After comparing surviving patients and non-survivors, a correlation was found between higher levels of circulating histones and unfavourable outcome. Indeed, histone H3 proved a more efficient and sensitive biomarker for septic shock prognosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest the accuracy of the MRM-MS technique and stable isotope labelled peptides to detect and quantify circulating plasma histones H2B and H3. This method may be used for early septic shock diagnoses and for the prognosis of fatal outcomes.

  17. Enantioselective determination of dencichine in rabbit plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Xin; Zheng, Hu; Li, Zhangwan

    2006-08-18

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of enantiomers of dencichine in plasma. Sample extraction from plasma was achieved by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using a C(18) cartridge, with carbocisteine as the internal standard. Plasma was deproteinized using inorganic acid and derivatizated before the SPE. Chiral separation of dencichine enantiomers was achieved by pre-column derivatization using o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and the chiral thiol N-isobutanoyl-L-cysteine (NIBC) to form diastereoisomeric isoindole derivatives that were separable by ODS column using a gradient solvent programme. The column eluent was monitored using mass spectrometry (MS). The conditions of MS detection were optimized, and selected ion monitoring was used to selectively detect D-dencichine and its arrangement isomer. High sensitivity and selectivity were obtained using this method. The limit of detection was determined to be 10 ng/ml for D-dencichine and 8 ng/ml for L-dencichine in plasma. The linearity was demonstrated over a wide range of concentrations, from 0.5 to 50 microg/ml for both enatiomers. The intra- and inter-day precision (C.V.), studied at four concentrations, was less than 7.0%. No interferences from endogenous amino acids and isomers of dencichine were found. The method was suitable for pharmacokinetic studies of dencichine enantiomers.

  18. Stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline epimers in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Mei; Liu, Jia; Qiao, Zhou; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng

    2017-06-01

    1. In this study, the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of rhynchophylline (RIN) and isorhynchophylline (IRN) in rat plasma were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 2. A rapid, robust and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of RIN and IRN in rat plasma was established and validated. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column under a gradient elution with methanol and water containing 0.01% ammonia as mobile phase. Calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ng/mL for both epimers. 3. After intravenous administration, there was no apparent difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between two epimers. However, after oral administration, RIN showed remarkable higher plasma exposure than IRN. The bioavailability, Cmax and AUC0-t of RIN were about 9.2-fold, 6.4-fold and 9.1-fold higher than those of IRN at 10 mg/kg, and 7.8-fold, 4.3-fold and 7.7-fold at 20 mg/kg, respectively. Additionally, with dosage enhanced from 10 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg, the plasma concentrations of RIN or IRN increased significantly and the bioavailability enhanced about three times. 4. In conclusion, the results of this work demonstrated for the first time that the pharmacokinetics of RIN and IRN have stereoselectivity.

  19. Doping control analysis of insulin and its analogues in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, April S Y; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

    2008-08-08

    Insulin administration can increase muscle glycogen by utilising hyperinsulinaemic clamps prior to sports events or during the recovery phases, and increase muscle size by its chalonic action to inhibit protein breakdown. In order to control insulin abuse in equine sports, a method to detect effectively the use of insulins in horses would be required. Besides the readily available human insulin and its synthetic analogues, structurally similar insulins from other species can also be used as doping agents. This study describes a method for the simultaneous detection of bovine, porcine and human insulins, as well as the synthetic analogues Humalog (Lilly) and Novolog (Novo Nordisk) in equine plasma. Insulins were isolated from equine plasma by immunoaffinity purification, followed by centrifugal filtration, and analysed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Insulin and analogues were detected and confirmed by comparing their retention times and major product ions. All five insulins (human insulin, Humalog, Novolog, bovine insulin and porcine insulin), which are exogenous in the horse, could be detected and confirmed at 0.05ng/mL. This method was successful in confirming the presence of human insulin in plasma collected from horses up to 4h after having been administered a single low dose of recombinant human insulin (Humulin R, Eli Lilly). To our knowledge, this is the first identification of exogenous insulin from post-administration horse plasma samples.

  20. Determination of salbutamol in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dujuan; Teng, Yanni; Chen, Keguang; Liu, Sha; Wei, Chunmin; Wang, Benjie; Yuan, Guiyan; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Ruichen

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of salbutamol in human plasma and urine, and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of salbutamol in Chinese healthy volunteers after inhalation of salbutamol sulfate aerosol. Salbutamol and the internal standard (IS) acetaminophen in plasma and urine were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated on a C(18) reversed-phase column, eluted with mobile phase of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (5 m m; 30:70, v/v), ionized by positive ion pneumatically assisted electrospray and detected in the multi-reaction monitoring mode using precursor → product ions of m/z 240.2 → 148.1 for salbutamol and 152 → 110 for the IS. The lower limits of quantitation of salbutamol in human plasma and urine by this method were 0.02 and 1 ng/mL, respectively. The specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and several stabilities were validated for salbutamol in human plasma and urine. In conclusion, the validation results showed that this method is robust, specific and sensitive, and can successfully fulfill the requirement of clinical pharmacokinetic study of salbutamol in healthy Chinese volunteers.

  1. Validation of determination of plasma metabolites derived from thyme bioactive compounds by improved liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Serra, Aida; Macià, Alba; Borràs, Xenia; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-09-15

    In the present study, a selective and sensitive method, based on microelution solid-phase extraction (μSPE) plate and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was validated and applied to determine the plasma metabolites of the bioactive compounds of thyme. For validation process, standards of the more representative components of the phenolic and monoterpene fractions of thyme were spiked in plasma samples and then the quality parameters of the method were studied. Extraction recoveries (%R) of the studied compounds were higher than 75%, and the matrix effect (%ME) was lower than 18%. The LODs ranged from 1 to 65 μg/L, except for the thymol sulfate metabolite, which was 240 μg/L. This method was then applied for the analysis of rat plasma obtained at different times, from 0 to 6h, after an acute intake of thyme extract (5 g/kg body weight). Different thyme metabolites were identified and were mainly derived from rosmarinic acid (coumaric acid sulfate, caffeic acid sulfate, ferulic acid sulfate, hydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulfate, dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulfate and hydroxybenzoic acid) and thymol (thymol sulfate and thymol glucuronide). The most abundant thyme metabolites generated were hydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulfate and thymol sulfate, their respective concentrations in plasma being 446 and 8464 μM 1h after the intake of the thyme extract.

  2. Comparative Proteome Analyses of Human Plasma Following in vivo Lipopolysaccharide Administration Using Multidimensional Separations Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Calvano, Steve E.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    There is significant interest in characterization of the human plasma proteome due to its potential for providing biomarkers applicable to clinical diagnosis and treatment and for gaining a better understanding of human diseases. We describe here a strategy for the comparative proteome analyses of human plasma, which is applicable to biomarker identifications for various disease states. Multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied to make comparative proteome analyses of plasma samples from an individual prior to and 9 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Peptide peak areas and the number of peptide identifications for each protein were used to evaluate the reproducibility of LC-MS/MS and to compare relative changes in protein concentration between the samples following LPS treatment. A total of 804 distinct plasma proteins (not including immunoglobulins) were confidently identified with 32 proteins observed to be significantly increased in concentration following LPS administration, including several known inflammatory response or acute-phase mediators such as C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and A2, LPS-binding protein, LPS-responsive and beige-like anchor protein, hepatocyte growth factor activator, and von Willebrand factor, and thus constituting potential biomarkers for inflammatory response. PMID:15627965

  3. Rapid quantification of resveratrol in mouse plasma by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Rodríguez-Orengo, José F

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound with multiple health beneficial effects, in mouse plasma. We used reversed-phase ultra high pressure-liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection for the determination of resveratrol levels in mouse plasma. An Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (2.1 mm x 50 mm, 1.8 μm) was used as the stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted of a gradient formed using 1 mM ammonium fluoride and methanol. Using this improved method, we obtained a retention time of 2.2 min and a total run time of 5 min, for resveratrol. The calibration curve for resveratrol showed a linear range from 0.5 to 100 ng/mL. The average coefficient of variation was 6% for interday variation and 4% for intraday variation. The recovery for resveratrol in mouse plasma was 85 ± 10% (mean ± standard deviation). The method presented herein allows a rapid and very sensitive quantification of resveratrol in mouse plasma at concentrations as low as 500 ppt.

  4. Accurate quantitation of choline and ethanolamine plasmalogen molecular species in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Otoki, Yurika; Kato, Shunji; Kimura, Fumiko; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Yamashita, Shinji; Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka

    2017-02-05

    Concentration of both choline plasmalogen (PC-Pls) and ethanolamine Pls (PE-Pls) in human plasma/serum has been getting attention to, since certain patients including those with neurodegenerative disorders, have been reported to exhibit reduced levels of specific Pls species. However, despite using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), accurate quantitation of Pls is still difficult because of less product ion from PC-Pls and quantitative issues (e.g., extraction recoveries and matrix effects). The present study aimed to develop a method for accurate identification and quantitation of Pls molecular species using LC-MS/MS operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The LC-MS/MS conditions in the presence of sodium, and the extraction method using methanol protein precipitation were optimized. Under the optimal condition, Pls was detected at femtomole levels. The recoveries of Pls from human plasma were nearly 100%, and matrix effects were not observed. The novel method enabled determination of each Pls species in human plasma at the concentrations of 0.5-13.6μM. Then the PC-Pls and PE-Pls species in the plasma of both healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease were quantitated. The method developed herein represents a powerful tool for analyzing Pls, which may provide a better understanding of their physiological roles in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Rudy, Jeffrey A; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; Guan, Fuyu; Enright, James M; Tsang, Deborah S

    2004-03-05

    The method describes quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS/MS). Samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and only those samples presumptively declared positive were subjected to quantification and confirmation for the presence of flunixin by this method. The method is also readily adaptable to instrumental screening for the analyte. Flunixin was recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The sample was diluted with 2 ml saturated phosphate buffer (pH 3.10) prior to LLE. The dried extract was reconstituted in acetonitrile:water:formic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v/v) and subsequently analyzed on a Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometer (Micromass) operated under electrospray ionization positive ion mode. The concentration of flunixin was determined by the internal standard (IS) calibration method using the peak area ratio with clonixin as the IS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for flunixin in equine plasma were 0.1 and 1 ng/ml, respectively, whereas the limit of confirmation (LOC) was 2.5 ng/ml. The qualifying ions for the identification of flunixin were m/z 297 [M+H](+), 279 (BP), 264, 259, 239 and those for clonixin (IS) were m/z 263 [M+H](+), 245 (BP) and 210. The measurement uncertainty about the result was 8.7%. The method is simple, sensitive, robust and reliably fast in the quantification and confirmation of flunixin in equine plasma. Application of this method will assist racing authorities in the enforcement of tolerance plasma concentration of flunixin in the racehorse on race day.

  6. Chemometric optimization of a low-temperature plasma source design for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Anastasia; Engelhard, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Low-temperature plasmas (LTPs) are attractive sources for atomic and molecular mass spectrometry (MS). In the past, the LTP probe, which was first described by Harper et al., was used successfully for direct molecular mass spectrometric analysis with minimal sample pretreatment in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, the desorption/ionization source itself is commercially not available and custom-built LTP set-ups with varying geometry and operational configurations were utilized in the past. In the present study, a rapid chemometrics approach based on systematic experiments and multivariate data analysis was used to optimize the LTP probe geometry and positioning relative to the atmospheric-pressure inlet of a mass spectrometer. Several parameters were studied including the probe geometry, electrode configuration, quartz tube dimensions, probe positioning and operating conditions. It was found that the plasma-to-MS-inlet distance, the plasma-to-sample-plate distance, and the angle between the latter are very important. Additional effects on the analytical performance were found for the outer electrode width, the positioning of the electrodes, the inner diameter of the quartz tube, the quartz wall thickness, and the gas flow. All experiments were performed using additional heating of the sample to enhance thermal desorption and maximize the signal (T = 150 °C). After software-assisted optimization, attractive detection limits were achieved (e.g., 1.8 × 10- 7 mol/L for 4-acetamidothiophenol). Moreover, relative standard deviation (RSD) improved from values of up to 30% before optimization to < 15% RSD after the procedure was completed. This chemometrics approach for method optimization is not limited to LTP-MS and considered to be attractive for other plasma-based instrumentation as well.

  7. Improving low-level plasma protein mass spectrometry-based detection for candidate biomarker discovery and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-09-01

    Methods. To improve the detection of low abundance protein candidate biomarker discovery and validation, particularly in complex biological fluids such as blood plasma, increased sensitivity is desired using mass spectrometry (MS)-based instrumentation. A key current limitation on the sensitivity of electrospray ionization (ESI) MS is due to the fact that many sample molecules in solution are never ionized, and the vast majority of the ions that are created are lost during transmission from atmospheric pressure to the low pressure region of the mass analyzer. Two key technologies, multi-nanoelectrospray emitters and the electrodynamic ion funnel have recently been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to greatly improve the ionization and transmission efficiency of ESI MS based analyses. Multi-emitter based ESI enables the flow from a single source (typically a liquid chromatography [LC] column) to be divided among an array of emitters (Figure 1). The flow rate delivered to each emitter is thus reduced, allowing the well-documented benefits of nanoelectrospray 1 for both sensitivity and quantitation to be realized for higher flow rate separations. To complement the increased ionization efficiency afforded by multi-ESI, tandem electrodynamic ion funnels have also been developed at PNNL, and shown to greatly improve ion transmission efficiency in the ion source interface.2, 3 These technologies have been integrated into a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of probable biomarker candidates in blood plasma and show promise for the identification of new species even at low level concentrations.

