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Sample records for plasma source mass

  1. Plasma source mass spectrometry in experimental nutrition.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R M

    1998-01-01

    The development and commercial availability of plasma ion source, specifically inductively coupled plasma, mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) have significantly extended the potential application of stable isotopes for nutritional modeling. The status of research and commercial ICP-MS instruments, and their applications and limitations for stable isotopic studies are reviewed. The consequences of mass spectroscopic resolution and measurement sensitivity obtainable with quadrupole, sector, time-of-flight, and trap instruments on stable isotope analysis are examined. Requirements for reliable isotope measurements with practical biological samples including tissues and fluids are considered. The possibility for stable isotope analysis in chemically separated compounds (speciation) also is explored. On-line compound separations by chromatography or electrophoresis, for example, have been combined instrumentally with ICP-MS. Som possibilities and requirements are described for stable isotope speciation analysis.

  2. Plasma Ion Sources for Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Guo

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources using direct-current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) plasma have been developed in this thesis work. These ion sources can provide stable discharge currents of ~ 1 mA, 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the corona discharge, a widely used API source. The plasmas can be generated and maintained in 1 atm of various buffer gases by applying -500 to -1000 V (DC plasma) or 1-15 W with a frequency of 165 kHz (RF plasma) on the needle electrode. These ion sources have been used with liquid injection to detect various organic compounds of pharmaceutical, biotechnological and environmental interest. Key features of these ion sources include soft ionization with the protonated molecule as the largest peak, and superb sensitivity with detection limits in the low picogram or femtomole range and a linear dynamic range over ~4 orders of magnitude. The RF plasma has advantages over the DC plasma in its ability to operate in various buffer gases and to produce a more stable plasma. Factors influencing the performance of the ion sources have been studied, including RF power level, liquid flow rate, chamber temperature, solvent composition, and voltage affecting the collision induced dissociation (CID). Ionization of hydrocarbons by the RF plasma API source was also studied. Soft ionization is generally produced. To obtain high sensitivity, the ion source must be very dry and the needle-to-orifice distance must be small. Nitric oxide was used to enhance the sensitivity. The RF plasma source was then used for the analysis of hydrocarbons in auto emissions. Comparisons between the corona discharge and the RF plasma have been made in terms of discharge current, ion residence time, and the ion source model. The RF plasma source provides larger linear dynamic range and higher sensitivity than the corona discharge, due to its much larger discharge current. The RF plasma was also observed to provide longer ion residence times and was not

  3. Comparison of Three Plasma Sources for Ambient Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Kirsty; Salter, Tara L.; Bowfield, Andrew; Walsh, James L.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Bradley, James W.

    2014-09-01

    Plasma-based desorption/ionization sources are an important ionization technique for ambient surface analysis mass spectrometry. In this paper, we compare and contrast three competing plasma based desorption/ionization sources: a radio-frequency (rf) plasma needle, a dielectric barrier plasma jet, and a low-temperature plasma probe. The ambient composition of the three sources and their effectiveness at analyzing a range of pharmaceuticals and polymers were assessed. Results show that the background mass spectrum of each source was dominated by air species, with the rf needle producing a richer ion spectrum consisting mainly of ionized water clusters. It was also seen that each source produced different ion fragments of the analytes under investigation: this is thought to be due to different substrate heating, different ion transport mechanisms, and different electric field orientations. The rf needle was found to fragment the analytes least and as a result it was able to detect larger polymer ions than the other sources.

  4. Characterization of a Distributed Plasma Ionization Source (DPIS) for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Waltman, Melanie J.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert; Blanchard, William C.; Ewing, Robert G.

    2008-10-15

    A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions depending on the polarity of the applied potential. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H2O)nH+ with (H2O)2H+ as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO3-, NO3-, NO2-, O3- and O2- of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and environmental pollutants were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for several months and although deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions. The results indicated that the DPIS may have a longer operating life than a conventional corona discharge.

  5. Characterization of a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS) for ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waltman, Melanie J; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert H; Blanchard, William C; Ewing, Robert G

    2008-10-19

    A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H(2)O)(n)H(+) with (H(2)O)(2)H(+) as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO(3)(-), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), O(3)(-) and O(2)(-) of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and amines were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for 3 months and although surface deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions.

  6. Incorporation of an electro-optic ion detector into an improved plasma-source mass spectrograph.

    PubMed

    Solyom, David A; Barnes, James H; Grøn, Ole A; Hieftje, Gary M

    2002-10-01

    Throughout the history of mass spectrometry, array detectors have been used to conduct simultaneous and continuous mass-spectrographic studies. The benefits of acquiring multichannel data through the use of an array detector are well known and include greater duty cycle, improved precision through ratioing and internal-standardization techniques, and better quantitative analysis of fast signal transients. Because of these benefits, numerous types of array-detector-based instrumentation have been developed, including optical and mass spectrometers. Presented here is the improved performance of a plasma-source Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrograph fitted with a multichannel electro-optic ion detector. A glow-discharge source is used for all measurements. Previously reported array-detector-based data for this mass spectrograph were severely limited in quality and featured extremely poor peak shapes and resolution. Several figures of merit relevant to array detectors will be presented, including sensitivity, resolution, peak shape, and abundance sensitivity, all of which have been significantly improved. Remaining negative aspects of the array-detector performance include susceptibility to a magnetic field and the absence of uniform sensitivity across the array surface.

  7. Afterglow of a microwave microstrip plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuffer, Kevin P.; White, Allen; Broekaert, José A. C.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    A microwave-induced plasma that was previously used for optical emission spectrometry has been repurposed as an afterglow ion source for mass spectrometry. This compact microwave discharge, termed the microstrip plasma (MSP), is operated at 20-50 W and 2.45 GHz in helium at a flow of 300 mL/min. The primary background ions present in the afterglow are ionized and protonated water clusters. An exponential dilution chamber was used to introduce volatile organic compounds into the MSP afterglow and yielded limits of detection in the 40 ppb to 7 ppm range (v/v). A hydride-generation system was also utilized for detection of volatile hydride-forming elements (arsenic, antimony, tin) in the afterglow and produced limits of detection in the 10-100 ppb range in solution. The MSP afterglow was found capable of desorption and ionization of analyte species directly from a solid substrate, suggesting its use as an ion source for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  8. Microwave plasma ion sources for selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanel, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, David

    2007-11-01

    The performance of the ion sources used in selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, instruments is paramount in determining their sensitivities and detection limits for trace gas analysis. The microwave discharge plasma ion source that is currently used for the production of currents of the precursor H3O+, NO+ and O2+ ions for SIFT-MS is described, and the ion chemistry occurring within the plasma and the dissociation of the precursor ions on the helium carrier gas are considered. Thus, it is shown that the most suitable ion source gas composition is a mixture comprising maximal water vapour and minimal air at the lowest total pressure at which the discharge is sustained and stable. It is also shown that the injection energies of the precursor ions into the helium carrier gas must be kept low to minimize collisional dissociation of the ions and thus to minimize the fraction of reactive impurity ions in the carrier gas. Under these conditions, count rates greater than 106 s-1 of all three precursor ion species with less than 1% of impurity ions have been achieved, which has moved the detection limit of SIFT-MS analyses of the volatile metabolites present in exhaled breath and ambient air into the 0.1-1 parts-per-billion concentration regime.

  9. Recent developments in inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, A.N.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, J.C.; Jones, C.E.; Hall, C.M.; Yi, Wen; Teagle, D.; Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes advances in isotopic measurements that have been made with an inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometer and presents results of new experiments aimed at further evaluating the instrument`s capability. It is shown using standard solutions that trace element ratios such as Rb/Sr can be measured precisely without isotope dilution by comparison with reference solutions of known composition. Similarly, using a new wide flight tube, Pb isotopic compositions and U/Pb ratios can be accurately measured simultaneously without isotope dilution. The effects of deliberately inducing changes in the running conditions (RF power) are shown to be significant for measuring trace element ratios but not for mass bias and interference corrected isotopic compositions. Finally, it is demonstrated that precise and accurate isotopic compositions of elements as refractory as W can be determined relatively easily by solution nebulization and even by direct laser ablation of complex silicates. Isobaric interferences in such experiments are negligible. These experiments serve to highlight the remarkable potential that this new field offers for hitherto difficult isotopic measurements in nuclear, earth, environmental and medical sciences. Isotopic measurements can be made that are reproducible at high precision through a range of running conditions, even in the presence of isobaric interferences. The ability to correct for mass discrimination accurately using a second element of similar mass, the very high sensitivity for elements that are otherwise difficult to ionize, the demonstrated capability for laser ablation work and the ability to measure through a wide mass range simultaneously give this instrument major advantages over other more traditional techniques of isotopic measurement.

  10. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  11. An argon-nitrogen-hydrogen mixed-gas plasma as a robust ionization source for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makonnen, Yoseif; Beauchemin, Diane

    2014-09-01

    Multivariate optimization of an argon-nitrogen-hydrogen mixed-gas plasma for minimum matrix effects, while maintaining analyte sensitivity as much as possible, was carried out in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In the presence of 0.1 M Na, the 33.9 ± 3.9% (n = 13 elements) analyte signal suppression on average observed in an all-argon plasma was alleviated with the optimized mixed-gas plasma, the average being - 4.0 ± 8.8%, with enhancement in several cases. An addition of 2.3% v/v N2 in the outer plasma gas, and 0.50% v/v H2 to the central channel, as a sheath around the nebulizer gas flow, was sufficient for this drastic increase in robustness. It also reduced the background from ArO+ and Ar2+ as well as oxide levels by over an order of magnitude. On the other hand, the background from NO+ and ArN+ increased by up to an order of magnitude while the levels of doubly-charged ions increased to 7% (versus 2.7% in an argon plasma optimized for sensitivity). Furthermore, detection limits were generally degraded by 5 to 15 fold when using the mixed-gas plasma versus the argon plasma for matrix-free solution (although they were better for several elements in 0.1 M Na). Nonetheless, the drastically increased robustness allowed the direct quantitative multielement analysis of certified ore reference materials, as well as the determination of Mo and Cd in seawater, without using any matrix-matching or internal standardization.

  12. Sample analysis using plasma source mass spectrometry with electrothermal sample introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.J.; Van Loon, J.C.; Arrowsmith, P.; French, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    A detailed procedure is outlined for the analysis of practical samples by plasma mass spectrometry with an electrothermal vaporizer for sample introduction. Results have been obtained for the determination of As, Cu, Mn, Pb, Rb, V, Zn, and Ag in National Bureau of Standards (NBS) orchard leaves (SRM 1571) and oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and of Pb in a human blood sample used in an interlaboratory comparison study. Simultaneous multimass analysis is demonstrated for Pb isotopes in NBS 981. Generally, the results agreed with certified values. Absolute detection limits at the picogram level were obtained that are 10- to 100-fold better than those reported for ICP atomic emission spectrometry and 10-fold better than those obtained by nebulization with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviations ranged from 2% to 13%.

  13. Efficient Polyatomic Interference Reduction in Plasma-Source Mass Spectrometry Via Collision Induced Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Glen P.; King, Fred L; Duckworth, Douglas {Doug} C

    2003-02-01

    Evidence is provided that illustrates quadrupole ion traps can be used to selectively attenuate strongly bound diatomic ions occurring at the same nominal mass as an analyte ion of interest. Dissociation rates for TaO{sup +} (D{sub 0} {approx} 750 kJ mol{sup -1}) are found to be at least an order of magnitude larger than the loss rate of Au{sup +} due to scattering under 'slow heating' resonance excitation conditions at q{sub z} {approx} 0.67 and using neon as the bath gas. This rate difference is sufficient for the selective removal of this strongly-bound diatomic ion over the loss of the Au{sup +} at the same mass-to-charge ratio. Other examples of quadrupole ion trap CID for the selective reduction of common plasma-generated species are also evaluated by examining the dissociation of GdO{sup +} in the presence of Yb{sup +}, and Cu{sub 2}{sup +} in the presence of Te{sup +}. In each case, a different method of applying the excitation signals is presented, and the attenuation rates for the diatomic species due to CID are substantially larger than scattering losses for the bare metal ions. Evidence is also presented that demonstrates CID can be accomplished in concert with a slow mass analysis scan, thereby providing a means of (1) eliminating polyatomic ions (formed in the plasma or reaction cell) over an extended mass range, (2) recovering metal ion signal from the metal-containing polyatomic ions, and (3) minimizing deleterious secondary reactions of product ions.

  14. Characterization of a Sealed Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) Source by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    James Sommers; Marcos Jimenez; Mary Adamic; Jeffrey Giglio; Kevin Carney

    2009-12-01

    Two Americium-Beryllium neutron sources were dismantled, sampled (sub-sampled) and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Characteristics such as “age” since purification, actinide content, trace metal content and inter and intra source composition were determined. The “age” since purification of the two sources was determined to be 25.0 and 25.4 years, respectively. The systematic errors in the “age” determination were ± 4 % 2s. The amount and isotopic composition of U and Pu varied substantially between the sub-samples of Source 2 (n=8). This may be due to the physical means of sub-sampling or the way the source was manufactured. Source 1 was much more consistent in terms of content and isotopic composition (n=3 sub-samples). The Be-Am ratio varied greatly between the two sources. Source 1 had an Am-Be ratio of 6.3 ± 52 % (1s). Source 2 had an Am-Be ratio of 9.81 ± 3.5 % (1s). In addition, the trace element content between the samples varied greatly. Significant differences were determined between Source 1 and 2 for Sc, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba and W.

  15. Study on Mass Discrimination Effect of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2009-03-17

    We have proposed a novel concept of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry using an Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS). Isotope ratio analysis using ICP-RIMS is expected to be a convenient and precise technique with high throughput. However, the mass discrimination effect caused from difference in kinetic energy of neutral atoms in ICP-RIMS is crucial for precise isotope analysis. We, therefore, investigated the atom kinetic energy distribution introduced into the laser ionization region. The mass-dependent kinetic energy was confirmed in the initial kinetic energy distributions. We preliminary estimated a mass discrimination effect caused by mass-dependent kinetic energy in ICP-RIMS for various detector sizes. We proposed that this effect can be suppressed by selecting the appropriate detector size and adopting the scanning mode of the deflecting voltage.

  16. Chemometric optimization of a low-temperature plasma source design for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Anastasia; Engelhard, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Low-temperature plasmas (LTPs) are attractive sources for atomic and molecular mass spectrometry (MS). In the past, the LTP probe, which was first described by Harper et al., was used successfully for direct molecular mass spectrometric analysis with minimal sample pretreatment in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, the desorption/ionization source itself is commercially not available and custom-built LTP set-ups with varying geometry and operational configurations were utilized in the past. In the present study, a rapid chemometrics approach based on systematic experiments and multivariate data analysis was used to optimize the LTP probe geometry and positioning relative to the atmospheric-pressure inlet of a mass spectrometer. Several parameters were studied including the probe geometry, electrode configuration, quartz tube dimensions, probe positioning and operating conditions. It was found that the plasma-to-MS-inlet distance, the plasma-to-sample-plate distance, and the angle between the latter are very important. Additional effects on the analytical performance were found for the outer electrode width, the positioning of the electrodes, the inner diameter of the quartz tube, the quartz wall thickness, and the gas flow. All experiments were performed using additional heating of the sample to enhance thermal desorption and maximize the signal (T = 150 °C). After software-assisted optimization, attractive detection limits were achieved (e.g., 1.8 × 10- 7 mol/L for 4-acetamidothiophenol). Moreover, relative standard deviation (RSD) improved from values of up to 30% before optimization to < 15% RSD after the procedure was completed. This chemometrics approach for method optimization is not limited to LTP-MS and considered to be attractive for other plasma-based instrumentation as well.

  17. Pulsed plasma electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-15

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E{<=}10{sup 5} V/cm and duration {<=}10{sup -5} s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  18. Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with IonCCD Detection and an Inductively Coupled Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Elise A.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-03-01

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is demonstrated for the first time with a commercially available ion detector—the IonCCD camera. Because DOFMS is a velocity-based MS technique that provides spatially dispersive, simultaneous mass spectrometry, a position-sensitive ion detector is needed for mass-spectral collection. The IonCCD camera is a 5.1-cm long, 1-D array that is capable of simultaneous, multichannel ion detection along a focal plane, which makes it an attractive option for DOFMS. In the current study, the IonCCD camera is evaluated for DOFMS with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source over a relatively short field-free mass-separation distance of 25.3-30.4 cm. The combination of ICP-DOFMS and the IonCCD detector results in a mass-spectral resolving power (FWHM) of approximately 900 and isotope-ratio precision equivalent to or slightly better than current ICP-TOFMS systems. The measured isotope-ratio precision in % relative standard deviation (%RSD) was ≥0.008%RSD for nonconsecutive isotopes at 10-ppm concentration (near the ion-signal saturation point) and ≥0.02%RSD for all isotopes at 1-ppm. Results of DOFMS with the IonCCD camera are also compared with those of two previously characterized detection setups.

  19. Coaxial microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Gushchin, P. A.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kotelev, M. S.

    2011-11-15

    Physical principles underlying the operation of a pulsed coaxial microwave plasma source (micro-wave plasmatron) are considered. The design and parameters of the device are described, and results of experimental studies of the characteristics of the generated plasma are presented. The possibility of application of this type of plasmatron in gas-discharge physics is discussed.

  20. Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometric Isotopic Determination of Nuclear Wastes Sources Associated with Hanford Tank Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, John C.; Dresel, P. Evan; Farmer, Orville T.

    2007-11-01

    The subsurface distribution of a nuclear waste tank leak on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site was sampled by slant drilling techniques in order to characterize the chemical and radiological characteristics of the leaked material and assess geochemical transport properties of hazardous constituents. Sediment core samples recovered from the borehole were subjected to distilled water and acid leaching procedures with the resulting leachates analyzed for isotopic and chemical signatures. High-sensitivity inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) techniques were used for determination of isotopic ratios for Cs, I, Mo. Analysis of the isotopic patterns of I and Mo combined with associated chemical data showed evidence for at least two separate intrusions of nuclear waste into the subsurface. Isotopic data for Cs was inconclusive with respect to a source attribution signature.

  1. Large area plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

  2. A New Radio Frequency Plasma Oxygen Primary Ion Source on Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Improved Lateral Resolution and Detection of Electropositive Elements at Single Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Julien; Penen, Florent; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Frank, Julia; Hause, Gerd; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Gontier, Etienne; Horréard, François; Hillion, François; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2016-07-19

    An important application field of secondary ion mass spectrometry at the nanometer scale (NanoSIMS) is the detection of chemical elements and, in particular, metals at the subcellular level in biological samples. The detection of many trace metals requires an oxygen primary ion source to allow the generation of positive secondary ions with high yield in the NanoSIMS. The duoplasmatron oxygen source is commonly used in this ion microprobe but cannot achieve the same quality of images as the cesium primary ion source used to produce negative secondary ions (C(-), CN(-), S(-), P(-)) due to a larger primary ion beam size. In this paper, a new type of an oxygen ion source using a rf plasma is fitted and characterized on a NanoSIMS50L. The performances of this primary ion source in terms of current density and achievable lateral resolution have been characterized and compared to the conventional duoplasmatron and cesium sources. The new rf plasma oxygen source offered a net improvement in terms of primary beam current density compared to the commonly used duoplasmatron source, which resulted in higher ultimate lateral resolutions down to 37 nm and which provided a 5-45 times higher apparent sensitivity for electropositive elements. Other advantages include a better long-term stability and reduced maintenance. This new rf plasma oxygen primary ion source has been applied to the localization of essential macroelements and trace metals at basal levels in two biological models, cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. Analysis of GaAs using a combined r.f. glow discharge and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. S.; Saprykin, A. I.; Dietze, H.-J.

    1997-06-01

    A radiofrequency (r.f.) glow discharge ion source was coupled to a double-focusing sector field mass spectrometer with reverse Nier-Johnson geometry. The glow discharge cell powered by a 13.56 MHz generator was connected directly to the interface of the mass spectrometer. The r.f. glow discharge ion source operates optimally at an argon pressure of 2.5 hPa and radiofrequency powers of 30 W. With increasing argon pressure more complex mass spectra were observed due to the higher molecular ion formation rate. The analytical performance of r.f. glow discharge mass spectrometry was investigated for the trace elemental analysis of semi-insulating gallium arsenide crystals. Using ICP-MS after matrix separation for a better quantification of multielement determination of trace impurities, detection limits comparable to r.f. GDMS in the low ng/g concentration range are obtained.

  4. Development of C{sub 60} plasma ion source for time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Qing; Chen Ye; Ji Lili; Hahto, Sami; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Tae Geol; Moon, Dae Won

    2008-02-15

    Initial data from a multicusp ion source developed for buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) cluster ion production are reported in this article. A C{sub 60}{sup +} beam current of 425 nA and a C{sub 60}{sup -} beam current of 200 nA are obtainable in continuous mode. Compared to prior work using electron impact ionization, the multicusp ion source provides at least two orders of magnitude increase in the extractable C{sub 60}{sup +} beam current. Mass spectra for both positive and negative bismuth cluster ions generated by the multicusp ion source are also included.

  5. Conceptual Study on New Isotope Analysis Technique with Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Inductively Coupled Plasma as an Atomic Source (ICP-RIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A.; Higuchi, Y.; Tomita, H.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2009-03-17

    We have proposed the novel isotope analysis technique with Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry using Inductively Coupled Plasma as an atomic source (ICP-RIMS). Each component of ICP-RIMS is conceptually designed. We conclude that the orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (oa-TOF-MS) driven by a high-repetition-rate pulsed laser would be suitable system for ICP-RIMS. We, additionally, suggest that the first vacuum stage of the vacuum interface, which is between the sampling and skimmer cones, is desired to maintain as low pressure as possible in order to suppress the Doppler broadening and to skim the supersonic jet effectively.

  6. Fast Determination of Ingredients in Solid Pharmaceuticals by Microwave-Enhanced In-Source Decay of Microwave Plasma Torch Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rui; Wang, Xinchen; Hou, Changming; Yang, Meiling; Huang, Keke; Chen, Huanwen

    2017-06-01

    Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid samples (e.g., pharmaceutical preparations) by using a small and low-resolution mass spectrometer without MS/MS function is still a challenge in ambient pressure ionization mass spectrometric analysis. Herein, a practically efficient method termed microwave-enhanced in-source decay (MEISD) using microwave plasma torch desorption ionization coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MPTDI-TOF MS) was developed for fast analysis of pharmaceutical tablets using a miniature TOF mass spectrometer without tandem mass function. The intensity of ISD fragmentation was evaluated under different microwave power values. Several factors, including desorption distance and time that might affect the signal intensity and fragmentation, were systematically investigated. It was observed that both the protonated molecular ions and major fragment ions from the active ingredients in tablets could be found in the full-scan mass spectra in positive ion mode, which were comparable to those obtained by a commercial LTQ-XL ion trap mass spectrometer. The structures of the ingredients could be elucidated in detail using the MEISD method, which promotes our understanding of the desorption/ionization processes in microwave plasma torch (MPT). Quantitative analysis of 10 tablets was achieved by full-scan MPTDI-TOF MS with low limit of detection (LOD, 0.763 mg/g), acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD < 7.33%, n =10), and 10 s for each tablet, showing promising applications in high throughput screening of counterfeit drugs.

  7. Fast Determination of Ingredients in Solid Pharmaceuticals by Microwave-Enhanced In-Source Decay of Microwave Plasma Torch Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rui; Wang, Xinchen; Hou, Changming; Yang, Meiling; Huang, Keke; Chen, Huanwen

    2017-09-01

    Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid samples (e.g., pharmaceutical preparations) by using a small and low-resolution mass spectrometer without MS/MS function is still a challenge in ambient pressure ionization mass spectrometric analysis. Herein, a practically efficient method termed microwave-enhanced in-source decay (MEISD) using microwave plasma torch desorption ionization coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MPTDI-TOF MS) was developed for fast analysis of pharmaceutical tablets using a miniature TOF mass spectrometer without tandem mass function. The intensity of ISD fragmentation was evaluated under different microwave power values. Several factors, including desorption distance and time that might affect the signal intensity and fragmentation, were systematically investigated. It was observed that both the protonated molecular ions and major fragment ions from the active ingredients in tablets could be found in the full-scan mass spectra in positive ion mode, which were comparable to those obtained by a commercial LTQ-XL ion trap mass spectrometer. The structures of the ingredients could be elucidated in detail using the MEISD method, which promotes our understanding of the desorption/ionization processes in microwave plasma torch (MPT). Quantitative analysis of 10 tablets was achieved by full-scan MPTDI-TOF MS with low limit of detection (LOD, 0.763 mg/g), acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD < 7.33%, n =10), and 10 s for each tablet, showing promising applications in high throughput screening of counterfeit drugs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Slotted antenna waveguide plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A high density plasma generated by microwave injection using a windowless electrodeless rectangular slotted antenna waveguide plasma source has been demonstrated. Plasma probe measurements indicate that the source could be applicable for low power ion thruster applications, ion implantation, and related applications. This slotted antenna plasma source invention operates on the principle of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). It employs no window and it is completely electrodeless and therefore its operation lifetime is long, being limited only by either the microwave generator itself or charged particle extraction grids if used. The high density plasma source can also be used to extract an electron beam that can be used as a plasma cathode neutralizer for ion source beam neutralization applications.

  9. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Agnew, S. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma technology, called the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter, which can separate a waste mixture ion by ion into mass groups and as such represents a major advance in waste separations technology. The filter is a plasma device employing a magnetic and electric field configuration that acts as a low-mass-pass filter for ions. Ions with mass above a tunable “cutoff mass” are expelled from the plasma. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter satisfies all of the requirements of an economic mass separator system: good single-pass separation, acceptable energy cost per ion, and high material throughput. This technology could significantly reduce the volume of radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, which is storing sixty percent of the nation’s defense nuclear waste. The potential waste reduction is dramatic because 82 wtpresently scheduled to be vitrified (immobilized and stored in glass) at Hanford are below mass number 60 while 99.9the radioactivity comes from atoms above mass number 89. We will present the plasma physics basis for the filter effect, the fundamental parameter constraints, and modeling results of filter operation.

  10. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  11. Negative-ion plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, D. P.; Rynn, N.

    1988-08-01

    Three designs for negative-ion plasma sources are described. Two sources utilize metal hexafluorides such as SF6 and WF6 to scavenge electrons from electron-ion plasmas and the third relies upon surface ionization of alkali halide salts on heated alumina and zirconia. SF6 introduced into electron-ion plasmas yielded negative-ion plasma densities of 10 to the 10th/cu cm with low residual electron densities. On alumina, plasma densities of 10 to the 9th/cu cm were obtained for CsCl, CsI, and KI and 10 to the 9th/cu cm for KCl. On zirconia 10 to the 10th/cu cm densities were obtained for CsCl. For alkali halide sources, electron densities of less than about 10 to the -4th have been achieved.

  12. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  13. Resonance microwave volume plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Misakyan, M. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.; Lee, Young Dong

    2007-07-15

    A conceptual design of a microwave gas-discharge plasma source is described. The possibility is considered of creating conditions under which microwave energy in the plasma resonance region would be efficiently converted into the energy of thermal and accelerated (fast) electrons. Results are presented from interferometric and probe measurements of the plasma density in a coaxial microwave plasmatron, as well as the data from probe measurements of the plasma potential and electron temperature. The dynamics of plasma radiation was recorded using a streak camera and a collimated photomultiplier. The experimental results indicate that, at relatively low pressures of the working gas, the nonlinear interaction between the microwave field and the inhomogeneous plasma in the resonance region of the plasmatron substantially affects the parameters of the ionized gas in the reactor volume.

  14. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOEpatents

    Ballou, Nathan E.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

  15. DURIP - Acquisition of an Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer with Laser Ablation Source for Surface Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-24

    allows low interference which reduces common polyatomic interferences on As, Se, Cr, V and Fe, thus achieving lower detection limits in the plasma...Formerly Varian) 820 ICP-MS Ion Optics Soft Landed Hf on Si SEM Image of ablation track 178Hf LA-ICP-MS transient signals showing spatially resolved Hf on surface (left) and in defects (right)

  16. 21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be Source Plasma. The product is defined as the fluid portion of human blood collected by...

  17. 21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be Source Plasma. The product is defined as the fluid portion of human...

  18. 21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be Source Plasma. The product is defined as the fluid portion of human blood...

  19. 21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be Source Plasma. The product is defined as the fluid portion of human blood...

  20. 21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be Source Plasma. The product is defined as the fluid portion of human blood...

  1. Air Plasma Source for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, J.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Gordiets, B.; IPFN-IST, 1049-001 LX, Portugal Team; Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Team

    2011-10-01

    Plasma interactions with living matter are presently at the frontiers of plasma research and development. Plasmas contain numerous agents that influence biological activity. They provide essentially two types of biocidal species: reactive species, such as oxygen atoms that lead to lethality of micro-organisms through erosion, and UV radiation that can damage the DNA strands. In this work we investigate a surface wave (2.45 GHz) driven discharge plasma in air, with a small admixture of water vapor, as a source of ground state O(3P) oxygen atoms, NO molecules and UV radiation. A theoretical model describing both the wave driven discharge zone and its flowing afterglow is used to analyze the performance of this plasma source. The predicted plasma-generated NO(X) and O(3P) concentrations and NO(γ) radiation intensity along the source are presented and discussed as a function of the microwave power and water vapor percentage in the gas mixture. To validate the theoretical predictions, the relative concentrations of species have been determined by Mass Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under research contract PTDC/FIS/108411/2008.

  2. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  3. Development of a novel low-flow ion source/sampling cone geometry for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and application in hyphenated techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Thorben; Janzen, Rasmus; Steingrobe, Tobias; Sperling, Michael; Franze, Bastian; Engelhard, Carsten; Buscher, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    A novel ion source/sampling cone device for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) especially operated in the hyphenated mode as a detection system coupled with different separation modules is presented. Its technical setup is described in detail. Its main feature is the very low total argon consumption of less than 1.5 L min- 1, leading to significant reduction of operational costs especially when time-consuming speciation analysis is performed. The figures of merit of the new system with respect to sensitivity, detection power, long-term stability and working range were explored. Despite the profound differences of argon consumption of the new system in comparison to the conventional ICP-MS system, many of the characteristic features of the conventional ICP-MS could be maintained to a great extent. To demonstrate the ion source's capabilities, it was used as an element-selective detector for gas (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) where organic compounds of mercury and cobalt, respectively, were separated and detected with the new low-flow ICP-MS detection system. The corresponding chromatograms are shown. The applicability for trace element analysis has been validated with the certified reference material NIST 1643e.

  4. Neuronal Source of Plasma Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Determinants of plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine concentrations are well known; those of the third endogenous catecholamine, dopamine (DA), remain poorly understood. We tested in humans whether DA enters the plasma after corelease with NE during exocytosis from sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. METHODS We reviewed plasma catecholamine data from patients referred for autonomic testing and control subjects under the following experimental conditions: during supine rest and in response to orthostasis; intravenous yohimbine (YOH), isoproterenol (ISO), or glucagon (GLU), which augment exocytotic release of NE from sympathetic nerves; intravenous tri-methaphan (TRI) or pentolinium (PEN), which decrease exocytotic NE release; or intravenous tyramine (TYR), which releases NE by nonexocytotic means. We included groups of patients with pure autonomic failure (PAF), bilateral thoracic sympathectomies (SNS-x), or multiple system atrophy (MSA), since PAF and SNS-x are associated with noradrenergic denervation and MSA is not. RESULTS Orthostasis, YOH, ISO, and TYR increased and TRI/PEN decreased plasma DA concentrations. Individual values for changes in plasma DA concentrations correlated positively with changes in NE in response to orthostasis (r =0.72, P <0.0001), YOH (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001), ISO (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001), GLU (r = 0.47, P = 0.01), and TYR (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001). PAF and SNS-x patients had low plasma DA concentrations. We estimated that DA constitutes 2%– 4% of the catecholamine released by exocytosis from sympathetic nerves and that 50%–90% of plasma DA has a sympathoneural source. CONCLUSIONS Plasma DA is derived substantially from sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. PMID:18801936

  5. Helicon Plasma Source Optimization Studies for VASIMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Baity, F. W.; Barber, G. C.; Carter, M. D.; ChangDiaz, F. R.; Pavarin, D.; Sparks, D. O.; Squire J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A helicon plasma source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being used to investigate operating scenarios relevant to the VASIMR (VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket). These include operation at high magnetic field (> = 0.4 T), high frequency (<= 30 MHz), high power (< = 3 kW), and with light ions (He+, H+). To date, He plasmas have been produced with n(sub e0) = 1.7 x 10(exp 19)/cu m (measured with an axially movable 4mm microwave interferometer), with Pin = I kW at f = 13.56 MHz and absolute value of B(sub 0) = 0.16 T. In the near future, diagnostics including a mass flow meter and a gridded energy analyzer array will be added to investigate fueling efficiency and the source power balance. The latest results, together with modeling results using the EMIR rf code, will be presented.

  6. Helicon Plasma Source Optimization Studies for VASIMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Baity, F. W.; Barber, G. C.; Carter, M. D.; ChangDiaz, F. R.; Pavarin, D.; Sparks, D. O.; Squire J. P.

    1999-01-01

    A helicon plasma source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being used to investigate operating scenarios relevant to the VASIMR (VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket). These include operation at high magnetic field (> = 0.4 T), high frequency (<= 30 MHz), high power (< = 3 kW), and with light ions (He+, H+). To date, He plasmas have been produced with n(sub e0) = 1.7 x 10(exp 19)/cu m (measured with an axially movable 4mm microwave interferometer), with Pin = I kW at f = 13.56 MHz and absolute value of B(sub 0) = 0.16 T. In the near future, diagnostics including a mass flow meter and a gridded energy analyzer array will be added to investigate fueling efficiency and the source power balance. The latest results, together with modeling results using the EMIR rf code, will be presented.

  7. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  8. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  9. Tunable single-photon ionization TOF mass spectrometry using laser-produced plasma as the table-top VUV light source.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Tonia M; Prati, Maria V; Borghese, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Here we report on a laser plasma-based tunable VUV photoionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer conceived mainly to study complex gaseous mixtures. Ionizing photons at tunable vacuum UV (VUV) wavelengths are generated by a gas-target laser-produced plasma, spectrally dispersed in the range 100-160 nm and efficiently focused onto a sample molecular beam. As a test case, we studied the exhaust gas of a four-stroke moped, a typical example of a complex gaseous mixture. Due to the VUV "soft" ionization, the mass spectra are less congested and more easily interpretable. Substituted benzene derivatives are found to give the most intense signals. Several aliphatic hydrocarbons are also detected. The use of tunable VUV radiation allowed the investigation of the contribution of isomers in the mass spectrum from the onset and shape of the photoionization efficiency spectra. Semiquantitative analysis was performed using known literature data detailing the photoionization cross sections. Our findings suggest that using combined data on the mass/photoionization efficiency spectra may be very helpful for a comprehensive analysis of complex gaseous mixtures.

  10. Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources.

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma -- basic data for plasma modeling.

  11. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-05-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  12. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  13. High Power Helicon Plasma Source for Plasma Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2015-09-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is developing a high power helicon plasma source. The high power nature and pulsed neutral gas make this source unique compared to traditional helicon source. These properties produce a plasma flow along the magnetic field lines, and therefore allow the source to be decoupled from the reaction chamber. Neutral gas can be injected downstream, which allows for precision control of the ion-neutral ratio at the surface of the sample. Although operated at high power, the source has demonstrated very low impurity production. This source has applications to nanoparticle productions, surface modification, and ionized physical vapor deposition.

  14. The study of helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Tingting; Shang Yong; Zhao Hongwei; Liu Zhanwen; Sun Liangting; Zhang Xuezhen; Zhao Huanyu

    2010-02-15

    Helicon plasma source is known as efficient generator of uniform and high density plasma. A helicon plasma source was developed for investigation of plasma neutralization and plasma lens in the Institute of Modern Physics in China. In this paper, the characteristics of helicon plasma have been studied by using Langmuir four-probe and a high argon plasma density up to 3.9x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} have been achieved with the Nagoya type III antenna at the conditions of the magnetic intensity of 200 G, working gas pressure of 2.8x10{sup -3} Pa, and rf power of 1200 W with a frequency of 27.12 MHz. In the experiment, the important phenomena have been found: for a given magnetic induction intensity, the plasma density became greater with the increase in rf power and tended to saturation, and the helicon mode appeared at the rf power between 200 and 400 W.

  15. The study of helicon plasma source.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Zhan-Wen; Shang, Yong; Sun, Liang-Ting; Zhang, Xue-Zhen; Zhao, Huan-Yu

    2010-02-01

    Helicon plasma source is known as efficient generator of uniform and high density plasma. A helicon plasma source was developed for investigation of plasma neutralization and plasma lens in the Institute of Modern Physics in China. In this paper, the characteristics of helicon plasma have been studied by using Langmuir four-probe and a high argon plasma density up to 3.9x10(13) cm(-3) have been achieved with the Nagoya type III antenna at the conditions of the magnetic intensity of 200 G, working gas pressure of 2.8x10(-3) Pa, and rf power of 1200 W with a frequency of 27.12 MHz. In the experiment, the important phenomena have been found: for a given magnetic induction intensity, the plasma density became greater with the increase in rf power and tended to saturation, and the helicon mode appeared at the rf power between 200 and 400 W.

  16. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 × 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 × 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

  17. Power Transfer Efficiency of Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery

    2004-09-01

    There are many devices to produce gas discharge plasmas. They differ by the method of plasma coupling to the electrical energy source. In order to create self-sustained gas-discharge plasma with given gas pressure and plasma density, a certain amount of power Pp has to be delivered to plasma electrons to compensate for electron energy losses. As shown in this presentation, this power does not depend on the specifics of electron interaction with electromagnetic field and is basically the same for all types of discharges. Some additional power loss Pc associated with power dissipation in the plasma supporting means (like thermionic cathode, cathode fall, rf antenna and matching network) is unavoidable to maintain self-sustained plasma. That is accounted for by the power transfer efficiency η =Pp /(Pp +Pc ). Efficiency analysis of different plasma sources is given in this presentation. It is shown that the largest values of efficiency are found in the plasma sources for lighting and the lowest in the plasma for processing of materials. The presentation explains this disparity and challenges some wide spread mythology about unique efficiency of some plasma sources.

  18. A simultaneous determination method for 5-fluorouracil and its metabolites in human plasma with linear range adjusted by in-source collision-induced dissociation using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hideaki; Shimada, Miki; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Mano, Nariyasu

    2016-11-01

    We applied a new technique for quantitative linear range shift using in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) to complex biological fluids to demonstrate its utility. The technique was used in a simultaneous quantitative determination method of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anticancer drug for various solid tumors, and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). To control adverse effects after administration of 5-FU, it is important to monitor the plasma concentration of 5-FU and its metabolites; however, no simultaneous determination method has yet been reported because of vastly different physical and chemical properties of compounds. We developed a new analytical method for simultaneously determining 5-FU and its metabolites in human plasma by LC/ESI-MS/MS coupled with the technique for quantitative linear range shift using in-source CID. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using a stationary phase with zwitterionic functional groups, phosphorylcholine, was suitable for separation of 5-FU from its nucleoside and interfering endogenous materials. The addition of glycerin into acetonitrile-rich eluent after LC separation improved the ESI-MS response of high polar analytes. Based on the validation results, linear range shifts by in-source CID is the reliable technique even with complex biological samples such as plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  20. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  1. Inductively coupled plasma source for VASIMR engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, V. A.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sydorenko, D. Y.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2004-11-01

    Various devices for plasma production differ in the way of plasma coupling to the electrical energy source. Power losses in the chain from the AC power line to the power deposited into the electrons are the most important for the overall efficiency of the plasma source while the losses to ionization, radiation and walls are typically very similar and do not depend on a mechanism of the electron interaction with the electromagnetic field. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) discharges with ferromagnetic cores, seems to be the most suitable candidate for a primary plasma source for VASIMR engine. Such commercial ICPs have coupling efficiency up to 98% (99% in laboratory devices). Combined with compact and efficient (90-95%) rf power converters operating at f < 1 MHz, it will allow to achieve high overall efficiency of plasma production and reduce the energy cost of the ion in the first stage plasma source. An important advantage of such sources is the ability to continuously work in a wide dynamic range (two orders of magnitude) of plasma density contrary to e.g. helicon sources where efficient operation is possible only on certain discrete modes (and plasma density) with discontinuous transitions between them.

  2. The Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment and Plasma Source Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chappell, C. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Fields, S. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Reasoner, D. L.; Young, D. T.; Burch, J. L.; Eaker, N.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; McComas, D. J.; Nordholdt, J. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Berthelier, J. J.; Robson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) have been developed in response to the requirements of the ISTP Program for three-dimensional (3D) plasma composition measurements capable of tracking the circulation of low-energy (0-500 eV) plasma through the polar magnetosphere. This plasma is composed of penetrating magnetosheath and escaping ionospheric components. It is in part lost to the downstream solar wind and in part recirculated within the magnetosphere, participating in the formation of the diamagnetic hot plasma sheet and ring current plasma populations. Significant obstacles which have previously made this task impossible include the low density and energy of the outflowing ionospheric plasma plume and the positive spacecraft floating potentials which exclude the lowest-energy plasma from detection on ordinary spacecraft. Based on a unique combination of focusing electrostatic ion optics and time of flight detection and mass analysis, TIDE provides the sensitivity (seven apertures of about 1 cm squared effective area each) and angular resolution (6 x 18 degrees) required for this purpose. PSI produces a low energy plasma locally at the POLAR spacecraft that provides the ion current required to balance the photoelectron current, along with a low temperature electron population, regulating the spacecraft potential slightly positive relative to the space plasma. TIDE/PSI will: (a) measure the density and flow fields of the solar and terrestrial plasmas within the high polar cap and magnetospheric lobes; (b) quantify the extent to which ionospheric and solar ions are recirculated within the distant magnetotail neutral sheet or lost to the distant tail and solar wind; (c) investigate the mass-dependent degree energization of these plasmas by measuring their thermodynamic properties; (d) investigate the relative roles of ionosphere and solar wind as sources of plasma to the plasma sheet and ring current.

