Science.gov

Sample records for plasma quench process

  1. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  2. Analyses of quenching process during turn-off of plasma electrolytic carburizing on carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Run; Xue, Wenbin; Wang, Bin; Jin, Xiaoyue; Du, Jiancheng

    2014-10-01

    Plasma electrolytic carburizing (PEC) under different turn-off modes was employed to fabricate a hardening layer on carbon steel in glycerol solution without stirring at 380 V for 3 min. The quenching process in fast turn-off mode or slow turn-off mode of power supply was discussed. The temperature in the interior of steel and electron temperature in plasma discharge envelope during the quenching process were evaluated. It was found that the cooling rates of PEC samples in both turn-off modes were below 20 °C/s, because the vapor film boiling around the steel sample reduced the cooling rate greatly in terms of Leidenfrost effect. Thus the quench hardening hardly took place, though the slow turn-off mode slightly decreased the surface roughness of PEC steel. At the end of PEC treatment, the fast turn-off mode used widely at present cannot enhance the surface hardness by quench hardening, and the slow turn-off mode was recommended in order to protect the electronic devices against a large current surge.

  3. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  4. Quenched catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Krambeck, F.J.; Penick, J.E.; Schipper, P.H.

    1990-12-18

    This paper describes improvement in a fluidized catalytic cracking process wherein a fluidizable catalyst cracking catalyst and a hydrocarbon feed are charged to a reactor riser at catalytic riser cracking conditions to form catalytically cracked vapor product and spent catalyst which are discharged into a reactor vessel having a volume via a riser reactor outlet equipped with a separation means to produce a catalyst lean phase. It comprises: a majority of the cracked product, and a catalyst rich phase comprising a majority of the spend catalyst. The the catalyst rich phase is discharged into a dense bed of catalyst maintained below the riser outlet and the catalyst lean phase is discharged into the vessel for a time, and at a temperature, which cause unselective thermal cracking of the cracked product in the reactor volume before product is withdrawn from the vessel via a vessel outlet. The improvement comprises: addition, after riser cracking is completed, and after separation of cracked products from catalyst, of a quenching stream into the vessel above the dense bed of catalyst, via a quench stream addition point which allows the quench stream to contact at least a majority of the volume of the vessel above the dense bed.

  5. Pulse plasma carburizing and high pressure gas quenching -- Industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Preisser, F.; Schnatbaum, F.

    1995-12-31

    Pulse plasma carburizing with high pressure gas quenching up to 20 bar is the newly developed case hardening process now available in production size equipment. The first part of results demonstrates the tremendous potential of high pressure gas quenching for successful hardening of case hardening steels. The second part opens a window to glance at the pulse plasma carburizing of complex shaped parts. Both processes improve economical data and performance of carburizing processes.

  6. Numerical and experimental investigation of quench process

    SciTech Connect

    Guer, C.H.; Tekkaya, A.E.; Oeztuerk, T.

    1996-12-31

    Numerical and experimental studies have been carried out to investigate the evolution of residual stresses in quenched components induced by temperature gradient and phase transformations. In the numerical analysis, a finite element model is implemented for predicting the temperature field, phase changes with their associated internal stresses in axisymmetrical steel components. The model is verified by several comparisons with other known numerical results. Case studies are performed to investigate the effects of the quench bath temperature and the specimen geometry. Specimen geometry has been analyzed by introducing a hole in a cylinder and varying hole diameter and its eccentricity. Experiments include microstructural examination and X-ray diffraction measurements of surface residual stresses. QUENCHING is a common manufacturing process to produce parts with reliable service properties. Long parts with small cross sections, those with nonsymmetrical shapes, and those with holes, deep keyways or grooves are difficult to quench without distortion or cracking. Especially in quenching of construction steels, the quench cracking risks and great deformation is often encountered. On the other hand, most serious residual stresses are from the differential cooling and the volume increase due to the phase transformations.

  7. Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least

  8. Quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Lemaire, P.; Suckewer, S.

    1987-09-01

    We have observed changing Einstein coefficients of spontaneous emission as a function of electron density in CO/sub 2/ laser-produced plasmas. These measurements are based on the intensity branching ratio of CIV lines 5801 to 5812 A and 312.41 to 312.46 A which share a common upper level. Similar observations for CIII lines are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Plasma quenching by air during single-bubble sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, David J; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2006-08-03

    We report the observation of sudden and dramatic changes in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) intensity (i.e., radiant power, phi(SL)) and spectral profiles at a critical acoustic pressure (P(c)) for solutions of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) containing mixtures of air and noble gas. Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen (N2), and atomic oxygen emission lines are visible just below P(c). At P(c), very bright (factor of 7000 increase in phi(SL)) and featureless SBSL is observed when Ar is present. In addition, Ar lines are observed from a dimmed bubble that has been driven above P(c). These observations suggest that bright SBSL from H2SO4 is due to a plasma, and that molecular components of air suppress the onset of bright light emission through quenching mechanisms and endothermic processes. Determination of temperatures from simulations of the emission lines shows that air limits the heating during single-bubble cavitation. When He is present, phi(SL) increases by only a factor of 4 at P(c), and the SBSL spectrum is not featureless as for Ar, but instead arises from sulfur oxide (SO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) bands. These differences are attributed to the high thermal conductivity and ionization potential of He compared to Ar.

  10. Advances in the numerical investigation of the immersion quenching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. S.; Kopun, R.; Kosir, N.; Edelbauer, W.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the immersion quenching process is presented in this paper. Immersion quenching is recognized as one of the common ways to achieve the desirable microstructure, and to improve the mechanical properties after thermal treatment. Furthermore it is important to prevent distortion and cracking of the cast parts. Accurate prediction of all three boiling regimes and the heat transfer inside the structure during quenching are important to finally evaluate the residual stresses and deformations of thermally treated parts. Numerical details focus on the handling of the enthalpy with variable specific heat capacity in the solid. For two application cases, comparison between measured and simulated temperatures at different monitoring positions shows very good agreement. The study demonstrates the capability of the present model to overcome the numerical challenges occurring during immersion quenching and it is capable of predicting the complex physics with good accuracy.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Nitro-Quenching by Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Masaki; Ichiki, Ryuta; Iwakiri, Yutaro; Akamine, Shuichi; Kanazawa, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    A lot of techniques exist as the hardening method of steels, such as nitriding, carburizing and quenching. However, low-alloy steels cannot be hardened by nitriding because hardening by nitriding requires nitride precipitates of special alloy elements such as rare metals. Recently, nitro-quenching (NQ) was developed as a new hardening process, where nitrogen invokes martensitic transformation instead of carbon. NQ is adaptable to hardening low-alloy steels because it does not require alloy elements. In industrial NQ, nitrogen diffusion into steel surface is operated in high temperature ammonia gas. As a new technology, we have developed surface hardening of low-alloy steel by NQ using an atmospheric-pressure plasma. Here the pulsed-arc plasma jet with nitrogen/hydrogen gas mixture is sprayed onto steel surface and then water quench the sample. As a result, the surface of low-alloy steel was partially hardened up to 800 Hv by producing iron-nitrogen martensite. However, the hardness profile is considerably non-uniform. We found that the non-uniform hardness profile can be controlled by changing the treatment gap, the gap between the jet nozzle and the sample surface. Eventually, we succeeded in hardening a targeted part of steel by optimizing the treatment gap. Moreover, we propose the mechanism of non-uniform hardness.

  12. Plasma quench technology for natural gas conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Kong, P.C.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental demonstration of a process for direct conversion of methane to acetylene in a thermal plasma. The process utilizes a thermal plasma to dissociate methane and form an equilibrium mixture of acetylene followed by a supersonic expansion of the hot gas to preserve the produced acetylene in high yield. The high translational velocities and rapid cooling result in an overpopulation of atomic hydrogen which persists throughout the expansion process. The presence of atomic hydrogen shifts the equilibrium composition by inhibiting complete pyrolysis of methane and acetylene to solid carbon. This process has the potential to reduce the cost of producing acetylene from natural gas. Acetylene and hydrogen produced by this process could be used directly as industrial gases, building blocks for synthesis of industrial chemicals, or oligomerized to long chain liquid hydrocarbons for use as fuels. This process produces hydrogen and ultrafine carbon black in addition to acetylene.

  13. Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch

    SciTech Connect

    A. Blutke; B.C. Stratton; D.R. Mikkelsen; J. Vavruska; R. Knight

    1998-01-01

    The technical feasibility of using an induction-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz and ~11 kVA with an argon/oxygen mixture as the plasma-forming gas. A gaseous oxygen quench formed ozone by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration in the reaction chamber was measured by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over a wide range of experimental configurations. The geometry of the quench gas flow, the quench flow velocity, and the quench flow rate played important roles in determining the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration was sensitive to the torch RF power, but was insensitive to the torch gas flow rates. These observations are interpreted within the framework of a simple model of ozone synthesis.

  14. Synthesis of Amorphous Alloy Nanoparticles by Thermal Plasma Jet in a Quenching Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2015-09-01

    Recently, amorphous alloy nanoparticles have received a great attention in various applications such as catalysts, compact and highly efficient transformers, electrode material for Li-ion batteries, etc. Several methods such as microwave heating, laser ablation, and sonification have been studied to synthesize amorphous metal nanoparticles. In the present work, a high velocity thermal plasma jet generated by an arc plasma torch was used to produce iron alloy nanoparticles from an amorphous raw material which was a spherical shaped powder with the mean size of 25 μm. In order to synthesize amorphous alloy nanoparticles, a quenching tube where cooling gas was injected in different axial positions. Alloy nanoparticles were produced in a relatively high input power of higher than 10 kW in a fixed powder feeding at 300 mg/min. The crystallinity of synthesized nanoparticles was decreased with increasing the quenching gas flow rate. The amorphous alloy nanoparticles were found when the quenching gas injection position was 200 mm away from the exit of the plasma torch with the highest quenching gas flow rate of 20 L/min. In the numerical analysis, the highest quenching rate was also expected at the same condition.

  15. Characterization of the plasma current quench during disruptions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, S.P., Menard, J.E., and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-12-17

    A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change.

  16. Plasma processes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    Elementary microscopic interactions in plasmas are described. The importance of plasma physics in space studies is illustrated by examining several phenomena which cannot be explained satisfactorily by MHD theory. These include kinetic instabilities, plasma turbulence in the bow shock, magnetic turbulence near the moon, VLF emissions in the magnetosphere, planetary and solar radio emissions, and interaction of planetary and cometary plasmas with the solar wind. Evidence for the existence of anomalous transport processes in terrestrial and planetary magnetospheres is presented.

  17. Numerical simulation of the plasma current quench following a disruptive energy loss

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.; Miller, J.B.; Rothe, K.E.

    1983-11-01

    The plasma electromagnetic interaction with poloidal field coils and nearby passive conductor loops during the current quench following a disruptive loss of plasma energy is simulated. By solving a differential/algebraic system consisting of a set of circuit equations (including the plasma circuit) coupled to a plasma energy balance equation and an equilibrium condition, the electromagnetic consequences of an abrupt thermal quench are observed. Limiters on the small and large major radium sides of the plasma are assumed to define the plasma cross section. The presence of good conductors near the plasma and a small initial distance (i.e., 5 to 10% of the plasma minor radius) between the plasma edge and an inboard limiter are shown to lead to long current decay times. For a plasma with an initial major radius R/sub o/ = 4.3 m, aspect ratio A = 3.6, and current I/sub P/ = 4.0 MA, introducing nearby passive conductors lengthens the current decay from milliseconds to hundreds of milliseconds.

  18. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  19. Pulsed plasma ion carburizing in combination with high pressure gas quenching of medium alloy carburizing steels: A review of the metallurgical results

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, D.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma technology was developed along with low temperature nitriding, where it remained until the mid 1960`s. Work then began to develop a commercially viable plasma carburizing system. It was during the 1980`s that plasma carburizing began its entry into modern process technology. Pulsed plasma technology has now been married with high pressure gas quenching systems (up to 20 bar) using gaseous quenching mixtures of helium and nitrogen to complete the transformation to martensite on medium alloy steels. The technology is based upon the control of active ionized soluble carbon formed directly from either methane or metallurgical grade propane as opposed to the dissociative surface reactions found in the gas carburizing process. Further, advantage is taken of the limit of solubility in austenite of carbon (at approximately 1.5% wt carbon) at temperatures in the region of 1,950 F (1,065 C).

  20. Is the Electron Avalanche Process in a Martian Dust Devil Self-Quenching?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, William M.; McLain, Jason L.; Collier, M. R.; Keller, J. W.; Jackson, T. J.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Viking era laboratory experiments show that mixing tribocharged grains in a low pressure CO2 gas can form a discharge that glows, indicating the presence of an excited electron population that persists over many seconds. Based on these early experiments, it has been predicted that martian dust devils and storms may also contain a plasma and new plasma chemical species as a result of dust grain tribo-charging. However, recent results from modeling suggest a contrasting result: that a sustained electron discharge may not be easily established since the increase in gas conductivity would act to short-out the local E-fields and quickly dissipate the charged grains driving the process. In essence, the system was thought to be self-quenching (i.e., turn itself off). In this work, we attempt to reconcile the difference between observation and model via new laboratory measurements. We conclude that in a Mars-like low pressure CO2 atmosphere and expected E-fields, the electron current remains (for the most part) below the expected driving tribo-electric dust currents (approx. 10 microA/m(exp. 2)), thereby making quenching unlikely.

  1. Novel water-air circulation quenching process for AISI 4140 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liyun; Zheng, Dawei; Zhao, Lixin; Wang, Lihui; Zhang, Kai

    2013-11-01

    AISI 4140 steel is usually used after quenching and tempering. During the heat treatment process in industry production, there are some problems, such as quenching cracks, related to water-cooling and low hardness due to oil quenching. A water-air circulation quenching process can solve the problems of quenching cracks with water and the high cost quenching with oil, which is flammable, unsafe and not enough to obtain the required hardness. The control of the water-cooling and air-cooling time is a key factor in the process. This paper focuses on the quenching temperature, water-air cycle time and cycle index to prevent cracking for AISI 4140 steel. The optimum heat treatment parameters to achieve a good match of the strength and toughness of AISI 4140 steel were obtained by repeated adjustment of the water-air circulation quenching process parameters. The tensile strength, Charpy impact energy at -10 °C and hardness of the heat treated AISI 4140 steel after quenching and tempering were approximately 1098 MPa, 67.5 J and 316 HB, respectively.

  2. Effects of jet quenching on the hydrodynamical evolution of quark-gluon plasma.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, A K; Heinz, Ulrich

    2006-08-11

    We study the effects of jet quenching on the hydrodynamical evolution of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) fluid created in a heavy-ion collision. In jet quenching, a hard QCD parton, before fragmenting into a jet of hadrons, deposits a fraction of its energy in the medium, leading to suppressed production of high-pT hadrons. Assuming that the deposited energy quickly thermalizes, we simulate the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution of the QGP fluid. For partons moving at supersonic speed, vp>cs, and sufficiently large energy loss, a shock wave forms leading to conical flow. The PHENIX Collaboration recently suggested that observed structures in the azimuthal angle distribution might be caused by conical flow. We show here that, for phenomenologically acceptable values of parton energy loss, conical flow effects are too weak to explain these structures.

  3. Processes in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

  4. Efficiency droop in indium gallium nitride light emitters: An introduction to photon quenching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, Raymond

    This thesis contains work from two separate projects, a study of the efficiency of light emitting diodes, and a tapered-fiber approach to photonic crystal integrated photonics. The first part of this thesis describes an experimental investigation of the quantum efficiency of InGaN-based light emitters. Blue and Green LEDs that utilize InGaN quantum wells for their active medium suffer from a reduction in efficiency with increasing bias. This phenomenon is called efficiency droop. In this thesis experimental evidence for significant quenching of photon population in InGaN is presented and its relevance to the efficiency droop problem in InGaN-based light emitting structures is discussed. An equilibrium rate equation model is set up to demonstrate that radiative efficiency for this loss mechanism not only has a similar dependence on carrier density as Auger recombination process, but it also possesses the right order of magnitude making it difficult to distinguish between the two and possibly leading to errors in interpretation. The impact of photon quenching processes on device performance is emphasized by demonstrating loss of efficiency for spectral regions where there is experimental evidence for photon quenching. We have observed this phenomenon for both c-plane and m-plane light emitting structures. Both structures exhibit droop-like behavior for spectral regions where there is evidence for photon quenching. We have also observed and characterized the dynamical Stark effect for an m-plane light emitter considered in this manuscript. Our results revealed localization centers with a corresponding band-edge energy of 388nm and an excitonic binding energy of 17.81mev. Furthermore, fabrication of a photonic crystal waveguide fiber taper coupler is demonstrated with a peak coupling efficiency of 97 %. All four ports of the device are accessible providing an opportunity for investigation of simultaneous interaction of different light sources inside the photonic

  5. Transient slowing down relaxation dynamics of the supercooled dusty plasma liquid after quenching.

    PubMed

    Su, Yen-Shuo; Io, Chong-Wai; I, Lin

    2012-07-01

    The spatiotemporal evolutions of microstructure and motion in the transient relaxation toward the steady supercooled liquid state after quenching a dusty plasma Wigner liquid, formed by charged dust particles suspended in a low pressure discharge, are experimentally investigated through direct optical microscopy. It is found that the quenched liquid slowly evolves to a colder state with more heterogeneities in structure and motion. Hopping particles and defects appear in the form of clusters with multiscale cluster size distributions. Via the structure rearrangement induced by the reduced thermal agitation from the cold thermal bath after quenching, the temporarily stored strain energy can be cascaded through the network to different newly distorted regions and dissipated after transferring to nonlinearly coupled motions with different scales. It leads to the observed self-similar multiscale slowing down relaxation with power law increases of structural order and structural relaxation time, the similar power law decreases of particle motions at different time scales, and the stronger and slower fluctuations with increasing waiting time toward the new steady state.

  6. Plasma Processing of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-22

    Estimates for Producing Alu -.. a from Domestic Raw Materials. U.S. Bureau ot Mines Information Circ lar 8648. 6. Barclay, James A., arti Frank A...heating occurs via joule -type heating, whereas cleaning is believed to occur via vaporization of thin oxide films from cathodic arc spots caused by a...Research Society Symposium on Plasma Processing and Synthesis of Materials, Boston, November. 43. Frind, G., C. P. Goody, and L. E. Prescott . 1983

  7. Demonstrating universal scaling for dynamics of Yukawa one-component plasmas after an interaction quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langin, T. K.; Strickler, T.; Maksimovic, N.; McQuillen, P.; Pohl, T.; Vrinceanu, D.; Killian, T. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Yukawa one-component plasma (OCP) model is a paradigm for describing plasmas that contain one component of interest and one or more other components that can be treated as a neutralizing, screening background. In appropriately scaled units, interactions are characterized entirely by a screening parameter, κ . As a result, systems of similar κ show the same dynamics, regardless of the underlying parameters (e.g., density and temperature). We demonstrate this behavior using ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) created by photoionizing a cold (T ≤10 mK) gas. The ions in UNP systems are well described by the Yukawa model, with the electrons providing the screening. Creation of the plasma through photoionization can be thought of as a rapid quench of the interaction potential from κ =∞ to a final κ value set by the electron density and temperature. We demonstrate experimentally that the postquench dynamics are universal in κ over a factor of 30 in density and an order of magnitude in temperature. Results are compared with molecular-dynamics simulations. We also demonstrate that features of the postquench kinetic energy evolution, such as disorder-induced heating and kinetic-energy oscillations, can be used to determine the plasma density and the electron temperature.

  8. Demonstrating universal scaling for dynamics of Yukawa one-component plasmas after an interaction quench.

    PubMed

    Langin, T K; Strickler, T; Maksimovic, N; McQuillen, P; Pohl, T; Vrinceanu, D; Killian, T C

    2016-02-01

    The Yukawa one-component plasma (OCP) model is a paradigm for describing plasmas that contain one component of interest and one or more other components that can be treated as a neutralizing, screening background. In appropriately scaled units, interactions are characterized entirely by a screening parameter, κ. As a result, systems of similar κ show the same dynamics, regardless of the underlying parameters (e.g., density and temperature). We demonstrate this behavior using ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs) created by photoionizing a cold (T≤10 mK) gas. The ions in UNP systems are well described by the Yukawa model, with the electrons providing the screening. Creation of the plasma through photoionization can be thought of as a rapid quench of the interaction potential from κ=∞ to a final κ value set by the electron density and temperature. We demonstrate experimentally that the postquench dynamics are universal in κ over a factor of 30 in density and an order of magnitude in temperature. Results are compared with molecular-dynamics simulations. We also demonstrate that features of the postquench kinetic energy evolution, such as disorder-induced heating and kinetic-energy oscillations, can be used to determine the plasma density and the electron temperature.

  9. Quenching Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Electron Gas by a Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael; Rudin, Sergey; Greg Rupper Collaboration; Andrey Muraviev Collaboration

    Plasmonic detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the plasma wave excitation in 2D electron gas are capable of detecting ultra short THz pulses. To study the plasma wave propagation and decay, we used femtosecond laser pulses to quench the plasma waves excited by a short THz pulse. The femtosecond laser pulse generates a large concentration of the electron-hole pairs effectively shorting the 2D electron gas channel and dramatically increasing the channel conductance. Immediately after the application of the femtosecond laser pulse, the equivalent circuit of the device reduces to the source and drain contact resistances connected by a short. The total response charge is equal to the integral of the current induced by the THz pulse from the moment of the THz pulse application to the moment of the femtosecond laser pulse application. This current is determined by the plasma wave rectification. Registering the charge as a function of the time delay between the THz and laser pulses allowed us to follow the plasmonic wave decay. We observed the decaying oscillations in a sample with a partially gated channel. The decay depends on the gate bias and reflects the interplay between the gated and ungated plasmons in the device channel. Army Research Office.

  10. Perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of jet quenching in near-critical quark-gluon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiechen

    In this thesis, we construct two QCD based energy loss models to perform quantitative analysis of jet quenching observables in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and the LHC. We first build up a perturbative QCD based CUJET2.0 jet flavor tomography model that couples the dynamical running coupling DGLV opacity series to bulk data constrained relativistic viscous hydrodynamic backgrounds. It solves the strong heavy quark energy loss puzzle at RHIC and explains the surprising transparency of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the LHC. The observed azimuthal anisotropy of hard leading hadrons requires a path dependent jet-medium coupling in CUJET2.0 that implies physics of nonperturbative origin. To explore the nonperturbative chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic structure of the strongly-coupled QGP through jet probes, we build up a new CUJET3.0 framework that includes in CUJET2.0 both Polyakov loop suppressed semi-QGP chromo-electric charges and emergent chromo-magnetic monopoles in the critical transition regime. CUJET3.0 quantitatively describes the anisotropic hadron suppression at RHIC and the LHC. More significantly, it provides a robust connection between the long wavelength ``perfect fluidity'' of the QGP and the short distance jet transport in the QGP. This framework paves the way for ``measuring'' both perturbative and nonperturbative properties of the QGP, and more importantly for probing color confinement through jet quenching.

  11. Thermal plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1992-02-01

    Emphasis has been on plasma synthesis of fine powders, plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), on related diagnostics, and on modeling work. Since plasma synthesis as well as plasma CVD make frequent use of plasma jets, the beginning has been devoted of plasma jets and behavior of particulates injected into such plasma jets. Although most of the construction of the Triple-Torch Plasma Reactor (TTPR) has already been done, modifications have been made in particular modifications required for plasma CVD of diamond. A new reactor designed for Counter-Flow Liquid Injection Plasma Synthesis (CFLIPS) proved to be an excellent tool for synthesis of fine powders as well as for plasma CVD. An attempt was made to model flow and temperature fields in this reactor. Substantial efforts were made to single out those parameters which govern particle size, size distribution, and powder quality in our plasma synthesis experiments. This knowledge is crucial for controlling the process and for meaningful diagnostics and modeling work. Plasma CVD of diamond films using both reactors has been very successful and we have been approached by a number of companies interested in using this technology for coating of tools.

  12. Revealing the surface origin of green band emission from ZnO nanostructures by plasma immersion ion implantation induced quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Sun, X. W.; Tay, B. K.; Cao, Peter H. T.; Wang, J. X.; Zhang, X. H.

    2008-03-15

    Surface defect passivation for ZnO nanocombs (NCBs), random nanowires (RNWs), and aligned nanowires (ANWs) was performed through a metal plasma immersion ion implantation with low bias voltages ranging from 0 to 10 kV, where Ni was used as the modification ion. The depth of surface-originated green band (GB) emission is thus probed, revealing the surface origin of the GB. It is also found that the GB is closely related to oxygen gas content during growth of the nanostructures. The GB origin of NCBs and RNWs grown with higher oxygen content is shallower ({approx}0.5 nm), which can be completely quenched with no bias applied. However, the GB origin of ANWs grown at lower oxygen content is much deeper ({approx}7 nm) with a complete quenching bias of 10 kV. Quenching of the GB can be attributed to passivation of the surface hole or electron trapping sites (oxygen vacancies) by Ni ions.

  13. Modelling of the carburizing and quenching process applied to caterpillar track bushings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, P.; Bonollo, F.

    2014-03-01

    The carburizing-quenching process applied to caterpillar track bushings was studied by means of experimental and numerical analyses. The numerical model was developed on the basis of the real cycle. The purpose of this work is to predict the carbon profiles, microstructural phase changes, hardness and residual stress that occur during quenching using finite element techniques. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and numerical results in terms of carbon diffusion and hardness profiles. The Sysweld® numerical code was used to perform the simulations.

  14. Transport processes in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth`s magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth`s magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth`s magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior.

  15. The Effect of Hardenability Variation on Phase Transformation of Spiral Bevel Gear in Quenching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Shi, Wankai; Yang, Lin; Gu, Zhifei; Li, Zhichao

    2016-07-01

    The hardenability of gear steel is dependent on the composition of alloying elements and is one of important criteria to assess process of phase transformation. The variation of hardenability has to be considered in control of the microstructures and distortion during gear quenching. In this paper, the quantitative effect of hardenability has been investigated on phase transformations of spiral bevel gears in die quenching. The hardenability deviation of 22CrMoH steel was assessed by using Jominy test. The dilatometry experiments were conducted to build phase transformation kinetic models for steels with low and high hardenability, respectively. The complete die quenching process of spiral bevel gear was modeled to reveal the significant difference on microstructures and temperature history with variation of hardenability. The final microstructures of the gear are martensite in surface layer after quenching process. There are bainite inside the gear tooth and the mixture of bainite and ferrite inside gear for the gear with low hardenability. The microstructure is bainite inside the gear with high hardenability.

  16. Effect of quenching temperature and size on atom movement and local structural change for small copper clusters containing 51-54 atoms during quenching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fan, Q. N.

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes are sensitive to the atom number for the small size clusters. However, it is hardly predicted for the effects of quenching temperature and contained atom number on the atom movements of these clusters with the modification of a removing or adding atom. In this paper, we demonstrate the formation of many topologically non-equivalent Cu clusters containing 51-54 atoms during quenching processes by means of atomistic simulations. By modifying annealing temperature, different pathways are observed. The simulation results show that the quenching temperature has large effect on the atom movements and the scenario of the formation and growth of local structures in the clusters is greatly different for the four clusters only with one atom difference. When the quenching temperature is high, most atoms in the clusters move individually. In the meantime, changes in the atom packing can be observed in these clusters. Low quenching temperature is helpful to slow down the atom movements and form the structures on icosahedral geometry.

  17. Properties of Nb3Al Wires Processed by Double Rapid Heating and Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Iijima, Y.; Nimori, S.; Takigawa, H.; Yoshida, M.; Tomita, K.; Kato, S.; Takao, T.; Nakamoto, T.; Nakagawa, K.

    We have been developing Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating and quenching for a number of years as promising candidates for use in future high-field accelerator magnets. These wires have better strain and stress tolerances than Nb3Sn wires do, but to meet the demands of future accelerator magnet designs, it is necessary to further improve their performance. In particular,it is necessary to increase their non-copper critical current density in 12-20T fields. To pursue this goal, we introduced double rapid heating and quenching (DRHQ) treatment into the fabrication process for Nb3Al wires, and studied the mechanical and superconducting properties of the resulting DRHQ-processed wires.

  18. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  19. Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    s T*S IFI /G i’ u A "m = - ILI l ~2 U0k.. ’~la BASIC PROCESSES OF PLASMA PROPULSION Herbert 0. Schrade Institut fir Raumfahrtsysteme Universitat...discharge channel with respect to a small disturbance. IZ4 q, , L No cl W) 03Cii >i 04 -9- Depending on the amouunt of e given in eqs. (la) and (Ib) and...available at the University of Stuttgart about a year ago. H. 0. Schrade, M. Auweter-Kurtz and H. L . Kurtz, "Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion

  20. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  1. Method & apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2004-10-19

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process and, more specifically, to the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates to a plasma monitoring module that may be adjusted in at least some manner so as to re-evaluate a previously monitored plasma process. For instance, optical emissions data on a plasma process that was previously monitored by the plasma monitoring module may be replayed through the plasma monitoring module after making at least one adjustment in relation to the plasma monitoring module.

  2. Diagnostic enhancements for plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Henins, I.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Funds obtained under this project were used to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of the plasma-processing program in the Physics Division at LANL and include successful development and implementation of in-situ Raman spectroscopy and infrared emission spectroscopy. These methods were used to detect the presence and nature of ground-state and electronically excited molecular oxygen formed in an atmospheric-pressure, nonthermal plasma source used for environmental, industrial and decontamination applications.

  3. Development of multifilament jelly-roll NbAl precursor for melt-quench processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudziak, M. K.; Wong, T.; Buta, F.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2002-05-01

    Nb3Al superconductors have shown promising performance compared to Nb3Sn conductors when processed by the Melt-Quench/Ordering Heat Treatment (MQ-OHT) process. In this process, a precursor wire containing a fine structure of Nb and Al is ohmically heated to temperatures in the range of 2000 °C to melt the Nb-Al, and is then rapidly quenched to form a supersaturated bcc phase. An ordering heat treatment is then applied to convert the bcc phase to superconducting A15 phase material. Typically, the fine Nb-Al structure in the precursor wire is obtained by the jelly-roll (JR) process. In order to achieve good critical properties by MQ-OHT, the input precursor wire must have a suitable Nb:Al thickness ratio, an Al layer thickness thin enough to allow uniform bcc phase formation, and an outer Nb sheath thickness large enough to prevent bursting during MQ-OHT processing. At present, the primary challenge for industry is to meet these demands in precursor wires of practical piece-length (>100 m). The results of Supercon's efforts in this area will be presented. Results of MQ-OHT trials on Supercon JR precursor wire will also be presented. These results suggest a more complicated relationship between Nb:Al thickness ratio and absolute Al layer thickness than has previously been realized.

  4. Cold plasma processing technology makes advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma (AKA nonthermal plasma, cool plasma, gas plasma, etc.) is a rapidly maturing antimicrobial process being developed for applications in the food industry. A wide array of devices can be used to create cold plasma, but the defining characteristic is that they operate at or near room temper...

  5. Quantum-noise quenching in the correlated spontaneous-emission laser as a multiplicative noise process. I. A geometrical argument

    SciTech Connect

    Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.

    1988-02-15

    We show, via simple geometrical arguments, the quantum-noise quenching in a correlated (spontaneous) emission laser (CEL). This noise quenching is a consequence of the correlation between noise sources which results in a multiplicative noise process. The steady-state distribution for the phase difference between the two electric fields in a CEL is compared and contrasted to that of a standard phase-locked laser. Noise quenching is shown to occur in the case of the CEL via an explicit solution of the Fokker-Planck equation.

  6. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  7. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  8. Collisional processes in cometary plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with comets is initiated at large distances from the nucleus by the ionization of cometary neutrals. The resulting contamination of the solar wind with cometary ions mass-loads the solar wind flow, causing it to slow down. The plasma-comet interaction is largely collisionless at large cometocentric distances. However, collisional processes become important in the inner coma (within the cometopause). Collisional processes include charge-transfer between solar wind protons and neutrals, ion-neutral friction, electron and ion thermal cooling, and ion-neutral chemistry. For example, the magnetometer on the Giotto spacecraft observed a diamagnetic cavity near closest approach. This cavity is a consequence of the balance between an inward-directed magnetic pressure gradient force and an outward ion-netural frictional force. Thermalization of the cometary ion distribution function by Coulomb collisions is another important process in the inner coma of an active comet.

  9. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  10. Solidification Interface Shape and Location During Processing in High Gradient Furnace with Quench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Keith A.

    1996-01-01

    High Gradient Furnace with Quench (HGFQ) is being developed to facilitate metals processing experiments aboard the International Space Station. The sample is centered in an annular furnace and is held fixed during processing. The furnace itself is made to translate over the sample. Once in process, heat will flow through the sample from the Heater Zone to the Chill Zone. If operating conditions are correct, the solidification interface will stand in the gradient zone. Objectives of the HGFQ process are to provide a high gradient for the solidification with the solidification interface properly positioned in the gradient zone. At the recent RDR for HGFQ, one of the panelists raised the question about the suitability of HGFQ for potential future PIs. Specifically, it was stated by the design team at RDR that the present HGFQ design would provide a radius of curvature of the solidification interface of at least one sample diameter. The RDR panel argued that this was too small, and that most investigators would need a radius of curvature larger than this. The requirements established by the current PIs are shown. These requirements do not contain any specification about the interface shape. However, these requirements do define the envelope of operational parameters for HGFQ. The objectives of the present investigation are to 1) determine a suitable means of quantifying the interface shape, and 2) investigate the interface shape and how it is affected by processing parameters. The processing parameters to be considered are 1) sample material, 2) sample diameter, and 3) gradient zone length.

  11. Quenching of the nonlocal electron heat transport by large external magnetic fields in a laser produced plasma measured with imaging Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Davis, P; Pollock, B B; Divol, L; Ross, J S; Edwards, J; Town, R; Price, D; Glenzer, S H; Offenberger, A A; Tynan, G R; James, A N

    2006-04-14

    We present a direct measurement of the quenching of nonlocal heat transport in a laser produced plasma by high external magnetic fields. Temporally resolved measurements of the electron temperature profile transverse to a high power laser beam were obtained using imaging Thomson scattering. The results are simulated with the 2D hydrodynamic code LASNEX with a recently included magnetic field model that self-consistently evolves the fields in the plasma.

  12. The quenching effect of hydrogen on the nitrogen in metastable state in atmospheric-pressure N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shou-Zhe Zhang, Xin; Chen, Chuan-Jie; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yong-Xing; Xia, Guang-Qing

    2014-07-15

    The atmospheric-pressure microwave N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} plasma torch is generated and diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy. It is found that a large amount of N atoms and NH radicals are generated in the plasma torch and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band is the strongest over the spectra. The mixture of hydrogen in nitrogen plasma torch causes the morphology of the plasma discharge to change with appearance that the afterglow shrinks greatly and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band decreases with more hydrogen mixed into nitrogen plasma. In atmospheric-pressure microwave-induced plasma torch, the hydrogen imposes a great influence on the characteristics of nitrogen plasma through the quenching effect of the hydrogen on the metastable state of N{sub 2}.

  13. Analyzing the influence of contact-induced quenching processes on Förster resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Ralf; Doose, Sören; Sauer, Markus

    2007-07-01

    Experiments based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) are widely used to obtain information on conformational dynamics of biomolecular systems. To reliably measure FRET, accurate knowledge of photophysical properties of the used fluorophores is indispensable. In high FRET constructs donor (D) and acceptor (A) fluorophores can approach each other close enough that electronic interactions might occur. When separated by distances on the order of van der Waals radii, photophysical properties can be changed reversibly, opening new non-radiative relaxation pathways, or irreversibly, chemically altering the fluorophores. Even transient contacts can thus compromise accurate FRET measurements. To study FRET and competing D-A contact-induced processes we labeled the amino acid cystein (Cys) with two fluorophores. A donor (D; TMR or Cy3B) was attached to the thiol group and an acceptor (A; Atto647N) to the amino group of Cys. Absorption spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) were used to characterize the different A-Cys-D complexes at the ensemble level. In addition, we performed single-molecule FRET experiments using alternating-laser excitation to study the heterogeneity of the FRET-systems. We identified competing quenching processes severely changing D and A quantum yields upon fluorophore contact. The results are applicable for quantitative analysis of FRET in dynamic molecular systems that allow transient contact between D and A fluorophores.

  14. Challenges and opportunities in plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Garscadden, A.; Bletzinger, P.; Ganguly, B.N. )

    1992-07-01

    Contemporary researchers have attempted to establish calibrated reference cells for RF-excited discharges at institutions where experimental and theoretical techniques in the area of plasma processing can be tested. Examples of contemporary research in the areas of negative ions, the presence of particulates in plasma processing, modulated discharge processing, microloading, digital plasma processing, and charge trapping are reviewed. The implications of research results on different discharge configurations under investigation are discussed. Measurement techniques in plasma processing and modelling approaches are described. The complexity of the multistep processes involved in plasma processing requires the use of multidimensional models to understand and optimize the conditions required for such processes as conformal deposition, selective etching, and three-dimensional circuits. 20 refs.

  15. Plasma chemistry study of PLAD processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Shu; Brumfield, Kyle; Liu, Lequn Jennifer; Hu, Yongjun Jeff; McTeer, Allen; Hsu, Wei Hui; Wang Maoying

    2012-11-06

    Plasma doping (PLAD) shows very different impurity profiles compared to the conventional beam-line-based ion implantations due to its non-mass separation property and plasma environment. There is no simulation for PLAD process so far due to a lack of a dopant profile model. Several factors determine impurity profiles of PLAD process. The most significant factors are: plasma chemistry and deposition/etching characteristics of multi-ion species plasmas. In this paper, we present plasma chemistry and deposition/etching characteristics of PLAD processes versus co-gas dilutions. Four dopant plasmas including B{sub 2}H{sub 6}, BF{sub 3}, AsH{sub 3}, and PH{sub 3}, and two non-dopant plasmas including CH{sub 4} and GeH{sub 4} are studied and demonstrated.

  16. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Gorbatkin, Steven M.; Berry, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm.sup.2. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity.

  17. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.

    1991-07-16

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm[sup 2]. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity. 3 figures.

  18. Process-Oriented Review of Bacterial Quorum Quenching for Membrane Biofouling Mitigation in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs)

    PubMed Central

    Bouayed, Naila; Dietrich, Nicolas; Lafforgue, Christine; Lee, Chung-Hak; Guigui, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Quorum Quenching (QQ) has been developed over the last few years to overcome practical issues related to membrane biofouling, which is currently the major difficulty thwarting the extensive development of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). QQ is the disruption of Quorum Sensing (QS), cell-to-cell communication enabling the bacteria to harmonize their behavior. The production of biofilm, which is recognized as a major part of the biocake formed on a membrane surface, and which leads to biofouling, has been found to be one of the bacterial behaviors controlled by QS. Since the enzymatic disruption of QS was reported to be efficient as a membrane biofouling mitigation technique in MBRs, the application of QQ to lab-scale MBRs has been the subject of much research using different approaches under different operating conditions. This paper gives an overview of the effectiveness of QQ in mitigating membrane biofouling in MBRs. It is based on the results of previous studies, using two microbial strains, Rhodococcus sp. BH4 and Pseudomonas sp. 1A1. The effect of bacterial QQ on the physical phenomena of the MBR process is analyzed, adopting an original multi-scale approach. Finally, the potential influence of the MBR operating conditions on QQ effectiveness is discussed. PMID:27983578

  19. Metal carbonyl vapor generation coupled with dielectric barrier discharge to avoid plasma quench for optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi; Li, Shao-Hua; Dou, Shuai; Yu, Yong-Liang; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-20

    The scope of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) microplasma as a radiation source for optical emission spectrometry (OES) is extended by nickel carbonyl vapor generation. We proved that metal carbonyl completely avoids the extinguishing of plasma, and it is much more suitable for matching the DBD excitation and OES detection with respect to significant DBD quenching by concomitant hydrogen when hydride generation is used. A concentric quartz UV reactor allows sample solution to flow through the central channel wherein to efficiently receive the uniformly distributed UV irradiation in the confined cylindrical space between the concentric tubes, which facilitates effective carbonyl generation in a nickel solution. The carbonyl is transferred into the DBD excitation chamber by an argon stream for nickel excitation, and the characteristic emission of nickel at 232.0 nm is detected by a charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. A 1.0 mL sample solution results in a linear range of 5-100 μg L(-1) along with a detection limit of 1.3 μg L(-1) and a precision of 2.4% RSD at 50 μg L(-1). The present DBD-OES system is validated by nickel in certified reference materials.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  1. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Pair processes and equilibria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    The work of Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Zel'dovich and Sunyaev (1971) is extended and generalized, through the inclusion of pair-producing photon processes and effects due to the finite size of the plasma, in an investigation of the equilibria of relativistic thermal plasmas which takes into account electron-positron creation and annihilation and photons produced within the plasma. It is shown that the bridge between an effectively thin plasma and an effectively thick plasma occurs in the transrelativistic region, where the dimensionless temperature value is between 0.1 and 1.0 and the temperature remains in this region over a great luminosity range.

  2. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  3. Plasma-assisted microwave processing of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin (Inventor); Ylin, Tzu-yuan (Inventor); Jackson, Henry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave plasma assisted method and system for heating and joining materials. The invention uses a microwave induced plasma to controllably preheat workpiece materials that are poorly microwave absorbing. The plasma preheats the workpiece to a temperature that improves the materials' ability to absorb microwave energy. The plasma is extinguished and microwave energy is able to volumetrically heat the workpiece. Localized heating of good microwave absorbing materials is done by shielding certain parts of the workpiece and igniting the plasma in the areas not shielded. Microwave induced plasma is also used to induce self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) process for the joining of materials. Preferably, a microwave induced plasma preheats the material and then microwave energy ignites the center of the material, thereby causing a high temperature spherical wave front from the center outward.

  4. Theoretical investigations of plasma processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.; Hong, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    System analyses are presented for electrically sustained, collision dominated plasma centrifuges, in which the plasma rotates under the influence of the Lorentz forces resulting from the interaction of the current density fields with an external magnetic field. It is shown that gas discharge centrifuges are technically feasible in which the plasma rotates at speeds up to 1 million cm/sec. The associated centrifugal forces produce a significant spatial isotope separation, which is somewhat perturbed in the viscous boundary layers at the centrifuge walls. The isotope separation effect is the more pronounced. The induced magnetic fields have negligible influence on the plasma rotation if the Hall coefficient is small. In the technical realization of collision dominated plasma centrifuges, a trade-off has to be made between power density and speeds of rotation. The diffusion of sputtered atoms to system surfaces of ion propulsion systems and the deposition of the atoms are treated theoretically by means of a simple model which permits an analytical solution. The problem leads to an inhomogeneous integral equation.

  5. Atomic processes in optically thin plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaastra, Jelle S.; Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; Mehdipour, Missagh; Raassen, Ton; Urdampilleta, Igone

    2016-10-01

    The Universe contains a broad range of plasmas with quite different properties depending on distinct physical processes. In this contribution we give an overview of recent developments in modeling such plasmas with a focus on X-ray emission and absorption. Despite the fact that such plasmas have been investigated already for decades, and that overall there is a good understanding of the basic processes, there are still areas, where improvements have to be made that are important for the analysis of astrophysical plasmas. We present recent work on the update of atomic parameters in the codes that describe the emission from collisional plasmas, where older approximations are being replaced now by more accurate data. Further we discuss the development of models for photo-ionised plasmas in the context of outflows around supermassive black holes and models for charge transfer that are needed for analyzing the data from the upcoming ASTRO-H satellite.

  6. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  7. Long-lived plasma and fast quenching of N2(C3Π u ) by electrons in the afterglow of a nanosecond capillary discharge in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepikhin, N. D.; Klochko, A. V.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    Quenching of electronically excited nitrogen state, {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u},{{v}\\prime}=0\\right) , in the afterglow of nanosecond capillary discharge in pure nitrogen is studied. It is found experimentally that an additional collisional mechanism appears and dominates at high specific deposited energies leading to the anomalously fast quenching of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) in the afterglow. On the basis of obtained experimental data and of the analysis of possible quenching agents, it is concluded that the anomalously fast deactivation of the {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) can be explained by quenching by electrons. Long-lived plasma at time scale of hundreds nanoseconds after the end of the pulse is observed. High electron densities, about 1014 cm-3 at 27 mbar, are sustained by reactions of associative ionization. Kinetic 1D numerical modeling and comparison of calculated results with experimentally measured electric fields in the second high-voltage pulse 250 ns after the initial pulse, and electron density measurements in the afterglow confirm the validity of the suggested mechanism.