  8. plasma desorption mass spectrometry of quinolinium salts and method of estimation of their intermolecular interactions with phospholipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrievsky, Grigory V.; Lisnyak, Yury V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Volyansky, Yury L.; Malaya, Lubov T.

    1997-06-01

    Using plasma desorption mass spectrometry, the fragmentation of 1-phenyl-2(p-aminostyryl)quinolinium and 1-phenyl-2(p-aminostyryl)benzo(f)quinolinium derivatives, with various substituents at the amino nitrogen, was studied. With plasma desorption ionization, the fragmentation features of the compounds studied are mainly determined by the nature of the N',N'' substituents. The behaviour of some quinolinium derivatives in the presence of lecithin, a basic component of the phospholipid fraction of cell membranes, was investigated. For the benzo(f)quinolinium derivative, the analysis of changes in the mass spectra indicates a strong interaction between these substances, leading to the formation of a molecular complex stabilized by the interactions of the negatively charged phosphate group of lecithin with the quinolinium quaternary nitrogen and the lecithin quaternary nitrogen with the benzene part of the aminophenyl fragment. The effect of the third aromatic ring of the benzoquinolinium system on complex stabilization is discussed. For the benzoquinolinium derivative with lecithin, the changes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern of the molecule can be used as a sensitive and informative method for the characterization of intermolecular interactions which may result in molecular complex formation.

  9. Separation of actinides using capillary extraction chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dominic S

    2008-01-01

    Trace levels of actinides have been separated on extraction chromatography columns. Detection of the actinides was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), which was coupled with the extraction chromatography system. In this study we compare 30 cm long, 4.6 mm ID columns to capillary columns (750 {micro}m ID) with lengths from 30 cm up to 150 cm. The columns that were tested were packed with TRU resin. We were able to separate a mixture of five actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}pU, {sup 241}Am). This work has application to rapid bioassay as well as for automated separations of actinide materials.

  10. Standardless analysis of solids by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurubeyli, T. K.; Nurubeyli, Z. K.; Nuriyev, K. Z.; Gurbanov, K. B.

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of the standardless mass spectrometric analysis of the elemental composition of solids has been discussed. The effect of each stage of the laser plasma expansion on the formation of the coefficient of relative sensitivity of elements in the sample has been studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown that the stages of ionization and detection make the main contribution to the formation of the coefficient of relative sensitivity. It has been proposed to separate dissociation and ionization processes in time and/or in space. To compensate for the energy spread of ions at the output of the analyzer, a circuit has been proposed for aligning the energy of ions before their detection.

  11. Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-07-15

    Cost effective and a very simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for thin film deposition and mass spectroscopic analysis of organic gas mixture has been described. The interesting features of the apparatus are the construction of the dielectric electrodes made of aluminum oxide or alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and glass and the generation of high ignition voltage from the spark plug transformer taken from car. Metal capacitor is introduced in between ground and oscilloscope to measure the executing power during the discharge and the average electron density in the plasma region. The organic polymer films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate using several organic gas compositions. The experimental setup provides a unique drainage system from the reaction chamber controlled by a membrane pump to suck out and remove the poisonous gases or residuals (cyanogens, H-CN, CH{sub x}NH{sub 2}, etc.) which have been produced during the discharge of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} mixture.

  12. Determination of PF-04928473 in human plasma using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Lokesh; Gardner, Erin R.; Venitz, Jürgen; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Houk, Brett E.; Figg, William D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) analytical method was developed for quantification of Hsp90 inhibitor PF-04928473 in human plasma, following administration of its prodrug, PF-04929113. Sample processing involved protein precipitation by addition of 0.4 mL of methanol containing internal standard (PF-04972487) to 50 μL volume of plasma sample. Chromatographic separation of PF-04928473 and PF-04972487 was achieved on a Phenomenex® Luna C18(2) (2.0×50 mm, 5 μm) column using a gradient elution method with mobile phase solvents: methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Detection was performed in electrospray positive ionization mode, monitoring the ion transitions from m/z 465.1→350.1 (PF-04928473) and m/z 447.0→329.1 (PF-04972487). The retention times for PF-04928473 and PF-04972487 were 1.86 and 2.85 minutes, respectively. Calibration curves were generated in the range of 2–2000 ng/mL. The accuracy and precision ranged from 94.1–99.0% and 86.7–97.6%, respectively, which were calculated using quality control samples of three different concentrations analyzed in quintuplicate on four different days. PMID:20951100

  13. Matrix effects during phosphorus determination with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Miroslav; Goessler, Walter; Mikac, Nevenka; Veber, Marjan

    2005-09-01

    A quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was evaluated for use in the detection of phosphorus. The influences of nitric acid and methanol (simulating the composition of a sample solution after nitric acid digestion) on phosphorus determination were studied using two different measuring methods at different plasma conditions: detection of phosphorus ions at m/z 31 and detection of phosphorus oxide ions at m/z 47. The existence of polyatomic interferences at m/z 31 and 47 was explored. Nitric acid and methanol are shown to be the sources of polyatomic ions and therefore cause poorer detection limits. Better detection limits were achieved in such matrices when phosphorus was detected as 31P+. The presence of methanol improves the system sensitivity towards phosphorus sevenfold; however, this positive effect is hindered by the high background signal due to carbon-based polyatomic ions. For samples with an organic matrix an appropriate mineralization procedure should be applied (high excess of nitric acid and high temperature) to quantitatively oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed from the sample, in order to achieve correct results.

  14. Determination of strychnine and brucine in rat plasma using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanyan; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2009-02-20

    A simple, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of strychnine and brucine in rat plasma, using tacrine as the internal standard (IS). Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction of the analytes with n-hexane, dichloromethane and isopropanol (65:30:5, v/v/v) from 0.1mL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Waters C(18) column using a mobile phase of methanol-20mM ammonium formate-formic acid (32:68:0.68, v/v/v). Positive selected ion monitoring mode was used for detection of strychnine, brucine and the IS at m/z 335.2, m/z 395.2 and m/z 199.2, respectively. Linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5-500ng/mL for strychnine and 0.1-100ng/mL for brucine. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5ng/mL and 0.1ng/mL for strychnine and brucine, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision for both strychnine and brucine was less than 7.74%, and accuracy ranged from -4.38% to 2.21% at all QC levels. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of processed Semen Strychni after oral administration to rats.

  15. Ambient ionization and direct identification of volatile organic compounds with microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Tian, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Zhongjun; Li, Wenwen; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-02-01

    An innovative method of volatile organic compounds analysis by using microwave-induced plasma ionization (MIPI) source in combination with an ambient ion trap mass spectrometer is presented here. Using MIPI for direct sample vapor, analysis was achieved without any sample preparation or subsequent heating. The relative abundance of the target compounds can be obtained almost instantly within a few seconds. The ionization processes of different volatile compounds was optimized, and the limits of detection were identified in the range of 0.15-4.5 pptv or 0.73-8.80 pg ml(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) is in the range of 4-14%, while correlation coefficients of the working curves (R(2)) are better than 0.98. The new method possesses advantages of ease operation, time-saving, high sensitivity and inexpensive setup. In addition, the ionization processes of short n-alkane chains were investigated with the MIPI technique, and a unique [M + 13](+) was detected, which has not been reported in detail by any other related ionization techniques. An ionization mechanism was proposed on the basis of the experimental results obtained in this work and available information in literatures, in which the n-alkanes in the plasma environment possibly generate protonated cyclopentadiene [M - 5](+) or alkyl-substituted analogues as well as hydrous ions [M + 13](+) and [M + 13 + 18](+), as shown in Scheme 1 in the main text.

  16. Determination of multiple human arsenic metabolites employing high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Szabina; Liu, Guangliang; Matulis, Shannon; Boise, Lawrence H.; Cai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    During the metabolism of different arsenic-containing compounds in human, a variety of metabolites are produced with significantly varying toxicities. Currently available analytical methods can only detect a limited number of human metabolites in biological samples during one run due to their diverse characteristics. In addition, co-elution of species is often unnoticeable with most detection techniques leading to inaccurate metabolic profiles and assessment of toxicity. A high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed that can identify thirteen common arsenic metabolites possibly present in human with special attention dedicated to thiolated or thiol conjugated arsenicals. The thirteen species included in this study are arsenite (AsIII), arsino-glutathione (As(GS)3), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), monomethylarsino-glutathione (MMAIII(GS)2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII (from DMAIIII)), S-(dimethylarsinic)cysteine (DMAIII(Cys)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMAIII(GS)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTAV), dimethylarsinothioyl glutathione (DMMTAV(GS)). The developed method was applied for the analysis of cancer cells that were incubated with Darinaparsin (DMAIII(GS)), a novel chemotherapeutic agent for refractory malignancies, and the arsenic metabolic profile obtained was compared to results using a previously developed method. This method provides a useful analytical tool which is much needed in unequivocally identifying the arsenicals formed during the metabolism of environmental arsenic exposure or therapeutic arsenic administration. PMID:26708625

  17. Determination of azatadine in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Rong; Jia, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chao; Ding, Li-Kun; Yang, Jing; Li, Liang; Zhao, Pei-Xi; Liu, Wen-Xin; Yi-Ding; Wang, Li; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive method using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the analysis of antihistamine drug azatadine in human plasma. Loratadine was used as internal standard (IS). Analytes were extracted from human plasma by liquid/liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. The organic phase was reduced to dryness under a stream of nitrogen at 30 °C and the residue was reconstituted with the mobile phase. 5 μL of the resulting solution was injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. A 4.6 mm × 150 mm, I.D. 5 μm, Agilent TC-C(18) column was used to perform the chromatographic analysis. The mobile phase consisted of ammonium formate buffer 0.010 M (adjusted to pH 4.3 with 1M formic acid)/acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) The chromatographic run time was 5 min per injection and flow rate was 0.6 mL/min. The retention time was 2.4 and 4.4 min for azatadine and IS, respectively. The tandem mass spectrometric detection mode was achieved with electrospray ionization (ESI) iron source and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) (291.3 → 248.2m/z for azatadine, 383.3 → 337.3m/z for IS) was operated in positive ion modes. The low limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.05 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the quality control (QC) samples was 8.93-11.57% relative standard deviation (RSD). The inter-day accuracy of the QC samples was 96.83-105.07% of the nominal values.

  18. Simultaneous quantitation of paracetamol, caffeine, pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine and cloperastine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jiang; Jiang, Yao; Fawcett, J Paul; Gu, Jingkai

    2010-02-05

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantitation of paracetamol, caffeine, pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine and cloperastine in human plasma has been developed and validated. After sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (diphenhydramine) were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC on a Venusil Mp-C(18) column (50mmx4.6mm, 5microm) using formic acid:10mM ammonium acetate:methanol (1:40:60, v/v/v) as mobile phase in a run time of 2.6min. Detection was carried out by electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/ml) ranges: paracetamol 5.0-2000; caffeine 10-4000; pseudoephedrine 0.25-100; chlorpheniramine 0.05-20; cloperastine 0.10-40. Intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were all < or =11.3% with accuracy (as relative error) of +/-5.0%. The method was successfully applied to a study of the pharmacokinetics of the five analytes after administration of a combination oral dose to healthy Chinese volunteers.

  19. Determination of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Human Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Q-Tof Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Egom, Emmanuel E.; Fitzgerald, Ross; Canning, Rebecca; Pharithi, Rebabonye B.; Murphy, Colin; Maher, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) components distinct from cholesterol, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), may account for the anti-atherothrombotic effects attributed to this lipoprotein. The current method for the determination of plasma levels of S1P as well as levels associated with HDL particles is still cumbersome an assay method to be worldwide practical. Recently, a simplified protocol based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the sensitive and specific quantification of plasma levels of S1P with good accuracy has been reported. This work utilized a triple quadrupole (QqQ)-based LC-MS/MS system. Here we adapt that method for the determination of plasma levels of S1P using a quadrupole time of flight (Q-Tof) based LC-MS system. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.05 to 2 µM. The lower limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.05 µM. The concentration of S1P in human plasma was determined to be 1 ± 0.09 µM (n = 6). The average accuracy over the stated range of the method was found to be 100 ± 5.9% with precision at the LOQ better than 10% when predicting the calibration standards. The concentration of plasma S1P in the prepared samples was stable for 24 h at room temperature. We have demonstrated the quantification of plasma S1P using Q-Tof based LC-MS with very good sensitivity, accuracy, and precision that can used for future studies in this field. PMID:28820460

  20. Determination of the lipophilic antipsychotic drug ziprasidone in rat plasma and brain tissue using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Terry, Alvin V; Bartlett, Michael G

    2008-07-01

    A simple, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LCESI-MS/MS) method with low matrix effects was developed and validated for the quantification of the lipophilic antipsychotic ziprasidone from rat plasma and brain tissue. Ziprasidone was extracted from rat plasma and brain homogenate using a single-step liquid-liquid extraction. Ziprasidone was separated on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C8 column (150 x 2.1 mm i.d., 5 microm) column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.02% ammonia in water (pH 7.20 adjusted with formic acid) using gradient elution. Ziprasidone was detected in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was validated and the specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effects and stability were determined. The LLOQ was 0.2 ng/mL for plasma and 0.833 ng/g for brain tissue. The method was linear over the concentration range from 0.2 to 200.0 ng/mL for plasma and 0.833-833.3 ng/g for brain tissue. The correlation coefficient (R2) values were more than 0.996 for both plasma and brain homogenate. The precision and accuracy intra-day and inter-day were better than 8.13%. The relative and absolute recovery was above 81.0% and matrix effects were lower than 5.2%. This validated method has been successfully used to quantify the rat plasma and brain tissue concentration of ziprasidone after chronic treatment.