  3. Basic requirements for plasma sources in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th.

    2011-07-01

    Plasma medicine is a new medical field with first very promising practical studies. However, basic research needs to be done to minimize risk and provide a scientific fundament for medical therapies. Therapeutic application of plasmas at or in the human body is a challenge both for medicine and plasma physics. Today, concepts of tailor-made plasma sources which meet the technical requirements of medical instrumentation are still less developed. To achieve selected effects and to avoid potential risks, it is necessary to know how to control composition and densities of reactive plasma components by external operation parameters. Therefore, a profound knowledge on plasma physics and chemistry must be contributed by physical research. Therapeutic applications required cold, non-thermal plasmas operating at atmospheric pressure. These plasmas are a huge challenge for plasma diagnostics, because usually they are small scale, constricted or filamentary, and transient. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest for medical applications. Working in open air atmospheres, complex plasma chemistry must be expected. Considering that, a great deal of effort combining experimental investigation and modelling is necessary to provide the required knowledge on plasma sources for therapeutic applications.

  4. Plasma Sheet Source and Loss Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the TIMAS ion mass spectrometer on the Polar satellite, covering 15 ev/e to 33 keV/e in energy and essentially 4(pi) in view angles, are used to investigate the properties of earthward (sunward) field-aligned flows of ions, especially protons, in the plasma sheet-lobe transition region near local midnight. A total of 142 crossings of this region are analyzed at 12-sec time resolution, all in the northern hemisphere, at R(SM) approx. 4 - 7 R(sub E), and most (106) in the poleward (sunward) direction. Earthward proton flows are prominent in this transition region (greater than 50% of the time), typically appearing as sudden "blasts" with the most energetic protons (approx. 33 keV) arriving first with weak flux, followed by protons of decreasing energy and increasing flux until either: (1) a new "blast" appears, (2) the flux ends at a sharp boundary, or (3) the flux fades away within a few minutes as the mean energy drops to a few keV. Frequent step-like changes (less than 12 sec) of the flux suggest that perpendicular gradients on the scale of proton gyroradii are common. Peak flux is similar to central plasma sheet proton flux (10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6)/[cq cm sr sec keV/e] and usually occurs at E approx. 4 - 12 keV. Only the initial phase of each "blast" (approx. 1 min) displays pronounced field-alignment of the proton velocity distribution, consistent with the time-of-flight separation of a more or less isotropic source distribution with df/d(nu) less than 0. The dispersive signatures are often consistent with a source at R(SM) less than or equal to 30 R(sub E). No systematic latitudinal velocity dispersion is found, implying that the equatorial plasma source is itself convecting. In short, the proton "blasts" appear as sudden local expansions of central plasma sheet particles along reconfigured ("dipolarized") magnetic field lines.

  5. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  6. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    A prototype RF H{sup -} surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H{sup -} beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  7. SDO: Complex Mass of Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A small, but complex mass of solar material gyrated and spun about over the course of 40 hours above the surface of the sun on Sept. 1-3, 2015. It was stretched and pulled back and forth by powerfu...

  8. Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  9. A dense plasma ultraviolet source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The intense ultraviolet emission from the NASA Hypocycloidal-Pinch (HCP) plasma is investigated. The HCP consists of three disk electrodes whose cross section has a configuration similar to the cross section of a Mather-type plasma focus. Plasma foci were produced in deuterium, helium, xenon, and krypton gases in order to compare their emission characteristics. Time-integrated spectra in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 350 nm and temporal variations of the uv emission were obtained with a uv spectrometer and a photomultiplier system. Modifications to enhance uv emission in the iodine-laser pump band (250 to 290 nm) and preliminary results produced by these modifications are presented. Finally, the advantages of the HCP as a uv over use of conventional xenon lamps with respect to power output limit, spectral range, and lifetime are discussed.

  10. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-01

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  11. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  12. Preconcentration and determination of rare-earth elements in iron-rich water samples by extraction chromatography and plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Hernández González, Carolina; Cabezas, Alberto J Quejido; Díaz, Marta Fernández

    2005-11-15

    A 100-fold preconcentration procedure based on rare-earth elements (REEs) separation from water samples with an extraction chromatographic column has been developed. The separation of REEs from matrix elements (mainly Fe, alkaline and alkaline-earth elements) in water samples was performed loading the samples, previously acidified to pH 2.0 with HNO(3), in a 2ml column preconditioned with 20ml 0.01M HNO(3). Subsequently, REEs were quantitatively eluted with 20ml 7M HNO(3). This solution was evaporated to dryness and the final residue was dissolved in 10ml 2% HNO(3) containing 1mugl(-1) of cesium used as internal standard. The solution was directly analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), using ultrasonic nebulization, obtaining quantification limits ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 ngl(-1). The proposed method has been applied to granitic waters running through fracture fillings coated by iron and manganese oxy-hydroxides in the area of the Ratones (Cáceres, Spain) old uranium mine.

  13. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  14. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    PubMed

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches.

  15. Discharge produced plasma source for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V.; Eltzov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Khristoforov, O.; Kirykhin, Yu.; Vinokhodov, A.; Vodchits, V.; Mishhenko, V.; Prokofiev, A.

    2007-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is seen as the most promising candidate for the next generation of lithography and semiconductor chip manufacturing for the 32 nm node and below. The paper describes experimental results obtained with discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources based on pinch effect in a Xe and Sn vapour as potential tool for the EUV lithography. Problems of DPP source development are discussed.

  16. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  17. Study of Operational Regimes of the VASIMR Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishchev, O.; Molvig, K.

    2000-10-01

    Effective plasma production by a plasma source is crucial for the overall > 50% efficiency of the VASIMR plasma rocket. Primary propellant H (D) - enters the helicon source as cold molecular gas and leaves it as a hot gas-plasma mix. We present an analysis that shows the following plasma composition: e, H_2, H, H^+, H_2^+, H_3^+. Mass and energy balance is described by the 14 non-linear plasma chemistry equations for the species concentrations and temperatures. Their numerical solution shows agreement with the measured electron temperature ~ 6 eV, and density ~ 10^12 cm-3 for both H and D discharges. Simulation shows also that the Ly-α radiation may account for 25%, while Frank-Condon neutrals for 15% of the total input power ~ 1 kW. Gas ionization fraction is ~ 3 - 5% with sizable amount of H_2^+ and H_3^+ ions. However, mass-flow ratio neutral gas/plasma is close to 1 due to the huge difference in the exhaust velocities. A separate numerical analysis of the pure gas flow in the gas inlet - quartz tube - magnet bore channel shows very good agreement with the gas pressure measurements. Modeling indicates that gas flow in the mixed viscous - free molecular regime (Kn ~ 0.5 - 2) is very subsonic with V ~ 0.02 - 0.1 C_S. We discuss effects of gas pre-heating and residual vacuum tank pressure, and importance of baffles.

  18. Measuring the Plasma Density of a Ferroelectric Plasma Source in an Expanding Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    A. Dunaevsky; N.J. Fisch

    2003-10-02

    The initial density and electron temperature at the surface of a ferroelectric plasma source were deduced from floating probe measurements in an expanding plasma. The method exploits negative charging of the floating probe capacitance by fast flows before the expanding plasma reaches the probe. The temporal profiles of the plasma density can be obtained from the voltage traces of the discharge of the charged probe capacitance by the ion current from the expanding plasma. The temporal profiles of the plasma density, at two different distances from the surface of the ferroelectric plasma source, could be further fitted by using the density profiles for the expanding plasma. This gives the initial values of the plasma density and electron temperature at the surface. The method could be useful for any pulsed discharge, which is accompanied by considerable electromagnetic noise, if the initial plasma parameters might be deduced from measurements in expanding plasma.

  19. Meter scale plasma source for plasma wakefield experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Hogan, M. J.

    2012-12-21

    High accelerating gradients generated by a high density electron beam moving through plasma has been used to double the energy of the SLAC electron beam [1]. During that experiment, the electron current density was high enough to generate its own plasma without significant head erosion. In the newly commissioned FACET facility at SLAC, the peak current will be lower and without pre-ionization, head erosion will be a significant challenge for the planned experiments. In this work we report on our design of a meter scale plasma source for these experiments to effectively avoid the problem of head erosion. The plasma source is based on a homogeneous metal vapor gas column that is generated in a heat pipe oven [2]. A lithium oven over 30 cm long at densities over 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} has been constructed and tested at UCLA. The plasma is then generated by coupling a 10 TW short pulse Ti:Sapphire laser into the gas column using an axicon lens setup. The Bessel profile of the axicon setup creates a region of high intensity that can stretch over the full length of the gas column with approximately constant diameter. In this region of high intensity, the alkali metal vapor is ionized through multi-photon ionization process. In this manner, a fully ionized meter scale plasma of uniform density can be formed. Methods for controlling the plasma diameter and length will also be discussed.

  20. Plasma-based EUV light source

    DOEpatents

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  1. Spectral Measurements of Plasma Rotation and Mass Separation in the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umstadter, K. R.; Anderegg, F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Isler, R. C.; Lee, W. D.; Litvak, A.; Mavrin, V.; Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Putvinski, S.

    2003-10-01

    The Archimedes Demonstration Unit (ADU), a full scale experiment based upon the Plasma Mass Filter^1 technology, began plasma operations early this year. The Filter is a cylindrical device with an axial magnetic field that utilizes end electrodes to generate a radial electric field in a noble gas plasma of density ˜10^18 m-3. In addition to microwave interferometry, bolometry, videography and Langmuir probe diagnostics, high-resolution and survey spectroscopy is utilized to monitor the plasma emission. This is accomplished through the use of several in-vacuum optical arrays which have collimated views parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic axis. Optical measurements are compared to other diagnostics and electrode currents. Doppler shifts, linewidths and line ratios have been measured to determine rotation speed, temperature and separation in noble gas plasmas. ^1T. Ohkawa, "Plasma Mass Filter", U.S. Patent 6,096,220, August 1, 2000.

  2. A dc Penning Surface-Plasma Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    LA-UR-93-2990 Title: A dc Penning Surface-Plasma Source Author(s): Submitted to: H. Vernon Smith, Jr., Paul Allison, Carl Geisik, David R...Type: HC Number of Copies In Library: 000001 Record ID: 28620 A de Penning Surface-Plasma Source* H. Vernon Smith, Jr., Paul Allison, Carl Geisik...Schechter, J. H. Whealton, and J. J. Donaghy, ATP Conf. Proc. No. 158, 366 (1987). 8) H. V. Smith, Jr., N. M. Schnurr, D. H. Whitaker , and K. E. Kalash

  3. Plasma source for spacecraft potential control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    A stable electrical ground which enables the particle spectrometers to measure the low energy particle populations was investigated and the current required to neutralize the spacecraft was measured. In addition, the plasma source for potential control (PSPO C) prevents high charging events which could affect the spacecraft electrical integrity. The plasma source must be able to emit a plasma current large enough to balance the sum of all other currents to the spacecraft. In ion thrusters, hollow cathodes provide several amperes of electron current to the discharge chamber. The PSPO C is capable of balancing the net negative currents found in eclipse charging events producing 10 to 100 microamps of electron current. The largest current required is the ion current necessary to balance the total photoelectric current.

  4. A tandem mirror plasma source for hybrid plume plasma studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Chang, F. R.; Miller, R. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Krueger, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A tandem mirror device to be considered as a hot plasma source for the hybrid plume rocket concept is discussed. The hot plamsa from this device is injected into an exhaust duct, which will interact with an annular hypersonic layer of neutral gas. The device can be used to study the dynamics of the hybrid plume, and to verify the numerical predictions obtained with computer codes. The basic system design is also geared towards low weight and compactness, and high power density at the exhaust. The basic structure of the device consists of four major subsystems: (1) an electric power supply; (2) a low temperature, high density plasma gun, such as a stream gun, an MPD source or gas cell; (3) a power booster in the form of a tandem mirror machine; and (4) an exhaust nozzle arrangement. The configuration of the tandem mirror section is shown.

  5. A tandem mirror plasma source for hybrid plume plasma studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Chang, F. R.; Miller, R. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Krueger, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    A tandem mirror device to be considered as a hot plasma source for the hybrid plume rocket concept is discussed. The hot plamsa from this device is injected into an exhaust duct, which will interact with an annular hypersonic layer of neutral gas. The device can be used to study the dynamics of the hybrid plume, and to verify the numerical predictions obtained with computer codes. The basic system design is also geared towards low weight and compactness, and high power density at the exhaust. The basic structure of the device consists of four major subsystems: (1) an electric power supply; (2) a low temperature, high density plasma gun, such as a stream gun, an MPD source or gas cell; (3) a power booster in the form of a tandem mirror machine; and (4) an exhaust nozzle arrangement. The configuration of the tandem mirror section is shown.

  6. Plasma wake field XUV radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Prono, Daniel S.; Jones, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    A XUV radiation source uses an interaction of electron beam pulses with a gas to create a plasma radiator. A flowing gas system (10) defines a circulation loop (12) with a device (14), such as a high pressure pump or the like, for circulating the gas. A nozzle or jet (16) produces a sonic atmospheric pressure flow and increases the density of the gas for interacting with an electron beam. An electron beam is formed by a conventional radio frequency (rf) accelerator (26) and electron pulses are conventionally formed by a beam buncher (28). The rf energy is thus converted to electron beam energy, the beam energy is used to create and then thermalize an atmospheric density flowing gas to a fully ionized plasma by interaction of beam pulses with the plasma wake field, and the energetic plasma then loses energy by line radiation at XUV wavelengths Collection and focusing optics (18) are used to collect XUV radiation emitted as line radiation when the high energy density plasma loses energy that was transferred from the electron beam pulses to the plasma.

  7. Terahertz sources based on plasma instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, K.

    2000-03-01

    Excess free energy in a non-equilibrium plasma can be efficiently transferred into growing plasma oscillations (plasma instability). These oscillating charges produce coherent electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon, well known in gaseous plasmas, has not yet been observed in solid-state systems. Plasma oscillations of typical low dimensional semiconductor systems are in the THz range, making them attractive candidates for compact coherent sources in this frequency range. Bakshi and Kempa have established theoretically the feasibility of achieving plasma instabilities in a variety of low dimensional solid state systems [1-6]. The most promising quantum well system employs strongly inhomogeneous carrier plasmas in a non-equilibrium steady state, through appropriate injection and extraction of carriers. In this case, the plasma instability arises from an attractive interaction between inter-subband plasmon modes [7]. The collective nature of the phenomenon ensures its survival even for high temperatures. This talk gives an overview of the theoretical work and recent efforts for experimental verification [8]. *Supported by US Army Research Office. [1] P. Bakshi, J. Cen and K. Kempa J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2243 (1988). [2] K. Kempa, J. Cen, P. Bakshi, Phys. Rev. B39, 2852 (1989). [3] P. Bakshi and K. Kempa, Phys. Rev. B 40, 3433 (1989). [4] K. Kempa, P.Bakshi, and H. Xie, Phys. Rev. B 48, 9158, (1993). [5] P. Bakshi and K. Kempa, Superlattices and Microstructures, 17, 363, (1995), and earlier references therein. [6] K. Kempa, P. Bakshi and E. Gornik, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8231, (1996). [7] P. Bakshi and K. Kempa, Cond. Matter. Theories., Eds. J.W.Clark and P.V. Panat, Nova Science, vol. 12, pp 399-412, 1997. [8] P. Bakshi, K. Kempa, A. Scorupsky, C. G. Du, G. Feng, R. Zobl, G. Strasser, C. Rauch, Ch. Pacher, K. Unterrainer, and E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Letters, 75,1685 (1999).

  8. Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use

  9. Ion acoustic shock wave in collisional equal mass plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Adak, Ashish; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2015-10-15

    The effect of ion-ion collision on the dynamics of nonlinear ion acoustic wave in an unmagnetized pair-ion plasma has been investigated. The two-fluid model has been used to describe the dynamics of both positive and negative ions with equal masses. It is well known that in the dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave, the viscosity mediates wave dissipation in presence of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. This dissipation is responsible for the shock structures in pair-ion plasma. Here, it has been shown that the ion-ion collision in presence of collective phenomena mediated by the plasma current is the source of dissipation that causes the Burgers' term which is responsible for the shock structures in equal mass pair-ion plasma. The dynamics of the weakly nonlinear wave is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation. The analytical and numerical investigations revealed that the ion acoustic wave exhibits both oscillatory and monotonic shock structures depending on the frequency of ion-ion collision parameter. The results have been discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiments.

  10. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented.

  11. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-03-19

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented.

  12. Plasma Sources and Magnetospheric Consequences at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's magnetospheric dynamics are dominated by two facts: 1) the planet rotates very rapidly (~10-hour period); and 2) the moon Enceladus, only 500 km in diameter, orbits Saturn at a distance of 4 Rs. This tiny moon produces jets of water through cracks in its icy surface, filling a large water-product torus of neutral gas that surrounds Saturn near Enceladus' orbit. Through photoionization and electron-impact ionization, the torus forms the dominant source of Saturn's magnetospheric plasma. This inside-out loading of plasma, combined with the rapid rotation of the magnetic field, leads to outward transport through a nearly continuous process of discrete flux-tube interchange. The magnetic flux that returns to the inner magnetosphere during interchange events brings with it hotter, more-tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. When dense, relatively cold plasma from the inner magnetosphere flows outward in the tail region, the magnetic field is often not strong enough to confine it, and magnetic reconnection allows the plasma to break off in plasmoids that escape the magnetospheric system. This complicated ballet of production, transport, and loss is carried on continuously. In this talk we will investigate its temporal variability, on both short and long timescales.

  13. Plasmas as Light Sources for Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    RD-R159 460 PLASMS RS LIGHT SOURCES FOR LSERS(U) LBANA UNIV IN ./I HUNTSVILLE T A BARR ET AL. SEP 64 ANSMI/RH-CR-85-14 pAAHS-82-D-AS±6 N...and experimental results are presented, together with a * possible explanation of the optical radiation-tim history of the plasm . Potential...into a cold pl’sma device at Te - 1 eV and l018 / cc ions. Incidentally this experiment showed why there may be a need for a plasma light source

  14. Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source.

    PubMed

    Xiang, W; Li, M; Chen, L

    2012-02-01

    In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper.

  15. Kinetic models for the VASIMR thruster helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishchev, Oleg; Molvig, Kim

    2001-10-01

    Helicon gas discharge [1] is widely used by industry because of its remarkable efficiency [2]. High energy and fuel efficiencies make it very attractive for space electrical propulsion applications. For example, helicon plasma source is used in the high specific impulse VASIMR [3] plasma thruster, including experimental prototypes VX-3 and upgraded VX-10 [4] configurations, which operate with hydrogen (deuterium) and helium plasmas. We have developed a set of models for the VASIMR helicon discharge. Firstly, we use zero-dimensional energy and mass balance equations to characterize partially ionized gas condition/composition. Next, we couple it to one-dimensional hybrid model [6] for gas flow in the quartz tube of the helicon. We compare hybrid model results to a purely kinetic simulation of propellant flow in gas feed + helicon source subsystem. Some of the experimental data [3-4] are explained. Lastly, we discuss full-scale kinetic modeling of coupled gas and plasmas [5-6] in the helicon discharge. [1] M.A.Lieberman, A.J.Lihtenberg, 'Principles of ..', Wiley, 1994; [2] F.F.Chen, Plas. Phys. Contr. Fus. 33, 339, 1991; [3] F.Chang-Diaz et al, Bull. APS 45 (7) 129, 2000; [4] J.Squire et al., Bull. APS 45 (7) 130, 2000; [5] O.Batishchev et al, J. Plasma Phys. 61, part II, 347, 1999; [6] O.Batishchev, K.Molvig, AIAA technical paper 2000-3754, -14p, 2001.

  16. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food...

  18. The Earth: Plasma Sources, Losses, and Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, Daniel T.; André, Mats; Dandouras, Iannis; Delcourt, Dominique; Fazakerley, Andrew; Fontaine, Dominique; Foster, John; Ilie, Raluca; Kistler, Lynn; Lee, Justin H.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Slavin, James A.; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wiltberger, Michael; Yau, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge concerning the source of magnetospheric plasma at Earth. Source of plasma, its acceleration and transport throughout the system, its consequences on system dynamics, and its loss are all discussed. Both observational and modeling advances since the last time this subject was covered in detail (Hultqvist et al., Magnetospheric Plasma Sources and Losses, 1999) are addressed.

  19. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 18, Jan. 3, 2012. (a) Upon approval by the...

  20. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  2. Z-pinch plasma neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Velikovich, A. L.; Clark, R. W.; Davis, J.; Chong, Y. K.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Franklin, J.; Rudakov, L. I.

    2007-02-15

    A deuterium gas-puff load imploded by a multi-MA current driver from a large initial diameter could be a powerful source of fusion neutrons, a plasma neutron source (PNS). Unlike the beam-target neutrons produced in Z-pinch plasmas in the 1950s and deuterium-fiber experiments in the 1980s, the neutrons generated in deuterium gas-puffs with current levels achieved in recent experiments on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories could contain a substantial fraction of thermonuclear origin. For recent deuterium gas-puff shots on Z, our analytic estimates and one- and two-dimensional simulations predict thermal neutron yields {approx}3x10{sup 13}, in fair agreement with the yields recently measured on Z [C. A. Coverdale et al., Phys. Plasmas (to be published)]. It is demonstrated that the hypothesis of a beam-target origin of the observed fusion neutrons implies a very high Z-pinch-driver-to-fast-ions energy transfer efficiency, 5 to 10%, which would make a multi-MA deuterium Z-pinch the most efficient light-ion accelerator. No matter what mechanism is eventually determined to be responsible for generating fusion neutrons in deuterium gas-puff shots on Z, the deuterium neutron yield is shown to scale as Y{sub n}{approx}I{sub m}{sup 4}, where I{sub m} is the peak current of the pinch. Theoretical estimates and numerical modeling of deuterium gas-puff implosions demonstrate that the yields of thermonuclear fusion neutrons that can be produced on ZR and the next-generation machines are sufficiently high to make PNS the most powerful, cost- and energy-efficient laboratory sources of 2.5-14 MeV fusion neutrons, just like plasma radiation sources are the most powerful sources of soft and keV x rays. In particular, the predicted deuterium-tritium thermal neutron-producing capability of PNS driven by the next-generation ZR and ZX accelerators is {approx}5x10{sup 16} and {approx}10{sup 18}, respectively.

  3. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  4. Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration <300 mus and dimensionless perveance Q up to 8 x 10-4. Transverse profile measurements 33 cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on Q was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5 mus. The duration of neutralization was about 10 mus at a charging voltage VFEPS = 5.5 kV and 35 mus at VFEPS = 6.5 kV. With VFEPS = 6.5 kV, the transverse current density profile 33 cm downstream

  5. Mass Communication: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    For the study of mass communication in social, cultural and political contexts, this annotated resource guide presents a list of materials available in the McGill University Libraries in Montreal, Canada. As a select bibliography, the guide concentrates on current sources, although some historical coverage of newspaper and journalism is included.…

  6. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Robert W.; McLachlin, Katherine M.; Riquelme, Paloma; Haarer, Jan; Broichhausen, Christiane; Ritter, Uwe; Geissler, Edward K.; Hutchinson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT New analytical techniques for multiparametric characterisation of individual cells are likely to reveal important information about the heterogeneity of immunological responses at the single-cell level. In this proof-of-principle study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied to the problem of concurrently detecting 24 lineage and activation markers expressed by human leucocytes. This approach was sufficiently sensitive and specific to identify subpopulations of isolated T, B, and natural killer cells. Leucocyte subsets were also accurately detected within unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparations. Accordingly, we judge LA-ICP-MS to be a suitable method for assessing expression of multiple tissue antigens in solid-phase biological specimens, such as tissue sections, cytospins, or cells grown on slides. These results augur well for future development of LA-ICP-MS–based bioimaging instruments for general users. PMID:27500232

  7. Microwave generated plasma light source apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ito, H.; Kodama, H.; Komura, H.; Minowa, Y.

    1985-02-05

    A microwave generated plasma light source including a microwave generator, a microwave cavity having a light reflecting member forming at least a portion of the cavity, and a member transparent to light and opaque to microwaves disposed across an opening of the cavity opposite the feeding opening through which the microwave generator is coupled. An electrodeless discharge bulb is disposed at a position in the cavity such that the cavity operates as a resonant cavity at least when the bulb is emitting light. In the bulb is encapsulated at least one discharge light emissive substance. The bulb has a shape and is sufficiently small that the bulb acts substantially as a point light source.

  8. A comparison of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of bromine in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gois, Jefferson S.; Van Malderen, Stijn J. M.; Cadorim, Heloisa R.; Welz, Bernhard; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2017-06-01

    This work describes the development and comparison of two methods for the direct determination of Br in polymer samples via solid sampling, one using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and the other using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry with direct solid sample analysis (HR-CS SS-GF MAS). The methods were optimized and their accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results obtained for 6 polymeric certified reference materials (CRMs) with the corresponding certified values. For Br determination with LA-ICP-MS, the 79Br+ signal could be monitored interference-free. For Br determination via HR-CS SS-GF MAS, the CaBr molecule was monitored at 625.315 nm with integration of the central pixel ± 1. Bromine quantification by LA-ICP-MS was performed via external calibration against a single CRM while using the 12C+ signal as an internal standard. With HR-CS SS-GF MAS, Br quantification could be accomplished using external calibration against aqueous standard solutions. Except for one LA-ICP-MS result, the concentrations obtained with both techniques were in agreement with the certified values within the experimental uncertainty as evidenced using a t-test (95% confidence level). The limit of quantification was determined to be 100 μg g- 1 Br for LA-ICP-MS and 10 μg g- 1 Br for HR-CS SS-GF MAS.

  9. Laser-produced plasma source system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomenkov, Igor V.; Brandt, David C.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Ershov, Alexander I.; Partlo, William N.; Myers, David W.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hoffman, Jerzy R.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Simmons, Rodney D.; Chavez, Juan A.; Chrobak, Christopher P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the development of laser produced plasma (LPP) technology as an EUV source for advanced scanner lithography applications in high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is expected to succeed 193 nm immersion technology for critical layer patterning below 32 nm beginning with beta generation scanners in 2009. This paper describes the development status of subsystems most critical to the performance to meet joint scanner manufacturer requirements and semiconductor industry standards for reliability and economic targets for cost of ownership. The intensity and power of the drive laser are critical parameters in the development of extreme ultraviolet LPP lithography sources. The conversion efficiency (CE) of laser light into EUV light is strongly dependent on the intensity of the laser energy on the target material at the point of interaction. The total EUV light generated then scales directly with the total incident laser power. The progress on the development of a short pulse, high power CO2 laser for EUV applications is reported. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. The deposition of target materials and contaminants, as well as sputtering of the collector multilayer coating and implantation of incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror substantially over the exposure time even though debris mitigation schemes are being employed. The results of measurements of high energy ions generated by a short-pulse CO2 laser on a laser-produced plasma EUV light source with Sn target are presented. Droplet generation is a key element of the LPP source being developed at Cymer for EUV lithography applications. The main purpose of this device is to deliver small quantities of liquid target material as droplets to the laser focus. The EUV light in such configuration is obtained as a result of creating a highly ionized plasma from the material of the

  10. Production of H, D, and He Plasmas in the ORNL High Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Chen, G. C.; Owen, L. W.; Sparks, D. O.

    2011-10-01

    The ORNL high particle flux helicon source is has been operated with various light ions at power levels up to 30 kW. It is being studied as an electrodeless source for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Γp >1023m-3s-1 , and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high heat fluxes ~ 10 MW /m2 . The maximum magnetic field strength | B | in the plasma production region for which high density operation is possible at the present power level has been found to increase with increasing ion mass. Operation with | B | ~ 0 . 5 T has been achieved with He as the working gas. The radial density profile is found to be strongly dependent on the axial magnetic field geometry, and both strongly centrally peaked and flat profiles have been obtained. Maximum plasma densities > 4 ×1019m-3 have been achieved with He, and > 2 . 5 ×1019m-3 with H. The device has been modeled using the EMS2D (G. Chen et al., Phys Plasmas 13 (2006) 123507) and SOLPS (R. Schneider, X. Bonnin et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46 (2006) 3) codes. The latest results will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Batelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept of Energy under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  11. Charge-exchange source terms in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeStefano, Anthony M.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    2017-05-01

    In the modeling of space plasma environments, source terms are often used to couple separate species of particles and/or fluids. There have been many techniques developed over the years to make such coupling more tractable while maintaining maximum physical fidelity. In our current application we use the formalism of the Boltzmann collision integral to compute source terms due to charge-exchange events in the heliosphere. The charge-exchange cross sections often encountered in heliospheric interactions can be fit to laboratory data, but in most cases cannot be directly integrated over analytically. Therefore, researchers often employ various levels of approximation, either semi-analytic or numerical. We explore several assumptions to the charge-exchange source term integrals, namely using Maxwellian velocity spaces for like-mass species and either hard-sphere, power-law, or exact forms of the cross section.

  12. Plasma Processing of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Films in the Fisk Plasma Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, Gregory; Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Watson, Michael; Wallace, Kent; Chen, Henry; Burger, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The use of plasmas to process materials has become widespread throughout the semiconductor industry. Plasmas are used to modify the morphology and chemistry of surfaces. We report on initial plasma processing experiments using the Fisk Plasma Source. Metallic and semiconductor thin films deposited on a silicon substrate have been exposed to argon plasmas. Results of microscopy and chemical analyses of processed materials are presented.

  13. Plasma Source Design for the PWFA Experiments at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Muggli, P.

    2002-12-01

    We discuss the design issues associated with producing a plasma source for the plasma wake field accelerator (PWFA) experiments at SLAC. There are many possible sources, but for our purposes uv, single photon ionized, lithium vapor, in a heat pipe oven, is our best option. Optimum parameters are derived and the plasma decay rate is estimated.

  14. Physical properties of erupting plasma associated with coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Reeves, K. K.; Moon, Y.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the physical properties (temperature, density, and mass) of erupting plasma observed in X-rays and EUV, which are all associated with coronal mass ejections observed by SOHO/LASCO. The erupting plasmas are observed as absorption or emission features in the low corona. The absorption feature provides a lower limit to the cold mass while the emission feature provides an upper limit to the mass of observed plasma in X-ray and EUV. We compare the mass constraints for each temperature response and find that the mass estimates in EUV and XRT are smaller than the total mass in the coronagraph. Several events were observed by a few passbands in the X-rays, which allows us to determine the temperature of the eruptive plasma using a filter ratio method. The temperature of one event is estimated at about 8.6 MK near the top of the erupting plasma. This measurement is possibly an average temperature for higher temperature plasma because the XRT is more sensitive at higher temperatures. In addition, a few events show that the absorption features of a prominence or a loop change to emission features with the beginning of their eruptions in all EUV wavelengths of SDO/AIA, which indicates the heating of the plasma. By estimating the physical properties of the erupting plasmas, we discuss the heating of the plasmas associated with coronal mass ejections in the low corona.

  15. Laboratory Plasma Source as an MHD Model for Astrophysical Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    The significance of the work described herein lies in the demonstration of Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun (MCG) devices like CPS-1 to produce energetic laboratory magneto-flows with embedded magnetic fields that can be used as a simulation tool to study flow interaction dynamic of jet flows, to demonstrate the magnetic acceleration and collimation of flows with primarily toroidal fields, and study cross field transport in turbulent accreting flows. Since plasma produced in MCG devices have magnetic topology and MHD flow regime similarity to stellar and extragalactic jets, we expect that careful investigation of these flows in the laboratory will reveal fundamental physical mechanisms influencing astrophysical flows. Discussion in the next section (sec.2) focuses on recent results describing collimation, leading flow surface interaction layers, and turbulent accretion. The primary objectives for a new three year effort would involve the development and deployment of novel electrostatic, magnetic, and visible plasma diagnostic techniques to measure plasma and flow parameters of the CPS-1 device in the flow chamber downstream of the plasma source to study, (1) mass ejection, morphology, and collimation and stability of energetic outflows, (2) the effects of external magnetization on collimation and stability, (3) the interaction of such flows with background neutral gas, the generation of visible emission in such interaction, and effect of neutral clouds on jet flow dynamics, and (4) the cross magnetic field transport of turbulent accreting flows. The applicability of existing laboratory plasma facilities to the study of stellar and extragalactic plasma should be exploited to elucidate underlying physical mechanisms that cannot be ascertained though astrophysical observation, and provide baseline to a wide variety of proposed models, MHD and otherwise. The work proposed herin represents a continued effort on a novel approach in relating laboratory experiments to

  16. Two-dimensional, three-fluid modeling of capillary plasma discharges in electrothermal mass accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmond, M. J.; Winfrey, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Electrothermal (ET) plasma launchers have a wide array of applications as mass acceleration devices. An ET plasma launcher utilizes an ET plasma discharge to accelerate a projectile. ET plasma discharges are arc-driven capillary discharges that ablate liner materials and form partially ionized plasmas. ET plasma discharges are generated by driving current pulses through a capillary source. Current pulses typically have peak currents on the order of tens of kA with pulse lengths on the order of hundreds of μs. These types of plasma discharges have been explored for their application to military ballistics, electric thrusters, and nuclear fusion power. ET plasma discharges have been studied using 0D, 1D, and semi-2D fluid models. In this work, a three-fluid, fully two-dimensional model of ET plasma discharges is presented. First approximations used in the newly developed model and code are discussed and simulation results are compared with experiment. Simulation results indicate the development of back flow inside ET plasma discharges due to collisional drag forces between individual plasma species. This back flow is observed for simulations of ET plasma discharges receiving current pulses with peak currents of 10, 20, 30, and 40 kA. Simulation results also reveal the development of fluid perturbations near the breech of the plasma source. These perturbations cause variations in the plasma electrical conductivity and ultimately cause changes in the local ablation rate of the source liner. At higher current pulses, these perturbations are more localized in the region of the source closest to the breech. This effect causes a decrease in the ablated mass in this region relative to the region of the source experiencing the highest ablation.

  17. Advances and problems in plasma-optical mass-separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bardakov, V. M.; Ivanov, S. D.; Strokin, N. A.

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents a short review of plasma-optical mass-separation and defines the fields for its possible application. During theoretical studies, numerical simulations, and experiments, the effect of the azimuthator finite size and of the vacuum conditions on the mass separator characteristics was revealed, as well as the quality of different-mass ion separation. The problems, solving which may lead to a successful end of the mass-separation plasma-optical technique implementation, were specified.

  18. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  19. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.; Sridharan, K.; Dodd, R.A.; Conrad, J.R.; Qiu, X.; Hamdi, A.H.; Elmoursi, A.A.; Malaczynski, G.W.; Horne, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers` health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case.

  20. Ions Beams and Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Anton

    2014-09-01

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40~keV, perveance-dominated Ar$^+$ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50~keV Ar$^+$ beam with pulse duration $<$300~$\\mu$s and dimensionless perveance $Q$ up to 8$\\times$10$^{-4}$. Transverse profile measurements 33~cm downstream of the ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on $Q$ was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5~$\\mu$s. The duration of neutralization was about 10~$\\mu$s at a charging voltage $V_{FEPS}$~=~5.5~kV and 35~$\\mu$s at $V_{FEPS}$~=~6.5~kV. With $V_{FEPS}$~=~6.5~kV, the

  1. Laser plasma as an effective ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, Karel; Krasa, Josef; Laska, Leos; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Kralikova, Bozena; Skala, Jiri; Woryna, Eugeniusz; Farny, J.; Parys, Piotr; Wolowski, Jerzy; Mraz, W.; Haseroth, H.; Sharkov, B.; Korschinek, G.

    1998-09-01

    Ions in different charge state and with different energy distribution are generated in the process of interaction of intense laser radiation with solid targets. Multiply charged ions of medium- and high-Z elements (Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Sn, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi), produced by photodissociation iodine laser system PERUN ((lambda) equals 1.315 micrometer, EL approximately 40 J, (tau) approximately 500 ps) are reported. Corpuscular diagnostics based on time-of-flight method (ion collectors and a cylindrical electrostatic ion energy analyzer) as well as Thomson parabola spectrometer were used in the experiments. The ions in maximum charge state up to about 55+ and with energies of several MeV were registered at a distance of about 2 m from the plasma plume. Measured ion current densities higher than 10 mA/cm2 in about 1 m from the target demonstrate the performance of laser ion source. A theoretical interpretation of ion spectra is attempted.

  2. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produced large (about 25-cm-diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}-cm{sup -3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Characterization of an Airborne Laser-Spark Ion Source for Ambient Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Kersten, Hendrik; Glaus, Reto; Gornushkin, Igor; Panne, Ulrich; Riedel, Jens

    2017-03-07

    An airborne laser plasma is suggested as an ambient ion source for mass spectrometry. Its fundamental physical properties, such as an excellent spatial and temporal definition, high electron and ion densities and a high effective cross section in maintaining the plasma, make it a promising candidate for future applications. For deeper insights into the plasma properties, the optical plasma emission is examined and compared to mass spectra. The results show a seemingly contradictory behavior, since the emitted light reports the plasma to almost entirely consist of hot elemental ions, while the corresponding mass spectra exhibit the formation of intact molecular species. Further experiments, including time-resolved shadowgraphy, spatially resolved mass spectrometry, as well as flow-dependent emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, suggest the analyte molecules to be formed in the cold plasma vicinity upon interaction with reactive species formed inside the hot plasma center. Spatial separation is maintained by concentrically expanding pressure waves, inducing a strong unidirectional diffusion. The accompanying rarefaction inside the plasma center can be compensated by a gas stream application. This replenishing results in a strong increase in emission brightness, in local reactive species concentration, and eventually in direct mass spectrometric sensitivity. To determine the analytical performance of the new technique, a comparison with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source was conducted. Two kitchen herbs, namely, spearmint and basil, were analyzed without any sample pretreatment. The presented results demonstrate a considerably higher sensitivity of the presented laser-spark ionization technique.

  4. Gas-discharge plasma sources for nonlocal plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. I.; DeJoseph, C. A. Jr.; Simonov, V. Ya.

    2007-11-12

    Nonlocal plasma technology is based on the effect of self-trapping of fast electrons in the plasma volume [V. I. Demidov, C. A. DeJoseph, Jr., and A. A. Kudryavtsev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 215002 (2006)]. This effect can be achieved by changing the ratio of fast electron flux to ion flux incident on the plasma boundaries. This in turn leads to a significant change in plasma properties and therefore can be useful for technological applications. A gas-discharge device which demonstrates control of the plasma properties by this method is described.

  5. Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sonca V T; Foster, John E; Gallimore, Alec D

    2009-08-01

    A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i) approximately = n(e), where n(i) is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n(i+) = n(i-) + n(e). The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production.

  6. Inductively Coupled Plasma Zoom-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elise A; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Hieftje, Gary M

    2016-03-01

    A zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been coupled to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source. Zoom-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS) combines two complementary types of velocity-based mass separation. Specifically, zoom-TOFMS alternates between conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and energy-focused, constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) (zoom) TOFMS. The CMA mode provides a mass-resolution enhancement of 1.5-1.7× over CEA-TOFMS in the current, 35-cm ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument geometry. The maximum resolving power (full-width at half-maximum) for the ICP-zoom-TOFMS instrument is 1200 for CEA-TOFMS and 1900 for CMA-TOFMS. The CMA mode yields detection limits of between 0.02 and 0.8 ppt, depending upon the repetition rate and integration time-compared with single ppt detection limits for CEA-TOFMS. Isotope-ratio precision is shot-noise limited at approximately 0.2% relative-standard deviation (RSD) for both CEA- and CMA-TOFMS at a 10 kHz repetition rate and an integration time of 3-5 min. When the repetition rate is increased to 43.5 kHz for CMA, the shot-noise limited, zoom-mode isotope-ratio precision is improved to 0.09% RSD for the same integration time.

  7. Which is safer source plasma for manufacturing in China: apheresis plasma or recovered plasma?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Changqing; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Binting; Ke, Ling; Xu, Min; Liu, Gui; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In most countries, the plasma for derivative production includes two types of plasma, apheresis plasma (AP) and recovered plasma (RP). However, the plasma recovered from whole blood is not permitted for manufacture in China. Because of the lack of source plasma and the surplus of RP, the Chinese government is considering allowing RP as an equivalent source for the production of plasma derivatives. It is known that human blood can be contaminated by various infectious agents. The objective of the study was to evaluate if infectious risk would increase by enacting this policy. The samples from the two types of blood donors from January 1 to December 31, 2013, were collected. Supplementary testing was conducted and the residual risk (RR) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the two types of blood donors and donations were calculated through the incidence-window period model. Prevalence of the markers of hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, cytomegalovirus, B19, and West Nile virus was calculated. No significant difference was found in the RR of the three pathogens in the two types of blood donors. However, after the quarantine period, the RR of HCV and HIV in AP was significantly lower than that in RP. A quarantine period of 2 years will make the infectious risk of RP not significantly different than that of AP. Our data demonstrate that allowing RP to be used for the manufacture of plasma derivatives will not increase its infectious disease risk if coupled with a 2-year inventory hold. © 2016 AABB.