  8. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-12-01

    Intensified studies of plasma transport in toroidal plasmas over the past three to five years have progressed through increased understanding in some areas and changed perceptions about the most important issues in other areas. Recent developments are reviewed for six selected topics: edge fluctuations and transport; L-H mode transition; core fluctuations; modern plasma turbulence theory; transient transport; and global scaling. Some of the developments that are highlighted include: the role of a strongly sheared poloidal flow in edge plasma turbulence, transport and the L-H transition; change of focus from {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {approximately} 1 to {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {much lt} 1 fluctuations in tokamak plasmas; modern Direct-Interaction-Approximation plasma turbulence and hybrid fluid/kinetic theoretical models; and transient transport experiments that are raising fundamental questions about our conceptions of local transport processes in tokamaks. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-12-01

    Intensified studies of plasma transport in toroidal plasmas over the past three to five years have progressed through increased understanding in some areas and changed perceptions about the most important issues in other areas. Recent developments are reviewed for six selected topics: edge fluctuations and transport; L-H mode transition; core fluctuations; modern plasma turbulence theory; transient transport; and global scaling. Some of the developments that are highlighted include: the role of a strongly sheared poloidal flow in edge plasma turbulence, transport and the L-H transition; change of focus from {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {approximately} 1 to {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {much_lt} 1 fluctuations in tokamak plasmas; modern Direct-Interaction-Approximation plasma turbulence and hybrid fluid/kinetic theoretical models; and transient transport experiments that are raising fundamental questions about our conceptions of local transport processes in tokamaks. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Wet quenching of incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.W.

    1981-04-21

    Method for the reduction of emissions from the wet quenching of incandescent coke in a quenching tower adapted to receive in its base a quench car containing the coke which comprises positioning the car with the coke in the quenching chamber of the tower, effecting a gas seal to substantially prevent air from infiltrating the quenching chamber and ascending the tower, quenching the coke with the resultant generation of steam and other quenching emissions, cooling and cleaning the emissions with water sprays, demisting the cooled emissions, sensing the external and internal pressures of the tower during the quenching process, maintaining a substantially zero gauge internal pressure by controlling the emissions flow exiting the tower and collecting, cooling and recycling the quenching and cooling waters. Apparatus for practicing the method is also disclosed.

  11. Auroral plasma acceleration processes at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Winningham, D.

    2012-09-01

    Following the first Mars Express (MEX) findings of auroral plasma acceleration above Martian magnetic anomalies[1, 2], a more detailed analysis is carried out regarding the physical processes that leads to plasma acceleration, and how they connect to the dynamo-, and energy source regions. The ultimate energy source for Martian plasma acceleration is the solar wind. The question is, by what mechanisms is solar wind energy and momentum transferred into the magnetic flux tubes that connect to Martian magnetic anomalies? What are the key plasma acceleration processes that lead to aurora and the associated ionospheric plasma outflow from Mars? The experimental setup on MEX limits our capability to carry out "auroral physics" at Mars. However, with knowledge acquired from the Earth, we may draw some analogies with terrestrial auroral physics. Using the limited data set available, consisting of primarily ASPERA and MARSIS data, an interesting picture of aurora at Mars emerges. There are some strong similarities between accelerated/heated electrons and ions in the nightside high altitude region above Mars and the electron/ion acceleration above Terrestrial discrete aurora. Nearly monoenergetic downgoing electrons are observed in conjunction with nearly monoenergetic upgoing ions. Monoenergetic counterstreaming ions and electrons is the signature of plasma acceleration in quasi-static electric fields. However, compared to the Earth's aurora, with auroral process guided by a dipole field, aurora at Mars is expected to form complex patterns in the multipole environment governed by the Martian crustal magnetic field regions. Moreover, temporal/spatial scales are different at Mars. It is therefore of interest to mention another common characteristics that exist for Earth and Mars, plasma acceleration by waves. Low-frequency, Alfvén, waves is a very powerful means of plasma acceleration in the Earth's magnetosphere. Low-frequency waves associated with plasma acceleration

  12. Phase-Separation Control of KxFe2-ySe2 Superconductor through Rapid-Quenching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masashi; Yamashita, Aichi; Suzuki, Kouji; Hara, Hiroshi; ElMassalami, Mohammed; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-04-01

    KxFe2-ySe2 exhibits iron-vacancy ordering at Ts ˜ 270 °C and separates into two phases: a minor superconducting (iron-vacancy-disordered) phase and a major non-superconducting (iron-vacancy-ordered) phase. The microstructural and superconducting properties of this intermixture can be tuned by an appropriate control of the quenching process through Ts. A faster quenching rate leads to a finer microstructure and a suppression of formation of the non-superconducting phase by up to 50%. Nevertheless, such a faster cooling rate induces a monotonic reduction in the superconducting transition temperature (from 30.7 to 26.0 K) and, simultaneously, a decrease in the iron content within the superconducting phase such that the compositional ratio changed from K0.35Fe1.83Se2 to K0.58Fe1.71Se2.

  13. Characterization of the microstructure obtained by the quenching and partitioning process in a low-carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Santofimia, M.J. Zhao, L.; Petrov, R.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-12-15

    The 'quenching and partitioning' process is a new heat treatment for the development of multiphase steels with improved mechanical properties. In this work, a partial austenitization followed by Q and P paths, at which the partitioning step is effectuated at a temperature equal to the quenching temperature, has been applied to a low-carbon steel. The resulting multiphase microstructures have been investigated by optical microscopy using bright field and differential interference contrast, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. This group of techniques has led to a complete identification of the microstructural constituents: ferrite present during the partial austenitization, epitaxial ferrite formed during cooling, martensite and retained austenite. The analysis of the results has shown a significant relevance of the epitaxial ferrite in the retention of austenite, whereas the carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite has played a minor role.

  14. Diagnostics of plasma-surface interactions in plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Low temperature plasma including electrons, ions, radicals and photons can be applied because only high temperature of electron but for background gases. Recently plasma applications in biology and medicine have grown significantly. For complexity of mechanisms, it is needed to understand comprehensively the plasma-surface interactions. To diagnose the interactions comprises of three areas; (1) incident species generated in plasmas toward the surface, (2) surface reactions such as scission and bond of chemical bonds, and (3) products after the reactions. Considered with non-linearity of the chemical reactions as changed by an initial state, we have focused and developed to observe dangling bonds in situ at real time by electron spin resonance (ESR). Moreover, individual contribution and simultaneous irradiation of each species such as radicals and photons have been studied in utilization of light shades and windows in similar manner of the pellets for plasma process evaluation (PAPE). As exampled, the interaction of polymeric materials, fungal spores and edible meats with plasmas were studied on the basis of the real time in situ observations of dangling bonds or surface radicals formation.

  15. Effect of Quenching Process on the Microstructure and Hardness of High-Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure and hardness of high-carbon martensitic stainless steel (HMSS) were investigated using thermal expansion analyzer, Thermo-calc, scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and Ultra-high temperature confocal microscope. The results indicate that the experimental steel should be austenitized in the temperature range of 1025-1075 °C, which can give a maximum hardness of 62 HRc with the microstructure consisting of martensite, retained austenite, and some undissolved carbides. With increasing austenitizing temperature, the amount of retained austenite increases, while the volume fraction of carbides increases first and then decreases. The starting temperature and finish temperature of martensite formation decrease with increasing cooling rates. Air-quenched samples can obtain less retained austenite, more compact microstructure, and higher hardness, compared with that of oil-quenched samples. For HMSS, the martensitic transformation takes place at some isolated areas with a slow nucleation rate.

  16. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  17. Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  18. Plasma processes in the inner coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.

    1991-01-01

    The physical processes that determine the plasma behavior in the inner coma region of active comets are reviewed. Results of observations of the plasma and fields inside the cometopause of Comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner by instruments on board several spacecraft are presented. Several plasma populations are found to exist in the inner coma. The characteristics of a particular population are largely determined by how far upstream the population was created. All particle populations in the inner coma are strongly affected by collisional processes, such as charge-transfer, ion-neutral chemistry, ion-neutral friction, and thermal cooling. Plasma processes, in the form of magnetohydrodynamics, are also important in the inner coma.

  19. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-03-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  20. Plasma characterization studies for materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1995-12-31

    New applications for plasma processing of materials require a more detailed understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in the processing reactors. We have developed reactors offering specific advantages for materials processing, and we are using modeling and diagnostic techniques for the characterization of these reactors. The emphasis is in part set by the interest shown by industry pursuing specific plasma processing applications. In this paper we report on the modeling of radio frequency plasma reactors for use in materials synthesis, and on the characterization of the high rate diamond deposition process using liquid precursors. In the radio frequency plasma torch model, the influence of specific design changes such as the location of the excitation coil on the enthalpy flow distribution is investigated for oxygen and air as plasma gases. The diamond deposition with liquid precursors has identified the efficient mass transport in form of liquid droplets into the boundary layer as responsible for high growth, and the chemical properties of the liquid for the film morphology.

  1. Electrodynamics and plasma processes in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper examines the advances achieved between 1983 and 1986 on understanding ionospheric electrodynamics and associated plasma processes, including an assessment of the roles of the E- and F-region neutral winds in providing the large-scale electric field in the ionosphere, as well as of the influence of electric fields of magnetospheric origin on the motion and distribution of plasma. Studies of the factors affecting the creation and evolution of plasma structure with many different scale sizes are discussed. Consideration is also given to the ground-based and in situ techniques used in these studies.

  2. Plasma processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan

    The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of Nb SRF cavities. In the process of developing plasma etching technology, an apparatus was built and a method was developed to plasma etch a single cell Pill Box cavity. The plasma characterization was done with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. The Nb etch rate at various points of this cavity was measured before processing the SRF cavity. Cylindrical ring-type samples of Nb placed on the inner surface of the outer wall were used to measure the dependence of the process parameters on plasma etching. The measured etch rate dependence on the pressure, rf power, dc bias, temperature, Cl2 concentration and diameter of the inner electrode was determined. The etch rate mechanism was studied by varying the temperature of the outer wall, the dc bias on the inner electrode and gas conditions. In a coaxial plasma reactor, uniform plasma etching along the cylindrical structure is a challenging task due to depletion of the active radicals along the gas flow direction. The dependence of etch rate uniformity along the cylindrical axis was determined as a function of process parameters. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the

  3. Cooling and recombination processes in cometary plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, M. K.; Ong, R. S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The ion electron plasma in comets is examined for cooling processes which result from its interactions with the neutral coma. A cometary coma model is formulated that is composed predominantly of H2O and its decomposition products where electrons are cooled in a variety of processes at rates varying with energy. It is shown that solar plasma plus accumulated cometary ions and electrons is affected very strongly as it flows into the coma. The electrons are rapidly cooled and all but some 10% of the ions undergo charge exchange. Photodissociation of H2O is assumed where ion electron recombination is the dominant loss process.

  4. Plasma Processing of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Films in the Fisk Plasma Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, Gregory; Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Watson, Michael; Wallace, Kent; Chen, Henry; Burger, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The use of plasmas to process materials has become widespread throughout the semiconductor industry. Plasmas are used to modify the morphology and chemistry of surfaces. We report on initial plasma processing experiments using the Fisk Plasma Source. Metallic and semiconductor thin films deposited on a silicon substrate have been exposed to argon plasmas. Results of microscopy and chemical analyses of processed materials are presented.

  5. Effects of quenching, irradiation, and annealing processes on the radiation hardness of silica fiber cladding materials (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jianxiang; Gong, Renxiang; Xiao, Zhongyin; Luo, Wenyun; Wu, Wenkai; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-ding; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-07-01

    Silica optical fiber cladding materials were experimentally treated by a series of processes. The treatments involved quenching, irradiation, followed by annealing and subsequent re-irradiation, and they were conducted in order to improve the radiation hardness. The microstructural properties of the treated materials were subsequently investigated. Following the treatment of the optical fiber cladding materials, the results from the electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis demonstrated that there was a significant decrease in the radiation-induced defect structures. The ESR signals became significantly weaker when the samples were annealed at 1000 °C in combination with re-irradiation. In addition, the microstructure changes within the silica optical fiber cladding material were also analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that the Sisbnd Osbnd Si bending vibrations at ω3 = 800-820 cm-1 and ω4 = 1000-1200 cm-1 (with longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) splitting bands) were relatively unaffected by the quenching, irradiation, and annealing treatments. In particular, the annealing process resulted in the disappearance of the defect centers; however, the LO and TO modes at the ω3 and ω4 bands were relatively unchanged. With the additional support of the ESR test results, we can conclude that the combined treatment processes can significantly enhance the radiation hardness properties of the optical fiber cladding materials.

  6. Semiclassical study of the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by hydrogen molecule - Comparison between reactive and nonreactive processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.-M.; Skuse, B. M.; Jaffe, R. L.; Komornicki, A.; Morokuma, K.; George, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    Semiclassical calculations are carried out for the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by collinear collisions with hydrogen molecule. The overall quenching probability is the sum of two contributions: the reactive quenching probability associated with the formation of hydrogen fluoride and the nonreactive quenching probability leading to ground-state fluorine atom and hydrogen molecule. The reactive probability is greater in the threshold region of the collision energy, whereas the nonreactive probability dominates for energies above the threshold region.

  7. Remote plasma processing of thin film materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastenmeier, Bernd E. E.

    1999-09-01

    In this thesis, phenomena and mechanisms of remote plasma processes are investigated. The plasmas are spatially separated from the sample surface. Chemically reactive species are produced in the discharge region from rather inert feed gases. They exit the discharge region and travel in the afterglow towards the reaction chamber, where primarily neutral species arrive. The interaction with the sample surface is purely chemical. The absence of direct plasma surface interactions distinguishes remote plasma Chemical Dry Etching (CDE) from other etch processes like Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) or Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etching. The etch reactions in CDE are isotropic, potentially offer great etch rate ratios and minimize substrate damage due to the absence of direct plasma-surface interactions. However, some materials like silicon dioxide (SiO2) or fluorocarbon deposits are difficult to remove because of the lack of activation energy otherwise provided by ion bombardment. In CDE, rates can be enhanced by the introduction of a new reaction pathway. Remote plasma CDE of silicon nitride (Si3N4) is an example for increasing the overall reaction rate by introducing a new reaction channel. Typically, the Si3N4 surface is exposed to the fluorine rich afterglow of a fluorocarbon, nitrogen trifluoride (NF 3) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) based discharge. We find that the Si3N4 etch rate is dramatically enhanced when Nitric Oxide (NO) is present in the afterglow as compared to the case in which only fluorine is present. Presented here are detailed analyses of the etching of Si3N 4 and SiO2 in different chemistries. Several experimental techniques are employed to investigate the composition of the plasma and the afterglow, the surface modifications and the etch rates for tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and NF3 based processes. These measurements establish the effect of NO on the Si3N4 etch rate. The dominant mechanism for the etch rate enhancement is shown by mass spectrometry

  8. Nonthermal Radiation Processes in Interplanetary Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chian, A. C. L.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la interacci6n de haces de electrones energeticos con plasmas interplanetarios, se excitan ondas intensas de Langmuir debido a inestabilidad del haz de plasma. Las ondas Langmuir a su vez interaccio nan con fluctuaciones de densidad de baja frecuencia para producir radiaciones. Si la longitud de las ondas de Langmujr exceden las condicio nes del umbral, se puede efectuar la conversi5n de modo no lineal a on- das electromagneticas a traves de inestabilidades parametricas. As se puede excitar en un plasma inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas impulsadas por ondas intensas de Langmuir: (1) inestabilidades de decaimiento/fusi5n electromagnetica impulsadas por una bomba de Lang- muir que viaja; (2) inestabilidades dobles electromagneticas de decai- miento/fusi5n impulsadas por dos bombas de Langrnuir directamente opues- tas; y (3) inestabilidades de dos corrientes oscilatorias electromagne- ticas impulsadas por dos bombas de Langmuir de corrientes contrarias. Se concluye que las inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas in- ducidas por las ondas de Langmuir son las fuentes posibles de radiacio- nes no termicas en plasmas interplanetarios. ABSTRACT: Nonthermal radio emissions near the local electron plasma frequency have been detected in various regions of interplanetary plasmas: solar wind, upstream of planetary bow shock, and heliopause. Energetic electron beams accelerated by solar flares, planetary bow shocks, and the terminal shock of heliosphere provide the energy source for these radio emissions. Thus, it is expected that similar nonthermal radiation processes may be responsible for the generation of these radio emissions. As energetic electron beams interact with interplanetary plasmas, intense Langmuir waves are excited due to a beam-plasma instability. The Langmuir waves then interact with low-frequency density fluctuations to produce radiations near the local electron plasma frequency. If Langmuir waves are of sufficiently large

  9. On the difference between breakdown and quench voltages of argon plasma and its relation to 4p–4s atomic state transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Forati, Ebrahim Piltan, Shiva; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-02-02

    Using a relaxation oscillator circuit, breakdown (V{sub BD}) and quench (V{sub Q}) voltages of a DC discharge microplasma between two needle probes are measured. High resolution modified Paschen curves are obtained for argon microplasmas including a quench voltage curve representing the voltage at which the plasma turns off. It is shown that for a point to point microgap (e.g., the microgap between two needle probes) which describes many realistic microdevices, neither Paschen's law applies nor field emission is noticeable. Although normally V{sub BD} > V{sub Q,} it is observed that depending on environmental parameters of argon, such as pressure and the driving circuitry, plasma can exist in a different state with equal V{sub BD} and V{sub Q.} Using emission line spectroscopy, it is shown that V{sub BD} and V{sub Q} are equal if the atomic excitation by the electric field dipole moment dominantly leads to one of the argon's metastable states (4P{sub 5} in our study)

  10. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented.

  11. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-03-19

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented.

  12. PLASMA EMISSION BY NONLINEAR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Pavan, J. E-mail: laripetruzzellis@yahoo.com.br E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu

    2015-06-20

    The plasma emission, or electromagnetic (EM) radiation at the plasma frequency and/or its harmonic(s), is generally accepted as the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and III radio bursts. Identification and characterization of these solar radio burst phenomena were done in the 1950s. Despite many decades of theoretical research since then, a rigorous demonstration of the plasma emission process based upon first principles was not available until recently, when, in a recent Letter, Ziebell et al. reported the first complete numerical solution of EM weak turbulence equations; thus, quantitatively analyzing the plasma emission process starting from the initial electron beam and the associated beam-plasma (or Langmuir wave) instability, as well as the subsequent nonlinear conversion of electrostatic Langmuir turbulence into EM radiation. In the present paper, the same problem is revisited in order to elucidate the detailed physical mechanisms that could not be reported in the brief Letter format. Findings from the present paper may be useful for interpreting observations and full-particle numerical simulations.

  13. Secondary photon emission in plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Moshkalyov, S.; Machida, M.; Campos, D.; Dulkin, A.

    1997-05-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy with high spatial resolution was applied for the study of plasma{endash}material interaction in low-pressure reactive ion etching. Atomic and molecular emission by sputtered material has been found to be strongly localized near the surface. Excited particles are produced during sputtering by energetic ions, with the mechanisms being different for atoms and molecules. In atomic secondary photon emission, a cascade from highly excited levels is shown to be important. This method can be used as a probe during plasma processing. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. PLASMA EMISSION BY WEAK TURBULENCE PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Pavan, J. E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br

    2014-11-10

    The plasma emission is the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and type III radio bursts. The first theory of plasma emission was put forth in the 1950s, but the rigorous demonstration of the process based upon first principles had been lacking. The present Letter reports the first complete numerical solution of electromagnetic weak turbulence equations. It is shown that the fundamental emission is dominant and unless the beam speed is substantially higher than the electron thermal speed, the harmonic emission is not likely to be generated. The present findings may be useful for validating reduced models and for interpreting particle-in-cell simulations.

  15. Kerf generation during the plasma cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodun, Oana; Bangu, Sanda Ilii; Slǎtineanu, LaurenÅ£iu; Vasile, Merticaru; Beşliu, Irina; CoteaÅ£ǎ, Margareta

    2016-10-01

    The plasma beam cutting is a machining method applied in order to detach parts or workpieces from plate type workpiece. Essentially, a plasma jet is sent to workpiece, determining melting, vaporizing and removing of the material from the workpiece. If there is a relative movement between the plasma jet and the workpiece, a kerf gradually appears. Many factors exert influence on the kerf characteristics. A full factorial experiment with three independent variables at two levels was designed, in order to highlight the influence exerted by the cutting speed, workpiece thickness and arc current on the kerf width in the superior and inferior zones and on the kerf taper angle, respectively. Power type empirical mathematical models were determined by mathematical processing of the experimental results.

  16. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.

    2000-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations.

  17. Physical processes in spin polarized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Cowley, S.

    1984-05-01

    If the plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor is polarized, the nuclear reactions are modified in such a way as to enhance the reactor performance. We calculate in detail the modification of these nuclear reactions by different modes of polarization of the nuclear fuel. We also consider in detail the various physical processes that can lead to depolarization and show that they are by and large slow enough that a high degree of polarization can be maintained.

  18. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

  19. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  20. Atomic processes in high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Y.

    1991-07-01

    This is the final report on the project Atomic Processes in High Temperature Plasmas', which has been completed in June 30, 1991. The original contract started in 1978. The dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients were calculated for ions with the number of electrons N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, and 12. The result was then used to construct a new and improved rate formula. Other important resonant processes, which are closely related to DR, were also studied to interpret experiments and to test the DR theory. The plasma field and the density effects on the rate coefficients was found to be important, and a consistent correction procedure is being developed. The available data on the DR rates and their accuracy do not yet fully meet the requirement for plasma modeling; there are serious gaps in the available data, and the currently adopted theoretical procedure needs improvements. Critical assessment of the current status of the DR problem is presented, and possible future work needed is summarized.

  1. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. . Thermal Spray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  2. Current problems in plasma spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P.

    1991-12-31

    This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

  3. A study of polymer quenching on gears

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.; Yi, T.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching oil was widely used as a quenchant for the carburized gear direct hardening. With the progress of the quenching technology, however, the oil quenching of gears has been successfully replaced by the polymer quenching in the production. This paper will investigate the principle and application of gear quenching to replace oil, with aqueous polymer quenchants. During the direct quenching of carburized gear and precision forging gear, cracking and distortion reduction, and maximum and uniformity hardness can be achieved. From the quenching process and economic, advantages and limitations of polymer quenching of gears will be discussed. The data of production indicate that it is suitable for gear hardening to use polymer quenchant. The characteristics of polymer quenching are the improved performance, reduced fire hazards and environmental safety, processing flexibility and lower process costs.

  4. Automated process control for plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGeown, Margaret; Arshak, Khalil I.; Murphy, Eamonn

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of a rule-based system which assists in providing automated process control for plasma etching. The heart of the system is to establish a correspondence between a particular data pattern -- sensor or data signals -- and one or more modes of failure, i.e., a data-driven monitoring approach. The objective of this rule based system, PLETCHSY, is to create a program combining statistical process control (SPC) and fault diagnosis to help control a manufacturing process which varies over time. This can be achieved by building a process control system (PCS) with the following characteristics. A facility to monitor the performance of the process by obtaining and analyzing the data relating to the appropriate process variables. Process sensor/status signals are input into an SPC module. If trends are present, the SPC module outputs the last seven control points, a pattern which is represented by either regression or scoring. The pattern is passed to the rule-based module. When the rule-based system recognizes a pattern, it starts the diagnostic process using the pattern. If the process is considered to be going out of control, advice is provided about actions which should be taken to bring the process back into control.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-05-04

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-05-01

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  7. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    2013-09-19

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

  8. Chemical oxidation for mitigation of UV-quenching substances (UVQS) from municipal landfill leachate: Fenton process versus ozonation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chanil; Deng, Yang; Zhao, Renzun; Torrens, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    UV-quenching substance (UVQS), as an emerging municipal solid waste (MSW)-derived leachate contaminant, has a potential to interfere with UV disinfection when leachate is disposed of at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare two chemical oxidation processes under different operational conditions, i.e. Fenton process and ozonation, for alleviation of UV254 absorbance of a biologically pre-treated landfill leachate. Results showed that leachate UV254 absorbance was reduced due to the UVQS decomposition by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) during Fenton treatment, or by ozone (O3) and ·OH during ozonation. Fenton process exhibited a better treatment performance than ozonation under their respective optimal conditions, because ·OH could effectively decompose both hydrophobic and hydrophilic dissolved organic matter (DOM), but O3 tended to selectively oxidize hydrophobic compounds alone. Different analytical techniques, including molecular weight (MW) fractionation, hydrophobic/hydrophilic isolation, UV spectra scanning, parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectrophotometry, were used to characterize UVQS. After either oxidation treatment, residual UVQS was more hydrophilic with a higher fraction of low MW molecules. It should be noted that the removed UV254 absorbance (ΔUV254) was directly proportional to the removed COD (ΔCOD) for the both treatments (Fenton process: ΔUV254 = 0.011ΔCOD; ozonation: ΔUV254 = 0.016ΔCOD). A greater ΔUV254/ΔCOD was observed for ozonation, suggesting that oxidant was more efficiently utilized during ozonation than in Fenton treatment for mitigation of the UV absorbance.

  9. LoCuSS: THE SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES AND THE NEED FOR PRE-PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T. D.; Smith, G. P.; Ziparo, F.; McGee, S. L.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Okabe, N.; Moran, S. M.

    2015-06-10

    We present a study of the spatial distribution and kinematics of star-forming galaxies in 30 massive clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30, combining wide-field Spitzer 24 μm and GALEX near-ultraviolet imaging with highly complete spectroscopy of cluster members. The fraction (f{sub SF}) of star-forming cluster galaxies rises steadily with cluster-centric radius, increasing fivefold by 2r{sub 200}, but remains well below field values even at 3r{sub 200}. This suppression of star formation at large radii cannot be reproduced by models in which star formation is quenched in infalling field galaxies only once they pass within r{sub 200} of the cluster, but is consistent with some of them being first pre-processed within galaxy groups. Despite the increasing f{sub SF}-radius trend, the surface density of star-forming galaxies actually declines steadily with radius, falling ∼15× from the core to 2r{sub 200}. This requires star formation to survive within recently accreted spirals for 2–3 Gyr to build up the apparent over-density of star-forming galaxies within clusters. The velocity dispersion profile of the star-forming galaxy population shows a sharp peak of 1.44 σ{sub ν} at 0.3r{sub 500}, and is 10%–35% higher than that of the inactive cluster members at all cluster-centric radii, while their velocity distribution shows a flat, top-hat profile within r{sub 500}. All of these results are consistent with star-forming cluster galaxies being an infalling population, but one that must also survive ∼0.5–2 Gyr beyond passing within r{sub 200}. By comparing the observed distribution of star-forming galaxies in the stacked caustic diagram with predictions from the Millennium simulation, we obtain a best-fit model in which star formation rates decline exponentially on quenching timescales of 1.73 ± 0.25 Gyr upon accretion into the cluster.

  10. LoCuSS: The Slow Quenching of Star Formation in Cluster Galaxies and the Need for Pre-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Smith, G. P.; Egami, E.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Ziparo, F.; McGee, S. L.; Rawle, T. D.; Okabe, N.; Moran, S. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution and kinematics of star-forming galaxies in 30 massive clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30, combining wide-field Spitzer 24 μm and GALEX near-ultraviolet imaging with highly complete spectroscopy of cluster members. The fraction (fSF) of star-forming cluster galaxies rises steadily with cluster-centric radius, increasing fivefold by 2r200, but remains well below field values even at 3r200. This suppression of star formation at large radii cannot be reproduced by models in which star formation is quenched in infalling field galaxies only once they pass within r200 of the cluster, but is consistent with some of them being first pre-processed within galaxy groups. Despite the increasing fSF-radius trend, the surface density of star-forming galaxies actually declines steadily with radius, falling ˜15× from the core to 2r200. This requires star formation to survive within recently accreted spirals for 2-3 Gyr to build up the apparent over-density of star-forming galaxies within clusters. The velocity dispersion profile of the star-forming galaxy population shows a sharp peak of 1.44 σν at 0.3r500, and is 10%-35% higher than that of the inactive cluster members at all cluster-centric radii, while their velocity distribution shows a flat, top-hat profile within r500. All of these results are consistent with star-forming cluster galaxies being an infalling population, but one that must also survive ˜0.5-2 Gyr beyond passing within r200. By comparing the observed distribution of star-forming galaxies in the stacked caustic diagram with predictions from the Millennium simulation, we obtain a best-fit model in which star formation rates decline exponentially on quenching timescales of 1.73 ± 0.25 Gyr upon accretion into the cluster.

  11. Physical processes associated with current collection by plasma contactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent flight data confirms laboratory observations that the release of neutral gas increases plasma sheath currents. Plasma contactors are devices which release a partially ionized gas in order to enhance the current flow between a spacecraft and the space plasma. Ionization of the expellant gas and the formation of a double layer between the anode plasma and the space plasma are the dominant physical processes. A theory is presented of the interaction between the contactor plasma and the background plasma. The conditions for formation of a double layer between the two plasmas are derived. Double layer formation is shown to be a consequence of the nonlinear response of the plasmas to changes in potential. Numerical calculations based upon this model are compared with laboratory measurements of current collection by hollow cathode-based plasma contactors.

  12. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  13. Plasma processes in inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Inert gas thrusters, particularly with large diameters, have continued to be of interest for space propulsion applications. Two plasma processes are treated in this study: electron diffusion across magnetic fields and double ion production in inert-gas thrusters. A model is developed to describe electron diffusion across a magnetic field that is driven by both density and potential gradients, with Bohm diffusion used to predict the diffusion rate. This model has applications to conduction across magnetic fields inside a discharge chamber, as well as through a magnetic baffle region used to isolate a hollow cathode from the main chamber. A theory for double ion production is presented, which is not as complete as the electron diffusion theory described, but it should be a useful tool for predicting double ion sputter erosion. Correlations are developed that may be used, without experimental data, to predict double ion densities for the design of new and especially larger ion thrusters.

  14. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2001-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  15. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2002-07-16

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2001-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discemible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Stevenson, Joel O'Don; Ward, Pamela Peardon Denise

    2000-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). A final aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system.

  18. Invited papers from the International Symposium on Nonequilibrium Processes, Plasma, Combustion and Atmospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starik, Alexander M.

    2013-11-01

    The International Symposium on Nonequilibrium Processes, Plasma, Combustion and Atmospheric Phenomena is a forum of international experts in such fundamental areas as physical and chemical kinetics, physics of low temperature and cluster plasmas, physics of shock and detonation waves, physics and chemistry of aerosols and nanoparticles, combustion and atmospheric chemistry, physics and chemistry of high speed flows, plasma and laser chemistry, plasma, laser and combustion assisted technologies. This symposium has already become a notable biannual event attracting a growing attendance of scientists from all over the world. The first symposium was organizing in St Petersburg, Russia, 8-11 July 2003, and was dedicated to the memory of N N Semenov, a founder of the chain-branching reaction theory and a Nobel prizewinner. The second, third and fourth symposia were held in Sochi, Russia, 3-7 October 2005; 25-29 June 2007; and 5-9 October 2009. The last (fifth) symposium was also organized in Sochi, Russia, 1-6 October 2012. Here we present selected proceedings of the last symposium, comprised of four invited papers on the topics of ab initio studies of some elementary processes important for atmospheric plasma and combustion, kinetics of low temperature plasma and physics of clusters. The papers have been written by the symposium participants and are based on their reports at the meeting. They are: 'Thermochemistry of small iodine species' by Šulková et al ; 'Analysis of the reaction and quenching channels in a H + O2(a 1Δg ) system' by Sharipov and Starik; 'Kinetics of plasmachemical processes in the expanding flow of nitrogen plasma' by Kadochnikov et al ; and 'Theoretical study of structure and physical properties of (Al2O3)n clusters' by Sharipov et al.

  19. High Power Helicon Plasma Source for Plasma Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2015-09-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is developing a high power helicon plasma source. The high power nature and pulsed neutral gas make this source unique compared to traditional helicon source. These properties produce a plasma flow along the magnetic field lines, and therefore allow the source to be decoupled from the reaction chamber. Neutral gas can be injected downstream, which allows for precision control of the ion-neutral ratio at the surface of the sample. Although operated at high power, the source has demonstrated very low impurity production. This source has applications to nanoparticle productions, surface modification, and ionized physical vapor deposition.

  20. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  1. Triplet quenching by diacyl peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingold, K. U.; Johnston, L. J.; Lusztyk, J.; Scaiano, J. C.

    1984-10-01

    Benzoyl and decanoyl peroxides are efficient quenchers of various triplet sensitizers: kinetic studies using laser photolysis techniques indicate that electronic energy transfer and charge transfer to the peroxide are important factors contributing to the quenching process.

  2. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  3. Cold plasma as a food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on a variety of foods, such as meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The primary modes of action are reactive chemical species and ultraviolet light. Various cold plasma systems are under development, operating at am...

  4. Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

    2013-08-01

    The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

  5. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  6. Annular vortex merging processes in non-neutral electron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaga, Chikato Ito, Kiyokazu; Higaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2015-06-29

    Non-neutral electron plasmas in a uniform magnetic field are investigated experimentally as a two dimensional (2D) fluid. Previously, it was reported that 2D phase space volume increases during a vortex merging process with viscosity. However, the measurement was restricted to a plasma with a high density. Here, an alternative method is introduced to evaluate a similar process for a plasma with a low density.

  7. Plasma heating for containerless and microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Emily W. (Inventor); Man, Kin F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for plasma heating of levitated samples to be used in containerless microgravity processing is disclosed. A sample is levitated by electrostatic, electromagnetic, aerodynamic, or acoustic systems, as is appropriate for the physical properties of the particular sample. The sample is heated by a plasma torch at atmospheric pressure. A ground plate is provided to help direct the plasma towards the sample. In addition, Helmholtz coils are provided to produce a magnetic field that can be used to spiral the plasma around the sample. The plasma heating system is oriented such that it does not interfere with the levitation system.

  8. Method and apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise Peardon; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2002-01-01

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process, and more specifically the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates in at least some manner to calibrating or initializing a plasma monitoring assembly. This type of calibration may be used to address wavelength shifts, intensity shifts, or both associated with optical emissions data obtained on a plasma process. A calibration light may be directed at a window through which optical emissions data is being obtained to determine the effect, if any, that the inner surface of the window is having on the optical emissions data being obtained therethrough, the operation of the optical emissions data gathering device, or both. Another aspect relates in at least some manner to various types of evaluations which may be undertaken of a plasma process which was run, and more typically one which is currently being run, within the processing chamber. Plasma health evaluations and process identification through optical emissions analysis are included in this aspect. Yet another aspect associated with the present invention relates in at least some manner to the endpoint of a plasma process (e.g., plasma recipe, plasma clean, conditioning wafer operation) or discrete/discernible portion thereof (e.g., a plasma step of a multiple step plasma recipe). Another aspect associated with the present invention relates to how one or more of the above-noted aspects may be implemented into a semiconductor fabrication facility, such as the distribution of wafers to a wafer production system. A final aspect of the present invention relates to a network a plurality of plasma monitoring systems, including with remote capabilities (i.e., outside of the clean room).

  9. New oxygen plasma process rivals laser cutting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fernicola, R.C. )

    1994-06-01

    For many years, oxygen plasma cutting has been looked upon as a desirable process for cutting steel but not practical in production because of very short consumable parts life. Recently, a number of technical advances in the oxygen plasma cutting process provides parts life several times that of older systems and cut quality approaching that of laser systems. This paper discusses these advances.

  10. The Plasma Physics of Processing Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-28

    Karachevtsev, Ref. 6, Chapter 12 82 52. H. Furth, J Killeen, and M Rosenbluth, Physics Fluids, 6, 459, (1963) 53. W. Manheimer and C. Lashmore - Davies, MHD and Microinstabilities in Confined Plasmas, Adam Hilger, (1989) 83

  11. Advances in Plasma Process Equipment Development using Plasma and Electromagnetics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur

    2013-10-01

    Plasma processing is widely used in the semiconductor industry for thin film etching and deposition, modification of near-surface material, and cleaning. In particular, the challenges for plasma etching have increased as the critical feature dimensions for advanced semiconductor devices have decreased to 20 nm and below. Critical scaling limitations are increasingly driving the transition to 3D solutions such as multi-gate MOSFETs and 3D NAND structures. These structures create significant challenges for dielectric and conductor etching, especially given the high aspect ratio (HAR) of the features. Plasma etching equipment must therefore be capable of exacting profile control across the entire wafer for feature aspect ratios up to 80:1, high throughput, and exceptionally high selectivity. The multiple challenges for advanced 3D structures are addressed by Applied Material's plasma etching chambers by providing highly sophisticated control of ion energy, wafer temperature and plasma chemistry. Given the costs associated with such complex designs and reduced development time-scales, much of these design innovations have been enabled by utilizing advanced computational plasma modeling tools. We have expended considerable effort to develop 3-dimensional coupled plasma and electromagnetic modeling tools in recent years. In this work, we report on these modeling software and their application to plasma processing system design and evaluation of strategies for hardware and process improvement. Several of these examples deal with process uniformity, which is one of the major challenges facing plasma processing equipment design on large substrates. Three-dimensional plasma modeling is used to understand the sources of plasma non-uniformity, including the radio-frequency (RF) current path, and develop uniformity improvement techniques. Examples from coupled equipment and process models to investigate the dynamics of pulsed plasmas and their impact on plasma chemistry will

  12. Collisions of excited Na atoms with H2 molecules. I. Ab initio potential energy surfaces and qualitative discussion of the quenching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botschwina, Peter; Meyer, Wilfried; Hertel, Ingolf V.; Reiland, W.

    1981-12-01

    Potential energy surfaces have been calculated for the four lowest electronic states of Na (3 2S, 3 2P)+H2(1Σ+g) by means of the RHF-SCF and PNO-CEPA methods. For the so-called quenching process of Na (3 2P) by H2 at low initial translational energies (E-VRT energy transfer) the energetically most favorable path occurs in C2v symmetry, since—at intermediate Na-H2 separation—the ? 2B2 potential energy surface is attractive. From the CEPA calculations, the crossing point of minimal energy between the ? 2A1 and ? 2B2 surfaces is obtained at Rc = 3.57 a.u. and rc = 2.17 a.u. with an energy difference to the asymptotic limit (R = ∞, r = re) of -0.06 eV. It is thus classically accessible without any initial translational energy, but at low initial translational energies (˜0.1 eV) quenching will be efficient only for arrangements of collision partners close to C2v symmetry. There is little indication of an avoiding crossing with an ionic intermediate correlating asymptotically with Na+ and H2- as was assumed in previous discussions of the quenching process. The dependence of the total quenching cross sections on the initial translational energy is discussed by means of the ''absorbing sphere'' model, taking the initial zero-point vibrational energy of the hydrogen molecule into account. New experimental data of the product channel distribution in H2 for center-of-mass forward scattering are presented. The final vibrational states v' = 3, 2, 1, and 0 of H2 are populated to about 26%, 61%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. The observed distributions in H2 (and D2) may be rationalized by simple dynamic considerations on the basis of the calculated surfaces.

  13. Submillimeter Spectroscopic Diagnostics in a Semiconductor Processing Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; Holt, Jennifer A.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter rotational spectroscopy was used to characterize and measure the abundances of compounds in a semiconductor processing plasma. Plasmas were generated using flow mixtures of Ar, C_4F_8, and O_2 in a chamber with quartz windows for submillimeter wave transmission. Species of interest included the plasma products CF, CF_2, COF_2, and CO. Abundances as a function of flow mixtures and pressures as well as rf drive levels will be presented.

  14. Laser initiation and decay processes in an organic vapor plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guowen

    A large volume organic molecular plasma (hundreds of cm3) is created by a 193 nm laser ionizing an organic molecule, Tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene (TMAE). The plasma is found to be characterized by high electron density (10 13-1011cm-3), low electron temperature (~0.1 eV), fast creation (~10 ns) and rapid decaying (electron-ion recombination coefficient ~10-6 cm3/s). Fast Langmuir probe (LP) techniques are developed for diagnosing this plasma, including a novel probe design and fabrication, a fast detection system, sampling, indirect probe heating, electro-magnetic shielding and dummy probe techniques. Plasma physical processes regarding fast LP diagnostics for different time scales (t> and <100 ns) are studied. A theory for the correction due to a rapidly decaying plasma to LP measurements is developed. The mechanisms responsible for the plasma decay are studied, and a delayed ionization process is found to be important in interpreting the decay processes. It is also found that nitrogen can enhance the delayed emission of a TMAE Rydberg state from the TMAE plasma. This result strongly suggests that a long-lifetime highly-excited state is important in the TMAE plasma decay process. This result supports the delayed ionization mechanism. A model combining electron-ion recombination and delayed ionization processes is developed to calculate the delayed ionization lifetime.

  15. Titanium Production by a Plasma Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    and their valuable contributions are gratefully acknowledged: J. V. R. Heberlein - plasma consultancy and equipment design, R. W. Liebermann ...Reberlein, J. V. R., Liebermann , R. W., U. S. Air Force Contract #F33615-80-C-5091, First Quarterly Progress Report,(October 1980). 15. Heberlein

  16. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  17. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 1011 cm-3 could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  18. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-Ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 10(11) cm(-3) could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  19. Status and potential of atmospheric plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Daphne

    2011-03-15

    This paper is a review of the current status and potential of atmospheric plasma technology for materials processing. The main focus is the recent developments in the area of dielectric barrier discharges with emphasis in the functionalization of polymers, deposition of organic and inorganic coatings, and plasma processing of biomaterials. A brief overview of both the equipment being used and the physicochemical reactions occurring in the gas phase is also presented. Atmospheric plasma technology offers major industrial, economic, and environmental advantages over other conventional processing methods. At the same time there is also tremendous potential for future research and applications involving both the industrial and academic world.

  20. Plasma and ion beam processing at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Henins, I.

    1994-07-01

    Efforts are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory to utilize plasma and intense ion beam science and technology of the processing of advanced materials. A major theme involves surface modification of materials, e.g., etching, deposition, alloying, and implantation. In this paper, we concentrate on two programs, plasma source ion implantation and high-intensity pulsed ion beam deposition.

  1. Analysis of benzoquinone decomposition in solution plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratescu, M. A.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in Solution Plasma Processing (SPP) was analyzed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) by monitoring the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity of the vibrational transitions of the molecule, during and after SPP. Just in the beginning of the SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensities of the ring vibrational molecular transitions increased under the influence of the electric field of plasma. The results show that plasma influences the p-BQ molecules in two ways: (i) plasma produces a polarization and an orientation of the molecules in the local electric field of plasma and (ii) the gas phase plasma supplies, in the liquid phase, hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which reduce or oxidize the molecules, respectively, generating different carboxylic acids. The decomposition of p-BQ after SPP was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography.

  2. Jet quenching parameter of the quark-gluon plasma in a strong magnetic field: Perturbative QCD and AdS /CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyong; Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-10-01

    We compute the jet quenching parameter q ^ of a quark-gluon plasma in the presence of a strong magnetic field using perturbative QCD (pQCD) in the weakly coupled regime, and AdS /CFT correspondence in the strongly coupled regime of N =4 super Yang-Mills. In the weakly coupled regime, we compute q ^ in pQCD at complete leading order (that is, leading log as well as the constant under the log) in the QCD coupling constant αs, assuming the hierarchy of scales αse B ≪T2≪e B . We consider two cases of jet orientations with respect to the magnetic field: 1) the case of a jet moving parallel to the magnetic field; 2) the case of a jet moving perpendicular to the magnetic field. In the former case, we find q ^ ˜αs2(e B )T log (1 /αs) , while in the latter we have q ^ ˜αs2(e B )T log (T2/αse B ) . In both cases, this leading-order result arises from the scatterings with thermally populated lowest-Landau-level quarks. In the strongly coupled regime described by the AdS /CFT correspondence, we find q ^ ˜√{λ }(e B )T or q ^ ˜√{λ }√{e B }T2 in the same hierarchy of T2≪e B depending on whether the jet is moving parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field, respectively, which indicates a universal dependence of q ^ on (e B )T in both regimes for the parallel case, the origin of which should be the transverse density of lowest-Landau-level states proportional to e B . Finally, the asymmetric transverse momentum diffusion in the case of a jet moving perpendicular to the magnetic field may give an interesting azimuthal asymmetry of the gluon bremsstrahlung spectrum in the Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff and Zakharov (BDMPS-Z) formalism.

  3. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOEpatents

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  4. Manufacturing of Plasma-Derived Medicinal Products: Qualification Process of Plasma Suppliers.