  1. Detection of Cervical Cancer Biomarker Patterns in Blood Plasma and Urine by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Merchant, Michael L.; Helm, C. William; Jenson, Alfred B.; Klein, Jon B.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  2. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  3. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  4. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  5. Quantitation of midazolam in human plasma by automated chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kapron, James T; Pace, Ellen; Van Pelt, Colleen K; Henion, Jack

    2003-01-01

    An automated chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) platform was used to demonstrate reproducible quantitation of drug molecules from biological matrices. Three sample preparation strategies were explored including protein precipitation of plasma with acetonitrile, de-salting of the plasma, and a combination of protein precipitation with subsequent de-salting of the dried and reconstituted extract. The best results were obtained when fortified human plasma samples containing midazolam were precipitated with acetonitrile containing alprazolam as the internal standard (IS). The supernatant was concentrated to dryness, reconstituted in aqueous acid, and de-salted by automated reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to infusion nanoESI-MS/MS. Analyses employed a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Each sample was infused for approximately 10 s and the resulting ion current profiles were integrated. Area ratios were used for regression analysis of standard samples (1.5-500 ng/mL). Quality control samples (3, 250, and 400 ng/mL) in five replicates from three different analysis days demonstrated intra-assay precision (< or =16%), inter-assay precision (< or =5%), and overall accuracy (+/-9% deviation). Infusion reproducibility of the assay was established by analyzing extracts after storage for 24 h at ambient temperature. Control plasma samples from six different sources probed the potential utility of this technique for the analysis of clinical samples. At the lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), variability and mean overall accuracy were < or =13% CV and +/-3% deviation, respectively, while at the upper limit of quantitation (ULQ) variability and mean overall accuracy were < or =9% CV and +/-9% deviation, respectively. Inter-chip variability was established by determining standard sample extracts across five different chips (< or =12% CV). Throughput for the assay was 55 s per sample

  6. Investigations into the origins of polyatomic ions in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Sally M.

    2010-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is an elemental analytical instrument capable of determining nearly all elements in the periodic table at limits of detection in the parts per quadrillion and with a linear analytical range over 8-10 orders of magnitude. Three concentric quartz tubes make up the plasma torch. Argon gas is spiraled through the outer tube and generates the plasma powered by a looped load coil operating at 27.1 or 40.6 MHz. The argon flow of the middle channel is used to keep the plasma above the innermost tube through which solid or aqueous sample is carried in a third argon stream. A sample is progressively desolvated, atomized and ionized. The torch is operated at atmospheric pressure. To reach the reduced pressures of mass spectrometers, ions are extracted through a series of two, approximately one millimeter wide, circular apertures set in water cooled metal cones. The space between the cones is evacuated to approximately one torr. The space behind the second cone is pumped down to, or near to, the pressure needed for the mass spectrometer (MS). The first cone, called the sampler, is placed directly in the plasma plume and its position is adjusted to the point where atomic ions are most abundant. The hot plasma gas expands through the sampler orifice and in this expansion is placed the second cone, called the skimmer. After the skimmer traditional MS designs are employed, i.e. quadrupoles, magnetic sectors, time-of-flight. ICP-MS is the leading trace element analysis technique. One of its weaknesses are polyatomic ions. This dissertation has added to the fundamental understanding of some of these polyatomic ions, their origins and behavior. Although mainly continuing the work of others, certain novel approaches have been introduced here. Chapter 2 includes the first reported efforts to include high temperature corrections to the partition functions of the polyatomic ions in ICP-MS. This and other objections to preceeding

  7. Laser-ablation sampling for inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Dennis, Elise; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-DOFMS) has been coupled with laser-ablation (LA) sample introduction for the elemental analysis of solids. ICP-DOFMS is well suited for the analysis of laser-generated aerosols because it offers both high-speed mass analysis and simultaneous multi-elemental detection. Here, we evaluate the analytical performance of the LA-ICP-DOFMS instrument, equipped with a microchannel plate-based imaging detector, for the measurement of steady-state LA signals, as well as transient signals produced from single LA events. Steady-state detection limits are 1 mg g1, and absolute single-pulse LA detection limits are 200 fg for uranium; the system is shown capable of performing time-resolved single-pulse LA analysis. By leveraging the benefits of simultaneous multi-elemental detection, we also attain a good shot-to-shot reproducibility of 6% relative standard deviation (RSD) and isotope-ratio precision of 0.3% RSD with a 10 s integration time.

  8. Alleviation of interferences and reduction of sample memory in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.

    1991-06-27

    A simple variation sample preparation and introduction allows the measurement of chlorine isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Dissolution of the sample in D{sub 2}O rather than H{sub 2}O attenuates the major polyatomic ion {sup 36}ArH{sup +} and frees m/z = 37 for determination of {sup 37}Cl{sup +}. The isotope ratio {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl in a 50 mg L{sup {minus}1} solution of Cl as LiCl is determined with a relative standard deviation (RDS) of 0.21%. A method for the determination of boron is a variety of biological samples is described. Sample material is fused with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and boron is separated from matrix components by using Amberlite IRA-743 boron selective ion-exchange resin. Boron is eluted with 1% HNO{sub 3} and samples are introduced to an ICP-mass spectrometer with a direct injection nebulizer (DIN). Xenon is added at 10 or 37 mL min{sup {minus}1} to the aerosol gas flow of an argon ICP-mass spectrometer. Addition of Xe substantially reduces polyatomic ions such as N{sub 2}{sup +}, HN{sub 2}{sup +}, NO{sup +}, ArH{sup +}, ClO{sup +}, ArC{sup +}, ClOH{sup +}, ArN{sup +}, and ArO{sup +} and facilitates the measurement of Si, K, V, Cr, and Fe. Isotope ratios are determined with RSDs from 0.6% to 1.6%. 210 refs., 14 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Differentiation of bullet type based on the analysis of gunshot residue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Udey, Ruth N; Hunter, Brian C; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2011-09-01

    Porcine tissue samples shot with two different types of bullets, jacketed and nonjacketed, were collected in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. Wound samples were microwave-digested and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to detect all elements present at measurable levels in gunshot residue (GSR). Elements detected included antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb), which are considered characteristic of GSR, as well as iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). These five elements were used to differentiate shot tissue and unshot tissue, as well as tissue shot by the two different bullet types, both in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. The concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Pb were able to distinguish the two bullet types in fresh tissue samples at the 95% confidence level. Cu and Pb were able to differentiate the bullet types throughout moderate decomposition at the 99% confidence level.

  10. Detection of gunshot residue in blowfly larvae and decomposing porcine tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Lagoo, Lisa; Schaeffer, Luther S; Szymanski, David W; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2010-05-01

    Blowfly larvae and porcine tissue contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR) were collected during summer and winter months, over a 37-day and a 60-day sampling period, respectively. Wound samples were microwave-digested and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the detection of antimony, barium, and lead. During summer, the 37-day sampling period encompassed all stages of decomposition, except skeletonization. The three elements were detected in larvae only on days 3 and 4 after death but were detected at significant levels in tissue samples throughout the entire sampling period. In winter, no significant decomposition was observed throughout the 60-day sampling. Although temperatures were too low for blowfly activity, the three elements were detected in the tissue samples at relatively constant, significant levels. Hence, GSR determination in tissue was more dependent on decomposition stage rather than time since death.

  11. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  12. Comparison of serum zinc levels measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in preschool children with febrile and afebrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Hwa; Kim, Jeong Hyun

    2012-05-01

    Changes in levels of trace elements have been proposed to underlie febrile seizures. Particularly, low zinc levels have been proposed as related factor of febrile seizure. In this study, we investigated whether mean serum zinc levels differed between children with febrile seizure and afebrile seizure. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, serum zinc levels were measured in 288 children who had been diagnosed with febrile seizures (N=248) and afebrile seizures (N=40). Mean serum zinc levels were compared between the 2 groups. Mean serum zinc level was 60.5±12.7 µg/dL in the febrile seizure group and 68.9 ±14.5 µg/dL in the afebrile seizure group. A significant difference in serum zinc levels was observed between the febrile and afebrile seizure groups (P<0.001). Zinc levels in children with febrile seizure were significantly lower than those in children with afebrile seizure.

  13. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  14. Intelligent Analysis of Samples by Semiquantitative Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Technique: A Review.

    PubMed

    Krzciuk, Karina

    2016-07-03

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a popular and routine analytical method that has been used for determination of trace elements since the 1980s. It provides fast quantitative analysis and allows the determination of more than 70 elements with good accuracy and very low detection limits, but requires an intricate calibration procedure. In analyses of samples for which very low detection limits are not required a semiquantitative ICP-MS analysis mode can be used. This approach is more time- and cost-effective, and it uses a simple calibration procedure. This article presents a critical review of the semiquantitative (SQ) mode of ICP-MS and describes current and future applications of SQ analysis.

  15. Using laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to bioimage multiple elements in mouse tumors after hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Jiang, Pei-Shin; Yang, Bing-Shen; Sun, Tian-Ye; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we employed laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to map the spatial distribution of Gd-doped iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in one tumor slice that had been subjected to magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The mapping results revealed the high resolution of the elemental analysis, with the distribution of Gd atoms highly correlated with that of the Fe atoms. The spatial distributions of C, P, S, and Zn atoms revealed that the effect of MFH treatment was significantly dependent on the diffusion of the magnetic fluid in the tissue. An observed enrichment of Cu atoms after MFH treatment was probably due to inflammation in the tumor. The abnormal distribution of Ni atoms suggests a probable biochemical reaction in the tumor. Therefore, this LA-ICP-MS mapping technique can provide novel information regarding the spatial distribution of elements in tumors after cancer therapy.

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of sodium ferulate in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo; Chen, Yun

    2007-02-19

    A selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of sodium ferulate in human plasma. The sample preparation was a liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographic separation was achieved with an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C(18) (3.5 microm, 100 mm x 3.0 mm) column, using a mobile phase of methanol-0.05% acetic acid 40:60 (v/v). Standard curves were linear (r(2)=0.9982) over the concentration range of 0.007-4.63 nM/ml and had acceptable accuracy and precision. The within- and between-batch precisions were within 12% relative standard deviation. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.007 nM/ml. The validated HPLC-ESI-MS method has been used successfully to study sodium ferulate pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and bioequivalence in 20 healthy volunteers.

  17. Gas and liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for environmental speciation analysis — advances and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpunar, Joanna; McSheehy, Shona; Połeć, Kasia; Vacchina, Véronique; Mounicou, Sandra; Rodriguez, Isaac; Łobiński, Ryszard

    2000-07-01

    Recent advances in the coupling of gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and their role in trace element speciation analysis of environmental materials are presented. The discussion is illustrated with three research examples concerning the following topics: (i) development and coupling of multicapillary microcolumn GC with ICP MS for speciation of organotin in sediment and biological tissue samples; (ii) speciation of arsenic in marine algae by size-exclusion-anion-exchange HPLC-ICP MS; and (iii) speciation of cadmium in plant cell cultures by size-exclusion HPLC-ICP MS. Particular attention is paid to the problem of signal identification in ICP MS chromatograms; the potential of electrospray MS/MS for this purpose is highlighted.

  18. Investigating Uranium Concentrations in Groundwaters in the State of Idaho Using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tkavadze, Levan; Dunker, Roy E; Brey, Richard R; Dudgeon, John

    2016-11-01

    The determination of uranium concentrations in natural water samples is of great interest due to the environmental consequences of this radionuclide. In this study, 380 groundwater samples from various locations within the state of Idaho were analyzed using two different techniques. The first method was Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA), which gives the total uranium concentrations in water samples. The second analysis method was inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP- MS). This method determines the total uranium concentration as well as the separate isotope concentrations of uranium. The U/U isotopic ratio was also measured for each sample to confirm that there was no depleted or enriched uranium present. The results were compared and mapped separately from each other. The study also found that in some areas of the state, natural uranium concentrations are relatively high.

  19. Separation and identification of oligonucleotides by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS)

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Renee N.; Kröning, Karolin K.; Caruso, Joseph A.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the separation and detection of oligonucleotides utilizing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is described. Polythymidilic acids of various lengths (10, 15, 20 and 30 nucleotides) were separated under gradient HILIC conditions. Selective detection of oligonucleotides was possible through monitoring m/z 47, corresponding to 31P16O+, using ICPMS. Oxygen was used as a reaction gas in the collision/reaction cell to produce PO+ by reacting with phosphorus in the gas phase, thereby effectively eliminating the interferences for phosphorus normally seen at m/z 31. Limits of detection (LODs) were determined to be 1.69 pmol, 1.21 pmol, 1.0 pmol and 0.55 pmol loaded on column for the 10, 15, 20 and 30-mer, respectively. PMID:20830328

  20. Determination of bromine and tin compounds in plastics using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    İzgi, Belgin; Kayar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The polybrominated flame retardants and organotin compounds were screened in terms of bromine and tin content using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plastics. The calibration standards were prepared using the fused-disk technique, and all samples were investigated under optimal conditions. Using a central composite experimental design, laser parameters, laser energy, pulse rate, scan rate and spot size were identified. The detection limits of the method were 1000 mgkg(-1) and 1600 mgkg(-1) for bromide and tin, whereas the relative standard deviation (%) values of the analysis were 9% and 6% (n=3) for ERM EC681k with 770 ± 70 mgkg(-1) Br and 86 ± 6 mgkg(-1) Sn respectively, and 106-115% of Br and 102-104% of Sn were observed for the tetrabromobisphenol A and butyltin trichloride spike plastics, respectively.