  8. Matilda: A mass filtered nanocluster source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Gihan

    Cluster science provides a good model system for the study of the size dependence of electronic properties, chemical reactivity, as well as magnetic properties of materials. One of the main interests in cluster science is the nanoscale understanding of chemical reactions and selectivity in catalysis. Therefore, a new cluster system was constructed to study catalysts for applications in renewable energy. Matilda, a nanocluster source, consists of a cluster source and a Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA). A moveable AJA A310 Series 1"-diameter magnetron sputtering gun enclosed in a water cooled aggregation tube served as the cluster source. A silver coin was used for the sputtering target. The sputtering pressure in the aggregation tube was controlled, ranging from 0.07 to 1torr, using a mass flow controller. The mean cluster size was found to be a function of relative partial pressure (He/Ar), sputtering power, and aggregation length. The kinetic energy distribution of ionized clusters was measured with the RFA. The maximum ion energy distribution was 2.9 eV/atom at a zero pressure ratio. At high Ar flow rates, the mean cluster size was 20 ˜ 80nm, and at a 9.5 partial pressure ratio, the mean cluster size was reduced to 1.6nm. Our results showed that the He gas pressure can be optimized to reduce the cluster size variations. Results from SIMION, which is an electron optics simulation package, supported the basic function of an RFA, a three-element lens and the magnetic sector mass filter. These simulated results agreed with experimental data. For the size selection experiment, the channeltron electron multiplier collected ionized cluster signal at different positions during Ag deposition on a TEM grid for four and half hours. The cluster signal was high at the position for neutral clusters, which was not bent by a magnetic field, and the signal decreased rapidly far away from the neutral cluster region. For cluster separation according to mass to charge ratio in a

  9. Measurements of the Plasma Parameters and Low Frequency Oscillations in the Fisk Plasma Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Wallace, Kent; Lampkin, Gregory; Watson, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A new plasma device, the Fisk Plasma Source (FPS), has been developed at Fisk University. This plasma device is used to study the physics of low temperature plasmas and plasma-material interactions. The FPS device is a stainless steel vacuum 6-way cross vacuum vessel with at 10-inch inner diameter. Low temperature argon plasmas are generated using DC glow discharge and thermionic filament techniques. Spatial profiles of the plasma density, plasma potential, and electron temperature are measured using Langmuir probes. We present initial experimental measurements of density and temperature profiles in the FPS device. Experimental and theoretical studies of low frequency oscillations observed in the FPS device are also presented.

  10. Analysis of the tuning characteristics of microwave plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotk, Robert; Jasiński, Mariusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the tuning characteristics of waveguide-supplied metal-cylinder-based nozzleless microwave plasma source. This analysis has enabled to estimate the electron concentration ne and electron frequency collisions ν in the plasma generated in nitrogen and in a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol vapour. The parameters ne and ν are the basic quantities that characterize the plasma. The presented new plasma diagnostic method is particularly useful, when spectroscopic methods are useless. The presented plasma source is currently used in research of a hydrogen production from liquids.

  11. Analysis of the tuning characteristics of microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Miotk, Robert Jasiński, Mariusz; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the tuning characteristics of waveguide-supplied metal-cylinder-based nozzleless microwave plasma source. This analysis has enabled to estimate the electron concentration n{sub e} and electron frequency collisions ν in the plasma generated in nitrogen and in a mixture of nitrogen and ethanol vapour. The parameters n{sub e} and ν are the basic quantities that characterize the plasma. The presented new plasma diagnostic method is particularly useful, when spectroscopic methods are useless. The presented plasma source is currently used in research of a hydrogen production from liquids.

  12. Plasma mass filtering for separation of actinides from lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-06-01

    Separating lanthanides from actinides is a key process in reprocessing nuclear spent fuel. Plasma mass filters, which operate on dissociated elements, offer conceptual advantages for such a task as compared with conventional chemical methods. The capabilities of a specific plasma mass filter concept, called the magnetic centrifugal mass filter, are analyzed within this particular context. Numerical simulations indicate separation of americium ions from a mixture of lanthanides ions for plasma densities of the order of 1012 cm-3, and ion temperatures of about 10 eV. In light of collision considerations, separating small fractions of heavy elements from a larger volume of lighter ones is shown to enhance the separation capabilities.

  13. Plasma-based studies on 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. W.; Baldis, H. A.; Cauble, R. C.; Landen, O. L.; Wark, J. S.; Ng, A.; Rose, S. J.; Lewis, C.; Riley, D.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Audebert, P.

    2001-08-01

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warm dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (Te), the density (ne), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, ne⩾1022cm-3 implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities end for plasmas with ne⩾1022 since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  14. Plasma-Based Studies on 4th Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W; Baldis, H A; Cauble, R C; Landen, O L; Wark, J S; Ng, A; Rose, S J; Lewis, C; Riley, D; Gauthier, J-C; Audebert, P

    2000-11-28

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warn dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (T{sub e}), the density (n{sub e}), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, n{sub e}, {ge} 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3} implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However. the possibilities end for plasmas with n{sub e} {ge} 10{sup 22} since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  15. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-01-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  16. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  17. The HelCat dual-source plasma device.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Alan G; Gilmore, Mark; Watts, Christopher; Herrea, Janis; Kelly, Ralph; Will, Steve; Xie, Shuangwei; Yan, Lincan; Zhang, Yue

    2009-10-01

    The HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) device has been constructed to support a broad range of basic plasma science experiments relevant to the areas of solar physics, laboratory astrophysics, plasma nonlinear dynamics, and turbulence. These research topics require a relatively large plasma source capable of operating over a broad region of parameter space with a plasma duration up to at least several milliseconds. To achieve these parameters a novel dual-source system was developed utilizing both helicon and thermionic cathode sources. Plasma parameters of n(e) approximately 0.5-50 x 10(18) m(-3) and T(e) approximately 3-12 eV allow access to a wide range of collisionalities important to the research. The HelCat device and initial characterization of plasma behavior during dual-source operation are described.

  18. A Novel Source of Mesoscopic Particles for Laser Plasma Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-16

    fast ions from the plasma. Over the last decade laser plasma acceleration has made rapid strides in terms of providing high brightness,4,5 tunable...in Solid Targets with Wavelength-Scale Spheres. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 045001 (2007). 13Henig, A. et al. Laser -Driven Shock Acceleration of Ion Beams ...ABSTRACT Intense laser produced plasma are known for generating high dense - high temperatures plasma that is a source for electron, ion acceleration and

  19. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  20. Advanced Laser and RF Plasma Sources and Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    June 2011. 3. R. Giar and J. Scharer, “Focused Excimer Laser Initiated, RF Sustained High Pressure Air Plasmas.” Journal of Applied Physics 110...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0063 Advanced Laser and RF Plasma Sources and Diagnostics John Scharer University of Wisconsin March...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Advanced Laser and RF Plasma Sources and Diagnostics 5b. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-09-l-0357 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  2. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  3. Mass dependency of turbulent parameters in stationary glow discharge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B.; Alexander, A. B.; Wiggins, D. L.; Johnson, J. A. III

    2013-05-15

    A direct current glow discharge tube is used to determine how mass changes the effects of certain turbulence characteristics in a weakly ionized gas. Helium, neon, argon, and krypton plasmas were created, and an axial magnetic field, varied from 0.0 to 550.0 Gauss, was used to enhance mass dependent properties of turbulence. From the power spectra of light emission variations associated with velocity fluctuations, determination of mass dependency on turbulent characteristic unstable modes, energy associated with turbulence, and the rate at which energy is transferred from scale to scale are measured. The magnetic field strength is found to be too weak to overcome particle diffusion to the walls to affect the turbulence in all four types of plasmas, though mass dependency is still detected. Though the total energy and the rate at which the energy moves between scales are mass invariant, the amplitude of the instability modes that characterize each plasma are dependent on mass.

  4. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  5. Ion sampling and transport in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative accuracy and high sensitivity in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) depend on consistent and efficient extraction and transport of analyte ions from an inductively coupled plasma to a mass analyzer, where they are sorted and detected. In this review we examine the fundamental physical processes that control ion sampling and transport in ICP-MS and compare the results of theory and computerized models with experimental efforts to characterize the flow of ions through plasma mass spectrometers' vacuum interfaces. We trace the flow of ions from their generation in the plasma, into the sampling cone, through the supersonic expansion in the first vacuum stage, through the skimmer, and into the ion optics that deliver the ions to the mass analyzer. At each stage we consider idealized behavior and departures from ideal behavior that affect the performance of ICP-MS as an analytical tool.

  6. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.

    1994-03-08

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm[sup 2] at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance. 4 figures.

  7. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Haselton, Halsey H.

    1994-01-01

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm.sup.2 at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance.

  8. A multifunctional plasma and deposition sensor for the characterization of plasma sources for film deposition and etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Michael; Seeger, Stefan; Harbauer, Karsten; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Our recently reported multifunctional plasma and deposition sensor [Welzel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 211605 (2013)] was used for the characterization of two different plasma sources: a magnetron sputtering deposition source and an ion beam source. The multifunctional sensor, based on a conventional quartz crystal monitor (microbalance) for mass increase/decrease measurements, can measure quasi-simultaneously the deposition/etching flux, the energy flux, and the charged particle flux. By moving the sensor or the plasma source stepwise against each other, the lateral (radial) flux profiles of the different sources can be measured with a lateral resolution of about 8 mm, the diameter of aperture in front of the quartz crystal. It is demonstrated that this compact and simple multifunctional sensor is a versatile tool for the characterization of different kinds of plasma sources for deposition and etching purposes. By combining the different measured quantities, the ion-to-neutral ratio and the mean energy per deposited atom can be calculated, parameters that are essential for the characterization of plasma deposition and etch processes.

  9. Plasma emission sources in analytical spectroscopy-I.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, S; McGeachin, H M; Smith, P B

    1975-01-01

    A critical survey of plasma emission sources used in analytical spectroscopy, excluding conventional arc and spark sources, has been made. In Part I the concept of temperature applied to high-temperature excitation sources is considered, as are arc plasma jets. Part II will be concerned with microwave and capacitively coupled sources and in Part III inductively coupled sources will be dealt with. In the last part a comparison will also be made of all the sources reviewed, from the point of view of sensitivity, precision and freedom from matrix effects.

  10. Gold fingerprinting by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watling, R. John; Herbert, Hugh K.; Delev, Dianne; Abell, Ian D.

    1994-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been applied to the characterization of the trace element composition "fingerprint" of selected gold samples from Western Australia and South Africa. By comparison of the elemental associations it is possible to relate gold to a specific mineralizing event, mine or bullion sample. This methodology facilitates identification of the provenance of stolen gold or gold used in salting activities. In this latter case, it is common for gold from a number of sources to be used in the salting process. Consequently, gold in the prospect being salted will not come from a single source and identification of multiple sources for this gold will establish that salting has occurred. Preliminary results also indicate that specific elemental associations could be used to identify the country of origin of gold. The technique has already been applied in 17 cases involving gold theft in Western Australia, where it is estimated that up to 2% of gold production is "relocated" each year as a result of criminal activities.

  11. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat

    2016-02-15

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  12. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications.

    PubMed

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  13. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  14. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Topala, I. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Nagatsu, M. E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  15. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  16. Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques: The current status and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuelu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry is emerging as a frontier technology for direct analysis of sample that employs low-energy plasma as the ionization reagent. The versatile sources of ambient mass spectrometry (MS) can be classified according to the plasma formation approaches; namely, corona discharge, glow discharge, dielectric barrier discharge, and microwave-induced discharge. These techniques allow pretreatment-free detection of samples, ranging from biological materials (e.g., flies, bacteria, plants, tissues, peptides, metabolites, and lipids) to pharmaceuticals, food-stuffs, polymers, chemical warfare reagents, and daily-use chemicals. In most cases, plasma-based ambient MS performs well as a qualitative tool and as an analyzer for semi-quantitation. Herein, we provide an overview of the key concepts, mechanisms, and applications of plasma-based ambient MS techniques, and discuss the challenges and outlook.

  17. Plasma Transport in a Magnetic Multicusp Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    1 :15 AFIT/DS/ENP/91 -02 exic PLASMA TRANSPORT IN A MAGNETIC MULTICUSP NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ION kc.esioii Fo- SOURCE DISSERTATION P-1 TA~3 Ricky G. Jones... MULTICUSP NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ION SOURCE DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air...Approved for public release; distributio, unlimited AFIT/DS/ENP/91-02 PLASMA TRANSPORT IN A MAGNETIC MULTICUSP NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ION SOURCE Hicky G. Jones

  18. Plasma source development for fusion-relevant material testing

    DOE PAGES

    Caughman, John B. O.; Goulding, Richard H.; Biewer, Theodore M.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Plasma facing materials in the divertor of a magnetic fusion reactor will have to tolerate steady-state plasma heat fluxes in the range of 10 MW/m2 for ~107 sec, in addition to fusion neutron fluences, which can damage the plasma facing materials to high displacements per atom (dpa) of ~50 dpa . Material solutions needed for the plasma facing components are yet to be developed and tested. The Materials Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) is a newly proposed steady state linear plasma device that is designed to deliver the necessary plasma heat flux to a target for this material testing, including themore » capability to expose a-priori neutron damaged material samples to those plasmas. The requirements of the plasma source needed to deliver this plasma heat flux are being developed on the Proto-MPEX device, which is a linear high-intensity radio frequency (RF) plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with electron and ion heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration. The helicon plasma is operated at 13.56 MHz with RF power levels up to 120 kW. Microwaves at 28 GHz (~30 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW), and ion cyclotron heating at 7-9 MHz (~30 kW) is via a magnetic beach approach. High plasma densities >6x1019/m3 have been produced in deuterium, with electron temperatures that can range from 2 to >10 eV. Operation with on-axis magnetic field strengths between 0.6 and 1.4 T is typical. The plasma heat flux delivered to a target can be > 10 MW/m2, depending on the operating conditions.« less

  19. Source apportionment using reconstructed mass calculations.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Naila; Waheed, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    A long-term study was undertaken to investigate the air quality of the Islamabad/Rawalpindi area. In this regard fine and coarse particulate matter were collected from 4 sites in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region from 1998 to 2010 using Gent samplers and polycarbonate filters and analyzed for their elemental composition using the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Proton Induced X-ray Emission/Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIXE/PIGE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy. The elemental data along with the gravimetric measurements and black carbon (BC) results obtained by reflectance measurement were used to approximate or reconstruct the particulate mass (RCM) by estimation of pseudo sources such as soil, smoke, sea salt, sulfate and black carbon or soot. This simple analysis shows that if the analytical technique used does not measure important major elements then the data will not be representative of the sample composition and cannot be further utilized for source apportionment studies or to perform transboundary analysis. In this regard PIXE/PIGE and XRF techniques that can provide elemental compositional data for most of the major environmentally important elements appear to be more useful as compared to NAA. Therefore %RCM calculations for such datasets can be used as a quality assurance (QA) measure to treat data prior to application of chemometrical tools such as factor analysis (FA) or cluster analysis (CA).

  20. Cysteine as a Biological Probe for Comparing Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Golda, Judith; Kogelheide, Friederike; Held, Julian; Schulz-von-der-Gathen, Volker; Stapelmann, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    A large variety of plasma sources are available in the plasma medicine community. While enabling to choose the most promising source for a certain biomedical application, comparison of the different sources with a focus on their effect on biological targets is rather challenging. To allow for better comparison of various sources, the recent European COST action MP1101 was used to design the COST reference microplasma jet. Cysteine is a promising candidate investigate the impact of plasma from various sources on a standardized biological molecule, which is especially relevant for the investigations on a molecular level after plasma treatment. The simple structure of cysteine allows for a more in-depth analysis of each chemical group after plasma treatment and enables a comparison between different plasma sources and treatment parameters on each chemical group. The model itself has already been successfully established using a dielectric barrier discharge. Here, additional plasma sources are compared by the means of their impact on cysteine samples, showing e.g. the influence of feed-gas variations by adding oxygen or nitrogen admixture This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) with the packet grant PAK816 (PlaCID).

  1. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  2. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  3. Public Data Set: Impedance of an Intense Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Tokamak Plasma Startup

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hinson, Edward T. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:000000019713140X); Barr, Jayson L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177685931); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Perry, Justin M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000171228609)

    2016-05-31

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in E.T. Hinson et al., 'Impedance of an Intense Plasma-Cathode Electron Source for Tokamak Plasma Startup,' Physics of Plasmas 23, 052515 (2016).

  4. Low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma sources for plasma medicine.

    PubMed

    Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    In this review paper, fundamental overviews of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma generation are provided and various sources for plasma medicine are described in terms of operating conditions and plasma properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Initial experimental test of a helicon plasma based mass filter

    SciTech Connect

    Gueroult, R.; Evans, E. S.; Zweben, S. J.; Fisch, N. J.; Levinton, F.

    2016-05-12

    High throughput plasma mass separation requires rotation control in a high density multi-species plasmas. A preliminary mass separation device based on a helicon plasma operating in gas mixtures and featuring concentric biasable ring electrodes is introduced. Plasma profile shows strong response to electrode biasing. In light of floating potential measurements, the density response is interpreted as the consequence of a reshaping of the radial electric field in the plasma. This field can be made confining or de-confining depending on the imposed potential at the electrodes, in a way which is consistent with single particle orbit radial stability. In conclusion, concurrent spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements suggest ion separation, with heavy to light ion emission line ratio increasing with radius when a specific potential gradient is applied to the electrodes.

  6. Initial experimental test of a helicon plasma based mass filter

    SciTech Connect

    Gueroult, R.; Evans, E. S.; Zweben, S. J.; Fisch, N. J.; Levinton, F.

    2016-05-12

    High throughput plasma mass separation requires rotation control in a high density multi-species plasmas. A preliminary mass separation device based on a helicon plasma operating in gas mixtures and featuring concentric biasable ring electrodes is introduced. Plasma profile shows strong response to electrode biasing. In light of floating potential measurements, the density response is interpreted as the consequence of a reshaping of the radial electric field in the plasma. This field can be made confining or de-confining depending on the imposed potential at the electrodes, in a way which is consistent with single particle orbit radial stability. In conclusion, concurrent spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements suggest ion separation, with heavy to light ion emission line ratio increasing with radius when a specific potential gradient is applied to the electrodes.

  7. Initial experimental test of a helicon plasma based mass filter

    DOE PAGES

    Gueroult, R.; Evans, E. S.; Zweben, S. J.; ...

    2016-05-12

    High throughput plasma mass separation requires rotation control in a high density multi-species plasmas. A preliminary mass separation device based on a helicon plasma operating in gas mixtures and featuring concentric biasable ring electrodes is introduced. Plasma profile shows strong response to electrode biasing. In light of floating potential measurements, the density response is interpreted as the consequence of a reshaping of the radial electric field in the plasma. This field can be made confining or de-confining depending on the imposed potential at the electrodes, in a way which is consistent with single particle orbit radial stability. In conclusion, concurrentmore » spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements suggest ion separation, with heavy to light ion emission line ratio increasing with radius when a specific potential gradient is applied to the electrodes.« less

  8. Light ion mass spectrometer for space-plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Direct satellite measurements and ground-based techniques have given a comprehensive view of the density distribution of the cold plasma population in the earth's magnetosphere. There were, however, no direct measurements of the low-energy plasma mass composition, temperature, density, pitch-angle distribution, or plasma flow velocity. A description is presented of the evolution and development of an instrument, the Light Ion Mass Spectrometer (LIMS), designed to make these low-energy plasma measurements. The instrument was developed for flight on the spacecraft SCA-THA, a satellite to study satellite charging at high altitudes. This satellite, whose primary mission was to study spacecraft-plasma interactions and electrostatic charging, was launched into a near-geosynchronous orbit. The design requirements regarding the instrument are discussed, and attention is given to the calibration procedures, the flight configuration, and some examples of flight data.

  9. Light ion mass spectrometer for space-plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Direct satellite measurements and ground-based techniques have given a comprehensive view of the density distribution of the cold plasma population in the earth's magnetosphere. There were, however, no direct measurements of the low-energy plasma mass composition, temperature, density, pitch-angle distribution, or plasma flow velocity. A description is presented of the evolution and development of an instrument, the Light Ion Mass Spectrometer (LIMS), designed to make these low-energy plasma measurements. The instrument was developed for flight on the spacecraft SCA-THA, a satellite to study satellite charging at high altitudes. This satellite, whose primary mission was to study spacecraft-plasma interactions and electrostatic charging, was launched into a near-geosynchronous orbit. The design requirements regarding the instrument are discussed, and attention is given to the calibration procedures, the flight configuration, and some examples of flight data.

  10. Automated control of linear constricted plasma source array

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Maschwitz, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for controlling an array of constricted glow discharge chambers are disclosed. More particularly a linear array of constricted glow plasma sources whose polarity and geometry are set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the sources are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The quality of film along deposition "tracks" opposite the plasma sources can be measured and compared to desired absolute or relative values by optical and/or electrical sensors. Plasma quality can then be adjusted by adjusting the power current values, gas feed pressure/flow, gas mixtures or a combination of some or all of these to improve the match between the measured values and the desired values.

  11. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoshan

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the "Fassel" TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  12. Measurements of plasma bremsstrahlung and plasma energy density produced by electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Jonathan David

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to gain an understanding on the relative importance of microwave power, neutral pressure, and magnetic field configuration on the behavior of the hot electrons within an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma. This was carried out through measurement of plasma bremsstrahlung with both NaI(Tl) (hv > 30 keV) and CdTe (2 keV < hv < 70 keV) x-ray detectors, and through measurement of the plasma energy density with a diamagnetic loop placed around the plasma chamber. We also examined the anisotropy in x-ray power by simultaneously measuring the x-ray spectra in two orthogonal directions: radially and axially, using NaI(Tl) detectors. We have seen that for a 6.4 GHz ECRIS, both the x-ray power produced by confined electrons and the plasma energy density behave logarithmically with microwave power. The x-ray flux created by electrons lost from the plasma, however, does not saturate. Thus, the small increase in plasma density that occurred at high microwave powers (> 150 W on a 6.4 GHz ECRIS) was accompanied by a large increase in total x-ray power. We suggest that the saturation of x-ray power and plasma energy density was due to rf-induced pitch-angle scattering of the electrons. X-ray power and plasma energy density were also shown to saturate with neutral pressure, and to increase nearly linearly as the gradient of the magnetic field in the resonance zone was decreased. All of these findings were in agreement with the theoretical models describing ECRIS plasmas. We have discussed the use of a diamagnetic loop as a means of exploring various plasma time scales on a relative basis. Specifically, we focused much of our attention on studying how changing ion source parameters, such as microwave power and neutral pressure, would effect the rise and decay of the integrated diamagnetic signal, which can be related to plasma energy density. We showed that increasing microwave power lowers the e-fold times at both the leading

  13. Counter-facing plasma guns for efficient extreme ultra-violet plasma light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuwabara, Hajime; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial guns was proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. We applied Li as the source of plasma for improvement of the conversion efficiency, the spectral purity, and the repetition capability. For operation of the system with ideal counter-facing plasma focus mode, we changed the system from simple coaxial geometry to a multi-channel configuration. We applied a laser trigger to make synchronous multi-channel discharges with low jitter. The results indicated that the configuration is promising to make a high energy density plasma with high spectral efficiency.

  14. Annular Plasmas for Intense X-Radiation Sources: Assessment Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-14

    AD-Al29 382 ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION4 SOURCES: f ASSESSMENT REPORT(U) OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) D MOSHER 14 MAR 83...STANDARDS 1963-A CNR LON inPO.T R-4-83 OFFICEIF NAVAL ___ ___ ___ ___ ANNULAR PLASMAS FOR INTENSE X-RADIATION SOURCES: ASSESSMENT REPORT D. MOSHER 14 MARCH...REPORT B PFmoo COVERED Annular Plasmas for Intense X-radiation Sources: Assessment Asses’sment Report I. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR(*) S

  15. DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATERS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is combined with an ion chromatograph for the analysis of bromate in drinking waters. Three chromatographic colu...

  16. DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATERS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is combined with an ion chromatograph for the analysis of bromate in drinking waters. Three chromatographic colu...

  17. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  18. Physical investigation of a quad confinement plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Aaron; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Quad magnetic confinement plasma sources are novel magnetized DC discharges suitable for applications in a broad range of fields, particularly space propulsion, plasma etching and deposition. These sources contain a square discharge channel with magnetic cusps at the four lateral walls, enhancing plasma confinement and electron residence time inside the device. The magnetic field topology is manipulated using four independent electromagnets on each edge of the channel, tuning the properties of the generated plasma. We characterize the plasma ejected from the quad confinement sources using a combination of traditional electrostatic probes and non-intrusive laser-based diagnostics. Measurements show a strong ion acceleration layer located 8 cm downstream of the exit plane, beyond the extent of the magnetic field. The ion velocity field is investigated with different magnetic configurations, demonstrating how ion trajectories may be manipulated. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  19. Modeling of low pressure plasma sources for microelectronics fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Bera, Kallol; Kenney, Jason; Likhanskii, Alexandre; Rauf, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    Chemically reactive plasmas operating in the 1 mTorr–10 Torr pressure range are widely used for thin film processing in the semiconductor industry. Plasma modeling has come to play an important role in the design of these plasma processing systems. A number of 3-dimensional (3D) fluid and hybrid plasma modeling examples are used to illustrate the role of computational investigations in design of plasma processing hardware for applications such as ion implantation, deposition, and etching. A model for a rectangular inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source is described, which is employed as an ion source for ion implantation. It is shown that gas pressure strongly influences ion flux uniformity, which is determined by the balance between the location of plasma production and diffusion. The effect of chamber dimensions on plasma uniformity in a rectangular capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is examined using an electromagnetic plasma model. Due to high pressure and small gap in this system, plasma uniformity is found to be primarily determined by the electric field profile in the sheath/pre-sheath region. A 3D model is utilized to investigate the confinement properties of a mesh in a cylindrical CCP. Results highlight the role of hole topology and size on the formation of localized hot-spots. A 3D electromagnetic plasma model for a cylindrical ICP is used to study inductive versus capacitive power coupling and how placement of ground return wires influences it. Finally, a 3D hybrid plasma model for an electron beam generated magnetized plasma is used to understand the role of reactor geometry on plasma uniformity in the presence of E  ×  B drift.

  20. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamate, E.; Draghici, M.

    2012-04-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min.

  1. Laser Plasma Particle Accelerators: Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Esarey, Eric H.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Leemans, Wim P.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Ben; Durant, Marc; Hamill, Paul; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nieter, Chet; Paul, Kevin; Shasharina, Svetlana; Veitzer, Seth; Weber, Gunther; Rubel, Oliver; Ushizima, Daniela; Bethel, Wes; Wu, John

    2009-03-20

    Compared to conventional particle accelerators, plasmas can sustain accelerating fields that are thousands of times higher. To exploit this ability, massively parallel SciDAC particle simulations provide physical insight into the development of next-generation accelerators that use laser-driven plasma waves. These plasma-based accelerators offer a path to more compact, ultra-fast particle and radiation sources for probing the subatomic world, for studying new materials and new technologies, and for medical applications.

  2. Multi-fluid simulation models for inductively coupled plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Veitzer, Seth A.; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.; Smith, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    A numerical simulation model for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) sources and its implementation in the USim fluid-plasma software is presented. The electric field from the external antenna is solved using the vector potential equation with a variable dielectric constant. Plasma generation and species transport are solved using a set of collisional multi-fluid equations in diffusion form. USim results are benchmarked with experiments from the literature. Density and temperature distributions show good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively with the measurements.

  3. X-ray plasma source design simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cerjan, C.

    1993-07-01

    The optimization of soft x-ray production from a laser-produced plasma for lithographic applications is discussed in the context of recent experiments by R. Kauffman et al. which indicate that a conversion efficiency of 0.01 can be obtained with Sn targets at modest laser intensity. Computer simulations of the experiments delineate the critical phenomena underlying these high conversion efficiencies, especially the role of hydrodynamic expansion and radiative emission. Qualitative features of the experiments are reproduced including the transition from one-dimensional to two-dimensional flow. The quantitative discrepancy is ascribed to incorrect initiation of the ablating plasma and to inadequate atomic transition rate evaluation.

  4. Matching network for RF plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Pickard, Daniel S.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2007-11-20

    A compact matching network couples an RF power supply to an RF antenna in a plasma generator. The simple and compact impedance matching network matches the plasma load to the impedance of a coaxial transmission line and the output impedance of an RF amplifier at radio frequencies. The matching network is formed of a resonantly tuned circuit formed of a variable capacitor and an inductor in a series resonance configuration, and a ferrite core transformer coupled to the resonantly tuned circuit. This matching network is compact enough to fit in existing compact focused ion beam systems.

  5. Laser-Produced Plasmas and Radiation Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-31

    Vlases, H. Rutkowski, A. Hertzberg, A. Hoffman, L. Steinhauer, J. Dawson, D.R. Cohn, W. Halverson, B. Lax, J.D. Daugherty, J.E. Eninger , E.R. Pugh, T.K...Meeting, Albuquerque (October 1974). J.D. Daugherty, J.E. Eninger , D.R. Cohn, and W. Halverson, "Scaling of Laser Heated Plasmas Confined in Long Solenoids...Cohn, H.E. Eninger , W. Halverson, and D.J. Rose, "Stress, Dissipation, and Neutronics Constraints on ’fagnets for Laser-Solenoid Reactors," APS Plasma

  6. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  7. Rare-earth plasma light source for VUV applications

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.; Carroll, P.K.; Mcllrath, T.J.; Ginter, M.L.

    1981-09-01

    A compact versatile light source for producing VUV radiation from laser produced plasmas is described. Measurements of the spectral irradiance from CO/sub 2/ laser-produced plasmas on targets of gadolinium and ytterbium in the 155--220-nm range are given, and a comparison is made with analogous results obtaining using a ruby laser.

  8. Rare-earth plasma light source for VUV applications.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, G; Carroll, P K; McLlrath, T J; Ginter, M L

    1981-09-01

    A compact versatile light source for producing VUV radiation from laser produced plasmas is described. Measurements of the spectral irradiance from CO(2) laser-produced plasmas on targets of gadolinium and ytterbium in the 115-220-nm range are given, and a comparison is made with analogous results obtained using a ruby laser.

  9. Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field Geometry Light Ion Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoshitaka; Nakashima, Hideki; Goulding, R. H.; Carter Baity, M. D., Jr.; Sparks, D. O.; Barber, G. C.; White, K. F.; Jaeger, E. F.; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.

    2002-11-01

    Helicon plasma source is a well-known high-density plasma source for many applications including plasma processing and fusion. However, most helicon research has been focused on a uniform static magnetic field and relatively heavy ions. Light ion helicon operation is more sensitive to magnetic field strength and geometry than heavy ions. The axially inhomogeneous Mini-Radio Frequency Test Facility (Mini-RFTF) has a capability for controlling static magnetic fields then is applicative for light ion source plasma operation. Inhomogeneous static magnetic field geometry also can procedure a high velocity to plasma exhaust when combined with ICRF heating enabling the possibility of use in plasma propulsion. In this poster, we will show how the source has been optimized for a hydrogen operation and a specific plasma propulsion concept: The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). Measurements of the rf magnetic fields and profile of plasma parameters for several magnetic field strengths and geometries will be discussed. Comparisons with a RF modeling code EMIR3 also will be reported here.

  10. Characterization of the cold atmospheric plasma hybrid source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárdoš, L.; Baránková, H.

    2005-07-01

    Parameters of the hybrid hollow electrode activated discharge (H-HEAD) source for cold atmospheric plasma applications are described. The source with a simple cylindrical electrode terminated by a gas nozzle combines the microwave antenna plasma with the hollow cathode plasma generated inside the nozzle by a pulsed dc power. The source can produce over 15 cm long plasma plumes at less than 200 sccm of argon and 100 sccm of neon flowing in open air at the microwave power of 400 W (2.4 GHz). Parameters of the hybrid plasma are controlled by both the microwave power and the power delivered to the hollow cathode. An anomalous effect of a sharp increase in the length of the plasma plume at low gas flows is discussed. Results of the optical emission spectroscopy in argon and neon are presented. Optical spectra confirmed the presence of Ti and Fe from the hollow cathode in the plasma. The production of metal increases with the power applied to the hollow cathode. Traces of Ti from the hollow cathode have been found at substrates positioned as far as 2 cm from the cathode. This finding confirms the possibility to use the H-HEAD source for atmospheric physical vapor deposition (PVD) and hybrid PVD and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition of composite films.

  11. Modelling the plasma plume of an assist source in PIAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauer, Jochen; Harhausen, Jens; Foest, Rüdiger; Loffhagen, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    Plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) is a technique commonly used to produce high-precision optical interference coatings. Knowledge regarding plasma properties is most often limited to dedicated scenarios without film deposition. Approaches have been made to gather information on the process plasma in situ to detect drifts which are suspected to cause limits in repeatability of resulting layer properties. Present efforts focus on radiance monitoring of the plasma plume of an Advanced Plasma Source (APSpro, Bühler) by optical emission spectroscopy to provide the basis for an advanced plasma control. In this contribution modelling results of the plume region are presented to interpret these experimental data. In the framework of the collisional radiative model used, 15 excited neutral argon states in the plasma are considered. Results of the species densities show good consistency with the measured optical emission of various argon 2 p - 1 s transitions. This work was funded by BMBF under grant 13N13213.

  12. Handheld low-temperature plasma probe for portable "point-and-shoot" ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua S; Shelley, Jacob T; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-07-16

    We describe a handheld, wireless low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization source and its performance on a benchtop and a miniature mass spectrometer. The source, which is inexpensive to build and operate, is battery-powered and utilizes miniature helium cylinders or air as the discharge gas. Comparison of a conventional, large-scale LTP source against the handheld LTP source, which uses less helium and power than the large-scale version, revealed that the handheld source had similar or slightly better analytical performance. Another advantage of the handheld LTP source is the ability to quickly interrogate a gaseous, liquid, or solid sample without requiring any setup time. A small, 7.4-V Li-polymer battery is able to sustain plasma for 2 h continuously, while the miniature helium cylinder supplies gas flow for approximately 8 continuous hours. Long-distance ion transfer was achieved for distances up to 1 m.

  13. Ion plasma sources based on a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz`michev, A.I.

    1995-04-01

    A domestic microwave oven with a vacuum ionization chamber inside can be used as a composite ion plasma source. The microwave discharge in the chamber is a source of charged particles and plasma. The power fed into the discharge can be up to 500 W at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, and the pressure in the chamber can be 0.1-1000 Pa. The microwave devices for material processing and film deposition are described.

  14. Long Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2008-06-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally-applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage ({approx} 8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO{sub 3} source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios {approx} 120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high energy density physics applications.

  15. Helicon Plasma Source Configuration Analysis by Means of Density Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Angrilli, F.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Maggiora, R.; Pavarin, D.; Sparks, D.O.

    1999-11-13

    Initial results have been obtained from operation of a helicon plasma source built to conduct optimization studies for space propulsion applications. The source features an easily reconfigurable antenna to test different geometries. Operating with He as the source gas, peak densities >= 1.6X10{sup 19} m{sup -3} have been achieved. Radial and axial plasma profiles have been obtained using a microwave interferometer that can be scanned axially and a Langmuir probe. The source will be used to investigate operation at high magnetic field, frequency, and input power.

  16. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  17. Collisional considerations in axial-collection plasma mass filters

    DOE PAGES

    Ochs, I. E.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.; ...

    2017-04-01

    The chemical inhomogeneity of nuclear waste makes chemical separations difficult, while the correlation between radioactivity and nuclear mass makes mass-based separation, and in particular plasma-based separation, an attractive alternative. Here, we examine a particular class of plasma mass filters, namely filters in which (a) species of different masses are collected along magnetic field lines at opposite ends of an open-field-line plasma device and (b) gyro-drift effects are important for the separation process. Using an idealized cylindrical model, we derive a set of dimensionless parameters which provide minimum necessary conditions for an effective mass filter function in the presence of ion-ionmore » and ion-neutral collisions. Through simulations of the constant-density profile, turbulence-free devices, we find that these parameters accurately describe the mass filter performance in more general magnetic geometries. We then use these parameters to study the design and upgrade of current experiments, as well as to derive general scalings for the throughput of production mass filters. Most importantly, we find that ion temperatures above 3 eV and magnetic fields above 104 G are critical to ensure a feasible mass filter function when operating at an ion density of 1013 cm–3.« less

  18. Collisional considerations in axial-collection plasma mass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, I. E.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.; Zweben, S. J.

    2017-04-01

    The chemical inhomogeneity of nuclear waste makes chemical separations difficult, while the correlation between radioactivity and nuclear mass makes mass-based separation, and in particular plasma-based separation, an attractive alternative. Here, we examine a particular class of plasma mass filters, namely filters in which (a) species of different masses are collected along magnetic field lines at opposite ends of an open-field-line plasma device and (b) gyro-drift effects are important for the separation process. Using an idealized cylindrical model, we derive a set of dimensionless parameters which provide minimum necessary conditions for an effective mass filter function in the presence of ion-ion and ion-neutral collisions. Through simulations of the constant-density profile, turbulence-free devices, we find that these parameters accurately describe the mass filter performance in more general magnetic geometries. We then use these parameters to study the design and upgrade of current experiments, as well as to derive general scalings for the throughput of production mass filters. Importantly, we find that ion temperatures above 3 eV and magnetic fields above 104 G are critical to ensure a feasible mass filter function when operating at an ion density of 1013 cm-3.

  19. Mass production of magnetic nickel nanoparticle in thermal plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, Ashok B.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2014-04-24

    We report the mass production of Ni metal nanoparticles using dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by homogeneous gas phase condensation process. To increase the evaporation rate and purity of Ni nanoparticles small amount of hydrogen added along with argon in the plasma. Crystal structure analysis was done by using X-ray diffraction technique. The morphology of as synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using FESEM images. The magnetic properties were measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature.

  20. Erosion resistant nozzles for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources

    DOEpatents

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Bernardez, II, Luis J.

    2000-01-04

    A gas nozzle having an increased resistance to erosion from energetic plasma particles generated by laser plasma sources. By reducing the area of the plasma-facing portion of the nozzle below a critical dimension and fabricating the nozzle from a material that has a high EUV transmission as well as a low sputtering coefficient such as Be, C, or Si, it has been shown that a significant reduction in reflectance loss of nearby optical components can be achieved even after exposing the nozzle to at least 10.sup.7 Xe plasma pulses.

  1. X-ray plasma source design simulations.

    PubMed

    Cerjan, C

    1993-12-01

    The optimization of soft x-ray production from a laser-produced plasma for lithographic applications is discussed in the context of recent experiments by Kauffman et al. [Appl. Opt. 32, 6897 (1993)], which indicate that a conversion efficiency of 0.01 can be obtained with Sn targets at modest laser intensity. Computer simulations of the experiments delineate the critical phenomena underlying these high conversion efficiencies, especially the role of hydrodynamic expansion and radiative emission. Qualitative features of the experiments are reproduced, including the transition from one-dimensional to two-dimensional flow. The quantitative discrepancy is ascribed to incorrect initiation of the ablating plasma and to inadequate atomic transition rate evaluation.

  2. Characteristics of Cylindrical Microwave Plasma Source at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seungil; Youn, S.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    A microwave plasma source with a cylindrical resonance cavity has been proposed to generate the plasma at low pressure. This plasma source consists of magnetron, waveguide, antenna, and cavity. The microwave generating device is a commercial magnetron with 1 kW output power at the frequency of 2.45 GHz. The microwave is transmitted through the rectangular waveguide with the whistle shape, and coupled to the cavity by the slot antenna. The resonant mode of the cylindrical cavity is the TE111 mode. The operating pressure is between 0.1 Torr and 0.3 Torr with the Argon and nitrogen gas. The electron temperature and electron number density of argon plasma were measured with the optical emission spectroscopy measurement. And Ar1s5 metastable density was measured using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The plasma diagnostic results of a cylindrical microwave plasma source would be described in this study. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)'' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.

  3. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  4. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Veitzer, Seth A. Kundrapu, Madhusudhan Stoltz, Peter H. Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  5. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  6. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  7. Combined Gas-Liquid Plasma Source for Nanoparticle Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakov, V. S.; Kiris, V. V.; Nevar, A. A.; Nedelko, M. I.; Tarasenko, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    A gas-liquid plasma source for the synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles by spark erosion of the electrode material was developed and allowed the particle synthesis regime to be varied over a wide range. The source parameters were analyzed in detail for the electrical discharge conditions in water. The temperature, particle concentration, and pressure in the discharge plasma were estimated based on spectroscopic analysis of the plasma. It was found that the plasma parameters did not change signifi cantly if the condenser capacitance was increased from 5 to 20 nF. Purging the electrode gap with argon reduced substantially the pressure and particle concentration. Signifi cant amounts of water decomposition products in addition to electrode elements were found in the plasma in all discharge regimes. This favored the synthesis of oxide nanoparticles.