    PubMed

    Parés, Carles; Martínez, Manuel; Messeguer, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of human plasma-derived products ensure, through their qualification departments, the quality and safety of human plasma-the biological starting material of the industrial fractionation process. The qualification department has established written procedures to approve the plasma supplier (i.e., initial qualification) according to current regulations and to the manufacturer's plasma specifications. Once the plasma supplier is approved, a periodical assessment is necessary (i.e., continuous qualification) to guarantee the level of compliance. In addition, a signed quality agreement between the plasma supplier and the manufacturer defines the duties and the responsibilities of both parties. The qualification department implements the following requirements to ensure the quality of plasma from suppliers: (i) a regular audit program to confirm the satisfactory initiation of the quality arrangements and (ii) monitoring of the quality and safety of plasma including critical quality parameters. For several years, the Grifols Qualification Department has worked with several plasma suppliers of the European Union (EU) and has performed a detailed, continuous assessment of the audits, deviations, operational incidences, epidemiological data, and quality controls. In this article, we will report data from this Grifols assessment from 2010 through 2013 on plasma suppliers from four EU countries. In the future, additional data will be collected and studied to confirm and verify the conclusions and trends observed in this study.

  5. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  6. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  7. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  8. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  9. Method of processing materials using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.; Bieniewski, T.M.

    1987-04-13

    A method of processing materials. The invention enables ultrafine, ultrapure powders to be formed from solid ingots in a gas free environment. A plasma is formed directly from an ingot which insures purity. The vaporized material is expanded through a nozzle and the resultant powder settles on a cold surface. An inductively coupled plasma may also be used to process waste chemicals. Noxious chemicals are directed through a series of plasma tubes, breaking molecular bonds and resulting in relatively harmless atomic constituents. 3 figs.

  10. Development of a plasma carburizing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Lees, M. I.; Staines, A. M.

    1982-07-01

    An experimental glow discharge or plasma carburizing apparatus using an anomalous glow discharge created in a methane/hydrogen gas mixture at a pressure in the range 1-25 mbar was developed. Carbon concentration profiles were obtained using the apparatus and compared with similar data for vacuum and with the alternative methods giving a metallurgically superior product and savings in energy and treatment gas. It is indicated that a production glow discharge carburizing system technically feasible and meets criteria such as rapid loading/unloading and the fast heat up required in a commercial system.

  11. Plasma Sheet Source and Loss Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the TIMAS ion mass spectrometer on the Polar satellite, covering 15 ev/e to 33 keV/e in energy and essentially 4(pi) in view angles, are used to investigate the properties of earthward (sunward) field-aligned flows of ions, especially protons, in the plasma sheet-lobe transition region near local midnight. A total of 142 crossings of this region are analyzed at 12-sec time resolution, all in the northern hemisphere, at R(SM) approx. 4 - 7 R(sub E), and most (106) in the poleward (sunward) direction. Earthward proton flows are prominent in this transition region (greater than 50% of the time), typically appearing as sudden "blasts" with the most energetic protons (approx. 33 keV) arriving first with weak flux, followed by protons of decreasing energy and increasing flux until either: (1) a new "blast" appears, (2) the flux ends at a sharp boundary, or (3) the flux fades away within a few minutes as the mean energy drops to a few keV. Frequent step-like changes (less than 12 sec) of the flux suggest that perpendicular gradients on the scale of proton gyroradii are common. Peak flux is similar to central plasma sheet proton flux (10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6)/[cq cm sr sec keV/e] and usually occurs at E approx. 4 - 12 keV. Only the initial phase of each "blast" (approx. 1 min) displays pronounced field-alignment of the proton velocity distribution, consistent with the time-of-flight separation of a more or less isotropic source distribution with df/d(nu) less than 0. The dispersive signatures are often consistent with a source at R(SM) less than or equal to 30 R(sub E). No systematic latitudinal velocity dispersion is found, implying that the equatorial plasma source is itself convecting. In short, the proton "blasts" appear as sudden local expansions of central plasma sheet particles along reconfigured ("dipolarized") magnetic field lines.

  12. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  13. Effect of rapid heating, quenching and transformation conditions on the superconducting properties and microstructure of Jelly-Roll processed Nb3Al superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzaki, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Tagawa, K.; Tatsumi, N.; Ogiwara, H.; Wada, H.

    2002-10-01

    A Jelly-Roll processed Nb3Al superconductor with excellent superconducting properties has been fabricated by the process of rapid heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT). In order to fabricate a long length of wire with homogeneous superconducting properties, the optimization of the RHQT conditions is particularly important because RHQT conditions determine the final microstructure and superconducting properties. In this paper, we have studied the variation of microstructure and superconducting properties with RHQ and transformation annealing conditions, to determine the optimum processing condition. In the study of the RHQ treatment, we found that the RHQ conditions are divided into four regions according to the joule heating current (IRHQ). In the optimum region, the wire is quenched from the temperature in which a bcc solid solution extends to more than 25 at%Al, and the scatter of critical current density (Jc) after transformation annealing is almost negligible. In the study of the deformation and transformation heat treatment, we have found that the deformation of the supersaturated solid solution improves the resultant superconducting properties, and prevents degradation of superconducting properties that occurs when the temperature ramp-up rate is slow.

  14. Reduced pressure quenching oil and distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, S.; Ogino, M.

    1996-12-31

    Cooling process observed in a quenching oil`s cooling curve determination by JIS silver probe method, has been divided into three stages, vapor blanket stage, boiling stage and convection stage. Under reduced pressure vaporization is accelerated and extend the vapor blanket stage which shift the position of boiling stage the fastest of cooling speed among the cooling process toward low temperature side. Taking advantage of this behavior in quenching under reduced pressure, it is possible to improve quench hardenability by controlling reduced pressure. Vapor pressure of quenching oil increases under very high vacuum and accelerates vapor blanket formation and covers the material with more vapor blanket, resulting in reduction of cooling speed. Excessive vapor blanket covering the material will lead to partially uneven quenching of the treated material caused by uneven conditions by partial decomposition. Making vapor blanket distribution more even and to optimize uniform coating condition enables to prevent heat treatment distortion caused by uneven quenching conditions.

  15. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders prepared by a thermal plasma process for water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongeun; Choi, Yong-Wook; Na, Ye-Seul; Choi, Soo-Suk; Park, Dong-Wha; Choi, Jinsub

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity were synthesized by a DC thermal plasma process. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is formed during the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by thermal plasma with iron and oxygen sources. • Hematite nanopowders with a high purity show higher PEC performance compared to mixed oxides. - Abstract: Hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanopowders were synthesized from commercially available micro-sized iron powders by a DC thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure. The micro-sized iron powders were vaporized in the plasma region, after which the plasma processing equipment was rapidly quenched, resulting in the formation of iron nanopowders with a size of less than 100 nm. Subsequently, the iron nanopowders were heated to convert hematite with a high purity, which was then formed into a thin film with a binder for preparation of electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Iron oxide nanopowders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photoelectrochemical properties of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} film were characterized in 1 M NaOH under AM 1.5 conditions.

  16. On the origin of emission and thermal quenching of SRSO:Er3+ films grown by ECR-PECVD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon-rich silicon oxide matrix doped with Er3+ ions have been fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Indirect excitation of erbium photoluminescence via silicon nanocrystals has been investigated. Temperature quenching of the photoluminescence originating from the silicon nanocrystals and the erbium ions has been observed. Activation energies of the thermally activated quenching process were estimated for different excitation wavelengths. The temperature quenching mechanism of the emission is discussed. Also, the origin of visible emission and kinetic properties of Er-related emission have been discussed in details. PMID:23433189

  17. Quenching equation for scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahisa

    1980-06-01

    A mathematical expression is postulated showing the relationship between counting rate and quenching agent concentration in a liquid scintillation solution. The expression is more suited to a wider range of quenching agent concentrations than the Stern-Volmer equation. An estimation of the quenched correction is demonstrated using the expression.

  18. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  19. Computational modeling of process induced damage during plasma clean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, S.; Haggag, A.; Moosa, M.; Ventzek, P. L. G.

    2006-07-01

    When partially completed circuits come in contact with plasmas during integrated circuit fabrication, current from the plasma can potentially damage active devices on the wafer. A suite of computational models is used in this article to investigate damage to ultrathin (1.0-5.5nm) transistor gate dielectric (SiO2) during Ar /O2 based plasma cleaning in a capacitively coupled plasma reactor. This modeling infrastructure includes a two-dimensional plasma equipment model for relating process control parameters to ion and electron currents, a three-dimensional model for flux density calculation within a circular via, an electrostatic model for computing potential across the gate dielectric, and a percolation model to investigate dielectric damage characteristics. Computational results show that when the plasma current comes in contact with the gate dielectric, the gate dielectric rapidly charges up and the potential difference across the dielectric saturates at the level necessary to support the plasma induced current. The steady-state voltage across the dielectric determines the propensity of irreversible damage that can occur under this electrical stress. Gate dielectric damage was found to be most sensitively linked to dielectric thickness. As thin dielectrics (<2.0nm) are leaky, direct tunneling current flow ensures that the potential drop across the gate dielectric remains small. As a consequence, the dielectric is able to withstand the plasma current and the probability of damage is small. However, for thicker dielectrics where Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is dominant, a large voltage builds up across the gate dielectric due to the plasma induced current. The probability of thicker dielectrics getting damaged during the plasma process is therefore high. For given plasma conditions and gate dielectric thickness, current collection area (i.e., antenna size) determines the voltage buildup across the gate dielectric. Damage probability increases with the size of the

  20. Plasma Processing with a One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece Roth, J.

    2000-10-01

    The vast majority of all industrial plasma processing is conducted with glow discharges at pressures below 10 torr. This has limited applications to high value workpieces as a result of the large capital cost of vacuum systems and the production constraints of batch processing. It has long been recognized that glow discharges would play a much larger industrial role if they could be operated at one atmosphere. The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP) has been developed at the University of Tennessee Plasma Sciences Laboratory. The OAUGDP is non-thermal RF plasma with the time-resolved characteristics of a classical low pressure DC normal glow discharge. An interdisciplinary team was formed to conduct exploratory investigations of the physics and applications of the OAUGDP. This team includes collaborators from the UTK Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC) and the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microbiology, Food Science and Technology, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Science. Exploratory tests were conducted on a variety of potential plasma processing and other applications. These include the use of OAUGDP to sterilize medical and dental equipment and air filters; diesel soot removal; plasma aerodynamic effects; electrohydrodynamic (EDH) flow control of the neutral working gas; increasing the surface energy of materials; increasing the wettability and wickability of fabrics; and plasma deposition and directional etching. A general overview of these topics will be presented.

  1. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  2. Database Needs for Modeling and Simulation of Plasma Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    structure codes as well as semiempirical methods, should be encouraged. 2. A spectrum of plasma models should be developed, aimed at a variety of uses...One set of codes should be developed to provide a compact, relatively fast simulation that addresses plasma and surface kinetics and is useful for...process engineers. Convenient user interfaces would be important for this set of codes . A second set of codes would include more sophisticated algorithms

  3. Innovative technology for contamination control in plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    The causes and contributing factors to wafer contamination during plasma processing are discussed in the context of future technologies for controlling particle contamination by tool and process design and by the development of wafer dry cleaning technology. The importance of these developments is linked with the history of technological innovation and with the continuing evolution of the cleanroom from a highly developed facility for reducing ambient particle levels to an integrated, synergistic approach involving facilities and tooling for impeding the formation and transport of particles while also actively removing particles from sensitive surfaces. The methods, strategy and requirements for innovation in contamination control for plasma processing is discussed from a diachronic viewpoint.

  4. Plasma Processing of Lunar Regolith Simulant for Diverse Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, Elizabeth C.; Sen, Subhayu; O'Dell, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Versatile manufacturing technologies for extracting resources from the moon are needed to support future space missions. Of particular interest is the production of gases and metals from lunar resources for life support, propulsion, and in-space fabrication. Deposits made from lunar regolith could yield highly emissive coatings and near-net shaped parts for replacement or repair of critical components. Equally important is development of high fidelity lunar simulants for ground based validation of potential lunar surface operations. Described herein is an innovative plasma processing technique for insitu production of gases, metals, coatings, and deposits from lunar regolith, and synthesis of high fidelity lunar simulant from NASA issued lunar simulant JSC-1. Initial plasma reduction trials of JSC-1 lunar simulant have indicated production of metallic iron and magnesium. Evolution of carbon monoxide has been detected subsequent to reduction of the simulant using the plasma process. Plasma processing of the simulant has also resulted in glassy phases resembling the volcanic glass and agglutinates found in lunar regolith. Complete and partial glassy phase deposits have been obtained by varying the plasma process variables. Experimental techniques, product characterization, and process gas analysis will be discussed.

  5. Effect of supply voltage and body-biasing on single-event transient pulse quenching in bulk fin field-effect-transistor process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-Ting, Yu; Shu-Ming, Chen; Jian-Jun, Chen; Peng-Cheng, Huang; Rui-Qiang, Song

    2016-04-01

    Charge sharing is becoming an important topic as the feature size scales down in fin field-effect-transistor (FinFET) technology. However, the studies of charge sharing induced single-event transient (SET) pulse quenching with bulk FinFET are reported seldomly. Using three-dimensional technology computer aided design (3DTCAD) mixed-mode simulations, the effects of supply voltage and body-biasing on SET pulse quenching are investigated for the first time in bulk FinFET process. Research results indicate that due to an enhanced charge sharing effect, the propagating SET pulse width decreases with reducing supply voltage. Moreover, compared with reverse body-biasing (RBB), the circuit with forward body-biasing (FBB) is vulnerable to charge sharing and can effectively mitigate the propagating SET pulse width up to 53% at least. This can provide guidance for radiation-hardened bulk FinFET technology especially in low power and high performance applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376109, 61434007, and 61176030).

  6. Effect of lower bainite/martensite/retained austenite triplex microstructure on the mechanical properties of a low-carbon steel with quenching and partitioning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wan-song; Gao, Hong-ye; Li, Zhong-yi; Nakashima, Hideharu; Hata, Satoshi; Tian, Wen-huai

    2016-03-01

    We present a study concerning Fe-0.176C-1.31Si-1.58Mn-0.26Al-0.3Cr (wt%) steel subjected to a quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process. The results of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and tensile tests demonstrate that the microstructures primarily consist of lath martensite, retained austenite, lower bainite (LB), and a small amount of tempered martensite; moreover, few twin austenite grains were observed. In the microstructure, three types of retained austenite with different sizes and morphologies were observed: blocky retained austenite (~300 nm in width), film-like retained austenite (80-120 nm in width), and ultra- fine film-like retained austenite (30-40 nm in width). Because of the effect of the retained austenite/martensite/LB triplex microstructure, the specimens prepared using different quenching temperatures exhibit high ultimate tensile strength and yield strength. Furthermore, the strength effect of LB can partially counteract the decreasing strength effect of martensite. The formation of LB substantially reduces the amount of retained austenite. Analyses of the retained austenite and the amount of blocky retained austenite indicated that the carbon content is critical to the total elongation of Q&P steel.

  7. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Ronald D.; Blue, Craig A.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Harper, David C.

    2007-05-22

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  8. A Course on Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawin, Herbert H.; Reif, Rafael

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course, taught jointly by electrical/chemical engineering departments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, designed to teach the fundamental science of plasma processing as well as to give an overview of the present state of industrial processes. Provides rationale for course development, texts used, class composition, and…

  9. Investigation of Recombination Processes In A Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Interplanetary travel requires propulsion systems that can provide high specific impulse (Isp), while also having sufficient thrust to rapidly accelerate large payloads. One such propulsion system is the Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-plasma Rocket (VASIMR), which creates, heats, and exhausts plasma to provide variable thrust and Isp, optimally meeting the mission requirements. A large fraction of the energy to create the plasma is frozen in the exhaust in the form of ionization energy. This loss mechanism is common to all electromagnetic plasma thrusters and has an impact on their efficiency. When the device operates at high Isp, where the exhaust kinetic energy is high compared to the ionization energy, the frozen flow component is of little consequence; however, at low Isp, the effect of the frozen flow may be important. If some of this energy could be recovered through recombination processes, and re-injected as neutral kinetic energy, the efficiency of VASIMR, in its low Isp/high thrust mode may be improved. In this operating regime, the ionization energy is a large portion of the total plasma energy. An experiment is being conducted to investigate the possibility of recovering some of the energy used to create the plasma. This presentation will cover the progress and status of the experiment involving surface recombination of the plasma.

  10. Synchronous pulsing plasma utilization in dummy poly gate removal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruixuan; Meng, Xiao-Ying; Han, Qiu-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Yang

    2015-03-01

    When CMOS technology reaches 28/20nm node and beyond, several new schemes are implemented such as High K metal gate (HKMG) which can enhance the device performance and has better control of device current leakage. Dummy poly gate removal (DPGR) process is introduced for HKMG, and works as a key process to control the work function of metal gate and threshold voltage (Vt) shift. In dry etch technology, conventional continuous wave (CW) plasma process has been widely used, however, it may not be capable for some challenging process in 28nm node and beyond. In DPGR process for HKMG scheme, CW scheme may result in plasma damage of gate oxide/capping layer for its inherent high electron temperature (Te) and ion energy while synchronous pulsing scheme is capable to simultaneously pulse both source and bias power, which could achieve lower Te, independent control of ion and radical flux, well control the loading of polymer deposition on dense/ isolate features. It's the first attempt to utilize synchronous pulsing plasma in DPGR process. Experiment results indicate that synchronous pulsing could provide less silicon recess under thin gate oxide which is induced by the plasma oxidation. Furthermore, the loading of HK capping layer loss between long channel and short channel can be well controlled which plays a key role on transistor performance, such as leakage and threshold voltage shift. Additionally, it has been found that synchronous pulsing could distinctly improve ILD loss when compared with CW, which is helpful to broaden the whole process window.

  11. Role of microscopic plasma instabilities on shock dissipation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, N.; Hoshino, M.

    2009-06-01

    We discuss dissipation process in the shock transition region based on our recent numerical simulation results. We have performed self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and found that electron kinetics plays an important role in the dissipation process as well as generation process of non-thermal particle population. For example, our simulation indicates that the electron is energized quite rapidly and locally through nonlinear evolution of the plasma instability caused by velocity difference (drift) between the electron and the ion species. The characteristic time and spatial scales are the electron plasma oscillation and the electron inertia length, respectively. During the evolution of the plasma instability just a little drift energy is turned into large-amplitude electrostatic waves. These waves contribute not only to the electron energization, but also to the diffusion of the ion population in the velocity space. Resultant strong heating affects on the macroscopic shock behavior, such as reduction of the shock reformation time scale.

  12. Apparatus and method for plasma processing of SRF cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, J.; Im, Do; Peshl, J.; Bašović, M.; Popović, S.; Valente-Feliciano, A.-M.; Phillips, L.; Vušković, L.

    2016-05-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for plasma etching of the inner surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Accelerator SRF cavities are formed into a variable-diameter cylindrical structure made of bulk niobium, for resonant generation of the particle accelerating field. The etch rate non-uniformity due to depletion of the radicals has been overcome by the simultaneous movement of the gas flow inlet and the inner electrode. An effective shape of the inner electrode to reduce the plasma asymmetry for the coaxial cylindrical rf plasma reactor is determined and implemented in the cavity processing method. The processing was accomplished by moving axially the inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise way to establish segmented plasma columns. The test structure was a pillbox cavity made of steel of similar dimension to the standard SRF cavity. This was adopted to experimentally verify the plasma surface reaction on cylindrical structures with variable diameter using the segmented plasma generation approach. The pill box cavity is filled with niobium ring- and disk-type samples and the etch rate of these samples was measured.

  13. Institute works on modeling thermonuclear plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatsek, D.

    1985-07-01

    Results of nuclear-physics research are discussed. Principles of a theory of spectra of atoms and ions, were studied. Results of the development of mathematical methods for the study of complex atoms and ions - methods which can be used in astrophysics for ascertaining the structure and properties of the sun, are summarized. Research with applications in molecular biology, metal working and environmental protection using lasers and conventional methods are discussed. Laser-aided research in extremely high-speed processes in molecules, which can be used in the study of living cells is outlined. Laser cutting of steel rods and sheets, laser hardening of products, and other industrial users of lasers are studied. Equipment for analyzing the compositon of the atmosphere and detecting sources of pollution, an automatic device for monitoring microclimate parameters, the EOL-I, and an instrument for measuring small concentrations of mercury in the natural environment and indoors were developed.

  14. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  15. Models of Plasma Processes in Electrostatic Ion Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Ira

    2004-11-01

    Under the Project Prometheus Program, NASA is studying the feasibility of large, interplanetary spacecraft using nuclear reactors to provide electricity for multi-kilowatt ion thrusters. For these missions, such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), ion thrusters will be required to operate for as long as 15 years, several times the longest demonstrated ion thruster life. In order to predict thruster life, a team of researchers at JPL is developing a suite of computer models that describe in two and three dimensions the dominant plasma processes that take place in electrostatic ion xenon thrusters. These models are being developed in close coordination with researchers who measure the plasma properties inside the thruster components. This paper reviews the physics contained in models of plasma generation and current flow in the hollow cathode insert region, discharge chamber ionization processes, grid ion optics, and thruster plumes including primary beam ions, ion-neutral scattering, and charge exchange.

  16. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  17. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalvins, T.

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  18. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalvins, T.

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  19. Numerical simulation of plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Chan, C. B.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma processes driven by transverse ion heating in a diverging flux tube are investigated with numerical simulation. The heating is found to drive a host of plasma processes, in addition to the well-known phenomenon of ion conics. The downward electric field near the reverse shock generates a doublestreaming situation consisting of two upflowing ion populations with different average flow velocities. The electric field in the reverse shock region is modulated by the ion-ion instability driven by the multistreaming ions. The oscillating fields in this region have the possibility of heating electrons. These results from the simulations are compared with results from a previous study based on a hydrodynamical model. Effects of spatial resolutions provided by simulations on the evolution of the plasma are discussed.

  20. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  1. Analysis of processes in DC arc plasma torches for spraying that use air as plasma forming gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V.; Ivanov, D.; Toropchin, A.

    2014-11-01

    Developed in Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University technological processes of air-plasma spraying of wear-resistant, regenerating, hardening and decorative coatings used in number of industrial areas are described. The article contains examples of applications of air plasma spraying of coatings as well as results of mathematical modelling of processes in air plasma torches for spraying.

  2. A generalized model of atomic processes in dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyun-Kyung; Chen, M.; Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S.; Wark, J.; Lee, R. W.

    2015-11-01

    A generalized model of atomic processes in plasmas, FLYCHK, has been developed over a decade to provide experimentalists fast and simple but reasonable predictions of atomic properties of plasmas. For a given plasma condition, it provides charge state distributions and spectroscopic properties, which have been extensively used for experimental design and data analysis and currently available through NIST web site. In recent years, highly transient and non-equilibrium plasmas have been created with X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). As high intensity x-rays interact with matter, the inner-shell electrons are ionized and Auger electrons and photo electrons are generated. With time, electrons participate in the ionization processes and collisional ionization by these electrons dominates photoionization as electron density increases. To study highly complex XFEL produced plasmas, SCFLY, an extended version of FLYCHK code has been used. The code accepts the time-dependent history of x-ray energy and intensity to compute population distribution and ionization distribution self-consistently with electron temperature and density assuming an instantaneous equilibration. The model and its applications to XFEL experiments will be presented as well as its limitations.

  3. Cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. Although well-established in non-food applications for surface treatment and modification, cold plasma is a relatively new food safety intervention. As a nonthermal food processing te...

  4. Cold Plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  5. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing in plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sauchyn, V.; Khvedchyn, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-07-01

    Methods of low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing comprise: cementation, bituminization, curing in polymer matrices, combustion and pyrolysis. All these methods are limited in their application in the field of chemical, morphological, and aggregate composition of material to be processed. The thermal plasma method is one of the universal methods of RAW processing. The use of electric-arc plasma with mean temperatures 2000 - 8000 K can effectively carry out the destruction of organic compounds into atoms and ions with very high speeds and high degree of conversion. Destruction of complex substances without oxygen leads to a decrease of the volume of exhaust gases and dimension of gas cleaning system. This paper presents the plasma reactor for thermal processing of low and intermediate level radioactive waste of mixed morphology. The equipment realizes plasma-pyrolytic conversion of wastes and results in a conditioned product in a single stage. As a result, the volume of conditioned waste is significantly reduced (more than 10 times). Waste is converted into an environmentally friendly form that suits long-term storage. The leaching rate of macro-components from the vitrified compound is less than 1.10{sup -7} g/(cm{sup 2}.day). (authors)

  6. Plasma Structure Control and New-Concept Plasma Process for Novel Nano-Bio Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Toshiro; Moon, Chanho; Takahashi, Shohei

    First, a novel method to control plasma structures, such as electron temperature gradient (ETG) in magnetized non-equilibrium plasmas, has been developed. Using the controlled ETG, the excitation mechanism of the ETG driven instability (ETG mode) are clarified. Furthermore, the nonlinear coupling of the high-frequency ETG mode and the low-frequency drift-wave (DW) mode is investigated using the bispectral analysis, and consequently, it is found that the energy of the ETG mode is transferred to the DW mode via the multi-scale nonlinear interaction. Second, highly-ordered periodic structures of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are formed by transcribing the controlled plasma structure to the surface of the ionic liquid, where the spatially selective synthesis of the AuNPs is realized. Third, the new-concept plasma process is developed to create innovative nano-bio materials using plasma-liquid interface. Size- and structure- controlled AuNPs covered with DNA are synthesized using a pulse-driven gas-liquid interfacial discharge plasma for the application to next-generation drug delivery systems.

  7. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Peregudov, V.S.

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  8. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  9. Fastest Formation Routes of Nanocarbons in Solution Plasma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Tetsunori; Ueno, Tomonaga; Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Hieda, Junko; Yoshida, Akihito; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-11-01

    Although solution-plasma processing enables room-temperature synthesis of nanocarbons, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the routes of solution-plasma-induced nanocarbon formation from hexane, hexadecane, cyclohexane, and benzene. The synthesis rate from benzene was the highest. However, the nanocarbons from linear molecules were more crystalline than those from ring molecules. Linear molecules decomposed into shorter olefins, whereas ring molecules were reconstructed in the plasma. In the saturated ring molecules, C–H dissociation proceeded, followed by conversion into unsaturated ring molecules. However, unsaturated ring molecules were directly polymerized through cation radicals, such as benzene radical cation, and were converted into two- and three-ring molecules at the plasma–solution interface. The nanocarbons from linear molecules were synthesized in plasma from small molecules such as C2 under heat; the obtained products were the same as those obtained via pyrolysis synthesis. Conversely, the nanocarbons obtained from ring molecules were directly synthesized through an intermediate, such as benzene radical cation, at the interface between plasma and solution, resulting in the same products as those obtained via polymerization. These two different reaction fields provide a reasonable explanation for the fastest synthesis rate observed in the case of benzene.

  10. Fastest Formation Routes of Nanocarbons in Solution Plasma Processes

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Tetsunori; Ueno, Tomonaga; Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Hieda, Junko; Yoshida, Akihito; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-01-01

    Although solution-plasma processing enables room-temperature synthesis of nanocarbons, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the routes of solution-plasma-induced nanocarbon formation from hexane, hexadecane, cyclohexane, and benzene. The synthesis rate from benzene was the highest. However, the nanocarbons from linear molecules were more crystalline than those from ring molecules. Linear molecules decomposed into shorter olefins, whereas ring molecules were reconstructed in the plasma. In the saturated ring molecules, C–H dissociation proceeded, followed by conversion into unsaturated ring molecules. However, unsaturated ring molecules were directly polymerized through cation radicals, such as benzene radical cation, and were converted into two- and three-ring molecules at the plasma–solution interface. The nanocarbons from linear molecules were synthesized in plasma from small molecules such as C2 under heat; the obtained products were the same as those obtained via pyrolysis synthesis. Conversely, the nanocarbons obtained from ring molecules were directly synthesized through an intermediate, such as benzene radical cation, at the interface between plasma and solution, resulting in the same products as those obtained via polymerization. These two different reaction fields provide a reasonable explanation for the fastest synthesis rate observed in the case of benzene. PMID:27841288

  11. Influence of atomic processes on the implosion of plasma liners

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Zhang Lina; Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul

    2012-08-15

    The influence of atomic physics processes on the implosion of plasma liners for magneto-inertial nuclear fusion has been investigated numerically by using the method of front tracking in spherically symmetric geometry and equation of state models accounting for dissociation and ionization. Simulation studies of the self-collapse of argon liners to be used in the Los Alamos Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) program have been performed as well as studies of implosion of deuterium and argon liners on plasma targets. Results show that atomic processes in converging liners reduce the temperature of liners and increase the Mach number that results in the increase of the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain. For deuterium and argon liners imploding on plasma targets, dissociation and ionization increased the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain by the factor of 1.5 (deuterium) and 2 (argon) correspondingly. Similarly, ionization during the self-collapse of argon liners leads to approximately doubling of the Mach number and the stagnation pressure. The influence of the longitudinal density spread of the liner has also been investigated. The self-collapse stagnation pressure decreased by the factor of 8.7 when the initial position of the liner was shifted from the merging radius (33 cm) to the PLX chamber edge (137.2 cm). Simulations with and without the heat conduction demonstrated that the heat conduction has negligible effect on the self-collapse pressure of argon liners.

  12. Collisional and Radiative Processes in High-Pressure Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kurt

    2001-10-01

    High-pressure discharge plasmas (HPDPs) with operating pressures up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure have gained prominence in many areas of application such as EM absorbers and reflectors, remediation of waste streams, deposition and surface modification, surface cleaning and sterilization, and light source development. In particular, HPDPs are widely used as sources for the generation of non-coherent UV and VUV light such as excimer emissions in the spectral range from 50 nm to 300 nm using rare gases or rare gas admixed with other gases as the operating medium. In this talk we will discuss several common types of HPDPs (e.g. microhollow cathode discharge plasmas, dielectric barrier discharge plasmas, capillary dielectrode discharge plasmas) that are commonly used for the generation of non-coherent excimer emissions. The main focus of this talk will be on the elucidation of the underlying microscopic collisional and radiative processes in these plasmas that lead to the photon emission and that determine the efficiency and spectral characteristics of various sources. Processes of particular interest are the generation of intense, monochromatic atomic line emissions in the 90 - 130 nm range, in particular the H Lyman-alpha emission at 121.6 nm, from HPDPs in gas mixtures containing high-pressure He, Ne, or Ar with trace amounts (1which may have great potential in photolithography and related applications. The mechanism for the emission of these intense atomic VUV lines are near-resonant energy transfer processes from the excimer molecule to the diatomic gas (H2, O2, N2). This work was supported by the NSF and by DARPA/ARO and carried out in collaboration with P. Kurunczi, K.H. Schoenbach, M. Laroussi, M. Gupta, and N. Masoud. Helpful discussions with U. Kogelschatz and E. Kunhardt are gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  14. Plasma process control for improved PEO coatings on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Riyad Omran

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a high voltage plasma-assisted oxidation process uses an environmentally-friendly aqueous electrolyte to oxidize the metal surfaces to form ceramic oxide coatings which impart a high corrosion and wear resistance. One of the main advantages of PEO process is that it can be applied to treat samples with complex shapes, and surfaces with different composition and microstructure. The PEO process of Mg alloys is strongly influenced by such parameters as electrolyte composition and concentration, current or voltage applied and substrate alloy. Generally, these parameters have a direct influence on the discharging behavior. The discharges play an essential role in the formation and resulting composition of the 3-layer oxide structure. A detailed knowledge of the coating mechanisms is extremely important in order to produce a desired coating quality to reach the best performance of the PEO coatings in terms of corrosion resistance and tribological properties (wear rate, COF). During PEO processing of magnesium, some of the metal cations are transferred outwards from the substrate and react with anions to form ceramic coatings. Also, due to the high electric field in the discharge channels, oxygen anions transfer towards the magnesium substrate and react with Mg2+ cations to form a ceramic coating. Although, in general, PEO coating of Mg alloys produces the three-layered structure, the relative proportions of the three-layers are strongly influenced by the PEO processing parameters. In PEO process, the ceramic coating grows inwards to the alloy substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. For the coating growth, there are three simultaneous processes taking place, namely the electrochemical, the plasma chemical reactions and thermal diffusion. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed for the discharge characterization by following the substrate and electrolyte element present in the plasma discharge during the

  15. Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xing Long; Xu, Feng Yu; Wang, Li; Green, Michael A.; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Liu, X.K.; Jia, Lin Xiang; Amm, Kathleen

    2008-08-02

    This paper describes the passive quench protection system selected for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) cooling channel coupling magnet. The MICE coupling magnet will employ two methods of quench protection simultaneously. The most important method of quench protection in the coupling magnet is the subdivision of the coil. Cold diodes and resistors are put across the subdivisions to reduce both the voltage to ground and the hot-spot temperature. The second method of quench protection is quench-back from the mandrel, which speeds up the spread of the normal region within the coils. Combining quench back with coil subdivision will reduce the hot spot temperature further. This paper explores the effect on the quench process of the number of coil sub-divisions, the quench propagation velocity within the magnet, and the shunt resistance.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  17. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, S. Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  18. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  19. The variable polarity plasma arc welding process: Characteristics and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Zhu, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advantages of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process include faster welding, fewer repairs, less joint preparation, reduced weldment distortion, and absence of porosity. The power distribution was analyzed for an argon plasma gas flow constituting the fluid in the VPPA Welding Process. The major heat loss at the torch nozzle is convective heat transfer; in the space between the outlet of the nozzle and the workpiece; radiative heat transfer; and in the keyhole in the workpiece, convective heat transfer. The power absorbed at the workpiece produces the molten puddle that solidifies into the weld bead. Crown and root widths, and crown and root heights of the weld bead are predicted. The basis is provided for an algorithm for automatic control of VPPA welding machine parameters to obtain desired weld bead dimensions.

  20. Wireless sensor technology for in-situ plasma process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahan, David

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for plasma measurement and control solutions to cope with the growing complexity of integrated circuit manufacture in the semiconductor industry. Standard plasma diagnostic instruments used in research, such as the Langmuir probe, are not suitable for use in the production environment for myriad reasons - contamination of the process being one of the main concerns. Silicon wafer based wireless sensors, which measure temperature during the process, have gained the most traction with tool manufacturers and chip makers - albeit during process development or the PM cycle rather than live production. In this presentation we will discuss two novel wireless technologies that have the potential for use in process tools. The first is an ion detector embedded in a silicon wafer. The sensor measures the average ion flux and the maximum ion energy during the process. This information is stored and is downloaded later for analysis. The second technology consists of a wireless sensor that sits inside the process and communicates data in real time to a detector installed on the rf power line. This platform is similar to RFID technology and can be combined with various sensor types to transmit data to the user during the process.

  1. Optimization of quenching process in hot press forming of 22MnB5 steel for high strength properties for publication in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Nuraini; Aqida, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents hot press forming of 22MnB5 steel blanks for high strength automotive components. The hot press forming was performed using Schenck press PEZ0673 machine with maximum press force of 1000 kN. Samples were square 22MnB5 blanks, of 50 × 60 mm dimension. A high temperature furnace was used to heat up the blanks to austenite temperature of 950°C. Samples were held at the austenite temperature prior to forming and quenching process. Three independent controlled parameters were cooling water temperature, press holding time and flow rate of water. Pressed samples were characterized for metallographic study, hardness properties and tensile properties. Metallographic study was conducted using Meiji optical microscope. Hardness was measured using Vickers indenter with load 1000gf. From metallographic study, the hot pressed 22MnB5 boron steel samples produced lath martensitic microstructure. Hardness of hot pressed samples increased with decreasing cooling time. The yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength of samples after hot forming were between 1546 and 1923 N/mm2. These findings were important to design tailored ultra-high strength in automotive components at different process parameter settings.

  2. Physical processes and modeling of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings-switched electrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrmetov, A. M.; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of simulation of plasma deposition and hardening of coatings in modulating the electrical parameters. Mathematical models are based on physical models of gas-dynamic mechanisms more dynamic and thermal processes of the plasma jet. As an example the modeling of dynamic processes of heterogeneous plasma jet, modulated current pulses indirect arc plasma torch.

  3. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Helps Diagnose Plasma Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Mattosian, J. N.; Gaeta, C. J.; Turley, R. S.; Williams, J. D.; Williamson, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Technique developed to provide in situ monitoring of rates of ion sputter erosion of accelerator electrodes in ion thrusters also used for ground-based applications to monitor, calibrate, and otherwise diagnose plasma processes in fabrication of electronic and optical devices. Involves use of laser-induced-fluorescence measurements, which provide information on rates of ion etching, inferred rates of sputter deposition, and concentrations of contaminants.

  4. Quench Protection and Magnet Supply Requirements for the MICEFocusingand Coupling Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Witte, Holger

    2005-06-08

    This report discusses the quench protection and power supply requirements of the MICE superconducting magnets. A section of the report discusses the quench process and how to calculate the peak voltages and hotspot temperature that result from a magnet quench. A section of the report discusses conventional quench protection methods. Thermal quench back from the magnet mandrel is also discussed. Selected quench protection methods that result in safe quenching of the MICE focusing and coupling magnets are discussed. The coupling of the MICE magnets with the other magnets in the MICE is described. The consequences of this coupling on magnet charging and quenching are discussed. Calculations of the quenching of a magnet due quench back from circulating currents induced in the magnet mandrel due to quenching of an adjacent magnet are discussed. The conclusion of this report describes how the MICE magnet channel will react when one or magnets in that channel are quenched.

  5. The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1983-01-01

    In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

  6. Magnetosheath plasma structures and their relation to foreshock processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutynska, O.; Sibeck, D. G.; Omidi, N.

    2015-09-01

    We present simultaneous Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations of plasma parameters upstream in the solar wind and downstream in the magnetosheath (MSH) from 2007 to 2008. We discuss the connection of foreshock (FSH) processes and magnetospheric disturbances to transmission mechanisms in the MSH. In 60% of the analyzed cases, the MSH was strongly influenced by the FSH. We analyze the results as a function of location, time scale, spatial orientation of the observed structures, and the prevailing interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind plasma parameters. We find that plasma structures with density enhancement are mostly observed during radial IMF orientations and for small θBN, the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the local bow shock normal; the observed structures are pressure balanced with strong anticorrelation between density and temperature; the scale size of the density fluctuations is about 0.4RE. We compare the observations with results from a 2.5-dimensional hybrid simulation to investigate the mechanisms by which the foreshock plasma structures are generated, propagate through the bow shock, and evolve.

  7. Quantifying Plasma Collision Processes in Xenon Powered Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Rainer A.; Chiu, Yu-hui

    2011-05-01

    The use of xenon plasma electrostatic space propulsion systems for low-thrust applications is growing rapidly due to the significant propellant mass savings associated with the high specific impulse of the engines. The high expense of the propellant drives the cost of ground-based testing, which lacks many attributes of in-space conditions. The cost-effective performance and integration optimization of these propulsion systems, consequently, is highly dependent on models that correctly render the static plasma properties and its outflow from the engine at arbitrary conditions. A primary impediment to the accuracy of models is quantitative data such as energy dependent cross sections for a multitude of collision processes that govern the plasma properties. We present a review of theoretical and experimental advances in determining vital cross sections and their implementation in models of electrostatic thruster plasmas. Experimentally validated theoretical charge exchange and xenon ion differential scattering cross sections have led to improved modeling of the angular distribution of Hall Effect thruster plume ion currents. New cross sections for inelastic electron and xenon ion scattering on xenon atoms, including atoms in the 5p56s J = 2 metastable state, have led to the development of a collisional radiative model that predicts local electron temperatures from near-infrared spectral intensities.

  8. Experimental studies of ionospheric irregularities and related plasma processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Kay D.

    1992-01-01

    Utah State University (USU) continued its program of measuring and interpreting electron density and its variations in a variety of ionospheric conditions with the Experimental Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities and Related Plasma Processes program. The program represented a nearly ten year effort to provide key measurements of electron density and its fluctuations using sounding rockets. The program also involved the joint interpretation of the results in terms of ionospheric processes. A complete campaign summary and a brief description of the major rocket campaigns are also included.

  9. Determination of regression materials mircohardness, processed by low-temperature plasma dependence on process conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khafizov, A. A.; Shakirov, Yu I.; Valiev, R. A.; Valiev, R. I.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of conditions of plasma surface treatment on hardening of carbon steel technological process was analyzed. Hardening was carried out in plasma electrothermal line with an electrolytic cathode. When processing, steel crystal grains are crushed and the structure is changed from ferrite-pearlite to bainite-troostite and martensite, depending on the processing conditions. In this case the surface microhardness increase in 2 - 3 times. The dependence of the carbon steel surface microhardness on the discharge current (2 - 10 A), the distance between the heat source and the surface, the plasma gas flow rate and treatment duration was found. On the basis of multifactor experiment planning methods and the method of least squares, the formula that describes this relationship was found. This allowed to conduct a targeted search of optimal conditions of processes of hardening steel and improve the efficiency and quality of research.

  10. Dynamic processes and polarizability of sodium atom in Debye plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yue-Ying; Ning, Li-Na

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic processes including excitation and ionization, and spectrum parameters including the oscillator strengths, dipole polarizabilities from the orbital 3s,3p of sodium atom embedded in weakly coupled plasma are investigated in the entire energy range of a non-relativistic regime. The interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core is simulated by a model potential, and the plasma screening of the Coulomb interaction between charged particles is described by the Debye-Hückel model. The screening of Coulomb interactions reduces the number of bound states, decreases their binding energies, broadens their radial distribution of electron wave functions, and significantly changes the continuum wave functions including the amplitudes and phase-shift. These changes strongly affect the dipole matrix elements between the bound-bound and bound-continuum states, and even the oscillator strengths, the photo-ionization cross sections and the dipole polarizabilities. The plasma screening effect changes the interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core into a short-range potential. The energy behaviors of photo-ionization cross sections are unfolded, for instance, its low-energy behavior (obeying Wigner threshold law), and the appearance of multiple shape and virtual-state resonances when the upper bound states emerge into the continuum. The Combet-Farnoux and Cooper minima in the photo-ionization cross sections are also investigated, and here, the Cooper minima appear not only for the l →l+1 channel but also for l →l-1 one, different from that of hydrogen-like ions in a Debye plasma, which appear only in the l →l+1 channel. The total static electric dipole polarizabilities monotonously and dramatically increase with the plasma screening effect increasing, which are similar to those of hydrogen-like ions and lithium atom. Comparison of calculated results for the oscillator strength, the photo-ionization cross section and polarizability with

  11. Optimization of Plasma Spray Process Using Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Huang, X.; Liu, R.; Yang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure features of coatings produced by a plasma spray process are affected significantly by the process parameters such as powder size, spray gun nozzle size, total plasma gas flow, ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow, and so on. This article presents a study of the effects of these parameters on the microstructure (porosity, formation of crack, unmelted particle and oxide phase) of NiCrAlY coatings deposited by the Mettech Axial III™ System. A Taguchi array is used to design the spraying process parameters. The results of the microstructure evaluation are used to generate regression equations for the prediction of coating microstructure based on process parameters. The results predicted from the regression equations are in good agreement with the experimental results according to a confidence level of 0.95. Among the parameters examined, the powder size and the ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow rate are the most significant parameters affecting the occurrence of crack, porosity, unmelted particle and oxide. Within the range of the designed process parameters, lower powder size and higher ratio of H2 + N2 over total gas flow rate lead to less cracks, pores, unmelted particles but more oxides. Nozzle size has marginal influence on oxides which increase with nozzle size. Gas flow rate has no direct influence on any coating feature evaluated with the range of variation.

  12. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of a Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cu-O alloy fabricated by α+β quenching processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangyu; Zhang, Lina; Chai, Linjiang; Yang, Wenlong; Wang, Liqiang; lu, Weijie

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the microstructure of a Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-Cu-O alloy fabricated by α+β quenching processing (ABQ sample) was investigated by the combined utilization of scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the polygonal grains evenly distributed in ABQ sample and triangular grains distributed at triple junctions of polygonal grains with densely second phase particles (SPPs). The textures of <0002> directions tilted approximately 25° from normal direction and the rolling direction spreading along the < 11\\bar{2}0> {-}< 10\\bar{1}0> were found in the sample, which was also detected in the regularly cold rolled and annealed sample. The occurrence of corrosion kinetics transition of ABQ sample was sight earlier than that of RAX sample. Due to a higher solid solubility of β-Zr, SPPs re-dissolved into β-Zr during α+β annealing and precipitated out afterward in those areas. Finally, discrepant corrosion rate of metal matrix and SPPs led to the formation of protrusions of matrix, which could concentrate stress and generate cracks in the oxide.