  1. Comparison of ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis in glass, monazite, and zircon.

    PubMed

    Poitrasson, Franck; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S; Freydier, Rémi; Russo, Richard E

    2003-11-15

    We compared the analytical performance of ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The benefit of ultrafast lasers was evaluated regarding thermal-induced chemical fractionation, that is otherwise well known to limit LA-ICPMS. Both lasers had a Gaussian beam energy profile and were tested using the same ablation system and ICPMS analyzer. Resulting crater morphologies and analytical signals showed more straightforward femtosecond laser ablation processes, with minimal thermal effects. Despite a less stable energy output, the ultrafast laser yielded elemental (Pb/U, Pb/Th) and Pb isotopic ratios that were more precise, repeatable, and accurate, even when compared to the best analytical conditions for the nanosecond laser. Measurements on NIST glasses, monazites, and zircon also showed that femtosecond LA-ICPMS calibration was less matrix-matched dependent and therefore more versatile.

  2. Use of dried blood spots and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multi-element determination in blood.

    PubMed

    Vacchina, Véronique; Huin, Vincent; Hulo, Sébastien; Cuny, Damien; Broly, Franck; Renom, Gilles; Perini, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the development of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method for multitrace element determination in dried blood spots (DBSs). The analytical conditions were optimized using Seronorm™ L-3 and L-1 Certified Reference Materials. The best results were obtained by sampling blood drops on a decontaminated PVDF filter membrane. After drying under metal-free conditions, the DBSs underwent acidic digestion and were analyzed with ICP MS. The method was then validated for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn. Using a matrix-matched calibration curve, the recovery levels ranged from 96% to 117%. The repeatability and reproducibility were generally below 15%. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 50 μg/L. In order to investigate the analytical procedure under real sampling conditions, the results obtained from DBSs and liquid blood aliquots (less subject to contamination) from two adult subjects were compared.

  3. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for detecting rare cells in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Managh, Amy J; Hutchinson, Robert W; Riquelme, Paloma; Broichhausen, Christiane; Wege, Anja K; Ritter, Uwe; Ahrens, Norbert; Koehl, Gudrun E; Walter, Lisa; Florian, Christian; Schlitt, Hans J; Reid, Helen J; Geissler, Edward K; Sharp, Barry L; Hutchinson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Administering immunoregulatory cells to patients as medicinal agents is a potentially revolutionary approach to the treatment of immunologically mediated diseases. Presently, there are no satisfactory, clinically applicable methods of tracking human cells in patients with adequate spatial resolution and target cell specificity over a sufficient period of time. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) represents a potential solution to the problem of detecting very rare cells in tissues. In this article, this exquisitely sensitive technique is applied to the tracking of gold-labeled human regulatory macrophages (Mregs) in immunodeficient mice. Optimal conditions for labeling Mregs with 50-nm gold particles were investigated by exposing Mregs in culture to variable concentrations of label: Mregs incubated with 3.5 × 10(9) particles/ml for 1 h incorporated an average of 3.39 × 10(8) Au atoms/cell without loss of cell viability. Analysis of single, gold-labeled Mregs by LA-ICP-MS registered an average of 1.9 × 10(5) counts/cell. Under these conditions, 100% labeling efficiency was achieved, and label was retained by Mregs for ≥36 h. Gold-labeled Mregs adhered to glass surfaces; after 24 h of culture, it was possible to colabel these cells with human-specific (154)Sm-tagged anti-HLA-DR or (174)Yb-tagged anti-CD45 mAbs. Following injection into immunodeficient mice, signals from gold-labeled human Mregs could be detected in mouse lung, liver, and spleen for at least 7 d by solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and LA-ICP-MS. These promising results indicate that LA-ICP-MS tissue imaging has great potential as an analytical technique in immunology.

  4. Simplified sample preparation procedure for measuring isotope-enriched methylmercury by gas chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Zhu, Joy; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Hintelmann, Holger; Fortin, Danielle; Lean, David R S

    2010-06-01

    Many procedures have been developed to measure the concentration of monomethylmercury (MeHg) from different sample matrices, and the use of stable isotopes of mercury now provides opportunities to determine its formation and degradation rates. Here, a modified procedure for measuring mercury isotopes in sediment samples that uses acid leaching-ion exchange-thiosulfate extraction (TSE) to isolate and purify the methylated mercury from the matrix is proposed. The latter is followed by aqueous-phase ethylation, purge and trap on Tenax, gas chromatography separation of ethylated mercury compounds, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection. The new TSE procedure bridges together two well-known methods, the acid-leaching and distillation-derivatization procedures, offering the advantages of artifact-free formation of the first, and low detection limits and the possibility of quantification of individual isotopes of mercury of the second. The modified procedure retains the derivatization, purge and trap, and gas chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) detection steps from the distillation-derivatization procedure, and eliminates the distillation step, which is not only laborious but also expensive, due to the high cost of installation and time-consuming cleaning process. Major advantages of the TSE procedure proposed include the extraction and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time, excellent analyte recoveries, and the lack of artifact formation. Sediment certified reference materials (CRMs), BCR 580 and IAEA 405, were used to test the TSE procedure accuracy. Recoveries between 94 to 106% and 95 to 96% were obtained for CRMs and spiked samples (Milli-Q(R) water), respectively. Comparisons among thiosulfate extraction, distillation, and acid-leaching procedures have shown good agreement of methylmercury values. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  5. The quantification of erlotinib (OSI-774) and OSI-420 in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Masters, Andrea R; Sweeney, Christopher J; Jones, David R

    2007-04-01

    An accurate and precise method was developed using HPLC-MS/MS to quantify erlotinib (OSI-774) and its O-desmethyl metabolite, OSI-420, in plasma. The advantages of this method include the use of a small sample volume, liquid-liquid extraction with high extraction efficiency and short chromatographic run times. The analytes were extracted from 100 microL plasma volume using hexane:ethyl acetate after midazolam was added to the sample for internal standardization. The compounds were separated on a Phenomenex C-18 Luna analytical column with acetonitrile:5 mM ammonium acetate as the mobile phase. All compounds were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. The intra-day accuracy and precision (% coefficient of variation, % CV) estimates for erlotinib at 10 ng/mL were 90% and 9%, respectively. The intra-day accuracy and precision estimates for OSI-420 at 5 ng/mL were 80% and 4%, respectively. This method was used to quantify erlotinib and OSI-420 in plasma of patients (n=21) administered 150 mg erlotinib per day for non-small cell lung cancer.

  6. Simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in plasma by chemical ionization gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (CI-GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Youso, Stephanie L; Petrikovics, Ilona; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    An analytical method utilizing chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in plasma. Sample preparation for this analysis required essentially one-step by combining the reaction of cyanide and thiocyanate with pentafluorobenzyl bromide and simultaneous extraction of the product into ethyl acetate facilitated by a phase-transfer catalyst, tetrabutylammonium sulfate. The limits of detection for cyanide and thiocyanate were 1 μM and 50 nM, respectively. The linear dynamic range was from 10 μM to 20 mM for cyanide and from 500 nM to 200 μM for thiocyanate with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999 for both cyanide and thiocyanate. The precision, as measured by %RSD, was below 9 %, and the accuracy was within 15 % of the nominal concentration for all quality control standards analyzed. The gross recoveries of cyanide and thiocyanate from plasma were over 90 %. Using this method, the toxicokinetic behavior of cyanide and thiocyanate in swine plasma was assessed following cyanide exposure.

  7. Speciation of trace elements in human serum by micro anion exchange chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malavolta, Marco; Piacenza, Francesco; Basso, Andrea; Giacconi, Robertina; Costarelli, Laura; Pierpaoli, Sara; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2012-02-01

    Speciation analysis of essential trace elements in human serum provides important information on nutritional status and homeostatic mechanisms regulating transport processes, acute phase reactions, and protection against oxidative damage. Anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has proved to be a useful tool in speciation. Here we describe a fast method that can be applied to carry out the speciation of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se in as little as 1 microl [corrected] of serum. The method employs monolithic anion exchange micro columns installed on a tandem HPLC system coupled on-line with an ICP-MS detector. The chromatographic separation is similar to those reported previously but with considerable gain in terms of time and sample requirement. Reproducibility is acceptable for most species. Using our method, we were able to find species-specific differences between different commercially available trace element reference materials. Because the method chosen to collect blood might interfere with speciation, the proposed methodology was used to compare heparinized plasma, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma, and serum from adult healthy volunteers. As expected, EDTA strongly affects speciation analysis (especially for Fe and Zn), whereas changes due to the use of lithium-heparin (Li-He) as anticoagulant appear to be minimized.

  8. Quantitation of γ-aminobutyric acid in equine plasma by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Rong; Zhao, Sarah; Kong, Noel; Zhang, Julia; Loganathan, Devan; Mérette, Sandrine; Morrissey, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and regulates the neuronal excitability. There has been anecdotal evidence that γ-aminobutyric acid has been used within a few hours prior to competition in equine sports to calm down nervous horses. However, regulating the use of γ-aminobutyric acid is challenging because it is an endogenous substance in the horse. γ-Aminobutyric acid is usually present at low ng/mL levels in equine plasma; therefore, a sensitive method has to be developed to quantify these low background levels. Measuring low concentrations of endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid is essential to establish a threshold that can be used to differentiate levels attributable to exogenous administrations of γ-aminobutyric acid. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantitation of γ-aminobutyric acid in equine plasma. Calibrators were prepared in artificial surrogate matrix consisting of 35 mg/mL equine serum albumin in phosphate buffered saline. Samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Utilizing this methodology, a total of 403 equine plasma samples collected post-competition from horses participating in equestrian events in Canada were analyzed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fast and sensitive analysis of dermorphin and HYP6-dermorphin in equine plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline C; Hartmann-Fischbach, Petra; Krueger, Tim R; Wells, Terry L; Feineman, Amy R; Compton, Joanne C

    2014-04-01

    Dermorphin and HYP(6) -dermorphin are hepta-peptides and natural opioids originally isolated from the skin of South American frogs. They are more potent than morphine but less likely to produce drug tolerance and addiction. These properties make them ideal candidates for the doping of racehorses to enhance performance during competition. Dermorphin was recently classified as a Class I drug by Racing Commissioners International (RCI), indicating that it is a banned substance in equine athletes. To enforce this ban, a fast and sensitive method was developed for dermorphin and HYP(6)-dermorphin analysis in equine plasma. Equine plasma (2 ml) was extracted on a mixed mode cation exchange solid-phase column. After extraction, dermorphin and HYP(6)-dermorphin were separated and detected using a liquid chromatography (LC) triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry in positive multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. Each analysis was 3.5 min. Four MRM transitions were used for identification of each compound. The extraction procedure was efficient and the limits of detection (LOD) were 2 pg/ml and 10 pg/ml for dermorphin and HYP(6)-dermorphin, respectively. The method has good selectivity and precision. Results of stability studies showed that both analytes were stable at low temperature. This is the first report of dermorphin and HYP(6)-dermorphin analysis in equine plasma, which could be adopted as a regular screening or confirmation method for controlling the abuse of these compounds in equine sports. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of domperidone in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Chen, K; Teng, Y; Zhang, J; Liu, S; Wei, C; Wang, B; Liu, X; Yuan, G; Zhang, R; Guo, R

    2012-03-01

    A sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of domperidone (CAS number: 57808-66-9) in human plasma using paracetamol (CAS number: 103-90-2) as an internal standard (IS). Domperidone and paracetamol in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated on a C18 reversed phase column, eluted with mobile phase of acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (0.3%) (40:60, v/v), ionized by positive ion pneumatically assisted electrospray and detected in the multi-reaction monitoring mode using precursor→product ions of m/z 426.2→175.1 for domperidone and 152→110 for the IS, respectively. The calibration curve was linear (r2≥0.99, n=5) over the concentration range of 0.2-80 ng/mL and with lower limit of detection and quantitation of 0.05 and 0.2 ng/mL. The specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and stabilities were validated for domperidone in human plasma. In conclusion, the validation results showed that this method was sensitive, economical and less toxic and it can successfully fulfill the requirement of clinical pharmacokinetic study of domperidone oral preparation in Chinese healthy volunteers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Multi-element analysis of water decoction of medicine food homology plants using inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liang; Shi, Shu-Yun; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2017-07-01

    The concentration of twelve trace elements in the water decoction of medicine food homology plants (MFHP) was determined by inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). Water decoctions of MFHP were analyzed directly using the MS/MS mode after acidification by 1% (v/v) nitric acid. The polyatomic interferences were eliminated by oxygen mass shift, oxygen on-mass, and ammonia mass shift. The accuracy of the method was verified by analysis of standard reference materials. This method was utilized to investigate the water decoction composition of 16 common Chinese MFHPs. The trace elements in the water decoctions of different MFHPs presented significantly different dissolution ratios. The dissolution ratio of V was the lowest (4.21%-14.86%), whereas Zn showed the highest dissolution ratio (24.87%-86.80%). In addition, the dissolution ratio of heavy metallic elements in most MFHP was equal to or was lower than 30%. Therefore, consumption of MHFP decoction could decrease the heavy metal intake associated with MFHP use and reduce the risk of heavy metal poisoning.

  12. Analysis of Ir in Köfelsit rocks by inductively coupled plasma-sector-field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS).