  8. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion using Helicon Injected Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Ahern, Drew; Bowman, Jaerd

    2016-10-01

    The use of an external plasma source with the IEC has the advantage that the background pressure in the IEC chamber can be low. This then enables a deep potential well formation for ion confinement. Also unit efficiency is increase due to minimization of ion losses through charge exchange. This technique is under study experimentally for use in a plasma jet propulsion unit and as an IEC type neutron source. Current work has studied the effect of locating the IEC grids off-center in the vacuum chamber, near the plasma entrance from the Helicon. With double grids, the relative potentials employed are also key factors in device performance. Electron emitters are added for space charge neutralization in the case of plasma jet propulsion. Plasma simulations are used to supplement the experiments. Specifically, the electric field and the magnetic field effects on energetic ion trajectories are examined for varying configurations. Funding by NASA, Air Force Research Lab and NPL Associates.

  9. Compact plasma focus devices: Flexible laboratory sources for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lebert, R.; Engel, A.; Bergmann, K.; Treichel, O.; Gavrilescu, C.; Neff, W.

    1997-05-05

    Small pinch plasma devices are intense sources of pulsed XUV-radiation. Because of their low costs and their compact sizes pinch plasmas seem well suited to supplement research activities based on synchrotrons. With correct optimisation, both continuous radiation and narrowband line radiation can be tailored for specific applications. For the special demand of optimising narrowband emission from these plasmas the scaling of K-shell line emission of intermediate atomic number pinch plasmas with respect to device parameters has been studied. Scaling laws, especially taking into account the transient behaviour of the pinch plasma, give design criteria. Investigations of the transition between column and micropinch mode offer predictable access to shorter wavelengths and smaller source sizes. Results on proximity x-ray lithography, imaging and contact x-ray microscopy, x-ray fluorescence (XFA) microscopy and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) were achieved.

  10. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  11. Plasma immersion ion charge state and mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Ryabchikov, Igor A.; Stepanov, Igor B.; Sinebryukhov, Andrei A.

    2006-03-15

    This work is devoted to the development and investigation of a new spectrometer for the measurement of ion charge state and mass composition of a plasma based on the combination of two methods--plasma immersion ion acceleration and time-of-flight ion separation. Ion acceleration in the spectrometer is carried out in the short-pulse mode by applying a negative bias potential to the plasma-immersed drift tube. The measurement of the ion current at the end of the tube using time-of-flight ion separation must be done after the bias potential pulse termination. The investigations of the ion charge state were carried out using a dc vacuum-arc Ti metal plasma. It is experimentally shown that the application of a negative bias potential with a pulse amplitude of more than 1.5 kV and duration in the range from 50 to 1000 ns allows measuring the spectra with good charge state and mass resolution for various plasma concentrations and drift tube lengths from 0.5 to 0.9 m. The spectrometer is noted for the design simplicity and compactness. It can be used for ion charge state and mass composition investigation in the wide range of concentration of most Periodic Table metal element plasmas.

  12. Abatement of Perfluorinated Compounds Using Cylindrical Microwave Plasma Source at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Bong; Park, S.; Park, Y.; Youn, S.; Yoo, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma source with a cylindrical cavity has been proposed to abate the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This plasma source was designed to generate microwave plasma with the cylindrical shape and to be easily installed in existing exhaust line. The microwave frequency is 2.45 GHz and the operating pressure range is 0.1 Torr to 0.3 Torr. The plasma characteristic of the cylindrical microwave plasma source was measured using the optical spectrometer, and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of CF4 and CHF3 were measured by a quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) with the various operation conditions. The effect of the addition of the oxygen gas were tested and also the correlation between the plasma parameters and the DRE are presented in this study. This work was supported by R&D Program of ``Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)'' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government funds.

  13. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Ohba, T.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S.; Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  14. Development of a long-slot microwave plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwata, Y. Kasuya, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M.

    2016-02-15

    A 20 cm long 10 cm wide microwave plasma source was realized by inserting two 20 cm long 1.5 mm diameter rod antennas into the plasma. Plasma luminous distributions around the antennas were changed by magnetic field arrangement created by permanent magnets attached to the source. The distributions appeared homogeneous in one direction along the antenna when the spacing between the antenna and the source wall was 7.5 mm for the input microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Plasma density and temperature at a plane 20 cm downstream from the microwave shield were measured by a Langmuir probe array at 150 W microwave power input. The measured electron density and temperature varied over space from 3.0 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 5.8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3}, and from 1.1 eV to 2.1 eV, respectively.

  15. Development of a long-slot microwave plasma source.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Y; Kasuya, T; Miyamoto, N; Wada, M

    2016-02-01

    A 20 cm long 10 cm wide microwave plasma source was realized by inserting two 20 cm long 1.5 mm diameter rod antennas into the plasma. Plasma luminous distributions around the antennas were changed by magnetic field arrangement created by permanent magnets attached to the source. The distributions appeared homogeneous in one direction along the antenna when the spacing between the antenna and the source wall was 7.5 mm for the input microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Plasma density and temperature at a plane 20 cm downstream from the microwave shield were measured by a Langmuir probe array at 150 W microwave power input. The measured electron density and temperature varied over space from 3.0 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 5.8 × 10(9) cm(-3), and from 1.1 eV to 2.1 eV, respectively.

  16. Development of a long-slot microwave plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Wada, M.

    2016-02-01

    A 20 cm long 10 cm wide microwave plasma source was realized by inserting two 20 cm long 1.5 mm diameter rod antennas into the plasma. Plasma luminous distributions around the antennas were changed by magnetic field arrangement created by permanent magnets attached to the source. The distributions appeared homogeneous in one direction along the antenna when the spacing between the antenna and the source wall was 7.5 mm for the input microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz. Plasma density and temperature at a plane 20 cm downstream from the microwave shield were measured by a Langmuir probe array at 150 W microwave power input. The measured electron density and temperature varied over space from 3.0 × 109 cm-3 to 5.8 × 109 cm-3, and from 1.1 eV to 2.1 eV, respectively.

  17. Plasma lasers (a strong source of coherent radiation in astrophysics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    1981-01-01

    The generation of electromagnetic radiation from the free energy available in electron streams is discussed. The fundamental principles involved in a particular class of coherent plasma radiation sources, i.e., plasma lasers, are reviewed, focusing on three wave coupling, nonlinear parametric instabilities, and negative energy waves. The simplest case of plasma lasers, that of an unmagnetized plasma containing a finite level of density fluctuations and electrons streaming with respect to the ions, is dealt with. A much more complicated application of plasma lasers to the case of auroral kilometric radiation is then examined. The concept of free electron lasers, including the role of relativistic scattering, is elucidated. Important problems involving the escape of the excited radiation from its generation region, effects due to plasma shielding and nonlinear limits, are brought out.

  18. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  19. Operation of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Diem, S. J.; Martin, E. H.; Pesavento, P. V.; Rapp, J.; Ray, H. B.; Shaw, G. C.; Showers, M. A.; Luo, G.-N.

    2015-11-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity rf plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with electron and ion heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz rf power at levels up to 100 kW. Microwaves at 28 GHz (~ 150 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). Ion cyclotron heating (~ 30 kW) will be via a magnetic beach approach. Plasma diagnostics include Thomson Scattering and a retarding field energy analyzer near the target, while a microwave interferometer and double-Langmuir probes are used to determine plasma parameters elsewhere in the system. Filterscopes are being used to measure D-alpha emission and He line ratios at multiple locations, and IR cameras image the target plates to determine heat deposition. High plasma densities in the helicon region have been produced in He (>3x1019/m3) and D (>1.5x1019/m3) , and operation with on-axis magnetic field strength >1 T has been demonstrated. Details of the experimental results and future plans for studying plasma surface/RF antenna interactions will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  20. Honeycomblike large area LaB6 plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-10-01

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP(2)) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB(6) (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB(6) (HLA-LaB(6)) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB(6) cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6 x 10(12) cm(-3), while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB(6) cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS.

  1. A pulsed xenon megawatt arc plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The exhaust of the source flowing into vacuum was measured by Thomson scattering diagnosis. Mean electron temperatures and densities were found to be 4-8 eV and of order ten to the 13th power cm/3 respectively over the 8 cm exhaust diameter at 30 cm from the source. Large shot to shot variations were noted. After a transient spike passes, these conditions persist during the power time of 125 microsecond. These exhaust conditions are marginal for evaluation of a proposed near resonant charge exchange pumped laser theory.

  2. What Are the Sources of Solar Energetic Particles? Element Abundances and Source Plasma Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2015-11-01

    We have spent 50 years in heated discussion over which populations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated at flares and which by shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association of the large "gradual" SEP events with shock acceleration is supported by the extensive spatial distribution of SEPs and by the delayed acceleration of the particles. Recent STEREO observations have begun to show that the particle onset times correspond to the observed time of arrival of the shock on the observer's magnetic flux tube and that the SEP intensities are related to the local shock speed. The relative abundances of the elements in these gradual events are a measure of those in the ambient solar corona, differing from those in the photosphere by a widely-observed function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. SEP events we call "impulsive", the traditional "3He-rich" events with enhanced heavy-element abundances, are associated with type III radio bursts, flares, and narrow CMEs; they selectively populate flux tubes that thread a localized source, and they are fit to new particle-in-cell models of magnetic reconnection on open field lines as found in solar jets. These models help explain the strong enhancements seen in heavy elements as a power (of 2-8) in the mass-to-charge ratio A/Q throughout the periodic table from He to Pb. A study of the temperature dependence of A/Q shows that the source plasma in impulsive SEP events must lie in the range of 2-4 MK to explain the pattern of abundances. This is much lower than the temperatures of >10 MK seen on closed loops in solar flares. Recent studies of A/Q-dependent enhancements or suppressions from scattering during transport show source plasma temperatures in gradual SEP events to be 0.8-1.6 MK in 69 % of the events, i.e. coronal plasma; 24 % of the events show reaccelerated impulsive-event material.

  3. Double and multi-pulsed operations of inductive plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M.; Bystritskii, V.; Walters, J. K.

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the study of double and multi-pulsed operations of two inductive plasma sources (IPS) for the generation of intense ion/plasma flows. Due to its simplicity and high efficiency, as compared to conventional coaxial J×B plasma sources, the IPS looks promising for a variety of applications that require a multi-pulse mode of operation, such as: intense plasma and ion beams [15th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 2004]; high current pulsed Hall accelerators [Plasma Phys. Rep. 29 (2003) 261]; spacecraft propulsion [AIP Conf. Proc. 608 (2002) 627] and the formation of field-reversed configurations by colliding current carrying plasma tori in magnetic fusion devices [Nucl. Fusion 39 (1999) 2001]. Design, projected parameters and initial test results for several modifications of the IPS, including characteristics of the generated plasma flows, are given. The density and temperature ranged between 10 12 and 10 15 cm -3 and 2 and 10 eV, respectively. Plasma transport velocities were measured between (1-5)×10 6 cm/s. The multi-pulse mode produced a train of pulses with frequencies up to 10 kHz for several milliseconds at power levels of (1-2)×10 7 W and several joules of deposited energy per pulse. The potential and limitations of double and multi-pulse modes of the IPS are also discussed.

  4. Characterization of a small railgun-based plasma jet source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Maximilian; Adams, Colin; Popescu, Marius; Korsness, Joshua; Sherburne, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Experimental characterization of a small plasma jet source has been undertaken at Virginia Tech's Center for Space Science and Engineering Research (Space@VT). The plasma-armature railgun features a square bore approximately 0.5 × 0.5 cm and a rail length of 10 cm. Fed by an 100 psi- gas manifold and powered by an LC pulse-forming network capable of delivering 100 kA current on timescales of several microseconds, jet velocities in the 10-20 km/s range are predicted. A modular design, the insulators and rails are readily swappable for investigation the interaction of the plasma armature with plasma-facing components fabricated with different materials and geometry. The plasma jet is characterized by a suite of diagnostics including a multichord Mach-Zehnder interferometer, spectrometer, photodiode array, and fast photography. Diagnostics planned for the near future include plasma laser-induced fluorescence and particle energy analyzers. The railgun source described is envisioned as a future platform for basic science experiments on topics ranging from plasma-material interaction to plasma shocks.

  5. Photo-ionized lithium source for plasma accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, P. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Quantum Electronics); Marsh, K.A.; Wang, S.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lee, S.; Katsouleas, T.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Quantum Electronics)

    1999-06-01

    A photo-ionized lithium source is developed for plasma acceleration applications. A homogeneous column of lithium neutral vapor with a density of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] cm[sup [minus]3] is confined by helium gas in a heat-pipe oven. A UV laser pulse ionizes the vapor. In this device, the length of the neutral vapor and plasma column is 25 cm. The plasma density was measured by laser interferometry in the visible on the lithium neutrals and by CO[sub 2] laser interferometry on the plasma electrons. The maximum measured plasma density was 2.9 [times] 10[sup 14] cm[sup [minus]3], limited by the available UV fluence ([approx]83 mJ/cm[sup 2]), corresponding to a 15% ionization fraction. After ionization, the plasma density decreases by a factor of two in about 12 [micro]s. These results show that such a plasma source is scaleable to lengths of the order of 1 m and should satisfy all the requirements for demonstrating the acceleration of electrons by 1 GeV in a 1-GeV/m amplitude plasma wake.

  6. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  7. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  8. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  9. NEUTRON SOURCE USING MAGNETIC COMPRESSION OF PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Quinn, W.E.; Elmore, W.C.; Little, E.M.; Boyer, K.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-10-31

    A fusion reactor is described that utilizes compression and heating of an ionized thermonuclear fuel by an externally applied magnetic field, thus avoiding reliance on the pinch effect and its associated instability problems. The device consists of a gas-confining ceramic container surrounded by a single circumferential coil having a shape such as to produce a magnetic mirror geometry. A sinusoidally-oscillating, exponentially-damped current is passed circumferentially around the container, through the coil, inducing a circumferential current in the gas. Maximum compression and plasma temperature are obtained at the peak of the current oscillations, coinciding with maximum magnetic field intensity. Enhanced temperatures are obtained in the second and succeeding half cycles because the thermal energy accumulates from one half cycle to the next. (AEC)

  10. Gallium ion extraction from a plasma sputter-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Imakita, S.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Maeno, S.

    2010-02-15

    A broad mixed ion beam containing positive ions of gallium (Ga) was produced with a plasma sputter-type ion source. Liquid Ga was suspended on a tungsten reservoir to be sputtered and postionized in argon (Ar) plasma excited by a radio frequency (rf) power at 13.56 MHz. Optical emission spectra from the plasma near the Ga sputtering target had indicated that the release of Ga into plasma increased with increasing negative bias to the sputtering target. The ratio of Ga{sup +} current to Ar{sup +} current was measured to be about 1% with a quadrupole mass analyzer at 100 V extraction voltage for incident rf power as low as 30 W. Ions in the plasma were extracted through a pair of multiaperture electrodes. The homogeneity of Ga flux was examined by making a Ga deposition pattern on a glass substrate located behind the extractor electrodes.

  11. Optimization of coaxial plasma source for spheromak magnetic helicity injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Wurden, G. A.; Barnes, Cris W.; Hill, D. N.; Hooper, E. B.; McLean, H. S.; Stallard, B. W.; Wood, R. D.; Woodruff, S.

    2001-10-01

    Utilization of dc coaxial plasma gun Marshall gun to inject magnetic helicity is a standard method to create and sustain a spheromak. Magnetic helicity injection rate is proportional to the gun voltage and gun bias flux. An ideal MHD flow model was developed and successfully applied to the Los Alamos CTX experiment in the early 1990s. [C. W. Barnes, T. R. Jarboe, G. J. Marklin, S. O. Knox and I. Henins, Phys. Fluids B 2, 1871 (1990)] One of the fundamental theoretical predictions is that the gun voltage Vg is proportional to the gun current to the second power, Vg ∝ I_g^2, when the mass flow rate is proportional to I_g. For the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), however, although the gun current is about the same as CTX, the gun voltage is lower by about a factor of 5. Correspondingly, the maximum observed magnetic field is limited to about 3 kG in the flux conserver region. Certainly there are geometrical differences between the two experiments, however, it is not clear that the geometrical differences are solely responsible for the low gun voltages observed in SSPX. It was proposed recently by Moses, Gerwin and Schoenberg (MGS) that gun voltage is related to electron temperature. We revisit the coaxial plasma source physics in order to explain the gun voltages observed in the SSPX. Comparison will be made to the predictions by the ideal MHD model and the MGS model. The possibility of raising gun voltage for SSPX helicity injection will be discussed.

  12. Mass identification of the neutral products generated in the plasma treatment of polluted atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, David

    2013-09-01

    Plasmas produced using Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) devices are very effective in the abatement of air pollution resulting from, for example, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VCOs) by a range of industrial and agricultural processes. The development and monitoring of effective DBD systems can be investigated by advanced mass spectrometric methods specifically configured for analysis at high and atmospheric pressures The present work involves the operation of a small DBD reactor which uses either a helium or nitrogen carrier gas to sustain the plasma to which may be added reactive gases, such as oxygen, as well as samples of pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a specially configured system manufactured by Hiden Analytical Ltd. The DBD source may also be combined with a catalyst for plasma-enhanced catalysis. The neutral products of the reactions proceeding in the plasma at atmospheric pressure are sampled through the capillary sampling system which also reduces the pressure of the gas mixture delivered to the ionisation source of the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ions produced are subsequently mass identified. We describe typical data and comment on the advantages of this technique.

  13. Efficient Plasma Ion Source Modeling With Adaptive Mesh Refinement (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Vay, J.L.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    2005-03-15

    Ion beam drivers for high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy research require high brightness beams, so there is little margin of error allowed for aberration at the emitter. Thus, accurate plasma ion source computer modeling is required to model the plasma sheath region and time-dependent effects correctly.A computer plasma source simulation module that can be used with a powerful heavy ion fusion code, WARP, or as a standalone code, is being developed. In order to treat the plasma sheath region accurately and efficiently, the module will have the capability of handling multiple spatial scale problems by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). We will report on our progress on the project.

  14. Are Spicules the Primary Source of Hot Coronal Plasma?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of Type II spicules has generated considerable excitement. It has even been suggested that these ejections can account for a majority of the hot plasma observed in the corona, thus obviating the need for "coronal" heating. If this is the case, however, then there should be observational consequences. We have begun to examine some of these consequences and find reason to question the idea that spicules are the primary source of hot coronal plasma.

  15. Development of a strong field helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Mizokoshi, Hiroshi

    2006-03-15

    We developed a high-density helicon plasma source with a very strong field of up to 10 kG. Using a double-loop antenna wound around a quartz tube, 9.5 cm in inner diameter and 90 cm in axial length, initial plasmas with a high density more than 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} were successfully produced with a radio frequency power less than a few kilowatts, and with changing magnetic fields, fill pressures, and gas species.

  16. Magnetospheric plasma - Sources, wave-particle interactions and acceleration mechanisms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speiser, T. W.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the basic problems associated with magnetospheric physics are reviewed. The sources of magnetospheric plasma, with auroral particles included as a subset, are discussed. The possible ways in which the solar wind plasma can gain access to the magnetosphere are outlined. Some important consequences of wave-particle interactions are examined. Finally, the basic mechanisms which energize or accelerate particles by reconnection and convection are explained.

  17. Photoionization of an aluminum plasma by a tantalum X source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaudin, Patrick; Back, Christina A.; Chenais-Popovics, Claude; Audebert, Patrick; Geindre, Jean-Paul; Gauthier, Jean-Claude

    1991-05-01

    Photoionization of a helium like aliminum plasma is carried out by an external x-source. The laser beam used corresponds to the 3d to 4F transition level of tantalum. The experimental spectrum of tantalum is shown superimposed over the emission spectrum of aluminum on diagrammatic form. Good correspondence is seen between the 3d to 4F emissions of tantalum and helium like aluminum. Plasma pumping is obtained by exposure of a tantalum target to laser rays.

  18. Sources, transport, energization, and loss of magnetospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.

    Sources, transport, energization, and loss of magnetospheric plasma was the theme of the third Huntsville Workshop on Magnetospheric Plasma Models, which was held in Guntersville, Ala., from October 4 to 8, 1992. Approximately ninety researchers attended the workshop, which was supported in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation.The first topical session summarized our knowledge of plasma distributions and set the stage for the later sessions. Dennis Gallagher reviewed the distributions of bulk parameters and reported on the new results of his empirical model of the plasmasphere. Ed Shelley traced the origins of the plasma sheet, concluding that medium-energy magnetospheric plasma is of between 5 and 50% ionospheric origin. Tony Lui addressed the distribution of energetic particles and noted that the observed pressure gradients account for the field-aligned currents in the inner magnetosphere. Dan Baker pointed out the glaring problem of how electrons gain relativistic energies during substorms.

  19. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kolchin, P.; Davidson, E.C.; Yu, S.S.; Logan, B.G.

    2002-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source.

  20. Simple filtered repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Yu.; Zhirkov, I. S.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    A very simple design of cathodic filtered vacuum arc plasma source is proposed. The source without filter has only four components and none of them require precise machining. The source operates in a repetitively pulsed regime, and for laboratory experiments it can be used without water cooling. Despite the simple construction, the source provides high ion current at the filter outlet reaching 2.5% of 400 A arc current, revealing stable operation in a wide pressure range from high vacuum to oxygen pressure up to more than 10-2 mbar. There is no need in complicated power supply system for this plasma source, only one power supply can be used to ignite the arc, to provide the current for the arc itself, to generate the magnetic field in the filter, and provide its positive electric biasing without any additional high power resistance.

  1. Experimental investigation of plasma impedance in Linac4 H- source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Mattei, S.; Briefi, S.; Butterworth, A.; Grudiev, A.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Paoluzzi, M. M.; Voulgarakis, G.; Hatayama, A.; Lettry, J.

    2017-08-01

    CERN 's new particle accelerator Linac4 is part of the upgrade of the LHC accelerator chain. Linac4 is required to deliver 160 MeV H- beam to improve the beam brightness and luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Linac4 H- source must deliver 40-50 mA, 45 keV H- beam in the RFQ acceptance. Since the RF power coupled to the H- source plasma is one of the important parameters that determines the quality of the H- beam, the experimental investigation of the dependence of the load impedance on the operational parameters is mandatory. In this study, we have measured the impedance of the H- source plasma varying the RF power coupled to the plasma and the condition of the hydrogen gas. Also, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements have been carried out simultaneously with the impedance measurement in order to determine the plasma parameters. The determination of the plasma parameters allows us to compare the experimental results with the analytic model of the plasma parameters, which is useful to discuss the results from a physical point of view.

  2. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A “plasma needle” is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  3. Dual radio frequency plasma source: Understanding via electrical asymmetry effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Wong, C. S.

    2013-04-21

    On the basis of the global model, the influences of driving voltage and frequency on electron heating in geometrically symmetrical dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma have been investigated. Consistent with the experimental and simulation results, non-monotonic behavior of dc self bias and plasma heating with increasing high frequency is observed. In addition to the local maxima of plasma parameters for the integer values of the ratio between the frequencies ({xi}), ourstudies also predict local maxima for odd integer values of 2{xi} as a consequence of the electrical asymmetry effect produced by dual frequency voltage sources.

  4. e+e- Plasma Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Ed P.

    2013-12-06

    This note addresses the idea of a photon source that is based on an e+e- plasma created by co-propagating beams of e+ and e-. The plasma has a well-defined temperature, and the thermal distribution of the charged particles is used to average over the relative velocity cross section multiplied by the relative velocity. Two relevant cross sections are the direct “free-free” annihilation of e+e- pairs in the plasma, and the radiative recombination of e+e- pairs into positronium (Ps) which subsequently undergoes annihilation.

  5. Model for a transformer-coupled toroidal plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Rauf, Shahid; Balakrishna, Ajit; Chen Zhigang; Collins, Ken

    2012-01-15

    A two-dimensional fluid plasma model for a transformer-coupled toroidal plasma source is described. Ferrites are used in this device to improve the electromagnetic coupling between the primary coils carrying radio frequency (rf) current and a secondary plasma loop. Appropriate components of the Maxwell equations are solved to determine the electromagnetic fields and electron power deposition in the model. The effect of gas flow on species transport is also considered. The model is applied to 1 Torr Ar/NH{sub 3} plasma in this article. Rf electric field lines form a loop in the vacuum chamber and generate a plasma ring. Due to rapid dissociation of NH{sub 3}, NH{sub x}{sup +} ions are more prevalent near the gas inlet and Ar{sup +} ions are the dominant ions farther downstream. NH{sub 3} and its by-products rapidly dissociate into small fragments as the gas flows through the plasma. With increasing source power, NH{sub 3} dissociates more readily and NH{sub x}{sup +} ions are more tightly confined near the gas inlet. Gas flow rate significantly influences the plasma characteristics. With increasing gas flow rate, NH{sub 3} dissociation occurs farther from the gas inlet in regions with higher electron density. Consequently, more NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions are produced and dissociation by-products have higher concentrations near the outlet.

  6. Development of plasma sources for Dipole Research EXperiment (DREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Wang, Zhibin; Peng, E.; Wang, Xiaogang; Xiao, Chijie; Ren, Yang; Ji, Hantao; Mao, Aohua; Li, Liyi

    2017-05-01

    Dipole Research EXperiment (DREX) is a new terrella device as part of the Space Plasma Environment Research Facility (SPERF) for laboratory studies of space physics relevant to the inner magnetospheric plasmas. Adequate plasma sources are very important for DREX to achieve its scientific goals. According to different research requirements, there are two density regimes for DREX. The low density regime will be achieved by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) system for the ‘whistler/chorus’ wave investigation, while the high density regime will be achieved by biased cold cathode discharge for the desired ‘Alfvén’ wave study. The parameters of ‘whistler/chorus’ waves and ‘Alfvén’ waves are determined by the scaling law between space and laboratory plasmas in the current device. In this paper, the initial design of these two plasma sources for DREX is described. Focus is placed on the chosen frequency and operation mode of the ECR system which will produce relatively low density ‘artificial radiation belt’ plasmas and the seed electrons, followed by the design of biased cold cathode discharge to generate plasma with high density.

  7. Mass discharge assessment at a brominated DNAPL site: Effects of known DNAPL source mass removal.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C D; Davis, G B; Bastow, T P; Woodbury, R J; Rao, P S C; Annable, M D; Rhodes, S

    2014-08-01

    Management and closure of contaminated sites is increasingly being proposed on the basis of mass flux of dissolved contaminants in groundwater. Better understanding of the links between source mass removal and contaminant mass fluxes in groundwater would allow greater acceptance of this metric in dealing with contaminated sites. Our objectives here were to show how measurements of the distribution of contaminant mass flux and the overall mass discharge emanating from the source under undisturbed groundwater conditions could be related to the processes and extent of source mass depletion. In addition, these estimates of mass discharge were sought in the application of agreed remediation targets set in terms of pumped groundwater quality from offsite wells. Results are reported from field studies conducted over a 5-year period at a brominated DNAPL (tetrabromoethane, TBA; and tribromoethene, TriBE) site located in suburban Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater fluxes (qw; L(3)/L(2)/T) and mass fluxes (Jc; M/L(2)/T) of dissolved brominated compounds were simultaneously estimated by deploying Passive Flux Meters (PFMs) in wells in a heterogeneous layered aquifer. PFMs were deployed in control plane (CP) wells immediately down-gradient of the source zone, before (2006) and after (2011) 69-85% of the source mass was removed, mainly by groundwater pumping from the source zone. The high-resolution (26-cm depth interval) measures of qw and Jc along the source CP allowed investigation of the DNAPL source-zone architecture and impacts of source mass removal. Comparable estimates of total mass discharge (MD; M/T) across the source zone CP reduced from 104gday(-1) to 24-31gday(-1) (70-77% reductions). Importantly, this mass discharge reduction was consistent with the estimated proportion of source mass remaining at the site (15-31%). That is, a linear relationship between mass discharge and source mass is suggested. The spatial detail of groundwater and mass flux distributions

  8. Mass discharge assessment at a brominated DNAPL site: Effects of known DNAPL source mass removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, C. D.; Davis, G. B.; Bastow, T. P.; Woodbury, R. J.; Rao, P. S. C.; Annable, M. D.; Rhodes, S.

    2014-08-01

    Management and closure of contaminated sites is increasingly being proposed on the basis of mass flux of dissolved contaminants in groundwater. Better understanding of the links between source mass removal and contaminant mass fluxes in groundwater would allow greater acceptance of this metric in dealing with contaminated sites. Our objectives here were to show how measurements of the distribution of contaminant mass flux and the overall mass discharge emanating from the source under undisturbed groundwater conditions could be related to the processes and extent of source mass depletion. In addition, these estimates of mass discharge were sought in the application of agreed remediation targets set in terms of pumped groundwater quality from offsite wells. Results are reported from field studies conducted over a 5-year period at a brominated DNAPL (tetrabromoethane, TBA; and tribromoethene, TriBE) site located in suburban Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater fluxes (qw; L3/L2/T) and mass fluxes (Jc; M/L2/T) of dissolved brominated compounds were simultaneously estimated by deploying Passive Flux Meters (PFMs) in wells in a heterogeneous layered aquifer. PFMs were deployed in control plane (CP) wells immediately down-gradient of the source zone, before (2006) and after (2011) 69-85% of the source mass was removed, mainly by groundwater pumping from the source zone. The high-resolution (26-cm depth interval) measures of qw and Jc along the source CP allowed investigation of the DNAPL source-zone architecture and impacts of source mass removal. Comparable estimates of total mass discharge (MD; M/T) across the source zone CP reduced from 104 g day- 1 to 24-31 g day- 1 (70-77% reductions). Importantly, this mass discharge reduction was consistent with the estimated proportion of source mass remaining at the site (15-31%). That is, a linear relationship between mass discharge and source mass is suggested. The spatial detail of groundwater and mass flux distributions also

  9. Generation of metal ions in the beam plasma produced by a forevacuum-pressure electron beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G. Zolotukhin, D. B.; Klimov, A. S.; Savkin, K. P.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the production of metal ions of magnesium and zinc in the beam plasma formed by a forevacuum-pressure electron source. Magnesium and zinc vapor were generated by electron beam evaporation from a crucible and subsequently ionized by electron impact from the e-beam itself. Both gaseous and metallic plasmas were separately produced and characterized using a modified RGA-100 quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The fractional composition of metal isotopes in the plasma corresponds to their fractional natural abundance.

  10. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  11. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  12. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  13. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  14. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  15. Simulations of Plasma Sources for Semiconductor Device Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzek, Peter

    2012-10-01

    First being applied to etching [1] and deposition [2] more than four decades ago, plasma unit processes are now ubiquitous in the semiconductor industry. However, in many cases the use of plasma discharges for semiconductor process development has far outpaced our fundamental understanding of plasma unit processes. Fortunately, state-of-the-art modeling and simulation is now applied both in the capitol equipment and device manufacturing sectors fortified by close relationships with academic institutions and national laboratories globally. The simulation tableau, modeling and simulation for semiconductor device manufacturing community may be broken into the following categories: new concept development, new process development, equipment physics and equipment engineering. This presentation will focus on simulation modalities that highlight how the physics of production equipment result in beneficial processes. Two classes of examples with be provided. [3] The first will illustrate the behavior of microwave plasma source; the second will explore the electron kinetics associated of capacitively coupled plasma sources. The common thread linking these topics is the importance of the frequency dependence of the electron energy distribution function (eedf) to the fidelity of the simulation results. With respect to the microwave driven plasma sources, in addition to comparing predictions of different modeling approaches to experimental data, the relationship between the microwave network and the plasma dynamics in addition will be highlighted. While the criticality of the eedf to all of capacitively coupled systems will be discussed, particular focus is paid to dc augmented capacitively coupled sources where management of how the ballistic electron population reaches the substrate is critical to process results. Fluid, test particle and full particle-in-cell Monte Carlo simulations will be used to illustrate different discharge behavior.[4pt] [1] H. Abe et al. Jpn. J. Appl

  16. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -5} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr and electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10{sup -6} Torr range with densities of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun.

  17. E × B ion mass spectroscopy in magnetised plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellblom, K. G.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1995-02-01

    A spectrometer based on the E × B drift during the transit time of the ion through a cross field region has been tested in a hydrogen plasma in the Blaamann toroidal plasma device [T. Brundtland, Vacuum 43 (1992) 185]. The magnetic field B, is the field of the device. The electric field E, which is imposed and oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field, is swept with a time long compared to the ion transit time. The ions are accelerated along the magnetic field as they enters the cross field region giving them a velocity and a transit time proportional to the charge over the mass.

  18. Comparison of Plasma Activation of Thin Water Layers by Direct and Remote Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Plasma activation of liquids is now being investigated for a variety of biomedical applications. The plasma sources used for this activation can be generally classified as direct (the plasma is in contact with the surface of the liquid) or remote (the plasma does not directly touch the liquid). The direct plasma source may be a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) where the surface of the liquid is a floating electrode or a plasma jet in which the ionization wave forming the plasma plume reaches the liquid. The remote plasma source may be a DBD with electrodes electrically isolated from the liquid or a plasma jet in which the ionization wave in the plume does not reach the liquid. In this paper, a comparison of activation of thin water layers on top of tissue, as might be encountered in wound healing, will be discussed using results from numerical investigations. We used the modeling platform nonPDPSIM to simulate direct plasma activation of thin water layers using DBDs and remote activation using plasma jets using up to hundreds of pulses. The DBDs are sustained in humid air while the plasma jets consist of He/O2 mixtures flowed into humid air. For similar number of pulses and energy deposition, the direct DBD plasma sources produce more acidification and higher production of nitrates/nitrites in the liquid. This is due to the accumulation of NxOy plasma jets, the convective flow removes many of these species prior to their diffusing into the water or reacting to form higher nitrogen oxides. This latter effect is sensitive to the repetition rate which determines whether reactive species formed during prior pulses overlap with newly produced reactive species. in the gas phase. In the plasma jets, the convective flow removes many of these species prior to their diffusing into the water or reacting to form higher nitrogen oxides. This latter effect is sensitive to the repetition rate which determines whether reactive species formed during prior pulses overlap with

  19. Spectroscopic study of ionizing and recombining plasma in a stationary plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, S.; Goto, M.; Tsuboi, H.; Oda, T.; Sato, K.

    2000-09-01

    A hot cathode, which is composed of La2O3-W needles, has been constructed and tested in a modified arc discharge source in order to produce a high-density plasma by large discharge current. No damage of needles was found after 100 h at a discharge current of 300 A. Characteristics of generated helium plasmas have been investigated by spectroscopic observations. The electron density has been found to be ≧2×1014cm-3 at a discharge current 100 A with this cathode. Experimental results were analyzed with calculations based on a collisional radiative model including an effect of radiation trapping. As a result, generated plasmas were shown to be classified into two groups by the pressure of neutral helium, that is, an ionizing plasma and recombining plasma. In low temperature recombining plasma, population inversions between He+ ion n=2 and the higher excited levels have been obtained.

  20. Middle East Mass Communications: Selected Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowlana, Hamid

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion of bibliographical sources for research on the Middle East is followed by a bibliography of information and research from 1950-1971. The Middle East is defined as that group of countries bounded on the north by Turkey, on the east by Iran, on the south by the Persian Gulf, and on the west by Egypt. (JEG)

  1. Plasma Generation and Mass Separation in the Archimedes Demonstration Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, D. L.; Agnew, S. F.; Anderegg, F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Isler, R. C.; Lee, W. D.; Litvak, A.; Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Putvinski, S.; Umstadter, K. R.; Zhang, J.

    2004-11-01

    The Archimedes Demonstration Unit (ADU) is a large scale (L = 4 m, a = 0.37 m) cylindrical device built to demonstrate Plasma Mass Filter^1 operation. The ADU utilizes crossed electric and magnetic fields to generate a low-pass filter on atomic mass, facilitating a reduction of the volume of high level nuclear waste at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington. During the last year, high density (ne ≤ 2.2 × 10^19m-3) and low temperature (Te ˜ 3 eV) noble gas target discharges have been attained with B ≤ 1.5 kG and P_RF ≤ 1.6 MW. Rotation and separation of noble gases and injected trace metals have been observed, and scaling of separation with magnetic field and ion mass has been measured. Experiments are underway to study formation and rotation of sodium plasmas fueled by ICP torch injection of sodium hydroxide (a primary constituent of the Hanford waste). ^1T. Ohkawa, "Plasma Mass Filter", U.S. Patent 6 096 220, August 1, 2000.

  2. Neutron Source from Laser Plasma Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xuejing; Shaw, Joseph; McCary, Eddie; Downer, Mike; Hegelich, Bjorn

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven electron beams and ion beams were utilized to produce neutron sources via different mechanism. On the Texas Petawatt laser, deuterized plastic, gold and DLC foil targets of varying thickness were shot with 150 J , 150 fs laser pulses at a peak intensity of 2 ×1021W /cm2 . Ions were accelerated by either target normal sheath acceleration or Breakout Afterburner acceleration. Neutrons were produced via the 9Be(d,n) and 9Be(p,n) reactions when accelerated ions impinged on a Beryllium converter as well as by deuteron breakup reactions. We observed 2 ×1010 neutron per shot in average, corresponding to 5 ×1018n /s . The efficiencies for different targets are comparable. In another experiment, 38fs , 0.3 J UT3 laser pulse interacted with mixed gas target. Electrons with energy 40MeV were produced via laser wakefield acceleration. Neutron flux of 2 ×106 per shot was generated through bremsstrahlung and subsequent photoneutron reactions on a Copper converter.

  3. Dense plasma focus (DPF) accelerated non radio isotopic radiological source

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian; Tang, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    A non-radio-isotopic radiological source using a dense plasma focus (DPF) to produce an intense z-pinch plasma from a gas, such as helium, and which accelerates charged particles, such as generated from the gas or injected from an external source, into a target positioned along an acceleration axis and of a type known to emit ionizing radiation when impinged by the type of accelerated charged particles. In a preferred embodiment, helium gas is used to produce a DPF-accelerated He2+ ion beam to a beryllium target, to produce neutron emission having a similar energy spectrum as a radio-isotopic AmBe neutron source. Furthermore, multiple DPFs may be stacked to provide staged acceleration of charged particles for enhancing energy, tunability, and control of the source.

  4. Arc plasma simulation of the KAERI large ion source.

    PubMed

    In, S R; Jeong, S H; Kim, T S

    2008-02-01

    The KAERI large ion source, developed for the KSTAR NBI system, recently produced ion beams of 100 keV, 50 A levels in the first half campaign of 2007. These results seem to be the best performance of the present ion source at a maximum available input power of 145 kW. A slight improvement in the ion source is certainly necessary to attain the final goal of an 8 MW ion beam. Firstly, the experimental results were analyzed to differentiate the cause and effect for the insufficient beam currents. Secondly, a zero dimensional simulation was carried out on the ion source plasma to identify which factors control the arc plasma and to find out what improvements can be expected.

  5. Plasmas in compact traps: From ion sources to multidisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Galatà, A.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2017-09-01

    In linear (minimum-B) magneto-static traps dense and hot plasmas are heated by electromagnetic radiation in the GHz domain via the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times ( n_eτ_i>10^{13} cm ^{-3} s; T_e>10 keV) are similar to the ones of thermonuclear plasmas. The research in this field -devoted to heating and confinement optimization- has been supported by numerical modeling and advanced diagnostics, for probing the plasma especially in a non-invasive way. ECR-based systems are nowadays able to produce extremely intense (tens or hundreds of mA) beams of light ions (p, d, He), and relevant currents of heavier elements (C, O, N) up to heavy ions like Xe, Pb, U. Such beams can be extracted from the trap by a proper electrostatic system. The above-mentioned properties make these plasmas very attractive for interdisciplinary researches also, such as i) nuclear decays rates measurements in stellar-like conditions, ii) energy conversion studies, being exceptional sources of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation (EUV, X-rays, hard X-rays and gammas, useful in material science and archaeometry), iii) environments allowing precise spectroscopical measurements as benchmarks for magnetized astrophysical plasmas. The talk will give an overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of intense ion sources, and some new perspectives for interdisciplinary research, with a special attention to the developments based at INFN-LNS.

  6. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 1011 cm-3 could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  7. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-Ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 10(11) cm(-3) could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  8. A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2007-01-08

    A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.

  9. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-03-15

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters.

  10. Modeling of plasma transport and negative ion extraction in a magnetized radio-frequency plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G.; Kohen, N.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Negative ion sources for fusion are high densities plasma sources in large discharge volumes. There are many challenges in the modeling of these sources, due to numerical constraints associated with the high plasma density, to the coupling between plasma and neutral transport and chemistry, the presence of a magnetic filter, and the extraction of negative ions. In this paper we present recent results concerning these different aspects. Emphasis is put on the modeling approach and on the methods and approximations. The models are not fully predictive and not complete as would be engineering codes but they are used to identify the basic principles and to better understand the physics of the negative ion sources.

  11. Effect of Substrate Potential on Plasma Parameters of Magnetic Multicusp Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Goto, Masahiro

    1998-06-01

    The effect of substrate potential on plasmas produced in a magnetic multicusp plasma source has been studied experimentally. Plasma parameters such as electron temperature and plasma potential are estimated from electron energy distribution function numerically calculated from probe current-voltage characteristics. For a substrate potential of -150 V with respect to the source chamber, which is much lower than substrate floating potentials, the plasma parameters are not affected by the application of the potential. However, for the case where the substrate is shorted with the source chamber, the high energy component of electrons significantly decreases in comparison with the floating case leading to the reduction of electron temperature. In this case, plasma potential is positive with respect to the substrate to suppress electron loss but its absolute value is only of the order of electron temperature in eV, which is much lower than the potential between the plasma and the substrate in the floating case. This discharge mode could be advantageous in significantly reducing the ion impact energy to the substrate plate.

