Special issue on transient plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, James; Hoarty, David; Mancini, Roberto; Yoneda, Hitoki
2015-11-01
This special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is dedicated to the "spectroscopy of transient plasmas" covering plasma conditions produced by a range of pulsed laboratory sources including short and long pulse lasers, pulsed power devices, and free electron lasers (FELs). The full range of plasma spectroscopy up to high energy bremsstrahlung radiation, including line broadening analysis for application to data recorded with the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, is covered. This issue is timely as advances in optical lasers and x-ray FELs (XFEL) are enabling transient plasma to be probed at higher energies and shorter durations than ever before. New XFEL facilities being commissioned in Europe and Asia are adding to those operating in the US and Japan and the ELI high power laser project in Europe, due to open this year, will provide short pulse lasers of unprecedented power. This special issue represents a snapshot of the theoretical and experimental research in dense plasmas, electron kinetics, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas, inertial confinement fusion and non-equilibrium atomic physics using spectroscopy to diagnose plasmas produced by optical lasers, XFELs and pulsed-power machines.
EDITORIAL: Special issue on plasmas with liquids Special issue on plasmas with liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leys, C.; Locke, B. R.; Tachibana, K.
2011-06-01
In recent years, plasmas generated in and with liquids have attracted considerable interest because of their great potential for applications in various fields such as industrial, environmental and biomedical technologies. Special sessions on plasmas with liquids have been arranged in many large-scale international conferences, but few special meetings devoted only to these topics have been held. Therefore, we organized the International Workshop on Plasmas with Liquids (IWPL) in March 2010 in Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan. Although it was a small workshop with about 90 participants from nine countries, 54 papers were presented within a period of three days. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we organized publication of a special issue on plasmas with liquids. Invited lecturers and selected presenters from the IWPL were invited to submit original peer-reviewed articles based on their presentations for this special issue. In order to expand the coverage of this topic, a call for papers was also announced broadly for non-participants of IWPL who also work in this field. In this special issue we have collected original papers related to the fundamental science of discharge phenomena in and with liquids, and to the resulting technological applications. Emphasis is placed on research into our understanding the physical, chemical and biological processes in discharges interacting with liquids. However, some papers with a focus on the potential applications of discharges in liquids are also included. The papers published in this special issue cover the frontiers of this new and growing field of plasma science and technology, and may encourage further advances in both fundamental research and application. We acknowledge the authors for their contributions.
Specialized minimal PDFs for optimized LHC calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan
2016-04-01
We present a methodology for the construction of parton distribution functions (PDFs) designed to provide an accurate representation of PDF uncertainties for specific processes or classes of processes with a minimal number of PDF error sets: specialized minimal PDF sets, or SM-PDFs. We construct these SM-PDFs in such a way that sets corresponding to different input processes can be combined without losing information, specifically as regards their correlations, and that they are robust upon smooth variations of the kinematic cuts. The proposed strategy never discards information, so that the SM-PDF sets can be enlarged by the addition of new processes, until the prior PDF set is eventually recovered for a large enough set of processes. We illustrate the method by producing SM-PDFs tailored to Higgs, top-quark pair, and electroweak gauge boson physics, and we determine that, when the PDF4LHC15 combined set is used as the prior, around 11, 4, and 11 Hessian eigenvectors, respectively, are enough to fully describe the corresponding processes.
Quantum states of confined hydrogen plasma species: Monte Carlo calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micca Longo, G.; Longo, S.; Giordano, D.
2015-12-01
The diffusion Monte Carlo method with symmetry-based state selection is used to calculate the quantum energy states of \\text{H}2+ confined into potential barriers of atomic dimensions (a model for these ions in solids). Special solutions are employed, permitting one to obtain satisfactory results with rather simple native code. As a test case, {{}2}{{\\Pi}u} and {{}2}{{\\Pi}g} states of \\text{H}2+ ions under spherical confinement are considered. The results are interpreted using the correlation of \\text{H}2+ states to atomic orbitals of H atoms lying on the confining surface and perturbation calculations. The method is straightforwardly applied to cavities of any shape and different hydrogen plasma species (at least one-electron ones, including H) for future studies with real crystal symmetries.
Calculation of Electromagnetic Quasistatic Plasma Waves*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooley, J.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Mori, W.