  13. The Mechanism of High Strength-Ductility Steel Produced by a Novel Quenching-Partitioning-Tempering Process and the Mechanical Stability of Retained Austenite at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S.; Zhang, K.; Wang, Y.; Gu, J. F.; Rong, Y. H.

    2012-03-01

    The designed steel of Fe-0.25C-1.5Mn-1.2Si-1.5Ni-0.05Nb (wt pct) treated by a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process demonstrates an excellent product of strength and elongation (PSE) at deformed temperatures from 298 K to 573 K (25 °C to 300 °C) and shows a maximum value of PSE (over 27,000 MPa pct) at 473 K (200 °C). The results fitted by the exponent decay law indicate that the retained austenite fraction with strain at a deformed temperature of 473 K (200 °C) decreases slower than that at 298 K (25 °C); namely, the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) effect occurs in a larger strain range at 473 K (200 °C) than at 298 K (25 °C), showing better mechanical stability. The work-hardening exponent curves of Q-P-T steel further indicate that the largest plateau before necking appears at the deformed temperature of 473 K (200 °C), showing the maximum TRIP effect, which is due to the mechanical stability of considerable retained austenite. The microstructural characterization reveals that the high strength of Q-P-T steels results from dislocation-type martensite laths and dispersively distributed fcc NbC or hcp ɛ-carbides in martensite matrix, while excellent ductility is attributed to the TRIP effect produced by considerable retained austenite.

  14. Plasma-neutral interaction processes in the magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, Aharon

    1992-01-01

    Models of Saturnian magnetospheric processes are reviewed emphasizing the interaction of charged and neutral particles in the gaseous phase and mentioning the role of solid matter. It is found that interpretations of different Voyager datasets regarding the Saturnian magnetosphere can vary. Specific interactions examined to resolve these discrepancies include charge exchange, ion-atom interchange, isotropizing and thermalizing collisions, and interactions between magnetospheric charged particles and surface layers of the icy satellites. The latter interactions result in sputtering of the surface or atmosphere as well as neutral injections into the magnetosphere. Constraints based on known reaction rates are shown to be useful in analyzing the abundances of the water-group molecules. The composition of the magnetospheric plasma is shown to be related to the differences between the interactions of atomic and molecular plasmas with neutral matter.

  15. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  16. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  17. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  18. Process maps for plasma spray: Part 1: Plasma-particle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A.; WAN,YUEPENG; SAMPATH,SANJAY

    2000-01-26

    This is the first paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at Sandia National Laboratories and the State University of New York at Stony Brook. The aim of the study is to develop a more fundamental understanding of plasma-particle interactions, droplet-substrate interactions, deposit formation dynamics and microstructural development as well as final deposit properties. The purpose is to create models that can be used to link processing to performance. Process maps have been developed for air plasma spray of molybdenum. Experimental work was done to investigate the importance of such spray parameters as gun current, auxiliary gas flow, and powder carrier gas flow. In-flight particle diameters, temperatures, and velocities were measured in various areas of the spray plume. Samples were produced for analysis of microstructures and properties. An empirical model was developed, relating the input parameters to the in-flight particle characteristics. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations of the plasma gas flow field and in-flight particles under different operating conditions were also performed. In addition to the parameters which were experimentally investigated, the effect of particle injection velocity was also considered. The simulation results were found to be in good general agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Magnetic Reconnection: A Fundamental Process in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For many years, collisionless magnetic reconnect ion has been recognized as a fundamental process, which facilitates plasma transport and energy release in systems ranging from the astrophysical plasmas to magnetospheres and even laboratory plasma. Beginning with work addressing solar dynamics, it has been understood that reconnection is essential to explain solar eruptions, the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, and the dynamics of the magnetosphere. Accordingly, the process of magnetic reconnection has been and remains a prime target for space-based and laboratory studies, as well as for theoretical research. Much progress has been made throughout the years, beginning with indirect verifications by studies of processes enabled by reconnection, such as Coronal Mass Ejections, Flux Transfer Events, and Plasmoids. Theoretical advances have accompanied these observations, moving knowledge beyond the Sweet-Parker theory to the recognition that other, collisionless, effects are available and likely to support much faster reconnect ion rates. At the present time we are therefore near a break-through in our understanding of how collisionless reconnect ion works. Theory and modeling have advanced to the point that two competing theories are considered leading candidates for explaining the microphysics of this process. Both theories predict very small spatial and temporal scales. which are. to date, inaccessible to space-based or laboratory measurements. The need to understand magnetic reconnect ion has led NASA to begin the implementation of a tailored mission, Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), a four spacecraft cluster equipped to resolve all relevant spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, we present an overview of current knowledge as well as an outlook towards measurements provided by MMS.

  20. Research on the mechanism of multiple inductively coupled plasma source for large area processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jangjae; Kim, Sijun; Kim, Daewoong; Kim, Kwangki; Lee, Youngseok; You, Shinjae

    2016-09-01

    In the plasma processing, inductively coupled plasma having the high-density is often used for high productivity. In large area plasma processing, the plasma can be generated by using the multi-pole connected in parallel. However, in case of this, it is difficult for power to be transferred to plasma uniformly. To solve the problem, we studied the mechanism of inductively coupled plasma connected in parallel. By using the transformer model, the multiple ICP source is treated. We also studied about the change of the plasma parameters over the time through the power balance equation and particle balance equation. Corresponding author.

  1. Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2017-03-01

    Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.

  2. Cool Flame Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism

  3. Plasma processes for producing silanes and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Laine, Richard M; Massey, Dean Richard; Peterson, Peter Young

    2014-03-25

    The invention is generally related to process for generating one or more molecules having the formula Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z, and mixtures thereof, where x,y and z are integers .gtoreq.1, H is hydrogen and D is deuterium, such as silane, comprising the steps of: providing a silicon containing material, wherein the silicon containing material includes at least 20 weight percent silicon atoms based on the total weight of the silicon containing material; generating a plasma capable of vaporizing a silicon atom, sputtering a silicon atom, or both using a plasma generating device; and contacting the plasma to the silicon containing material in a chamber having an atmosphere that includes at least about 0.5 mole percent hydrogen atoms and/or deuterium atoms based on the total moles of atoms in the atmosphere; so that a molecule having the formula Si.sub.xH.sub.y; (e.g., silane) is generated. The process preferably includes a step of removing one or more impurities from the Si.sub.xH.sub.y (e.g., the silane) to form a clean Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z (e.g., silane). The process may also include a step of reacting the Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z (e.g., the silane) to produce a high purity silicon containing material such as electronic grade metallic silicon, photovoltaic grade metallic silicon, or both.

  4. Quenching: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Basketter, D

    2000-11-01

    Fragrance chemicals are a frequently reported cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), a matter which has recently come into considerable prominence, to the point that legislation in Europe is under serious consideration. Certain skin-sensitizing fragrance chemicals have been reported by the producing industry to be rendered safe (quenched), at least in terms of ACD, when they are used in the presence of a specific quenching agent. Accordingly, it seemed timely to review this apparent quenching phenomenon, considering the available data and potential mechanistic hypotheses that might be used to explain it. If it is correct, it should be a phenomenon of potentially enormous value in the elimination of the allergenic properties of at least a proportion of common skin sensitizers. Whilst there is some evidence in man for the occurrence of quenching during the induction of skin sensitization, a much more substantial body of work has failed to find supportive evidence in various animals models, at a chemical level or at elicitation in human subjects with existing allergy. On balance, it is concluded that quenching of fragrance allergens is a phenomenon still awaiting positive evidence of existence.

  5. Results on plasma temperature measurement using an image processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavipour, B.; Hatami, A.; Salar Elahi, A.

    Image processing technique (IPT) is a computational technique which is a simple, wide and great for many purposes. In this paper, we used IPT to obtain plasma source such as sun and sunspot temperatures. Sun image was taken by a telescope and DSLR camera and imported to MATLAB software. Using the IPT, we cropped two areas and evaluated their RGB values, using a code which was written according to Python software. We computed wavelengths and then by substituting wavelengths in Wien's law, we obtained sun's surface and sunspot temperature's. The temperature errors for surface and sunspot were 0.57% and 13% respectively.

  6. The processes of nonequilibrium exchange in rotating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, A. R.; Shatokhin, V. L.; Yu, M. Y.; Stenflo, L.

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms of energy/momentum exchange in rotating and compressing plasma flows have been discussed. It has been shown that such flows are capable of transforming the energy of different degrees of freedom into the energy of one degree owing to the interaction of the coupled nonlinear radial, axial and azimuthal electron-ion oscillations. These processes may lead to the additional acceleration of the flow in azimuthal or axial direction so they might be instrumental for the creation of space thrusters employing pulse transformations for propulsion.

  7. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-01-01

    The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools. PMID:22219683

  8. Real-time plasma process condition sensing and abnormal process detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-01-01

    The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools.

  9. The Quench Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  10. Plasma processing of interstellar PAHs into solar system kerogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Lee, Wei; Cronin, John; Beegle, Luther W.; Robinson, Michael S.

    1995-02-01

    Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of im-estigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama Lit Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the. precursor PAH naphthalene, a new material having an I R absorption spectrum (Lee. W. and Wdowiak, T. J., Astrophys. J., 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J. R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for PAH species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula. where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of PAHs into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of PAH species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.

  11. Plasma processing of interstellar PAHs into solar system kerogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, T. J.; Lee, W.; Cronin, J.; Beegle, L. W.; Robinson, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of investigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the precursor PAH naphthalene, a new material having an IR absorption spectrum (Lee, W. and Wdowiak, T.J., Astrophys. J. 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J.R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for PAH species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula, where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of PAHs into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of PAH species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.

  12. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Haselton, Halsey H.

    1994-01-01

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm.sup.2 at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance.

  13. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.

    1994-03-08

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm[sup 2] at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance. 4 figures.

  14. Predictive Modeling in Plasma Reactor and Process Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, D. B.; Bose, D.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Research continues toward the improvement and increased understanding of high-density plasma tools. Such reactor systems are lauded for their independent control of ion flux and energy enabling high etch rates with low ion damage and for their improved ion velocity anisotropy resulting from thin collisionless sheaths and low neutral pressures. Still, with the transition to 300 mm processing, achieving etch uniformity and high etch rates concurrently may be a formidable task for such large diameter wafers for which computational modeling can play an important role in successful reactor and process design. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor is the focus of the present investigation. The present work attempts to understand the fundamental physical phenomena of such systems through computational modeling. Simulations will be presented using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for argon and chlorine discharges. ICP reactors generally operate at pressures on the order of 1 to 10 mTorr. At such low pressures, rarefaction can be significant to the degree that the constitutive relations used in typical CFD techniques become invalid and a particle simulation must be employed. This work will assess the extent to which CFD can be applied and evaluate the degree to which accuracy is lost in prediction of the phenomenon of interest; i.e., etch rate. If the CFD approach is found reasonably accurate and bench-marked with DSMC and experimental results, it has the potential to serve as a design tool due to the rapid time relative to DSMC. The continuum CFD simulation solves the governing equations for plasma flow using a finite difference technique with an implicit Gauss-Seidel Line Relaxation method for time marching toward a converged solution. The equation set consists of mass conservation for each species, separate energy equations for the electrons and heavy species, and momentum equations for the gas

  15. Processing of bulk Al7075 alloy by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Málek, P.; Molnárová, O.; Cinert, J.; Lukáč, F.; Chráska, T.

    2017-02-01

    The main advantages of powder metallurgy processing route are the possibility to produce near-net-shape compacts and to minimize the finish machining and material loss. The main problem in particle consolidation process is to suppress porosity, to remove oxide layers, and to retain the microstructure of powder materials. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) combines concurrent uniaxial pressure and direct heating by a pulsed DC current. Sintering occurs at relatively low temperatures for a short time and does not influence significantly the microstructure in the interiors of original powder particles. The efficiency of SPS in producing compacts with low porosity might be dependent on the distribution of particle size in original powder material. The gas atomized Al7075 powder was sieved to several charges and then sintered by SPS. Microstructure of sintered compacts was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The phase composition was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The mechanical behaviour was tested by bending tests.

  16. Analysis of transfer processes through plasma boundaries of the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Liudmyla; Savin, Sergey; Lui, Anthony Tat Yin; Prokhorenkov, Andrew

    Studying the fundamental properties of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere found superdiffusion processes in the boundary layers space plasma and 'distant' transfer mechanism (the influence of local microprocesses to global, and vice versa). Since the developed turbulence is characterized by a great number of degrees of freedom, nonlinearly interacting modes, multi-scale structure and random fluctuations of velocities so that the methods of statistical physics and theory of probability are most suitable for its description. In this study based on the mission Cluster measurements the characteristic turbulent regions in the boundary layers of Earth’s magnetosphere are being separated and the statistical characteristics are being obtained, which determine the transfer processes through plasma boundaries. Meanwhile, the set of different techniques was used which are based on the analysis of fluctuation distribution function and its moments. For the analysis of the turbulent processes we have carried out an investigation of structure functions for different orders and studied diffusion processes in different regions determined by a character of the dependence of the generalized diffusion coefficient on time. Basing on the results of studying structural functions of various orders, the conclusion is drawn that small scale turbulence in the foreshock, magnetosheath, turbulent boundary layer is described by different phenomenological models. Besides, we have obtained an increase of diffusion coefficient with time for the regions of magnetosheath. The work is done in the frame of complex program of NAS of Ukraine on space researches for 2012-1016, within the framework of the educational program No.2201250 “Education, Training of students, PhD students, scientific and pedagogical staff abroad” launched by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and under a partial support of the grant No. F 53.2/039.

  17. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH IN PROGRESS, WILPUTTE BATTERY, COAL PRE-HEATING UNIT, INCLINE CONVEYOR AND BATHHOUSE. - Alabama By-Products Company, Coke Plant, Highway 79 (Pinson Valley Parkway), Tarrant City, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Quorum quenching enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-05-10

    Bacteria use cell-to-cell communication systems based on chemical signal molecules to coordinate their behavior within the population. These quorum sensing systems are potential targets for antivirulence therapies, because many bacterial pathogens control the expression of virulence factors via quorum sensing networks. Since biofilm maturation is also usually influenced by quorum sensing, quenching these systems may contribute to combat biofouling. One possibility to interfere with quorum sensing is signal inactivation by enzymatic degradation or modification. Such quorum quenching enzymes are wide-spread in the bacterial world and have also been found in eukaryotes. Lactonases and acylases that hydrolyze N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules have been investigated most intensively, however, different oxidoreductases active toward AHLs or 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolone signals as well as other signal-converting enzymes have been described. Several approaches have been assessed which aim at alleviating virulence, or biofilm formation, by reducing the signal concentration in the bacterial environment. These involve the application or stimulation of signal-degrading bacteria as biocontrol agents in the protection of crop plants against soft-rot disease, the use of signal-degrading bacteria as probiotics in aquaculture, and the immobilization or entrapment of quorum quenching enzymes or bacteria to control biofouling in membrane bioreactors. While most approaches to use quorum quenching as antivirulence strategy are still in the research phase, the growing number of organisms and enzymes known to interfere with quorum sensing opens up new perspectives for the development of innovative antibacterial strategies.

  19. Analysis of suprathermal nuclear processes in the solar core plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2017-04-01

    A consistent model for the description of suprathermal processes in the solar core plasma naturally triggered by fast particles generated in exoergic nuclear reactions is formulated. This model, based on the formalism of in-flight reaction probability, operates with different methods of treating particle slow-down in the plasma, and allows for the influence of electron degeneracy and electron screening on processes in the matter. The model is applied to examine slowing-down of 8.7 MeV α-particles produced in the {}7{Li}(p,α )α reaction of the pp chain, and to analyze suprathermal processes in the solar CNO cycle induced by them. Particular attention is paid to the suprathermal {}14{{N}}{(α ,{{p}})}17{{O}} reaction unappreciated in standard solar model simulations. It is found that an appreciable non-standard (α ,p) nuclear flow due to this reaction appears in the matter and modifies running of the CNO cycle in ∼95% of the solar core region. In this region at R> 0.1{R}ȯ , normal branching of nuclear flow {}14{{N}}≤ftarrow {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}} transforms to abnormal sequential flow {}14{{N}}\\to {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}}, altering some element abundances. In particular, nuclear network calculations reveal that in the outer core the abundances of 17O and 18O isotopes can increase by a factor of 20 as compared with standard estimates. A conjecture is made that other CNO suprathermal (α ,p) reactions may also affect abundances of CNO elements, including those generating solar neutrinos.

  20. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basovic, Milos

    by different techniques. Specifically, this work provides the results of SEY from the plasma cleaned cavity grade niobium (Nb) samples. Pure niobium is currently the material of choice for the fabrication of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. The effect of plasma processing with two different gases will be examined in two groups of samples. The first group of samples is made from cavity grade niobium. The second group of samples is made from the same material, but include a welded joint made by electron beam welding, since in niobium SRF cavities the peak electric and magnetic field are seen in close proximity to the welded joints. Both groups of samples will be exposed to nitrogen (N2) and a mixture of argon with oxygen (Ar/O2) plasma. It is the goal of this research to determine the SEY on these two groups of samples before and after plasma processing as a function of the energy of primary electrons. The SEY as a function of the angle of incidence of the primary electrons is tested on the samples treated with Ar/O2 plasma.

  1. Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlüter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 102. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 102 when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 102 to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work.

  2. Development of plasma MIG brazing process for dissimilar metal joining of aluminum to steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Tanaka, Manabu

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to develop a new brazing process employing plasma MIG. Because the energy density of the plasma produced by the plasma electrode is low, the base metal can be heated extensively without melting of the base metal, consequently improving the wettability of bead. This paper discussed the dissimilar metal joining of aluminum to steel by plasma MIG brazing process. Fracture occurred at the HAZ in the aluminum plate at 80 MPa.

  3. Generation of runaway electrons during the thermal quench in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleynikov, Pavel; Breizman, Boris N.

    2017-04-01

    This work provides a systematic description of electron kinetics during impurity dominated thermal quenches. A Fokker–Planck equation for the hot electrons and a power balance equation for the bulk plasma are solved self-consistently, with impurity radiation as the dominant energy loss mechanism. We find that runaway production is facilitated by heavy injection of impurities up to prompt conversion of the total current into a sub-MeV runaway current. We also find that runaway formation is less efficient in plasmas with high pre-quench temperatures and predict significant radial variation of the runaway seed in such plasmas.

  4. Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base by two amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Selvarani, P.; Chenthamarai, S.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base (RhB) in DMF solution has been studied at different concentrations of the amine Triethyl amine (TEA) and n-butyl amine (NBA) at room temperature. It has been observed that the fluorescence intensity of RhB decrease with increase in the concentration of the TEA and NBA. It has been observed that the quenching due to amines proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The rate constants for the quenching process have been calculated using Stern-Volmer equation. Time resolved fluorescence study and 1H NMR spectral study have also been carried out and discussed.

  5. Quench studies of ILC cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Eremeev, Grigory; Geng, Rongli; Palczewski, Ari; Dai, Jin

    2011-07-01

    Quench limits accelerating gradient in SRF cavities to a gradient lower than theoretically expected for superconducting niobium. Identification of the quenching site with thermometry and OST, optical inspection, and replica of the culprit is an ongoing effort at Jefferson Lab aimed at better understanding of this limiting phenomenon. In this contribution we present our finding with several SRF cavities that were limited by quench.

  6. Observation on Formation of Fresh Martensite from the Reversed Austenite During Water-Quenching Process in Fe-0.2C-5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuan; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Wen-Quan; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Weng, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Phase transformation behavior during intercritical annealing in Fe-0.2C-5Mn was studied. Austenite lath formed and transformed at martensite lath during annealing. XRD revealed that retained austenite amount did not always increase with time. TEM result may firstly demonstrate that reversed austenite partly changed into fresh martensite during quenching while the remained part was retained as retained austenite. The final structure consisted of ferrite, retained austenite and fresh martensite. Simulation was done by DICTRA to support TEM result.

  7. Quantum-noise quenching in the correlated spontaneous-emission laser as a multiplicative noise process. II. Rigorous analysis including amplitude noise

    SciTech Connect

    Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.; von Garssen, H.

    1988-04-15

    An analytical steady-state distribution for the phase difference psi in a correlated spontaneous-emission laser (CEL) is derived based on the amplitude and phase equations of a CEL. This distribution is shown to be an excellent approximation to that obtained from a numerical simulation of the complete set of CEL equations. In particular, the effects of amplitude noise on CEL operation are considered and it is shown that fluctuations in the relative amplitude are also noise quenched.

  8. A new quenching alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, R.J.; Faulkner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching of ferrous alloys implies the controlled extraction of heat from a part at a rate sufficient to harden the part and still control the desired dimensional limitations. Quenchants in common use today are: molten metals, molten salts, petroleum oils, polymer solutions, water, and salt/water solutions. Each type of quenchant has its benefits and limitations. With current waste legislation and the trends toward environmentally friendlier industrial working fluids, many of these quenching products are coming under close scrutiny by the users and legislators. The most widely used quenchant is petroleum oil due to its favorable heat extraction characteristics. The dependence upon imports, price vulnerability, and contamination potential have caused suppliers and users to look into alternative products. Research into renewable resource, non-petroleum, vegetable oils has been going on globally for several years. The drawbacks encountered with many vegetable oils were widely known and only years of research enabled them to be overcome. The presently formulated product not only performs as well as petroleum oil but shows some characteristics better than those of the petroleum products, especially in the biodegradability and ecological aspects of the products. Stability and reproducible quenching properties have been proven with over two and one half years of field testing.

  9. Thermal compression chip interconnection using organic solderability preservative etched substrate by plasma processing.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Won; Choi, JoonYoung; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The solderability of copper organic solderbility preservative (CuOSP) finished substrate was enhanced by the plasma etching. To improve the solderability of TC interconnection with the CuOSP finished substrate, the plasma etching process is used. An Oxygen-Hydrogen plasma treatment process is performed to remove OSP material. To prevent the oxidation by oxygen plasma treatment, hydrogen reducing process is also performed before TC interconnection process. The thickness of OSP material after plasma etching is measured by optical reflection method and the component analysis by Auger Electron Spectroscopy is performed. From the lowered thickness, the bonding force of TC interconnection after OSP etching process is lowered. Also the electrical open/short test was performed after assembling the completed semiconductor packaging. The improved yield due to the plasma etching process is achieved.

  10. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazmeev, A. Kh; Tazmeeva, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed.

  11. Imaging of the Staphylococcus aureus Inactivation Process Induced by a Multigas Plasma Jet.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Toshihiro; Kawano, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yota; Uehara, Kodai; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Yuriko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Azuma, Takeshi; Okino, Akitoshi

    2016-12-01

    To identify mechanisms underlying the bacterial inactivation process by atmospheric nonthermal plasma using a unique plasma jet that can generate various gas plasmas, Staphylococcus aureus were irradiated with carbon dioxide plasma, which produces a large amount of singlet oxygens, and nitrogen plasma, which produces a large amount of OH radicals. And damaged areas of plasma-treated bacteria were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. As a result, bacteria were damaged by both gas plasmas, but the site of damage differed according to gas species. Therefore, it suggests that singlet oxygen generated by carbon dioxide plasma or other reactive species caused by singlet oxygen contributes to the damage of internal structures of bacteria through the cell wall and membrane, and OH radicals generated by nitrogen plasma or other reactive species derived from OH radicals contribute to damage of the cell wall and membrane.

  12. Production of stable isotopes utilizing the plasma separation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Tarallo, F. J.; Stevenson, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    A plasma separation process (PSP) is being operated at Theragenics Corporation's®, Oak Ridge, TN, facility for the enrichment of stable isotopes. The PSP utilizes ion cyclotron mass discrimination to separate isotopes on a relatively large scale. With a few exceptions, nearly any metallic element could be processed with PSP. Output isotope enrichment factor depends on natural abundance and mass separation and can be fairly high in some cases. The Theragenics™ PSP facility is believed to be the only such process currently in operation. This system was developed and formerly operated under the US Department of Energy Advanced Isotope Separation program. Theragenics™ also has a laboratory at the PSP site capable of harvesting the isotopes from the process and a mass spectrometer system for analyzing enrichment and product purity. Since becoming operational in 2002, Theragenics™ has utilized the PSP to separate isotopes of several elements including: dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, molybdenum and nickel. Currently, Theragenics™ is using the PSP for the separation of 102Pd, which is used as precursor for the production of 103Pd. The 103Pd radioisotope is the active ingredient in TheraSeed®, which is used in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer and being investigated for other medical applications. New industrial, medical and research applications are being investigated for isotopes that can be enriched on the PSP. Pre-enrichment of accelerator or reactor targets offers improved radioisotope production. Theragenics operates 14 cyclotrons for proton activation and has access to HFIR at ORNL for neutron activation of radioisotopes.

  13. Simultaneous monitoring of multimetallic atom densities in plasma processes employing a multimicrohollow cathode lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Taneda, Satoshi; Takashima, Seigo; Hori, Masaru; Kano, Hiroyuki; Den, Shoji

    2007-06-18

    The authors have developed a simultaneous measurement technique of multimetallic atom densities in process plasmas using absorption spectroscopy employing a multimicrohollow cathode plasma as a light source. The optical emissions of four metallic atoms of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mo were simultaneously produced from the multimicrohollow cathode plasma of millimeter size. The absolute densities of Cu and Mo in the magnetron sputtering plasma were simultaneously measured using this technique. The simultaneous monitoring of multimetallic atoms is very useful for controlling the plasma processes precisely.

  14. Electric discharge processes in the ISS plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebova, E. M.; Korsun, A. G.; Gabdullin, F. F.; Karabadzhak, G. F.

    We consider the behaviour of the electric discharges which can be initiated between constructional elements of the International Space Station (ISS) due to the electric field of high-voltaic solar arrays (HVSA). The characteristics of the ISS plasma environment are evaluated taking into account the influence of space ionizing fluxes, the Earth's magnetic field, and the HVSA's electric field. We offer the statement of the space experiment "Plasma-ISS", the aim of which is to investigate, using optical emission characteristics, parameters of the ISS plasma environment formed at operation of both the onboard engines and other plasma sources.

  15. In-situ plasma processing to increase the accelerating gradients of SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Doleans, Marc; Afanador, Ralph; Barnhart, Debra L.; Degraff, Brian D.; Gold, Steven W.; Hannah, Brian S.; Howell, Matthew P.; Kim, Sang-Ho; Mammosser, John; McMahan, Christopher J.; Neustadt, Thomas S.; Saunders, Jeffrey W.; Tyagi, Puneet V.; Vandygriff, Daniel J.; Vandygriff, David M.; Ball, Jeffrey Allen; Blokland, Willem; Crofford, Mark T.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Stewart, Stephen; Strong, William Herb

    2015-12-31

    A new in-situ plasma processing technique is being developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the cavities in operation. The technique utilizes a low-density reactive oxygen plasma at room temperature to remove top surface hydrocarbons. The plasma processing technique increases the work function of the cavity surface and reduces the overall amount of vacuum and electron activity during cavity operation; in particular it increases the field emission onset, which enables cavity operation at higher accelerating gradients. Experimental evidence also suggests that the SEY of the Nb surface decreases after plasma processing which helps mitigating multipacting issues. This article discusses the main developments and results from the plasma processing R&D are presented and experimental results for in-situ plasma processing of dressed cavities in the SNS horizontal test apparatus.

  16. In-situ plasma processing to increase the accelerating gradients of SRF cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Doleans, Marc; Afanador, Ralph; Barnhart, Debra L.; ...

    2015-12-31

    A new in-situ plasma processing technique is being developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the cavities in operation. The technique utilizes a low-density reactive oxygen plasma at room temperature to remove top surface hydrocarbons. The plasma processing technique increases the work function of the cavity surface and reduces the overall amount of vacuum and electron activity during cavity operation; in particular it increases the field emission onset, which enables cavity operation at higher accelerating gradients. Experimental evidence also suggests that the SEY of the Nb surface decreases after plasma processing which helps mitigating multipactingmore » issues. This article discusses the main developments and results from the plasma processing R&D are presented and experimental results for in-situ plasma processing of dressed cavities in the SNS horizontal test apparatus.« less

  17. Fundamentals and applications of a plasma-processing system based on electron-beam ionizationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Fernsler, R. F.

    2007-05-01

    Plasmas generated from moderate energy (2-5keV) electron beams (e-beam) have unique, attractive characteristics that are ideal for materials processing applications. These plasmas possess low electron temperatures (<0.5eV), variable plasma densities (109-1012cm-3) with an improved control of plasma species generation, and perhaps most importantly, a direct scalability to processing areas exceeding one square meter. These characteristics are due to the plasma ionization being driven by the e-beam instead of an external electromagnetic field as used in conventional processing plasma sources. Theoretical and experimental system details are discussed in terms of plasma operating conditions applied to three different surface modification approaches: metal nitriding, negative ion etching, and polymer surface energy tailoring.

  18. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong Chang, Hong-Young; An, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  19. Whole cell quenched flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya-Yu; Haeri, Sina; Gizewski, Carsten; Stewart, Joanna D; Ehrhard, Peter; Shrimpton, John; Janasek, Dirk; West, Jonathan

    2013-12-03

    This paper describes a microfluidic quenched flow platform for the investigation of ligand-mediated cell surface processes with unprecedented temporal resolution. A roll-slip behavior caused by cell-wall-fluid coupling was documented and acts to minimize the compression and shear stresses experienced by the cell. This feature enables high-velocity (100-400 mm/s) operation without impacting the integrity of the cell membrane. In addition, rotation generates localized convection paths. This cell-driven micromixing effect causes the cell to become rapidly enveloped with ligands to saturate the surface receptors. High-speed imaging of the transport of a Janus particle and fictitious domain numerical simulations were used to predict millisecond-scale biochemical switching times. Dispersion in the incubation channel was characterized by microparticle image velocimetry and minimized by using a horizontal Hele-Shaw velocity profile in combination with vertical hydrodynamic focusing to achieve highly reproducible incubation times (CV = 3.6%). Microfluidic quenched flow was used to investigate the pY1131 autophosphorylation transition in the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). This predimerized receptor undergoes autophosphorylation within 100 ms of stimulation. Beyond this demonstration, the extreme temporal resolution can be used to gain new insights into the mechanisms underpinning a tremendous variety of important cell surface events.

  20. Small quenches and thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennes, D. M.; Pommerening, J. C.; Diekmann, J.; Karrasch, C.; Meden, V.

    2017-01-01

    We study the expectation values of observables and correlation functions at long times after a global quantum quench. Our focus is on metallic ("gapless") fermionic many-body models and small quenches. The system is prepared in an eigenstate of an initial Hamiltonian, and the time evolution is performed with a final Hamiltonian which differs from the initial one in the value of one global parameter. We first derive general relations between time-averaged expectation values of observables as well as correlation functions and those obtained in an eigenstate of the final Hamiltonian. Our results are valid to linear and quadratic order in the quench parameter g and generalize prior insights in several essential ways. This allows us to develop a phenomenology for the thermalization of local quantities up to a given order in g . Our phenomenology is put to a test in several case studies of one-dimensional models representative of four distinct classes of Hamiltonians: quadratic ones, effectively quadratic ones, those characterized by an extensive set of (quasi-) local integrals of motion, and those for which no such set is known (and believed to be nonexistent). We show that for each of these models, all observables and correlation functions thermalize to linear order in g . The more local a given quantity, the longer the linear behavior prevails when increasing g . Typical local correlation functions and observables for which the term O (g ) vanishes thermalize even to order g2. Our results show that lowest-order thermalization of local observables is an ubiquitous phenomenon even in models with extensive sets of integrals of motion.

  1. Universal leukoreduction of cellular and plasma components: process control and performance of the leukoreduction process.

    PubMed

    Masse, M

    2001-06-01

    Many countries in Europe and over the world are currently or will be concerned in the near future, by the implementation of universal leukoreduction (ULR) for red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PT) and now also for plasma. Recommended by several advisory committees, this decision to implement ULR must be considered as a recognition of the benefit of early leukocyte removal, and also as a precautionary measure to increase blood safety. The leukodepletion technology for RBC, PT and plasma has become increasingly more elaborated and integrated in the collection or in the component preparation process. To reach this aim and to assure that the end-products meet local specifications (1 or 5 x 10(6) residual leukocytes), a process control and validation program for leukoreduction has been described in the specific guidelines. Tested on a wide scale by a group of centers, flow cytometry is emerging as reference method for residual leukocyte enumeration. Validation protocols (linearity, precision, accuracy) have been defined in numerous national or international studies (PSL and BEST Working Party). The sensitivity of the method is greatly improved by concentration of the sample, with a detection limit equivalent to 10 cells/mL for RBC or PT, and 0.5 cells/mL for plasma. Furthermore, monitoring of the performance of the leukoreduction process includes a quality control program based on a general statistical model with a parametric or non parametric approach, sampling plan, ongoing control, process capability assessment, confidence limit, detection of failure, and estimation of the non conforming units rate.

  2. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace, which will fly in the Materials Science Research Facility. The QMI provides high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. This paper will describe the capabilities and present of on-going analysis and development testing.

  3. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semicoductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a "cold plasma" which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place.

  4. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  5. On uniform plasma generation for the large area plasma processing in intermediate pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Hwang, Hye-Ju; Cho, Jeong Hee; Chae, Hee Sun; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-04-21

    Radial plasma discharge characteristics in the range of 450 mm were studied in a dual inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which consisted of a helical ICP and the side type ferrite ICPs. Since the energy relaxation length is shorter than the distance between each of the ferrite ICPs in an intermediate pressure (600 mTorr), local difference in the plasma ignition along the antenna position were observed. In addition, large voltage drop in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs causes an increase in the displacement current to the plasma, and separate discharge mode (E and H mode) according to the antenna position was observed. This results in non-uniform plasma distribution. For the improvement in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs, a capacitor which is placed between the ends of antenna and the ground is adjusted to minimize the displacement current to the plasma. As a result, coincident transitions from E to H mode were observed along the antenna position, and radially concave density profile (edge focused) was measured. For the uniform density distribution, a helical ICP, which located at the center of the discharge chamber, was simultaneously discharged with the ferrite ICPs. Due to the plasma potential variation through the simultaneous discharge of helical ICP and ferrite ICPs, uniform radial distribution in both plasma density and electron temperature are achieved.

  6. Plasma Interaction with Organic Molecules in Liquid as Fundamental Processes in Plasma Medicine.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Abe, Hiroya; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Investigation of plasma-organic materials interaction in aqueous solution with atmospheric pressure plasmas have been carried out. Degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution via atmospheric pressure He plasma exposure through gas/liquid interface have been investigated. The optical emission spectrum shows considerable emissions of He lines and the emission of O, OH and N radicals attributed to dissociation of water (H2O) and air has been confirmed. Structure variation of MB in solution treated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma has been measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results obtained from FT-IR analysis show degradation of MB in solution treated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma. The pH effect of MB degradation was investigated using controlled pH solutions by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and FT-IR. The results show no effect of MB degradation on pH. The results exhibit that the atmospheric pressure plasmas exposure has made it possible to degrade organic materials in solution due to irradiated radicals from plasma through plasma/liquid interface.

  7. Thermal plasma processing of materials. Progress report, September 1, 1988--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1992-02-01

    Emphasis has been on plasma synthesis of fine powders, plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), on related diagnostics, and on modeling work. Since plasma synthesis as well as plasma CVD make frequent use of plasma jets, the beginning has been devoted of plasma jets and behavior of particulates injected into such plasma jets. Although most of the construction of the Triple-Torch Plasma Reactor (TTPR) has already been done, modifications have been made in particular modifications required for plasma CVD of diamond. A new reactor designed for Counter-Flow Liquid Injection Plasma Synthesis (CFLIPS) proved to be an excellent tool for synthesis of fine powders as well as for plasma CVD. An attempt was made to model flow and temperature fields in this reactor. Substantial efforts were made to single out those parameters which govern particle size, size distribution, and powder quality in our plasma synthesis experiments. This knowledge is crucial for controlling the process and for meaningful diagnostics and modeling work. Plasma CVD of diamond films using both reactors has been very successful and we have been approached by a number of companies interested in using this technology for coating of tools.

  8. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the fluorescence quenching of a donor — acceptor pair by halothane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Draxler, S.; Lippitsch, M. E.

    1992-04-01

    Donor (anthracene) sensitized acceptor (perylene) fluorescence is quenched more efficiently by halothane than is intrinsic perylene fluorescence. The underlying process of dynamic fluorescence quenching is investigated by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Ionization Properties of Molecules Commonly Used for Plasma Processing of Semi-Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    Two types of processes are involved in plasma processing of semi-conductors. They are: plasma etching or cleaning and plasma deposition of the semi-conducting materials. For plasma etching of semi-conductors mostly halogen containing gases are used as additives to gases such as O2 and N2. For plasma deposition gases such as C2H2, SiH4, Si2H6 have been tested in the past. For an optimal performance of a reactor it is important to model the plasma. In this modeling effort electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections play a central role. For ionization balance calculations values of ionization cross sections are needed. Ion molecule reactions determine the ultimate composition of the plasma. Recently it has been discovered that the by products of many of these plasmas are per fluro hydrocarbons (PFCs) which are highly infrared absorbing species and have long life times in the atmosphere. They cause global warming. A lot of research is being pursued at the present time to find alternative molecules which do not produce global warming gases as the and product of the plasma processing reactor. There is also interest in the ionization and dissociative ionization properties of these molecules from the point view of the plasma abatement of the pollutant gases at the exhaust of the semi-conductor processing reactors. At the conference ionization and dissociative ionization properties of some of these molecules will be presented.

  10. The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Long Solenoids with Coil Sub-division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Guo, XingLong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong

    2009-10-19

    This paper describes how a passive quench protection system can be applied to long superconducting solenoid magnets. When a solenoid coil is long compared to its thickness, the magnet quench process will be dominated by the time needed for uench propagation along the magnet length. Quench-back will permit a long magnet to quench more rapidly in a passive way. Quenchback from a conductive (low resistivity) mandrel is essential for spreading the quench along the length of a magnet. The andrel must be inductively coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. Current induced in the mandrel by di/dt in the magnet produces heat in the mandrel, which in turn causes the superconducting coil wound on the mandrel to quench. Sub-divisions often employed to reduce the voltages to ground within the coil. This paper explores when it is possible for quench-back to be employed for passive quench protection. The role of sub-division of the coil is discussed for long magnets.

  11. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaozong; Cui, Nai-Yi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang, He

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  12. Kinetic plasma processes occurring in the outer plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    One area of data analysis work that was begun under this contract is the fitting of the perpendicular velocity distributions of equatorially trapped ions with a Kappa function. This type of characterization of the trapped ions will be very useful for comparison with velocity distributions produced by the model. A second area of data analysis is to study data from consecutive passes when DE 1's apogee was near the magnetic equator and the spacecraft was often skimming along nearly the same L shell. In 1982 three such periods occurred in May, June, and July. For these consecutive events we have Kp histories, density measurements from a number of sources (Whistler data, DE SFR, ISEE SFR) and consecutive samples of ion pitch angle distributions along field lines. It is clear from this data how the pitch angle distributions evolve during a flux tube refilling event. Our modeling of the flow of plasma along closed field lines is following two basic tracks. The first is a study of the basic refilling process without the effect of wave-particle heating near the equator or the effect of large or abrupt field-aligned electric potential drops. This model includes the effects of Coulomb self-collisions and collisions with the O+ ions in the topside ionosphere. The second track is a study of the effects of wave produced pitch-angle scattering and perpendicular heating occurring near the magnetic equator, in connection with the development of large potential drops that result from electron heating and the development of density gradients.

  13. Influence of roasting-quenching pretreatment on the rice husk silica prepared by calcination method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksum, Ahmad; Rustandi, Andi; Permana, Sulaksana; Soedarsono, Johny Wahyuadi

    2017-03-01

    Calcination is a simple method to produce silica from rice husk (RH). One of the key to obtain higher purity silica from rice husk by calcination method is the effectiveness of impurities removal, especially potassium, from RH surface before calcination process. So, in the present study, an attempt has been made to produce high purity silica powder by using calcination method with the combination of roasting-quenching and acid leaching as a pretreatment to eliminate metal impurities, especially potassium, detected by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Finally, the high purity silica, 99.928% was obtained by roasting and calcination temperature of 300°C and 650°C, respectively. However, by considering less energy usage and silica purity achievement, the combination of 300°C roasting-quenching, 1M hydrochloric acid leaching, and calcination at the temperature of 600°C was the best route.

  14. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Interaction with Soft Materials as Fundamental Processes in Plasma Medicine.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Molecular-structure variation of organic materials irradiated with atmospheric pressure He plasma jet have been investigated. Optical emission spectrum in the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been measured. The spectrum shows considerable emissions of He lines, and the emission of O and N radicals attributed to air. Variation in molecular structure of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been observed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). These results via XPS and FT-IR indicate that the PET surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet was oxidized by chemical and/or physical effect due to irradiation of active species.

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  16. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, P. V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C.; Stewart, S.; Mammosser, J.; Howell, M.; Saunders, J.; Degraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.

    2016-04-01

    An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature has been developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5-1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  17. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    DOE PAGES

    Tyagi, P. V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.; ...

    2016-01-01

    An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature was developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5₋1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  18. Modeling collisional processes in plasmas using discontinuous numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sean

    Fluid-based plasma models are typically applied to parameter regimes where a local thermal equilibrium is assumed. The applicability of this regime is valid for many plasmas, however, it is limited to plasma dynamics dominated by collisional effects. This study attempts to extend the validity of the collisional fluid regime using an anisotropic 13-moment fluid model derived from the Pearson type-IV probability distribution. The model explicitly evolves the heat flux hyperbolically alongside the density, momentum, and energy in order to capture dynamics usually restricted to costly kinetic models. Each particle species is modeled individually and collectively coupled through electromagnetic and collision operators. To remove electromagnetic divergence errors inherent to numerical representations of Maxwell's equations, both hyperbolic and parabolic cleaning methods are presented. The plasma models are implemented using high-order finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin numerical methods designed for unstructured meshes. The unstructured code framework, numerical methods, and plasma models were developed in the University of Washington's WARPXM code for use on heterogeneous accelerated clusters.

  19. Process uniformity for plasma etchback and desmear in printed wiring board manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.P.; Smith, M.L.; Stevenson, J.O.; Smedley, R.

    1996-08-01

    In the manufacture of printed wiring boards (PWB), plasma etchback and desmear processes facilitate the making of good mechanical and electrical bonds of copper inner layers to copper plating. Without sufficient plasma treatment, internal layer copper features receive inadequate polymer removal which results in circuit discontinuity during the plating process. Additionally, the plasma serves to roughen the polymer wall of drilled holes which improves copper adhesion. To ensure proper plasma treatment, careful adherence to strict production guidelines is essential. These guidelines include attention to several critical criteria in placement, pretreatment and treatment of the PWBs during the plasma process; process verification via post plasma testing; and careful process monitoring throughout. In this brief, some guidelines for process monitoring and control will be discussed. A description of a new plasma monitor utilizing optical emission spectroscopy (OES), developed cooperatively between Sandia National Laboratories, National Consortium for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) and Texas Instruments Inc., will be discussed along with possible benefits derived from in situ monitoring of plasma systems.

  20. Influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium-tritium plasma containing inactive impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Sherman, V. E.

    2016-08-01

    The degree of influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma has been theoretically studied as dependent on the content of inactive impurities in plasma. The analytic criterion of plasma ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets is modified taking into account the absorption of intrinsic radiation from plasma in the ignition region. The influence of radiative processes on the DT plasma ignition has been analytically and numerically studied for plasma that contains a significant fraction of inactive impurities either as a result of DT fuel mixing with ICF target ablator material or as a result of using light metal DT-hydrides as solid noncryogenic fuel. It has been shown that the effect of the absorption of intrinsic radiation leads to lower impurity-induced increase in the ignition energy as compared to that calculated in the approximation of optically transparent ignition region.

  1. Cold plasma processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.; Bullard, D.; Ortega, R.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of a cold plasma in chlorination processing is described. Essential equipment and instruments were received, the experimental apparatus assembled and tested, and preliminary experiments conducted. The results of the latter lend support to the original hypothesis: a cold plasma can both significantly enhance and bias chemical reactions. In two separate experiments, a cold plasma was used to reduce TiCl4 vapor and chlorinate ilmenite. The latter, reacted in an argon-chlorine plasma, yielded oxygen. The former experiment reveals that chlorine can be recovered as HCl vapor from metal chlorides in a hydrogen plasma. Furthermore, the success of the hydrogen experiments has lead to an analysis of the feasibility of direct hydrogen reduction of metal oxides in a cold plasma. That process would produce water vapor and numerous metal by-products.