  12. International workshop on plasma-based neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-09

    The workshop was devoted to discussion of the status and future directions of work on plasma-based neutron sources. The workshop presentations demonstrated significant progress in development of the concepts of these sources and in broadening the required data base. Two main groups of neutron source designs were presented at the workshop: tokamak-based and mirror-based. Designs of the tokamak- based devices use the extensive data base generated during decades of tokamak research. Their plasma physics performance can be predicted with a high degree of confidence. On the other hand, they are relatively large and expensive, and best suited for Volumetric Neutron Sources (VNSes) or other large scale test facilities. They also have the advantage of being on the direct path to a power- producing reactor as presently conceived, although alternatives to the tokamak are presently receiving serious consideration for a reactor. The data base for the mirror-based group of plasma sources is less developed, but they are generally more flexible and, with appropriate selection of parameters, have the potential to be developed as compact Accelerated Test Facilities (ATFs) as well as full-scale VNSes. Also discussed at the workshop were some newly proposed but potentially promising concepts, like those based on the flow-through pinch and electrostatic ion-beam sources.

  13. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, J.R.

    1988-08-16

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner. 7 figs.

  14. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner.

  15. Electron beam extraction on plasma cathode electron sources system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwadi, Agus; Taufik, M., Lely Susita R.; Suprapto, Saefurrochman, H., Anjar A.; Wibowo, Kurnia; Aziz, Ihwanul; Siswanto, Bambang

    2017-03-01

    ELECTRON BEAM EXTRACTION ON PLASMA CATHODE ELECTRON SOURCES SYSTEM. The electron beam extraction through window of Plasma Generator Chamber (PGC) for Pulsed Electron Irradiator (PEI) device and simulation of plasma potential has been studied. Plasma electron beam is extracted to acceleration region for enlarging their power by the external accelerating high voltage (Vext) and then it is passed foil window of the PEI for being irradiated to any target (atmospheric pressure). Electron beam extraction from plasma surface must be able to overcome potential barrier at the extraction window region which is shown by estimate simulation (Opera program) based on data of plasma surface potential of 150 V with Ueks values are varied by 150 kV, 175 kV and 200 kV respectively. PGC is made of 304 stainless steel with cylindrical shape in 30 cm of diameter, 90 cm length, electrons extraction window as many as 975 holes on the area of (15 × 65) cm2 with extraction hole cell in 0.3 mm of radius each other, an cylindrical shape IEP chamber is made of 304 stainless steel in 70 cm diameter and 30 cm length. The research result shown that the acquisition of electron beam extraction current depends on plasma parameters (electron density ne, temperature Te), accelerating high voltage Vext, the value of discharge parameter G, anode area Sa, electron extraction window area Se and extraction efficiency value α.

  16. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-08-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3-D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision H-/H+ and of charge exchange H-/H0 are handled at each time step by a Monte-Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided if they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of «volume production» (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  17. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-02-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The H-/D- trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision with H+/D+ and of charge exchange with H0/D0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have been allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of volume production (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  18. Synchronization between two coupled direct current glow discharge plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chaubey, Neeraj; Mukherjee, S.; Sen, A.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2015-02-15

    Experimental results on the nonlinear dynamics of two coupled glow discharge plasma sources are presented. A variety of nonlinear phenomena including frequency synchronization and frequency pulling are observed as the coupling strength is varied. Numerical solutions of a model representation of the experiment consisting of two coupled asymmetric Van der Pol type equations are found to be in good agreement with the observed results.

  19. Plasma emission spectroscopy for operating and developing the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) H- ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Baoxi; Welton, Robert F; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    An RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H- ion source feeds the SNS accelerator with a high current (typically >50 mA), ~1.0 ms pulsed beam at 60 Hz. To achieve the persistent high current beam for several weeks long service cycles, each newly installed ion source undergoes a rigorous conditioning and cesiation processes. Plasma conditioning outgases the system and sputter-cleans the ion conversion surfaces. A cesiation process immediately following the plasma conditioning releases Cs to provide coverage on the ion conversion surfaces. The effectiveness of the ion source conditioning and cesiation is monitored with plasma emission spectroscopy using a high-sensitivity optical spectrometer. Plasma emission spectroscopy is also used to provide a mean for diagnosing and confirming a failure of the insulating coating of the ion source RF antenna which is immersed in the plasma. Emissions of composition elements of the antenna coating material, Na emission being the most significant, drastically elevate to signal a failure when it happens. Plasma spectra of the developmental ion source with an AlN chamber and an external RF antenna are also briefly discussed.

  20. Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry in bioanalytical sciences.

    PubMed

    Smoluch, Marek; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Silberring, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry techniques are gaining growing interest due to their specific features, such as the need for little or no sample preparation, its high analysis speed, and the ambient experimental conditions. Samples can be analyzed in gas, liquid, or solid forms. These techniques allow for a wide range of applications, like warfare agent detection, chemical reaction control, mass spectrometry imaging, polymer identification, and food safety monitoring, as well as applications in biomedical science, e.g., drug and pharmaceutical analysis, medical diagnostics, biochemical analysis, etc. Until now, the main drawback of plasma-based techniques is their quantitative aspect, but a lot of efforts have been done to improve this obstacle.

  1. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1×1018/m3, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  2. Plasma ionization under simulated ambient Mars conditions for quantification of methane by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Taghioskoui, Mazdak; Zaghloul, Mona

    2016-04-07

    Ambient ionization techniques enable ion production in the native sample environment for mass spectrometry, without a need for sample preparation or separation. These techniques provide superior advantages over conventional ionization methods and are well developed and investigated for various analytical applications. However, employing ambient ionization techniques for in situ extra-terrestrial chemical analysis requires these techniques to be designed and developed according to the ambient conditions of extra-terrestrial environments, which substantially differ from the ambient conditions of Earth. Here, we report a plasma ionization source produced under simulated ambient Mars conditions for mass spectrometry. The plasma ionization source was coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of trace amounts of methane, as an analyte of interest in Mars discovery missions, were demonstrated. The miniature plasma source was operational at a net power as low as ∼1.7 W in the pressure range of 4-16 Torr. A detection limit as low as ∼0.15 ppm (v/v) at 16 Torr for methane was demonstrated.

  3. Honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-10-15

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP{sup 2}) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB{sub 6} (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB{sub 6} (HLA-LaB{sub 6}) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB{sub 6} cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB{sub 6} cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS.

  4. Emission properties of tin droplets laser-produced-plasma light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinbing; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang; Zhu, Haihong; Wu, Tao

    2014-04-01

    Laser produced plasma (LPP) light sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography currently has been extensively studied. Most of the studies are based on CO2 laser induced plasma from mass limited tin targets. In this work, a droplet dispenser that produces uniform droplets size of about 150μm was established. A pulsed TEA-CO2 laser and a Nd: YAG laser irradiated the droplets producing plasma respectively to get EUV emission. An X-ray Spectrometer and EUV photodiodes were used to collect the spectra and EUV radiation. The different EUV spectral composition and angular distribution of EUV emission from plasmas induced by the CO2 and Nd: YAG laser were studied.

  5. Dual magnetic mass of a hot quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M. ); Ball, J.S. ); Zachariasen, F. )

    1993-03-01

    The dual magnetic mass of a hot quark-gluon plasma is computed in the lowest order of dual QCD, which predicts a well-defined (dual) gauge-invariant result for it. This is because, in dual QCD, electricity and magnetism are interchanged, so magnetic calculations in dual QCD are easy if the corresponding electric ones in ordinary QCD are easy, and vice versa. We obtain the (leading-order) numerical result [ital [tilde m

  6. Large-Area Permanent-Magnet ECR Plasma Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    A 40-cm-diameter plasma device has been developed as a source of ions for material-processing and ion-thruster applications. Like the device described in the immediately preceding article, this device utilizes electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) excited by microwave power in a magnetic field to generate a plasma in an electrodeless (noncontact) manner and without need for an electrically insulating, microwave-transmissive window at the source. Hence, this device offers the same advantages of electrodeless, windowless design - low contamination and long operational life. The device generates a uniform, high-density plasma capable of sustaining uniform ion-current densities at its exit plane while operating at low pressure [<10(exp -4) torr (less than about 1.3 10(exp -2) Pa)] and input power <200 W at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Though the prototype model operates at 2.45 GHz, operation at higher frequencies can be achieved by straightforward modification to the input microwave waveguide. Higher frequency operation may be desirable in those applications that require even higher background plasma densities. In the design of this ECR plasma source, there are no cumbersome, power-hungry electromagnets. The magnetic field in this device is generated by a permanent-magnet circuit that is optimized to generate resonance surfaces. The microwave power is injected on the centerline of the device. The resulting discharge plasma jumps into a "high mode" when the input power rises above 150 W. This mode is associated with elevated plasma density and high uniformity. The large area and uniformity of the plasma and the low operating pressure are well suited for such material-processing applications as etching and deposition on large silicon wafers. The high exit-plane ion-current density makes it possible to attain a high rate of etching or deposition. The plasma potential is <3 V low enough that there is little likelihood of sputtering, which, in plasma processing, is undesired

  7. Intense ion beam generation, plasma radiation source and plasma opening switch research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, D. A.; Coleman, M. D.; Qi, N.; Similon, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes research on intense ion beam diodes, plasma opening switches and dense z-pinch plasma radiators. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to map the electrostatic potential profile in a plasma-prefilled magnetically insulated ion diode. In a simple planar diode, the measured profile is inconsistent with the electrons being confined in a sheath near the cathode by the magnetic field. Rather, the profile implies the presence of electrons throughout the accelerating gap. A theoretical model of the penetration of current and magnetic field into a plasma, and of the current-driven effective collision frequency has been developed. The snowplow action of the rising magnetic field causes a steep rise in the plasma density at the leading edge. The subsequent multistreaming of the ions caused by ion reflection at the current layer could lead to ion heating through collective effects. The two-dimensional electron flow in the plasma cathode vacuum gap is also treated. Dense z-pinch plasma radiation source experiments have been initiated on the LION accelerator using gas puff and fine wire loads. The x-pinch was found to be a more effective way to generate soft x-rays than a single wire pinch or a gas puff implosion. Plasma opening switch experiments being initiated, and plasma anode ion diode development work being terminated are also briefly described.

  8. Predicting DNAPL mass discharge from pool-dominated source zones.

    PubMed

    Christ, John A; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Pennell, Kurt D; Abriola, Linda M

    2010-05-20

    Models that link simplified descriptions of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone architecture with predictions of mass flux can be effective screening tools for evaluation of source zone management strategies. Recent efforts have focused on the development and implementation of upscaled models to approximate the relationship between mass removal and flux-averaged, down-gradient contaminant concentration (or mass flux) reduction. The efficacy of these methods has been demonstrated for ganglia-dominated source zones. This work extends these methods to source zones dominated by high-saturation DNAPL pools. An existing upscaled mass transfer model was modified to reproduce dissolution behavior in pool-dominated scenarios by employing a two-domain (ganglia and pools) representation of the source zone. The two-domain upscaled model is parameterized using the initial fraction of the source zone that exists as pool regions, the initial fraction of contaminant eluting from these pool regions, and the flux-averaged down-gradient contaminant concentration. Comparisons of model predictions with a series of three-dimensional source zone numerical simulations and data from two-dimensional aquifer cell experiments demonstrate the ability of the model to predict DNAPL dissolution from ganglia- and pool-dominated source zones for all levels of mass recovery.

  9. Hot Plasma Associated with a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Miralles, M. P.; Raymond, J. C.; Hara, H.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze coordinated observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board Hinode of an X-ray Plasma Ejection (XPE) that occurred during the coronal mass ejection (CME) event of 2008 April 9. The XPE was trailing the CME core from behind, following the same trajectory, and could be identified both in EIS and XRT observations. Using the EIS spectrometer, we have determined the XPE plasma parameters, measuring the electron density, thermal distribution, and elemental composition. We have found that the XPE composition and electron density were very similar to those of the pre-event active region plasma. The XPE temperature was higher, and its thermal distribution peaked at around 3 MK also, typical flare lines were absent from EIS spectra, indicating that any XPE component with temperatures in excess of 5 MK was likely either faint or absent. We used XRT data to investigate the presence of hotter plasma components in the XPE that could have gone undetected by EIS and found that—if at all present—these components have small emission measure values and their temperature is in the 8-12.5 MK range. The very hot plasma found in earlier XPE observations obtained by Yohkoh seems to be largely absent in this CME, although plasma ionization timescales may lead to non-equilibrium ionization effects that could make bright lines from ions formed in a 10 MK plasma not detectable by EIS. Our results supersede the XPE findings of Landi et al., who studied the same event with older response functions for the XRT Al-poly filter; the differences in the results stress the importance of using accurate filter response functions.

  10. Small plasma focus as neutron pulsed source for nuclides identification

    SciTech Connect

    Milanese, M.; Moroso, R.; Barbaglia, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Mayer, R.; Castillo, F.

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we present preliminary results on the feasibility of employing a low energy (2 kJ, 31 kV) plasma focus device as a portable source of pulsed neutron beams (2.45 MeV) generated by nuclear fusion reactions D-D, for the “in situ” analysis of substances by nuclear activation. This source has the relevant advantage of being pulsed at requirement, transportable, not permanently radioactive, without radioactive waste, cheap, among others. We prove the feasibility of using this source showing several spectra of the characteristic emission line for manganese, gold, lead, and silver.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS FLUX REDUCTION AND SOURCE-ZONE MASS REMOVAL: ANALYSIS OF FIELD DATA

    PubMed Central

    DiFilippo, Erica L.

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of contaminant mass flux reduction associated with a specific amount of contaminant mass removed is a key consideration for evaluating the effectiveness of a source-zone remediation effort. Thus, there is great interest in characterizing, estimating, and predicting relationships between mass flux reduction and mass removal. Published data collected for several field studies were examined to evaluate relationships between mass flux reduction and source-zone mass removal. The studies analyzed herein represent a variety of source-zone architectures, immiscible-liquid compositions, and implemented remediation technologies. There are two general approaches to characterizing the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship, end-point analysis and time-continuous analysis. End-point analysis, based on comparing masses and mass fluxes measured before and after a source-zone remediation effort, was conducted for 21 remediation projects. Mass removals were greater than 60% for all but three of the studies. Mass flux reductions ranging from slightly less than to slightly greater than one-to-one were observed for the majority of the sites. However, these single-snapshot characterizations are limited in that the antecedent behavior is indeterminate. Time-continuous analysis, based on continuous monitoring of mass removal and mass flux, was performed for two sites, both for which data were obtained under water-flushing conditions. The reductions in mass flux were significantly different for the two sites (90% vs. ~8%) for similar mass removals (~40%). These results illustrate the dependence of the mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal relationship on source-zone architecture and associated mass-transfer processes. Minimal mass flux reduction was observed for a system wherein mass removal was relatively efficient (ideal mass transfer and displacement). Conversely, a significant degree of mass flux reduction was observed for a site wherein mass removal was inefficient

  12. XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament.

    PubMed

    Peth, Christian; Kalinin, Anton; Barkusky, Frank; Mann, Klaus; Toennies, J Peter; Rusin, Lev Yu

    2007-10-01

    We present a laser driven soft x-ray source based on a novel solid argon filament. The continuously flowing micron-sized filament (diameter approximately 56 microm, flow speed approximately 5 mms) was used as a laser target in order to generate a plasma source of high brightness in the "water window" (2.2-4.4 nm) spectral range. The emission properties of the source were characterized in detail with respect to crucial parameters such as positional and energy stability using an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sensitive pinhole camera and an XUV spectrometer. The results are compared with an argon plasma based on a gas puff target operated under the same experimental conditions showing an increase of the brilliance by a factor of 84. By changing the capillary geometry from a constant diameter to a convergent shape the flow speed of the filament was significantly increased up to 250 mms, facilitating the operation at higher repetition rates.

  13. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  14. Measurement and visualization of mass transport for the flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ambient mass-spectrometry source.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, Kevin P; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M

    2014-05-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) has developed into an important analytical field over the last 9 years. The ability to analyze samples under ambient conditions while retaining the sensitivity and specificity of mass spectrometry has led to numerous applications and a corresponding jump in the popularity of this field. Despite the great potential of ADI-MS, problems remain in the areas of ion identification and quantification. Difficulties with ion identification can be solved through modified instrumentation, including accurate-mass or MS/MS capabilities for analyte identification. More difficult problems include quantification because of the ambient nature of the sampling process. To characterize and improve sample volatilization, ionization, and introduction into the mass spectrometer interface, a method of visualizing mass transport into the mass spectrometer is needed. Schlieren imaging is a well-established technique that renders small changes in refractive index visible. Here, schlieren imaging was used to visualize helium flow from a plasma-based ADI-MS source into a mass spectrometer while ion signals were recorded. Optimal sample positions for melting-point capillary and transmission-mode (stainless steel mesh) introduction were found to be near (within 1 mm of) the mass spectrometer inlet. Additionally, the orientation of the sampled surface plays a significant role. More efficient mass transport resulted for analyte deposits directly facing the MS inlet. Different surfaces (glass slide and rough surface) were also examined; for both it was found that the optimal position is immediately beneath the MS inlet.

  15. Measurement and Visualization of Mass Transport for the Flowing Atmospheric Pressure Afterglow (FAPA) Ambient Mass-Spectrometry Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuffer, Kevin P.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2014-05-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) has developed into an important analytical field over the last 9 years. The ability to analyze samples under ambient conditions while retaining the sensitivity and specificity of mass spectrometry has led to numerous applications and a corresponding jump in the popularity of this field. Despite the great potential of ADI-MS, problems remain in the areas of ion identification and quantification. Difficulties with ion identification can be solved through modified instrumentation, including accurate-mass or MS/MS capabilities for analyte identification. More difficult problems include quantification because of the ambient nature of the sampling process. To characterize and improve sample volatilization, ionization, and introduction into the mass spectrometer interface, a method of visualizing mass transport into the mass spectrometer is needed. Schlieren imaging is a well-established technique that renders small changes in refractive index visible. Here, schlieren imaging was used to visualize helium flow from a plasma-based ADI-MS source into a mass spectrometer while ion signals were recorded. Optimal sample positions for melting-point capillary and transmission-mode (stainless steel mesh) introduction were found to be near (within 1 mm of) the mass spectrometer inlet. Additionally, the orientation of the sampled surface plays a significant role. More efficient mass transport resulted for analyte deposits directly facing the MS inlet. Different surfaces (glass slide and rough surface) were also examined; for both it was found that the optimal position is immediately beneath the MS inlet.

  16. Study of atmospheric pressure plasma jet parameters generated by DC voltage driven cold plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingxing; Shashurin, Alexey

    2017-08-01

    In this work, plasma and discharge parameters of a DC voltage driven cold plasma source were measured. The device exhibits a plasma jet with a length of 3 cm and a pulsation frequency of about 2.75 kHz. The peak current of each pulse was about 1.1 mA, and the duration was about 5 μs. The repetition rate could be increased by raising the DC voltage level. By utilizing the microwave scattering system, electron density in the plasma was measured to be about ˜1011 cm-3. Vibrational and rotational temperatures of atmospheric pressure plasma jets were also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. The vibrational temperature was measured to be 2850 K and rotational temperature to be 300 K at the applied voltage of 5 kV. No strong dependence of the temperatures was found with the DC voltage level.

  17. Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2014-06-15

    We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion disks—together with the disk-source-jet coupling problem—are discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities.

  18. Resonant planar antenna as an inductive plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Guittienne, Ph.; Lecoultre, S.; Howling, A. A.; Hollenstein, Ch.; Fayet, P.; Larrieu, J.

    2012-04-15

    A resonant planar antenna as an inductive plasma source operating at 13.56 MHz inside a low pressure vacuum vessel is presented for potential plasma processing applications. Its principle consists in interconnecting elementary resonant meshes composed of inductive and capacitive elements. Due to its structure, the antenna shows a set of resonant modes associated with peaks of the real input impedance. Each of these modes is defined by its own current and voltage distribution oscillating at the frequency of the mode. A rectangular antenna of 0.55mx0.20m has been built, and first results obtained with argon plasmas are presented. Plasma generation is shown to be efficient as densities up to 4{center_dot}10{sup 17}m{sup -3} at 2000 W have been measured by microwave interferometry at a distance of 4 cm from the source plane. It is also demonstrated that the plasma couples inductively with the resonating currents flowing in the antenna above a threshold power of about 60 W. A non-uniformity of less than {+-}5% is obtained at 1000 W at a few centimeters above the antenna over 75% of its surface.

  19. Active plasma source formation in the MAP diode

    SciTech Connect

    Lamppa, K.P.; Stinnett, R.W.; Renk, T.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) program is exploring using ion beams to treat the surface of a wide variety of materials. These experiments have shown that improved corrosion resistance, surface hardening, grain size modification, polishing and surface cleaning can all be achieved using a pulsed 0.4-0.8 MeV ion beam delivering 1-10 J/cm{sup 2}. The Magnetically-confined Anode Plasma (MAP) diode, developed at Cornell University, produces an active plasma which can be used to treat the surfaces of materials. The diode consists of a fast puff valve as the source of gas to produce the desired ions and two capacitively driven B-fields. A slow magnetic field is used for electron insulation and a fast field is used to both ionize the puffed gas and to position the plasma in the proper spatial location in the anode prior to the accelerator pulse. The relative timing between subsystems is an important factor in the effective production of the active plasma source for the MAP diode system. The MAP diode has been characterized using a Langmuir probe to measure plasma arrival times at the anode annulus for hydrogen gas. This data was then used to determine the optimum operating point for the MAP diode on RHEPP-1 accelerator shots. Operation of the MAP diode system to produce an ion beam of 500 kV, 12 kA with 40% efficiency (measured at the diode) has been demonstrated.

  20. A source to deliver mesoscopic particles for laser plasma studies.

    PubMed

    Gopal, R; Kumar, R; Anand, M; Kulkarni, A; Singh, D P; Krishnan, S R; Sharma, V; Krishnamurthy, M

    2017-02-01

    Intense ultrashort laser produced plasmas are a source for high brightness, short burst of X-rays, electrons, and high energy ions. Laser energy absorption and its disbursement strongly depend on the laser parameters and also on the initial size and shape of the target. The ability to change the shape, size, and material composition of the matter that absorbs light is of paramount importance not only from a fundamental physics point of view but also for potentially developing laser plasma sources tailored for specific applications. The idea of preparing mesoscopic particles of desired size/shape and suspending them in vacuum for laser plasma acceleration is a sparsely explored domain. In the following report we outline the development of a delivery mechanism of microparticles into an effusive jet in vacuum for laser plasma studies. We characterise the device in terms of particle density, particle size distribution, and duration of operation under conditions suitable for laser plasma studies. We also present the first results of x-ray emission from micro crystals of boric acid that extends to 100 keV even under relatively mild intensities of 10(16) W/cm(2).

  1. A source to deliver mesoscopic particles for laser plasma studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, R.; Kumar, R.; Anand, M.; Kulkarni, A.; Singh, D. P.; Krishnan, S. R.; Sharma, V.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2017-02-01

    Intense ultrashort laser produced plasmas are a source for high brightness, short burst of X-rays, electrons, and high energy ions. Laser energy absorption and its disbursement strongly depend on the laser parameters and also on the initial size and shape of the target. The ability to change the shape, size, and material composition of the matter that absorbs light is of paramount importance not only from a fundamental physics point of view but also for potentially developing laser plasma sources tailored for specific applications. The idea of preparing mesoscopic particles of desired size/shape and suspending them in vacuum for laser plasma acceleration is a sparsely explored domain. In the following report we outline the development of a delivery mechanism of microparticles into an effusive jet in vacuum for laser plasma studies. We characterise the device in terms of particle density, particle size distribution, and duration of operation under conditions suitable for laser plasma studies. We also present the first results of x-ray emission from micro crystals of boric acid that extends to 100 keV even under relatively mild intensities of 1016 W/cm2.

  2. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Vodopianov, A V; Golubev, S V; Izotov, I V; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 micros and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10(12) cm(-3), required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T(e) approximately = 20 eV.

  3. Overdense plasma generation in a compact ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, G.; Romano, F. P.; Celona, L.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Gambino, N.; Lanaia, D.; Miracoli, R.; Neri, L.; Sorbello, G.

    2017-05-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are widely used plasma based machines for the production of intense ion beams in science and industry. The performance of modern devices is limited by the presence of the density cut-off, above which electromagnetic (EM) waves sustaining the plasma are reflected. We hereby discuss the systematic data analysis of electrostatic wave generation in an ECR prototype operating at 3.75 GHz-0.1 THz. In particular, electron Bernstein waves (EBW) have been excited. EBW have already been generated in large-scale plasma devices for thermonuclear fusion purposes. In ion sources where L c ˜ λ RF (L c being the plasma chamber size and λ RF the pumping wave wavelength) the EM field assumes a modal behaviour; thus both plasma and EM field self-organize so that no optical-like wave launching is possible (i.e. the cavity effect dominates on the optical path). The collected data, however, supported by 3D full-wave simulations, actually demonstrate that a Budden-type X-B conversion scenario can be established above some critical RF power thresholds, operating in an off-ECR regime. The generation and absorption of the EBW has been demonstrated by the presence of three peculiar signatures: along with the establishment of an overdense plasma, generation of supra-thermal electrons and modification (non-linear broadening) of the EM spectrum measured within the plasma have been observed. At the threshold establishing such a heating regime, the collected data provide evidence for a fast rotation of the electron fluid.

  4. Oscillating plasma bubbles. III. Internal electron sources and sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2012-08-15

    An internal electron source has been used to neutralize ions injected from an ambient plasma into a spherical grid. The resultant plasma is termed a plasma 'bubble.' When the electron supply from the filament is reduced, the sheath inside the bubble becomes unstable. The plasma potential of the bubble oscillates near but below the ion plasma frequency. Different modes of oscillations have been observed as well as a subharmonic and multiple harmonics. The frequency increases with ion density and decreases with electron density. The peak amplitude occurs for an optimum current and the instability is quenched at large electron densities. The frequency also increases if Langmuir probes inside the bubble draw electrons. Allowing electrons from the ambient plasma to enter, the bubble changes the frequency dependence on grid voltage. It is concluded that the net space charge density in the sheath determines the oscillation frequency. It is suggested that the sheath instability is caused by ion inertia in an oscillating sheath electric field which is created by ion bunching.

  5. Tin LPP plasma control in the argon cusp source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2016-03-01

    The argon cusp plasma has been introduced [1,2] for 500W class tin LPP exhaust control in view of its high power handling, predicted low tin back-scatter from a beam dump, and avoidance of hydrogen usage. The physics of tin ion control by a plasma is first discussed. Experimentally, cusp stability and exhaust disc geometry have previously been proved at full scale [2], the equivalent of 300W-500W usable EUV. Here we verify operation of the plasma barrier that maintains a high argon density next to the collector, for its protection, and a low density in the long path toward the intermediate focus, for efficiency. A pressure differential of 2Pa has been demonstrated in initial work. Other aspects of tin LPP plasma control by the cusp have now been demonstrated using tin ions from a low Hz 130mJ CO2 laser pulse onto a solid tin surface at the cusp center. Plasma is rejected at the <0.5% level at the collector mirror location using the cusp magnetic field alone. Plasma also is rejected using a low argon density (<1x1014cm-3). We have measured the tin ion flow pattern toward the large area annular beam dump. Scaling of the cusp design to match a specified exhaust power is discussed. In view of this work, argon cusp exhaust control appears to be very promising for 500W class tin LPP sources.

  6. Modeling the chemistry of plasma polymerization using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ihrig, D F; Stockhaus, J; Scheide, F; Winkelhake, Oliver; Streuber, Oliver

    2003-04-01

    The goal of the project is a solvent free painting shop. The environmental technologies laboratory is developing processes of plasma etching and polymerization. Polymerized thin films are first-order corrosion protection and primer for painting. Using pure acetylene we get very nice thin films which were not bonded very well. By using air as bulk gas it is possible to polymerize, in an acetylene plasma, well bonded thin films which are stable first-order corrosion protections and good primers. UV/Vis spectroscopy shows nitrogen oxide radicals in the emission spectra of pure nitrogen and air. But nitrogen oxide is fully suppressed in the presence of acetylene. IR spectroscopy shows only C=O, CH(2) and CH(3) groups but no nitrogen species. With the aid of UV/Vis spectra and the chemistry of ozone formation it is possible to define reactive traps and steps, molecule depletion and processes of proton scavenging and proton loss. Using a numerical model it is possible to evaluate these processes and to calculate theoretical mass spectra. Adjustment of theoretical mass spectra to real measurements leads to specific channels of polymerization which are driven by radicals especially the acetyl radical. The estimated theoretical mass spectra show the specific channels of these chemical processes. It is possible to quantify these channels. This quantification represents the mass flow through this chemical system. With respect to these chemical processes it is possible to have an idea of pollutant production processes.

  7. Atomic mass dependent electrostatic diagnostics of colliding laser plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, P.; Fallon, C.; Kennedy, E. T.; Costello, J. T.

    2013-09-15

    The behaviours of colliding laser plasma plumes (C{sub p}) compared with single plasma plumes (S{sub p}) are investigated for 14 different atomic mass targets. A Faraday cup, situated at the end of a drift tube (L = 0.99 m), is employed to record the time-of-flight (TOF) current traces for all elements and both plume configurations, for a fixed laser intensity of I{sub p} = 4.2 × 10{sup 10} W cm{sup −2} (F = 0.25 kJ cm{sup −2}). The ratio of the peak current from the C{sub p} relative to twice that from the S{sub p} is designated as the peak current ratio while the ratio of the integrated charge yield from the C{sub p} relative to twice that from the S{sub p} is designated as the charge yield ratio. Variation of the position of the Faraday cup within the drift tube (L = 0.33, 0.55, and 0.99 m) in conjunction with a lower laser fluence (F = 0.14 kJ cm{sup −2}) facilitated direct comparison of the changing TOF traces from both plasma configurations for the five lightest elements studied (C, Al, Si, Ti, and Mn). The results are discussed in the frame of laser plasma hydrodynamic modelling to approximate the critical recombination distance L{sub CR}. The dynamics of colliding laser plasma plumes and the atomic mass dependence trends observed are presented and discussed.

  8. Cometary particulate analyzer. [mass spectrometry of laser plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Miller, D. J.; Utterback, N. G.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates was evaluated. The technique utilizes a short, high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. Critical aspects of the development of this system are determining the ionization efficiencies for various atomic species and achieving adequate mass resolution. A technique called energy-time focus, which utilizes static electric fields to alter the length of the ion flight path in proportion to the ion initial energy, was used which results in a corresponding compression to the range of ion flight times which effectively improves the inherent resolution. Sufficient data were acquired to develop preliminary specifications for a flight experiment.

  9. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Plasma Modeling of Inductively Coupled Plasma Source and Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid; Agarwal, Ankur; Kenney, Jason; Wu, Ming-Feng; Collins, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) are widely used for etching and deposition in the semiconductor industry. As device dimensions shrink with concomitant decreased tolerance for variability, it is critical to improve plasma and process uniformity in all plasma processes. In ICP systems, one of the major sources of non-uniformity is the radio-frequency (RF) antenna used to generate the electromagnetic wave. Discontinuities at current feed and grounding locations as well as electromagnetic field variations along the antenna coils can perturb the azimuthal electric field, resulting in a non-uniform plasma. For plasma modeling of ICP systems, a related problem is how capacitive coupling from the antenna is accounted for. ICP models have generally considered field variation along the antenna and capacitive coupling using simplified circuit models for the antenna structures. Modern ICP antennas are however quite complicated, making circuit approximations of the antenna too crude for system design. A three-dimensional parallel plasma model is described in this paper, where the full set of Maxwell equations are solved in conjunction with plasma transport equations for the plasma and the antenna. Several examples from the use of this model in ICP system design are presented.

  10. Modeling the electrode-plasma interaction in the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluggish, Brian; Ohkawa, Tihiro; Verboncouer, John; Hua, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    The use of concentric ring electrodes to generate a radial electric field perpendicular to an axial magnetic field is a well established technique. It has been used with some success on a number of plasma devices such as magnetic mirrors, Q-machines, and RF discharges. The Archimedes Technology Group is now utilizing this technique in the development of its Plasma Mass Filter. However, only limited theoretical work has been performed to support the design of electrode systems. Furthermore, there is little understanding of how the voltages applied to the discrete electrodes translate into a smooth potential profile in the plasma. To facilitate the design of the electrode system for the Plasma Mass Filter, we have developed a fluid model of the interaction of the electrodes with the plasma. The model provides simple guidelines for determining the required number, size, and spacing of the electrodes. In addition, it shows that discontinuities in the potential profile applied to the electrodes are smoothed out by variations in the potential drop in the sheath. We are currently verifying the model by applying XOOPIC, a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code, to the problem. The results of the model will be compared with the particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  12. Enhanced magnetic ionization in hydrogen reflex discharge plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Toader, E.I.; Covlea, V.N.

    2005-03-01

    The effect of enhanced magnetic ionization on the external and internal parameters of a high-density, low pressure reflex plasma source operating in hydrogen is studied. The Langmuir probe method and Druyvesteyn procedure coupled with suitable software are used to measure the internal parameters. The bulk plasma region is free of an electric field and presents a high degree of uniformity. The electron energy distribution function is bi-Maxwellian with a dip/shoulder structure around 5.5 eV, independent of external parameters and radial position. Due to the enhanced hollow cathode effect by the magnetic trapping of electrons, the electron density n{sub e} is as high as 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, and the electron temperature T{sub e} is as low as a few tens of an electron volt, for dissipated energy of tens of Watts. The bulk plasma density scales with the dissipated power.

  13. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  14. Self-consistent circuit model for plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Soon-Wook; Choe, Jae-Myung; Kim, Gon-Ho; Hwang, Y. S.

    2008-02-15

    A self-consistent circuit model which can describe the dynamic behavior of the entire pulsed system for plasma source ion implantation has been developed and verified with experiments. In the circuit model, one-dimensional fluid equations of plasma sheath have been numerically solved with self-consistent boundary conditions from the external circuit model including the pulsed power system. Experiments have been conducted by applying negative, high-voltage pulses up to -10 kV with a capacitor-based pulse modulator to the planar target in contact with low-pressure argon plasma produced by radio-frequency power at 13.56 MHz. The measured pulse voltage and current waveforms as well as the sheath motion have shown good agreements with the simulation results.

  15. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    DOE PAGES

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; ...

    2015-05-28

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. It was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled bymore » the pulsed magnetic field. Thus, this approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.« less

  16. MEMS ion source for mass spectrometer integrated on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszka, P.; Grzebyk, T.; Górecka-Drzazga, A.; Dziuban, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes silicon-glass MEMS electron impact ion source developed for miniature mass spectrometer (MS) integrated on a chip. The device consists of the field emission electron source with an electrophoretically deposited carbon nanotube cathode and ion beam formation electrodes. Ion source structure has been fabricated using MEMS technology. A complete manufacturing process of the test structures has been successfully elaborated and implemented.

  17. [Soft X-ray reflectometer with laser produced plasma source].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Ni, Qi-liang; Cao, Ji-hong

    2005-03-01

    A soft X-ray reflectometor with laser-produced plasma source developed in the authorial lab is presented for the measurements of efficiencies of gratings, transmission of filter and reflectance of multilayer coatings. The reflectometer is composed of a soft X-ray laser-produced plasma source, a grazing incidence monochromator with a constant deviation angle, a vacuum chamber, a sample table, a photo-electronic unit and a computer controlling unit. The working wavelength is from 8 to 30 nm and the maximum sample size is 130 mm long by 120 mm wide by 120 mm high. In order to test the performances of the reflectometer, the reflectivity of multilayer coatings was obtained by using this device. The measured results agree well with the theoretical calculation. The reproducibility of measured reflectance is +/-0.6%.

  18. A capillary discharge plasma source of intense VUV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel'man, Igor I; Shevelko, A P; Yakushev, O F; Knight, L V; Turley, R S

    2003-01-31

    The results of investigation of a capillary discharge plasma, used as a source of intense VUV radiation and soft X-rays, are presented. The plasma was generated during the discharge of low-inductance condensers in a gas-filled ceramic capillary. Intense line radiation was observed in a broad spectral range (30-400 A) in various gases (CO{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). The absolute radiation yield for the xenon discharge was {approx}5 mJ (2{pi} sr){sup -1} pulse{sup -1} within a spectral band of width 9 A at 135 A. Such a radiation source can be used for various practical applications, such as EUV projection lithography, microscopy of biological objects in a 'water window', reflectometry, etc. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  19. A novel plasma source for sterilization of living tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Gazza, E.; Serianni, G.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Leonardi, A.; Deligianni, V.; Brun, P.; Aragona, M.; Castagliuolo, I.; Brun, P.

    2009-11-01

    A source for the production of low-power plasmas at atmospheric pressure, to be used for the nondamaging sterilization of living tissues, is presented. The source, powered by radiofrequency and working with a helium flow, has a specific configuration, studied to prevent the formation of electric arcs dangerous to living matter. It is capable of killing different types of bacteria with a decimal reduction time of 1-2 min; on the contrary, human cells such as conjunctival fibroblasts were found to be almost unharmed by the plasma. A high concentration of OH radicals, likely to be the origin of the sterilizing effect, is detected through their UV emission lines. The effect of the UV and the OH radicals on the fibroblasts was analysed and no significant effects were detected.

  20. Mass spectrometer for measurements of relative ion concentrations in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszcynsky, David M.; D'Angelo, Nicola; Merlino, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    A mass spectrometer which can be used to measure relative ion concentrations in a multiion component plasma has been designed for use in a strong (1-4-kG) uniform magnetic field. The spectrometer features an acceleration region which accelerates thermal ions through a series of three tantalum electrodes at a 30 deg angle to the B field, and a collection region in which ions are selectively collected, depending on the size of their gyroradii, by a cylindrical collector. Relative ion concentrations are determined from measurements of the collector current as a function of accelerating voltage. Results obtained using this instrument in a Q-machine device operated with a two-ion (Cs+/K+) component plasma are presented.

  1. Negative-mass Instability in Nonlinear Plasma Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dodin, I. Y.; Schmit, P. F.; Rocks, J.; Fisch, N. J.

    2013-01-30

    The negative-mass instability (NMI), previously found in ion traps, appears as a distinct regime of the sideband instability in nonlinear plasma waves with trapped particles. As the bounce frequency of these particles decreases with the bounce action, bunching can occur if the action distribution is inverted in trapping islands. In contrast to existing theories that also infer instabilities from the anharmonicity of bounce oscillations, spatial periodicity of the islands turns out to be unimportant, and the particle distribution can be unstable even if it is at at the resonance. An analytical model is proposed which describes both single traps and periodic nonlinear waves and concisely generalizes the conventional description of the sideband instability in plasma waves. The theoretical results are supported by particle-in-cell simulations carried out for a regime accentuating the NMI effect.

  2. The quantitation of procaine in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zientek, Keith D; Anderson, Danielle F; Wegner, Kirsten; Cole, Cynthia

    2007-03-01

    A method for the extraction and quantitation of procaine in equine plasma was developed for use with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Procaine was isolated from equine plasma by liquid-liquid extraction at pH 11 with dichloromethane using procaine-d10 as an internal standard. Quantitation was achieved by LC-MS using a 3-microm C-18 column coupled to an electrospray ionization source on a linear ion-trap mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation was determined to be 50 and 200 pg/mL, respectively. The lowest limit of detection determined by previous methods was 1 ng/mL. Administration samples were obtained as part of a larger study to determine a regulatory limit for procaine in racehorses and procaine concentrations were determined using this method.

  3. Applications of plasma sources for nitric oxide medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilets, Victor; Shekhter, Anatoly; Pekshev, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has important roles in the function of many tissues and organs. Wound healing processes are always accompanying by the increase of nitric oxide concentration in wound tissue. These facts suggest a possible therapeutic use of various NO donors for the acceleration of the wound healing and treatment of other diseases. Our previous studies indicated that gaseous NO flow produced by air-plasma generators acts beneficially on the wound healing. This beneficial effect could be caused by the mechanism involving peroxynitrite as an intermediate. As a result of mobilization of various antioxidant reactions more endogenous NO molecules become available as signaling molecules. to regulate the metabolic processes in wound tissue. In this paper different air plasma sources generated therapeutic concentrations of NO are discussed. The concentration of NO and other therapeutically important gas products are estimated by thermodynamic simulation. Synergy effects of NO with other plasma components are discussed as a factor enhancing therapeutic results. Some new medical application of plasma devices are presented. Advanced Plasma Therapies Inc.

  4. The potential distribution in the Radial Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchtman, Amnon; Makrinich, Gennady

    2011-10-01

    The Radial Plasma Source (RPS) is based on plasma acceleration by an applied voltage across a magnetic field. Here we report the recent progress in understanding the mechanism of plasma acceleration in the RPS. The RPS has a cylindrical symmetry. The accelerating electric field is radial and the magnetic field is axial. Most of the potential drop between the inner anode and the outer cathode is expected to be located where the magnetic field intensity is large. We employ an emissive probe and a Langmuir probe in order to evaluate the radial dependence of the potential. For inferring the plasma potential from the measured emissive probe potential, we employ our recently developed theory for a cylindrical emissive probe. Using the theory and the probe measurements, we plot the radial profiles in the RPS of the plasma potential as well as of the electron density and temperature. The possible modification of the geometry for propulsion applications will be discussed. Partially supported by the Israel Science Foundation, Grant 864/07.