2001-10-01
Plasma based particle acceleration requires the generation of plasma wave wakes which maintain their coherence over long distances. For example in Laser Wake Field Acceleration (LWFA) schemes the laser pulse must propagate tens of centimeters, which coresponds to many Rayleigh lengths, and in Plasma Wake Field Acceleration (PWFA) the particle beam must be propagated many meters. These wakes, and their effect on the driver (Laser or particle beam) can be simulated efficiently in the quasistatic approximation [1]. In this approximation the driver does not evolve during the time a plasma electron spends in the driver. We discuss here various numerical algorithms for determining the full electromagnetic wake in this case. The problem is complicated in that the particle trajectories and wake fields must be determined iteratively when the wake becomes electromagnetic. The effect of different choices for the gauge will be presented. [1] "Kinetic Modeling of Intense, Short Laser Pulses Propagating in Tenuous Plasma", P. Mora and T. M. Antonsen Jr., Phys Plasma 4, 217 (1997) *Work supported by NSF and DOE
The calculation of thermophysical properties of nickel plasma
Apfelbaum, E. M.
2015-09-15
The thermophysical properties of Nickel plasma have been calculated for the temperatures 10–60 kK and densities less than 1 g/cm{sup 3}. These properties are the pressure, internal energy, heat capacity, and the electronic transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal power). The thermodynamic values have been calculated by means of the chemical model, which also allows one to obtain the ionic composition of considered plasma. The composition has been used to calculate the electronic transport coefficients within the relaxation time approximation. The results of the present investigation have been compared with the calculations of other researchers and available data of measurements.
Special issue on the spectroscopy of transient plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, James; Hoarty, David; Mancini, Roberto; Yoneda, Hitoki
2015-01-01
Experimental and theoretical papers are invited for a special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics on Spectroscopy of Transient Plasmas, covering plasma conditions produced by pulsed laboratory sources including for example, short and long pulse lasers; pulsed power devices; FELs; XFELs and ion beams. The full range of plasma spectroscopy from the optical range up to high energy bremsstrahlung radiation will be covered. The deadline for submitting to this special issue is 1 March 2015. (Expected web publication: autumn 2015). Late submissions will be considered for the journal, but may not be included in the special issue. All submitted articles will be fully refereed to the journal's usual high standards. Upon publication, the issue will be widely promoted to the atomic, molecular and optical physics community, ensuring that your work receives maximum visibility. Articles should be submitted at http://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/jphysb-iop. Should you have any questions regarding the preparation of manuscripts or the suitability of your work for this Issue, please do not hesitate to contact the J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Editorial team (jphysb@iop.org). We look forward to hearing from you and hope that we can welcome you as a contributing author.
Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas
Murphy, T.J.
1987-08-01
The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Representation of the Geosynchronous Plasma Environment in Spacecraft Charging Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Thomsen, M. F.
2006-01-01
Historically, our ability to predict and postdict spacecraft surface charging has been limited by the characterization of the plasma environment. One difficulty lies in the common practice of fitting the plasma data to a Maxwellian or Double Maxwellian distribution function, which may not represent the data well for charging purposes. We use electron and ion flux spectra measured by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) to examine how the use of different spectral representations of the charged particle environment in computations of spacecraft potentials during magnetospheric substorms affects the accuracy of the results. We calculate the spacecraft potential using both the measured fluxes and several different fits to these fluxes. These measured fluxes have been corrected for the difference between the measured and calculated potential. The potential computed using the measured fluxes and the best available material properties of graphite carbon, with a secondary electron escape fraction of 81%, is within a factor of three of the measured potential for 87% of the data. Potentials calculated using a Kappa function fit to the incident electron flux distribution function and a Maxwellian function fit to the incident ion flux distribution function agree with measured potentials nearly as well as do potentials calculated using the measured fluxes. Alternative spectral representations gave less accurate estimates of potential. The use of all the components of the net flux, along with spacecraft specific average material properties, gives a better estimate of the spacecraft potential than the high energy flux alone.
Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas.
Murphy, Anthony B
2014-01-01
The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457
Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas
Murphy, Anthony B.
2014-01-01
The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457
Parametric calculations of plasma jets generated by microdischarges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foletto, M.; Boeuf, J. P.; Pitchford, L. C.
2014-10-01
``Guided streamers'' or ``plasma jets'' can be generated in open air by applying rf or impulse voltages to a microdischarge through which there is a flow of helium. For flow conditions such that a helium column surrounded by air extends some distance (centimeters) past the exit of the microdischarge, a plasma jet can be initiated. Previous works have shown that this is essentially a streamer propagating in the easily-ionized helium column and impeded from branching by the surrounding air. For many applications, it is of interest to understand the parameters controlling the properties of the plasma jet. To this end, we present results from a series of parametric calculations using our previously published model to identify the influence of the microdischarge configuration on the generation, propagation, and properties of the plasma jet. We focus mainly on a geometry with hollow, concentric electrodes separated by a dielectric tube corresponding to the experiments of Douat et al., and we vary the dimensions and relative off-set of the electrodes, applying an impulse voltage or the experimental waveform to the inner electrode. For the same applied voltage waveform, parameters which influence the electric field and electron density in the plasma jet are the dielectric permittivity, the tube diameter, and the dielectric length. Support by the French National Research Agency project PAMPA.