  2. Process Performances of 2 ns Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2011-08-01

    Pulsed discharge plasmas have been used to treat exhaust gases. Since pulse duration and the rise time of applied voltage to the discharge electrode has a strong influence on the energy efficiency of pollutant removal, the development of a short-pulse generator is of paramount importance for practical applications. In this work, it is demonstrated that the non thermal plasma produced by the 2 ns pulsed discharge has a higher energy efficiency than the 5 ns pulsed discharge plasma for NO removal and ozone generation. Typically, the NO removal efficiency was 1.0 mol kW-1 h-1 for 70% NO removal (initial NO concentration = 200 ppm, gas flow = 10 L/min). Meanwhile, the ozone yield was 500 g kW-1 h-1 for 20 g/m3 ozone concentration in the case of oxygen feeding. These energy efficiencies are the highest in the literature.

  3. Theoretical investigations of plasma processes in the ion bombardment thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A physical model for a thruster discharge was developed, consisting of a spatially diverging plasma sustained electrically between a small ring cathode and a larger ring anode in a cylindrical chamber with an axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations with mixed boundary conditions, which describe the electric potential and the plasma velocity fields, was solved in closed form. By means of quantum-mechanical perturbation theory, a formula for the number S(E) of atoms sputtered on the average by an ion of energy E was derived from first principles. The boundary-value problem describing the diffusion of the sputtered atoms through the surrounding rarefied electron-ion plasma to the system surfaces of ion propulsion systems was formulated and treated analytically. It is shown that outer boundary-value problems of this type lead to a complex integral equation, which requires numerical resolution.

  4. Thin film coating process using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kniseley, Richard N.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Merkle, Brian D.

    1990-01-30

    Thin coatings of normally solid materials are applied to target substrates using an inductively coupled plasma. Particles of the coating material are vaporized by plasma heating, and pass through an orifice to a first vacuum zone in which the particles are accelerated to a velocity greater than Mach 1. The shock wave generated in the first vacuum zone is intercepted by the tip of a skimmer cone that provides a second orifice. The particles pass through the second orifice into a second zone maintained at a higher vacuum and impinge on the target to form the coating. Ultrapure coatings can be formed.

  5. Study of Pulsed vs. RF Plasma Properties for Surface Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ricky; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward; Miller, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The ability to manipulate the plasma parameters (density, E/N) was previously demonstrated using a double-pulsed column discharge. Experiments extending this to large-surface plasmas of interest to the plasma processing community were conducted. Differences between an audio-frequency pulsed plasma and a radio-frequency (rf) discharge, both prevalent in plasma processing applications, were studied. Optical emission spectroscopy shows higher-intensity emission in the UV/visible range for the pulsed plasma comparing to the rf plasma at comparable powers. Data suggest that the electron energy is higher for the pulsed plasma leading to higher ionization, resulting in increased ion density and ion flux. Diode laser absorption measurements of the concentration of the 1S5 metastable and 1S4 resonance states of argon (correlated with the plasma E/N) provide comparisons between the excitation/ionization states of the two plasmas. Preliminary modeling efforts suggest that the low-frequency polarity switch causes a much more abrupt potential variation to support interesting transport phenomena, generating a ``wave'' of higher temperature electrons leading to more ionization, as well as ``sheath capture'' of a higher density bolus of ions that are then accelerated during polarity switch.

  6. Application of Atmospheric-Pressure Microwave Line Plasma for Low Temperature Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Nakano, Suguru; Itoh, Hitoshi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) plasmas have been given much attention because of its high cost benefit and a variety of possibilities for industrial applications. In various kinds of plasma production technique, pulsed-microwave discharge plasma using slot antenna is attractive due to its ability of high-density and stable plasma production. In this plasma source, however, size of the plasma has been limited up to a few cm in length due to standing wave inside a waveguide. To solve this, we have proposed a newly-developed AP microwave plasma source that utilizes not standing wave but travelling wave. By using this plasma source, spatially-uniform AP line plasma with 40 cm in length was realized by pure helium discharge in 60 cm slot and with nitrogen gas additive of 1%. Furthermore, gas temperature as low as 400 K was realized in this device. In this study, as an example of low temperature processes, hydrophilic treatment of PET films was performed. Processing speed increased with pulse frequency and a water contact angle of ~20° was easily obtained within 5 s with no thermal damage to the substrate. To evaluate treatment-uniformity of long line length, PET films were treated by 90 cm slot-antenna plasma and uniform treatment performance was confirmed.

  7. Quench Crucibles Reinforced with Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Carrasquillo, Edgar; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKehnie, N.

    2008-01-01

    Improved crucibles consisting mainly of metal-reinforced ceramic ampules have been developed for use in experiments in which material specimens are heated in the crucibles to various high temperatures, then quenched by, for example, plunging the crucibles into water at room temperature. In a traditional quench crucible, the gap between the ampule and the metal cartridge impedes the transfer of heat to such a degree that the quench rate (the rate of cooling of the specimen) can be too low to produce the desired effect in the specimen. One can increase the quench rate by eliminating the metal cartridge to enable direct quenching of the ampule, but then the thermal shock of direct quenching causes cracking of the ampule. In a quench crucible of the present improved type, there is no gap and no metal cartridge in the traditional sense. Instead, there is an overlay of metal in direct contact with the ampule, as shown on the right side of the figure. Because there is no gap between the metal overlay and the ampule, the heat-transfer rate can be much greater than it is in a traditional quench crucible. The metal overlay also reinforces the ampule against cracking.

  8. Double Layers in Expanding Plasmas and Their Relevance to the Auroral Plasma Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When a dense plasma consisting of a cold and a sufficiently warm electron population expands, a rarefaction shock forms. In the expansion of the polar wind in the magnetosphere, it has been previously shown that when a sufficiently warm electron population also exists, in addition to the usual cold ionospheric one, a discontinuity forms in the electrostatic potential distribution along the magnetic field lines. Despite the lack of spatial resolution and the assumption of quasi-neutrality in the polar wind models, such discontinuities have been called double layers (DLs). Recently similar discontinuities have been invoked to partly explain the auroral acceleration of electrons and ions in the upward current region. By means of one-dimensional Vlasov simulations of expanding plasmas, for the first time we make here the connection between (i) the rarefaction shocks, (ii) the discontinuities in the potential distributions, and (iii) DLs. We show that when plasmas expand from opposite directions into a deep density cavity with a potential drop across it and when the plasma on the high-potential side contains two electron populations, the temporal evolution of the potential and the plasma. distribution generates evolving multiple double layers with an extended density cavity between them. One of the DLs is the rarefaction-shock (RFS) and it forms by the reflections of the cold electrons coming from the high-potential side; it supports a part of the potential drop approximately determined by the hot electron temperature.

  9. Double Layers in Expanding Plasmas and Their Relevance to the Auroral Plasma Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George

    2003-01-01

    When a dense plasma consisting of a cold and a sufficiently warm electron population expands, a rarefaction shock forms [Bezzerides et al., 1978]. In the expansion of the polar wind in the magnetosphere, it has been previously shown that when a sufficiently warm electron population also exists, in addition to the usual cold ionospheric one, a discontinuity forms in the electrostatic potential distribution along the magnetic field lines [Barakat and Schunk, 1984]. Despite the lack of spatial resolution and the assumption of quasi-neutrality in the polar wind models, such discontinuities have been called double layers (DLs). Recently similar discontinuities have been invoked to partly explain the auroral acceleration of electrons and ions in the upward current region [Ergun et al., 2000]. By means of one-dimensional Vlasov simulations of expanding plasmas, for the first time we make here the connection between (1) the rarefaction shocks, (2) the discontinuities in the potential distributions, and (3) DLs. We show that when plasmas expand from opposite directions into a deep density cavity with a potential drop across it and when the plasma on the high-potential side contains hot and cold electron populations, the temporal evolution of the potential and the plasma distribution generates evolving multiple double layers with an ,extended density cavity between them. One of the DLs is the rarefaction-shock (RFS) and it forms by the reflections of the cold electrons coming from the high-potential side; it supports a part of the potential drop approximately determined by the hot electron temperature. The other DLs evolve from charge separations arising either from reflection of ions coming from the low-potential side or stemming from plasma instabilities; they support the rest of the potential drop. The instabilities forming these additional double layers involve electron-ion (e-i) Buneman or ion-ion (i-i) two-stream interactions. The electron-electron two

  10. Nonlinear plasma processes and the formation of electron kappa distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The goal of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is to establish fundamental relationship between the time irreversible macroscopic dynamics and the underlying time reversible behavior of microscopic system. The paradigm of achieving this seemingly paradoxical goal is through the concept of probability. For classical systems Boltzmann accomplished this through his H theorem and his kinetic equation for dilute gas. Boltzmann's H function is the same as classical extensive entropy aside from the minus sign, and his kinetic equation is applicable for short-range molecular interaction. For plasmas, the long-range electromagnetic force dictates the inter-particular interaction, and the underlying entropy is expected to exhibit non-extensive, or non-additive behavior. Among potential models for the non-additive entropy, the celebrated Tsallis entropy is the most well known. One of the most useful fundamental kinetic equations that governs the long-range plasma interaction is that of weak turbulence kinetic theory. At present, however, there is no clear-cut connection between the Tsallis entropy and the kinetic equations that govern plasma behavior. This can be contrasted to Boltzmann's H theorem, which is built upon his kinetic equation. The best one can do is to show that the consequences of Tsallis entropy and plasma kinetic equation are the same, that is, they both imply kappa distribution. This presentation will overview the physics of electron acceleration by beam-generated Langmuir turbulence, and discuss the asymptotic solution that rigorously can be shown to correspond to the kappa distribution. Such a finding is a strong evidence, if not water-tight proof, that there must be profound inter-relatioship between the Tsallis thermostatistical theory and the plasma kinetic theory.

  11. Final report of ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing''

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb S. Oehrlein; H. Anderson; J. Cecchi; D. Graves

    2004-09-21

    This report provides a summary of results obtained in research supported by contract ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing'' (Contract No. DE-FG0200ER54608). In this program we advanced significantly the scientific knowledge base on low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas used for patterning of dielectric films and for producing fluorocarbon coatings on substrates. We characterized important neutral and ionic gas phase species that are incident at the substrate, and the processes that occur at relevant surfaces in contact with the plasma. The work was performed through collaboration of research groups at three universities where significantly different, complementary tools for plasma and surface characterization, computer simulation of plasma and surface processes exist. Exchange of diagnostic tools and experimental verification of key results at collaborating institutions, both experimentally and by computer simulations, was an important component of the approach taken in this work.

  12. Atomic processes modeling of X-ray free electron laser produced plasmas using SCFLY code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, H.-K.; Cho, B. I.; Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S. M.; Wark, J. S.; Lee, R. W.

    2017-03-01

    With the development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL), a novel state of matter of highly transient and non-equilibrium plasma has been created in laboratories. As high intensity X-ray laser beams interact with a solid density target, electrons are ionized from inner-shell orbitals and these electrons and XFEL photons create dense and finite temperature plasmas. In order to study atomic processes in XFEL driven plasmas, the atomic kinetics model SCFLY containing an extensive set of configurations needed for solid density plasmas was applied to study atomic processes of XFEL driven systems. The code accepts the time-dependent conditions of the XFEL as input parameters, and computes time-dependent population distributions and ionization distributions self-consistently with electron temperatures and densities assuming an instantaneous equilibration of electron energies. The methods and assumptions in the atomic kinetics model and unique aspects of atomic processes in XFEL driven plasmas are described.

  13. Observations and Simulations of Formation of Broad Plasma Depletions Through Merging Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chao-Song; Retterer, J. M.; Beaujardiere, O. De La; Roddy, P. A.; Hunton, D.E.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Broad plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere near dawn are region in which the plasma density is reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude over thousands of kilometers in longitude. This phenomenon is observed repeatedly by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during deep solar minimum. The plasma flow inside the depletion region can be strongly upward. The possible causal mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions is that the broad depletions result from merging of multiple equatorial plasma bubbles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the merging mechanism with new observations and simulations. We present C/NOFS observations for two cases. A series of plasma bubbles is first detected by C/NOFS over a longitudinal range of 3300-3800 km around midnight. Each of the individual bubbles has a typical width of approx 100 km in longitude, and the upward ion drift velocity inside the bubbles is 200-400 m/s. The plasma bubbles rotate with the Earth to the dawn sector and become broad plasma depletions. The observations clearly show the evolution from multiple plasma bubbles to broad depletions. Large upward plasma flow occurs inside the depletion region over 3800 km in longitude and exists for approx 5 h. We also present the numerical simulations of bubble merging with the physics-based low-latitude ionospheric model. It is found that two separate plasma bubbles join together and form a single, wider bubble. The simulations show that the merging process of plasma bubbles can indeed occur in incompressible ionospheric plasma. The simulation results support the merging mechanism for the formation of broad plasma depletions.

  14. Ion-plasma processes of the production of diffusion aluminide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    A novel ion-plasma process for ecologically safe formation of diffusion aluminide coatings on a substrate made of a superalloy, which has advantages as compared to the well-known thermodiffusion processes of their production, is described. The ion-plasma process is shown to provide the formation of diffusion aluminide coatings on the surface of a superalloy substrate according to various technologies. Owing to alloying with one or several elements from the series Y, Si, Cr, Hf, B, Co, etc., ion-plasma diffusion coatings have higher protective properties than analogous coatings produced by the traditional methods of powder, slip, and gas-circulating aluminizing.

  15. Silicon solar cells made by a self-aligned, selective-emitter, plasma-etchback process

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Gee, J.M.

    1999-02-16

    A potentially low-cost process for forming and passivating a selective emitter. The process uses a plasma etch of the heavily doped emitter to improve its performance. The grids of the solar cell are used to mask the plasma etch so that only the emitter in the region between the grids is etched, while the region beneath the grids remains heavily doped for low contact resistance. This process is potentially low-cost because it requires no alignment. After the emitter etch, a silicon nitride layer is deposited by plasma-enhanced, chemical vapor deposition, and the solar cell is annealed in a forming gas. 5 figs.

  16. Silicon solar cells made by a self-aligned, selective-emitter, plasma-etchback process

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Schubert, William K.; Gee, James M.

    1999-01-01

    A potentially low-cost process for forming and passivating a selective emitter. The process uses a plasma etch of the heavily doped emitter to improve its performance. The grids of the solar cell are used to mask the plasma etch so that only the emitter in the region between the grids is etched, while the region beneath the grids remains heavily doped for low contact resistance. This process is potentially low-cost because it requires no alignment. After the emitter etch, a silicon nitride layer is deposited by plasma-enhanced, chemical vapor deposition, and the solar cell is annealed in a forming gas.

  17. Numerical simulation of the coal combustion process initiated by a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maksimov, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical experiments on the torch combustion of the coal dust prepared by a plasma-thermochemical treatment for combustion have been done using the method of three-dimensional simulation. It is shown that the plasma preparation of coal for combustion enables one to optimize the process, improve the conditions for inflammation and combustion and minimize the emissions of harmful substances.

  18. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.

  19. Mechanistic study of plasma damage to porous low-k: Process development and dielectric recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hualiang

    Low-k dielectrics with porosity are being introduced to reduce the RC delay of Cu/low-k interconnect. However, during the O2 plasma ashing process, the porous low-k dielectrics tend to degrade due to methyl depletion, moisture uptake, and densification, increasing the dielectric constant and leakage current. This dissertation presents a study of the mechanisms of plasma damage and dielectric recovery. The kinetics of plasma interaction with low-k dielectrics was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. By using a gap structure, the roles of ion, photon, and radical in producing damage on low-k dielectrics were differentiated. Oxidative plasma induced damage was proportional to the oxygen radical density, enhanced by VUV photon, and increased with substrate temperature. Ion bombardment induced surface densification, blocking radical diffusion. Two analytical models were derived to quantify the plasma damage. Based on the radical diffusion, reaction, and recombination inside porous low-k dielectrics, a plasma altered layer model was derived to interpret the chemical effect in the low ion energy region. It predicted that oxidative plasma induced damage can be reduced by decreasing pore radius, substrate temperature, and oxygen radical density and increasing carbon concentration and surface recombination rate inside low-k dielectrics. The model validity was verified by experiments and Monte-Carlo simulations. This model was also extended to the patterned low-k structure. Based on the ion collision cascade process, a sputtering yield model was introduced to interpret the physical effect in the high ion energy region. The model validity was verified by checking the ion angular and energy dependences of sputtering yield using O2/He/Ar plasma, low-k dielectrics with different k values, and a Faraday cage. Low-k dielectrics and plasma process were optimized to reduce plasma damage, including increasing carbon concentration in low-k dielectrics, switching plasma

  20. Effect of Processing Parameters on Plasma Jet and In-flight Particles Characters in Supersonic Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Bai, Y.; Tan, Chao

    2016-09-01

    In supersonic plasma spraying system (SAPS), heat transfer from arc plasma is characterized by several distinct features, such as transport of dissociation and ionization energy and of electrical charges in addition to mass transport. The thermodynamic and transport properties of plasma jet were influenced by several main parameters such as primary gas flow rate, the H2 vol.% and current intensity A. This paper first analyzes the effect of these parameters on the temperature and velocity of plasma jet theoretically. Further, the loading particles were melted and accelerated by plasma jet. Effects of several main parameters such as carrier gas flow rate, the H2 vol.%, the current intensity, the voltage and the spraying distance on temperature and velocity of in-flight particle were studied experimentally. The average maximum temperature and velocity of in-flight particle at any given parameters were systematically quantified. Optimal SAPS process parameters were given in this paper. In general, increasing the particles impacting velocity and surface temperature can improve the maximum spreading factor and decrease the coating porosity.

  1. Educational software for the visualization of space plasma processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Le, G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Littlefield, B.

    1995-01-01

    The UCLA Space Physics Group has developed educational software composed of a series of modules to assist students with understanding basic concepts of space plasmas and charged particle motion. Present modules cover planetary magnetospheres, charged particle motion, cold plasma waves, collisionless shock waves, and solar wind. The software is designed around the principle that students can learn more by doing rather than by reading or listening. The programs provide a laboratory-like environment in which the student can control, observe, and measure complex behavior. The interactive graphics environment allows the student to visualize the results of his or her experimentation and to try different parameters as desired. The current version of the software runs on UNIX-based operating systems in an X-Windows environment. It has been used in a classroom setting at both UCLA and the University of California at San Diego.

  2. An experimental investigation of the plasma contacting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbur, Paul J.; Williams, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements including plasma potential profile measurements made on a simple hollow cathode plasma contactor operating in the electron collection and emission modes are described. The ignited electron collection mode of contactor operation is identified, shown to improve contactor performance and found to be facilitated by increasing the size of the contactor anode. Potential profile data are compared to the predictions of a simple theoretical model that describes space-charge-current limitations imposed by the formation of a double sheath and found to agree with each other to within about + or - 25 percent. Because electrons, which are the dominant charge carriers, tend to be emitted from the hollow cathode in the emission mode and collected by the anode in the collection mode it is suggested that operation at high electrodynamic tether currents will probably require switching the point of tether connection to the contactor between its cathode and anode when the direction of tether current is reversed.

  3. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Y.; Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H+, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  4. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Y. Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-27

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H{sup +}, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  5. Characterization of Plasma Etch Processes for Wide Bandgap Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-07

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS REPORT NUMBER CENTER FOR RESEARCH INC 2385 IRVING HILL ROAD LAWRENCE KS 66045-7563 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING... Langmuir probe results, which show that the electron temperature does indeed increase with the addition of helium to SF6. The design of the Langmuir probe...complexities of the etch mechanisms. The plasma diagnostic tools we will be using include mass spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy, and Langmuir

  6. Thermal Plasmas: Influence of Current Modulation on Process Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schein, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Due to the widespread industrial use of thermal plasmas in the field of joining, cutting and the application of coatings new challenges arise owed to the advent of new materials or the drive to reduce cost or improve quality. These challenges may be met by using technological innovations like innovative fast power supplies. In the presence of strong gas flows and a fixed cathodic attachment the anode attachment position is determined by an unstable balance between the drag force on the plasma column exerted by the gas and the Lorentz Force due to the system's magnetic field distribution, leading to a constant arc motion and arc voltage fluctuation. Thus by supplying a sufficiently high and steep current pulse a re-positioning might be initiated by a sudden change of the Lorentz Force thus an externally controlled movement of the arc would be possible. In wire arc spraying a pulsed current is imposed upon the DC supply of the wire arc system. It is observed that steep current increases tend to produce sudden current drops, indicating a jump of the arc. For a certain pulse frequency this pulsing leads to a controlled motion of the arc along the electrode surfaces. Coatings produced with this technology exhibited a lower porosity than DC sprayed coatings and a lower oxide content. In collaboration with Alexander Atzberger and Michal Szulc, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen; Institute for plasma technology and mathematics (LPT) Neubiberg, Germany. This work was supported by AiF (Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrielle Forschung).

  7. Organization by Gordon Research Conferences of the 2012 Plasma Processing Science Conference 22-27 July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jane

    2012-07-27

    The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in plasma science and technology as well as explore the applications of this nonequilibrium medium in possible approaches relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics and chemistry, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy, the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and carbon dioxide neutral solar fuels (from carbon dioxide and water), and plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization.

  8. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Jeffrey W.

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  9. Control of plasma process by use of harmonic frequency components of voltage and current

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul A.; Kamon, Mattan

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides for a technique for taking advantage of the intrinsic electrical non-linearity of processing plasmas to add additional control variables that affect process performance. The technique provides for the adjustment of the electrical coupling circuitry, as well as the electrical excitation level, in response to measurements of the reactor voltage and current and to use that capability to modify the plasma characteristics to obtain the desired performance.

  10. Recent developments in plasma spray processes for applications in energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, G.; Jarligo, M. O.; Marcano, D.; Rezanka, S.; Zhou, D.; Vaßen, R.

    2017-03-01

    This work focuses on recent developments of plasma spray processes with respect to specific demands in energy technology. High Velocity Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (HV-APS) is a novel variant of plasma spraying devoted to materials which are prone to oxidation or decomposition. It is shown how this process can be used for metallic bondcoats in thermal barrier coating systems. Furthermore, Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) is a new method to process submicron-sized feedstock powders which are not sufficiently flowable to feed them in dry state. SPS is presently promoted by the development of novel torch concepts with axial feedstock injection. An example for a columnar structured double layer thermal barrier coating is given. Finally, Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) is a novel technology operating in controlled atmosphere at low pressure and high plasma power. At such condition, vaporization even of high-melting oxide ceramics is possible enabling the formation of columnar structured, strain tolerant coatings with low thermal conductivity. Applying different conditions, the deposition is still dominated by liquid splats. Such process is termed Low Pressure Plasma Spraying-Thin Film (LPPS-TF). Two examples of applications are gas-tight and highly ionic and electronic conductive electrolyte and membrane layers which were deposited on porous metallic substrates.

  11. Enhancement mechanism of H- production and suitable configurations for materials processing in a magnetized sheet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Henry J.; Villamayor, Michelle Marie S.; Mella, Aubrey Faith M.; Salamania, Janella Mae R.; Villanueva, Matthew Bryan P.; Viloan, Rommel Paulo B.

    2014-08-01

    A magnetized sheet plasma ion source was developed for steady state high density plasma with strong density and high temperature gradients. This feature provides efficient formation of negative hydrogen (H-) ions over a wide beam extraction area through the electron volume process. A hexapole confinement at the cathode, addition of argon and magnesium seeding led to the increase of H- yield. The device configuration is suitable for plasma based materials processing namely, synthesis of TiN, SiH, SnO2, and the formation of advanced MAX phase materials Ti2AlC, Ti2CdC and NbAlC.

  12. The contribution of dissociative processes to the production of atomic lines in hydrogen plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The contribution of molecular dissociative processes to the production of atomic lines is considered for a steady-state hydrogen plasma. If the contribution of dissociative processes is dominant, a substantial simplification in plasma diagnostics can be achieved. Numerical calculations have been performed for the production of Balmer alpha, beta, and gamma lines in hydrogen plasmas with medium and large degrees of ionization (x greater than about 0.0001) and for electron temperatures of 5000-45,000 K and electron densities of 10 to the 10th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm.

  13. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  14. Laser induced micro plasma processing of polymer substrates for biomedical implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, P. W.; Rosowski, A.; Murphy, M.; Irving, M.; Sharp, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of a new hybrid laser processing technique; Laser Induced Micro Plasma Processing (LIMP2). A transparent substrate is placed on top of a medium that will interact with the laser beam and create a plasma. The plasma and laser beam act in unison to ablate material and create micro-structuring on the "backside" of the substrate. We report the results of a series of experiments on a new laser processing technique that will use the same laser-plasma interaction to micromachining structures into glass and polymer substrates on the "topside" of the substrate and hence machine non-transparent material. This new laser processing technique is called Laser Induced Micro Plasma Processing (LIMP2). Micromachining of biomedical implants is proving an important enabling technology in controlling cell growth on a macro-scale. This paper discusses LIMP2 structuring of transparent substrate such as glasses and polymers for this application. Direct machining of these materials by lasers in the near infrared is at present impossible. Laser Induced Micro Plasma Processing (LIMP2) is a technique that allows laser operating at 1064 nm to machine microstructures directly these transparent substrates.

  15. What can we learn about HiPIMS process from the multidimensional plasma modeling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, Tiberiu

    2016-09-01

    The modeling of PVD process and especially magnetron plasma is widely reported. The novel way to excite the plasma applying to the cathode very high power pulses brings the temporal dimension to the system together with new phenomena. From the kinetic model of the dense plasma region, so called Ionization Region - IR, one can quantify the global behavior of the plasma parameters during the pulse. The most significant are the plasma composition, especially in the case of reactive gases, the fraction of back-attracted sputtered ions, the rarefaction due to wind effect, but also the discharge heating mechanisms and contribution to the discharge current. From the 2D particle modeling of the plasma new insights are revealed concerning the shape of the dense plasma region, the time evolution of the sheath, the electron energy distribution function, but also the characteristics of the diffusion plasma facing the substrate. Adding the third dimension to the model, the results reveal the complex transport of electrons especially in the azimuthal direction (instabilities and drifts), the formation of spokes and flares, and the strong relation between the secondary emission of electrons from the target and the plasma structuring. Warm thanks to Peter Awakowicz and Ante Hecimovic for inviting me to this GEC edition.

  16. Electron heating and control of electron energy distribution in hybrid plasma source for the enhancement of the plasma ashing processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-09-01

    In this study, control of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is investigated in hybrid plasma source with inductive and capacitive fields. With the addition of a small amount of antenna coil power to the capacitive discharge, low energy electrons are effectively heated and the EEDF is controlled. This method is applied to the ashing process of the photoresistor (PR). It is revealed that the ashing rate of the PR is significantly increased due to O radicals produced by the controlled EEDF, even though the ion density/energy flux is not increased. The roles of the power transfer mode, the electron heating, and the discharge parameters are also presented in the hybrid plasma source. This work can be used to an inter-ashing method during etching process.

  17. A Study of Impedance Relationships in Dual Frequency PECVD Process Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Douglas; Augustyniak, Edward; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Pecvd/Ald Team

    2016-09-01

    Commercial plasma process reactors are commonly operated with a very limited suite of on-board plasma diagnostics. However, as process demands advance so has the need for detailed plasma monitoring and diagnosis. The VI probe is one of the few instruments commonly available for this task. We present a study of voltage, current, impedance and phase trends acquired by off-the-shelf VI probes in Dual Frequency (DF) 400 kHz/13.56MHz capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) as typically used for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). These plasmas typically operate at pressures from 1 to 5 Torr and at RF power levels of 3 W/cm2. Interpretation of DF VI probe impedance trends is challenging. Non-linear interactions are known to exist in plasma impedance scaling with low and high frequency RF power. Simple capacitive sheath models typically do not simultaneously reproduce the impedance observed at each drive frequency. This work will compare VI probe observed DF CCP impedance tends with plasma fluid simulation. Also explored is the agreement seen with sheath models presently available in the literature. Prospects for the creation of useful equivalent circuit models is also discussed.

  18. Bursting processes in plasmas and relevant nonlinear model equations

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, B.; Coppi, B.

    1995-01-01

    Important intrinsic plasma instabilities manifest themselves in the form of periodic bursts of fluctuations rather than as a state of stationary fluctuations, which a conventional application of quasilinear theory would lead to expect. A set of coupled nonlinear equations for the time evolution of the fluctuation amplitude and of the driving factor of the relevant instability is shown to have the features necessary to reproduce the variety of bursts that are observed experimentally. These are the periodicity, the duration, and the shape of the bursts, special consideration being given to the excitation of modes by high-energy particle populations in thermalized plasmas and to a model for the transition from a bursting state to one of stationary fluctuations. A model is introduced that is relevant to the case where the spatial dependence of the mode amplitude is important. The application of the given analysis to the bursty wave emissions observed in space is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  19. Neoclassical plasma viscosity and transport processes in non-axisymmetric tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaing, K. C.; Ida, K.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Neoclassical transport processes are important to the understanding of plasma confinement physics in doubly periodic magnetized toroidal plasmas, especially, after the impact of the momentum confinement on the particle and energy confinement is recognized. Real doubly periodic tori in general are non-axisymmetric, with symmetric tori as a special case. An eight-moment approach to transport theory with plasma density N, plasma pressure p, mass flow velocity V and heat flow q as independent variables is adopted. Transport processes are dictated by the solutions of the momentum and heat flux balance equations. For toroidal plasma confinement devices, the first order (in the gyro-radius ordering) plasma flows are on the magnetic surface to guarantee good plasma confinement and are thus two-dimensional. Two linearly independent components of the momentum equation are required to determine the flows completely. Once this two-dimensional flow is relaxed, i.e. the momentum equation reaches a steady state, plasmas become ambipolar, and all the transport fluxes are determined through the flux-force relation. The flux-force relation is derived both from the kinetic definitions for the transport fluxes and from the manipulation of the momentum and heat flux balance equations to illustrate the nature of the transport fluxes by examining their corresponding driven forces and their roles in the momentum and heat flux balance equations. Steady-state plasma flows are determined by the components of the stress and heat stress tensors in the momentum and heat flux balance equations. This approach emphasizes the pivotal role of the momentum equation in the transport processes and is particularly useful in modelling plasma flows in experiments. The methodology for neoclassical transport theory is applied to fluctuation-driven transport fluxes in the quasilinear theory to unify these two theories. Experimental observations in tokamaks and stellarators for the physics discussed are

  20. The variable polarity plasma arc welding process: Its application to the Space Shuttle external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Bayless, O. E., Jr.; Jones, C. S., III; Munafo, A. P.; Wilson, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    The technical history of the variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA) welding process being introduced as a partial replacement for the gas shielded tungsten arc process in assembly welding of the space shuttle external tank is described. Interim results of the weld strength qualification studies, and plans for further work on the implementation of the VPPA process are included.

  1. Five years of industrial experience with the plasma dross treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoie, S.; Lachance, J.

    1995-12-31

    Alcan`s Guillaume-Tremblay plant, located in Jonquiere, Quebec, has been in operation since 1990. This was the first plasma dross processing plant ever built. In addition to the use of the plasma heating technology, Guillaume-Tremblay has other unique features making it a modern and efficient dross processing facility. This paper presents a general over-view of the practical experience at the Guillaume-Tremblay plant. In particular, the utilization of plasma heating in industrial conditions, the metallurgical performance, the unique dross handling system, the control and information management system and the reclaiming of the by-products will be discussed. Finally, the use of the plasma process for salty dross will be addressed briefly.

  2. An Investigation of the Potential Uses of Plasma Processing in the United States Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estey, Paul Norman

    This thesis describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for high pressure (thermal) plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs of a plasma-based processing system. This model consists of an empirical model of an electric arc heater and an analytical model of the reaction chamber into which the arc heater gas flows. The reaction chamber model comprises the conservation equations of one-dimensional fluid flow including the effects of chemical kinetics, particle and gas injection, and convective and radiative heat transfer. These complex equations were solved numerically. An engineering economic analysis of the plasma process was performed when favorable results existed for the mass and energy flows to and from the plasma arc heater/reaction chamber model. This analysis was used to determine if the plasma process is or can be competitive with conventional technology. Five cases were studied as examples of plasma -based chemical processing: nitric acid production, hydrogen cyanide synthesis, silicon refining, titanium dioxide production, and reductant gas synthesis from residual fuel oil.

  3. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.E.

    1990-05-24

    Research on this grant is devoted to the calculation of heavy particle collision cross sections needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas. This work requires the development and testing of new theoretical methods, with the implementation of benchmarked techniques to collisions pertinent to fusion reactors. Within the last context, we have provided charge-exchange-recombination cross sections to specific n,1-levels for diagnostic studies on TFTR and for a major compilation for IAEA. We have also completed a cross section study related to the planned neutral beam current drive for ITER. In addition, calculations were completed to assess the use of He neutral atom angular scattering measurements for JT-60. Also, new theoretical methods have been developed to more accurately calculate cross sections involving either He or H{sub 2} targets and partially stripped multiply-charged ions.

  4. Investigation of the plasma processability of natural carbon bearing formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    In the south of the Russian Far East, a new perspective source of minerals was pioneered, which is the metal-bearing high carbon rocks of the Ruzhinskaya square. The rocks are rich in crystalline graphite, gold, platinum and carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and diamond-like carbon). The technique of extraction of ultrapure (99.98%) crystalline graphite from these rocks has been developed using hydrometallugical methods. The obtained graphite was used as a raw material for plasma-chemical tests succeeded in the separation of nanodimensional carbon structures, part of which could be inherited from the natural graphite-bearing rocks. The results of investigation will be used in the development of resource-saving technology of minerals extraction.

  5. Study of Porosity on Titania Slag Obtained by Conventional Sintering and Thermal Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, S.

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the development of porosity in titania-rich slag obtained by sintering via conventional and thermal plasma heating at 1000°C in inert atmosphere. The holder in the plasma reactor acted as the discharge anode confined within a hollow graphite cathode. Quantitative evaluation of the porosity in the conventionally sintered and plasma-sintered titania-rich slag was performed via pycnometry. Specifically, the physical dimension and morphology of the pores were characterized according to the area fraction, mean diameter, shape factor, and elongation factor. Under both conventional and thermal plasma heating conditions, porosity developed on the surface of titania-rich slag. The titania-rich slag obtained by two processes showed different porosity features in terms of the morphology and porosity. A lower porosity was observed in the plasma-sintered sample when compared with that obtained via conventional heating.

  6. Cold plasma processing of local planetary ores for oxygen and metallurgically important metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, D. C.; Bullard, D.; Ortega, R.

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of a cold or nonequilibrium plasma in chlorination processing is discussed. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was successfully chlorinated at temperatures between 700 and 900 C without the aid of carbon. In addition to these initial experiments, a technique was developed for determining the temperature of a specimen in a plasma. Development of that technique has required evaluating the emissivity of TiO2, ZrO2, and FeOTiO2 and analyzing the specimen temperature in a plasma as a function of both power absorbed by the plasma and the pressure of the plasma. The mass spectrometer was also calibrated with TiCl4 and CCl4 vapor.

  7. Molecular insights into Zeaxanthin-dependent quenching in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengqi; Tian, Lijin; Kloz, Miroslav; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms protect themselves from high-light stress by dissipating excess absorbed energy as heat in a process called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Zeaxanthin is essential for the full development of NPQ, but its role remains debated. The main discussion revolves around two points: where does zeaxanthin bind and does it quench? To answer these questions we have followed the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching from leaves to individual complexes, including supercomplexes. We show that small amounts of zeaxanthin are associated with the complexes, but in contrast to what is generally believed, zeaxanthin binding per se does not cause conformational changes in the complexes and does not induce quenching, not even at low pH. We show that in NPQ conditions zeaxanthin does not exchange for violaxanthin in the internal binding sites of the antennas but is located at the periphery of the complexes. These results together with the observation that the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching is active in isolated membranes, but not in functional supercomplexes, suggests that zeaxanthin is acting in between the complexes, helping to create/participating in a variety of quenching sites. This can explain why none of the antennas appears to be essential for NPQ and the multiple quenching mechanisms that have been observed in plants. PMID:26323786

  8. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-04-10

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes.

  9. PREFACE: 13th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 13th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-2014) was held in Toulouse (France) on 22-27 June 2014. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and has gradually expanded to include other related topics. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is an international conference organised in Europe every two years with topics encompassing the whole field of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry and to provide a platform for the exploration of both the fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have acheived a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 142 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 155, consisting of 8 plenary and 8 invited talks plus 51 oral and 88 poster contributions. We have received numerous papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed (60 referees with at least two reviewing each paper) and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 52 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We have grouped the papers into the following 5 topics: - Arc-Materials Interaction and Metallurgy - Plasma Torches and Spraying - Synthesis of Powders and Nanomaterials - Deposition and Surface Treatment - Non-Equilibrium Plasmas We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high

  10. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  11. Correlations between plasma variables and the deposition process of Si films from chlorosilanes in low pressure RF plasma of argon and hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avni, R.; Carmi, U.; Grill, A.; Manory, R.; Grossman, E.

    1984-01-01

    The dissociation of chlorosilanes to silicon and its deposition on a solid substrate in a RF plasma of mixtures of argon and hydrogen were investigated as a function of the macrovariables of the plasma. The dissociation mechanism of chlorosilanes and HCl as well as the formation of Si in the plasma state were studied by sampling the plasma with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Macrovariables such as pressure, net RF power input and locations in the plasma reactor strongly influence the kinetics of dissociation. The deposition process of microcrystalline silicon films and its chlorine contamination were correlated to the dissociation mechanism of chlorosilanes and HCl.

  12. Quench simulation program for superconducting accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Seog-Whan Kim

    2001-08-10

    In the design of superconducting magnets for accelerator and the quench protection systems, it is necessary to calculate the current, voltage and temperature during quench. The quench integral value (MIITs) is used to get a rough idea about the quench, but they need numerical calculations to obtain more detailed picture of the quench. A simulation program named KUENCH, which is not based on the MIITs calculation, was developed to calculate voltage, current and temperature of accelerator magnets during quenches. The software and calculation examples are introduced. The example also gives some important information about effects of copper content in the coil and quench protection heaters.

  13. A Study of Current and Voltage Relationships in a PECVD Process Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Douglas; Augustyniak, Edward; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Lam Research Pecvd Team

    2015-09-01

    Commercial PECVD reactors present several challenges to problem of plasma diagnosis. Among them is the scarcity of available plasma metrology which can provide genuine insight and still satisfy commercial constraints. The VI probe is one of the few instruments that can meet both of these needs. This work presents a study of voltage, current, impedance, phase and harmonic trends acquired by off-the-shelf VI probes. Voltage vs Current plots in 1 to 2 Torr CCP plasmas at moderate (<3 kW) RF power levels are discussed for process relevant gasses. Non-linear features in these plots have been observed and their possible relation to Alpha-Gamma mode transitions, on-set of plasma instabilities and on wafer process results are discussed. Following S.J. You, et al. the use of these data to identify the primary RF power absorption mechanism is discussed. Additionally, study of harmonics can be related to plasma asymmetry, the onset of parasitic plasma and system faults. Results from both pulsed and continuous plasmas are also discussed.

  14. Studies of Discharge Parameters Influence on the IPD Plasma Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinski, Marek; Zdunek, Krzysztof

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents recent studies of a current sheet dynamics influence on the surface engineering process of impulse plasma deposition (IPD). During the IPD process plasma is generated in the working gas due to a high-voltage high-current oscillating pulse discharge, ignited within an interelectrode region of a coaxial accelerator. The changes of plasma dynamics and generation mechanisms, e.g. the electric arc instead of the plasma sheet formation during the consecutive half-periods of discharge, cause the different deposition efficiency for accelerator with the outer electrode system composed of stainless steel rods instead of standard tubular one. The coating efficiency and deposited layer quality have been examined for the titanium nitride as the model material for surface engineering.

  15. Challenges in the characterization of plasma-processed three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellen R

    2013-10-09

    Low-temperature plasmas offer a versatile method for delivering tailored functionality to a range of materials. Despite the vast array of choices offered by plasma processing techniques, there remain a significant number of hurdles that must be overcome to allow this methodology to realize its full potential in the area of biocompatible materials. Challenges include issues associated with analytical characterization, material structure, plasma processing, and uniform composition following treatment. Specific examples and solutions are presented utilizing results from analyses of three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds treated with different plasma surface modification strategies that illustrate these challenges well. Notably, many of these strategies result in 3D scaffolds that are extremely hydrophilic and that enhance human Saos-2 osteoblast cell growth and proliferation, which are promising results for applications including tissue engineering and advanced biomedical devices.

  16. Double Langmuir frequency radiation due to transformation processes in turbulent plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.; Beloshenko, N. A.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the transformation process of longitudinal Langmuir wave into the transverse electromagnetic wave in turbulent plasma subjected to an upper hybrid pump. The case, when upper hybrid pump wave decays into daughter and ion - sound waves is considered. The transformation of the Langmuir wave into electromagnetic one is considered as the possible mechanism of energy radiation from the plasma. It is shown that the frequency of such radiation is chosen to be near double electron Langmuir frequency 2ωpe . These results give us the possibility to explain the nature of radiation from the laboratory and cosmic plasmas (particularly, from the solar crown).

  17. Introduction of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma to Aqueous Detergent Processes.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Kanasaki, Yu; Uchinomaru, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposure of polymer surfaces to atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) on detergency were investigated from the viewpoint of pretreatment to cleaning in aqueous systems using three PET substrates: film, mesh, and fabric. The PET substrates were soiled with stearic acid as a model oily contaminant, and were treated with the APP jet immediately before cleaning. Stir washing in aqueous solutions with and without alkali or anionic surfactant was performed, and then the detergency was evaluated from the microscopic image analysis or surface reflectance measurement. For all PET samples and detergent solutions, APP exposure was found to promote the removal of stearic acid. Contact angle measurements showed that APP exposure enhanced the hydrophilicity of PET and stearic acid. The increase in the surface oxygen concentration on PET and stearic acid due to the APP exposure was also observed by XPS analysis. The simultaneous oxidation of the PET substrate and stearic acid soil by the APP pretreatment resulted in detergency improvement via surface hydrophilization. Furthermore, microscopic observations suggested that the collapse of crystallized stearic acid deposited on the PET substrate by APP heating facilitated its removal. In situ detergency evaluation by a quartz crystal microbalance technique confirmed that the removal of stearic acid from the PET substrate was promoted by the APP exposure. The experimental findings of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the APP exposure before cleaning in aqueous solutions.

  18. Platelet rich plasma improves the healing process after airway anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caro, Abel; Ausin, Pilar; Boada, Marc

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes healing and reduces anastomotic complications following airway surgery in a pig model. PRP was obtained by spinning down the animal's own blood (60 ml) and collecting the buffy coat containing platelets and white blood cells. Fifteen adult pigs were randomized into three groups: (1) sham treatment (cervicotomy), (2) non-PRP group (50% tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis), and (3) PRP group (50% tracheal resection, end-to-end anastomosis and PRP application). Blood samples were taken at baseline and at one, six and 24. Animals were monitored for anastomotic complications, infection and local reactivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry was performed intraoperatively and at 30 days to assess differences in pre- and post-anastomotic blood flow. The tensile strength of the anastomosis was also tested. The platelet level was higher in PRP fluid than in the baseline blood sample (P<0.002). Vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor β-1 and epidermal growth factor immunoassay readings peaked at one and six hours in the animals that had received PRP (P<0.03); these also showed significantly increased transanastomotic flow and stress-strain resistance (P<0.04) at 30 days than the animals that had not received PRP. PRP therefore, accelerates the onset of healing in airway surgery by promoting an earlier release of platelet-derived growth factors that stimulate transanastomotic angiogenesis.

  19. Non-equilibrium effects in the processing of materials using plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2016-06-02

    We have provided experimental evidence that nanoparticles in plasma are heated to temperatures that are significantly higher than that of the background gas. This result gives experimental confirmation to a number of theoretical/computational studies that predicted this behavior. Moreover, this study has provided with the first measurement of the temperature of nanoparticles in a processing dusty plasma, i.e. under conditions that are relevant for the growth and modification of nanopowders.