  5. Sheath overlap during very large scale plasma source ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluggish, B. P.; Munson, C. P.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of plasma source ion implantation have been performed on a large target of complex geometry. The target consists of 1000 aluminum, automotive piston surrogates mounted on four racks; total surface area is over 16 m2. The four racks are positioned parallel to each other, 0.25 m apart, in an 8 m3 vacuum chamber. The racks of pistons are immersed in a capacitive radio frequency plasma, with an argon gas pressure of 20-65 mPa. Langmuir probe measurements indicate that the plasma density profile is highly nonuniform, due to particle losses to the racks of pistons. The plasma ions are implanted into the pistons by pulse biasing the workpiece to negative voltages as low as -18 kV for up to 20 μs. During the voltage pulse, the high-voltage sheaths from adjacent racks of pistons converge towards each other. At plasma densities less than 109 cm-3 the sheaths are observed to overlap. Measurements of the sheath overlap time are compared with standard analytic theory and with simulations run with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code.

  6. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    DOE PAGES

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; ...

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V,more » implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.« less

  7. Sources and physiological significance of plasma dopamine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D S; Swoboda, K J; Miles, J M; Coppack, S W; Aneman, A; Holmes, C; Lamensdorf, I; Eisenhofer, G

    1999-07-01

    Dopamine in the circulation occurs mainly as dopamine sulfate, the sources and physiological significance of which have been obscure. In this study, plasma concentrations of dopamine sulfate were measured after a meal, after fasting for 4 days, and during i.v. L-DOPA, nitroprusside, or trimethaphan infusion in volunteers; after dopamine infusion in patients with L-aromatic-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency; in arterial and portal venous plasma of gastrointestinal surgery patients; and in patients with sympathetic neurocirculatory failure. Meal ingestion increased plasma dopamine sulfate by more than 50-fold; however, prolonged fasting decreased plasma dopamine sulfate only slightly. L-DOPA infusion produced much larger increments in dopamine sulfate than in dopamine; the other drugs were without effect. Patients with L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency had decreased dopamine sulfate levels, and patients with sympathetic neurocirculatory failure had normal levels. Decarboxylase-deficient patients undergoing dopamine infusion had a dopamine sulfate/dopamine ratio about 25 times less than that at baseline in volunteers. Surgery patients had large arterial-portal venous increments in plasma concentrations of dopamine sulfate, so that mesenteric dopamine sulfate production accounted for most of urinary dopamine sulfate excretion, a finding consistent with the localization of the dopamine sulfoconjugating enzyme to gastrointestinal tissues. The results indicate that plasma dopamine sulfate derives mainly from sulfoconjugation of dopamine synthesized from L-DOPA in the gastrointestinal tract. Both dietary and endogenous determinants affect plasma dopamine sulfate. The findings suggest an enzymatic gut-blood barrier for detoxifying exogenous dopamine and delimiting autocrine/paracrine effects of endogenous dopamine generated in a "third catecholamine system."

  8. PLASMOSE - antimicrobial effects of modular atmospheric plasma sources

    PubMed Central

    Ehlbeck, Jörg; Brandenburg, Ronny; von Woedtke, Thomas; Krohmann, Udo; Stieber, Manfred; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The technological potential of non-thermal plasmas for the antimicrobial treatment of heat sensitive materials is well known and has been documented in a great number of research activities, but the realisation of industrial plasma-based decontamination processes remains a great challenge. One of the reasons for this situation is the fact that an antimicrobial treatment process needs to consider all properties of the product to be treated as well as the requirements of the complete procedure, e.g. a reprocessing of a medical instrument. The aim of the BMBF-funded network project PLASMOSE is to demonstrate the applicability of plasma-based processes for the antimicrobial treatment on selected, heat sensitive products. Modular and selective plasma sources, driven at atmospheric pressure are used. This basic approach shall combine the technological advantages of atmospheric pressure plasmas (avoidance of vacuum devices and batch processing) with the flexibility and handling properties of modular devices. Two different objectives were selected: the outer surface treatment of medical products and the treatment of hollow packaging for pharmaceutical products. The outer surface treatment of medical products, in particular catheters for intracardial electrophysiological studies, is investigated by means of RF-driven plasma jets in argon. Due to its compact design they are predestined for modularisation and can be adapted to nearly any complex 3-dimensional structure as given by the medical products. The realisation of an antimicrobial treatment process of hollow packaging for pharmaceutical products has quite different demands. Such a process is needed to be implemented in in-line filling procedures and to work without additional process gases. The idea is to use an atmospheric air, microwave-driven self propagating discharge. The plasma process is optimized for the decontamination of 200 ml bottles by field simulation studies combined with optical emissions spectroscopy

  9. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  10. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-15

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar{sup +} beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ∼5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  11. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  12. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ˜5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  13. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team

    2016-10-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  14. Improvement in brightness of multicusp-plasma ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Q.; Jiang, X.; King, T. J.; Leung, K. N.; Standiford, K.

    2002-05-01

    The beam brightness of a multicusp-plasma ion source has been substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. The current density of a 2 keV He+ beam extracted from a 7.5-cm-diameter source operating at 2.5 kW RF power is approx. 100 mA/cm2, which is approx. 10 times larger than that of a beam extracted from a 5-cm-diameter source operating at 1 kW RF power. A smaller focused beam spot size is achieved with a counter-bored extractor instead of a conventional (through-hole) extractor, resulting another order of magnitude improvement in beam current density. Measured brightness can be as high as 440 A/cm2Sr, which represents a 30 times improvement over prior work.

  15. Initial experiments of RF gas plasma source for heavy ionfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L.; Hall, R.; Molvik, A.W.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leung, K.N.; Reijonen, J.

    2002-05-22

    The Source Injector Program for the US Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is currently exploring the feasibility of using RF gas plasma sources for a HIF driver. This source technology is presently the leading candidate for the multiple aperture concept, in which bright millimeter size beamlets are extracted and accelerated electrostatically up to 1 MeV before the beamlets are allowed to merge and form 1 A beams. Initial experiments have successfully demonstrated simultaneously high current density, {approx} 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and fast turn on, {approx} 1 {micro}s. These experiments were also used to explore operating ranges for pressure and RF power. Results from these experiments are presented as well as progress and plans for the next set of experiments for these sources.

  16. Development of 40 MHz inductively coupled plasma source and frequency effects on plasma parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyun-Su; Chang, Hong-Young

    2008-01-01

    A large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source capable of securing azimuthal plasma uniformity at a 40.00MHz has been developed. The antenna, referred to as a capacitor distributed resonance antenna, minimizes the azimuthally nonuniform antenna capacitive field with eight distributed vertical capacitors. The antenna was designed to maximize the antenna current using L-C series resonance. Based on plasma diagnostics with a 13.56MHz conventional ICP, comparative analyses were performed in terms of the plasma density, electron temperature, and frequency characteristics of the electron energy probability function (EEPF). In addition, the frequency dependency of the EEPF was found in the collisional (νen>ω ), normal skin [vth/δ≪(ω2+νen2)1/2] regime and the physical causes of were examined.

  17. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A. Sotnikov, O.

    2016-02-15

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H{sup −} production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H{sup −} production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H{sup −} yield to the high value. The effect of H{sup −} yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H{sup −} yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  18. RF PLASMA SOURCE FOR A HEAVY ION FUSION INJECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Halaxi, E; Kwan, J W; Waldron, W L

    2004-06-25

    We are developing high-current ion sources for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Our proposed RF plasma source starts with an array of high current density mini-beamlets (of a few mA each at {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2}) that are kept separated from each other within a set of acceleration grids. After they have gained sufficient kinetic energy (>1.2 MeV), the mini-beamlets are allowed to merge together to form a high current beam (about 0.5 A) with low emittance. Simulations have been done to maximize the beam brightness within the physical constraints of the source. We have performed a series of experiments on an RF plasma source. A 80-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet and we measured the emittance of a beamlet, its energy spread, and the fraction of ions in higher charge states. We have also tested a 50-kV 61-hole multi-beamlet array. Two upcoming experiments are being prepared: the first experiment will test full-gradient extraction and transport of 61 beamlets though the first four electrodes, and the second experiment will converge 119 beamlets into an ESQ channel at one-quarter scaled voltage of a 1.6 MV HIF injector.

  19. New plasma source of hydrides for epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, B. J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a novel plasma-activated selenium source that was developed during the course of this subcontract and which is significantly different than any other heretofore reported in the scientific literature. It involves microwave excited, magnetically confined plasma sources that are intended to operate under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions at 2.455 GHz. This source is designed to excite and dissociate the molecular vapor evaporating or subliming from a heated solid or liquid reservoir. It can combine an effusion cell vapor flux with a stream of hydrogen or helium gas, enabling the in-situ generation of hydrides for use in low-pressure growth techniques where long mean free paths are desirable. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate a stable discharge within the source, and measures were identified to improve its operational characteristics. Application of this novel source is anticipated to enable a low-temperature, safe process for the growth of high-quality epitaxial compound semiconductor films. This reduction of epitaxial growth temperatures may enable the fabrication of novel photovoltaic devices that have heretofore been impossible due to the deleterious effects of interdiffusion at heterointerfaces resulting from the high temperatures required to grow adequate quality material using conventional processes.

  20. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source For VASMIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, J. P.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Glover, T. W.; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    The VASIMR space propulsion development effort relies on a high power (greater than 10kW) helicon source to produce a dense flowing plasma (H, D and He) target for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) acceleration of the ions. Subsequent expansion in an expanding magnetic field (magnetic nozzle) converts ion lunetic energy to directed momentum. This plasma source must have critical features to enable an effective propulsion device. First, it must ionize most of the input neutral flux of gas, thus producing a plasma stream with a high degree of ionization for application of ICR power. This avoids propellant waste and potential power losses due to charge exchange. Next, the plasma stream must flow into a region of high magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T) for efficient ICR acceleration. Third, the ratio of input power to plasma flux must be low, providing an energy per ion-electron pair approaching 100 eV. Lastly, the source must be robust and capable of very long life-times (years). In our helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a ratio of input gas to plasma flux near 100%. The plasma flows from the helicon region (B approximately 0.1 T) into a region with a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T. The energy input per ion-electron pair has been measured at 300 plus or minus 100 eV. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show an enhanced efficiency mode of operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 3.5 kW of input power. An upgrade to a power level of 10 kW is underway. Much of our recent work has been with a Boswell double-saddle antenna design. We are also converting the antenna design to a helical type. With these modifications, we anticipate an improvement in the ionization efficiency. This paper presents the results from scaling the helicon in the VX-10 device from 3.5 to 10 kW. We also compare the operation with a double-saddle to a helical antenna design. Finally, we

  1. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source For VASMIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, J. P.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Glover, T. W.; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    The VASIMR space propulsion development effort relies on a high power (greater than 10kW) helicon source to produce a dense flowing plasma (H, D and He) target for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) acceleration of the ions. Subsequent expansion in an expanding magnetic field (magnetic nozzle) converts ion lunetic energy to directed momentum. This plasma source must have critical features to enable an effective propulsion device. First, it must ionize most of the input neutral flux of gas, thus producing a plasma stream with a high degree of ionization for application of ICR power. This avoids propellant waste and potential power losses due to charge exchange. Next, the plasma stream must flow into a region of high magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T) for efficient ICR acceleration. Third, the ratio of input power to plasma flux must be low, providing an energy per ion-electron pair approaching 100 eV. Lastly, the source must be robust and capable of very long life-times (years). In our helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a ratio of input gas to plasma flux near 100%. The plasma flows from the helicon region (B approximately 0.1 T) into a region with a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T. The energy input per ion-electron pair has been measured at 300 plus or minus 100 eV. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show an enhanced efficiency mode of operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 3.5 kW of input power. An upgrade to a power level of 10 kW is underway. Much of our recent work has been with a Boswell double-saddle antenna design. We are also converting the antenna design to a helical type. With these modifications, we anticipate an improvement in the ionization efficiency. This paper presents the results from scaling the helicon in the VX-10 device from 3.5 to 10 kW. We also compare the operation with a double-saddle to a helical antenna design. Finally, we

  2. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Hongsen

    1995-02-10

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (Te) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (ne) is in the range 108--1010 -cm at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 106--108 cm-3 downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 104--105 downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z2 intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z2 fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

  3. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  4. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  5. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  6. Quantitative aspects of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bulska, Ewa; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-10-28

    Accurate determination of elements in various kinds of samples is essential for many areas, including environmental science, medicine, as well as industry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful tool enabling multi-elemental analysis of numerous matrices with high sensitivity and good precision. Various calibration approaches can be used to perform accurate quantitative measurements by ICP-MS. They include the use of pure standards, matrix-matched standards, or relevant certified reference materials, assuring traceability of the reported results. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of different calibration approaches, which are used in quantitative analyses by ICP-MS. Examples of such analyses are provided.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  7. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, J.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.; Corr, C. S.

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ˜3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 1014 m-3 to 7 × 1015 m-3 is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  8. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, J. Corr, C. S.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.

    2015-09-15

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 10{sup 14 }m{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −3} is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  9. Switched ferroelectric plasma ionizer (SwiFerr) for ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neidholdt, Evan L; Beauchamp, J L

    2011-01-01

    We present the implementation of a switched ferroelectric plasma ionizer (SwiFerr) for ambient analysis of trace substances by mass spectrometry. The device utilizes the ferroelectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) to take advantage of the high electric field resulting from polarization switching in the material. The source comprises a [001]-oriented barium titanate crystal (5 × 5 × 1 mm) with a metallic rear electrode and a metallic grid front electrode. When a high voltage AC waveform is applied to the rear electrode to switch polarization, the resulting electric field on the face of the crystal promotes electron emission and results in plasma formation between the crystal face and the grounded grid at ambient pressure. Interaction with this plasma and the resulting reagent ions effects ionization of trace neutrals. The source requires less than 1 W of power to operate under most circumstances, ionizes molecules with acidic and basic functional groups easily, and has proven quite versatile for ambient analysis of both vapor phase and aspirated powdered solid samples. Ionization of vapor phase samples of the organics triethylamine, tripropylamine, tributylamine, and pyridine results in observation of the singly protonated species in the positive ion mass spectrum with sensitivity extending into the high ppb range. With acetic acid, deprotonated clusters dominate the negative ion mass spectrum. Aerodynamic sampling of powdered samples is used to record mass spectra of the pharmaceuticals loperamide and ibuprofen. Chemical signatures, including protonated loperamide and deprotonated ibuprofen, are observed for each drug. The robust, low power source lends itself easily to miniaturization and incorporation in field-portable devices used for the rapid detection and characterization of trace substances and hazardous materials in a range of different environments.

  10. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 3, 2012, FDA published a final rule entitled ``Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  11. Overdense Plasma Production in a Low-power Microwave Discharge Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Ikkoh; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2001-04-01

    Plasma characterization of a low-power microwave discharge electron source was conducted. The electron source, which was developed for the neutralization of the 150 mA-class ion beam exhausted from an ion thruster, consists of a small discharge chamber of 18 mm diameter, into which an L-shape antenna is directly inserted into the magnetic circuit comprised of permanent magnets and iron yokes. An overdense plasma production for the 4.2 GHz microwave was observed for an input power range from 3 to 26 W and for the mass flow rate of 0.5-2.0 sccm. In such a wide range, the plasma density inside the discharge chamber can be proportionally increased as the microwave input power. This is because the direct insertion of the microwave antenna into the ECR magnetic field removes the accessibility difficulty of the microwave, and enables energy transmission from the antenna to the plasma even in the overdense mode. In addition, high-energy electrons above the ionization energy were observed for the large microwave input power above 10 W, and these electrons from the antenna also contribute to plasma production.

  12. Dynamics of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter A.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams. Here we present experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a FEPS plasma. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Near-complete charge neutralization is established 5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS, and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub- μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS suggest that plasma can be generated for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. This is confirmed by fast photography of the plasma in the 1-meter long FEPS on NDCX-II, where effective charge neutralization of the beam was achieved with the optimized FEPS timing. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC0209CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  13. Multicomponent NAPL source dissolution: evaluation of mass-transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Mobile, Michael A; Widdowson, Mark A; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2012-09-18

    Mass transfer rate coefficients were quantified by employing an inverse modeling technique to high-resolution aqueous phase concentration data observed following an experimental release of a multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at a field site. A solute transport model (SEAM3D) was employed to simulate advective-dispersive transport over time coupled to NAPL dissolution. Model calibration was demonstrated by accurately reproducing the observed breakthrough times and peak concentrations at multiple observation points, observed mass discharge at pumping wells, and the reported mass depletions for three soluble NAPL constituents. Vertically variable NAPL mass transfer coefficients were derived for each constituent using an optimized numerical solute transport model, ranging from 0.082 to 2.0 day(-1) across all constituents. Constituent-specific coefficients showed a positive correlation with liquid-phase diffusion coefficients. Application of a time-varying mass transfer coefficient as NAPL mass depleted showed limited sensitivity during which over 80% of the most soluble NAPL constituent dissolved from the source. Long-term simulation results, calibrated to the experimental data and rendered in terms of mass discharge versus source mass depletion, exhibited multistage behavior.

  14. The role of plasma evolution and photon transport in optimizing future advanced lithography sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2013-08-28

    Laser produced plasma (LPP) sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons are currently based on using small liquid tin droplets as target that has many advantages including generation of stable continuous targets at high repetition rate, larger photons collection angle, and reduced contamination and damage to the optical mirror collection system from plasma debris and energetic particles. The ideal target is to generate a source of maximum EUV radiation output and collection in the 13.5 nm range with minimum atomic debris. Based on recent experimental results and our modeling predictions, the smallest efficient droplets are of diameters in the range of 20–30 μm in LPP devices with dual-beam technique. Such devices can produce EUV sources with conversion efficiency around 3% and with collected EUV power of 190 W or more that can satisfy current requirements for high volume manufacturing. One of the most important characteristics of these devices is in the low amount of atomic debris produced due to the small initial mass of droplets and the significant vaporization rate during the pre-pulse stage. In this study, we analyzed in detail plasma evolution processes in LPP systems using small spherical tin targets to predict the optimum droplet size yielding maximum EUV output. We identified several important processes during laser-plasma interaction that can affect conditions for optimum EUV photons generation and collection. The importance and accurate description of modeling these physical processes increase with the decrease in target size and its simulation domain.

  15. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized bymore » the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was

  16. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer

  17. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    An electrostatic size classification technique was used to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Size-segregated particles were counted with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10- 5 to 10- 11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was applied, but

  18. Field Emitter Arrays for Plasma and Microwave Source Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kevin L.

    1998-11-01

    Field emitter arrays (FEAs) are attractive cathode candidates for many applications, e.g., electron microguns(C. Constancias, D. Herve, R. Accomo, and E. Molva, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B13, 611, 1995.), miniaturized TWTs(H. Imura, S. Tsuida, M. Takahasi, A. Okamoto, H. Makishima, and S. Miyano, Tech. Dig. of the IEEE-IEDM (Dec. 7-11, Washington, DC) p721.), radiation sources, instrumentation , sensors, mass spectrometers, and electric propulsion (Hall thrusters (C. M. Marrese and Alec D. Gallimore, Tech. Dig. of Int'l. Conf. on Plasma Science, (Raleigh, NC, June 4-5, 1998), 1D05.)) due to their instant ON/OFF capability, high brightness and current density, large transconductance to capacitance ratio, low voltage operation, and so on. Two applications are significant: in the most widely pursued, FEAs may enable significant reductions in physical dimensions, weight, and power consumption of flat panel displays (FPDs)(A. Ghis, R. Meyer, P. Rambaud, F. Levy, and T. Leroux, IEEE-Trans. Elect. Dev. 36, 2320 (1991)), whereas the most challenging application, advanced RF tubes(M. A. Kodis, K. L. Jensen, E. G. Zaidman, B. Goplen, D. N. Smithe, IEEE-Trans. on Plas. Sci. 24, 970 (1996).), may benefit from the current densities and high pulse repetition frequencies field emitters are capable of. FEAs (a coplanar gate less than one micron from a microfabricated conical emitter for field enhancement), provide high current density for low gate voltages, are relatively temperature insensitive, and are capable of emission modulation at 10 GHz. High currents due to quantum mechanical tunneling are made possible by narrowing the field emission barrier to nanometer widths. Greater performance and robustness may be enabled through rugged low work function coatings. We shall describe the process of field emission by quantum mechanical tunneling, provide an overview of the applications and their demands on field emitters, and present a model of FEAs used to characterize their performance

  19. ISOTOPE DILUTION ANALYSIS OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATER MATRIXES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection byproduct in drinking water which is formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. This paper described the analysis of bromate via ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The separation of bromate from interfer...

  20. Invited article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J A; Gershman, D J; Gloeckler, G; Lundgren, R A; Zurbuchen, T H; Orlando, T M; McLain, J; von Steiger, R

    2014-09-01

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  1. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-09-15

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  2. New Types of Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle (Contractor) and MDS Sciex (Participant) and ESA, Inc. (Participant) is to research, develop and apply new types of ionization sources and sampling/inlet systems for analytical mass spectrometry making use of the Participants state-of-the-art atmospheric sampling mass spectrometry electrochemical cell technology instrumentation and ancillary equipment. The two overriding goals of this research project are: to understand the relationship among the various instrumental components and operational parameters of the various ion sources and inlet systems under study, the chemical nature of the gases, solvents, and analytes in use, and the nature and abundances of the ions ultimately observed in the mass spectrometer; and to develop new and better analytical and fundamental applications of these ion sources and inlet systems or alternative sources and inlets coupled with mass spectrometry on the basis of the fundamental understanding obtained in Goal 1. The end results of this work are expected to be: (1) an expanded utility for the ion sources and inlet systems under study (such as the analysis of new types of analytes) and the control or alteration of the ionic species observed in the gas-phase; (2) enhanced instrument performance as judged by operational figures-of-merit such as dynamic range, detection limits, susceptibility to matrix signal suppression and sensitivity; and (3) novel applications (such as surface sampling with electrospray) in both applied and fundamental studies. The research projects outlined herein build upon work initiated under the previous CRADA between the Contractor and MDS Sciex on ion sources and inlet systems for mass spectrometry. Specific ion source and inlet systems for exploration of the fundamental properties and practical implementation of these principles are given.

  3. Are chromospheric nanoflares a primary source of coronal plasma?

    SciTech Connect

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Bradshaw, S. J. E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu

    2014-08-10

    It has been suggested that the hot plasma of the solar corona comes primarily from impulsive heating events, or nanoflares, that occur in the lower atmosphere, either in the upper part of the ordinary chromosphere or at the tips of type II spicules. We test this idea with a series of hydrodynamic simulations. We find that synthetic Fe XII (195) and Fe XIV (274) line profiles generated from the simulations disagree dramatically with actual observations. The integrated line intensities are much too faint; the blueshifts are much too fast; the blue-red asymmetries are much too large; and the emission is confined to low altitudes. We conclude that chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of hot coronal plasma. Such events may play an important role in producing the chromosphere and powering its intense radiation, but they do not, in general, raise the temperature of the plasma to coronal values. Those cases where coronal temperatures are reached must be relatively uncommon. The observed profiles of Fe XII and Fe XIV come primarily from plasma that is heated in the corona itself, either by coronal nanoflares or a quasi-steady coronal heating process. Chromospheric nanoflares might play a role in generating waves that provide this coronal heating.

  4. Studies of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Space-charge forces limit the possible transverse compression of high perveance ion beams that are used in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics applications; the minimum radius to which a beam can be focused is an increasing function of perveance. The limit can be overcome if a plasma is introduced in the beam path between the focusing element and the target in order to neutralize the space charge of the beam. This concept has been implemented on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL using Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPS). In our experiment at PPPL, we propagate a perveance-dominated ion beam through a FEPS to study the effect of the neutralizing plasma on the beam envelope and its evolution in time. A 30-60 keV space-charge-dominated Argon beam is focused with an Einzel lens into a FEPS located at the beam waist. The beam is intercepted downstream from the FEPS by a movable Faraday cup that provides time-resolved 2D current density profiles of the beam spot on target. We report results on: (a) dependence of charge neutralization on FEPS plasma density; (b) effects on beam emittance, and (c) time evolution of the beam envelope after the FEPS pulse. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Modeling and measuring the transport and scattering of energetic debris in an extreme ultraviolet plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporre, John R.; Elg, Daniel T.; Kalathiparambil, Kishor K.; Ruzic, David N.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model for describing the propagation and scattering of energetic species in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light lithography source is presented. An EUV light emitting XTREME XTS 13-35 Z-pinch plasma source is modeled with a focus on the effect of chamber pressure and buffer gas mass on energetic ion and neutral debris transport. The interactions of the energetic debris species, which is generated by the EUV light emitting plasma, with the buffer gas and chamber walls are considered as scattering events in the model, and the trajectories of the individual atomic species involved are traced using a Monte Carlo algorithm. This study aims to establish the means by which debris is transported to the intermediate focus with the intent to verify the various mitigation techniques currently employed to increase EUV lithography efficiency. The modeling is compared with an experimental investigation.

  6. Air-water microwave plasma torch as a NO source for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. M.; Gordiets, B.; Tatarova, E.; Henriques, J.; Dias, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    A surface wave (2.45 GHz) driven, atmospheric plasma torch in air with a small admixture of water vapor (2%) is investigated as a source of exogenic NO. A 1D theoretical model of this source based on a self-consistent treatment of particles kinetics, gas dynamics, gas thermal balance, and wave electrodynamics is developed. Mass spectrometry is used to determine the relative NO(X) number density in the exhaust stream and validate the model predictions. The relative NO(X) density reaches values of up to 3% in the discharge zone, the maximum values being observed at the higher powers (400 W) and the lower gas flow rates (500 sccm). The NO(X) relative density is nearly constant along the afterglow plasma jet, with values between 1.1% and 1.6% for microwave powers and gas flow rates in the range 200-400 W and 500-2000 sccm, respectively.

  7. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF) nitrogen gas discharge (10 - 100 kHz) is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm) and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ˜ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 - 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  8. Forty-five years with cesiated surface plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2017-08-01

    Recent progress in the development of advanced negative ion sources has been connected with the optimization of cesiation in surface plasma sources (SPS). The cesiation effect is a significant enhancement of negative ion emission from gas discharges with the decrease of the co-extracted electron current below the negative ion current following a small admixture of cesium in gas discharge. It was observed for the first time in 1971 at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk, Russia) by placing into the discharge a compound with one milligram of cesium. Key experiments, clarifying the mechanism of efficient generation of negative ions in gas discharges will be discussed. Subsequent developments of SPS for highly efficient negative ion production caused by the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which the adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work-function are described. We consider it appropriate to analyze the past and current experiments in which the surface-plasma mechanism for negative ion production can be clearly identified. In the last 45 years, the intensity of negative ion beams has increased by cesiation up to 104 times, from three milli-Amperes to tens of Amperes.

  9. Development of a novel mass spectrometer equipped with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Kidera, Masanori; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Mitsubori, Youhei; Goto, Akira; Yano, Yasushige

    2007-01-01

    The ionization efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is generally high, and all elements can be fundamentally ionized by the high-temperature plasma. We focused our attention on the high potentiality of ECRIS as an ion source for mass spectrometers and attempted to customize the mass spectrometer equipped with an ECRIS. Precise measurements were performed by using an ECRIS that was specialized and customized for elemental analysis. By using the charge-state distribution and the isotope ratio, the problem of overlap such as that observed in the spectra of isobars could be solved without any significant improvement in the mass resolution. When the isotope anomaly (or serious mass discrimination effect) was not observed in ECR plasma, the system was found to be very effective for isotope analysis. In this paper, based on the spectrum (ion current as a function of an analyzing magnet current) results of low charged state distributions (2+, 3+, 4+, ...) of noble gases, we discuss the feasibility of an elemental analysis system employing an ECRIS, particularly for isotopic analysis. The high-performance isotopic analysis obtained for ECRIS mass spectrometer in this study suggests that it can be widely applied to several fields of scientific study that require elemental or isotopic analyses with high sensitivity.

  10. Comparison of advanced plasma sources for etching applications. V. Polysilicon etching rate, uniformity, profile control, and bulk plasma properties in a helical resonator plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.T.; Layadi, N.; Guinn, K.V.; Maynard, H.L.; Klemens, F.P.; Ibbotson, D.E.; Tepermeister, I.; Egan, P.O.; Richardson, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    Etching of polysilicon features using a helical resonator plasma source is evaluated. Performance metrics consist of etching rate, etching rate uniformity, and profile control using HBr/O{sub 2}{endash}He gas-phase chemistry. The effect of source power, rf-bias power, and reactor pressure on etching rate and uniformity is examined using a response surface experiment. Feature profile control is determined by examining nested and isolated lines and trenches using oxide mask/polysilicon/oxide structures. Good uniformity and vertical profiles are obtained at low reactor pressures, high source power, and rf-bias between 50 and 60 W. The operating point for best uniformity is at 3.5 mTorr, 3000 W source power, and 53 W rf-bias power. At this point, the etching rate is 3700 A/min and the nonuniformity is less than 1.0{percent}, over 125-mm-diam wafers. Radial profiles of electron temperature and ion density near the wafer surface are presented as a function of source power, rf-bias power, and reactor pressure. The ion density was found to be in the mid-10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} range and electron temperatures were 5{endash}7 eV. An increase in source power and reactor pressure results in an increase in ion density; however, the electron temperature shows a weaker dependence. Finally, these results are compared to those using helicon and multipole electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources evaluated in previous studies. We found that all three plasma sources provide high ion density at low pressures to meet performance demands for polysilicon etching; however, the helical resonator source offers somewhat higher etching rate and better bulk plasma uniformity. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  11. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dennis D.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    Atomic spectroscopy has played a major role in the development of our current database for mineral nutrients and toxicants in foods. When atomic absorption spectrometers became widely available in the 1960s, the development of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods for accurately measuring trace amounts of mineral elements in biological samples paved the way for unprecedented advances in fields as diverse as food analysis, nutrition, biochemistry, and toxicology (1). The application of plasmas as excitation sources for atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) led to the commercial availability of instruments for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) beginning in the late 1970s. This instrument has further enhanced our ability to measure the mineral composition of foods and other materials rapidly, accurately, and precisely. More recently, plasmas have been joined with mass spectrometers (MS) to form inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer ICP-MS instruments that are capable of measuring mineral elements with extremely low detection limits. These three instrumental methods have largely replaced traditional wet chemistry methods for mineral analysis of foods, although traditional methods for calcium, chloride, iron, and phosphorus remain in use today (see Chap. 12).

  12. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Peter J.; McKown, Henry S.; Smith, David H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

  13. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

    1982-04-26

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Laser ablated zirconium plasma: A source of neutral zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Dheerendra; Thareja, Raj K.

    2010-10-15

    The authors report spectroscopic investigations of laser produced zirconium (Zr) plasma at moderate laser fluence. At low laser fluence the neutral zirconium species are observed to dominate over the higher species of zirconium. Laser induced fluorescence technique is used to study the velocity distribution of ground state neutral zirconium species. Two-dimensional time-resolved density distributions of ground state zirconium is mapped using planner laser induced fluorescence imaging and total ablated mass of neutral zirconium atoms is estimated. Temporal and spatial evolutions of electron density and temperature are discussed by measuring Stark broadened profile and ratio of intensity of emission lines, respectively.

  15. Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source

    SciTech Connect

    Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M.

    2010-02-15

    We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from 'embryos' by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

  16. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Itagaki, H; Numasawa, H; Terashima, Y; Hirano, Y; Hirose, A

    2010-10-01

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  17. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, T.; Itagaki, H.; Numasawa, H.; Terashima, Y.; Hirano, Y.; Hirose, A.

    2010-10-15

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of Low-Molecular-Weight Human Plasma Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Dong Huey; Nam, Eun Ji; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hee Cheol; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Lee, Cheolju; Lee, Ji Eun

    2016-01-04

    While human plasma serves as a great source for disease diagnosis, low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteome (<30 kDa) has been shown to contain a rich source of diagnostic biomarkers. Here we employ top-down mass spectrometry to analyze the LMW proteoforms present in four types of human plasma samples pooled from three healthy controls (HCs) without immunoaffinity depletion and with depletion of the top two, six, and seven high-abundance proteins. The LMW proteoforms were first fractionated based on molecular weight using gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis (GELFrEE). Then, the GELFrEE fractions containing up to 30 kDa were subjected to nanocapillary-LC-MS/MS, and the high-resolution MS and MS/MS data were processed using ProSightPC 3.0. As a result, a total of 442 LMW proteins and cleaved products, including those with post-translational modifications and single amino acid variations, were identified. From additional comparative analysis of plasma samples without immunoaffinity depletion between HCs and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients via top-down approach, tens of LMW proteoforms, including platelet factor 4, were found to show >1.5-fold changes between the plasma samples of HCs and CRC patients, and six of the LMW proteins were verified by Western blot analysis.

  19. High Resolution Studies of the Origins of Polyatomic Ions in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Jill Wisnewski

    2006-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Traditionally, the plasma is sampled via a sampler cone. A supersonic jet develops behind the sampler, and this region is pumped down to a pressure of approximately one Torr. A skimmer cone is located inside this zone of silence to transmit ions into the mass spectrometer. The position of the sampler and skimmer cones relative to the initial radiation and normal analytical zones of the plasma is key to optimizing the useful analytical signal [1]. The ICP both atomizes and ionizes the sample. Polyatomic ions form through ion-molecule interactions either in the ICP or during ion extraction [l]. Common polyatomic ions that inhibit analysis include metal oxides (MO+), adducts with argon, the gas most commonly used to make up the plasma, and hydride species. While high resolution devices can separate many analytes from common interferences, this is done at great cost in ion transmission efficiency--a loss of 99% when using high versus low resolution on the same instrument [2]. Simple quadrupole devices, which make up the bulk of ICP-MS instruments in existence, do not present this option. Therefore, if the source of polyatomic interferences can be determined and then manipulated, this could potentially improve the figures of merit on all ICP-MS devices, not just the high resolution devices often utilized to study polyatomic interferences.

  20. XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament

    SciTech Connect

    Peth, Christian; Kalinin, Anton; Barkusky, Frank; Mann, Klaus; Toennies, J. Peter; Rusin, Lev Yu

    2007-10-15

    We present a laser driven soft x-ray source based on a novel solid argon filament. The continuously flowing micron-sized filament (diameter {approx}56 {mu}m, flow speed {approx}5 mm/s) was used as a laser target in order to generate a plasma source of high brightness in the ''water window'' (2.2-4.4 nm) spectral range. The emission properties of the source were characterized in detail with respect to crucial parameters such as positional and energy stability using an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sensitive pinhole camera and an XUV spectrometer. The results are compared with an argon plasma based on a gas puff target operated under the same experimental conditions showing an increase of the brilliance by a factor of 84. By changing the capillary geometry from a constant diameter to a convergent shape the flow speed of the filament was significantly increased up to 250 mm/s, facilitating the operation at higher repetition rates.

  1. Humidity Effects on Fragmentation in Plasma-Based Ambient Ionization Sources.

    PubMed

    Newsome, G Asher; Ackerman, Luke K; Johnson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Post-plasma ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources are fundamentally dependent on surrounding water vapor to produce protonated analyte ions. There are two reports of humidity effects on ADI spectra. However, it is unclear whether humidity will affect all ADI sources and analytes, and by what mechanism humidity affects spectra. Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectra of various surface-deposited and gas-phase analytes were acquired at ambient temperature and pressure across a range of observed humidity values. A controlled humidity enclosure around the ion source and mass spectrometer inlet was used to create programmed humidity and temperatures. The relative abundance and fragmentation of molecular adduct ions for several compounds consistently varied with changing ambient humidity and also were controlled with the humidity enclosure. For several compounds, increasing humidity decreased protonated molecule and other molecular adduct ion fragmentation in both FAPA and DART spectra. For others, humidity increased fragment ion ratios. The effects of humidity on molecular adduct ion fragmentation were caused by changes in the relative abundances of different reagent protonated water clusters and, thus, a change in the average difference in proton affinity between an analyte and the population of water clusters. Control of humidity in ambient post-plasma ion sources is needed to create spectral stability and reproducibility.

  2. Isotope mass and charge effects in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pusztai, I.; Candy, J.; Gohil, P.

    2011-12-15

    The effect of primary ion species of differing charge and mass - specifically, deuterium, hydrogen, and helium - on instabilities and transport is studied in DIII-D plasmas through gyrokinetic simulations with gyro [J. Candy and E. Belli, General Atomics Technical Report No. GA-A26818, 2010]. In linear simulations under imposed similarity of the profiles, there is an isomorphism between the linear growth rates of hydrogen isotopes, but the growth rates are higher for Z > 1 main ions due to the appearance of the charge in the Poisson equation. On ion scales the most significant effect of the different electron-to-ion mass ratio appears through collisions stabilizing trapped electron modes. In nonlinear simulations, significant favorable deviations from pure gyro-Bohm scaling are found due to electron-to-ion mass ratio effects and collisions. The presence of any non-trace impurity species cannot be neglected in a comprehensive simulation of the transport; including carbon impurity in the simulations caused a dramatic reduction of energy fluxes. The transport in the analyzed deuterium and helium discharges could be well reproduced in gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations while the significant hydrogen discrepancy is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  3. 2MASS Extended Source Catalog: Overview and Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T.; Chester, T.; Cutri, R.; Schneider, S.; Skrutskie, M.; Huchra, J.

    1999-01-01

    The 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS)will observe over one-million galaxies and extended Galactic sources covering the entire sky at wavelenghts between 1 and 2 m. Most of these galaxies, from 70 to 80%, will be newly catalogued objetcs.

  4. Nanoscale imaging using a compact laser plasma EUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Kostecki, Jerzy; Jarocki, Roman; Szczurek, Miroslaw; Szczurek, Anna; Feigl, Torsten; Pina, Ladislav

    2012-05-01

    High resolution imaging methods and techniques are currently under development. One of them is an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscopy, based on Fresnel zone plates. In this paper a compact, high-repetition, laser-plasma EUV source, emitting quasi-monochromatic radiation at 13.8nm wavelength was used in a desktop EUV transmission microscopy with a spatial (half-pitch) resolution of 50nm. EUV microscopy images of objects with various thicknesses and the spatial resolution measurements using the knife-edge test are presented.

  5. Final Report - Ion Production and Transport in Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source Mass Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2014-05-14

    This document is the final report on a project that focused in the general theme of atmospheric-pressure ion production and transport for mass spectrometry. Within that general theme there were two main projects: the fundamental study of the transport of elemental ions through the vacuum interface of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and fundamental studies of the ionization mechanisms in ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources for molecular mass spectrometry. In both cases the goal was to generate fundamental understanding of key instrumental processes that would lead to the development of instruments that were more sensitive and more consistent in their performance. The emphasis on consistency derives from the need for instruments that have the same sensitivity, regardless of sample type. In the jargon of analytical chemistry, such instruments are said to be free from matrix effects. In the ICPMS work each stage of ion production and of ion transport from the atmospheric pressure to the high-vacuum mass analyzer was studied. Factors controlling ion transport efficiency and consistency were identified at each stage of pressure reduction. In the ADI work the interactions between an electrospray plume and a fluorescent sample on a surface were examined microscopically. A new mechanism for analyte ion production in desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was proposed. Optical spectroscopy was used to track the production of reactive species in plasmas used as ADI sources. Experiments with mixed-gas plasmas demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to a helium ADI plasma could boost the sensitivity for some analytes by over an order of magnitude.

  6. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time.

  7. Effects of plasma spatial profile on conversion efficiency of laser produced plasma sources for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Harilal, S.

    2009-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography devices that use laser produced plasma (LPP), discharge produced plasma (DPP), and hybrid devices need to be optimized to achieve sufficient brightness with minimum debris generation to support the throughput requirements of High-Volume Manufacturing (HVM) lithography exposure tools with long lifetime. Source performance, debris mitigation, and reflector system are all critical to efficient EUV collection and component lifetime. Enhanced integrated models are continued to be developed using HEIGHTS computer package to simulate EUV emission at high power and debris generation and transport in multiple and colliding LPP. A new center for materials under extreme environments (CMUXE) is established to benchmark HEIGHTS models for various EUV related issues. The models being developed and enhanced include, for example, new ideas and parameters of multiple laser beams in different geometrical configurations and with different pre-pulses to maximize EUV production. Recent experimental and theoretical work show large influence of the hydrodynamic processes on EUV generation. The effect of plasma hydrodynamics evolution on the EUV radiation generation was analyzed for planar and spherical geometry of a tin target in LPP devices. The higher efficiency of planar target in comparison to the spherical geometry was explained with better hydrodynamic containment of the heated plasma. This is not the case if the plasma is slightly overheated. Recent experimental results of the conversion efficiency (CE) of LPP are in good agreement with HEIGHTS simulation.