    PubMed

    Koellensperger, G; Hann, S; Prinz, G; Stingeder, G; Bujatti-Narbeshuber, M

    2001-07-01

    Three different analytical strategies have been evaluated for the quantification of Ir in geological samples. Glassy rock samples from Köfels and reference material WGB-1 were analyzed directly by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) at mass resolution 400 using membrane desolvation and at mass resolution 9500 without membrane desolvation. Matrix separation by anion-exchange pre-concentration was also investigated. The ultrasonic nebulizer USN6000AT+ (Cetac Technologies, Omaha, NE, USA) incorporating a membrane desolvation unit was used as the sample-introduction system. Sample preparation involved complete microwave-assisted acid digestion of the silicate matrix with HNO3-HCl-HF. The results obtained by the three methods of quantification were in good agreement, showing that oxide-type interferences were effectively eliminated solely by membrane desolvation. The limits of detection were 6 pg g for low resolution measurement with use of the membrane, 15 pg g(-1) at a mass resolution of 9500, and 59 pg g(-1) for the ion-exchange procedure. The ultimate precision obtained for the Köfelsit Ir data was, however, compromised by the small sample intake (0.3 g), because of the inhomogeneous distribution of Ir in geological samples.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry determination of zaleplon in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Zunjian; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Chen, Yun

    2006-02-24

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and quantification of zaleplon in human plasma using estazolam as an internal standard (IS). After the addition of estazolam and 2.0 M sodium hydroxide solution, plasma samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and then the organic layer was evaporated to dryness. The reconstituted solution of the residue was injected onto a prepacked Shim-pack VP-ODS C18 (250 mm x 2.0 mm i.d.) column and chromatographed with a mobile phase comprised of methanol:water (70:30) at a flow-rate of 0.2 ml/min. Detection was performed on a single quadrupole mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. The mean standard curve was linear (r = 0.9991) over the concentration range of 0.2-100 ng/ml and had good back-calculated accuracy and precision. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 10% relative standard deviation and accuracy ranged from 85% to 115%. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/ml. The validated LC-APCI-MS method has been used successfully to study zaleplon pharmacokinetic, bioavailability and bioequivalence in 18 adult volunteers.

  14. Quantification of oxysterols in human plasma and red blood cells by liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pataj, Zoltán; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Matysik, Silke

    2016-03-25

    Oxysterols are important intermediates in numerous metabolic and catabolic pathways and their biological significance is also proven. The present paper describes a reliable and short liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/HR-MS) for the quantification of 8 different oxysterols (24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol and cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol) in human plasma and red blood cells. Oxysterols were extracted with iso-octane after saponification of esterified sterols. Due to the poor ionization efficiency of the target compounds in electrospray ionization (ESI) derivatization of the molecules has been performed with N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG). Within less than 8 min we were able to achieve baseline separation of the isobaric 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, 7α-hydroxycholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol. Moreover, high mass resolution was advantageously applied to resolve quasi-isobaric interferences. The method was validated based on the recommendations of US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency guidelines. Oxysterol concentrations were determined in human plasma and red blood cells from healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the applicability for clinical use has been proven by the analysis of oxysterols as biomarkers in Niemann-Pick type C or cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cobalamin speciation using reversed-phase micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-06-01

    Micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was optimized for the determination and separation of a mixture of cobalt containing species. Four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) representing the various forms of vitamin B12 as well as the harmful corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were separated using reversed-phase microcapillary chromatography with columns containing C18 packing material with a 2-μm particle size. Selection of organic solvents for the separation took into consideration compatibility with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer being used for element specific detection. Optimized method conditions included use of a methanol gradient and make-up solution for the nebulizer. Some issues associated with dead volume were overcome by the extension of the gradient program. The total analysis time was 52 min. The column-to-column variability was evaluated and was found to be very reasonable (9% RSD on average), confirming that this method is rugged and that the technology should be easily transferred to other laboratories.

  16. Determination of ginsenoside compound K in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of lithium adducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunhui; Lu, Youming; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Liang; Zhong, Dafang

    2015-09-01

    Ginsenoside compound K (GCK), the main metabolite of protopanaxadiol constituents of Panax ginseng, easily produces alkali metal adduct ions during mass spectrometry particularly with lithium. Accordingly, we have developed a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of GCK in human plasma based on formation of a lithium adduct. The analyte and paclitaxel (internal standard) were extracted from 50 µL human plasma using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50 mm×2.0 mm; 5 μm) using stepwise gradient elution with acetonitrile-water and 0.2 mmol/L lithium carbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 629→449 for the GCK-lithium adduct and m/z 860→292 for the adduct of paclitaxel. The assay was linear in the concentration range 1.00-1000 ng/mL (r (2)>0.9988) with intra- and inter-day precision of ±8.4% and accuracy in the range of -4.8% to 6.5%. Recovery, stability and matrix effects were all satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving administration of a single GCK 50 mg tablet to healthy Chinese volunteers.

  17. Direct gas-phase detection of nerve and blister warfare agents utilizing active capillary plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J-C; Schaer, M; P Siegenthaler, P; Zenobi, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasensitive direct gas-phase detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is demonstrated utilizing active capillary plasma ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. Four G- agents, two V-agents and various blistering agents [including sulfur mustard (HD)] were detected directly in the gas phase with limits of detection in the low parts per trillion (ng m(-3)) range. The direct detection of HD was shown for dry carrier gas conditions, but signals vanished when humidity was present, indicating a possible direct detection of HD after sufficient gas phase pretreatment. The method provided sufficient sensitivity to monitor directly the investigated volatile CWAs way below their corresponding minimal effect dose, and in most cases even below the eight hours worker exposure concentration. In general, the ionization is very soft, with little to no in-source fragmentation. Especially for the G-agents, some dimer formation occurred at higher concentrations. This adds complexity, but also further selectivity, to the corresponding mass spectra. Our results show that the active capillary plasma ionization is a robust, sensitive, "plug and play" ambient ionization source suited (but not exclusively) to the very sensitive detection of CWAs. It has the potential to be used with portable MS instrumentation.

  18. Determination of levocetirizine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Morita, M R; Berton, D; Boldin, R; Barros, F A P; Meurer, E C; Amarante, A R; Campos, D R; Calafatti, S A; Pereira, R; Abib, E; Pedrazolli, J

    2008-02-01

    We describe a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) for levocetirizine quantification (I) in human plasma. Sample preparation was made using a fexofenadine (II) addition as internal standard (IS), liquid-liquid extraction using cold dichloromethane, and dissolving the final extract in acetonitrile. I and II (IS) were injected in a C18 column and the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:water:formic acid (80.00:19.90:0.10, v/v/v) and monitored using positive electrospray source with tandem mass spectrometry analyses. The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was set using precursor ion and product ion combinations of m/z 389>201 for I and m/z 502>467 for II. The limit of quantification and the dynamic range achieved were 0.5ng/mL and 0.5-500.0ng/mL. Validation results on linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision and stability, as well as its application to the analysis of plasma samples taken up to 48h after oral administration of 5mg of levocetirizine dichloridrate in healthy volunteers demonstrate its applicability to bioavailability studies.

  19. Dichlorvos, Chlorpyrifos Oxon, and Aldicarb adducts of butyrylcholinesterase, detected by mass spectrometry, in human plasma following deliberate overdose

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Ricordel, Ivan; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Baud, Frédéric; Mégarbane, Bruno; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to develop a method to detect pesticide adducts in tryptic digests of butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma from patients poisoned by pesticides. Adducts to butyrylcholinesterase in human serum may serve as biomarkers of pesticide exposure because organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides make a covalent bond with the active site serine of butyrylcholinesterase. Serum samples from 5 attempted suicides (with dichlorvos, Aldicarb, Baygon and an unknown pesticide), and from 1 patient who accidentally inhaled dichlorvos were analyzed. Butyrylcholinesterase was purified from 2 ml serum by ion exchange chromatography at pH 4, followed by procainamide affinity chromatography at pH 7. The purified butyrylcholinesterase was denatured, digested with trypsin, and the modified peptide isolated by HPLC. The purified peptide was analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring in the QTRAP 4000 mass spectrometer. This method successfully identified the pesticide-adducted butyrylcholinesterase peptide in 4 patients whose butyrylcholinesterase was inhibited 60–84%, but not in 2 patients whose inhibition levels were 8 and 22%. It is expected that low inhibition levels will require analysis of larger serum plasma volumes. In conclusion, a mass spectrometry method for identification of exposure to live toxic pesticides has been developed, based on identification of pesticide adducts on the active site serine of human butyrylcholinesterase. PMID:20809544

  20. Reconstruction of energy and angle distribution function of surface-emitted negative ions in hydrogen plasmas using mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, D.; Achkasov, K.; Dubois, J. P. J.; Moussaoui, R.; Faure, J. B.; Layet, J. M.; Simonin, A.; Cartry, G.

    2017-04-01

    A new method involving mass spectrometry and modeling is described in this work, which may highlight the production mechanisms of negative ions (NIs) on surface in low pressure plasmas. Positive hydrogen ions from plasma impact a sample which is biased negatively with respect to the plasma potential. NIs are produced on the surface through the ionization of sputtered and backscattered particles and detected according to their energy and mass by a mass spectrometer (MS) placed in front of the sample. The shape of the measured negative-ion energy distribution function (NIEDF) strongly differs from the NIEDF of the ions emitted by the sample because of the limited acceptance angle of the MS. The reconstruction method proposed here allows to compute the distribution function in energy and angle (NIEADF) of the NIs emitted by the sample based on the NIEDF measurements at different tilt angles of the sample. The reconstruction algorithm does not depend on the NI surface production mechanism, so it can be applied to any type of surface and/or NI. The NIEADFs for highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and gadolinium (low work-function metal) are presented and compared with the SRIM modeling. HOPG and Gd show comparable integrated NI yields, however the key differences in mechanisms of NI production can be identified. While for Gd the major process is backscattering of ions with the peak of NIEDF at 36 eV, in case of HOPG the sputtering contribution due to adsorbed H on the surface is also important and the NIEDF peak is found at 5 eV.

  1. Quantification of Warfarin in Dried Rat Plasma Spots by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development and validation of a novel method for quantification of the oral anticoagulant drug warfarin in dried plasma spots (DPS) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Blood plasma was chosen as a biological fluid to preclude the influence of the hematocrit on the results of the analysis. A 30 μL sample of rat plasma was placed onto Whatman 903 Protein Saver Card and was allowed to dry. A single DPS is sufficient for preparing eight 3.2 mm discs, each containing approximately 1.5–1.6 μL of plasma. Warfarin extraction from one 3.2 mm disc was carried out by adding 200 μL of the acetonitrile : water mixture (1 : 1, v/v) containing 10 mM NH4COOH (pH 4.0), with incubation on a shaker at 1000 rpm for 1 h at 25°C. After chromatographic separation, warfarin and coumachlor (an internal standard) were measured using negative-ion multiple-reaction monitoring with ion transitions m/z 307 → 161 for warfarin and m/z 341 → 161 for the internal standard. The working range of this method is 10–10,000 ng/mL. Within this range, intra- and interday variability of precision and accuracy was <13% and recovery was 82–99%. The results indicate that the new method requires only small plasma samples and may be useful for pharmacokinetic research on warfarin. PMID:28058133

  2. Determination of total and unbound concentrations of lopinavir in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and ultrafiltration methods.

    PubMed

    Illamola, S M; Labat, L; Benaboud, S; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J; Tréluyer, J M; Hirt, D

    2014-08-15

    Lopinavir is an HIV protease inhibitor with high protein binding (98-99%) in human plasma. This study was designed to develop an ultrafiltration method to measure the unbound concentrations of lopinavir overcoming the non-specific binding issue. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of total concentrations of lopinavir in plasma was developed and validated, and an adaptation was also optimized and validated for the determination of unbound concentrations. The chromatographic separation was performed with a C18 column (100 mm × 2.1mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) using a mobile phase containing deionized water with formic acid, and acetonitrile, with gradient elution at a flow-rate of 350 μL min(-1). Identification of the compounds was performed by multiple reaction monitoring, using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. The method was validated over a clinical range of 0.01-1 μg/mL for human plasma ultrafiltrate and 0.1-15 μg/mL in human plasma. The inter and intra-assay accuracies and precisions were between 0.23% and 11.37% for total lopinavir concentrations, and between 3.50% and 13.30% for plasma ultrafiltrate (unbound concentration). The ultrafiltration method described allows an accurate separation of the unbound fraction of lopinavir, circumscribing the loss of drug by nonspecific binding (NSB), and the validated LC-MS/MS methodology proposed is suitable for the determination of total and unbound concentrations of lopinavir in clinical practice.

  3. Determination of ionic and neutral components of argon-methyl methacrylate radiofrequency discharge plasma by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shcheglov, A.N.; Vasilets, V.N.; Ponomarev, A.N.

    1995-09-01

    Positive ions and neutral species formed in the plasma of a radiofrequency discharge in an argonmethyl methacrylate (MMA) mixture at 5.28 MHz, discharge power 12 - 130 W, pressure 10 - 100 Pa, and 0.5 - 10% MMA content of the gas mixture were investigated by mass spectrometry. Over 30 different ionic species were identified in the plasma under various experimental conditions. The most abundant plasma ions were as follows (the m/e values are given in parentheses): CH{sub 3}{sup +} (15), C{sub 2}H{sub 2}{sup +} (26), C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} (27), C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +}, CO{sup +} (28), C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup +}, HCO{sup +} (29), C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} (39), Ar{sup +} (40), C{sub 3}H{sub 5}{sup +} (41), COOCH{sub 3}{sup +} (101). At the MMA concentrations studied, Ar{sup +} was the principal ionic component of the plasma. Among the neutral plasma components, 28 compounds were identified, including C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} hydrocarbons, H{sub 2},H{sub 2}O, CO, HCOH, CH{sub 3}OH, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COH. The experimental data suggest that both electron-impact-induced dissociation and ion-molecule reactions involving Ar{sup +}MMA mixture.