Representation of the Geosynchronous Plasma Environment for Spacecraft Charging Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Thomsen, M. F.
2004-01-01
Historically, our ability to predict and postdict surface charging has suffered from both a lack of reliable secondary emission and backscattered electron yields and poor characterization of the plasma environment. One difficulty lies in the common practice of fitting the plasma data to a Maxwellian or Double Maxwellian distribution function, which may not represent the data well for charging purposes. For 13 years Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been accumulating measurements of electron and proton spectra from Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instruments aboard a series of geosynchronous satellites. These data provide both a plasma characterization and the potential of the instrument ground. We use electron and ion flux spectra measured by the LANL MPA to examine how the use of different spectral representations of the charged particle environment in computations of spacecraft potentials during magnetospheric substorms affects the accuracy of the results. We calculate the spacecraft potential using both the measured fluxes and several different fits to these fluxes. These flux measurements and fits have been corrected for the difference between the measured and calculated potential. The potentials computed using the measured fluxes, the best available material properties of graphite carbon, and a secondary electron escape fraction of 81%, are within a factor of three of the measured potential for nearly all the data. Using a Kappa fit to the electron distribution function and a Maxwellian fit to the ion distribution function gives agreement similar to the calculations using the actual data. Alternative spectral representations, including Maxwellian and double Maxwellian for both species, lead to less satisfactory agreement between predicted and measured potentials.
Iterative Calculation of Plasma Density from a Cylindrical Probe Characteristic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhenfeng; Lu, Wenqi
2013-08-01
A novel method is proposed for treating cylindrical probe characteristics to obtain plasma density. The method consists of exponential extrapolation of the transitional part of the I-V curve to the floating potential for the ion saturation current, other than the existing theories which use the ion branch, and an iterative sheath thickness correction procedure for improved accuracy. The method was tested by treating Langmuir probe I-V characteristics obtained from inductively coupled Ar discharges at various pressures, and comparing the present results with those deduced by existing theories. It was shown that the plasma densities obtained by the present method are in good agreement with those calculated by the Allen-Boyd-Reynolds (ABR) theory, suggesting the effectiveness of the proposed method. Without need of manual setting and adjustment of fitting parameters, the method may be suitable for automatic and real time processing of probe characteristics.
Radio Frequency Field Calculations for Plasma Heating Simulations in VASIMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilin, A. V.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Squire, J. P.; Carter, M. D.
2002-01-01
(VASIMR)1 is plasma heating by ion-cyclotron RF heating (ICRF). Mathematical simulation helps to design an ICRF antenna, i.e. make maximal absorption of RF power into the plasma in the resonance area. Another goal of a particle simulation is design of a magnetic nozzle and optimize the performance of VASIMR2. field in the plasma, 2) ion density and velocity, 3) ion-cyclotron radio-frequency electromagnetic field. The assumptions of quasineutral and collisionless plasma are based on the range of operating VASIMR parameters. Carlo simulations for systems of million of particles in a reasonable time and without the need for a powerful supercomputer. The particle to grid weighting method is used for calculating the ion density, which is used for recalculation of the electric potential and RF field. dimensional problem to a weighted sum over two-dimensional solutions. Absorption is introduced in the cold plasma model by adding an imaginary collision frequency to the RF driven frequency, which is equivalent to adding an imaginary particle mass in the dielectric tensor elements. static and RF fields using the VASIMR code2. The VASIMR and EMIR codes are then iterated to estimate the ICRF effects on the plasma density. The iteration is performed by calculating the RF fields with the EMIR code, and using these fields to follow nonlinear ion trajectories with the VASIMR code on the gyro-frequency time scale. The ion trajectories are used to generate RF power absorption values and a density input for the next EMIR calculation. The codes are iterated until the density profile becomes reasonably stable, then the collisional absorption parameter in the EMIR code is adjusted and the iteration is continued until the power deposited by the RF system matches the power absorbed by the ion trajectories in a global sense. electric field. The solved algebraic system of equations is represented by ill-conditioned 18-diagonal matrix with complex elements. Since early development of the
General Linear Rf-Current Drive Calculation in Toroidal Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, A. P.; Harvey, R. W.; Prater, R.