  8. Diagnostics of plasma and particle flows extracted from bipolar gridded plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, Stanislav; Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2016-09-01

    Gridded plasma sources have a strong interest from both industry and research community due to large number of their applications, including electric propulsion, plasma acceleration for fundamental studies, ion beam surface treatment and semiconductor etching, etc. Commonly, a dc electric field is applied between the grids of these sources to accelerate positive ions, while the space charge compensation of the beam is achieved using an additional external electron source. Few recent concepts assume bipolar extraction of particles, such that both positive and negative particles are extracted from plasma and accelerated. The formed beam can be composed of extracted continuously or alternately positive and negative ions, or positive ions and electrons. Diagnostics of these beams is a challenging task, in particular absolute flux and energy distribution measurements for different species present in the bipolar beam. In this work we present few recent diagnostic techniques allowing to measure absolute fluxes and energies of +/- ions and electrons, and also methods to investigate temporal behavior of these flows.

  9. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Uranium Error Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Maclean, S; Shepley, D; Shaw, R K

    2001-07-01

    The Hazards Control Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP/MS) technology to analyze uranium in urine. The ICP/MS used by the Hazards Control Department is a Perkin-Elmer Elan 6000 ICP/MS. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program requires that the total error be assessed for bioassay measurements. A previous evaluation of the errors associated with the ICP/MS measurement of uranium demonstrated a {+-} 9.6% error in the range of 0.01 to 0.02 {micro}g/l. However, the propagation of total error for concentrations above and below this level have heretofore been undetermined. This document is an evaluation of the errors associated with the current LLNL ICP/MS method for a more expanded range of uranium concentrations.

  10. Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, D.; Paméla, J.

    1996-07-01

    NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H-/H+) and charge exchanges (H-/H0). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter.

  11. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H⁻ ion source.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, S R; Faircloth, D C; Letchford, A P; Whitehead, M O; Wood, T

    2016-02-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H(-) beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 10(21) m(-3), whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  12. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.

    2016-02-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H- beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 1021 m-3, whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  13. Isotopic mass and alpha heating effects in TFTR DT plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.V.; Bell, M.G.; Mansfield, D.K.

    1994-09-01

    Sets of similar TFTR discharges with varying amounts of D and T are compared. The T content is altered by varying the mix of D and T NBI at approximately constant total NBI power. The total plasma current, toroidal field, central Z{sub eff}, and wall conditions are very similar in each set. The electron density profiles are approximately similar. The sets contain pairs of discharges with D-only and DT-NBI. Several sets also contain discharges with T-only NBI. The discharges are analyzed using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Good agreement with measured parameters is achieved. Profiles are computed for the isotopic mass of the hydrogenic thermal species A, and for the hydrogenic thermal plus beam species A{sub tot}. Their volume averages increase approximately linearly as the fraction of T-NBI power increases, and they are slightly peaked for DT and T-only NBI discharges. The total energy and the total energy confinement time increase approximately linearly with A{sub tot} up to 30%. The beam fraction of the total energy at 0.5 sec of NBI remains relatively constant, {approx} 40--50% as A{sub tot} varies. The thermal ion fraction increases slightly, and the electron fraction decreases. The isotopic and alpha heating effects contribute in roughly equal amounts to the increase in central T{sub e}.

  14. Toward Plasma Proteome Profiling with Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Plasencia, Manolo D.; Liu, Xiaoyun; Krishnan, Meera; Naylor, Stephen; Udseth, Harold R.; Smith, Richard D.; Clemmer, David E.

    2006-11-01

    Differential, functional, and mapping proteomic analyses of complex biological mixtures suffer from a lack of component resolution. Here we describe the application of ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMSMS) to this problem. With this approach, components that are separated by liquid chromatography are dispersed based on differences in their mobilities through a buffer gas prior to being analyzed by MS. The inclusion of the gas-phase dispersion provides more than an order of magnitude enhancement in component resolution at no cost to data acquisition time. Additionally, the mobility separation often removes high-abundance species from spectral regions containing low-abundance species, effectively increasing measurement sensitivity and dynamic range. Finally, collision-induced dissociation of all ions can be recorded in a single experimental sequence while conventional MS methods sequentially select precursors. The approach is demonstrated in a single, rapid (3.3 h) analysis of a plasma digest sample where abundant proteins have not been removed. Protein database searches have yielded 731 high confidence peptide assignments corresponding to 438 unique proteins. Results have been compiled into an initial analytical map to be used -after further augmentation and refinement- for comparative plasma profiling studies.

  15. Design and characterization of a novel coaxial VHF plasma source for air plasma formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrns, Brandon; Wooten, Daniel; Shannon, Steven

    2011-10-01

    A key challenge in the expansion of atmospheric plasma applicators into new markets is the effective surface area that these systems can efficiently treat. To this end, a large area atmospheric air glow discharge, with approximately 9.5 cm2 cross sectional area, is obtained using a simple coaxial structure. The room air plasma is driven by a 162MHz generator at powers ranging from 300W-1000W. The VHF drive appears to produce a steady state glow void of streamers or arcs typically found in atmospheric air systems. Electrical measurements coupled with a global plasma model and transmission line theory allow for the calculation of electron density. Densities calculated for 400W are approximately 1011 cm-3. Spectroscopy data shows dominant emissions consist of OH, N2, and N2+,along with a continuum indicating neutral bremsstrahlung radiation; this is used for electron density calculations and model validation. In this presentation, source design, plasma characterization, and preliminary surface treatments of HDPE will be presented. A key challenge in the expansion of atmospheric plasma applicators into new markets is the effective surface area that these systems can efficiently treat. To this end, a large area atmospheric air glow discharge, with approximately 9.5 cm2 cross sectional area, is obtained using a simple coaxial structure. The room air plasma is driven by a 162MHz generator at powers ranging from 300W-1000W. The VHF drive appears to produce a steady state glow void of streamers or arcs typically found in atmospheric air systems. Electrical measurements coupled with a global plasma model and transmission line theory allow for the calculation of electron density. Densities calculated for 400W are approximately 1011 cm-3. Spectroscopy data shows dominant emissions consist of OH, N2, and N2+,along with a continuum indicating neutral bremsstrahlung radiation; this is used for electron density calculations and model validation. In this presentation, source design

  16. Emission Spectroscopy measurement of hybrid ECR-Helicon plasma source parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hala, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy measurement of plasma temperature and density were conducted on KACST hybrid plasma source. The hybrid source involves ECR and helicon source operated simultanously. The results indicate that the ECR alone density is higher than the density of the combined sources while the combined temperature is lower.

  17. Utility of dual frequency hybrid source for plasma and radical generation in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kyung Sik; Bhusan Sahu, Bibhuti; Geon Han, Jeon; Hori, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Looking into the aspect of material processing, this work evaluates alternative plasma concepts in SiH4/H2 plasmas to investigate the radical and plasma generation in the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) synthesis of nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H). Simultaneous measurements by vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and radio frequency (RF) compensated Langmuir probe (LP) reveal that RF/ultrahigh frequency (UHF) hybrid source can efficiently produce H radicals and plasmas that are accountable for nc-Si:H film synthesis. The efficacy of hybrid plasmas is also discussed.

  18. A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, T. W. H.; Pigott, J.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2003-11-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs (CVAs) are well established as a method for producing metal plasmas for thin film deposition and as a source of metal ions. Fundamental differences exist between direct current (dc) and pulsed CVAs. We present here results of our investigations into the design and construction of a high-current center-triggered pulsed CVA. Power supply design based on electrolytic capacitors is discussed and optimized based on obtaining the most effective utilization of the cathode material. Anode configuration is also discussed with respect to the optimization of the electron collection capability. Type I and II cathode spots are observed and discussed with respect to cathode surface contamination. An unfiltered deposition rate of 1.7 nm per pulse, at a distance of 100 mm from the source, has been demonstrated. Instantaneous plasma densities in excess of 1×1019 m-3 are observed after magnetic filtering. Time averaged densities an order of magnitude greater than common dc arc densities have been demonstrated, limited by pulse repetition rate and filter efficiency.

  19. Quantitative lipidomic analysis of plasma and plasma lipoproteins using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serna, Jorge; García-Seisdedos, David; Alcázar, Alberto; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Busto, Rebeca; Pastor, Óscar

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the plasma lipid composition is essential to clarify the specific roles of different lipid species in various pathophysiological processes. In this study, we developed an analytical strategy combining high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and off-line coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) to determine the composition of plasma and major lipoproteins at two levels, lipid classes and lipid species. We confirmed the suitability of MALDI-TOF/MS as a quantitative measurement tool studying the linearity and repeatability for triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Moreover, data obtained with this method were correlated with other lipid classes and species measurements using currently available technologies. To establish the potential utility of our approach, human plasma very low density- (VLDL), low density- (LDL) and high density- (HDL) lipoproteins from 10 healthy donors were separated using ultracentrifugation, and compositions of nine lipid classes, cholesteryl esters (CE), TG, free cholesterol (FC), PE, phosphatidylinositol (PI), sulfatides (S), PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM), analyzed. In total, 157 lipid species in plasma, 182 in LDL, 171 in HDL, and 148 in VLDL were quantified. The lipidomic profile was consistent with known differences in lipid classes, but also revealed unexpected differences in lipid species distribution of lipoproteins, particularly for LPC and SM. In summary, the methodology developed in this study constitutes a valid approach to determine the lipidomic composition of plasma and lipoproteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H{sup −} beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (∼1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (∼0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ∼15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV)

  1. Linking Contaminant Mass Discharge to DNAPL Source Zone Architecture and Mass Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, K. D.; Suchomel, E. J.; Amos, B. K.; Loeffler, F. E.; Capiro, N. L.

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between partial dense nonaqueous phase (DNAPL) mass removal and plume behavior, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional aquifer cell containing a tetrachloroethene (PCE) source zone and a down-gradient plume region. PCE-DNAPL saturation distributions were quantified using a light transmission system and expressed in terms of a ganglia-to-pool (GTP) volume ratio. To achieve incremental mass removal, the aquifer cells were flushed with a 4% Tween 80 surfactant solution that increased the solubility of PCE by more than two orders-of-magnitude with minimal mobilization of entrapped PCE-DNAPL. For a ganglia-dominated source zone (GTP = 1.6) greater than 70% mass removal was required before measurable reductions in mass discharge were realized, while for pool-dominated source zones (GTP < 0.3) reductions in mass discharge versus mass removal approached a 1:1 correlation. Current experiments are designed to evaluate the potential for coupling aggressive mass removal with microbial reductive dechlorination.

  2. Laser produced plasma EUV sources for device development and HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, David C.; Fomenkov, Igor V.; Lercel, Michael J.; La Fontaine, Bruno M.; Myers, David W.; Brown, Daniel J.; Ershov, Alex I.; Sandstrom, Richard L.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Das, Palash; Fleurov, Vladimir B.; Zhang, Kevin; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Rajyaguru, Chirag; De Dea, Silvia; Dunstan, Wayne J.; Baumgart, Peter; Ishihara, Toshi; Simmons, Rod D.; Jacques, Robert N.; Bergstedt, Robert A.; Porshnev, Peter I.; Wittak, Christian J.; Woolston, Michael R.; Rafac, Robert J.; Grava, Jonathan; Schafgans, Alexander A.; Tao, Yezheng

    2012-03-01

    Laser produced plasma (LPP) systems have been developed as the primary approach for the EUV scanner light source for optical imaging of circuit features at sub-22nm and beyond nodes on the ITRS roadmap. This paper provides a review of development progress and productization status for LPP extreme-ultra-violet (EUV) sources with performance goals targeted to meet specific requirements from leading scanner manufacturers. We present the latest results on exposure power generation, collection, and clean transmission of EUV through the intermediate focus. Semiconductor industry standards for reliability and source availability data are provided. We report on measurements taken using a 5sr normal incidence collector on a production system. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. Deposition of target material as well as sputtering or implantation of incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror coating during exposure. Debris mitigation techniques are used to inhibit damage from occuring, the protection results of these techniques will be shown over multi-100's of hours.

  3. The terrestrial plasma source - A new perspective in solar-terrestrial processes from Dynamics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The geospace environment has been viewed as a mixing bowl for plasmas of both solar and terrestrial origin. The present perspective on the nature of the supply mechanisms has undergone a radical evolution over the past decade, particularly during the five years of the Dynamics Explorer mission. During this period, the terrestrial source has increased in importance in both magnitude and character of ionospheric outflow. These outflows include the classical polar wind, the cleft ion fountain, the auroral ion fountain, and the polar cap. The earth can be envisioned as a multifaceted fountain which ejects particles from different spatial locations spread around the globe. These particles exhibit a range of masses from 1 to 32 amu and a range of energies from 1 eV to 10 keV. The total flux of this ionospheric outflow is very large: adequate to supply the entire magnetospheric particle population. And the implications of the outflow are significant across a broad spectrum of solar-terrestrial processes ranging from sources of magnetospheric plasmas, to influences on ionospheric density and temperature structure, to energy transfer in phenomena such as stable auroral red arcs. The Dynamics Explorer mission has made a major contribution in the characterization of the terrestrial plasma source.

  4. Terrestrial plasma source - a new perspective in solar-terrestrial processes from Dynamics Explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, C.R.

    1988-05-01

    The geospace environment has been viewed as a mixing bowl for plasmas of both solar and terrestrial origin. The present perspective on the nature of the supply mechanisms has undergone a radical evolution over the past decade, particularly during the five years of the Dynamics Explorer mission. During this period, the terrestrial source has increased in importance in both magnitude and character of ionospheric outflow. These outflows include the classical polar wind, the cleft ion fountain, the auroral ion fountain, and the polar cap. The earth can be envisioned as a multifaceted fountain which ejects particles from different spatial locations spread around the globe. These particles exhibit a range of masses from 1 to 32 amu and a range of energies from 1 eV to 10 keV. The total flux of this ionospheric outflow is very large: adequate to supply the entire magnetospheric particle population. And the implications of the outflow are significant across a broad spectrum of solar-terrestrial processes ranging from sources of magnetospheric plasmas, to influences on ionospheric density and temperature structure, to energy transfer in phenomena such as stable auroral red arcs. The Dynamics Explorer mission has made a major contribution in the characterization of the terrestrial plasma source. 60 references.

  5. The terrestrial plasma source - A new perspective in solar-terrestrial processes from Dynamics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The geospace environment has been viewed as a mixing bowl for plasmas of both solar and terrestrial origin. The present perspective on the nature of the supply mechanisms has undergone a radical evolution over the past decade, particularly during the five years of the Dynamics Explorer mission. During this period, the terrestrial source has increased in importance in both magnitude and character of ionospheric outflow. These outflows include the classical polar wind, the cleft ion fountain, the auroral ion fountain, and the polar cap. The earth can be envisioned as a multifaceted fountain which ejects particles from different spatial locations spread around the globe. These particles exhibit a range of masses from 1 to 32 amu and a range of energies from 1 eV to 10 keV. The total flux of this ionospheric outflow is very large: adequate to supply the entire magnetospheric particle population. And the implications of the outflow are significant across a broad spectrum of solar-terrestrial processes ranging from sources of magnetospheric plasmas, to influences on ionospheric density and temperature structure, to energy transfer in phenomena such as stable auroral red arcs. The Dynamics Explorer mission has made a major contribution in the characterization of the terrestrial plasma source.

  6. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that “…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more” (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459–478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451–4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that “super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations.”(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182–193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper. PMID:26819912

  7. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that "…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more" (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459-478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451-4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that "super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations."(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182-193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper.

  8. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  9. Isotope mass and charge effects in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusztai, I.; Candy, J.; Gohil, P.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of primary ion species of differing charge and mass—specifically, deuterium, hydrogen, and helium—on instabilities and transport is studied in DIII-D plasmas through gyrokinetic simulations with gyro [J. Candy and E. Belli, General Atomics Technical Report No. GA-A26818, 2010]. In linear simulations under imposed similarity of the profiles, there is an isomorphism between the linear growth rates of hydrogen isotopes, but the growth rates are higher for Z > 1 main ions due to the appearance of the charge in the Poisson equation. On ion scales the most significant effect of the different electron-to-ion mass ratio appears through collisions stabilizing trapped electron modes. In nonlinear simulations, significant favorable deviations from pure gyro-Bohm scaling are found due to electron-to-ion mass ratio effects and collisions. The presence of any non-trace impurity species cannot be neglected in a comprehensive simulation of the transport; including carbon impurity in the simulations caused a dramatic reduction of energy fluxes. The transport in the analyzed deuterium and helium discharges could be well reproduced in gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations while the significant hydrogen discrepancy is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  10. Plasma generation in mass-limited water targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hah, Jungmoo; Liberty, Kirk; Nees, John; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    One major problem associated with high repetition-rate experiment is obtaining a suitable new target for each shot, while maintaining shot-to-shot spatial stability. For high repetition-rate laser experiments with solid targets, rotating stage is usually used for moving a target point, which causes stability and size problems. To solve these problems, some researchers have tried to replace solid targets with liquid stream or droplet. Here, we use a syringe pump, a piezoelectric device and a tungsten needle to make continuous and stable water droplets with a diameter of ~ 2 μm. These mass-limited water droplets as a target have some advantages. First, heat dissipation is blocked, so the target is entirely heated. Second, effective spatial contrast is improved by reducing the interaction between lower intensity spatial wings of the beam and a single-micron target. Third, at the relativistic laser intensities, a smaller target allows for higher electron densities at the target's back surface, which enhances field's strength for ion acceleration. For these advantages, it is required that we understand plasma generation processes. Therefore, we investigate the processes by irradiating fs laser pulses to mass-limited droplets and these interactions are captured by CCD.

  11. Environmental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the numerous ways in which inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of environmental samples since it was commercially introduced in 1983. Its multielemental isotopic capability, high sensitivity and wide linear dynamic range makes it ideally suited for environmental analysis. Provided that some care is taken during sample preparation and that appropriate calibration strategies are used to circumvent non-spectroscopic interferences, the technique is readily applicable to the analysis of a wide variety of environmental samples (natural waters, soils, rocks, sediments, vegetation, etc.), using quadrupole, time-of-flight or double-focusing sector-field mass spectrometers. In cases where spectroscopic interferences arising from the sample matrix cannot be resolved, then separation methods can be implemented either on- or off-line, which can simultaneously allow analyte preconcentration, thus further decreasing the already low detection limits that are achievable. In most cases, the blank, prepared by following the same steps as for the sample but without the sample, limits the ultimate detection limits that can be reached.

  12. Quantification of zolmitriptan in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo; Tian, Yuan; Li, Wei; Mao, Guoguang

    2004-12-25

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and quantification of zolmitriptan in human plasma. After the addition of the internal standard (IS) and 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution, plasma samples were extracted with methylene chloride:ethyl acetate mixture (20:80, v/v). The organic layer was evaporated under a stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue was reconstituted with 100 microl mobile phase. The compounds were separated on a prepacked Lichrospher CN (5 microm, 150 mm x 2.0 mm) column using a mixture of methanol:water (10 mM NH(4)AC, pH 4.0) = 78:22 as mobile phase. Detection was performed on a single quadrupole mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The method was proved to be sensitive and specific by testing six different plasma batches. Linearity was established for the range of concentrations 0.30-16.0 ng/ml with a coefficient of determination (r) of 0.9998 and good back-calculated accuracy and precision. The intra- and inter-day precision (R.S.D.%) were lower than 15% and accuracy ranged from 85 to 115%. The lower limit of quantification was identifiable and reproducible at 0.30 ng/ml. The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of zolmitriptan for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies.

  13. A tandem mirror plasma source for a hybrid plume plasma propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. F.; Miller, R. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Krueger, W. A.; Chang, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a tandem mirror magnetic plasma confinement device to be considered as a hot plasma source for the hybrid plume rocket concept. The hot plasma from this device is injected into an exhaust duct, which will interact with an annular layer of hypersonic neutral gas. Such a device can be used to study the dynamics of the hybrid plume and to experimentally verify the numerical predictions obtained with computer codes. The basic system design is also geared toward being lightweight and compact, as well as having high power density (i.e., several kW/sq cm) at the exhaust. This feature is aimed toward the feasibility of 'space testing'. The plasma is heated by microwaves. A 50 percent heating efficiency can be obtained by using two half-circle antennas. The preliminary Monte Carlo modeling of test particles result reported here indicates that interaction does take place in the exhaust duct. Neutrals gain energy from the ion, which confirms the hybrid plume concept.

  14. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOEpatents

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  15. Changes in contaminant mass discharge from DNAPL source mass depletion: Evaluation at two field sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Michael C.; Wood, A. Lynn; Annable, Michael D.; Hatfield, Kirk; Cho, Jaehyun; Holbert, Charles; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Enfield, Carl G.; Lynch, Kira; Smith, Richard E.

    2008-11-01

    Changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from aggressive remediation of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone were investigated at two sites, one at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah, and the other at Ft. Lewis Military Reservation, Washington. Passive Flux Meters (PFM) and a variation of the Integral Pumping Test (IPT) were used to measure fluxes in ten wells installed along a transect down-gradient of the trichloroethylene (TCE) source zone, and perpendicular to the mean groundwater flow direction. At both sites, groundwater and contaminant fluxes were measured before and after the source-zone treatment. The measured contaminant fluxes ( J; ML - 2 T - 1 ) were integrated across the well transect to estimate contaminant mass discharge ( MD; MT - 1 ) from the source zone. Estimated MD before source treatment, based on both PFM and IPT methods, were ~ 76 g/day for TCE at the Hill AFB site; and ~ 640 g/day for TCE, and ~ 206 g/day for cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) at the Ft. Lewis site. TCE flux measurements made 1 year after source treatment at the Hill AFB site decreased to ~ 5 g/day. On the other hand, increased fluxes of DCE, a degradation byproduct of TCE, in tests subsequent to remediation at the Hill AFB site suggest enhanced microbial degradation after surfactant flooding. At the Ft. Lewis site, TCE mass discharge rates subsequent to remediation decreased to ~ 3 g/day for TCE and ~ 3 g/day for DCE ~ 1.8 years after remediation. At both field sites, PFM and IPT approaches provided comparable results for contaminant mass discharge rates, and show significant reductions (> 90%) in TCE mass discharge as a result of DNAPL mass depletion from the source zone.

  16. Changes in contaminant mass discharge from DNAPL source mass depletion: evaluation at two field sites.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Michael C; Wood, A Lynn; Annable, Michael D; Hatfield, Kirk; Cho, Jaehyun; Holbert, Charles; Rao, P Suresh C; Enfield, Carl G; Lynch, Kira; Smith, Richard E

    2008-11-14

    Changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from aggressive remediation of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone were investigated at two sites, one at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah, and the other at Ft. Lewis Military Reservation, Washington. Passive Flux Meters (PFM) and a variation of the Integral Pumping Test (IPT) were used to measure fluxes in ten wells installed along a transect down-gradient of the trichloroethylene (TCE) source zone, and perpendicular to the mean groundwater flow direction. At both sites, groundwater and contaminant fluxes were measured before and after the source-zone treatment. The measured contaminant fluxes (J; ML(-2)T(-1)) were integrated across the well transect to estimate contaminant mass discharge (M(D); MT(-1)) from the source zone. Estimated M(D) before source treatment, based on both PFM and IPT methods, were approximately 76 g/day for TCE at the Hill AFB site; and approximately 640 g/day for TCE, and approximately 206 g/day for cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) at the Ft. Lewis site. TCE flux measurements made 1 year after source treatment at the Hill AFB site decreased to approximately 5 g/day. On the other hand, increased fluxes of DCE, a degradation byproduct of TCE, in tests subsequent to remediation at the Hill AFB site suggest enhanced microbial degradation after surfactant flooding. At the Ft. Lewis site, TCE mass discharge rates subsequent to remediation decreased to approximately 3 g/day for TCE and approximately 3 g/day for DCE approximately 1.8 years after remediation. At both field sites, PFM and IPT approaches provided comparable results for contaminant mass discharge rates, and show significant reductions (>90%) in TCE mass discharge as a result of DNAPL mass depletion from the source zone.

  17. Loss of atomic oxygen in mass spectrometer ion sources.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, L. R.; Nier, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    A gas beam consisting of a mixture of atomic and molecular oxygen has been directed at the ion source of a mass spectrometer like those used in sounding rockets for determining the neutral composition of the lower thermosphere. The loss of atomic oxygen on mass spectrometer surfaces was evaluated by flagging the beam in several ways and comparing the experimental results with predicted values. The results obtained suggest that in rocket flights using similar instruments the atomic oxygen densities computed assuming no-loss conditions may be low by a factor of 2.5. Studies made using a beam containing tracer O-18 indicate that carbon dioxide observed when atomic oxygen enters the source is formed in a reaction involving atomic oxygen from the beam and carbon monoxide from the surfaces bombarded.

  18. Tuning laser plasma x-ray source for single shot microscopy using nano-porous targets.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Reza

    2016-11-15

    Detailed calculations show that we can control and enhance x-ray line emission in the so-called water-window wavelength region using laser irradiated nano-porous or foam-like targets. The effects of target porosity on the non-LTE plasma ionization are studied to obtain optimum conditions for maximum narrowband line emission. Results show that for specified irradiation conditions, the population of emitting ions can be significantly improved using a target with optimum initial mass density. In such conditions, an efficient line x ray can be emitted from the created plasma making it a suitable flash point source for high-contrast x-ray imaging of living samples.

  19. Focused ion beams using a high-brightness plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Samar

    2002-10-01

    High-brightness ion beams, with low energy spread, have merits for many new applications in microelectronics, materials science, and biology. Negative ions are especially attractive for the applications that involve beam-solid interactions. When negative ions strike a surface, especially an electrically isolated surface, the surface charging voltage is limited to few volts [1]. This property can be effectively utilized to circumvent problems due to surface charging, such as device damage and beam defocusing. A compact plasma source, with the capability to deliver either positive or negative ion beams, has been developed. H- beams from this pulsed source showed brightness within an order of magnitude of the value for beams from liquid-metal ion sources. The beam angular intensity is > 40 mAsr-1 and the corresponding energy spread is <2.5 eV [2]. Using a simple Einzel lens with magnification of about 0.1, a focused current density of about 40 mAcm-2 is obtained. It is estimated that an additional magnification of about 0.1 can yield a focused current density of > 1 Acm-2 and a spot size of 100 nm. Such characteristics of focused beam parameters, using a dc source, will immediately open up a large area of new applications. [1] P. N. Guzdar, A. S. Sharma, S. K. Guharay, "Charging of substrates irradiated by particle beams" Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3302 (1997). [2] S. K. Guharay, E. Sokolovsky, J. Orloff, "Characteristics of ion beams from a Penning source for focused ion beam applications" J. Vac. Sci Technol. B17, 2779 (1999).

  20. Transient three-dimensional dynamics of argon plasma within the vacuum interface of the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagulin, K. Yu.; Tsivilskiy, I. V.; Akhmetshin, D. Sh.; Gilmutdinov, A. Kh.

    2017-09-01

    A three-dimensional transient mathematical model of the ;inductively coupled plasma - vacuum interface of the mass spectrometer; system was developed. The model takes into account spatial and temporal dynamics of hot gas flow (plasma emulation) and allows calculation of evolution of spatial distribution of pressure, velocity and temperature fields outside and within the interface of the mass-spectrometer. The results of modeling are verified using the experimental setup of high-speed optical and schlieren visualization of gas flows.

  1. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Potential applications of a new microwave ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) multicusp plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source using two ECR plasma production regions and multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasmas over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2}. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of discharge parameters. Together with the discharge characteristics observed, a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source is reported and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam processing for manufacturing advanced microelectronics and for space electric propulsion, are discussed. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Xe capillary target for laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Takahiro; Okino, Hideyasu; Nica, Petru Edward; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-10-15

    A cryogenic Xe jet system with an annular nozzle has been developed in order to continuously fast supply a Xe capillary target for generating a laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The cooling power of the system was evaluated to be 54 W, and the temperature stability was {+-}0.5 K at a cooling temperature of about 180 K. We investigated experimentally the influence of pressure loss inside an annular nozzle on target formation by shortening the nozzle length. Spraying caused by cavitation was mostly suppressed by mitigating the pressure loss, and a focused jet was formed. Around a liquid-solid boundary, a solid-Xe capillary target (100/70 {mu}m {phi}) was formed with a velocity of {<=}0.01 m/s. Laser-plasma EUV generation was tested by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam on the target. The results suggested that an even thinner-walled capillary target is required to realize the inertial confinement effect.

  4. Anisotropic etching in inductive plasma source with no rf biasing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Wontaek

    2008-09-15

    An inductive plasma source driven with phase shifted antenna coils at 2 MHz has been developed to accelerate ions for semiconductor etching process. The experiment was carried out in SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas mixtures in the pressure range between 0.3 and 0.9 mTorr and rf power between 0.6 and 1.5 kW. Measurement of the ion energy spectra behind the wafer has shown high energy ions (up to 70 eV). An anisotropic etching (without rf biasing) of a polysilicon film has been demonstrated in this experiment. The acceleration of the electrons was numerically studied based on the fluid theory. The numerical results show that electrons affected by Lorentz force and thermal pressure gradient make axial electron currents, which contribute to form axial electric fields and ion acceleration.

  5. Note: Triggering behavior of a vacuum arc plasma source.

    PubMed

    Lan, C H; Long, J D; Zheng, L; Dong, P; Yang, Z; Li, J; Wang, T; He, J L

    2016-08-01

    Axial symmetry of discharge is very important for application of vacuum arc plasma. It is discovered that the triggering method is a significant factor that would influence the symmetry of arc discharge at the final stable stage. Using high-speed multiframe photography, the transition processes from cathode-trigger discharge to cathode-anode discharge were observed. It is shown that the performances of the two triggering methods investigated are quite different. Arc discharge triggered by independent electric source can be stabilized at the center of anode grid, but it is difficult to achieve such good symmetry through resistance triggering. It is also found that the triggering process is highly correlated to the behavior of emitted electrons.

  6. Double planar wire array as a compact plasma radiation source

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Williamson, K. M.; Yilmaz, M. F.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Osborne, G. C.; Rudakov, L. I.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

    2008-03-15

    Magnetically compressed plasmas initiated by a double planar wire array (DPWA) are efficient radiation sources. The two rows in a DPWA implode independently and then merge together at stagnation producing soft x-ray yields and powers of up to 11.5 kJ/cm and more than 0.4 TW/cm, higher than other planar arrays or low wire-number cylindrical arrays on the 1 MA Zebra generator. DPWA, where precursors form in two stages, produce a shaped radiation pulse and radiate more energy in the main burst than estimates of implosion kinetic energy. High radiation efficiency, compact size (as small as 3-5 mm wide), and pulse shaping show that the DPWA is a potential candidate for ICF and radiation physics research.

  7. Sources of field-aligned currents in the auroral plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.A.; Burch, J.L. ); Kan, J.R. ); Reiff, P.H. ); Slavin, J.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) and magnetometer are used to investigate the sources of field-aligned currents in the nightside auroral zone. It is found that the formula developed by S. Knight predicts the field-aligned current density fairly accurately in regions where a significant potential drop can be inferred from the HAPI data; there are, however, regions in which the proportionality between potential drop and field-aligned current does not hold. In particular, the authors note occurrences of strong upward field-aligned current associated not with inverted-V events but instead with suprathermal bursts. In addition, upward field-aligned currents are often observed to peak near the edges of inverted-V events, rather than in the center as would be predicted by Knight.

  8. Sources of field-aligned currents in the auroral plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Burch, J. L.; Kan, J. R.; Reiff, P. H.; Slavin, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) and magnetometer are used to investigate the sources of field-aligned currents in the nightside auroral zone. It is found that the formula developed by S. Knight predicts the field-aligned current density fairly accurately in regions where a significant potential drop can be inferred from the HAPI data; there are, however, regions in which the proportionality between potential drop and field-aligned current does not hold. In particular, occurrences of strong upward field-aligned current associated not with inverted-V events but instead with suprathermal bursts are noted. In addition, upward field-aligned currents are often observed to peak near the edges of inverted-V events, rather than in the center as would be predicted by Knight.

  9. Note: Triggering behavior of a vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, C. H. Long, J. D.; Zheng, L.; Dong, P.; Yang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, T.; He, J. L.

    2016-08-15

    Axial symmetry of discharge is very important for application of vacuum arc plasma. It is discovered that the triggering method is a significant factor that would influence the symmetry of arc discharge at the final stable stage. Using high-speed multiframe photography, the transition processes from cathode-trigger discharge to cathode-anode discharge were observed. It is shown that the performances of the two triggering methods investigated are quite different. Arc discharge triggered by independent electric source can be stabilized at the center of anode grid, but it is difficult to achieve such good symmetry through resistance triggering. It is also found that the triggering process is highly correlated to the behavior of emitted electrons.

  10. Energy & mass-charge distribution peculiarities of ion emitted from penning source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, N. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Sorokin, I. A.; Kanshin, I. A.; Sinelnikov, D. N.

    2017-05-01

    The optimization of hydrogen Penning sources used, in particular, in plasma chemical processing of materials and DLC deposition, is still very important. Investigations of mass-charge composition of these ion source emitted beams are particular relevant for miniature linear accelerators (neutron flux generators) nowadays. The Penning ion source energy and mass-charge ion distributions are presented. The relation between the discharge current abrupt jumps with increasing plasma density in the discharge center and increasing potential whipping (up to 50% of the anode voltage) is shown. Also the energy spectra in the discharge different modes as the pressure and anode potential functions are presented. It has been revealed that the atomic hydrogen ion concentration is about 5-10%, and it weakly depends on the pressure and the discharge current (in the investigated range from 1 to 10 mTorr and from 50 to 1000 μA) and increases with the anode voltage (up 1 to 3,5 kV).

  11. Mass and Energy of Erupting Solar Plasma Observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung

    2015-01-01

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ~3 × 1013-5 × 1014 g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ~1 × 1015 g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  12. Numerical Model of the Plasma Sheath Generated by the Plasma Source Instrument Aboard the Polar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Leung, W. C.; Moore, T. E.; Craven, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma sheath generated by the operation of the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) aboard the Polar satellite is studied by using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code. When the satellite passes through the region of low-density plasma, the satellite charges to positive potentials as high as 40-50 V, owing to the photoelectron emission. In such a case, ambient core ions cannot accurately be measured or detected. The goal of the onboard PSI is to reduce the floating potential of the satellite to a sufficiently low value so that the ions in the polar wind become detectable. When the PSI is operated, ion-rich xenon plasma is ejected from the satellite, such that the floating potential of the satellite is reduced and is maintained at approximately 2 V. Accordingly, in our three-dimensional PIC simulation we considered that the potential of the satellite is 2 V as a fixed bias. Considering the relatively high density of the xenon plasma in the sheath (10-10(exp 3)/cc), the ambient plasma of low density (<1/cc) is neglected. In the simulations the electric fields and plasma dynamics are calculated self-consistently. We found that an 'apple'-shape positive potential sheath forms surrounding the satellite. In the region near the PSI emission a high positive potential hill develops. Near the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment detector away from the PSI, the potentials are sufficiently low for the ambient polar wind ions to reach it. In the simulations it takes only about a couple of tens of electron gyroperiods for the sheath to reach a quasi steady state. This time is approximately the time taken by the heavy Xe(+) ions to expand up to about one average Larmor radius of electrons from the satellite surface. After this time the expansion of the sheath in directions transverse to the ambient magnetic field slows down because the electrons are magnetized. Using the quasi steady sheath, we performed trajectory calculations to characterize the detector response to a

  13. Numerical Model of the Plasma Sheath Generated by the Plasma Source Instrument Aboard the Polar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Wing C.; Singh, Nagendra; Moore, Thomas E.; Craven, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    The plasma sheath generated by the operation of the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) aboard the POLAR satellite is studied by using a 3-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. When the satellite passes through the region of low density plasma, the satellite charges to positive potentials as high as 4050Volts due to the photoelectrons emission. In such a case, ambient core ions cannot accurately be measured or detected. The goal of the onboard PSI is to reduce the floating potential of the satellite to a sufficiently low value so that the ions in the polar wind become detectable. When the PSI is operated, an ion-rich Xenon plasma is ejected from the satellite, such that the floating potential of the satellite is reduced and is maintained at about 2Volts. Accordingly, in our 3-dimensional PIC simulation, we considered that the potential of the satellite is 2Volts as a fixed bias. Considering the relatively high density of the Xenon plasma in the sheath (approx. 10 - 10(exp 3)/cc), the ambient plasma of low density (less than 1/cc) is neglected. In the simulations, the electric fields and plasma dynamics are calculated self-consistently. We found that an "Apple" shape positive potential sheath forms surrounding the satellite. In the region near the PSI emission, a high positive potential hill develops. Near the Thermal Ion Detection Experiment (TIDE) detector away from the PSI, the potentials are sufficiently low for the ambient polar wind ions to reach it. In the simulations, it takes about a hundred electron gyroperiods for the sheath to reach a quasi-steady state. This time is approximately the time taken by the heavy Xe(+) ions to expand up to about one average Larmor radius of electrons from the satellite surface. Using the steady state sheath, we performed trajectory calculations to characterize the detector response to a highly supersonic polar wind flow. The detected ions' velocity distribution shows significant deviations from a shifted Maxwellian in the

  14. Numerical Model of the Plasma Sheath Generated by the Plasma Source Instrument Aboard the Polar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Leung, W. C.; Moore, T. E.; Craven, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma sheath generated by the operation of the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) aboard the Polar satellite is studied by using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code. When the satellite passes through the region of low-density plasma, the satellite charges to positive potentials as high as 40-50 V, owing to the photoelectron emission. In such a case, ambient core ions cannot accurately be measured or detected. The goal of the onboard PSI is to reduce the floating potential of the satellite to a sufficiently low value so that the ions in the polar wind become detectable. When the PSI is operated, ion-rich xenon plasma is ejected from the satellite, such that the floating potential of the satellite is reduced and is maintained at approximately 2 V. Accordingly, in our three-dimensional PIC simulation we considered that the potential of the satellite is 2 V as a fixed bias. Considering the relatively high density of the xenon plasma in the sheath (10-10(exp 3)/cc), the ambient plasma of low density (<1/cc) is neglected. In the simulations the electric fields and plasma dynamics are calculated self-consistently. We found that an 'apple'-shape positive potential sheath forms surrounding the satellite. In the region near the PSI emission a high positive potential hill develops. Near the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment detector away from the PSI, the potentials are sufficiently low for the ambient polar wind ions to reach it. In the simulations it takes only about a couple of tens of electron gyroperiods for the sheath to reach a quasi steady state. This time is approximately the time taken by the heavy Xe(+) ions to expand up to about one average Larmor radius of electrons from the satellite surface. After this time the expansion of the sheath in directions transverse to the ambient magnetic field slows down because the electrons are magnetized. Using the quasi steady sheath, we performed trajectory calculations to characterize the detector response to a

  15. Noble Gas Plasmas with Metallic Conductivity: A New Light Source from a New State of Matter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Noble Gas Plasmas with Metallic Conductivity: A New Light Source from a New State of Matter Dense plasmas form a non-ideal, correlated state. We...New Light Source from a New State of Matter Report Title Dense plasmas form a non-ideal, correlated state. We have recreated the plasma inside sono...light, Applied Physics Letters, (12 2014): 223501. doi: A. Bataller, B. Kappus, C. Camara, S. Putterman. Collision Time Measurements in a

  16. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2009-11-15

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  17. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2009-11-01

    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  18. A microwave plasma source for VUV atmospheric photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigrine, S.; Carrasco, N.; Vettier, L.; Cernogora, G.

    2016-10-01

    Microwave plasma discharges working at low pressure are nowadays a well-developed technique mainly used to provide radiation at different wavelengths. The aim of this work is to show that those discharges are an efficient windowless vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photon source for planetary atmospheric photochemistry experiments. To do this, we use a surfatron-type discharge with a neon gas flow in the mbar pressure range coupled to a photochemical reactor. Working in the VUV range allows nitrogen-dominated atmospheres to be focused on (λ  <  100 nm). The experimental setup makes sure that no energy sources (electrons, metastable atoms) other than the VUV photons interact with the reactive medium. Neon has two resonance lines at 73.6 and 74.3 nm that behave differently depending on the pressure or power conditions. In parallel, the VUV photon flux emitted at 73.6 nm has been experimentally estimated in different pressure and power conditions, and varies in a large range between 2  ×  1013 ph s-1 cm-2 and 4  ×  1014 ph s-1 cm-2, which is comparable to a VUV synchrotron photon flux. Our first case study is the atmosphere of Titan and its N2-CH4 atmosphere. With this VUV source, the production of HCN and C2N2, two major Titan compounds, is detected, ensuring the suitability of the source for atmospheric photochemistry experiments.

  19. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong Chang, Hong-Young; An, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  20. Modeling laser produced plasmas with smoothed particle hydrodynamics for next generation advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holladay, Robert; Griffith, Alec; Murillo, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    A computational model has been developed to study the evolution of a plasma generated by next-generation advanced light sources such as SLAC's LCLS and LANL's proposed MaRIE. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to model the plasma evolution because of the ease with which it handles the open boundary conditions and large deformations associated with these experiments. Our work extends the basic SPH method by utilizing a two-fluid model of an electron-ion plasma that also incorporates time dependent ionization and recombination by allowing the SPH fluid particles to have an evolving mass based on the mean ionization state of the plasma. Additionally, inter-species heating, thermal conduction, and electric fields are also accounted for. The effects of various initial conditions and model parameters will be presented, with the goal of using this framework to develop a model that can be used in the design and interpretation of future experiments. This work was supported by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Computational Physics Workshop.