  4. [Determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma using pulse splitless injection technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Ma, Hongying; Wang, Fangjie; Ou, Honglian; Zou, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method coupled with pulse splitless injection technique was developed for the determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics (barbital, amobarbital, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolam) in human plasma. The drugs spiked in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate after alkalization with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. The organic solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream, and the residues were redissolved by ethyl acetate. The separation was performed on an HP-5MS column (30 m x 250 microm x 0.25 microm). The analytes were determined and identified using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and scan mode, respectively. The internal standard method was used for the determination. The target analytes were well separated from each other on their SIM chromatograms and also on the total ion current (TIC) chromatograms. The blank extract from human plasma gave no peaks that interfered with all the analytes on the chromatogram. The calibration curves for 10 sedative-hypnotics showed excellent linearity. The correlation coefficients of all the drugs were higher than 0.9954. The recoveries of the drugs spiked in human plasma ranged from 92.28% to 111.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determinations were from 4.09% to 14.26%. The detection limits ranged from 2 to 20 microg/L. The method is simple, reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination and the quantification of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma and seems to be useful in the practice of clinical toxicological cases.

  5. Enhancement of ion transmission and reduction of background and interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ke

    1992-06-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) (four stages of differential pumping) is described. The large sampling orifice (1.31 mm dia.) improves signals for metal ions and resists plugging. The ion lens deflects ions off center and then back on center into the differential pumping orifice; there is no photon stop in the center. Ion trajectories calculations SIMION show that only those ions that leave the skimmer on center are transmitted, whereas most other lenses used in ICP-MS transmit only ions that leave the skimmer off axis. Background with the Daly detector is 4 counts s(exp -1). This ICP-MS yields low levels of many troublesome polyatomic ions. Signals from refractory metal oxide ions are about 1 percent of the corresponding metal ion signals. Grounding the first electrode of the ion lens reduces matrix effects to approximately less than 20 percent loss in signal for Co(+), Y(+), or Cs(+) in presence of 10 mM Sr, Tm, or Pb. This latter lens setting causes only 30 percent loss in sensitivity compared to biassing the first lens. Matrix effects can also be mitigated by re-adjusting the voltage on the first lens with matrix present. Floating the metal cones at various potentials can improve the ion transmission by a factor of at least four to six. Also, floating the cones extends the upper end of linearity. Net result is more sensitivity and higher ion beam intensity than with a grounded skimmer and sampler. Furthermore, mass discrimination can be reduced.

  6. Development of a new method for sulfide determination by vapor generator inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Mireia; Iglesias, Mònica; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2007-05-01

    A new sensitive methodology for the determination of total reduced sulfur species in natural waters and acid volatile sulfides in sediments at low levels (μg L - 1 ) is described. Reduced sulfur species were separated from the water matrix in the form of H 2S after reaction with hydrochloric acid in a commercial vapor generator coupled to an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (VG-ICP-QMS) equipped with a reaction cell. The method avoided the effect of polyatomic isobaric interferences at m/z 32 caused by 16O 16O + and 14N 18O + through the elimination of the aqueous matrix, a source of oxygen. By introducing a mixture of helium and hydrogen gases into the octopole reaction cell, a series of ion-molecule reactions were induced to reduce the interfering polyatomic species. Operating conditions of the octopole reaction cell system and the analyzer were optimized to get the best signal to background ratio for 32S; a full factorial 2 3 experimental design was developed in order to evaluate which variables had a significant effect and a simplex methodology was applied to find the optimum conditions for the variables. The new method was evaluated by comparison to the standard potentiometric method. The analytical methodology developed was applied to the analysis of reduced sulfur species in natural waters and acid volatile sulfides in sea sediments.

  7. Determination of technetium-99 in aqueous samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    An isotope dilution/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric method (ID/ICP-MS) for measuring the concentration of technetium-99 in aqueous samples was developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The procedure is faster than radiometric techniques, is also less subject to interferences, and has equal or better detection limits. It is currently being used to measure the concentration of {sup 99}Tc in samples of Savannah River water collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site. In this method, one liter samples of water are spiked with {sup 97}Tc. After equilibration, the technetium is extracted from the sample with a chromatographic resin. Interfering elements, molybdenum and ruthenium, are either not retained by the resin or are washed off with dilute nitric acid. The technetium is then eluted with more concentrated nitric acid, and the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio in the eluant is measured with an ICP-MS. The {sup 99}Tc concentration in the original sample is calculated from the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio. The chemical recovery of the extraction procedure is greater than 90%. The detection limit of the instrument, taken as three times the background counts at m/z = 99, is 0.6 part per trillion (ppt). The detection limit of the procedure, taken as three times the standard deviation of several reagent blank analyses, is 0.33 pCi/L.

  8. Determination of technetium-99 in aqueous samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    An isotope dilution/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric method (ID/ICP-MS) for measuring the concentration of technetium-99 in aqueous samples was developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The procedure is faster than radiometric techniques, is also less subject to interferences, and has equal or better detection limits. It is currently being used to measure the concentration of {sup 99}Tc in samples of Savannah River water collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site. In this method, one liter samples of water are spiked with {sup 97}Tc. After equilibration, the technetium is extracted from the sample with a chromatographic resin. Interfering elements, molybdenum and ruthenium, are either not retained by the resin or are washed off with dilute nitric acid. The technetium is then eluted with more concentrated nitric acid, and the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio in the eluant is measured with an ICP-MS. The {sup 99}Tc concentration in the original sample is calculated from the {sup 99}Tc/{sup 97}Tc ratio. The chemical recovery of the extraction procedure is greater than 90%. The detection limit of the instrument, taken as three times the background counts at m/z = 99, is 0.6 part per trillion (ppt). The detection limit of the procedure, taken as three times the standard deviation of several reagent blank analyses, is 0.33 pCi/L.

  9. Establishing human heart chromium, cobalt and vanadium concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Day, Patrick L; Eckdahl, Steven J; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas C; Murray, David L

    2017-05-01

    Chromium, cobalt, and vanadium are used in metallic joint prosthesis. Case studies have associated elevated heart tissue cobalt concentrations with myocardial injury. To document the long term heart metal ion concentrations, a validated inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method was needed. The method utilized a closed-vessel microwave digestion system to digest the samples. An ICP-MS method utilizing Universal Cell Technology was used to determine our target analyte concentrations. Accuracy was verified using reference materials. Precision, sensitivity, recovery and linearity studies were performed. This method was used to establish a reference range for a non-implant containing cohort of 80 autopsy human heart tissues RESULTS: This method demonstrated an analytic measurement range of 0.5-100ng/mL for each element. Accuracy was within ±10% of target value for each element. Within-run precision for each element was below 20% CV. The chromium, vanadium and cobalt concentrations (mean±SD) were 0.1523±0.2157μg/g, 0.0094±0.0211μg/g and 0.1039±0.1305μg/g respectively in 80 non-implant containing human heart tissue samples. This method provides acceptable recovery of the chromium, cobalt and vanadium in heart tissue; allowing assessment of the effects of metallic joint prosthesis on myocardial health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of abacavir, tenofovir, darunavir, and raltegravir in human plasma and saliva using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Eiko; Takagi, Ritsuo; Sudo, Koji; Kato, Shingo

    2015-10-10

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TFV), darunavir (DRV), and raltegravir (RAL) in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated to investigate the applicability of saliva as an appropriate specimen for therapeutic drug monitoring. As internal standards, TFV was chosen for ABC, ABC was chosen for TFV, RAL for DRV, and DRV for RAL. Sample preparation involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, evaporation of solvent using a centrifugal evaporator, and reconstitution by dissolving the residue in mobile phase. Liquid chromatography was performed on a C18 reverse phase column (1.5 × 50 mm, 5 μm) isocratically at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min using 5mM formic acid-3% (v/v) acetonitrile as the mobile phase for ABC and TFV and 5mM formic acid-35% (v/v) acetonitrile as the mobile phase for DRV and RAL. The run time was 6 min, and the retention time was approximately 2.0 min for TFV, 2.5 min for RAL, and 4-4.5 min for ABC and DRV. Analytes were detected using tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. The precursor/product ion transitions (m/z) were 287.3/191.2 for ABC, 288.5/176.2 for TFV, 548.3/392.3 for DRV, and 445.3/109.5 for RAL, and were monitored on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linearity of the assay was assessed in the range 1-10,000 ng/mL for all four drugs. Within-run and between-run mean accuracy, precision, and the extraction recovery for all drugs were -14.5-18.1%, 1.2-13.1%, and 86.0-111.1%, respectively. The proposed assay is sufficiently sensitive and accurate to quantify these drugs in plasma and saliva, and is suitable for investigating the relationship between drug concentrations in plasma and saliva.

  11. Comparison of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental imaging in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gholap, Deepti S; Izmer, Andrei; De Samber, Björn; van Elteren, Johannes T; Selih, Vid S; Evens, Roel; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Janssen, Colin; Balcaen, Lieve; Lindemann, Inge; Vincze, Laszlo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2010-04-01

    Visualization of elemental distributions in thin sections of biological tissue is gaining importance in many disciplines of biological and medical research. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) are two widely used microanalytical techniques for elemental mapping. This article compares the capabilities of the two techniques for imaging the distribution of selected elements in the model organism Daphnia magna in terms of detection power and spatial resolution. Sections with a thickness of 10 and 20 microm of the fresh water crustacean Daphnia magna were subjected to LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRF analysis. The elemental distributions obtained for Ca, P, S and Zn allow element-to-tissue correlation. LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRF offer similar limits of detection for the elements Ca and P and thus, allow a cross-validation of the imaging results. LA-ICP-MS was particularly sensitive for determining Zn (LOD 20 microg g(-1), 15 microm spot size) in Daphnia magna, while the detection power of micro-XRF was insufficient in this context. However, LA-ICP-MS was inadequate for the measurement of the S distributions, which could be better visualized with micro-XRF (LOD 160 microg g(-1), 5 s live time). Both techniques are thus complementary in providing an exhaustive chemical profiling of tissue samples.

  12. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review, Electrothermal Vaporization and Laser Ablation will also be shortly described. The second issue is devoted to the analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices, with particular insight into the isotope dilution technique, particularly used in speciation analysis by ICP-coupled separation techniques.

  13. Provenance determination of oriental porcelain using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Bartle, Emma K; Watling, R John

    2007-03-01

    The sale of fraudulent oriental ceramics constitutes a large proportion of the illegal artifact and antique trade and threatens to undermine the legitimate international market. The sophistication and skill of forgers has reached a level where, using traditional appraisal by eye and hand, even the most experienced specialist is often unable to distinguish between a genuine and fraudulent piece. In addition, current provenancing techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and thermoluminescence (TL) dating can result in significant damage to the artifact itself. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), a relatively nondestructive analytical technique, has been used for the provenance determination of materials based on geographical origin. The technique requires the production of a laser crater, c. 100 microm in diameter, which is essentially invisible to the naked eye. Debris from this crater is analyzed using ICP-MS, with the results forming the basis of the provenance establishment protocol. Chinese, Japanese, and English porcelain shards have been analyzed using this protocol and generic isotopic distribution patterns have been produced that enable the provenance establishment of porcelain artifacts to their country of production. Minor variations between elemental fingerprints of artifacts produced in the same country also indicate that it may be possible to further provenance oriental ceramics to a specific production region or kiln site.

  14. [Interest and limits of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for urinary diagnosis of radionuclide internal contamination].

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Yannick; Bohand, Sandra; Laroche, Pierre; Cazoulat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    After a review of radiometric reference methods used in radiotoxicology, analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the workplace urinary diagnosis of internal contamination by radionuclides are evaluated. A literature review (covering the period from 2000 to 2012) is performed to identify the different applications of ICP-MS in radiotoxicology for urine analysis. The limits of detection are compared to the recommendations of the International commission on radiological protection (ICRP 78: "Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers"). Except one publication describing the determination of strontium-90 (β emitter), all methods using ICP-MS reported in the literature concern actinides (α emitters). For radionuclides with a radioactive period higher than 10(4) years, limits of detection are most often in compliance with ICRP publication 78 and frequently lower than radiometric methods. ICP-MS allows the specific determination of plutonium-239 + 240 isotopes which cannot be discriminated by α spectrometry. High resolution ICP-MS can also measure uranium isotopic ratios in urine for total uranium concentrations lower than 20 ng/L. The interest of ICP-MS in radiotoxicology concerns essentially the urinary measurement of long radioactive period actinides, particularly for uranium isotope ratio determination and 239 and 240 plutonium isotopes discrimination. Radiometric methods remain the most efficient for the majority of other radionuclides.

  15. The Human Plasma Proteome Draft of 2017: Building on the Human Plasma PeptideAtlas from Mass Spectrometry and Complementary Assays.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Jochen M; Omenn, Gilbert S; Sun, Zhi; Campbell, David S; Baker, Mark S; Overall, Christopher M; Aebersold, Ruedi; Moritz, Robert L; Deutsch, Eric W

    2017-09-22

    Human blood plasma provides a highly accessible window to the proteome of any individual in health and disease. Since its inception in 2002, the Human Proteome Organization's Human Plasma Proteome Project (HPPP) has been promoting advances in the study and understanding of the full protein complement of human plasma and on determining the abundance and modifications of its components. In 2017, we review the history of the HPPP and the advances of human plasma proteomics in general, including several recent achievements. We then present the latest 2017-04 build of Human Plasma PeptideAtlas, which yields ~43 million peptide-spectrum matches and 122,730 distinct peptide sequences from 178 individual experiments at a 1% protein-level FDR globally across all experiments. Applying the latest Human Proteome Project Data Interpretation Guidelines, we catalog 3509 proteins that have at least two non-nested uniquely-mapping peptides of 9 amino acids or more and >1300 additional proteins with ambiguous evidence. We apply the same two-peptide guideline to historical PeptideAtlas builds going back to 2006 and examine the progress made in the past ten years in plasma proteome coverage. We also compare the distribution of proteins in historical PeptideAtlas builds in various RNA-abundance and cellular localization categories. We then discuss advances in plasma proteomics based on targeted mass spectrometry as well as affinity assays, which during early 2017 target ~2000 proteins. Finally we describe considerations about sample handling and study design, concluding with an outlook for future advances in deciphering the human plasma proteome.