2009-04-01
A new general linear calculation of RF current drive has been implemented in the GENRAY all-frequencies RF ray tracing code. This is referred to as the ADJ-QL package, and is based on the Karney, et al. [1] relativistic Green function calculator, ADJ, generalized to non-circular plasmas in toroidal geometry, and coupled with full, bounce-averaged momentum-space RF quasilinear flux [2] expressions calculated at each point along the RF ray trajectories. This approach includes momentum conservation, polarization effects and the influence of trapped electrons. It is assumed that the electron distribution function remains close to a relativistic Maxwellian function. Within the bounds of these assumptions, small banana width, toroidal geometry and low collisionality, the calculation is applicable for all-frequencies RF electron current drive including electron cyclotron, lower hybrid, fast waves and electron Bernstein waves. GENRAY ADJ-QL calculations of the relativistic momentum-conserving current drive have been applied in several cases: benchmarking of electron cyclotron current drive in ITER against other code results; and electron Bernstein and high harmonic fast wave current drive in NSTX. The impacts of momentum conservation on the current drive are also shown for these cases.
Errors in calculated oncotic pressure of dog plasma.
Gabel, J C; Scott, R L; Adair, T H; Drake, R E; Traber, D L
1980-12-01
Several equations to calculate plasma oncotic pressure (pi) from the total protein concentration (C) have been previously described. These equations were derived empirically from samples with a wide range of C obtained by diluting or concentrating normal plasma samples. To test these equations over a range of naturally occurring C, we measured C and pi of plasma samples from 40 dogs. C ranged from 5.3 to 8.7 g/dl and averaged 6.5 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- SE) and pi averaged 17.9 +/- 0.3 mmHg. The regression equation was pi = 78.14 + 1.67 C (r = 0.74). pi increased with C much less than predicted with the commonly used equations. The albumin-to-globulin concentration ratios (A/G), determined in 27 of the dogs, decreased with increasing C (A/G = 1.56-0.128 C, r = 0.62). The lower A/G at the higher C's could cause the lower than predicted increase in pi with C, because the equations were developed from data in which A/G was constant. PMID:7446756
Quantum-Chemical Calculation of Carbododecahedron Formation in Carbon Plasma.
Poklonski, Nikolai A; Ratkevich, Sergey V; Vyrko, Sergey A
2015-08-27
The ground state of the molecule consisting of 10 carbon atoms in C10(rg) "ring" conformation and the energy of its metastable C10(st) "star" conformation are reported. The reaction coordinate for the isomeric transition C10(st) → C10(rg) was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with UB3LYP/6-31G(d,p). It was established that a 5-fold symmetry axis is conserved in this isomeric transition. The total energy of the ring isomer is by 10.33 eV (9.16 eV as zero-point energy corrected) lower than that of the star isomer. The energy barrier for the transition from the metastable star state to the ring state is 2.87 eV (3.57 eV as zero-point energy corrected). An analysis of possible chemical reactions in carbon plasma involving C10(st) and C10(rg) and leading to the formation of C20 fullerenes was performed. It was revealed that the presence of the C10(st) conformation in the reaction medium is a necessary condition for C20 fullerene formation. It was shown that the presence of hydrogen atoms in carbon plasma and UV radiation accelerate the C10(st) → C10(rg) transition and thus suppress the C20 fullerene formation. PMID:26267290
Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric
2015-12-01
Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.
Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications
Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric
2015-12-15
Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.
The Martian Plasma Environment: Model Calculations and Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Dubinin, E.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.
Based on a modified version of the model of an induced martian magnetosphere developed by Luhmann (1990), the dynamics and spatial distribution of different planetary ion species is examined. Three main regions are identified: A cloud of ions travelling along cycloidal trajectories, a plasma mantle and a plasma sheet. The latter predominantly consists of oxygen ions of ionospheric origin with minor portions of light particles. Comparison of model results with Phobos-2 observations shows reasonable agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jong, Maarten; Qi, Liang; Olmsted, David L.; van de Walle, Axel; Asta, Mark
2016-03-01
A method is described for calculating the energetics of planar defects in alloys based on the special-quasirandom-structure (SQS) approach. We examine the accuracy of the approach employing atomistic calculations based on a classical embedded-atom-method (EAM) interatomic potential for hexagonal close packed (hcp) alloys, for which benchmark results can be obtained by direct configurational averaging. The results of these calculations demonstrate that the SQS-based approach can be employed to derive the concentration dependence of the energies of twin boundaries, unstable stacking faults, and surfaces to within an accuracy of approximately 10%. The SQS considered in this study contain up to 72 atoms and hence are small enough to be considered in first-principles density-functional-theory (DFT) based calculations. The application of the SQS-based approach in direct DFT-based calculations is demonstrated in a study of the concentration dependence of interfacial energies for {11 2 ¯1 } twins in hcp Ti-Al alloys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.