  1. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todorov, Todor; Ejnik, John W.; Guandalini, Gustavo S.; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry W.; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Centeno, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2 g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4–7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97–100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n = 10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans’ semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments.

  2. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Ejnik, John W; Guandalini, Gustavo; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Centeno, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4-7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97-100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n=10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans' semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Magnetic-Nozzle Studies for Fusion Propulsion Applications: Gigawatt Plasma Source Operation and Magnetic Nozzle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Mikekkides, Ioannis; Mikellides, Pavlos; Gregorek, Gerald; Marriott, Darin

    2004-01-01

    This project has been a multiyear effort to assess the feasibility of a key process inherent to virtually all fusion propulsion concepts: the expansion of a fusion-grade plasma through a diverging magnetic field. Current fusion energy research touches on this process only indirectly through studies of plasma divertors designed to remove the fusion products from a reactor. This project was aimed at directly addressing propulsion system issues, without the expense of constructing a fusion reactor. Instead, the program designed, constructed, and operated a facility suitable for simulating fusion reactor grade edge plasmas, and to examine their expansion in an expanding magnetic nozzle. The approach was to create and accelerate a dense (up to l0(exp 20)/m) plasma, stagnate it in a converging magnetic field to convert kinetic energy to thermal energy, and examine the subsequent expansion of the hot (100's eV) plasma in a subsequent magnetic nozzle. Throughout the project, there has been a parallel effort between theoretical and numerical design and modelling of the experiment and the experiment itself. In particular, the MACH2 code was used to design and predict the performance of the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) plasma accelerator, and to design and predict the design and expected behavior for the magnetic field coils that could be added later. Progress to date includes the theoretical accelerator design and construction, development of the power and vacuum systems to accommodate the powers and mass flow rates of interest to out research, operation of the accelerator and comparison to theoretical predictions, and computational analysis of future magnetic field coils and the expected performance of an integrated source-nozzle experiment.

  4. Microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ostman, Pekka; Marttila, Seppo J; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2004-11-15

    A novel microchip heated nebulizer for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Anisotropic wet etching is used to fabricate the flow channels, inlet, and nozzle on a silicon wafer. An integrated heater of aluminum is sputtered on a glass wafer. The two wafers are jointed by anodic bonding, creating a two-dimensional version of an APCI source with a sample channel in the middle and gas channels symmetrically on both sides. The ionization is initiated with an external corona-discharge needle positioned 2 mm in front of the microchip heated nebulizer. The microchip APCI source provides flow rates down to 50 nL/min, stable long-term analysis with chip lifetime of weeks, good quantitative repeatability (RSD < 10%) and linearity (r(2) > 0.995) with linear dynamic rage of at least 4 orders of magnitude, and cost-efficient manufacturing. The limit of detection (LOD) for acridine measured with microchip APCI at flow rate of 6.2 muL/min was 5 nM, corresponding to a mass flow of 0.52 fmol/s. The LOD with commercial macro-APCI at a flow rate of 1 mL/min for acridine was the same, 5 nM, corresponding to a significantly worse mass flow sensitivity (83 fmol/s) than measured with microchip APCI. The advantages of microchip APCI makes it a very attractive new microfluidic detector.

  5. Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-10-04

    Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

  6. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.; Downer, M. C.

    2015-02-01

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a0 ˜ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic "denting" of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75-200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (˜6 × 10-12) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements.

  7. Spatially resolved optical-emission spectroscopy of a radio-frequency driven iodine plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedrick, James; Doyle, Scott; Grondein, Pascaline; Aanesland, Ane

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is of interest for potential use as a propellant for spacecraft propulsion, and has become attractive as a replacement to xenon due to its similar mass and ionisation potential. Optical emission spectroscopy has been undertaken to characterise the emission from a low-pressure, radio-frequency driven inductively coupled plasma source operating in iodine with respect to axial distance across its transverse magnetic filter. The results are compared with axial profiles of the electron temperature and density for identical source conditions, and the spatial distribution of the emission intensity is observed to be closely correlated with the electron temperature. This work has been done within the LABEX Plas@Par project, and received financial state aid managed by the ``Agence Nationale de la Recherche'', as part of the ``Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir'' under the reference ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02.

  8. Diagnostics of reactive pulsed plasmas by UV and VUV absorption spectroscopy and by modulated beam Mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, Gilles

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed plasmas are promising for etching applications in the microelectronic industry. However, many new phenomena are involved when a high density discharge is pulsed. To better understand these processes it is necessary to probe the radicals' kinetics with a microsecond resolution. We have developed several diagnostics to reach this goal including broad band absorption spectroscopy with UV LEDs to detect small polyatomic radicals and with a deuterium VUV source to detect larger closed shell molecules and the modulated mass spectrometry to monitor atomic species. We will discuss the impact of the plasma pulsing frequency and duty cycle on the radical densities in Cl2 based plasmas, and the consequences on plasma processes. Work done in collaboration with Paul Bodart, Melisa Brihoum, Maxime Darnon, Erwin Pargon, Olivier Joubert, and Nader Sadeghi, CNRS/LTM.

  9. Research on the mechanism of multiple inductively coupled plasma source for large area processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jangjae; Kim, Sijun; Kim, Daewoong; Kim, Kwangki; Lee, Youngseok; You, Shinjae

    2016-09-01

    In the plasma processing, inductively coupled plasma having the high-density is often used for high productivity. In large area plasma processing, the plasma can be generated by using the multi-pole connected in parallel. However, in case of this, it is difficult for power to be transferred to plasma uniformly. To solve the problem, we studied the mechanism of inductively coupled plasma connected in parallel. By using the transformer model, the multiple ICP source is treated. We also studied about the change of the plasma parameters over the time through the power balance equation and particle balance equation. Corresponding author.

  10. Ablation plasma transport using multicusp magnetic field for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Umezawa, M.; Uchino, T.; Ikegami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, N.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a plasma guiding method using multicusp magnetic field to transport the ablation plasma keeping the density for developing laser ion sources. To investigate the effect of guiding using the magnetic field on the ablation plasma, we demonstrated the transport of the laser ablation plasma in the multicusp magnetic field. The magnetic field was formed with eight permanent magnets and arranged to limit the plasma expansion in the radial direction. We investigated the variation of the plasma ion current density and charge distribution during transport in the magnetic field. The results indicate that the plasma is confined in the radial direction during the transport in the multicusp magnetic field.

  11. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  12. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  13. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Koguchi, H. Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-02-15

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  14. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ˜3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  15. Computational modeling study of the radial line slot antenna microwave plasma source with comparisons to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Mahadevan, Shankar; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Yoshikawa, Jun

    2013-05-15

    The radial line slot antenna plasma source is a high-density microwave plasma source comprising a high electron temperature source region within the plasma skin depth from a coupling window and low electron temperature diffusion region far from the window. The plasma is typically comprised of inert gases like argon and mixtures of halogen or fluorocarbon gases for etching. Following the experimental study of Tian et al.[J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 1421 (2006)], a two-dimensional computational model is used to describe the essential features of the source. A high density argon plasma is described using the quasi-neutral approximation and coupled to a frequency-domain electromagnetic wave solver to describe the plasma-microwave interactions in the source. The plasma is described using a multispecies plasma chemistry mechanism developed specifically for microwave excitation conditions. The plasma is nonlocal by nature with locations of peak power deposition and peak plasma density being very different. The spatial distribution of microwave power coupling depends on whether the plasma is under- or over-dense and is described well by the model. The model predicts the experimentally observed low-order diffusion mode radial plasma profiles. The trends of spatial profiles of electron density and electron temperature over a wide range of power and pressure conditions compare well with experimental results.

  16. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhir, Dass Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-15

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  17. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  18. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  19. Ferroelectric plasma sources for NDCX-II and heavy ion drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, E. P.; Davidson, R. C.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Kwan, J. W.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.

    2014-01-01

    A barium titanate ferroelectric cylindrical plasma source has been developed, tested and delivered for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The plasma source design is based on the successful design of the NDCX-I plasma source. A 7 kV pulse applied across the 3.8 mm-thick ceramic cylinder wall produces a large polarization surface charge density that leads to breakdown and plasma formation. The plasma that fills the NDCX-II drift section upstream of the final-focusing solenoid has a plasma number density exceeding 1010 cm-3 and an electron temperature of several eV. The operating principle of the ferroelectric plasma source are reviewed and a detailed description of the installation plans is presented. The criteria for plasma sources with larger number density will be given, and concepts will be presented for plasma sources for driver applications. Plasma sources for drivers will need to be highly reliable, and operate at several Hz for millions of shots.

  20. 2MASS All Sky Catalog of point sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Skrutskie, M. F.; van Dyk, S.; Beichman, C. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Chester, T.; Cambresy, L.; Evans, T.; Fowler, J.; Gizis, J.; Howard, E.; Huchra, J.; Jarrett, T.; Kopan, E. L.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Light, R. M.; Marsh, K. A.; McCallon, H.; Schneider, S.; Stiening, R.; Sykes, M.; Weinberg, M.; Wheaton, W. A.; Wheelock, S.; Zacarias, N.

    2003-06-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) project is designed to close the gap between our current technical capability and our knowledge of the near-infrared sky. In addition to providing a context for the interpretation of results obtained at infrared and other wavelengths, 2MASS will provide direct answers to immediate questions on the large-scale structure of the Milky Way and the Local Universe. To achieve these goals, 2MASS is uniformly scanning the entire sky in three near-infrared bands to detect and characterize point sources brighter than about 1 mJy in each band, with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) greater than 10, using a pixel size of 2.0". This will achieve an 80,000-fold improvement in sensitivity relative to earlier surveys. 2MASS uses two new, highly-automated 1.3-m telescopes, one at Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and one at CTIO, Chile. Each telescope is equipped with a three-channel camera, each channel consisting of a 256x256 array of HgCdTe detectors, capable of observing the sky simultaneously at J (1.25 μm), H (1.65 μm), and Ks (2.17 μm), to a 3σ limiting sensitivity of 17.1, 16.4 and 15.3mag in the three bands. The 2MASS arrays image the sky while the telescopes scan smoothly in declination at a rate of ~1' per second. The 2MASS data "tiles" are 6 deg. long in the declination direction and one camera frame (8.5') wide. The camera field-of-view shifts by ~1/6 of a frame in declination from frame-to-frame. The camera images each point on the sky six times for a total integration time of 7.8 s, with sub-pixel "dithering", which improves the ultimate spatial resolution of the final Atlas Images. The University of Massachusetts (UMass) is responsible for the overall management of the project, and for developing the infrared cameras and on-site computing systems at both facilities. The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) is responsible for all data processing through the Production Pipeline, and construction and distribution of the data products. The 2

  1. XID II: STATISTICAL CROSS-ASSOCIATION OF ROSAT BRIGHT SOURCE CATALOG X-RAY SOURCES WITH 2MASS POINT SOURCE CATALOG NEAR-INFRARED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; Rutledge, Robert E. E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca

    2009-09-01

    The 18,806 ROSAT All Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) X-ray sources are quantitatively cross-associated with near-infrared (NIR) sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS/PSC). An association catalog is presented, listing the most likely counterpart for each RASS/BSC source, the probability P {sub id} that the NIR source and X-ray source are uniquely associated, and the probability P {sub no-id} that none of the 2MASS/PSC sources are associated with the X-ray source. The catalog includes 3853 high quality (P {sub id}>0.98) X-ray-NIR matches, 2280 medium quality (0.98 {>=} P {sub id}>0.9) matches, and 4153 low quality (0.9 {>=} P {sub id}>0.5) matches. Of the high quality matches, 1418 are associations that are not listed in the SIMBAD database, and for which no high quality match with a USNO-A2 optical source was presented for the RASS/BSC source in previous work. The present work offers a significant number of new associations with RASS/BSC objects that will require optical/NIR spectroscopy for classification. For example, of the 6133 P {sub id}>0.9 2MASS/PSC counterparts presented in the association catalog, 2411 have no classification listed in the SIMBAD database. These 2MASS/PSC sources will likely include scientifically useful examples of known source classes of X-ray emitters (white dwarfs, coronally active stars, active galactic nuclei), but may also contain previously unknown source classes. It is determined that all coronally active stars in the RASS/BSC should have a counterpart in the 2MASS/PSC, and that the unique association of these RASS/BSC sources with their NIR counterparts thus is confusion limited.

  2. Importance of sample form and surface temperature for analysis by ambient plasma mass spectrometry (PADI).

    PubMed

    Salter, Tara La Roche; Bunch, Josephine; Gilmore, Ian S

    2014-09-16

    Many different types of samples have been analyzed in the literature using plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry sources; however, comprehensive studies of the important parameters for analysis are only just beginning. Here, we investigate the effect of the sample form and surface temperature on the signal intensities in plasma-assisted desorption ionization (PADI). The form of the sample is very important, with powders of all volatilities effectively analyzed. However, for the analysis of thin films at room temperature and using a low plasma power, a vapor pressure of greater than 10(-4) Pa is required to achieve a sufficiently good quality spectrum. Using thermal desorption, we are able to increase the signal intensity of less volatile materials with vapor pressures less than 10(-4) Pa, in thin film form, by between 4 and 7 orders of magnitude. This is achieved by increasing the temperature of the sample up to a maximum of 200 °C. Thermal desorption can also increase the signal intensity for the analysis of powders.

  3. Mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Limits to the mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates of ions in the Io plasma torus have been calculated on the assumption that observed optical emissions are controlled by electron-ion collisions. Calculations of the yield of emission from the vicinity of Io limit the mass-loading rate to the order of 10 to the 27th per s for S II or O II, on the grounds that electron-excited emissions associated with the location of Io have not been observed in the optical spectrum. This mass-loading limit is dependent on the assumptions that Io is the source of torus particles and that most of the neutral atoms are converted to ions within 1 R(J) of Io. According to the calculations presented below, the observed partitioning of sulfur ion species in the hot torus at the time of Voyager 1 encounter indicates that the diffusion-loss time of the ions is of the order of 1/D = 100 days. The two results limiting the mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates are compatible and suggest that the energy required to maintain the observed radiated power cannot be supplied by acceleration of ions formed at Io in Jupiter's rotating magnetic field.

  4. Mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Limits to the mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates of ions in the Io plasma torus have been calculated on the assumption that observed optical emissions are controlled by electron-ion collisions. Calculations of the yield of emission from the vicinity of Io limit the mass-loading rate to the order of 10 to the 27th per s for S II or O II, on the grounds that electron-excited emissions associated with the location of Io have not been observed in the optical spectrum. This mass-loading limit is dependent on the assumptions that Io is the source of torus particles and that most of the neutral atoms are converted to ions within 1 R(J) of Io. According to the calculations presented below, the observed partitioning of sulfur ion species in the hot torus at the time of Voyager 1 encounter indicates that the diffusion-loss time of the ions is of the order of 1/D = 100 days. The two results limiting the mass-loading and diffusion-loss rates are compatible and suggest that the energy required to maintain the observed radiated power cannot be supplied by acceleration of ions formed at Io in Jupiter's rotating magnetic field.

  5. Method of high-precision microsampled blood and plasma mass densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of the mechanical oscillator technique for blood and plasma density measurements on samples of volumes less than 0.1 ml is examined, and a precision of 0.001 g/l is found if plasma-isodensic heparin solution and siliconized densitometers are employed. Sources of measurement errors in the density determinations include storage of plasma samples, inhomogeneity of blood samples, and density reading before adequate temperature equilibration. In tests of plasma sample storage, the best reproducibility was obtained with samples kept at 4 C. Linear correlations were found between plasma density and plasma protein concentration, blood density and blood hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte density and MCHC.

  6. Method of high-precision microsampled blood and plasma mass densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of the mechanical oscillator technique for blood and plasma density measurements on samples of volumes less than 0.1 ml is examined, and a precision of 0.001 g/l is found if plasma-isodensic heparin solution and siliconized densitometers are employed. Sources of measurement errors in the density determinations include storage of plasma samples, inhomogeneity of blood samples, and density reading before adequate temperature equilibration. In tests of plasma sample storage, the best reproducibility was obtained with samples kept at 4 C. Linear correlations were found between plasma density and plasma protein concentration, blood density and blood hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte density and MCHC.

  7. Chromatographic behavior of selenoproteins in rat serum detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Hatakeyama, Yoshiko; Tokumoto, Maki; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-01-01

    Two major selenoproteins are present in mammalian serum: extracellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx) and selenoprotein P (Sel P). The chromatographic behaviors of the two serum selenoproteins were compared in four rodent species, and the selenoproteins in rat serum were identified by measuring enzyme activity and Western blotting. The selenoproteins in rat serum showed a specific chromatographic behavior. In particular, rat eGPx was eluted faster than eGPxs of the other rodent species, although the amino-acid sequences of the rodent species were identical. The elution profiles of Se in rat serum obtained by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS-MS) and ICP-MS were compared. The tandem quadrupoles and the O₂ reaction/collision gas completely removed severe interferences with the Se speciation originating from the plasma source and the biological sample matrix. ICP-MS-MS under the O₂ mass shift mode gave us more accurate abundance ratios of Se than ICP-MS.

  8. Method for analyzing the mass of a sample using a cold cathode ionization source mass filter

    DOEpatents

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2003-10-14

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  9. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration. [magnetohydrodynamics, plasma power sources and plasma propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Terminal voltage measurements with various cathodes and anodes in a high power, quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) are discussed. The magnitude of the current at the onset of voltage fluctuations is shown to be an increasing function of cathode area and a weaker decreasing function of anode area. Tests with a fluted cathode indicated that the fluctuations originate in the plasma adjacent to the cathode rather than at the cathode surface. Measurements of radiative output from an optical cavity aligned to examine the current-carrying portion of a two-dimensional, 56 kA magnetoplasmadynamic discharge reveal no lasing in that region, consistent with calculations of electron excitation and resonance radiation trapping. A voltage-swept double probe technique allows single-shot determination of electron temperature and electron number density in the recombining MPD exhaust flow. Current distributions within the cavity of MPD hollow cathodes for various static prefills with no injected mass flow are examined.

  10. The effects of added hydrogen on a helium atmospheric-pressure plasma jet ambient desorption/ionization source.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan P; Heywood, Matthew S; Thurston, Glen K; Farnsworth, Paul B

    2013-03-01

    We present mass spectrometric data demonstrating the effect that hydrogen has on a helium-based dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) atmospheric-pressure plasma jet used as an ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source. The addition of 0.9 % hydrogen to the helium support gas in a 35-W plasma jet increased signals for a range of test analytes, with enhancement factors of up to 68, without proportional increases in background levels. The changes in signal levels result from a combination of changes in the desorption kinetics from the surface and increased ion production in the gas phase. The enhancement in ADI-MS performance despite the quenching of key plasma species reported in earlier studies suggests that ionization with a H2/He plasma jet is the result of an alternate mechanism involving the direct generation of ionized hydrogen.

  11. Improvement of a plasma uniformity of the 2nd ion source of KSTAR neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H. Kim, T. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    The 2nd ion source of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) had been developed and operated since last year. A calorimetric analysis revealed that the heat load of the back plate of the ion source is relatively higher than that of the 1st ion source of KSTAR NBI. The spatial plasma uniformity of the ion source is not good. Therefore, we intended to identify factors affecting the uniformity of a plasma density and improve it. We estimated the effects of a direction of filament current and a magnetic field configuration of the plasma generator on the plasma uniformity. We also verified that the operation conditions of an ion source could change a uniformity of the plasma density of an ion source.

  12. Optimizing a microwave gas ion source for continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    von Reden, K F; Roberts, M L; Burton, J R; Beaupré, S R

    2012-02-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source coupled with a magnesium charge exchange canal (C × C) has been successfully adapted to a large acceptance radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry system at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Facility, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. CO(2) samples from various preparation sources are injected into the source through a glass capillary at 370 μl∕min. Routine system parameters are about 120-140 μA of negative (12)C current after the C × C, leading to about 400 (14)C counts per second for a modern sample and implying a system efficiency of 0.2%. While these parameters already allow us to perform high-quality AMS analyses on large samples, we are working on ways to improve the output of the ion source regarding emittance and efficiency. Modeling calculations suggest modifications in the extraction triode geometry, shape, and size of the plasma chamber could improve emittance and, hence, ion transport efficiency. Results of experimental tests of these modifications are presented.

  13. Development challenges for Low Temperature Plasma Sources ``from Idea to Prototype''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, T.; Baudler, J.-S.; Horn, S.; Schmidt, M.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2015-09-01

    While plasma medicine is a well-motivated and intensively investigated topic, the requirements on the plasma sources change for individual applications. For example in dermatology, a large scale treatment is favored, while in dentistry, a localized application of plasma sources is required. Meanwhile, plasma source development is based on feasibility and not on the application. When a source is developed, it is usually motivated towards an application instead of considering an application and designing a plasma source to fit its needs. Each approach has its advantage and can lead to an advance in the field. With this contribution, we will present an approach from idea to prototype and show challenges in the plasma source development. For example, the consideration of legal regulations, adaption of the plasma source for a specific field of application and the interplay of gas flow dynamics with electrical field distribution. The solution was developed within several iterations to optimize it for different requirements. The obstacles that occurred during the development process will be highlighted and discussed. Afterwards the final source is characterized for a potential medical application and compared directly with a plasma source certified as a medical product. Acknowledging grants: AU 11 038; ESF/IV-BM-B35-0010/13.

  14. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma: Sources and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napartovich, A. P.

    2008-07-01

    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure is an inherently unstable object. Nature of discharge plasma instabilities and conditions for observation of uniform non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure in different environments will be discussed. Various discharge techniques have been developed, which could support uniform non-thermal plasma with parameters varied in a wide range. Time limitation by plasma instabilities can be overcome by shortening pulse length or by restriction of plasma plug residence time with a fast gas flow. Discharge instabilities leading to formation of filaments or sparks are provoked by a positive feedback between the electric field and plasma density, while the counteracting process is plasma and thermal diffusion. With gas pressure growth the size of plasma fluctuation, which could be stabilized by diffusion, diminishes. As a result, to have long lived uniform plasma one should miniaturize discharge. There exist a number of active methods to organize negative feedback between the electric field and plasma density in order to suppress or, at least, delay the instability. Among them are ballast resistors in combination with electrode sectioning, reactive ballast, electronic feedback, and dielectric barrier across the electric current. The last methods are relevant for ac discharges. In the lecture an overview will be given of different discharge techniques scalable in pressure up to one atmosphere. The interest in this topic is dictated by a potential economic benefit from numerous non-thermal plasma technologies. The spectrum of non-thermal plasma applications is continuously broadening. An incomplete list of known applications includes: plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition, etching, polymerization, gas-phase synthesis, protective coating deposition, toxic and harmful gas decomposition, destruction of warfare agents, electromagnetic wave shielding, polymer surface modifications, gas laser excitation, odor control, plasma assisted

  15. Transport modeling of the ORNL high intensity linear RF plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, L. W.; Peng, Y. K. M.; Canik, J. M.; Goulding, R. H.; Bonnin, X.

    2010-11-01

    Recent progress in the electrode-less helicon hydrogenic plasma sourceootnotetextR.H. Goulding, et al., Proc. 18th Conf on RF Power in Plasmas, Gent, Belgium, June, 2009. have motivated the development at ORNL of an RF-plasma source that magnetically links a helicon to a mirror cell in which the plasma is heated by EBW, ICH and whistler waves. The <4m long plasma column further includes a parallel transport region connected to a pumped target plate. Such a source is modeled at three levels using: a two-point model, a 1D-parallel Braginski's fluid model in which the plasma sources/sinks are computed using the kinetic Monte Carlo neutrals code DEGAS, and the 2D SOLPS code. The required source plasma parameters to achieve certain target plasma parameters, particularly at high plasma heat and particle fluxes, are found to be sensitive to the plasma and neutrals parameters in the helicon and RF mirror cells, the effective heating via various RF techniques, the plasma and neutrals boundary conditions at the target plates and around the RF-plasma heating zones, and the pumped reservoirs with partial backflow of thermal molecules. New results of this investigation will be reported.

  16. Analysis of plasma distribution near the extraction region in surface produced negative ion sources.

    PubMed

    Fukano, A; Hatayama, A

    2014-02-01

    In study of a negative ion source, it is important to understand the plasma characteristics near the extraction region. A recent experiment in the NIFS-R&D ion source has suggested that a "double ion plasma layer" which is a region consisting of hydrogen positive and negative ions exists near the plasma grid (PG). Density distribution of plasma near the extraction region is studied analytically. It is shown that the density distribution depends on an amount of the surface produced negative ions and the double ion plasma layer is formed near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production.

  17. A membrane-separator interface for mass-spectrometric analysis of blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Gerasimov, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of rapid mass-spectrometric determination of the content of anesthetic agents in blood plasma with the aid of a membrane-separator interface. The interface employs a hydrophobic selective membrane that is capable of separating various anesthetic drugs (including inhalation anesthetic sevofluran, noninhalation anesthetic thiopental, hypnotic propofol, and opioid analgesic fentanyl) from the blood plasma and introducing samples into a mass spectrometer. Analysis of the blood plasma was not accompanied by the memory effect and did not lead to membrane degradation. Results of clinical investigation of the concentration of anesthetics in the blood plasma of patients are presented.

  18. VUV Emission of Microwave Driven Argon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, Julio; Espinho, Susana; Felizardo, Edgar; Tatarova, Elena; Dias, Francisco; Ferreira, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    An experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of a low-pressure (0.1-1.2 mbar), surface wave (2.45 GHz) induced Ar plasma as a source vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light is presented, using visible and VUV optical spectroscopy. The electron density and the relative VUV emission intensities of excited Ar atoms (at 104.8 nm and 106.6 nm) and ions (at 92.0 nm and 93.2 nm) were determined as a function of the microwave power and pressure. The experimental results were analyzed using a 2D self-consistent theoretical model based on a set of coupled equations including the electron Boltzmann equation, the rate balance equations for the most important electronic excited species and for charged particles, the gas thermal balance equation, and the wave electrodynamics. The principal collisional and radiative processes for neutral Ar(3p54s) and Ar(3p54p) and ionized Ar(3s3p6 2S1/2) levels are accounted for. Model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. This study was funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology, Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science, under the research contract PTDC/FIS/108411/2008.

  19. Operations manual for the plasma source ion implantation economics program

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeault, M.L.; Thayer, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a surface modification technique for metal. PSIICOSTMODEL95 is an EXCEL-based program that estimates the cost for implementing a PSII system in a manufacturing setting where the number of parts to be processed is over 5,000 parts per day and the shape of each part does not change from day to day. Overall, the manufacturing process must be very well defined and should not change. This document is a self-contained manual for PSIICOSTMODEL95. It assumes the reader has some general knowledge of the technical requirements for PSII. Configuration of the PSII process versus design is used as the methodology in PSIICOSTMODEL95. The reason behind this is twofold. First, the design process cannot be programmed into a computer when the relationships between design variables are not understood. Second, the configuration methodology reduces the number of assumptions that must be programmed into our software. Misuse of results are less likely to occur if the user has fewer assumptions to understand.

  20. Mission Enabling: The Plasma Sources of Electric Propulsion---challenges and prospects for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John

    2011-10-01

    Plasma propulsion has literally been mission enabling for a wide array of space applications ranging from satellite operational lifetime extension to multi-destination voyages to the asteroids. The success of plasma propulsion, otherwise known as electric propulsion, in many respects is owed to the development of clever plasma sources that bolster both high efficiency and long life. Incidentally, these attributes are also coveted in the broad area of plasma processing and manufacturing and thus are of general applicability from a technological standpoint. Indeed, there is significant cross-fertilization and application of such plasma sources not only in plasma processing but also in fusion as well. Here, a sampling of the plasma sources that enable the practical application of electric propulsion devices will be discussed with commentary on discharge physics, implementation, and technical challenges levied by mission requirements. Authors acknowlege the support of NASA in this work.

  1. Mass changes of microparticles in a plasma observed by a phase-resolved resonance method

    SciTech Connect

    Carstensen, Jan; Jung, Hendrik; Greiner, Franko; Piel, Alexander

    2011-03-15

    The influence of a plasma environment on melamine formaldehyde particles is studied. High-precision measurements of the vertical confinement frequency with a phase-resolved resonance method indicate that the particle mass is affected in two ways: the deposition of sputtered material at the particle leads to a mass gain, whereas the outgassing of water causes a mass loss.

  2. Modulating effects of the low-frequency source on ion energy distributions in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiaosong; Bi Zhenhua; Chang Dalei; Li Zhicheng; Wang Shuai; Xu Xiang; Xu Yong; Lu Wenqi; Zhu Aimin; Wang Younian

    2008-07-21

    With the energy resolved quadrupole mass spectrometer and hybrid simulation, the influence of low-frequency (LF) source parameters on the ion energy distributions (IEDs) of argon ions impinging on the grounded electrode was studied, both experimentally and numerically, in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma. It was shown that for decreasing LF or increasing LF power, the high energy peak in IEDs shifts toward the high energy region significantly. The simulation results were in general agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Multifluid MHD simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere: Dynamics of mass- and momentum-loading, and seasonal variation of the plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.; Arridge, C. S.; Jackman, C. M.; Smith, H. T.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's magnetosphere is driven externally, by the solar wind, and internally, by the planet's strong magnetic field, rapid rotation rate, and the addition of new plasma created from Saturn's neutral cloud. Externally, the alignment of the rotational and magnetic dipole axes, combined with Saturn's substantial inclination to its plane of orbit result in substantial curvature of the plasma sheet during solstice. Internally, new water group ions are produced in the inner regions of the magnetosphere from photoionization and electron-impact ionization of the water vapor and OH cloud sourced from Enceladus and other icy bodies in Saturn's planetary system. In addition to this, charge-exchange collisions between the relatively fast-moving water group ions and the slower neutrals results in a net loss of momentum from the plasma. In order to study these phenomena, we have made significant modifications to the Saturn multifluid model. This model has been previously used to investigate the external triggering of plasmoids and the interchange process using a fixed internal source rate. In order to improve the fidelity of the model, we have incorporated a physical source of mass- and momentum-loading by including an empirical representation of Saturn's neutral cloud and modifying the multifluid MHD equations to include mass- and momentum-loading terms. Collision cross-sections between ions, electrons, and neutrals are calculated as functions of closure velocity and energy at each grid point and time step, enabling us to simulate the spatially and temporally varying plasma-neutral interactions. In addition to this, by altering the angle of incidence of the solar wind relative to Saturn's rotational axis and applying a realistic latitudinally- and seasonally-varying ionospheric conductivity, we are also able to study seasonal effects on Saturn's magnetosphere. We use the updated multifluid simulation to investigate the dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere, focusing specifically

  4. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-02-15

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a{sub 0} ∼ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (∼6 × 10{sup −12}) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements.

  5. [Automatic adjustment control system for DC glow discharge plasma source].

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Yong-qing; Li, Xiao-jia; Wang, Hai-zhou; Shi, Ning

    2011-03-01

    There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

  6. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  7. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-08

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high j{sub H{sup −}}, low j{sub e}) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H{sup −}, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H{sup −} density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa)

  8. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high jH-, low je) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H-, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H- density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa).

  9. Improved Mass Spectrometry Assay For Plasma Hepcidin: Detection and Characterization of a Novel Hepcidin Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Wiegerinck, Erwin T.; Klaver, Siem; Kolodziejczyk, Maria; Gille, Hendrik; Hohlbaum, Andreas M.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays for the quantification of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin are pivotal to discriminate between the bioactive 25-amino acid form that can effectively block the sole iron transporter ferroportin and other naturally occurring smaller isoforms without a known role in iron metabolism. Here we describe the design, validation and use of a novel stable hepcidin-25+40 isotope as internal standard for quantification. Importantly, the relative large mass shift of 40 Da makes this isotope also suitable for easy-to-use medium resolution linear time-of-flight (TOF) platforms. As expected, implementation of hepcidin-25+40 as internal standard in our weak cation exchange (WCX) TOF MS method yielded very low inter/intra run coefficients of variation. Surprisingly, however, in samples from kidney disease patients, we detected a novel peak (m/z 2673.9) with low intensity that could be identified as hepcidin-24 and had previously remained unnoticed due to peak interference with the formerly used internal standard. Using a cell-based bioassay it was shown that synthetic hepcidin-24 was, like the -22 and -20 isoforms, a significantly less potent inducer of ferroportin degradation than hepcidin-25. During prolonged storage of plasma at room temperature, we observed that a decrease in plasma hepcidin-25 was paralleled by an increase in the levels of the hepcidin-24, -22 and -20 isoforms. This provides first evidence that all determinants for the conversion of hepcidin-25 to smaller inactive isoforms are present in the circulation, which may contribute to the functional suppression of hepcidin-25, that is significantly elevated in patients with renal impairment. The present update of our hepcidin TOF MS assay together with improved insights in the source and preparation of the internal standard, and sample stability will further improve our understanding of circulating hepcidin and pave the way towards further optimization and standardization of

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers as selective adsorbents for ambient plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2017-05-01

    The application of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as molecular scavengers for ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry has been reported for the first time. MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer; nicotine, propyphenazone, or methylparaben as templates; ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker; and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as polymerization initiator. To perform ambient plasma ionization experiments, a setup consisting of the heated crucible, a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) plasma ion source, and a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer has been used. The heated crucible with programmable temperature allows for desorption of the analytes from MIPs structure which results in their direct introduction into the ion stream. Limits of detection, linearity of the proposed analytical procedure, and selectivities have been determined for three analytes: nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben. The analytes used were chosen from various classes of organic compounds to show the feasibility of the analytical procedure. The limits of detections (LODs) were 10 nM, 10, and 0.5 μM for nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben, respectively. In comparison with the measurements performed for the non-imprinted polymers, the values of LODs were improved for at least one order of magnitude due to preconcentration of the sample and reduction of background noise, contributing to signal suppression. The described procedure has shown linearity in a broad range of concentrations. The overall time of single analysis is short and requires ca. 5 min. The developed technique was applied for the determination of nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben in spiked real-life samples, with recovery of 94.6-98.4%. The proposed method is rapid, sensitive, and accurate which provides a new option for the detection of small organic compounds in various samples. Graphical abstract The experimental setup used for analysis.

  11. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, A.

    1992-09-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  12. Roles of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-08

    The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative ion current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the hydrogen atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative ions near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment.

  13. Plasma ignition schemes for the SNS radio-frequency driven H- source

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.; Staples, J.W.; Thomae, W.; Reijonen, J.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Keller, R.

    2001-09-06

    The H{sup -} ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a cesiated, radio-frequency driven (2 MHz) multicusp volume source which operates at a duty cycle of 6% (1 ms pulses and 60 Hz). In pulsed RF driven plasma sources, ignition of the plasma affects the stability of source operation and the antenna lifetime. We are reporting on investigations of different ignition schemes, based on secondary electron generation in the plasma chamber by UV light, a hot filament, a low power RF plasma (cw, 13.56 MHz), as well as source operation solely with the high power (40 kW) 2 MHz RF. We find that the dual frequency, single antenna scheme is most attractive for the operating conditions of the SNS H{sup -} source.

  14. Studies for the Europagenic Plasma Source in Jupiter's Inner Magnetosphere during the Galileo Europa Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Progress in research to understand the three-dimensional nature of the Europagenic plasma torus is summarized. Efforts to improve the plasma torus description near Europa's orbit have included a better understanding of Europa's orbit and an improved description of the planetary magnetic field. New plasma torus chemistry for molecular and atomic species has been introduced and implemented in Europa neutral cloud models. Preliminary three-dimensional model calculations for Europa's neutral clouds and their plasma sources are presented.

  15. Inductively Coupled Plasma: Fundamental Particle Investigations with Laser Ablation and Applications in Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Saetveit, Nathan Joe

    2008-01-01

    Particle size effects and elemental fractionation in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are investigated with nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation, differential mobility analysis, and magnetic sector ICP-MS. Laser pulse width was found to have a significant influence on the LA particle size distribution and the elemental composition of the aerosol and thus fractionation. Emission from individual particles from solution nebulization, glass, and a pressed powder pellet are observed with high speed digital photography. The presence of intact particles in an ICP is shown to be a likely source of fractionation. A technique for the online detection of stimulated elemental release from neural tissue using magnetic sector ICP-MS is described. Detection limits of 1 μg L-1 or better were found for P, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in a 60 μL injection in a physiological saline matrix.

  16. Mass constraints on the eruptive plasma in X-ray and EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Reeves, K. K.; Moon, Y.; Kim, K.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate several eruptive hot plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light CME features are visible in some events. Using those observations, we determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasma by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma. In some events, the associated prominence eruptions and eruptive plasma were observed in EUV observations as absorption or emission features. The absorption feature provides the lower limit to the cold mass while the emission feature provides the upper limit to the mass of observed eruptive plasma in X-ray and EUV passbands. In addition, some events were observed in a few passbands in X-rays, which allows the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We compare the mass constraints for each temperature response and find that the mass in EUV and XRT are smaller in their upper or lower limit than total mass in coronagraph. About half eruptive events in XRT have no corresponding CME, which may be due to failed eruptions or low plasma density.

  17. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.

    1991-05-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time. 10 figures.

  18. Studies on Mixed-Gas Plasmas and Segmented Flow Injection for Use with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Jane Mary

    In this thesis, mixed gas plasmas and flow injection into air bubbles were investigated for use with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in order to improve the technique's analytical capabilities. The mixed gas plasmas were created in two different ways: (i) by adding another gas, either argon, nitrogen, or hydrogen, to the nebulizer gas flow using a sheathing device or (ii) by adding nitrogen to the plasma gas flow. The introduction of each sheathing gas led to degraded analyte sensitivity but generally improved plasma stability, resulting in improved detection limits for a few elements. Introduction of nitrogen into the plasma gas, under the same operating conditions used for an all-argon plasma, resulted in degraded sensitivity but improved signal-to-noise and signal-to-background ratios for Cr, Fe, and Se. The tolerance of ICP-MS to effects caused by the concomitant elements Na and K was improved by addition of nitrogen to the plasma gas flow. Flow injection using a segmented air/water carrier resulted in improved precision, sensitivity, and detection limits compared to those obtained using an all-water carrier. The enhancement in sensitivity was found to be mass dependent and was attributable to more than simply a reduction in dispersion. Under optimized operating conditions, using segmented flow injection resulted in similar or improved detection limits for all analytes except Se when compared to those obtained using continuous nebulization. Changing the gas used to segment the carrier stream did not result in appreciable changes in analyte signals or positions of maximum ionization within the plasma, indicating that the fundamental properties of the plasma did not change. The tolerance of ICP-MS to effects caused by the concomitant elements Na and Ca was not improved by using a segmented carrier compared to that experienced using an all-water carrier.

  19. Effect of source tuning parameters on the plasma potential of heavy ions in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G; Baskaran, R; Kukrety, S; Mathur, Y; Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2012-03-01

    Plasma potentials for various heavy ions have been measured using the retarding field technique in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting ECR ion source, PKDELIS [C. Bieth, S. Kantas, P. Sortais, D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, S. Milward, S. Harrison, and R. McMahon, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 235, 498 (2005); D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, P. Kumar, A. Mandal, A. Roy, C. Bieth, S. Kantas, and P. Sortais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A317 (2006)]. The ion beam extracted from the source is decelerated close to the location of a mesh which is polarized to the source potential and beams having different plasma potentials are measured on a Faraday cup located downstream of the mesh. The influence of various source parameters, viz., RF power, gas pressure, magnetic field, negative dc bias, and gas mixing on the plasma potential is studied. The study helped to find an upper limit of the energy spread of the heavy ions, which can influence the design of the longitudinal optics of the high current injector being developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre. It is observed that the plasma potentials are decreasing for increasing charge states and a mass effect is clearly observed for the ions with similar operating gas pressures. In the case of gas mixing, it is observed that the plasma potential minimizes at an optimum value of the gas pressure of the mixing gas and the mean charge state maximizes at this value. Details of the measurements carried out as a function of various source parameters and its impact on the longitudinal optics are presented.

  20. Effect of source tuning parameters on the plasma potential of heavy ions in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, G.; Baskaran, R.; Kukrety, S.; Mathur, Y.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2012-03-01

    Plasma potentials for various heavy ions have been measured using the retarding field technique in the 18 GHz high temperature superconducting ECR ion source, PKDELIS [C. Bieth, S. Kantas, P. Sortais, D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, S. Milward, S. Harrison, and R. McMahon, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 235, 498 (2005), 10.1016/j.nimb.2005.03.232; D. Kanjilal, G. Rodrigues, P. Kumar, A. Mandal, A. Roy, C. Bieth, S. Kantas, and P. Sortais, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03A317 (2006), 10.1063/1.2164887]. The ion beam extracted from the source is decelerated close to the location of a mesh which is polarized to the source potential and beams having different plasma potentials are measured on a Faraday cup located downstream of the mesh. The influence of various source parameters, viz., RF power, gas pressure, magnetic field, negative dc bias, and gas mixing on the plasma potential is studied. The study helped to find an upper limit of the energy spread of the heavy ions, which can influence the design of the longitudinal optics of the high current injector being developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre. It is observed that the plasma potentials are decreasing for increasing charge states and a mass effect is clearly observed for the ions with similar operating gas pressures. In the case of gas mixing, it is observed that the plasma potential minimizes at an optimum value of the gas pressure of the mixing gas and the mean charge state maximizes at this value. Details of the measurements carried out as a function of various source parameters and its impact on the longitudinal optics are presented.