  16. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  17. Development and validation of the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative estimation of candesartan from human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Shailesh T.; Patel, Pratik K.; Patel, Marmik; Chauhan, Vijendra B.; Patel, Chhaganbhai N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for estimation of candesartan in human plasma using the protein precipitation technique. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed on reverse phase using a Betasil C8 (100 × 2.1 mm) 5-μm column, mobile phase of methanol:ammonium tri-floro acetate buffer with formic acid (60:40 v/v) and flow rate of 0.45 ml/min. The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 441.2 → 263.2 and 260.2 → 116.1 were used to measure candesartan by using propranolol as an internal standard. Results: The linearity of the developed method was achieved in the range of 1.2–1030 ng/ml (r2 ≥ 0.9996) for candesartan. Conclusion: The developed method is simple, rapid, accurate, cost-effective and specific; hence, it can be applied for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23781443

  18. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed.

  19. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e., ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed. PMID:28337398

  20. Biological Cluster Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Winograd, Nicholas; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the new physics and new applications of secondary ion mass spectrometry using cluster ion probes. These probes, particularly C60, exhibit enhanced molecular desorption with improved sensitivity owing to the unique nature of the energy-deposition process. In addition, these projectiles are capable of eroding molecular solids while retaining the molecular specificity of mass spectrometry. When the beams are microfocused to a spot on the sample, bioimaging experiments in two and three dimensions are feasible. We describe emerging theoretical models that allow the energy-deposition process to be understood on an atomic and molecular basis. Moreover, experiments on model systems are described that allow protocols for imaging on biological materials to be implemented. Finally, we present recent applications of imaging to biological tissue and single cells to illustrate the future directions of this methodology. PMID:20055679

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  3. Determination of Total Arsenic and Speciation in Apple Juice by Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ping; Colon, Luis A.; Aga, Diana S.

    2016-01-01

    A two-part laboratory experiment was designed for upper-level analytical chemistry students to provide hands-on experience in the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for detection. In the first part of the experiment, the students analyze total arsenic in…

  4. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  5. Determination of Total Arsenic and Speciation in Apple Juice by Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ping; Colon, Luis A.; Aga, Diana S.

    2016-01-01

    A two-part laboratory experiment was designed for upper-level analytical chemistry students to provide hands-on experience in the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for detection. In the first part of the experiment, the students analyze total arsenic in…

  6. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  7. MASS SPECTROMETRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers applications of mass spectrometry to the environmental sciences. From the early applications of mass spectrometry to environmental research in the 1960s and 1970s, mass spectrometry has played an important role in aiding our understanding of environmental poll...

  8. MASS SPECTROMETRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers applications of mass spectrometry to the environmental sciences. From the early applications of mass spectrometry to environmental research in the 1960s and 1970s, mass spectrometry has played an important role in aiding our understanding of environmental poll...

  9. Determination of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the turbo ion spray mode.

    PubMed

    Ozou, M L; Girault, J; Malgouyat, J M; Pasquier, O

    2001-12-25

    A highly sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the quantitation of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in human plasma. The method was validated over a linear range of 0.100-50.0 ng/ml, using 13C4 sodium cromoglycate as the internal standard. Compounds were extracted from 1.0 ml of lithium heparin plasma by methanol elution of C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. The dried residue was reconstituted with 100 microl of 0.01 N HCl. and 30 microl was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C8 (3.5 microm) column with an isocratic mobile phase of methanol-water-0.5 M ammonium acetate (35:64.8:0.2, v/v/v). The analytes were detected with a PE Sciex API 3000 mass spectrometer using turbo ion spray with positive ionization. Ions monitored in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were m/z 469.2 (precursor ion) to m/z 245.1 (product ion) for SCG and m/z 473.2 (precursor ion) to m/z 247.1 (product ion) for 13C4 SCG (I.S.). The average recoveries of SCG and the I.S. from human plasma were 91 and 87%, respectively. The low limit of quantitation was 0.100 ng/ml. Results from a 4-day validation study demonstrated excellent precision (C.V.% values were between 1.9 and 6.5%) and accuracy (-5.4 to - 1.2%) across the calibration range of 0.100-50.0 ng/ml.

  10. Hybrid instruments for mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Glish, G.L.; McLuckey, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to refine further the technique of mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry efforts are being made to combine the desirable features of sector based tandem instruments with those of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This has resulted in the construction of tandem mass spectrometers which incorporate both sector type analyzers and quadrupole mass filters. These so-called hybrid instruments, designed specifically for mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry applications, are appearing in a variety of geometries each with unique features. This review describes the hybrid instruments reported to data and discusses general considerations for evaluating hybrid instruments with regard to application. 100 references.

  11. Simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in plasma and serum by dual size exclusion-affinity chromatography with online isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Sevillano, M A; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous speciation of selenoproteins and selenometabolites in mouse plasma has been developed based on in series two-dimensional size exclusion and affinity high-performance liquid chromatography (2D/SE-AF-HPLC), using two columns of each type, and hyphenation to inductively coupled plasma-(quadrupole) mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). The method allows the quantitative determination of selenoprotein P (SeP), extracellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx), selenoalbumin (SeAlb), and selenometabolites in mouse plasma using species-unspecific isotope dilution (SUID). The 2D chromatographic separation is proposed to remove typical spectral interferences in plasma from chloride and bromide on (77)Se ((40)Ar(37)Cl) and (82)Se ((81)Br(1)H). In addition, the approach increases chromatographic resolution allowing the separation of eGPx from Se metabolites of low molecular mass. The method is robust, reliable, and fast with a typical chromatographic runtime less than 20 min. Precision in terms of relative standard deviation (n = 5) is in the order of 4 %, and detection limits are in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 ng Se g(-1). Method accuracy for determination of total protein bound to Se was assessed by analyzing human serum reference material (BCR-637) certified for total Se content, and latterly applied to mouse plasma (Mus musculus). In summary, a reliable speciation method for the analysis of eGPx, selenometabolites, SeP, and SeAlb in plasma/serum samples is proposed for the first time and is applicable to the evaluation of Se status in human in clinical studies and other mammals for environmental or toxicological assessment.

  12. Characterization of microbial siderophores by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pluháček, Tomáš; Lemr, Karel; Ghosh, Dipankar; Milde, David; Novák, Jiří; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Siderophores play important roles in microbial iron piracy, and are applied as infectious disease biomarkers and novel pharmaceutical drugs. Inductively coupled plasma and molecular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with high resolution separations allow characterization of siderophores in complex samples taking advantages of mass defect data filtering, tandem mass spectrometry, and iron-containing compound quantitation. The enrichment approaches used in siderophore analysis and current ICP-MS technologies are reviewed. The recent tools for fast dereplication of secondary metabolites and their databases are reported. This review on siderophores is concluded with their recent medical, biochemical, geochemical, and agricultural applications in mass spectrometry context.

  13. Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan.

  14. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with principal component analysis of titania-blood plasma interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Ricardo; Rossbach, Peggy; Keller, Beat; Anitua, Eduardo; Reviakine, Ilya

    2013-01-22

    Treatment of osseoimplant surfaces with autologous platelet-rich plasma prepared according to the plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) protocol prior to implantation yields promising results in the clinic. Our objective is to understand the organization of complex interfaces between blood plasma preparations of various compositions and model titania surfaces. Here we present the results of the morphological and chemical characterization of TiO(2) surfaces incubated with four types of blood plasma preparations devoid of leukocytes and red blood cells: either enriched in platelets (PRGF-Endoret) or platelet-depleted, and either activated with CaCl(2) to induce clotting, or not. Chemical characterization was done by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with principal component analysis (ToF-SIMS/PCA). The interface morphology was studied with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify platelets and infer their activation state. We observe clear differences among the four types of interfaces by ToF-SIMS/PCA. Some of these could be straightforwardly related to the differences in the sample morphology and known effects of platelet activation, but others are more subtle. Strikingly, it was possible to differentiate between these samples by ToF-SIMS/PCA of the protein species alone. This clearly indicates that the composition, orientation, and/or conformation of the proteins in these specimens depend both on the platelets' presence and on their activation. The ToF-SIMS imaging functionality furthermore provides unique insight into the distribution of phospholipid species in these samples.

  15. Interlaboratory Evaluation of Automated, Multiplexed Peptide Immunoaffinity Enrichment Coupled to Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry for Quantifying Proteins in Plasma*

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Eric; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Mani, D. R.; Jackson, Angela M.; Zhao, Lei; Pope, Matthew E.; Smith, Derek; Rivera, Keith D.; Anderson, N. Leigh; Skates, Steven J.; Pearson, Terry W.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Carr, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    The inability to quantify large numbers of proteins in tissues and biofluids with high precision, sensitivity, and throughput is a major bottleneck in biomarker studies. We previously demonstrated that coupling immunoaffinity enrichment using anti-peptide antibodies (SISCAPA) to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) produces Immunoprecipitation MRM-MS (immuno-MRM-MS) assays that can be multiplexed to quantify proteins in plasma with high sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Here we report the first systematic evaluation of the interlaboratory performance of multiplexed (8-plex) immuno-MRM-MS in three independent labs. A staged study was carried out in which the effect of each processing and analysis step on assay coefficient of variance, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery was evaluated. Limits of detection were at or below 1 ng/ml for the assayed proteins in 30 μl of plasma. Assay reproducibility was acceptable for verification studies, with median intra- and interlaboratory coefficients of variance above the limit of quantification of 11% and <14%, respectively, for the entire immuno-MRM-MS assay process, including enzymatic digestion of plasma. Trypsin digestion and its requisite sample handling contributed the most to assay variability and reduced the recovery of target peptides from digested proteins. Using a stable isotope-labeled protein as an internal standard instead of stable isotope-labeled peptides to account for losses in the digestion process nearly doubled assay accuracy for this while improving assay precision 5%. Our results demonstrate that multiplexed immuno-MRM-MS can be made reproducible across independent laboratories and has the potential to be adopted widely for assaying proteins in matrices as complex as plasma. PMID:22199228

  16. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay quantifying olaparib in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, C M; Lucas, L; Rosing, H; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2013-12-01

    Olaparib is an inhibitor of poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Phase I and II trials showed promising results of olaparib against tumours in BRCA mutation carriers. Currently an increasing number of clinical trials with olaparib in combination with other compounds or radiotherapy are conducted. To support these clinical trials an LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of olaparib in human plasma. Human plasma samples were collected in the clinic and stored at nominally -20°C. Olaparib was isolated from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction, separated on a C18 column with gradient elution and analyzed with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in positive ion mode. A deuterated isotope was used as internal standard for the quantification. The assay, ranging from 10 to 5000ng/mL, was linear with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.9994 or better. The assay was accurate and precise, with inter-assay and intra-assay accuracies within ±7.6% of nominal and inter-assay and intra-assay precision ≤9.3% at the lower limit of quantification and ≤5.7% at the other concentration levels tested. All results were within the acceptance criteria of the US FDA and the latest EMA guidelines for method validation. A quantitative method was developed and validated for the quantification of olaparib in human plasma. The method could successfully be applied for the pharmacokinetic quantification of olaparib in cancer patients treated with olaparib. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 in rat plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Geng, Peiwu; Luo, Xinhua; Zhou, Genzhi; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Wang, Shuanghu; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Ding, Ting

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that macitentan was metabolized predominantly by cytochrome P450 3A4, and ACT-132577, its pharmacologically active metabolite, is fivefold less potent at blocking ET receptors than macitentan. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of ACT-132577 in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of diazepam as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.2% formic acid and methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 546.9→200.6 for ACT-132577, and m/z 285.1→193.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 10-4000 ng/mL for ACT-132577 in rat plasma. Mean recovery of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 82.6% to 90.6%, matrix effect of ACT-132577 in rat plasma ranged from 101.4% to 115.2%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both less than 11%. The accuracy of the method ranged from 96.1% to 103.5%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of ACT-132577 after oral and intravenous administration of macitentan. PMID:26770447