  20. PREFACE: 12th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleizes, Alain; Ghedini, Emanuele; Gherardi, Matteo; Sanibondi, Paolo; Dilecce, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 12th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-12) was held in Bologna (Italy) on 24-29 June 2012. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include other topic fields as well. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. Thanks to the efforts of the conference chairman, Professor Vittorio Colombo and of the co-chair, Professor Piero Favia, a well balanced participation from both the communities of thermal and nonthermal plasma researchers was achieved; this resulted in just about 196 attendees from 39 countries, with 8 plenary and 15 invited talks, plus 50 oral and 140 poster contributions. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series gathers papers from regular contributions of HTPP-12; each contribution submitted for publication has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In the end, 39 manuscripts were accepted for publication, covering different topics of plasma processing science: from plasma fundamentals and modelling to source design and process diagnostics, from nanomaterial synthesis to surface modification, from waste treatment to plasma applications in a liquid environment. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the international scientific committee, the local

  1. Rapid Fabrication of Lightweight SiC Optics using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, Peter S.

    2006-01-01

    Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) processing is a non-contact, plasma-based processing technology that can be used to generate damage-free optical surfaces. We have developed tools and processes using RAP that allow us to shape extremely lightweight mirror Surfaces made from extremely hard-to-machine materials (e.g. SiC). We will describe our latest results using RAP in combination with other technologies to produce finished lightweight SiC mirrors and also discuss applications for RAP in the rapid fabrication of mirror segments for reflective and grazing incidence telescopes.

  2. Physical processes in the plasma mantle of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szego, K.; Shapiro, V. S.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Nagy, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a study, which analyzed data from 10 Pioneer Venus orbits in order to see whether similar wave particle interaction processes also exist in the corresponding region around Venus. The first conclusion is that the apparent physical processes in the mantle are indeed similar around Venus and Mars. The planetary thermal O(+) ions outside the ionopause interact with the shocked solar wind and excite electrostatic waves close to the lower hybrid frequency. These waves propagate inwards, heating first the electron and deeper down in the ionosphere the thermal ion population. The observed superthermal ions are believed to be the product of this wave particle interaction process. It is also concluded that the wave energy transferred to the thermal electrons is of the right magnitude (about 4 x 10 exp 9 eV/sq cm s) to provide the supplemental heat source necessary to reconcile observed and calculated electron temperatures in the ionosphere.

  3. An alternative method for correcting fluorescence quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, L.; Guinet, C.; Bester, M.; Brierley, A.; Boehme, L.

    2015-01-01

    Under high light intensity, phytoplankton protect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorometers. We present data from the Southern Ocean, collected over five austral summers by 19 southern elephant seals tagged with fluorometers. Conventionally, fluorescence data collected during the day (quenched) were corrected using the limit of the mixed layer, assuming that phytoplankton are uniformly mixed from the surface to this depth. However, distinct deep fluorescence maxima were measured in approximately 30% of the night (unquenched) data. To account for the evidence that chlorophyll is not uniformly mixed in the upper layer, we propose correcting from the limit of the euphotic zone, defined as the depth at which photosynthetically available radiation is ~ 1% of the surface value. Mixed layer depth exceeded euphotic depth over 80% of the time. Under these conditions, quenching was corrected from the depth of the remotely derived euphotic zone Zeu, and compared with fluorescence corrected from the depth of the density-derived mixed layer. Deep fluorescence maxima were evident in only 10% of the day data when correcting from mixed layer depth. This was doubled to 21% when correcting from Zeu, more closely matching the unquenched (night) data. Furthermore, correcting from Zeu served to conserve non-uniform chlorophyll features found between the 1% light level and mixed layer depth.

  4. Determination of carbazochrome by fluorescence quenching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiaojuan; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Hu, Xiaoli; Cui, Zhiping; Wang, Yaqiong

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive, simple and selective spectrofluorimetric method for the reaction of carbazochrome (CBZC) and Eosin Y (EY) or Phloxine B (PB) in acidic medium is developed for the determination of carbazochrome in biological fluids, which gives a highly fluorescent derivative measured at 545 and 565 nm at excitation wavelengths of 301 and 305 nm. The fluorescence quenching extent (ΔF) is proportional to the concentration of CBZC for CBZC-EY and CBZC-PB system at the range of 0.03-1.50 μg/mL and 0.08-1.25 μg/mL, respectively. The detection limit is 9.1 ng/mL for EY system and 22.7 ng/mL for PB system. The intra-day and inter-day reproducibility (RSD values) are less than 8.3% under three concentrations. Moreover, the affecting factors of fluorescence intensity of the product are carefully investigated and optimized, as well as the effect of coexisting substances. Judging from temperature, the Stern-Volmer plots and fluorescence emission decay curves, the quenching of fluorescence of EY and PB by CBZC is a static quenching process, caused by electrostatic attraction and aromatic stacking interaction.

  5. Quench-induced correlation waves, and quantum grenades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, John; Bohn, John

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the wave packet dynamics of a pair of particles that undergoes a rapid change of scattering length. Such quenches have recently become experimentally feasible with fast magnetic-field ramps and optical switching in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. The short-range interactions are modelled in the zero-range limit, where the quench is accomplished by switching the boundary condition of the wave function at vanishing particle separation. This generates a correlation wave that propagates rapidly to nonzero particle separations. We have derived universal, analytic results for this process that lead to a simple phase-space picture of quench-induced scattering. Intuitively, the strength of the correlation wave relates to the initial contact of the system. A natural consequence is that the waves are significant when the quench dissociates, at least partially, a bound state. These waves can propagate with high energy from one lattice site to another, potentially triggering highly non-equilibrium dynamics.

  6. Quench dynamics in SRF cavities: can we locate the quench origin with 2nd sound?

    SciTech Connect

    Maximenko, Yulia; Segatskov, Dmitri A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A newly developed method of locating quenches in SRF cavities by detecting second-sound waves has been gaining popularity in SRF laboratories. The technique is based on measurements of time delays between the quench as determined by the RF system and arrival of the second-sound wave to the multiple detectors placed around the cavity in superfluid helium. Unlike multi-channel temperature mapping, this approach requires only a few sensors and simple readout electronics; it can be used with SRF cavities of almost arbitrary shape. One of its drawbacks is that being an indirect method it requires one to solve an inverse problem to find the location of a quench. We tried to solve this inverse problem by using a parametric forward model. By analyzing the data we found that the approximation where the second-sound emitter is a near-singular source does not describe the physical system well enough. A time-dependent analysis of the quench process can help us to put forward a more adequate model. We present here our current algorithm to solve the inverse problem and discuss the experimental results.

  7. On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

  8. Development And Optical Absorption Properties Of A Laser Induced Plasma During CO2-Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, E.; Bakowsky, L.; Loosen, P.; Poprawe, R.; Herziger, G.

    1984-03-01

    Laser material processing is accompanied by a laser induced plasma in front of the target surface as soon as the laser radiation exceeds a certain critical intensity. For cw CO2-laser machining of metal targets the threshold for plasma onset is about 106 W/cm2. Critical condition for plasma generation at this intensity level is to reach evaporation temperature at the target's surface. At intensity levels exceeding 106 W/cm2 the laser light is interacting with the laser induced plasma and then the plasma in turn interacts with the target. The absorptivity is no longer constant, but increases with increasing intensity of the incident radiation, so that the total amount of power coupled to the target is increasing. This holds up to intensity levels of 2'10 Wicm2. Then the plasma begins to withdraw from the target surface, thus interrupting plasma-target interaction so that the laser power is no longer coupled into the target completely. The results of laser welding (welding depth) in the intensity level of 106 W/cm2 are governed by the product of incident intensity times focus radius, so that welding results are a measure to determine focus radius and laser intensity.

  9. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Hongsen

    1995-02-10

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (Te) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (ne) is in the range 108--1010 -cm at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 104--105 downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z2 intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z2 fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

  10. Plasma Processing of Large Surfaces with Application to SRF Cavity Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Popovic, Svetozar; Vuskovic, Leposova; Im, Do; Valente, Anne-Marie; Phillips, H

    2013-09-01

    Plasma based surface modifications of SRF cavities present promising alternatives to the wet etching technology currently applied. To understand and characterize the plasma properties and chemical kinetics of plasma etching processes inside a single cell cavity, we have built a specially-designed cylindrical cavity with 8 observation ports. These ports can be used for holding niobium samples and diagnostic purposes simultaneously. Two frequencies (13.56 MHz and 2.45 GHz) of power source are used for different pressure, power and gas compositions. The plasma parameters were evaluated by a Langmuir probe and by an optical emission spectroscopy technique based on the relative intensity of two Ar 5p-4s lines at 419.8 and 420.07 nm. Argon 5p-4s transition is chosen to determine electron temperature in order to optimize parameters for plasma processing. Chemical kinetics of the process was observed using real-time mass spectroscopy. The effect of these parameters on niobium surface would be measured, presented at this conference, and used as guidelines for optimal design of SRF etching process.

  11. Physicochemical processes in the indirect interaction between surface air plasma and deionized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. C.; Liu, D. X.; Chen, C.; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most central scientific questions for plasma applications in healthcare and environmental remediation is the chemical identity and the dose profile of plasma-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can act on an object inside a liquid. A logical focus is on aqueous physicochemical processes near a sample with a direct link to their upstream gaseous processes in the plasma region and a separation gap from the liquid bulk. Here, a system-level modeling framework is developed for indirect interactions of surface air plasma and a deionized water bulk and its predictions are found to be in good agreement with the measurement of gas-phase ozone and aqueous long-living ROS/RNS concentrations. The plasma region is described with a global model, whereas the air gap and the liquid region are simulated with a 1D fluid model. All three regions are treated as one integrated entity and computed simultaneously. With experimental validation, the system-level modeling shows that the dominant aqueous ROS/RNS are long-living species (e.g. H2O2 aq, O3 aq, nitrite/nitrate, H+ aq). While most short-living gaseous species could hardly survive their passage to the liquid, aqueous short-living ROS/RNS are generated in situ through reactions among long-living plasma species and with water molecules. This plasma-mediated remote production of aqueous ROS/RNS is important for the abundance of aqueous HO2 aq, HO3 aq, OHaq and \\text{O}2- aq as well as NO2 aq and NO3 aq. Aqueous plasma chemistry offers a novel and significant pathway to activate a given biological outcome, as exemplified here for bacterial deactivation in plasma-activated water. Additional factors that may synergistically broaden the usefulness of aqueous plasma chemistry include an electric field by aqueous ions and liquid acidification. The system-modeling framework will be useful in assisting designs and analyses of future investigations of plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions.

  12. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2 ms-3 kW-2.45 GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  13. Ignition and monitoring technique for plasma processing of multicell superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Doleans, Marc

    2016-12-27

    In this study, an in-situ plasma processing technique has been developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in operation. The technique uses a low-density reactive neon-oxygen plasma at room-temperature to improve the surface work function, to help remove adsorbed gases on the RF surface and to reduce its secondary emission yield. SNS SRF cavities are six-cell elliptical cavities and the plasma typically ignites in the cell where the electric field is the highest. This article will detail a technique that was developed to ignite and monitor the plasma in each cell of the SNS cavities.

  14. Numerical simulation of nonlinear processes in a beam-plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Efimova, A. A. Berendeev, E. A.; Vshivkov, V. A.; Dudnikova, G. I.

    2015-10-28

    In the present paper we consider the efficiency of the electromagnetic radiation generation due to various nonlinear processes in the beam-plasma system. The beam and plasma parameters were chosen close to the parameters in the experiment on the GOL-3 facility (BINP SB RAS). The model of the collisionless plasma is described by system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations with periodic boundary conditions. The parallel numerical algorithm is based on the particles-in-cell method (PIC) with mixed Euler-Lagrangian domain decomposition. Various scenarios of nonlinear evolution in the beam-plasma system under the influence of an external magnetic field in case of a low density beam were studied. The energy transfer from one unstable mode to the others modes was observed.

  15. Laser induced wounding of the plasma membrane and methods to study the repair process.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana J; Maiuri, Paolo; Lafaurie-Janvore, Julie; Perez, Franck; Piel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to agents that can trigger the perforation of their plasma membrane. This damage occurs naturally, and the frequency and intensity depends on how much cells are exposed to damaging threats. The following protocol is a simple and powerful method to damage the plasma membrane using laser ablation. It allows the induction of a single and localized wound at the plasma membrane of cultured cells, which can be followed with fast time-lapse imaging. The first part of the protocol describes simple cell culture techniques and the material ideal to make the experiments. A second part of the protocol gives advice about the procedures to make effective wounds in cells while ensuring a good survival rate. We also propose different ways to follow the opening and closure of the plasma membrane. Finally, we describe the procedure to efficiently analyze the data acquired after single cell photodamage to characterize the wounding process.

  16. Ignition and monitoring technique for plasma processing of multicell superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Doleans, Marc

    2016-12-27

    In this study, an in-situ plasma processing technique has been developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in operation. The technique uses a low-density reactive neon-oxygen plasma at room-temperature to improve the surface work function, to help remove adsorbed gases on the RF surface and to reduce its secondary emission yield. SNS SRF cavities are six-cell elliptical cavities and the plasma typically ignites in the cell where the electric field is the highest. This article will detail a technique that was developed to ignite and monitor the plasma in eachmore » cell of the SNS cavities.« less

  17. Particle-In-Cell simulations of high pressure plasmas using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Markus; Atteln, Frank; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Mertmann, Philipp; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are widely used to understand the fundamental phenomena in low-temperature plasmas. Particularly plasmas at very low gas pressures are studied using PIC methods. The inherent drawback of these methods is that they are very time consuming -- certain stability conditions has to be satisfied. This holds even more for the PIC simulation of high pressure plasmas due to the very high collision rates. The simulations take up to very much time to run on standard computers and require the help of computer clusters or super computers. Recent advances in the field of graphics processing units (GPUs) provides every personal computer with a highly parallel multi processor architecture for very little money. This architecture is freely programmable and can be used to implement a wide class of problems. In this paper we present the concepts of a fully parallel PIC simulation of high pressure plasmas using the benefits of GPU programming.

  18. Quench anaylsis of MICE spectrometer superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; Bross, Alan; Prestemon, Soren; / /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-09-01

    MICE superconducting spectrometer solenoids fabrication and tests are in progress now. First tests of the Spectrometer Solenoid discovered some issues which could be related to the chosen passive quench protection system. Both solenoids do not have heaters and quench propagation relied on the 'quench back' effect, cold diodes, and shunt resistors. The solenoids have very large inductances and stored energy which is 100% dissipated in the cold mass during a quench. This makes their protection a challenging task. The paper presents the quench analysis of these solenoids based on 3D FEA solution of coupled transient electromagnetic and thermal problems. The simulations used the Vector Fields QUENCH code. It is shown that in some quench scenarios, the quench propagation is relatively slow and some areas can be overheated. They describe ways of improving the solenoids quench protection in order to reduce the risk of possible failure.

  19. Dynamo quenching due to shear flow.

    PubMed

    Leprovost, Nicolas; Kim, Eun-jin

    2008-04-11

    We provide a theory of dynamo (alpha effect) and momentum transport in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. For the first time, we show that the alpha effect is reduced by the shear even in the absence of magnetic field. The alpha effect is further suppressed by magnetic fields well below equipartition (with the large-scale flow) with different scalings depending on the relative strength of shear and magnetic field. The turbulent viscosity is also found to be significantly reduced by shear and magnetic fields, with positive value. These results suggest a crucial effect of shear and magnetic field on dynamo quenching and momentum transport reduction, with important implications for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, in particular, for the dynamics of the Sun.

  20. Microwave discharges at low pressures and peculiarities of the processes in strongly non-uniform plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Yu A.

    2015-10-01

    Microwave discharges (MD) are widely used as a source of non-equilibrium low pressure plasma for different applications. This paper reviews the methods of microwave plasma generation at pressures from 10-2 approximately to 30 kPa with centimeter-millimeter wavelength microwaves on the basis of scientific publications since 1950 up to the present. The review consists of 16 sections. A general look at MDs and their application is given in the introduction, together with a description of a typical block-schema of the microwave plasma generator, classification of MD, and attractive features of MD. Sections 2-12 describe the different methods of microwave plasma generators on the basis of cavity and waveguide discharges, surface and slow wave discharges, discharges with distributed energy input, initiated and surface discharges, discharges in wave beams, discharges with stochastically jumping phases of microwaves, discharges in an external magnetic field and discharges with a combination of microwave field and dc and RF fields. These methods provide the possibility of producing nonequilibriun high density plasma in small and large chambers for many applications. Plasma chemical activity of nonequilibrium microwave plasma is analyzed in section 13. A short consideration of the history and status of the problem is given. The main areas of microwave plasma application are briefly described in section 14. Non-uniformity is the inherent property of the majority of electrical discharges and MDs are no exception. Peculiarities of physical-chemical processes in strongly non-uniform MDs are demonstrated placing high emphasis on the influence of small noble gas additions to the main plasma gas (section 15). The review is illustrated by 80 figures. The list of references contains 350 scientific publications.

  1. Plasma Spray-PVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Deposit Out of the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, Konstantin; Gindrat, Malko

    2011-06-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland). Even though it is a thermal spray process, it can deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. The basis of PS-PVD is the low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology that has been well established in industry for several years. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), the new proposed process uses a high energy plasma gun operated at a reduced work pressure of 0.1 kPa (1 mbar). Owing to the high energy plasma and further reduced work pressure, PS-PVD is able to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings. In contrast to EB-PVD, PS-PVD incorporates the vaporized coating material into a supersonic plasma plume. Owing to the forced gas stream of the plasma jet, complex shaped parts such as multi-airfoil turbine vanes can be coated with columnar thermal barrier coatings using PS-PVD. Even shadowed areas and areas which are not in the line of sight of the coating source can be coated homogeneously. This article reports on the progress made by Sulzer Metco in developing a thermal spray process to produce coatings out of the vapor phase. Columnar thermal barrier coatings made of Yttria-stabilized Zircona (YSZ) are optimized to serve in a turbine engine. This process includes not only preferable coating properties such as strain tolerance and erosion

  2. Plasma Processing of SRF Cavities for the next Generation Of Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vuskovic, Leposava

    2015-11-23

    The cost-effective production of high frequency accelerating fields are the foundation for the next generation of particle accelerators. The Ar/Cl2 plasma etching technology holds the promise to yield a major reduction in cavity preparation costs. Plasma-based dry niobium surface treatment provides an excellent opportunity to remove bulk niobium, eliminate surface imperfections, increase cavity quality factor, and bring accelerating fields to higher levels. At the same time, the developed technology will be more environmentally friendly than the hydrogen fluoride-based wet etching technology. Plasma etching of inner surfaces of standard multi-cell SRF cavities is the main goal of this research in order to eliminate contaminants, including niobium oxides, in the penetration depth region. Successful plasma processing of multi-cell cavities will establish this method as a viable technique in the quest for more efficient components of next generation particle accelerators. In this project the single-cell pill box cavity plasma etching system is developed and etching conditions are determined. An actual single cell SRF cavity (1497 MHz) is plasma etched based on the pill box cavity results. The first RF test of this plasma etched cavity at cryogenic temperature is obtained. The system can also be used for other surface modifications, including tailoring niobium surface properties, surface passivation or nitriding for better performance of SRF cavities. The results of this plasma processing technology may be applied to most of the current SRF cavity fabrication projects. In the course of this project it has been demonstrated that a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge can be successfully used for etching curved niobium surfaces, in particular the inner walls of SRF cavities. The results could also be applicable to the inner or concave surfaces of any 3D structure other than an SRF cavity.

  3. The spray-drying process is sufficient to inactivate infectious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in plasma.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-11-07

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is considered an emergent pathogen associated with high economic losses in many pig rearing areas. Recently it has been suggested that PEDV could be transmitted to naïve pig populations through inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) into the nursery diet which led to a ban of SDPP in several areas in North America and Europe. To determine the effect of spray-drying on PEDV infectivity, 3-week-old pigs were intragastrically inoculated with (1) raw porcine plasma spiked with PEDV (RAW-PEDV-CONTROL), (2) porcine plasma spiked with PEDV and then spray dried (SD-PEDV-CONTROL), (3) raw plasma from PEDV infected pigs (RAW-SICK), (4) spray-dried plasma from PEDV infected pigs (SD-SICK), or (5) spray-dried plasma from PEDV negative pigs (SD-NEG-CONTROL). For the spray-drying process, a tabletop spray-dryer with industry-like settings for inlet and outlet temperatures was used. In the RAW-PEDV-CONTROL group, PEDV RNA was present in feces at day post infection (dpi) 3 and the pigs seroconverted by dpi 14. In contrast, PEDV RNA in feces was not detected in any of the pigs in the other groups including the SD-PEDV-CONTROL group and none of the pigs had seroconverted by termination of the project at dpi 28. This work provides direct evidence that the experimental spray-drying process used in this study was effective in inactivating infectious PEDV in the plasma. Additionally, plasma collected from PEDV infected pigs at peak disease did not contain infectious PEDV. These findings suggest that the risk for PEDV transmission through commercially produced SDPP is minimal.

  4. [Research on the atomic emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure plasma process].

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiang; Li, Na; Xu, Lu; Wang, Bo; Jin, Hui-Liang

    2013-02-01

    In the reaction of the atmospheric pressure plasma process, the heat stable process of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet has a direct impact on the removal rate, CF4 is the provider of active F* atom, O2 is important auxiliary gas, and they play an important role in the process. In order to research the rule of the concentration of the 3 parameters upon the atmospheric pressure plasma processing, the atmospheric pressure plasma jet was used for processing and the spectrometer was used to monitor the changes in the process. The experiment indicates that: when the heat is stable, the concentration of the active F* atom essentially remains unchanged; with increasing the concentration of gas CF4, the spectrum of the active F* atom has self-absorption phenomena, so using the atomic emission spectroscopy method to monitor the changes in the concentration of active F* atom generated by CF4 is not completely exact; because O2 can easily react with the dissociation product of CF4, which inhibits the compound of the active F* atom, so in a certain range with increasing the concentration of gas O2, the concentration of the active F* atom becomes strong.

  5. Electron Scattering Processes from Plasma Processing Gases: CF3I, C3F8 and C4F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Mineo

    2000-10-01

    Brief review of the current level of understanding of electron scattering processes from plasma processing gases such as CF3I, C3F8 and C4F8 will be presented. Experimental as well as theoretical studies for these gases have been carried out last a few years by several groups, and although the amount of cross-section data is still far from sufficient, we are able to establish the data set for some processes in these gases. I will briefly discuss possible next-generation processing gases.

  6. Diagnostics and analyses of decay process in laser produced tetrakis(dimethyl-amino)ethylene plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guowen; Scharer, John E.; Kelly, Kurt L.

    2001-01-01

    A large volume (hundreds of cm3) plasma is created by a 193 nm laser ionizing an organic vapor, tetrakis(dimethyl-amino)ethylene (TMAE). The plasma is characterized as high electron density (1013-1012 cm-3) and low electron temperature (˜0.1 eV). To investigate the plasma decay processes, a fast Langmuir probe technique is developed, including detailed considerations of probe structure, probe surface cleaning, shielding, frequency response of the detection system, physical processes in probe measurement, dummy probe corrections as well as noise analysis. The mechanisms for the plasma decay are studied and a delayed ionization process following the laser pulse is found to be important. This mechanism is also supported by optical emission measurements which show that nitrogen enhances the delayed emission from TMAE plasma. A model combining electron-ion recombination and delayed ionization is utilized together with experimental results to order the terms and calculate the relaxation times for delayed ionization. The relaxation times are longer for lower TMAE pressures and lower electron densities.

  7. PARTICIPANT SUPPORT FOR THE 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON PLASMA PROCESSING SCIENCE (JULY 11-16,2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Uwe Kortshagen

    2011-06-14

    The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in low temperature plasma science and will explore the applications of low temperature plasma technology relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy and the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks, plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization, and environmental remediation and waste treatment. The conference will bring together in an informal atmosphere leaders in the field with junior investigators and graduate students. The special format of the Gordon Conferences, with programmed discussion sessions and ample time for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide for a fertile atmosphere of brainstorming and creative thinking among the attendees.

  8. EPR and magnetic characterization of Fe2O3-TeO2 and CuO-TeO2 glasses obtained by melt quenching and sol-gel processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehelean, A.; Popa, A.; . Rada, S.; Culea, E.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of the xFe2O3·(1-x)TeO2 and xCuO·(1-x)TeO2 glass systems with x≤0.50 were prepared by melt quenching and sol-gel processes and were investigated by electron paramagnetic rezonance (EPR) spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. EPR data show the presence of Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions in the host glass matrices. Analysis of compositional evolution of EPR spectra reveals the distribution of Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions in the tellurate glass and offers information on their interactions and microvicinities. Magnetic susceptibility and EPR data prove that iron and cooper ions are present in the host tellurate glass as isolated species and species coupled by dipolar and exchange interactions of antiferromagnetic nature. These data show an important clustering tendency of iron and cooper ions in the studied tellurate glasses. As proved by EPR and magnetic susceptibility data, besides the Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions, Fe2+ and Cu+ species are also present in the studied tellurate glasses. The Fe3+→Fe2+ and Cu2+→Cu+ reduction processes occur in these samples with different intensities as function of the preparation technique and samples composition influencing their magnetic behavior.

  9. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Osborne, Matthew G.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled.

  10. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Osborne, M.G.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled. 6 figs.

  11. Bioanalytical Applications of Fluorenscence Quenching.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-10

    interaction of different cyclodextrin systems with the polynuclear aromatic compound, pyrene.(7 ) There are other cases where the Stern-Volmer plot deviates... encapsulated in lecithin liposomes. In this manner the fluorescence is self-quenched. When the liposomes are disrupted, the dye is released and

  12. Quenching histories of galaxies and the role of AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Rebecca Jane; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2016-01-01

    Two open issues in modern astrophysics are: (i) how do galaxies fully quench their star formation and (ii) how is this affected - or not - by AGN feedback? I present the results of a new Bayesian-MCMC analysis of the star formation histories of over 126,000 galaxies across the colour magnitude diagram showing that diverse quenching mechanisms are instrumental in the formation of the present day red sequence. Using classifications from Galaxy Zoo we show that the rate at which quenching can occur is morphologically dependent in each of the blue cloud, green valley and red sequence. We discuss the nature of these possible quenching mechanisms, considering the influence of secular evolution, galaxy interactions and mergers, both with and without black hole activity. We focus particularly on the relationship between these quenched star formation histories and the presence of an AGN by using this new Bayesian method to show a population of type 2 AGN host galaxies have recently (within 2 Gyr) undergone a rapid (τ < 1 Gyr) drop in their star formation rate. With this result we therefore present the first statistically supported observational evidence that AGN feedback is an important mechanism for the cessation of star formation in this population of galaxies. The diversity of this new method also highlights that such rapid quenching histories cannot account fully for all the quenching across the current AGN host population. We demonstrate that slower (τ > 2 Gyr) quenching rates dominate for high stellar mass (log10[M*/M⊙] > 10.75) hosts of AGN with both early- and late-type morphology. We discuss how these results show that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes across the entirety of the colour magnitude diagram.

  13. Quench Crack Behavior of Nickel-base Disk Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete; Miller, Jason

    2002-01-01

    There is a need to increase the temperature capability of superalloy turbine disks to allow higher operating temperatures in advanced aircraft engines. When modifying processing and chemistry of disk alloys to achieve this capability, it is important to preserve the ability to use rapid cooling during supersolvus heat treatments to achieve coarse grain, fine gamma prime microstructures. An important step in this effort is an understanding of the key variables controlling the cracking tendencies of nickel-base disk alloys during quenching from supersolvus heat treatments. The objective of this study was to investigate the quench cracking tendencies of several advanced disk superalloys during simulated heat treatments. Miniature disk specimens were rapidly quenched after solution heat treatments. The responses and failure modes were compared and related to the quench cracking tendencies of actual disk forgings. Cracking along grain boundaries was generally observed to be operative. For the alloys examined in this study, the solution temperature not alloy chemistry was found to be the primary factor controlling quench cracking. Alloys with high solvus temperatures show greater tendency for quench cracking.

  14. Satellite Quenching and the Lifecycle of Dwarf Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Colin; Bell, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    In the past ten years the known population of Local Group dwarf galaxies has expanded substantially, both to greater distances from the Milky Way and to lower dwarf masses. This growing sample allows us to study the dwarf system as a population, and ask if we can see in aggregate the signs of processes that would otherwise be difficult to trace in dwarfs individually. Following this strategy I will discuss how the quenching of dwarf galaxies can be modeled and understood at the population-level, and how we use that to constrain how possible quenching mechanisms must work if they are to reproduce the Local Group system that we see. I show that the distribution of quenched satellites can be reproduced by environmental quenching if and only if a single pericenter passage is sufficient to end star formation in low mass dwarfs. I also show that there is a significant transition in the effectiveness of quenching between low mass dwarfs and dwarfs at Magellanic cloud-like masses, with the higher mass dwarfs much more resilient to quenching. I present both ram pressure and delay time models to try to understand the origin of this transition.

  15. Chiral logarithms in quenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; and J. B. Zhang

    2004-08-01

    The quenched chiral logarithms are examined on a 163x28 lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant fpi is used to set the lattice spacing, a = 0.200(3) fm. With pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV, we see the quenched chiral logarithms clearly in mpi2/m and fP, the pseudoscalar decay constant. The authors analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) to apply. With the constrained curve-fitting method, they are able to extract the quenched chiral logarithmic parameter delta together with other low-energy parameters. Only for mpi<=300 MeV do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant delta which they determine to be 0.24(3)(4) (at the chiral scale Lambdachi = 0.8 GeV). By comparing to the 123x28 lattice, they estimate the finite volume effect to be about 2.7% for the smallest pion mass. They also fitted the pion mass to the form for the re-summed cactus diagrams and found that its applicable region is extended farther than the range for the one-loop formula, perhaps up to mpi {approx}500-600 MeV. The scale independent delta is determined to be 0.20(3) in this case. The authors study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon mass and find that the coefficient C1/2 in the nucleon mass is consistent with the prediction of one-loop chiPT. They also obtain the low energy constant L5 from fpi. They conclude from this study that it is imperative to cover only the range of data with the pion mass less than {approx}300 MeV in order to examine the chiral behavior of the hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD and match them with quenched one-loop chiPT.

  16. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  17. Arc-Plasma Wire Spraying: An Optical Study of Process Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, I. P.; Dolmatov, A. V.; Kharlamov, M. Yu.; Gulyaev, P. Yu.; Jordan, V. I.; Krivtsun, I. V.; Korzhyk, V. M.; Demyanov, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of heat- and mass-transfer processes in a Plazer 30-PL-W plasma-jet facility used for arc-plasma wire spraying. Using an original optical diagnostic system, we have studied melting behavior of the metal wire, break up and atomization of liquid metal. For the first time, experimental data on the in-flight velocity and temperature of spray particles in arc-plasma wire spraying were obtained. In spite of moderate particle velocities (about 50 m/s), the obtained steel coatings proved to have a low porosity of 1.5%. While studying the spraying process of tungsten wire, we observed the occurrence of anomalous high-velocity (over 4000 m/s) outbursts ejected from the surface of liquid metal droplets. The nature of such outbursts calls for further study.

  18. Electron heating and control of electron energy distribution for the enhancement of the plasma ashing processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-04-01

    Control of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is investigated through applying an inductive field in oxygen capacitively coupled plasma (CCP). With the addition of a small amount of antenna coil power to the CCP, low energy electrons are effectively heated and the EEDF is controlled. This method is applied to the ashing process of the photoresistor (PR). It is revealed that the ashing rate of the PR is significantly increased due to O radicals produced by the controlled EEDF, even though the ion density/energy flux is not increased. The roles of the power transfer mode in the electron heating and plasma control are also presented in the hybrid plasma source with inductive and capacitive fields. This work provides a route to enhance or control the processing result.

  19. Rapid-quench axially staged combustor

    DOEpatents

    Feitelberg, Alan S.; Schmidt, Mark Christopher; Goebel, Steven George

    1999-01-01

    A combustor cooperating with a compressor in driving a gas turbine includes a cylindrical outer combustor casing. A combustion liner, having an upstream rich section, a quench section and a downstream lean section, is disposed within the outer combustor casing defining a combustion chamber having at least a core quench region and an outer quench region. A first plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a first diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the core region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. A second plurality of quench holes are disposed within the liner at the quench section having a second diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to the outer region of the quench section of the combustion chamber. In an alternative embodiment, the combustion chamber quench section further includes at least one middle region and at least a third plurality of quench holes disposed within the liner at the quench section having a third diameter to provide cooling jet penetration to at least one middle region of the quench section of the combustion chamber.

  20. How to quench a galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontzen, Andrew; Tremmel, Michael; Roth, Nina; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Saintonge, Amélie; Volonteri, Marta; Quinn, Tom; Governato, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We show how the interplay between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merger history determines whether a galaxy quenches star formation (SF) at high redshift. We first simulate, in a full cosmological context, a galaxy of total dynamical mass Mvir = 1012 M⊙ at z = 2. Then we systematically alter the accretion history of the galaxy by minimally changing the linear overdensity in the initial conditions. This `genetic modification' approach allows the generation of three sets of Λ CDM initial conditions leading to maximum merger ratios of 1:10, 1:5 and 2:3, respectively. The changes leave the final halo mass, large-scale structure and local environment unchanged, providing a controlled numerical experiment. Interaction between the AGN physics and mergers in the three cases leads, respectively, to a star-forming, temporarily quenched and permanently quenched galaxy. However, the differences do not primarily lie in the black hole accretion rates, but in the kinetic effects of the merger: the galaxy is resilient against AGN feedback unless its gaseous disc is first disrupted. Typical accretion rates are comparable in the three cases, falling below 0.1 M⊙ yr-1, equivalent to around 2 per cent of the Eddington rate or 10-3 times the pre-quenching star formation rate, in agreement with observations. This low level of black hole accretion can be sustained even when there is insufficient dense cold gas for SF. Conversely, supernova feedback is too distributed to generate outflows in high-mass systems, and cannot maintain quenching over periods longer than the halo gas cooling time.

  1. Dynamics of the fully stripped ion-hydrogen atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei

    2014-09-15

    The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped ion colliding with a hydrogen atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle energy. At high energies, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low energies, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.

  2. Flow characteristic of in-flight particles in supersonic plasma spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Du, Jun; Bai, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a computational model based on supersonic plasma spraying (SAPS) is developed to describe the plasma jet coupled with the injection of carrier gas and particles for SAPS. Based on a high-efficiency supersonic spraying gun, the 3D computational model of spraying gun was built to study the features of plasma jet and its interactions with the sprayed particles. Further the velocity and temperature of in-flight particles were measured by Spray Watch 2i, the shape of in-flight particles was observed by scanning electron microscope. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and a good agreement has been achieved. The flight process of particles in plasma jet consists of three stages: accelerated stage, constant speed stage and decelerated stage. Numerical and experimental indicates that the H2 volume fraction in mixture gas of Ar + H2 should keep in the range of 23-26 %, and the distance of 100 mm is the optimal spraying distance in Supersonic atmosphere plasma spraying. Particles were melted and broken into small child particles by plasma jet and the diameters of most child particles were less than 30 μm. In general, increasing the particles impacting velocity and surface temperature can decrease the coating porosity.

  3. Morphological stability of the atomically clean surface of silicon (100) crystals after microwave plasma-chemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yafarov, R. K. Shanygin, V. Ya.

    2016-01-15

    The morphological stability of atomically clean silicon (100) surface after low-energy microwave plasma-chemical etching in various plasma-forming media is studied. It is found that relaxation changes in the surface density and atomic bump heights after plasma processing in inert and chemically active media are multidirectional in character. After processing in a freon-14 medium, the free energy is minimized due to a decrease in the surface density of microbumps and an increase in their height. After argon-plasma processing, an insignificant increase in the bump density with a simultaneous decrease in bump heights is observed. The physicochemical processes causing these changes are considered.

  4. Electric and thermal conductivities of quenched neutron star crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogata, Shuji; Ichimaru, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    The electric and thermal conductivities in the outer crustal matter of a neutron star quenched into a solid state by cooling are estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of freezing transition for dense plasmas. The conductivities are calculated by the precise evaluation of the scattering integrals, using the procedure of Ichimaru et al. (1983) and Iyetomi and Ichimaru (1983). The results predict the conductivities lower, by a factor of about 3, than those with the single-phonon approximation.

  5. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar processing including cold plasma processing of local planetary ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, D.; Lynch, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite has been studied by a number of investigators as a potential means for recovery of oxygen from lunar soil. Interest in this process has always rested with the simplicity of the flow diagram and the utilization of established technology. Effective utilization of hydrogen in the reduction process at temperatures of 1200 C and below has always been disappointing and, as such, has led other investigators to focus attention on other systems. Effective utilization of hydrogen in the reduction of ilmenite can be significantly enhanced in the presence of a non-equilibrium hydrogen plasma. Ilmenite at solid specimen temperatures of 600 C to 970 C were reacted in a hydrogen plasma. Those experiments revealed that hydrogen utilization can be significantly enhanced. At a specimen temperature of 850 C the fraction of H2 reacted was 24 percent compared to the 7 percent theoretical limit calculated with thermodynamic theory for the same temperature. An added advantage for a hydrogen plasma involves further reduction of TiO2. Reduction of the iron oxide in ilmenite yields TiO2 and metallic iron as by products. Titanium forms a number of oxides including TiO, Ti2O3, Ti3O5 and the Magneli oxides (Ti4O7 to Ti50O99). In conventional processing of ilmenite with hydrogen it is possible to reduce TiO2 to Ti7O13 within approximately an hour, but with poor utilization of hydrogen on the order of one mole of H2 per thousand. In the cold or non-equilibrium plasma TiO2 can be rapidly reduced to Ti2O3 with hydrogen utilization exceeding 10 percent. Based on design considerations of the plasma reactor greater utilization of the hydrogen in the reduction of TiO2 is possible.

  6. An investigation on quench cracking behavior of superalloy Udimet 720LI using a fracture mechanics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, J.; Keefer, V.L.; Chang, K.M.; Furrer, D.

    2000-04-01

    Quench cracking can be a serious problem in the heat treatment of high strength superalloys. A new fracture mechanics approach, quench cracking toughness (K{sub Q}), was introduced to evaluate the on-cooling quench cracking resistance of superalloy Udimet 720LI. A fully automatic computer controlled data acquisition and processing system was set up to track the on-cooling quenching process and to simulate the quench cracking. The influences of grain size, cooling rate, solution temperature, and alloy processing routes on quench cracking resistance were investigated. Research results indicate that quench cracking revealed a typical brittle and intergranular failure at high temperatures, which causes a lower quench cracking toughness in comparison to fracture toughness at room temperature. Fine grain structures show the higher quench cracking resistance and lower failure temperatures than intermediate grain structures at the same cooling rates. Moreover, higher cooling rate results in lower cracking toughness under the same grain size structures. In comparison of processing routes, powder metallurgy (PM) alloys show higher cracking resistance than cast and wrought (CW) alloys for fine grain structures at the same cooling rates. However, for immediate grain structure, there is no obvious difference of K{sub Q} between the two processing route in this study.

  7. Thermal ionization and thermally activated crossover quenching processes for 5 d -4 f luminescence in Y3A l5 -xG axO12:P r3 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Jumpei; Meijerink, Andries; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We investigated thermally activated ionization and thermally activated crossover as the two possibilities of quenching of 5 d luminescence in P r3 + -doped Y3A l5 -xG axO12 . Varying the Ga content x gives the control over the relative energy level location of the 5 d and 4 f2:P3J states of P r3 + and the host conduction band (CB). Temperature-dependent luminescence lifetime measurements show that the 5 d luminescence quenching temperature T50 % increases up to x =2 and decreases with further increasing Ga content. This peculiar behavior is explained by a unique transition between the two quenching mechanisms which have an opposite dependence of thermal quenching on Ga content. For low Ga content, thermally activated crossover from the 4 f 5 d state to the 4 f2(P3J) states is the operative quenching mechanism. With increasing Ga content, the activation energy for thermally activated crossover becomes larger, as derived from the configuration coordinate diagram, while from the vacuum referred binding energy diagram the activation energy of thermal ionization becomes smaller. Based on these results, we demonstrated that the thermal quenching of P r3 +:5 d1-4 f luminescence in Y3A l5 -xG axO12 with x =0 ,1 ,2 is a thermally activated crossover while for x =3 ,4 ,5 it results from the thermal ionization.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for bacterial decontamination and property improvement of fruit and vegetable processing wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H.; Shariff, Samir M. Al; Ouf, Salama A.; Benghanem, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet was tested for decontaminating and improving the characteristics of wastewater derived from blackberry, date palm, tomato and beetroot processing industries. The jet was generated by blowing argon gas through a cylindrical alumina tube while a high voltage was applied between two electrodes surrounding the tube. Oxygen gas was mixed with argon at the rate of 0.2% and the argon mass flow was fixed at 4.5 slm. Images show that the generated plasma jet penetrated the treated wastewater samples. Plasma emission spectra show the presence of O and OH radicals as well as excited molecular nitrogen and argon. Complete decontamination of wastewater derived from date palm and tomato processing was achieved after 120 and 150 s exposure to the plasma jet, respectively. The bacterial count of wastewater from blackberry and beetroot was reduced by 0.41 and 2.24 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per ml, respectively, after 180 s. Escherichia coli was the most susceptible bacterial species to the cold plasma while Shigella boydii had the minimum susceptibility, recording 1.30 and 3.34 log10 CFU ml-1, respectively, as compared to the 7.00 log10 initial count. The chemical oxygen demands of wastewater were improved by 57.5-93.3% after 180 s exposure to the plasma jet being tested. The endotoxins in the wastewater were reduced by up to 90.22%. The variation in plasma effectiveness is probably related to the antioxidant concentration of the different investigated wastewaters.

  11. PLASCON{trademark} -- A thermal plasma process for destruction of Halon 1211

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, A.J.D.

    1998-12-31

    The international recommendations forming the Montreal Protocol essentially prohibit the manufacture and use of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) by signatory countries. Despite this prohibition, a significant problem remains -- what does one do with the existing ODS stockpiles? Following the Montreal recommendations, the Australian government decided to target the ODS Halon 1211, and established its Halon Bank to collect the material from industry. The stockpile of BCF in Australia is estimated to exceed 4000 tonnes and approximately 1000 tonnes of this has already been collected by the Federal Government Department of Administrative Services Centre for Environmental Management (DASCEM). Meanwhile, the Australian government research organization, CSIRO, has been collaborating with an industrial partner, Siddons Ramset Limited Plasma (SRLP), in the development of a thermal plasma reactor for BCF destruction purposes. Recently, DASCEM has established a commercial facility for BCF destruction in Australia based on the PLASCON process developed by CSIRO and SRLP. The core of the PLASCON reactor is a dc plasma torch operating with argon as the plasma gas. The presentation will include a description of the plasma reactor, a discussion of the critical scientific issues considered in the development process and some comments relating to commercialization.

  12. Characteristics of the Plasma Environment and Discharge Process in a High-Pressure Pulsed Arc Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ricky; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics and properties of a plasma generated in a pulsed arc discharge are investigated. Arc discharge plasmas are prevalent in the production and treatment of materials. Photodetectors and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) are used to probe the plasmas and characterize their spectral responses. OES allows for species identification and provides information about the state of the plasma, such as the electron temperature. Discharges generated with inert gas such as argon, as well as with nitrogen and air, are studied and compared. In the case of reactive gases, OES also provides information on the possible reactions that took place. Microwave interferometry is used to measure the electron density to provide spatial information on the discharges. In addition, the measurement is synchronized with the discharge pulse to obtain temporal information, for instance, during the pulse initialization phase to investigate the arc discharge process prior to plasma generation, where optical information is absent. Together, this allows for the characterization of the pre-, during, and post-discharge processes.

  13. Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

  14. Plasma processes in water under effect of short duration pulse discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbanov, Elchin

    2013-09-01

    It is very important to get a clear water without any impurities and bacteria by methods, that don't change the physical and chemical indicators of water now. In this article the plasma processes during the water treatment by strong electric fields and short duration pulse discharges are considered. The crown discharge around an electrode with a small radius of curvature consists of plasma leader channels with a high conductivity, where the thermo ionization processes and UV-radiation are taken place. Simultaneously the partial discharges around potential electrode lead to formation of atomic oxygen and ozone. The spark discharge arises, when plasma leader channels cross the all interelectrode gap, where the temperature and pressure are strongly grown. As a result the shock waves and dispersing liquid streams in all discharge gap are formed. The plasma channels extend, pressure inside it becomes less than hydrostatic one and the collapse and UV-radiation processes are started. The considered physical processes can be successfully used as a basis for development of pilot-industrial installations for conditioning of drinking water and to disinfecting of sewage.

  15. Non-thermal plasma treatment of Radix aconiti wastewater generated by traditional Chinese medicine processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu

    2016-06-01

    The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater.

  16. The Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding Process: Its Application to the Space Shuttle External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Bayless, E. O., Jr.; Wilson, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress in the implementation of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process at the External Tank (ET) assembly facility. Design allowable data has been developed for thicknesses up to 1.00 in. More than 24,000 in. of welding on liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen cylinders has been made without an internal defect.