  18. Trace element biomonitoring in hair of school children from a polluted area by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, Evgenii J; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Natalya B; Kombarova, Maria Yu; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, a biomonitoring of 18 hair trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn, Ca, Na and P) in school children from Leningradskaya Oblast' is reported. A case group, residing in a proximity to the toxic waste disposal grounds (Krasniy Bor), has been assessed vs. controls from a non-urban settlement Seltso. In total, 166 hair samples were analysed using double focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted sample digestion with nitric acid. For the determination of Ca, Na and P inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was employed. For the validation, a reference material and spiked hair samples were analysed. The data obtained was processed using parametric statistics and factor analysis. Determined concentrations of trace elements were in agreement with the previously published results on chemically polluted areas. In the case group, linear correlations between Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and V were observed. Also, these metals correlated to selenium hair content in the case group. Additionally, a correlation between hair Se and P was observed in the case subjects. Several gender differences in trace content were observed within each group. However, no age- or body index-related difference was found. The obtained results show that closely located waste disposal grounds intensifies trace element exposure in school children of Krasniy Bor. However, judging from rather high values for the controls, total environmental status of the region seems to be unstable, so additional monitoring and chemical safety measures are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Aflatoxin B1-Lysine in Pig Serum and Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Mayra C; Jager, Alessandra V; Costa, Aline A; Bordin, Keliani; Rottinhghaus, George E; Petta, Tânia; Souto, Pollyana C M C; Budiño, Fabio E L; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatocarcinogen produced by certain Aspergillus species growing on crops. After biotransformation in the liver, AFB1 generates several metabolites, one of which is AFB1 bound to lysine on serum albumin. AFB1-lysine (AFB1-lys) is a digest product of AFB1-albumin and is considered a biomarker of exposure to AFB1 in humans and animals. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the performance characteristics of a new analytical method for determination of AFB1-lys levels in pig serum, heparinized and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma and to evaluate the interference of these anticoagulants in AFB1-lys quantification. Blank blood samples were obtained from eight crossbreed 91-day-old barrows fed AFB1-free diets. Pooled samples (n = 3) and individual samples of serum, EDTA and heparinized plasma collected from five pigs were enzymatically digested with pronase at 37°C for 4 h. AFB1-lys was isolated by solid-phase extraction and quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical method was applied for determination of AFB1-lys in serum and EDTA plasma collected from five 49-day-old crossbreed barrows fed ad libitum diets containing 1.1 mg of AFB1 per kg of feed during 7 days (three animals) or 42 days (two animals). Samples of heparinized plasma were only available from animals intoxicated for 42 days. All animals had lower levels of AFB1-lys in EDTA plasma samples (24.78-37.40 ng/mL), when compared to serum (49.32-252.07 ng/mL-1) or heparinized plasma (176.81 and 264.24 ng/mL-1). EDTA did not interfere in AFB1-lys standard detection, but our findings suggest that EDTA should be avoided during blood collection since it affects the pronase activity in AFB1-albumin adduct digestion and, consequently, causes a reduction in the AFB1-lys levels. Hence, determination of AFB1-lys in serum and heparinized plasma is an approach to assess an individual's exposure of swine to AFB1.

  20. Simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur species in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and shallot (Allium ascalonicum) by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma-(octopole reaction system)-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Iwashita, Yuji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2005-11-04

    The simultaneous speciation of selenium and sulfur in selenized odorless garlic (Allium sativum L. Shiro) and a weakly odorous Allium plant, shallot (Allium ascalonicum), was performed by means of a hyphenated technique, a HPLC coupled with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) equipped with an octopole reaction system (ORS). The aqueous extracts of them contained the common seleno compound that was identified as gamma-glutamylmethylselenocysteine by an electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Normal garlic contains alliin as the major sulfur-containing compound, which is the biological precursor of the garlic odorant, allicin. Alliin, however, was not detected in the extracts of the selenized odorless garlic. At least, four unidentified sulfur-containing compounds were detected in odorless garlic and shallot. Moreover, these Allium plants showed chemopreventive effects against human leukemia cells.

  1. Spray-inlet microwave plasma torch ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the direct detection of drug samples in liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Meng; Zhao, Gaosheng; Wang, Yaliang; Xu, Li; Dong, Junguo; Cheng, Ping

    2017-09-14

    Drug abuse or dependence results in a series of social problems, including crime and traffic accidents. Spray inlet microwave plasma torch tandem mass spectrometry (MPT-MS/MS) was developed and used for the direct detection of such drugs in liquid solutions. Drug sample solutions were directly sprayed into the flame of MPT by a sampling pump and the ions produced by Penning ionization and ion-molecule reactions were guided into a QTOF tandem mass spectrometer for mass analysis. The MPT was operated at 40 W and 2.45 GHz in a 700 mL/min argon flow both for the inner and middle plasma. Intact quasi-molecular and molecular ions of various drugs were successfully characterized by spray-inlet MPT-MS/MS. The analysis of one sample was finished within 30 s. Furthermore, the method exhibited excellent efficiency, precision, and sensitivity, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification of the samples in methanol were in the range of 5.25-60.0 and 17.5-200 ng g(-1) , respectively. Excellent linearities with coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of 0.9627-0.9980 were verified in the range 0.05-50 μg g(-1) . Four different beverages purchased locally were also analyzed with spray-inlet MPT-MS/MS, and caffeine was directly determined in two of the beverages. By adding six standard drug samples in sport drinks (each drug was 1 μg g(-1) ) and Chinese spirit (each drug was 0.1 μg g(-1) ), all the drugs except for caffeine were detected successfully. This study indicates that spay-inlet MPT-MS/MS is an effective method for direct and rapid identification of drug solutions, and it has substantial potential for fast and sensitive drug residue detection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of calcium supplementation for human bone health by mass spectrometry profiling and cathepsin K measurement in plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingchun; Cao, Rui; Ma, Danjun; Zhang, Hengwei; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert R; Xiao, Gary Guishan

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease among older people, especially postmenopausal women. Calcium supplementation is effective in decreasing the occurrence of osteoporosis. We tested the effect of different calcium sources (i.e., calcium carbonate chew, milk mineral chew, milk drink and placebo chew) by direct mass spectrometry (dMS) profiling and cathepsin K measurement in the serum of subjects. The dMS method is promising for plasma biomarker discovery, and cathepsin K level in the plasma is an indicator for osteoporosis. Our result shows that dMS detected characteristic ion peaks after different calcium supplement interventions; ion peak 4281.0 m/z was commonly inhibited by all three treatments. This ion peak was identified to be a fragment of follistatin-related protein 3 precursor by means of the "Lift" mode of MS/MS. The other differential ion peaks were also successfully identified: 1786.5 m/z (upregulated after calcium carbonate chew) was shown to be one fragment of transcription factor jun-B; the parent protein of 3504.7 m/z (upregulated after milk drink) was a collagen alpha-2 (type I) chain precursor; the ion peak of 3359.6 m/z (downregulated after milk mineral chew) was one fragment of family 31 glucosidase. Cathepsin K is significantly inhibited only by calcium carbonate chew treatment, indicating this form of calcium supplement has some advantage over other sources of supplementation.

  3. Analysis of rocuronium in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with application in clinical pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Lopes, Bruno Carvalho Portes; Lanchote, Vera Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Rocuronium (ROC) is a neuromuscular blocking agent used in surgical procedures which is eliminated primarily by biliary excretion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ROC in human plasma. Separation of ROC and IS (verapamil) was performed using an endcapped C-18 column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:trifluoracetic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v) as mobile phase. Aliquots of 100 μL of human plasma were extracted at pH 3, using dichloromethane. The lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL shows the high sensitivity of this method. Intra- and inter-assay precision (as relative standard deviation) was all ≤14.2% and accuracy (as relative standard error) did not exceed 10.1%. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify ROC concentrations in patients under surgical procedures up to 6h after the administration of the 0.4-0.9 mg/kg ROC. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimations of ROC showed AUC/dose of 563 μg min/mL, total clearance of 2.5 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 190 mL/kg and mean residence time of 83 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous determination of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and naloxone in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaohua; Xu, Allan; Nasser, Azmi F; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-02-20

    A simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of naloxone, buprenorphine and its metabolite norbuprenorphine in human plasma. Human plasma samples were extracted using a single step liquid-liquid extraction, and then separated on an Imtakt Unison UK-C18 column (2.1×50mm, 3μm) using alkaline mobile phases with gradient elution. All of the analytes were detected in positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated and the specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, precision, accuracy, recoveries and stability were determined. The linear range was 20-10000pg/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine; and 1-500pg/mL for naloxone. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) values for all three analytes were ≥0.995. The precision and accuracy for intra-day and inter-day were <11.0%. The recoveries were >63% and matrix effects were tracked by the deuterated internal standards (IS) with the IS-normalized matrix factor ranging from 0.96 to 1.33 for all three analytes. The validated method was successfully applied in a clinical pharmacokinetic study with low dose administration of sublingual buprenorphine and naloxone.

  5. Elemental quantitation of carbon via production of polyatomic anions in gas chromatography-plasma assisted reaction chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haferl, Peter J; Zheng, Kunyu; Wang, Haopeng; Jorabchi, Kaveh

    2017-06-01

    Elemental mass spectrometry offers quantitation and isotopic analysis without the need for compound-specific standards. We have recently introduced plasma assisted reaction chemical ionization (PARCI) as an efficient elemental ionization method for halogens. Here, we report a new ionization chemistry in PARCI for facile quantitation of elemental carbon in gas chromatography eluates. We demonstrate that in-plasma reactions of organic compounds followed by afterglow ionization lead to formation of polyatomic anions (CN(-), OCN(-), and CO3(-)), among which CN(-) offers the best analytical sensitivity with a detection limit of ~25 pg (21 pg/s) carbon on column. Using a mixture of pesticides with wide variations in structures and heteroatom content, we demonstrate that CN(-) ion response is quantitatively correlated with the carbon concentration over two orders of magnitude (r (2) = 0.985). We show that the novel GC-PARCI-MS method provides recoveries within 80-120% using a single standard for all analytes, highlighting the strength of elemental quantitation. Further, the ability of GC-PARCI-MS to identify (13)C-tagged molecules without a priori knowledge of chemical formulas of analytes is demonstrated. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  6. The quick and ultrasensitive determination of K in NaI using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2017-04-01

    A highly sensitive, novel and quick assay method utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of K in NaI powders and NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals for use in ultralow background applications. The determination of K (viz.40K), as well as Th and U and their daughters, is important in ultralow background detector materials to ensure incorporation of materials of sufficiently high radiopurity. Through the use of improved instrumentation, cool plasma operating conditions, and meticulously clean sample preparations, detection limits of 11 fg natK g-1 (or 341 pBq 40K kg-1) was attained for K in pure water. Detection limits in the sample matrix (i.e., NaI) were 0.529 ng natK g NaI-1 (or 16.4 μBq 40K kg NaI-1). A number of different precursor NaI powder samples and NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals were assayed for their K content. Determinations ranged from 0.757 to 31.4 ng natK g NaI-1. This method allows for the screening of materials to unprecedented levels in a fraction of the time compared to gamma ray counting techniques, providing a useful method for a more effective screening tool of K in ultralow background detector materials.

  7. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of amphetamines in plasma.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Samyn, Nele

    2011-10-01

    A fast and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, ephedrine, and p-methoxyamphetamine) in plasma has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. For optimized chromatographic performance with repeatable retention times, narrow and symmetrical peaks, and focusing all analytes at the column inlet, a gradient start, with acid mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and methanol was chosen. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each analyte. Deuteriumlabeled internal standards were used for five of the analytes. The limit of detection was in the range 0.25-1.25 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was fixed at the lowest calibrator of 2.5 ng/mL for all of the compounds. The RSD values of the intra- and interassay precision and accuracy were lower than 11% at four concentration levels, including two external quality controls. No or only minor matrix effects were observed, and the extraction method presented recoveries higher than 93% for all the compounds. Total run time, including equilibration, was 12 min. The method is routinely used at the National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology for quantitative determination of the main amphetamines in plasma from forensic and driving under the influence cases.

  8. Rapid determination of omeprazole in human plasma by protein precipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Macek, J; Klíma, J; Ptácek, P

    2007-06-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reliable method was developed to quantitate omeprazole in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The assay is based on protein precipitation with acetonitrile and reversed-phase liquid chromatography performed on an octadecylsilica column (55 mm x 2mm, 3 microm particles), the mobile phase consisted of methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v). Omeprazole and flunitrazepam, the internal standard, elute at 0.80+/-0.10 min with a total run time 1.35 min. Quantification was through positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring mode at m/z 346.1-->197.9 for omeprazole and m/z 314.0-->268.0 for flunitrazepam, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation was 1.2 ng/ml using 0.25 ml of plasma and linearity was observed from 1.2 to 1200 ng/ml. Within-day and between-day precision expressed by relative standard deviation was less than 5% and inaccuracy did not exceed 12%. The assay was applied to the analysis of samples from a pharmacokinetic study.

  9. Analysis of saikosaponins in rat plasma by anionic adducts-based liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Song, Rui; Tian, Ji-Xin; Tian, Yuan; Liu, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Zun-Jian

    2012-07-01

    Saikosaponins (SSs) are a class of triterpene saponins with a wide spectrum of bioactivities. A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of saikosaponin a, saikosaponin c, saikosaponin d and saikosaponin b₂ in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes and the internal standard (IS) digoxin were well separated on an octadecyl column using gradient elution and analyzed by monitoring the fragmentation transition pair of anionic adducts to deprotonated molecules in negative-mode electrospray. By neutral loss of HCOOH, the transition pairs of m/z 825 → 779 for SSa, SSd, SSb₂ and the IS, and m/z 971 → 925 for SSc were sensitive for MS/MS detection with the lower limits of quantification in the range of 0.20-0.40 ng/mL. Method validation experiments were performed, including selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity, matrix effect, recovery and stability. The validated method was further applied to determine the pharmacokinetics parameters of SSa, c and d in rats following a single oral administration of the extract of chaihu (the dried roots of Bupleurum chinense DC). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of lanthanides in rock samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using thorium as oxide and hydroxide correction standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, Narendra M.; Huang, Li-Shing; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lin, King-Chuen

    2003-05-01

    Determination of lanthanides by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) using modified mathematical correction method has been studied. Normally, the ICP-MS analysis of middle and heavier lanthanides becomes difficult by severe spectroscopic overlap of M +, MO + or MOH + ions from lighter lanthanides and Ba. A correction m