  17. Cold plasma - a non-thermal processing technology to inactivate human pathogens on foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is a novel non-thermal food processing technology, suitable for application to fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Reductions of 3-5 logs have been achieved against human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and against phytopathogens and spoilage orga...

  18. No-thermal plasma processing of VOCs and NO{sub x} at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Wallman, P.H.

    1995-02-15

    For the past few years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive research program on the application of non-thermal plasmas for air pollution control and abatement. This program combines an extensive modeling effort with an experimental facility and test program. We believe that there are two major issues to be addressed in order to apply non-thermal plasma processing to air pollution control; these are electrical energy consumption and byproduct identification. The thrust of our work has been to understand the scalability of the non-thermal process by focusing on the energy efficiency of the non-thermal process and to identify the byproducts to ensure that effluent gases from a non-thermal processor are benign. We have compared different types of electrical discharge reactors both theoretically and experimentally. Our interests in the application of non-thermal plasmas vary from the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to NO{sub x} reduction for mobile applications. This paper will discuss the processing of both NO{sub x} and VOCs by non-thermal plasmas at LLNL.

  19. Radicals and Non-Equilibrium Processes in Low-Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran; Mason, Nigel; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Radmilović-Radjenović, Marija

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a selection from papers presented at the 5th EU - Japan Symposium. Unfortunately not all of the authors invited to prepare a review could finalize their papers in time for publication. Thus this book displays only a part of what has been enjoyed by the audience during the conference and what was expected to be in the book. On the other hand it provides the possibility to view some of the issues in greater detail and a chance for those who attended the meeting to revisit some of the presentations and discussion. The particular value of this symposia series is the opportunity for participants to discuss the issues confronting modern plasma physics and evolve a collaborative strategy to address these issues. The resulting synergism from having the leading researchers in this field all in the same room unfortunately could not be captured in this book but will certainly be reflected in the results presented at future symposia. The 29 invited lectures and 4 progress reports (with the addition of 10 posters) presented at the conference came from 12 different countries from 4 continents. A similar distribution is maintained in the 21 articles in this book. All the papers presented here have been refereed according to the standards of the conference and the journal, first by selecting the renowned invited speakers and selecting the topics of their presentations and later on by reviewing the articles. However we still leave the responsibility (and honors) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles giving a summary of the already published work or presenting the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). The EU - Japan Symposia were initiated in 2003 and have been held in Japan and in Europe (so far only in European countries starting with the letter `S': Sweden, Slovakia, Serbia). The 5th EU - Japan Joint Symposium on Plasma Processing was organized in Belgrade, 6-9 March at the

  20. Plasma and collision processes of hypervelocity meteorite impact in the prehistory of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managadze, G.

    2010-07-01

    A new concept is proposed, according to which the plasma and collision processes accompanying hypervelocity impacts of meteorites can contribute to the arising of the conditions on early Earth, which are necessary for the appearance of primary forms of living matter. It was shown that the processes necessary for the emergence of living matter could have started in a plasma torch of meteorite impact and have continued in an impact crater in the case of the arising of the simplest life form. It is generally accepted that planets are the optimal place for the origin and evolution of life. In the process of forming the planetary systems the meteorites, space bodies feeding planet growth, appear around stars. In the process of Earth's formation, meteorite sizes ranged from hundreds and thousands of kilometres. These space bodies consisted mostly of the planetesimals and comet nucleus. During acceleration in Earth's gravitational field they reached hypervelocity and, hitting the surface of planet, generated powerful blowouts of hot plasma in the form of a torch. They also created giant-size craters and dense dust clouds. These bodies were composed of all elements needed for the synthesis of organic compounds, with the content of carbon being up to 5%-15%. A new idea of possible synthesis of the complex organic compounds in the hypervelocity impact-generated plasma torch was proposed and experimentally confirmed. A previously unknown and experimentally corroborated feature of the impact-generated plasma torch allowed a new concept of the prehistory of life to be developed. According to this concept the intensive synthesis of complex organic compounds arose during meteoritic bombardment in the first 0.5 billion years at the stage of the planet's formation. This most powerful and destructive action in Earth's history could have played a key role and prepared conditions for the origin of life. In the interstellar gas-dust clouds, the synthesis of simple organic matter could

  1. Numerical simulation of a dual-source supersonic plasma jet expansion process: continuum approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Subrata; Dey, Subhrajit; Miebach, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    Expanding thermal plasma (ETP) is a versatile technology for thin film deposition process with directional plasma flux and high deposition rates. This process involves expansion of supersonic plasma jets through a steep pressure ratio into a chamber maintained at near vacuum. Usually the plasma jets deviate from chemical and thermal equilibrium and the continuum approach is insufficient to describe the phenomena. In the current work, the continuum approach based Navier-Stokes equations have been implemented to study and understand the jet expansion process in a typical dual-arc plasma deposition reactor. The numerical predictions have been compared against in-house experimental data obtained by thermocouple measurements. For the range of back pressures (6-200 Pa) considered, it was observed that the jet core is supersonic and transitions to a subsonic zone downstream without the formation of any Mach disc for the prevalent operating parameters. Indications of thick and smeared barrel shocks were however observed in the computed flow-thermal fields. The modelled fluid was assumed to be a perfect gas with temperature dependent specific heats, thermal conductivity and viscosity coefficients, with constant Prandtl number of order unity. The radial spreads of the jets increase with increasing pressure ratio thus leading to enhanced interactions within reduced distances downstream of the nozzle exit. The jet core Mach number also increases, but moderately, with decreasing backpressure. It is concluded that within reasonable accuracy, continuum approach based calculations are able to capture most of the important phenomena involved in compressible, high-temperature, supersonic jet expansion processes which are essential in designing chambers relevant to the mentioned processes.

  2. Numerical methods for TVD transport and coupled relaxing processes in gases and plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1990-01-01

    The construction of second-order upwind schemes for nonequilibrium plasmas, for both one- and two-fluid formulations is demonstrated. Coupled relaxation processes, including ionization kinetics and radiative processes and their algorithms for nonequilibrium, multiple temperature conditions are described as well. The paper applies the numerical techniques on some simple test cases, points out critical problems and their solutions, and makes qualitative comparisons with known results, whenever possible.

  3. Effect of dust particle polarization on scattering processes in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodanova, S. K.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bastykova, N. Kh.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.

    2015-06-15

    Screened interaction potentials in dusty plasmas taking into account the polarization of dust particles have been obtained. On the basis of screened potentials scattering processes for ion-dust particle and dust particle-dust particle pairs have been studied. In particular, the scattering cross section is considered. The scattering processes for which the dust grain polarization is unimportant have been found. The effect of zero angle dust particle-dust particle scattering is predicted.

  4. Mechanisms of dust grain charging in plasma with allowance for electron emission processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol'kov, S. I.; Savin, V. N.

    2017-02-01

    The process of dust grain charging is described with allowance for secondary, ion-induced, photoelectric, and thermal electron emission from the grain surface. The roughness of the grain surface is taken into account. An intermediate charging regime involving ion-atom collisions and electron ionization in the perturbed plasma region is analyzed using the moment equations and Poisson's equation. A calculation method is proposed that allows one to take into account the influence of all the above effects and determine the radius of the plasma region perturbed by the dust grain.

  5. A syncopated leap-frog algorithm for orbit consistent plasma simulation of materials processing reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.W.; Leboeuf, J.N.

    1994-10-01

    The authors present a particle algorithm to extend simulation capabilities for plasma based materials processing reactors. The orbit integrator uses a syncopated leap-frog algorithm in cylindrical coordinates, which maintains second order accuracy, and minimizes computational complexity. Plasma source terms are accumulated orbit consistently directly in the frequency and azimuthal mode domains. Finally they discuss the numerical analysis of this algorithm. Orbit consistency greatly reduces the computational cost for a given level of precision. The computational cost is independent of the degree of time scale separation.

  6. Filamental quenching of the current-driven ion-cyclotron instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, S. L.; Dangelo, N.; Merlino, R. L.; Krumm, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Since their discovery by D'Angelo and Motley (1962), ion-cyclotron waves have been an area of active research. Drummond and Rosenbluth (1962) have first conducted a theoretical analysis of the current-driven ion-cyclotron wave instability, taking into account a uniform, magnetized plasma, without magnetic shear, in which electrons drift along B field lines with the same drift velocity at all points in the plasma. Bakshi et al. (1983) have found conditions for which the instability is completely quenched. This phenomenon has been referred to as filamental quenching. The present investigation is concerned with a systematic test of the filamental quenching effect. It is found that filamental quenching operates at widths of the current channel comparable to the local Larmor radius, in agreement with the conclusions of Bakshi et al.

  7. Processing-structure-property relationships of thermal barrier coatings deposited using the solution precursor plasma spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Liangde

    This research is intended to develop a novel process, solution-precursor plasma-spray (SPPS), for the deposition of highly durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In the SPPS process a solution precursor feedstock, that results in ZrO2-7 wt% Y2O3 ceramic, is injected into the plasma jet and the coating is deposited on a metal substrate. The formed coating has the following novel microstructural features: (i) ultra-fine splats, (ii) through-thickness cracks, (iii) micrometer and nanometer porosity, and (iv) interpass boundaries. The deposition mechanisms of the solution precursor droplets injected into the different regions of the plasma jet were found to be different due to large temperature variation across the plasma jet. The solution precursor droplets injected into the core of the plasma jet are deposited on the substrate as ultra-fine splats that account for around 65 volume% of the coating. The other 35 volume% of the coating includes porosity and deposits formed from the solution precursor droplets injected into other regions of the plasma jet. The optimum processing condition for highly durable TBCs was determined using Taguchi design of experiments. Meanwhile, the relationship of the microstructural features and processing parameters was revealed. During thermal cycling, the unmelted particles in the coating were observed to pyloyze and/or sinter, while no sign of sintering was observed for the ultra-fine splats. The spacing of through-thickness cracks remains in the range of 160 to 190 mum throughout the thermal cycling test. Three stages of oxidation of the bond coat were observed. Failure of the SPPS TBC starts with the crack nucleation along the unmelted particles in the top coat and the Ni, Cr, Co-rich oxides of large thickness. These cracks propagate and coalesce with thermal cycling. The extensive cracking of the rapidly formed Ni, Cr, Co-rich oxides resulting from the depletion of aluminum in the bond coat leads to the development of large

  8. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Processes: Space Plasmas and the Inner Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, empirical kappa distribution, commonly used to describe non-equilibrium systems like space plasmas, has been connected with non-extensive statistical mechanics. Here we show how a consistent definition of the temperature and pressure is developed for stationary states out of thermal equilibrium, so that the familiar ideal gas state equation still holds. In addition to the classical triplet of temperature, pressure, and density, this generalization requires the kappa index as a fourth independent thermodynamic variable that characterizes the non-equilibrium stationary states. All four of these thermodynamic variables have key roles in describing the governing thermodynamical processes and transitions in space plasmas. We introduce a novel characterization of isothermal and isobaric processes that describe a system's transition into different stationary states by varying the kappa index. In addition, we show how the variation of temperature or/and pressure can occur through an "iso-q" process, in which the system remains in a fixed stationary state (fixed kappa index). These processes have been detected in the proton plasma in the inner heliosheath via specialized data analysis of energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations from Interstellar Boundary Explorer. In particular, we find that the temperature is highly correlated with (1) kappa, asymptotically related to isothermal (~1,000,000 K) and iso-q (κ ~ 1.7) processes; and (2) density, related to an isobaric process, which separates the "Ribbon," P ≈ 3.2 pdyn cm-2, from the globally distributed ENA flux, P ≈ 2 pdyn cm-2.

  9. Effect of Solid Shield on Coating Properties in Atmospheric Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Zheng, Lili; Zhang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of shrouded shield structure on plasma spray processes and the selection of optimal shield structure. Response of plasma flame characteristics to solid shield structures is studied first, and experimental investigations are then performed for both atmospheric (APS) and shrouded (SPS) plasma spray processes. It is found that the usage of conical shield (divergence angle 5.5°) with 90 mm in length is effective to form a low-oxygen (<2%) and high-temperature (>3000 K) region in the plasma flame and this region can cover the majority area for particles passing by. The average particle temperature is higher in SPS than in APS with the given conditions, and such behavior is intensified as solid shield length increases. Using the SPS process, more disk-shaped splats are obtained, and the oxygen concentration in coating is significantly reduced. The degree of the oxidation in the coatings is further reduced as the length of the solid shield increases from 50 to 90 mm. Applying solid shield will lead to high flame temperature and low oxidation; however, the substrate overheating and velocity reduction may occur. For the cases studied, the optimal shield length is around 90 mm.

  10. Spectroscopic Studies of Atomic and Molecular Processes in the Edge Region of Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, J. D.; Brezinsek, S.; Mertens, Ph.; Unterberg, B.

    2006-12-01

    Edge plasma studies are of vital importance for understanding plasma-wall interactions in magnetically confined fusion devices. These interactions determine the transport of neutrals into the plasma, and the properties of the plasma discharge. This presentation deals with optical spectroscopic studies of the plasma boundary, and their role in elucidating the prevailing physical conditions. Recorded spectra are of four types: emission spectra of ions and atoms, produced by electron impact excitation and by charge-exchange recombination, atomic spectra arising from electron impact-induced molecular dissociation and ionisation, visible spectra of molecular hydrogen and its isotopic combinations, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra. The atomic spectra are strongly influenced by the confining magnetic field (Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects), which produces characteristic features useful for species identification, temperature determination by Doppler broadening, and studies of chemical and physical sputtering. Detailed analysis of the Zeeman components in both optical and LIF spectra shows that atomic hydrogen is produced in various velocity classes, some related to the relevant molecular Franck-Condon energies. The latter reflect the dominant electron collision processes responsible for production of atoms from molecules. This assignment has been verified by gas-puffing experiments through special test limiters. The higher-energy flanks of hydrogen line profiles probably also show the influence of charge-exchange reactions with molecular ions accelerated in the plasma sheath ('scrape-off layer') separating limiter surfaces from the edge plasma, in analogy to acceleration in the cathode-fall region of gas discharges. While electron collisions play a vital role in generating the spectra, ion collisions with excited atomic radiators act through re-distribution of population among the atomic fine-structure sublevels, and momentum transfer to the atomic nuclei via

  11. Impact of Whole-Blood Processing Conditions on Plasma and Serum Concentrations of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Wan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shin, So-Youn

    2016-02-01

    Pre-analytical variations in plasma and serum samples can occur because of variability in whole-blood processing procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of delayed separation of whole blood on the plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines. The concentrations of 16 cytokines were measured in plasma and serum samples when the centrifugation of whole blood at room temperature was delayed for 4, 6, 24, or 48 h, and the values were compared with those observed after separation within 2 h of whole-blood collection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed for cytokines to determine whether cytokine levels in plasma and serum samples can be used to assess delayed separation of whole blood. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-1β increased significantly (>2-fold) when separation was delayed at room temperature for 24 h. The concentrations of 6 of these cytokines (all except serum IL-1β and IL-6) demonstrated high diagnostic performance (area under the ROC curve >0.8) for delayed separation of whole blood. Furthermore, these cytokine concentrations typically exhibited high sensitivity and specificity at each optimal cutoff point. Conversely, IL-17A was stable in both plasma and serum samples, even when whole-blood centrifugation was delayed at room temperature for 48 h. This study shows that certain cytokines (IL-1β, GM-CSF, sCD40L, IL-8, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) could be used for assessing the quality of plasma or serum samples.

  12. Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment using a plasma/ozone combination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomi; Kamiya, Yu; Saeki, Ryo; Tachibana, Kosuke; Yasuoka, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Advanced oxidation process (AOP) using OH radicals is a promising method for the decomposition of persistent organic compounds in wastewater. Although many types of plasma reactors have been developed for the AOP, they are unsuitable for the complete decomposition of highly concentrated organic compounds. The reason for the incomplete decomposition is that OH radicals, particularly at a high density, recombine among themselves to form hydrogen peroxide. We have developed a combination plasma reactor in which ozone gas is fed, so that the generated hydrogen peroxide is re-converted to OH radicals. Pulsed plasmas generated within oxygen bubbles supply not only OH radicals but also hydrogen peroxide into wastewater. The total organic carbon (TOC) of the wastewater was more than 1 gTOC/L. The TOC values decreased linearly with time, and the persistent compounds which could not be decomposed by ozone were completely mineralized within 8 h of operation.

  13. Intense terahertz-pulse generation by four-wave mixing process in induced gas plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicharn, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we have numerically investigated an intense terahertz (THz) pulses generation in gaseous plasma based on the third-order nonlinear effect, four-wave mixing rectification (FWMR). We have proposed that the fundamental fields and second-harmonic field of ultra-short pulse lasers are combined and focused into a very small gas chamber to induce a gaseous plasma, which intense THz pulse is produced. To understand the THz generation process, the first-order multiple-scale perturbation method (MSPM) has been utilized to derive a set of nonlinear coupled-mode equations for interacting fields such as two fundamental fields, a second-harmonic field, and a THz field. Then, we have simulate the intense THz-pulse generation by using split step-beam propagation method (SS-BPM) and calculated output THz intensities. Finally, the output THz intensities generated from induced air, nitrogen, and argon plasma have been compared.

  14. Observation of Multiple Reconnections during Self-organization Process of High Temperature Fusion Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Munsat, T.; Donné, A. J. H.; Spakman, G. W.; Textor Team

    2011-10-01

    Images of a high resolution 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic shows evidence of multiple magnetic reconnection processes during the internal disruption of a high temperature tokamak plasmas. The disruption induces magnetic self-organization of the toroidal plasma being accompanied by successive or simultaneous multiple layer reconnection. The degree of asymmetric deformation of the internal magnetic structure (m/n=1/1 mode) prior to temperature crash influences the outcome of the disruptive behavior. The observation is critical for the building block of first principle theoretical modeling of the sawtooth oscillation in current driven toroidal plasmas and the understandings can be applied to the impulsive disruptive behavior in flares of the solar, accretion disk and stellar coronae, Earth magnetospheric storms, and controlled fusion. Work supported by the NRF of Korea, the US DOE, the NWO of the Netherlands, and the EURATOM-FOM association.

  15. Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, Wolfgang; Ruhl, Guenther; Gschwandtner, Alexander

    2012-01-15

    Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO{sub 2} is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO{sub 2} are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO{sub 2} with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiO{sub x} with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers between electrode and TiO{sub 2}, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiO{sub x} deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.

  16. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  17. Studies of dynamic processes related to active experiments in space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Peter M.; Neubert, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report for grant NAGw-2055, 'Studies of Dynamic Processes Related to Active Experiments in Space Plasmas', covering research performed at the University of Michigan. The grant was awarded to study: (1) theoretical and data analysis of data from the CHARGE-2 rocket experiment (1keV; 1-46 mA electron beam ejections) and the Spacelab-2 shuttle experiment (1keV; 100 mA); (2) studies of the interaction of an electron beam, emitted from an ionospheric platform, with the ambient neutral atmosphere and plasma by means of a newly developed computer simulation model, relating model predictions with CHARGE-2 observations of return currents observed during electron beam emissions; and (3) development of a self-consistent model for the charge distribution on a moving conducting tether in a magnetized plasma and for the potential structure in the plasma surrounding the tether. Our main results include: (1) the computer code developed for the interaction of electrons beams with the neutral atmosphere and plasma is able to model observed return fluxes to the CHARGE-2 sounding rocket payload; and (2) a 3-D electromagnetic and relativistic particle simulation code was developed.

  18. Plasma wall interaction: Important ion induced surface processes and strategy of the EU Task Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Joachim; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle; Loarte, Alberto

    2007-05-01

    In future thermo-nuclear fusion devices, such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the interaction of the plasma with surrounding materials in the vacuum vessel constitutes one of the main remaining engineering problems. The choice of materials is a crucial point, which will determine issues such as the plasma facing components lifetime before refurbishment or the tritium inventory build up in the vessel, which should be limited for safety reasons. In order to tackle these issues, the European Task Force on Plasma-Wall Interaction has been implemented in the frame of EFDA (European Fusion Agreement) in the fall 2002 with the aim "to provide ITER with information concerning lifetime-expectations of the divertor target plates and tritium inventory build-up rates in the foreseen starting configuration and to suggest improvements, including material changes, which could be implemented at an appropriate stage." The EU-PWI-TF brings together the efforts of 24 European associations in the following fields of investigation: Material erosion and transport in tokamaks. Tritium inventory and removal. Transient heat loads on plasma facing components. Dust production and removal. Associated modelling and diagnostic development. This paper will present the organisation of the EU-PWI-TF. It will provide examples for the multitude of surface processes in Plasma-Wall Interaction and present the status of knowledge concerning material erosion and hydrogen retention for the choice of ITER materials (Beryllium, Carbon and Tungsten).

  19. Kinetic theory of transport processes in partially ionized reactive plasma, II: Electron transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The previously obtained in (Zhdanov and Stepanenko, 2016) general transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma are employed for analysis of electron transport properties in molecular and atomic plasmas. We account for both elastic and inelastic interaction channels of electrons with atoms and molecules of plasma and also the processes of electron impact ionization of neutral particles and three-body ion-electron recombination. The system of scalar transport equations for electrons is discussed and the expressions for non-equilibrium corrections to electron ionization and recombination rates and the diagonal part of the electron pressure tensor are derived. Special attention is paid to analysis of electron energy relaxation during collisions with plasma particles having internal degrees of freedom and the expression for the electron coefficient of inelastic energy losses is deduced. We also derive the expressions for electron vector and tensorial transport fluxes and the corresponding transport coefficients for partially ionized reactive plasma, which represent a generalization of the well-known results obtained by Devoto (1967). The results of numerical evaluation of contribution from electron inelastic collisions with neutral particles to electron transport properties are presented for a series of molecular and atomic gases.

  20. The thiol pool in human plasma: The central contribution of albumin to redox processes

    PubMed Central

    Turell, Lucía; Radi, Rafael; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The plasma compartment has particular features regarding the nature and concentration of low and high molecular weight thiols and oxidized derivatives. Plasma is relatively poor in thiol-based antioxidants; thiols are in lower concentrations than in cells and mostly oxidized. The different thiol-disulfide pairs are not in equilibrium and the steady-state concentrations of total thiols as well as reduced versus oxidized ratios are maintained by kinetic barriers, including the rates of reactions and transport processes. The single thiol of human serum albumin (HSA-SH) is the most abundant plasma thiol. It is an important target for oxidants and electrophiles due to its reactivity with a wide variety of species and its relatively high concentration. A relatively stable sulfenic (HSA-SO3H) acid can be formed in albumin exposed to oxidants. Plasma increases in mixed disulfides (HSA-SSR) or in sulfinic (HSA-SO2H) and sulfonic (HSA-SO3H) acids are associated with different pathologies and may constitute biomarkers of the antioxidant role of the albumin thiol. In this work we provide a critical review of the plasma thiol pool with a focus on human serum albumin. PMID:23747983

  1. Observation of hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated plasma in a small hole

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun; Song, Tianming; Yang, Jiamin Zhu, Tuo; Lin, Zhiwei; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Haiying; Yu, Ruizhen; Liu, Shenye; Hu, Guangyue; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2015-07-15

    In the hohlraum used in laser indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, hydrodynamic processes of radiation-ablated high-Z plasma have a great effect on laser injection efficiency, radiation uniformity, and diagnosis of hohlraum radiation field from diagnostic windows (DW). To study plasma filling in the DWs, a laser-irradiated Ti disk was used to generate 2–5 keV narrow energy band X-ray as the intense backlighter source, and laser-produced X-ray in a hohlraum with low-Z foam tamper was used to heat a small hole surrounded by gold wall with 150 μm in diameter and 100 μm deep. The hydrodynamic movement of the gold plasma in the small hole was measured by an X-ray framing camera and the results are analyzed. Quantitative measurement of the plasma areal density distribution and evolution in the small hole can be used to assess the effect of plasma filling on the diagnosis from the DWs.

  2. Inactivation Process of Penicillium digitatum Spores Treated with Non-equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Mori, Takumi; Iseki, Sachiko; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the inactivation process of Penicillium digitatum spores treated with a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma, the spores were observed using a fluorescent microscope and compared with those treated with ultraviolet (UV) light or moist heat. The treated spores were stained with two fluorescent dyes, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,Y,3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). The intracellular organelles as well as cell membranes in the spores treated with the plasma were stained with DiI without a major morphological change of the membranes, while the organelles were never stained in the spores treated with UV light or moist heat. Moreover, DPPP staining revealed that organelles were oxidized by plasma treatment unlike UV light or moist heat treatments. These results suggest that only plasma treatment induces a minor structural change or functional inhibition of cell membranes, which leads to the oxidation of the intracellular organelles without a major deformation of the membranes through the penetration of reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma into the cell.

  3. The effect of the plasma needle on the human keratinocytes related to the wound healing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolov, Ihor; Fazekas, Barbara; Széll, Márta; Kemény, Lajos; Kutasi, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aim to verify the influence of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma on the wound healing process. In this process the major contributors are the keratinocytes, which migrate to fill in the gap created by the wound. Therefore, we performed the direct treatment of HPV-immortalized human keratinocytes, protected by a layer of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, with the glow discharge generated in flowing helium by a plasma needle. To mimick a wound, a 4 mm scratch was performed on the cell culture (scratch assay). We conducted two types of experiments: (i) cell proliferation and (ii) wound-healing model experiments. The plasma needle configuration, the plasma treatment conditions and the thickness of the protecting PBS layer were set based on viability experiments. The proliferation studies showed that short, 5-10 s, and low power treatments, such as 18 W and 20 W input power, could positively influence the cell proliferation when keratinocytes were protected by PBS. On the other hand, the plasma treatment of cell medium covered keratinocytes resulted in the decrease of proliferation. The wound-healing model (scratch assay) studies showed, that there was a maximum in the wound reduction as a function of the input power and treatment time, namely, at 18 W and 5 s. Furthermore, the wound reduction strongly depended on the treated cell—PBS interaction time. To mimic an infected wound, the scratch assay was covered with a 1× {{10}9} cfu ml-1 Propionibacterium acnes suspension. The plasma treatment of this infected assay resulted in closing of the scratch, while in the non-treated assay the wound did not close at all.

  4. Optimization of plasma deposition and etching processes for commercial multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, D.S.; Wilbanks, W.L.; Fleddermann, C.B.; Rosenblum, M.D.; Roncin, S.; Narayanan, S.

    1996-06-01

    The authors conducted an investigation of plasma deposition and etching processes on full-size multicrystalline (mc-Si) cells processed in commercial production lines, so that any improvements obtained will be immediately relevant to the PV industry. In one case, the authors performed a statistically designed multiparameter experiment to determine the optimum PECVD-nitride deposition conditions specific to EFG silicon from ASE Americas, Inc. In a related effort, they studied whether plasma-etching techniques can use standard screen-printed gridlines as etch masks to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles on mc-Si cells from Solarex Corp. Initial results found a statistically significant improvement of about half an absolute percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with the PECVD-nitride surface passivation treatment. Additional improvement is expected when the successful bulk passivation treatment is also added to the process.

  5. Formation of ultrasharp vertically aligned Cu-Si nanocones by a DC plasma process.

    PubMed

    Klein, K L; Melechko, A V; Fowlkes, J D; Rack, P D; Hensley, D K; Meyer, H M; Allard, L F; McKnight, T E; Simpson, M L

    2006-03-16

    We report an effective method for the production of ultrasharp vertically oriented silicon nanocones with tip radii as small as 5 nm. These silicon nanostructures were shaped by a high-temperature acetylene and ammonia dc plasma reactive ion etch (RIE) process. Thin-film copper deposited onto Si substrates forms a copper silicide (Cu3Si) during plasma processing, which subsequently acts as a seed material masking the single-crystal cones while the exposed silicon areas are reactive ion etched. In this process, the cone angle is sharpened continually as the structure becomes taller. Furthermore, by lithographically defining the seed material as well as employing an etch barrier material such as titanium, the cone location and substrate topography can be controlled effectively.

  6. The investigation of order–disorder transition process of ZSM-5 induced by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Lianjun; Jiang, Wan; Lin, He

    2014-04-01

    Based on the amorphization of zeolites, an order–disorder transition method was used to prepare silica glass via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). In order to get a better understanding about the mechanism of amorphization induced by SPS, the intermediate products in this process were prepared and characterized by different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction and High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering show a gradual transformation from ordered crystal to glass. Local structural changes in glass network including Si–O bond length, O–Si–O bond angle, size of rings, coordination were detected by Infrared spectroscopy and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Topologically ordered, amorphous material with a different intermediate-range structure can be obtained by precise control of intermediate process which can be expected to optimize and design material. - Graphical abstract: Low-density, ordered zeolites collapse to the rigid amorphous glass through spark plasma sintering. The intermediate-range structure formed in the process of order–disorder transition may give rise to specific property. - Highlights: • Order–disorder transition process of ZSM-5 induced by spark plasma sintering was investigated using several methods including XRD, High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering, SAXS, IR, NMR, ect. • Order–disorder transition induced by SPS was compared with TIA and PIA. • Three stages has been divided during the whole process. • The collapse temperature range which may give rise to intermediate-range structure has been located.

  7. Experimental study on a new sterilization process using plasma source ion implantation with N2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, S.; Takagi, T.; Shinohara, M.; Fujii, S.

    2003-07-01

    Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) with negative high voltage pulses has been applied to the sterilization process as a technique suitable for sterilization of three-dimensional work pieces. Pulsed high negative voltage (0-10 μs pulse width, 900 pulses/s, -9 to -16 kV) was applied to the electrode in this process at a gas pressure of 2-7 Pa of N2. This process has been found to be capable of generating glow discharge plasma around a stainless electrode, on which quartz glass samples with biological materials are placed. We found that the PSII process reduced the numbers of active Bacillus pumilus cells using N2 gas plasma generated by pulsed dc voltages. The number of bacteria survivors was reduced by 105×with 5-10 min exposure. The state of cells on quartz glass was observed by scanning electron microscopy with and without exposure. We found that the ion energy is the most important processing parameter. The technique is demonstrated to be an effective means of low-temperature surface sterilization, with very little damage to the target.

  8. Highly Segmented Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray: Effects of Spray Process on Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Honda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Araki, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Sakka, Yoshio

    2016-12-01

    Effects of the ceramic powder size used for suspension as well as several processing parameters in suspension plasma spraying of YSZ were investigated experimentally, aiming to fabricate highly segmented microstructures for thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to observe the atomization process and the velocity distribution of atomized droplets and ceramic particles travelling toward the substrates. The tested parameters included the secondary plasma gas (He versus H2), suspension injection flow rate, and substrate surface roughness. Results indicated that a plasma jet with a relatively higher content of He or H2 as the secondary plasma gas was critical to produce highly segmented YSZ TBCs with a crack density up to 12 cracks/mm. The optimized suspension flow rate played an important role to realize coatings with a reduced porosity level and improved adhesion. An increased powder size and higher operation power level were beneficial for the formation of highly segmented coatings onto substrates with a wider range of surface roughness.

  9. Energy and costs scoping study for plasma pyrolysis thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, K.E.; Findley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information in support of an investigation of thermal technologies as possible treatment process for buried wastes at the INEL. Material and energy balances and a cost estimate were generated for a representative plasma torch-based thermal waste treatment system operating in a pyrolysis mode. Two waste streams were selected which are representative of INEL buried wastes, large in volume, and difficult to treat by other technologies. These streams were a solidified nitrate sludge waste stream and a waste/soil mix of other buried waste components. The treatment scheme selected includes a main plasma chamber operating under pyrolyzing conditions; a plasma afterburner to provide additional residence time at high temperature to ensure complete destruction of hazardous organics; an off-gas treatment system; and a incinerator and stack to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and vent the clean, oxidized gases to atmosphere. The material balances generated provide materials flow and equipment duty information of sufficient accuracy to generate initial rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) system capital and operating cost estimates for a representative plasma thermal processing system.

  10. In-situ monitoring of plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harhausen, Jens; Foest, Rüdiger; Loffhagen, Detlef

    2015-09-01

    Present photonics applications depend on accurate production techniques. Plasma based processes might be termed the backbone of multilayer optical coatings which are the key components of dielectric mirrors, filters or antireflectives. However, the sector strongly relies on process recipies based on empirical optimization of thin film properties. Limitations in quality, repeatability and yield are faced. In this contribution results of efforts on plasma characterization of a beam source employed for PIAD are presented. Data on electron and ion kinetics as well as optical emission facilitated a comprehensive understanding of underlying physics of ion beam generation and propagation in an industrial type batch coater. In order to promote the development of next generation production plants, concepts for in-situ diagnostics are investigated. Results from monitoring of optical radiance of the plasma plume near the source and electron density near the substrates are discussed. The novel concept of the multipole resonance probe is applied during deposition in order to trace variations not only in magnitude of plasma density, but also its spatial distribution. Coating materials comprise TiO2, Ta2O5, Al2O3 and SiO2. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under Grant 13N13213).

  11. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Simulations of Low Pressure Semiconductor Plasma Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gochberg, L. A.; Ozawa, T.; Deng, H.; Levin, D. A.

    2008-12-31

    The two widely used plasma deposition tools for semiconductor processing are Ionized Metal Physical Vapor Deposition (IMPVD) of metals using either planar or hollow cathode magnetrons (HCM), and inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) deposition of dielectrics in High Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDP-CVD) reactors. In these systems, the injected neutral gas flows are generally in the transonic to supersonic flow regime. The Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM) has been developed and is strategically and beneficially applied to the design of these tools and their processes. For the most part, the model uses continuum-based techniques, and thus, as pressures decrease below 10 mTorr, the continuum approaches in the model become questionable. Modifications have been previously made to the HPEM to significantly improve its accuracy in this pressure regime. In particular, the Ion Monte Carlo Simulation (IMCS) was added, wherein a Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain ion and neutral velocity distributions in much the same way as in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). As a further refinement, this work presents the first steps towards the adaptation of full DSMC calculations to replace part of the flow module within the HPEM. Six species (Ar, Cu, Ar*, Cu*, Ar{sup +}, and Cu{sup +}) are modeled in DSMC. To couple SMILE as a module to the HPEM, source functions for species, momentum and energy from plasma sources will be provided by the HPEM. The DSMC module will then compute a quasi-converged flow field that will provide neutral and ion species densities, momenta and temperatures. In this work, the HPEM results for a hollow cathode magnetron (HCM) IMPVD process using the Boltzmann distribution are compared with DSMC results using portions of those HPEM computations as an initial condition.

  12. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR MODELING COLLISION PROCESSES IN PLASMAS WITH A KAPPA ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-08-20

    We demonstrate that a nonthermal distribution of particles described by a kappa distribution can be accurately approximated by a weighted sum of Maxwell–Boltzmann distributions. We apply this method to modeling collision processes in kappa-distribution plasmas, with a particular focus on atomic processes important for solar physics. The relevant collision process rate coefficients are generated by summing appropriately weighted Maxwellian rate coefficients. This method reproduces the rate coefficients for a kappa distribution to an estimated accuracy of better than 3%. This is equal to or better than the accuracy of rate coefficients generated using “reverse-engineering” methods, which attempt to extract the needed cross sections from the published Maxwellian rate coefficient data and then reconvolve the extracted cross sections with the desired kappa distribution. Our approach of summing Maxwellian rate coefficients is easy to implement using existing spectral analysis software. Moreover, the weights in the sum of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution rate coefficients can be found for any value of the parameter κ, thereby enabling one to model plasmas with a time-varying κ. Tabulated Maxwellian fitting parameters are given for specific values of κ from 1.7 to 100. We also provide polynomial fits to these parameters over this entire range. Several applications of our technique are presented, including the plasma equilibrium charge state distribution (CSD), predicting line ratios, modeling the influence of electron impact multiple ionization on the equilibrium CSD of kappa-distribution plasmas, and calculating the time-varying CSD of plasmas during a solar flare.

  13. A Simple Method for Modeling Collision Processes in Plasmas with a Kappa Energy Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that a nonthermal distribution of particles described by a kappa distribution can be accurately approximated by a weighted sum of Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions. We apply this method to modeling collision processes in kappa-distribution plasmas, with a particular focus on atomic processes important for solar physics. The relevant collision process rate coefficients are generated by summing appropriately weighted Maxwellian rate coefficients. This method reproduces the rate coefficients for a kappa distribution to an estimated accuracy of better than 3%. This is equal to or better than the accuracy of rate coefficients generated using “reverse-engineering” methods, which attempt to extract the needed cross sections from the published Maxwellian rate coefficient data and then reconvolve the extracted cross sections with the desired kappa distribution. Our approach of summing Maxwellian rate coefficients is easy to implement using existing spectral analysis software. Moreover, the weights in the sum of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution rate coefficients can be found for any value of the parameter κ, thereby enabling one to model plasmas with a time-varying κ. Tabulated Maxwellian fitting parameters are given for specific values of κ from 1.7 to 100. We also provide polynomial fits to these parameters over this entire range. Several applications of our technique are presented, including the plasma equilibrium charge state distribution (CSD), predicting line ratios, modeling the influence of electron impact multiple ionization on the equilibrium CSD of kappa-distribution plasmas, and calculating the time-varying CSD of plasmas during a solar flare.

  14. F4TCNQ-Induced Exciton Quenching Studied by Using in-situ Photoluminescence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Lu, Min; Wu, Bo; Hou, Xiao-Yuan

    2012-09-01

    The role of F4TCNQ as an exciton quenching material in thin organic light-emitting films is investigated by means of in situ photoluminescence measurements. C60 was used as another quenching material in the experiment for comparison, with Alq3 as a common organic light-emitting material. The effect of the growth sequence of the materials on quenching was also examined. It is found that the radius of Förster energy transfer between F4TCNQ and Alq3 is close to 0 nm and Dexter energy transfer dominates in the quenching process.

  15. [Application of atomic emission spectroscopy analysis in the atmospheric pressure plasma polishing process study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Ju-Fan; Dong, Shen

    2008-07-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma polishing (APPP) is a novel precision machining technology. It performs the atom scale material removal based on low temperature plasma chemical reactions. As the machining process is chemical in nature, it avoids the surface/subsurface defects usually formed in conventional mechanical machining processes. APPP firstly introduces a capacitance coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma torch to generate reactive plasma and excite chemical reactions further. The removal process is a complicated integrating action which tends to be affected by many factors, such as the gas ratio, the RF power and so on. Therefore, to improve the machining quality, all the aspects should be considered and studied, to establish the foundation for further model building and theoretical analysis. The atomic emission spectroscopy analysis was used to study the process characteristics. A commercial micro spectrometer was used to collect the spectrograms under different parameters, by comparing which the influence of the RF power and gas ratio was initially studied. The analysis results indicate that an increase in RF power results in a higher removal rate within a certain range. The gas ratio doesn't show obvious influence on the removal rate and surface roughness in initial experiments, but the element compositions detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technology on the machined surfaces under different ratios really indicate distinct difference. Then the theoretical analysis revealed the corresponding electron transition orbits of the excited reactive fluorine atoms, which is necessary for further mechanism research and apparatus improvement. Then the initial process optimization was made based on the analysis results, by which the Ra 0.6 nm surface roughness and 32 mm3 x min(-1) removal rate were achieved on silicon wafers.

  16. Relevant ion time scales for electron impact processes of atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murillo, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a new model for treating collisional atomic processes has been presented. This model simultaneously and self-consistently treats electron and ion processes. For transitions frequencies above the ion plasma frequency, it is argued that little ion motion occurs although the interaction is still strong; the ion microfield perturbs the atom. The electron impact processes may still be described by a DSF between levels of the perturbed atoms, suggesting the name Microfield Stochastic Model (MSM) for this method. Future work will be directed towards refining some of the approximations used here for application to realistic systems.

  17. Process, properties, and environmental response of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that the properties of plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia are strongly influenced by the process parameters. Properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed condition are shown to be additionally influenced by environmental exposure. This behavior is dependent on raw material considerations and processing conditions as well as exposure time and temperature. Process control methodology is described which can take into consideration these complex interactions and help to produce thermal barrier coatings in a cost effective way while meeting coating technical requirements.

  18. Process, properties and environmental response of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that the properties of plasma sprayed fully stabilized zirconia are strongly influenced by the process parameters. Properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed condition are shown to be additionally influenced by environmental exposure. This behavior is dependent on raw material considerations and processing conditions as well as exposure time and temperature. Process control methodology is described which can take into consideration these complex interactions and help to produce thermal barrier coatings in a cost effective way while meeting coating technical requirements.

  19. Plasma treatment effect on angiogenesis in wound healing process evaluated in vivo using angiographic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. W.; Park, T. J.; Jang, S. J.; You, S. J.; Oh, W. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma holds promise for promoting wound healing. However, plasma-induced angiogenesis, which is important to better understand the underlying physics of plasma treatment effect on wound healing, remains largely unknown. We therefore evaluated the effect of non-thermal plasma on angiogenesis during wound healing through longitudinal monitoring over 30 days using non-invasive angiographic optical coherence tomography imaging in vivo. We demonstrate that the plasma-treated vascular wound area of mouse ear was noticeably decreased as compared to that of control during the early days in the wound healing process. We also observed that the vascular area density was increased in the plasma affected region near the wound as compared to the plasma unaffected region. The difference in the vascular wound area and the vascular area density peaked around day 3. This indicates that the plasma treatment induced additional angiogenic effects in the wound healing process especially during the early days. This non-invasive optical angiographic approach for in vivo time-lapse imaging provides further insights into elucidating plasma-induced angiogenesis in the wound healing process and its application in the biomedical plasma evaluation.

  20. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A. III

    1997-01-01

    A broad-based set of measurements has begun on high density turbulent plasma processes. This includes determinations of new plasma physics and the initiation of work on new diagnostics for collisional plasmas as follows: (1) A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. (2) Point fluorescence emissions and averaged spectral line evolutions in turbulent plasmas produced in both the primary and the reflected shock wave flows exhibit ergodicity in the standard turbulence parameters. The data show first evidence of a reverse energy cascade in the collisional turbulent plasma. This suggests that the fully turbulent environment can be described using a stationary state formulation. In these same data, the author finds compelling evidence for a turbulent Stark effect on neutral emission lines in these data which is associated with evidence of large coherent structures and dominant modes in the Fourier analyses of the fluctuations in the optical spectra. (3) A neutral beam generator has been assembled by coupling a Colutron Ion Gun to a charge exchange chamber. Beam-target collisions where the target species is neutral and the beam is either singly charged or neutral have been performed using argon as the working gas. Spectral analysis of the emission shows specific radiative transitions characteristic of both Ar I and Ar II, indicating that some ionization of the target gas results. Gas and plasma parameters such as density, pressure, temperature and flow velocity and their fluctuations can now be followed in real time by spectroscopic analysis of carefully chosen radiative emissions.

  1. Multiple frequency capacitive plasmas as a tool to optimize PVD processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienholz, Stefan; Semmler, Egmont; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Capacitively coupled plasmas are widely used in PVD processes over several years. Nowadays mainly DC-Magnetron sputter coaters are commonly used, which do not allow a separate control of ion flux and ion energy distribution at the target. A possibility to overcome this constriction consists of exciting the plasma at two different radio frequencies simultaneously. In this contribution we discuss the possibility of tuning electrical discharge quantities such as target voltage waveform and self bias voltage by using multiple excitation frequencies. The influence of the relative phase between one frequency and its second harmonic on these quantities is also investigated. The experiments show, that capacitively coupled multiple frequency discharges are a promising complement to existing PVD processes. The authors would like to acknowledge the funding provided by the ``Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft'' within the frame of the SFB-TR 87 and the ``Ruhr University Bochum Research School.''

  2. The magnetic field application for the gas discharge plasma control in processes of surface coating and modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadullin, T. Ya; Galeev, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the method of magnetic field application to control the gas discharge plasma effect on the various surfaces in processes of surface coating and modification is considered. The magnetic field directed perpendicular to the direction of electric current in the gas discharge plasma channel is capable to reject this plasma channel due to action of Lorentz force on the moving electrically charged particles [1,2]. The three-dimensional spatial structure of magnetic field is created by system of necessary quantity of the magnets located perpendicular to the direction of course of electric current in the gas-discharge plasma channel. The formation of necessary spatial distribution of magnetic field makes possible to obtain a required distribution of plasma parameters near the processed surfaces. This way of the plasma channel parameters spatial distribution management is the most suitable for application in processes of plasma impact on a surface of irregular shape and in cases when the selective impact of plasma on a part of a surface of a product is required. It is necessary to apply automated computer management of the process parameters [3] to the most effective plasma impact.

  3. Ion drag force on an absorbing grain in highly collisional plasma in the presence of plasma production and loss processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Manis; Khrapak, Sergei A.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2008-09-07

    The ion drag force acting on a small absorbing spherical grain has been calculated analytically in highly collisional plasma with slowly drifting ions taking into account plasma production and loss mechanisms in the vicinity of the grain. It is shown that both the magnitude and direction of the ion drag force are strongly influenced by the plasma production and loss mechanisms. The parameter regimes for the 'positive' and 'negative' ion drag forces acting on an absorbing grain have been identified.

  4. Auroral plasma transport processes in the presence of kV potential structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, Supriya B.; Mitchell, H. G.; Palmadesso, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have simulated plasma transport processes in the presence of a quasi-two-dimensional current filament, that generated kV potential structure in the auroral region. The simulation consists of a set of one-dimensional flux tube simulations with different imposed time-dependent, field-aligned currents. The model uses the 16 moment system of equations and simultaneously solves coupled continuity and momentum equations and equations describing the transport along the magnetic field lines of parallel and perpendicular thermal energy and heat flows for each species. The lower end of the simulation is at an altitude of 800 km, in the collisional topside ionosphere, while the upper end is at 10 R(sub E) in the magnetosphere. The plasma consists of hot electrons and protons of magnetospheric origin and low-energy electrons, protons, and oxygen ions of ionospheric origin. The dynamical interaction of the individual current filaments with ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma generates a potential structure in the horizontal direction and kilovolt field-aligned potential drops along the field lines. The side-by-side display exhibits the evolution of the implied potential structure in the horizontial direction. In the presence of this potential structure and parallel electric field ionospheric plasma density is depleted and velocity is reduced, while density enhancement and increased velocity is observed in magnetospheric plasma. The ionospheric and magnetospheric electron temperatures increase below 2 R(sub E) due to magnetic mirror force on converging geomagnetic field lines. The primary cross-field motion produced by the horizontal E field (E x B drift) is perpendicular to both of the significant spatial directions and is thus ignorable in this geometry. The effects of other cross-field drift processes are discussed. The simulation thus provides insight into the dynamical evolution of two-dimensional potential structures driven by an imposed finite width, field

  5. LAUNCHING AND QUENCHING OF BLACK HOLE RELATIVISTIC JETS AT LOW ACCRETION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Hung-Yi; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Hirotani, Kouichi

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic jets are launched from black hole (BH) X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei when the disk accretion rate is below a certain limit (i.e., when the ratio of the accretion rate to the Eddingtion accretion rate, m-dot , is below about 0.01) but quenched when above. We propose a new paradigm to explain this observed coupling between the jet and the accretion disk by investigating the extraction of the rotational energy of a BH when it is surrounded by different types of accretion disk. At low accretion rates (e.g., when m-dot {approx}<0.1), the accretion near the event horizon is quasi-spherical. The accreting plasmas fall onto the event horizon in a wide range of latitudes, breaking down the force-free approximation near the horizon. To incorporate the plasma inertia effect, we consider the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) extraction of the rotational energy from BHs by the accreting MHD fluid, as described by the MHD Penrose process. It is found that the energy extraction operates, and hence a relativistic jet is launched, preferentially when the accretion disk consists of an outer Shakura-Sunyaev disk (SSD) and an inner advection-dominated accretion flow. When the entire accretion disk type changes into an SSD, the jet is quenched because the plasmas bring more rest-mass energy than what is extracted from the hole electromagnetically to stop the extraction. Several other issues related to observed BH disk-jet couplings, such as why the radio luminosity increases with increasing X-ray luminosity until the radio emission drops, are also explained.

  6. Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground Based High Power HF ("Heating") Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    by ground based high power HF (’ heating ’) facilities 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Dr. Alexander...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Grant SPC 00-4010 Final Report STUDIES OF PLASMA INSTABILITY PROCESSES EXCITED BY GROUND BASED HIGH POWER HF (" HEATING ...growing field of ionospheric HF heating . The main new results can be summarized as following: 1. Two sets of observations of suprathermal electrons

  7. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOEpatents

    McLaughlin, David F.; Dighe, Shyam V.; Gass, William R.

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles.

  8. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOEpatents

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Dighe, S.V.; Gass, W.R.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles. 4 figs.

  9. Method to Improve Indium Bump Bonding via Indium Oxide Removal Using a Multi-Step Plasma Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. Frank (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Dickie, Matthew R. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process for removing indium oxide from indium bumps in a flip-chip structure to reduce contact resistance, by a multi-step plasma treatment. A first plasma treatment of the indium bumps with an argon, methane and hydrogen plasma reduces indium oxide, and a second plasma treatment with an argon and hydrogen plasma removes residual organics. The multi-step plasma process for removing indium oxide from the indium bumps is more effective in reducing the oxide, and yet does not require the use of halogens, does not change the bump morphology, does not attack the bond pad material or under-bump metallization layers, and creates no new mechanisms for open circuits.

  10. Design and construction of Keda Space Plasma Experiment (KSPEX) for the investigation of the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongkai; Lei, Jiuhou; Cao, Jinxiang; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Yaodong

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the design and construction of the Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX), which aims to study the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions, are described in detail. The device is composed of three stainless-steel sections: two source chambers at both ends and an experimental chamber in the center. KSPEX is a steady state experimental device, in which hot filament arrays are used to produce plasmas in the two sources. A Macor-mesh design is adopted to adjust the plasma density and potential difference between the two plasmas, which creates a boundary layer with a controllable electron density gradient and inhomogeneous radial electric field. In addition, attachment chemicals can be released into the plasmas through a tailor-made needle valve which leads to the generation of negative ions plasmas. Ionospheric depletions can be modeled and simulated using KSPEX, and many micro-physical processes of the formation and evolution of an ionospheric depletion can be experimentally studied.

  11. Design and construction of Keda Space Plasma Experiment (KSPEX) for the investigation of the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongkai; Lei, Jiuhou; Cao, Jinxiang; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Yaodong

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the design and construction of the Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX), which aims to study the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions, are described in detail. The device is composed of three stainless-steel sections: two source chambers at both ends and an experimental chamber in the center. KSPEX is a steady state experimental device, in which hot filament arrays are used to produce plasmas in the two sources. A Macor-mesh design is adopted to adjust the plasma density and potential difference between the two plasmas, which creates a boundary layer with a controllable electron density gradient and inhomogeneous radial electric field. In addition, attachment chemicals can be released into the plasmas through a tailor-made needle valve which leads to the generation of negative ions plasmas. Ionospheric depletions can be modeled and simulated using KSPEX, and many micro-physical processes of the formation and evolution of an ionospheric depletion can be experimentally studied.

  12. Application of pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process to an industrial incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Won-Suk; Choi, Yu-Ri; Oh, Jong-Seok; Jang, Sung-Duck; Son, Yoon-Gyu; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Namkung, Won; Koh, Dong-Jun; Mok, Young-Sun; Chung, Jae-Woo

    2003-06-01

    Pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process (PPCP) has been investigated for the simultaneous removal of NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) from the flue gas emission. It is one of the world's largest scales of PPCP for treating NO(x) and SO2 simultaneously. A PPCP unit equipped with an average 120 kW modulator has been installed and tested at an industrial incinerator with the gas flow rate of 42 000 m3/h. To improve the removal efficiency of SO2 and NO(x), ammonia (NH3) and propylene (C3H6) were used as chemical additives. It was observed that the pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process made significant NO(x) and SO2 conversion with reasonable electric power consumption. The ammonia injection was very effective in the enhancement of SO2 removal. NO removal efficiency was significantly improved by injecting a C3H6 additive. In the experiments, the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO(x) were approximately 99 and 70%, respectively. The specific energy consumption during the normal operation was approximately 1.4 Wh/m3, and the nanopulse conversion efficiency of 64.3% was achieved with the pulsed corona induced plasma chemical process.

  13. Hollow silicon carbide nanoparticles from a non-thermal plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Devin; Lopez, Thomas; Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul; Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of hollow silicon carbide nanoparticles via a two-step process involving the non-thermal plasma synthesis of silicon nanoparticles, followed by their in-flight carbonization, also initiated by a non-thermal plasma. Simple geometric considerations associated with the expansion of the silicon lattice upon carbonization, in combination of the spherical geometry of the system, explain the formation of hollow nanostructures. This is in contrast with previous reports that justify the formation of hollow particles by means of out-diffusion of the core element, i.e., by the Kirkendall nanoscale effect. A theoretical analysis of the diffusion kinetics indicates that interaction with the ionized gas induces significant nanoparticle heating, allowing for the fast transport of carbon into the silicon particle and for the subsequent nucleation of the beta-silicon carbide phase. This work confirms the potential of non-thermal plasma processes for the synthesis of nanostructures composed of high-melting point materials, and suggests that such processes can be tuned to achieve morphological control.

  14. A stop-restart solid propellant study with salt quench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to gain insight into the unsatisfactory performance of the salt quench system of solid propellants in earlier studies. Nine open-air salt spray tests were conducted and high-speed cinematographic coverage was obtained of the events. It is shown that the salt spray by the detonator is generally a two-step process yielding two different fractions. The first fraction consists of finely powdered salt and moves practically unidirectionally at a high velocity (thousand of feet per second) while the second fraction consists of coarse particles and moves randomly at a low velocity (a few feet per second). Further investigation is required to verify the speculation that a lower quench charge ratio (weight of salt/propellant burning area) than previously employed may lead to an efficient quench

  15. Dynamical Outcomes of Quenching: Reflections on a Conical Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Julia H.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2014-04-01

    This review focuses on experimental studies of the dynamical outcomes following collisional quenching of electronically excited OH A2Σ+ radicals by molecular partners. The experimental observables include the branching between reactive and nonreactive decay channels, kinetic energy release, and quantum state distributions of the products. Complementary theoretical investigations reveal regions of strong nonadiabatic coupling, known as conical intersections, which facilitate the quenching process. The dynamical outcomes observed experimentally are connected to the local forces and geometric properties of the nuclei in the conical intersection region. Dynamical calculations for the benchmark OH-H2 system are in good accord with experimental observations, demonstrating that the outcomes reflect the strong coupling in the conical intersection region as the system evolves from the excited electronic state to quenched products.

  16. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, William E.; Crouch, M. R.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace that will operate in the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) on the International Space Station. It will provide high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. Numerical analyses and breadboard testing conducted to date show that the QMI can produce an axial temperature gradient approaching 150 C per centimeter in a 1 centimeter diameter aluminum sample with a maximum molten sample temperature of 1100 C. Breadboard testing and analysis have also shown that the quench capabilities of the furnace are sufficient to rapidly solidify at least a 5mm axial portion of a 1 centimeter diameter molten aluminum sample in significantly less than the required 2 seconds and prevent significant backmelt. This paper presents the furnace requirements and capabilities and a status of the associated development testing and analyses.

  17. Processing-microstructure-properties relationships in small-particle plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawdsley, Jennifer Renee

    The objective of this study was to determine processing-microstructure-properties relationships for small-particle plasma-sprayed (SPPS) ceramic coatings. Plasma-sprayed yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, which are used to protect superalloys from heat and the environment in turbine engines, and plasma-sprayed alumina coatings, which are being investigated as a potential replacement for chrome in corrosion protection applications, were fabricated using SPPS technology and their microstructure and pertinent properties were examined. The properties of plasma-sprayed YSZ and alumina coatings were investigated with designed experiments. The parameters varied include power, spray distance, total plasma gas flow, percent hydrogen in the plasma gas, injector angle, injector offset and carrier gas flow. The variations in thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and hardness for the YSZ SPPS coatings were found to correlate to the variations in density, which were related to the processing variables. It was found that surface roughness was related to the amount of splashing and debris associated with the single splats. In four-point bending strain tolerance and fatigue tests, the SPPS YSZ coatings showed very little acoustic emission activity, except in the case of tensile fatigue of a coating without network cracks. Small angle X-ray scattering experiments revealed that SPPS YSZ coatings have significantly less submicron intersplat porosity than conventional plasma-sprayed coatings, and that the pore and microcrack scattering area decreases with heat treatment due to the sintering of microcracks and small pores. The SPPS alumina coatings were optimized to produce a coating with excellent corrosion protection capabilities. It was found that the hardest SPPS alumina coatings did not provide the best corrosion protection due to unique porosity defect structures associated with surface bumps in the coatings. The surface bumps were

  18. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission...Resolving Fundamental Processes in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a multiple-spacecraft Solar-Terrestrial Probe designed to study the microphysics of magnetic reconnection, charged particle acceleration, and turbulence in key boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere. These three processes, which control the flow of energy, mass, and momentum within and across plasma boundaries, occur throughout the universe and are fundamental to our understanding of astrophysical and solar system plasmas. Only in Earth's magnetosphere, however, are they readily accessible for sustained study through in-situ measurement. MMS will employ five co-orbiting spacecraft identically instrumented to measure electric and magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic particles. The initial parameters of the individual spacecraft orbits will be designed so that the spacecraft formation will evolve into a three-dimensional configuration near apogee, allowing MMS to differentiate between spatial and temporal effects and to determine the three dimensional geometry of plasma, field, and current structures. In order to sample all of the magnetospheric boundary regions, MMS will employ a unique four-phase orbital strategy involving carefully sequenced changes in the local time and radial distance of apogee and, in the third phase, a change in orbit inclination from 10 degrees to 90 degrees. The nominal mission operational lifetime is two years. Launch is currently scheduled for 2006.

  19. Hot forging of melt quenched powder: Microstructure development and kinetics of densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavan, Hrishikesh

    Hot powder forging is a new process for making scalable and cost-effective nanocrystalline ceramics. It utilizes powder typically between 5 mum to 25 mum to nucleate very stable crystallite sizes well below 100 nm. These particles superplastically deform at relatively moderate temperature and stress. Hence, rapid densification at high creep rates is achieved with limited grain growth. A novel way to achieve high creep rate is to take advantage of partially amorphous powders that are obtained by one of the many available rapid quenching processes. Our study uses a plasma flame to melt the spray-dried aggregates of a particular composition and rapidly quench into water that results in metastable, optically transparent powder. The plasma sprayed powder is first hot pressed to obtain cylindrical pellets and then hot-forged at various stresses and temperatures to obtain optimum creep rates. Eutectic oxide compositions were studied due to their low melting point and better glass forming ability in an effort to optimize both the composition and processing parameters. Five binary compositions of alumina, zirconia and magnesium aluminate spinel and the effect of adding borosilicate glass on creep rates and microstructure were investigated. Their phase evolution and crystallite growth were examined in a detailed annealing study. The final densities after hot forging were composition dependent and ranged from 86% to 100% at 1350°C. Creep rates of the binary eutectic increased by an order of magnitude when alumina was substituted with spinel or when borosilicate glass was added. The highest creep rate obtained would correspond to 10-4 1/s for 40 MPa at 1350°C. SEM studies confirm that the densification is by plastic deformation of particles. TEM studies reveal nano-sized zirconia either in an alumina or spinel matrix. The grain morphology was cellular in compositions without glass and acicular in compositions with glass.

  20. Quenched dislocation enhanced supersolid ordering.

    PubMed

    Toner, John

    2008-01-25

    I show using Landau theory that quenched dislocations can facilitate the supersolid to normal solid transition, making it possible for the transition to occur even if it does not in a dislocation-free crystal. I make detailed predictions for the dependence of the supersolid to normal solid transition temperature T_{c}(L), superfluid density rho_{S}(T,L), and specific heat C(T,L) on temperature T and dislocation spacing L, all of which can be tested against experiments. The results should also be applicable to an enormous variety of other systems, including, e.g., ferromagnets.

  1. Quantitative Imaging in Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S.

    2007-01-01

    The process of quantitative imaging, which is very commonly used in laboratory, is shown to be very useful for studying the fast kinetics and fluorescence quenching of many experiments. The imaging technique is extremely cheap and hence can be used in many absorption and luminescence experiments.

  2. NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES: SPACE PLASMAS AND THE INNER HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-04-10

    Recently, empirical kappa distribution, commonly used to describe non-equilibrium systems like space plasmas, has been connected with non-extensive statistical mechanics. Here we show how a consistent definition of the temperature and pressure is developed for stationary states out of thermal equilibrium, so that the familiar ideal gas state equation still holds. In addition to the classical triplet of temperature, pressure, and density, this generalization requires the kappa index as a fourth independent thermodynamic variable that characterizes the non-equilibrium stationary states. All four of these thermodynamic variables have key roles in describing the governing thermodynamical processes and transitions in space plasmas. We introduce a novel characterization of isothermal and isobaric processes that describe a system's transition into different stationary states by varying the kappa index. In addition, we show how the variation of temperature or/and pressure can occur through an 'iso-q' process, in which the system remains in a fixed stationary state (fixed kappa index). These processes have been detected in the proton plasma in the inner heliosheath via specialized data analysis of energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations from Interstellar Boundary Explorer. In particular, we find that the temperature is highly correlated with (1) kappa, asymptotically related to isothermal ({approx}1,000,000 K) and iso-q ({kappa} {approx} 1.7) processes; and (2) density, related to an isobaric process, which separates the 'Ribbon', P Almost-Equal-To 3.2 pdyn cm{sup -2}, from the globally distributed ENA flux, P Almost-Equal-To 2 pdyn cm{sup -2}.

  3. Transport processes and distribution of plasma in the ionosphere during total solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwuma, Victor

    2016-07-01

    The effect of solar eclipse on the ionospheric F2 layer does not appear to depend only on the changes in the electron density. In this regards therefore, we have investigated the transport term process and the distribution F2 plasma during three total solar eclipses (TSE) at low- and mid-latitude. Particularly, the diurnal changes in the NmF2 and hmF2 during these spectacular events, as recorded by the ionosondes situated along the path of solar eclipses, which are within the obscuration percentage of 59-90% were investigated. Presently, our results show that NmF2 decreased during the eclipse window, as a consequence of the variation in the local solar radiation in regions under investigation. However, at mid-latitude, the distribution of F2 plasma was dominated by diffusion mechanisms which determined the height at which the F2 peak formed and were related to the changes in thermospheric composition. While at low-latitude the plasma distribution during TSE appeared to depend on combined effect of solar ionizing radiation (SIR) and the background nighttime ionospheric instabilities/irregularities mechanism. The downward/upward transport processes of the plasma appear to correspond with the drifting of the diffusion mechanisms and suffered a comparable variation with the SIR. Furthermore, at low-latitude ionosphere the transport process is controlled by the equatorial electric field. It is also observed that the eastward/westward movement of the equatorial electric field during the eclipse phase was connected to the upward/downward movement of the vertical transport. In conclusion, our results appear to indicate that eclipse effects increased with increase in latitude and the time lag decreases with increase in latitude.

  4. Modeling the formation of the quench product in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Inkaew, Kanawut; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials. The dominant mineral phases produced by quenching process and detected by XRD were calcite, Friedel's salt, hydrocalumite and portlandite. The formation of quench product was controlled by the fine fraction of the bottom ash (particle size <0.425mm). From the observations, a conceptual model of the ash-water reactions and formation of the quench product in the bottom ash was proposed.

  5. Surprising synthesis of nanodiamond from single-walled carbon nanotubes by the spark plasma sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Ham, Heon; Na, Han Gil; Kwon, Yong Jung; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Park, No-Hyung; Kang, Inpil; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2016-10-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was successfully synthesized using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a pure solid carbon source by means of a spark plasma sintering process. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the generation of the cubic diamond phase by means of the SPS process. Lattice-resolved TEM images confirmed that diamond nanoparticles with a diameter of about ˜10 nm existed in the products. The NDs were generated mainly through the gas-phase nucleation of carbon atoms evaporated from the SWCNTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Experimental studies of ionospheric irregularities and related plasma processes. Final report, March 1982-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Utah State University (USU) continued its program of measuring and interpreting electron density and its variations in a variety of ionospheric conditions with the Experimental Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities and Related Plasma Processes program. The program represented a nearly ten year effort to provide key measurements of electron density and its fluctuations using sounding rockets. The program also involved the joint interpretation of the results in terms of ionospheric processes. A complete campaign summary and a brief description of the major rocket campaigns are also included.

  7. Gap formation processes in a high-density plasma opening switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, J. M.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Ottinger, P. F.; Commisso, R. J.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Weber, B. V.

    1995-01-01

    A gap opening process in plasma opening switches (POS) is examined with the aid of numerical simulations. In these simulations, a high density (ne=1014-5×1015 cm-3) uniform plasma initially bridges a small section of the coaxial transmission line of an inductive energy storage generator. A short section of vacuum transmission line connects the POS to a short circuit load. The results presented here extend previous simulations in the ne=1012-1013 cm-3 density regime. The simulations show that a two-dimensional (2-D) sheath forms in the plasma near a cathode. This sheath is positively charged, and electrostatic sheath potentials that are large compared to the anode-cathode voltage develop. Initially, the 2-D sheath is located at the generator edge of the plasma. As ions are accelerated out of the sheath, it retains its original 2-D structure, but migrates axially toward the load creating a magnetically insulated gap in its wake. When the sheath reaches the load edge of the POS, the POS stops conducting current and the load current increases rapidly. At the end of the conduction phase a gap exists in the POS whose size is determined by the radial dimensions of the 2-D sheath. Simulations at various plasma densities and current levels show that the radial size of the gap scales roughly as B/ne, where B is the magnetic field. The results of this work are discussed in the context of long-conduction-time POS physics, but exhibit the same physical gap formation mechanisms as earlier lower density simulations more relevant to short-conduction-time POS.

  8. Silicon cells made by self-aligned selective-emitter plasma-etchback process

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Schubert, William K.; Gee, James M.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells and methods for making them are disclosed wherein the metallized grids of the cells are used to mask portions of cell emitter regions to allow selective etching of phosphorus-doped emitter regions. The preferred etchant is SF.sub.6 or a combination of SF.sub.6 and O.sub.2. This self-aligned selective etching allows for enhanced blue response (versus cells with uniform heavy doping of the emitter) while preserving heavier doping in the region beneath the gridlines needed for low contact resistance. Embodiments are disclosed for making cells with or without textured surfaces. Optional steps include plasma hydrogenation and PECVD nitride deposition, each of which are suited to customized applications for requirements of given cells to be manufactured. The techniques disclosed could replace expensive and difficult alignment methodologies used to obtain selectively etched emitters, and they may be easily integrated with existing plasma processing methods and techniques of the invention may be accomplished in a single plasma-processing chamber.

  9. Optimization of hollow cathode discharge electrode for damage free remote plasma removal process for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Tae S.; Han, Qing; Yang, Dongqing; Park, Soonam; Lubomirsky, Dima; Venkataraman, Shankar

    2016-05-01

    Cone-shaped hollow cathode electrode configuration for a damage free remote plasma removal process has been optimized for given pressures based on Paschen characteristic curves, voltage-current characteristics and time-resolved discharge observations as well as oxide film removal performances. Remote plasmas have been generated in two types of cone-shaped electrodes with mixtures of He, NF3, and NH3 for pressure range of 1-30 Torr. Paschen characteristic curves and voltage-current (V-I) characteristics define an operating pressure for low breakdown voltage and the hollow cathode effect to minimize the particles. Sinusoidal voltage waveform and asymmetry electrode configuration alternate the glow discharge and hollow cathode discharge modes in a cycle. The current and infrared emission intensity from the glow discharge increases together for both cone-shaped electrodes with increasing pressure, whereas the hollow cathode discharge plasma emits strong infrared only when pD condition is satisfied. For the wide cone electrode configuration, high voltage operation at higher pressure results in particle contamination on the processed wafer by high energy ion bombardment. Operating at optimum pressure for a given electrode configuration shows faster oxide etch rate with better uniformity over a whole 300 mm wafer.

  10. Challenges in the Plasma Etch Process Development in the sub-20nm Technology Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kaushik

    2013-09-01

    For multiple generations of semiconductor technologies, RF plasmas have provided a reliable platform for critical and non-critical patterning applications. The electron temperature of processes in a RF plasma is typically several electron volts. A substantial portion of the electron population is within the energy range accessible for different types of electron collision processes, such as electron collision dissociation and dissociative electron attachment. When these electron processes occur within a small distance above the wafer, the neutral species, radicals and excited molecules, generated from these processes take part in etching reactions impacting selectivity, ARDE and micro-loading. The introduction of finFET devices at 22 nm technology node at Intel marks the transition of planar devices to 3-dimensional devices, which add to the challenges to etch process in fabricating such devices. In the sub-32 nm technology node, Back-end-of-the-line made a change with the implementation of Trench First Metal Hard Mask (TFMHM) integration scheme, which has hence gained traction and become the preferred integration of low-k materials for BEOL. This integration scheme also enables Self-Aligned Via (SAV) patterning which prevents via CD growth and confines via by line trenches to better control via to line spacing. In addition to this, lack of scaling of 193 nm Lithography and non-availability of EUV based lithography beyond concept, has placed focus on novel multiple patterning schemes. This added complexity has resulted in multiple etch schemes to enable technology scaling below 80 nm Pitches, as shown by the memory manufacturers. Double-Patterning and Quad-Patterning have become increasingly used techniques to achieve 64 nm, 56 nm and 45 nm Pitch technologies in Back-end-of-the-line. Challenges associated in the plasma etching of these multiple integration schemes will be discussed in the presentation. In collaboration with A. Ranjan, TEL Technology Center, America

  11. Observation of nonlinear wave decay processes in the solar wind by the AMPTE IRM plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Roeder, J. L.; Bauer, O. H.; Haerendel, G.; Treumann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear wave decay processes have been detected in the solar wind by the plasma wave experiment aboard the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) IRM spacecraft. The main process is the generation of ultralow-frequency ion acoustic waves from the decay of Langmuir waves near the electron plasma frequency. Frequently, this is accompanied by an enhancement of emissions near twice the plasma frequency. This enhancement is most likely due to the generation of electromagnetic waves from the coalescence of two Langmuir waves. These processes occur within the electron foreshock in front of the earth's bow shock.

  12. Determining the Volume of Additive Solution and Residual Plasma in Whole Blood Filtered and Buffy Coat Processed Red Cell Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Andrew; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Residual plasma in transfused red cell concentrates (RCCs) has been associated with adverse transfusion outcomes. Despite this, there is no consensus on the standard procedure for measuring residual plasma volume. Methods The volumes of residual plasma and additive solution were measured in RCCs processed using two separation methods: whole blood filtration (WBF) and buffy coat (BC)/RCC filtration. The concentration of mannitol and albumin in RCC components was measured using colorimetric assays. Mannitol concentration was used to calculate additive solution volume. Residual plasma volume was calculated using two methods. Results Calculated RCC supernatant volumes were much lower in BC-processed components compared to WBF-processed components (BC = 97 ± 6 ml, WBF = 109 ± 4 ml; p < 0.05). Calculated additive solution volumes were greater in WBF- than in BC-processed components (BC = 81 ± 4 ml, WBF = 105 ± 2 ml; p < 0.05). Absolute residual plasma volume varied significantly based on the calculation method used. Conclusion Disparity between plasma volume calculation methods was observed. Efforts should be made to standardize residual plasma volume measurement methods in order to accurately assess the impact of residual plasma on transfusion outcomes. PMID:27330533

  13. Quench antenna for superconducting particle accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ogitsu, T.; Devred, A.; Kim, K.

    1993-10-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and test of an assembly of stationary pickup coils which can be used to localize quench origins. After describing the pickup coils configuration, we develop a simple model of current redistribution which allows interpretation of the measured voltages and determination of the turn of the magnet coil in which the quench started. The technique is illustrated by analyzing the data from a quench of a 5-cm-aperture, 15-m-long SSC dipole magnet prototype.

  14. Formation processes of nanometer sized particles in low pressure Ar/CH{sub 4} rf plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Beckers, J.; Vacaresse, G. D. G. J.; Stoffels, W. W.

    2008-09-07

    In this paper, formation and growth processes of nanometer and micrometer sized dust particles in low pressure Ar/CH{sub 4} rf (13.56 MHz) plasmas are investigated as function of temperature in the range 25-100 deg. C. During experiments the pressure was typically 0.8 mbar and the forward power to the plasma was {approx}70 Watt. Measuring the fundamental voltage, current and phase angle together with their harmonics (up to the fourth) gives a good method to monitor the creation and growth of these dust particles in time. Furthermore, laser light scattering measurements are performed to give information about the dust particle density. It has been shown that dust particle formation in these conditions depends greatly on temperature.

  15. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  16. Plasma processing of large curved surfaces for superconducting rf cavity modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, J.; Im, Do; Popović, S.; Valente-Feliciano, A.-M.; Phillips, L.; Vušković, L.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma-based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. We have demonstrated surface layer removal in an asymmetric nonplanar geometry, using a simple cylindrical cavity. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (rf) circuit elements, gas pressure, rf power, chlorine concentration in the Cl2/Ar gas mixtures, residence time of reactive species, and temperature of the cavity. Using variable radius cylindrical electrodes, large-surface ring-shaped samples, and dc bias in the external circuit, we have measured substantial average etching rates and outlined the possibility of optimizing plasma properties with respect to maximum surface processing effect.

  17. The effect of processing parameters on plasma sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Jacobson, L.A.; Cowgill, D.F.; Snead, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    Plasma spraying is being investigated as a potential coating technique for applying thin (0.1--5mm) layers of beryllium on plasma facing surfaces of blanket modules in ITER and also as an in-situ repair technique for repairing eroded beryllium surfaces in high heat flux divertor regions. High density spray deposits (>98% of theoretical density) of beryllium will be required in order to maximize the thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. A preliminary investigation was done to determine the effect of various processing parameters (particle size, particle morphology, secondary gas additions and reduced chamber pressure) on the as-deposited density of beryllium. The deposits were made using spherical beryllium feedstock powder which was produced by centrifugal atomization at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Improvements in the as-deposited densities and deposit efficiencies of the beryllium spray deposits will be discussed along with the corresponding thermal conductivity and outgassing behavior of these deposits.

  18. Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Volokitin, Oleg Volokitin, Gennady Skripnikova, Nelli Shekhovtsov, Valentin; Vlasov, Viktor

    2016-01-15

    Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ r{sub p} ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ r{sub p} ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.

  19. Influence of renormalization shielding on the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-04-15

    The renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization of hydrogen atom are investigated in dense partially ionized plasmas. The effective projectile-target interaction Hamiltonian and the semiclassical trajectory method are employed to obtain the transition amplitude as well as the ionization probability as functions of the impact parameter, the collision energy, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization shielding effect suppresses the transition amplitude for the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization effect suppresses the differential ionization cross section in the peak impact parameter region. In addition, it is found that the influence of renormalization shielding on the ionization cross section decreases with an increase of the relative collision energy. The variations of the renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization cross section are also discussed.

  20. Defective iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesised by high temperature plasma processing: a magnetic characterisation versus temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, C.; Joseph, B.; Orpe, PB; Saini, NL; Mukherjee, S.; Dziedzic-Kocurek, K.; Stanek, J.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Marcelli, A.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic properties and phase compositions of iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesised by a high temperature arc plasma route have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and high harmonic magnetic AC susceptibility measurements, and correlated with morphological and structural properties for different synthesis conditions. The Mössbauer spectra precisely determined the presence of different iron-oxide fractions in the investigated nanoparticles, while the high harmonic magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed the occurrence of metastable magnetic phases evolving in temperature and time. This study illustrates magnetic properties and dynamics of the magnetic configurations of iron-oxide nanoparticles grown by high temperature plasma, a process less explored so far but extremely useful for synthesising large numbers of nanoparticles for industrial applications.

  1. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; Bigelow, Timothy S [Knoxville, TN

    2010-11-02

    A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in which a microwave plasma is excited in a selected gas atmosphere. Fiber is drawn continuously through the chamber, entering and exiting through openings designed to minimize in-leakage of air. There is a gradient of microwave power within the chamber with generally higher power near where the fiber exits and lower power near where the fiber enters. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch, or any other suitable organic/polymeric precursor fibers can be used as a feedstock for the inventive system. Oxidized or partially oxidized PAN or pitch or other polymeric fiber precursors are run continuously through a MAP reactor in an inert, non-oxidizing atmosphere to heat the fibers, drive off the unwanted elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and produce carbon or graphite fibers faster than conventionally produced carbon fibers.

  2. Processes accompanying the charging of dust grains in the ionospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Morzhakova, A. A.; Popel, S. I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-08-15

    The influence of the neutral component of the dusty ionospheric plasma on the process of dust grain charging is analyzed. Microscopic ion fluxes onto a dust grain are calculated with allowance for the interaction with the neutral components of the ionospheric plasma for both negatively and positively charged dust grains. For the latter case, which takes place in the presence of intense UV or X-ray solar radiation, the electron heating caused by the photoelectric effect is also investigated. It is found that the efficiency of electron heating depends on the density of neutral particles. The altitudes at which these effects appreciably influence the charging of different types of nano- and microscale dust grains are determined. It is shown that these effects should be taken into account in describing noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, and physical phenomena involving grains of meteoric origin.

  3. Inactivation of Bacteria in Oil Field Injected Water by a Pulsed Plasma Discharge Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qing; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed plasma discharge was employed to inactivate bacteria in the injection water for an oil field. The effects of water conductivity and initial concentration of bacteria on elimination efficiency were investigated in the batch and continuous flow modes. It was demonstrated that Fe2+ contained in injection water could enhance the elimination efficiency greatly. The addition of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) indicated that active radicals generated by pulsed plasma discharges played an important role in the inactivation of bacteria. Moreover, it was found that the microbial inactivation process for both batch and continuous flow mode well fitted the model based on the Weibull's survival function. supported by Zhejiang Province Welfare Technology Applied Research Project of China (No. 2014C31137), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21436007 and U1462201), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2015QNA4032)

  4. Development of dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for mass spectrometry and thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-07-01

    Cost effective and a very simple dielectric barrier discharge plasma processing apparatus for thin film deposition and mass spectroscopic analysis of organic gas mixture has been described. The interesting features of the apparatus are the construction of the dielectric electrodes made of aluminum oxide or alumina (Al2O3) and glass and the generation of high ignition voltage from the spark plug transformer taken from car. Metal capacitor is introduced in between ground and oscilloscope to measure the executing power during the discharge and the average electron density in the plasma region. The organic polymer films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate using several organic gas compositions. The experimental setup provides a unique drainage system from the reaction chamber controlled by a membrane pump to suck out and remove the poisonous gases or residuals (cyanogens, H-CN, CHxNH2, etc.) which have been produced during the discharge of CH4/N2 mixture.

  5. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, T. Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F.; Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2016-02-15

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30–120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  6. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.; Hatayama, A.; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F.

    2016-02-01

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30-120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  7. Influence of charging process and size distribution of dust grain on the electric conductivity of dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Jizheng; Wang Canglong; Zhang Jianrong; Ma Shengqian; Hong Xueren; Sun Jianan; Duan Wenshan; Yang Lei

    2012-08-15

    The effects of dust size distribution and charging process of dust grains on the complex electric conductivity of dusty plasmas have been investigated in the present paper. Comparisons are made between real dusty plasma in which there are many different dust grain species and the mono-sized dusty plasma (MDP) in which there is only one kind of dust grain whose size is the average dust size. In some cases the complex electric conductivity of real dusty plasma is larger than that of MDP, while in other cases it is smaller than that of MDP, it depends on the dust size distribution function.

  8. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Nishida, K; Mochizuki, S; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Hatayama, A; Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ohkoshi, K; Ikegami, K; Takagi, A; Asano, H; Naito, F

    2016-02-01

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30-120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  9. Influence of charging process and size distribution of dust grain on the electric conductivity of dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ji-Zheng; Wang, Cang-Long; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Ma, Sheng-Qian; Hong, Xue-Ren; Sun, Jian-An; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    The effects of dust size distribution and charging process of dust grains on the complex electric conductivity of dusty plasmas have been investigated in the present paper. Comparisons are made between real dusty plasma in which there are many different dust grain species and the mono-sized dusty plasma (MDP) in which there is only one kind of dust grain whose size is the average dust size. In some cases the complex electric conductivity of real dusty plasma is larger than that of MDP, while in other cases it is smaller than that of MDP, it depends on the dust size distribution function.

  10. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  11. Plasma Processing Systems for the Manufacture of Refractory Metals and their Alloys for Military Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-09

    plasma- induction furnace include, the achievement of vacuum quality (low oxygen, low hydrogen) alloy melts, deoxidation and desulfurization using highly...17 Plasma Arc Melting Furnaces .... ................. ..18 Plasma Induction Furnaces ...... .................. 30 ! Future Outlook...26 FIG. 7 Design Features of a Plasma Induction Furnace (Japan) . . . . 31 FIG. 8 Photograph of a 2 Ton Plasma Induction Melting Furnace

  12. Neural Variability Quenching Predicts Individual Perceptual Abilities.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Ayelet; Censor, Nitzan; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-01-04

    Neural activity during repeated presentations of a sensory stimulus exhibits considerable trial-by-trial variability. Previous studies have reported that trial-by-trial neural variability is reduced (quenched) by the presentation of a stimulus. However, the functional significance and behavioral relevance of variability quenching and the potential physiological mechanisms that may drive it have been studied only rarely. Here, we recorded neural activity with EEG as subjects performed a two-interval forced-choice contrast discrimination task. Trial-by-trial neural variability was quenched by ∼40% after the presentation of the stimulus relative to the variability apparent before stimulus presentation, yet there were large differences in the magnitude of variability quenching across subjects. Individual magnitudes of quenching predicted individual discrimination capabilities such that subjects who exhibited larger quenching had smaller contrast discrimination thresholds and steeper psychometric function slopes. Furthermore, the magnitude of variability quenching was strongly correlated with a reduction in broadband EEG power after stimulus presentation. Our results suggest that neural variability quenching is achieved by reducing the amplitude of broadband neural oscillations after sensory input, which yields relatively more reproducible cortical activity across trials and enables superior perceptual abilities in individuals who quench more.

  13. a Thermohydraulic-Quenching Code for Superconducting Magnets in Network Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Schultz, Joel; Minervini, Joe

    2010-04-01

    A thermohydraulic-quench code "Solxport3D-Quench" has been developed for a system of superconducting and normal solenoid magnets with supply network circuits. Each power supply network circuit consists of at least one superconducting magnet with parallel circuits including voltage sources, resistors or diodes. When used for analysis of a magnetic confinement fusion device, the plasma currents and passive structure eddy currents are also included in all scenarios. The simulation starts from superconducting stage for each magnet coil. The superconducting stage switches to quench stage if any one of the superconducting magnets quenches (i.e., exceeding the current sharing temperature.) It is followed by the dumping stage after a given quench detection time. The recovery of the superconducting stage is allowed at any time step before dumping. The currents of each magnetic coil are calculated by a time-difference method. The thermohydraulic parameters during superconducting and quench/dumping stage are obtained by a finite element method. The size and location of each finite element are dynamically defined at each time step during quench and dumping. Calibrations against test data are presented.

  14. Quench in superconducting magnets. 2: Analytic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajii, A.; Freidberg, J. P.

    1994-09-01

    A set of analytic solutions for the Quencher model, as described in Part 1 (Shajii and Freidberg, 1994), is presented in this paper. These analytic solutions represent the first such results that remain valid for the long time scales of interest during a quench process. The assumptions and the resulting simplifications that lead to the analytic solutions are discussed, and the regimes of validity of the various approximations are specified. The predictions of the analytic results are shown to be in very good agreement with numerical as well as experimental results. Important analytic scaling relations are verified by such comparisons, and the consequences of some of these scalings on currently designed superconducting magnets are discussed.

  15. Response functions after a quantum quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcuzzi, Matteo; Gambassi, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    The response of physical systems to external perturbations can be used to probe both their equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics. While response and correlation functions are related in equilibrium by fluctuation-dissipation theorems, out of equilibrium they provide complementary information on the dynamics. In the past years, a method has been devised to map the quantum dynamics of an isolated extended system after a quench onto a static theory with boundaries in imaginary time; up to now, however, the focus was entirely on symmetrized correlation functions. Here we provide a prescription which, in principle, allows one to retrieve the whole set of relevant dynamical quantities characterizing the evolution, including linear response functions. We illustrate this construction with some relevant examples, showing in the process the emergence of light-cone effects similar to those observed in correlation functions.

  16. Characteristics of plasma plume and effect mechanism of lateral restraint during high power CO2 laser welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue; Cai, Yan; Sun, Dawei; Zhu, Junjie; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-12-01

    A novel lateral restraint method was proposed to suppress plasma plume of high power CO2 laser welding using a pair of copper blocks with cooling water. The plasma plume was observed with a high-speed camera, and its core zone and periphery zone were investigated based on the specific processing algorithm. With the specially designed shifting unit, the spectrum of plasma plume was scanned both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Based on the selected spectral lines, electron temperature and electron number density of plasma plume were calculated. The characteristics of plasma plume, as well as the restraint mechanism, were discussed both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Results showed that the cooling effect, blowing effect and the static pressure were enhanced by the lateral restraint, and the restraint effect of the near-wall low-temperature area limited the expansion of plasma plume greatly.

  17. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  18. Kinetic and spectral descriptions of autoionization phenomena associated with atomic processes in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Verne L.

    2017-03-01

    This investigation is devoted to the theoretical description and computer modeling of atomic processes giving rise to radiative emission in energetic electron and ion beam interactions and in laboratory plasmas. We are also interested in the effects of directed electron and ion collisions and of anisotropic electric and magnetic fields. In the kinetic-theory description, we treat excitation, de-excitation, ionization, and recombination in electron and ion encounters with partially ionized atomic systems, including the indirect contributions from processes involving autoionizing resonances. These fundamental collisional and electromagnetic interactions provide particle and photon transport mechanisms. From the spectral perspective, the analysis of atomic radiative emission can reveal detailed information on the physical properties in the plasma environment, such as non-equilibrium electron and charge-state distributions as well as electric and magnetic field distributions. In this investigation, a reduced-density-matrix formulation is developed for the microscopic description of atomic electromagnetic interactions in the presence of environmental (collisional and radiative) relaxation and decoherence processes. Our central objective is a fundamental microscopic description of atomic electromagnetic processes, in which both bound-state and autoionization-resonance phenomena can be treated in a unified and self-consistent manner. The time-domain (equation-of-motion) and frequency-domain (resolvent-operator) formulations of the reduced-density-matrix approach are developed in a unified and self-consistent manner. This is necessary for our ultimate goal of a systematic and self-consistent treatment of non-equilibrium (possibly coherent) atomic-state kinetics and high-resolution (possibly overlapping) spectral-line shapes. We thereby propose the introduction of a generalized collisional-radiative atomic-state kinetics model based on the reduced-density-matrix formulation

  19. Design of a uranium-dioxide powder spheroidization system by plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavender, Daniel

    The plasma spheroidization system (PSS) is the first process in the development of a tungsten-uranium dioxide (W-UO2) ceramic-metallic (cermet) fuel for nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion. For the purposes of fissile fuel retention, UO2 spheroids ranging in size from 50 - 100 micrometers (μm) in diameter will be encapsulated in a tungsten shell. The PSS produces spherical particles by melting angular stock particles in an argon-hydrogen plasma jet where they become spherical due to surface tension. Surrogate CeO 2 powder was used in place of UO2 for system and process parameter development. Stock and spheroidized powders were micrographed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by statistical methods to characterize and compare the spherocity of pre and post process powders. Particle spherocity was determined by irregularity parameter. Processed powders showed a statistically significant improvement in spherocity, with greater that 60% of the examined particles having an irregularity parameter of equal to or lower than 1.2, compared to stock powder.

  20. Optimization of an electron cyclotron resonance plasma etch process for n{sup +} polysilicon: HBr process chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, G.D.; Blain, M.G.; Westerfield, P.L.; Trutna, L.S.; Maxwell, K.L.

    1993-08-01

    Designed experiments were employed to characterize a process for etching phosphorus doped polycrystalline silicon with HBr in a close-coupled ECR plasma reactor configured for 200 mm wafers. A fractional factorial screening experiment was employed to determine the principal input factors and the main etch effects. Linear models of the process responses indicate RF power, O{sub 2} flow rate, and the position of the resonance zone (with respect to the wafer) as the three strongest factors influencing process performance. Response surfaces generated using data from a follow-on response surface methodology (RSM) experiment predicted an optimum operating region characterized by relatively low RF power, a small O{sub 2} flow, and a resonance zone position close to the wafer. The optimized process demonstrated a polysilicon etch rate of 270 nm/min, an etch rate non-uniformity of 2.2% (1s), an etch selectivity to oxide greater than 100:1, and anisotropic profiles. Particle test results for the optimized process indicated that careful selection of the O{sub 2} fraction is required to avoid polymer deposition and particle formation.