2015-12-01
The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.
Iterative methods for plasma sheath calculations: Application to spherical probe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, L. W.; Sullivan, E. C.
1973-01-01
The computer cost of a Poisson-Vlasov iteration procedure for the numerical solution of a steady-state collisionless plasma-sheath problem depends on: (1) the nature of the chosen iterative algorithm, (2) the position of the outer boundary of the grid, and (3) the nature of the boundary condition applied to simulate a condition at infinity (as in three-dimensional probe or satellite-wake problems). Two iterative algorithms, in conjunction with three types of boundary conditions, are analyzed theoretically and applied to the computation of current-voltage characteristics of a spherical electrostatic probe. The first algorithm was commonly used by physicists, and its computer costs depend primarily on the boundary conditions and are only slightly affected by the mesh interval. The second algorithm is not commonly used, and its costs depend primarily on the mesh interval and slightly on the boundary conditions.
Calculation of radiative properties of nonequilibrium hydrogen plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, C.
1979-01-01
A computer program called NEQRAP is described that calculates the radiative properties of nonequilibrium ionized hydrogen. From the given electron temperature, electron density, and atom density values (which do not necessarily satisfy the equilibrium relationship) and intensities of incident radiation, the non-Boltzmann populations of electronic states are computed by solving the equation of quasi-steady-state population distribution. Emission and absorption coefficients are determined as functions of wavelength by invoking the principle of detailed balance between the upper and lower states of each radiative transition. Radiative transport through the medium is computed assuming a one-dimensional uniform slab. The rate of ionic reaction is also computed. When used on a sample case, the program shows that there is a large difference between the calculated intensities of radiation emitted by a bulk of equilibrium and nonequilibrium hydrogen. The accuracy of the program is estimated to be better than 10%.
An Exact Calculation of Electron-Ion Energy Splitting in a Hot Plasma
Singleton, Robert L
2012-09-10
In this brief report, I summarize the rather involved recent work of Brown, Preston, and Singleton (BPS). In Refs. [2] and [3], BPS calculate the energy partition into ions and electrons as a charged particle traverses a non-equilibrium two-temperature plasma. These results are exact to leading and next-to-leading order in the plasma coupling g, and are therefore extremely accurate in a weakly coupled plasma. The new BPS calculations are compared with the more standard work of Fraley et al. [12]. The results differ substantially at higher temperature when T{sub I} {ne} T{sub e}.
Systematic methods for calculation of the dielectric properties of arbitrary plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, P. A.
1990-01-01
In the novel approach presented for calculating the dispersion integrals needed for determining plasma dielectric properties, the dispersion integrals for an arbitrary distortion function with a continuous derivative are systematically expanded in terms of a set of orthogonal functions whose corresponding dispersion functions are already known. This general approach is, on the one hand, implemented for unmagnetized plasmas, and on the other generalized to treat relativistic and magnetized plasmas. The method allows the systematic and efficient calculation of dispersion integrals, for the cases of either real or complex arguments.
Temperature profile measurements and equilibrium calculations in a non-neutral plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, Grant W.; Peterson, Bryan G.
2004-11-01
In 1992 Eggleston, et.al.^1 developed a technique for measuring the radial temperature profile in a pure electron plasma by partially dumping the plasma onto a charge collector. They used a model which described the plasma as a flat-ended cylinder to determine the midplane potential of the plasma and ignored the plasma's contribution to the confining potential hill. These assumptions are fine if the plasma is long and the ring to which the confining potential is applied is also fairly long. For short plasmas and short confining rings, a more general calculation is needed. In this paper we present a variation on the standard equilibrium calculation that allows us to use dumped charge vs. confining potential data to calculate the temperature profile of a pure electron plasma. The fact that part of the Maxwellian velocity distribution has escaped forces a generalization of the form of the equilibrium condition from the usual e^-q φ/kT. Experimental data and results will be discussed. A simplified measurement similar to the simple r=0 velocity-tail measurement of Eggleston will also be discussed. ^1D.L.Eggleston, C.F. Driscoll, B.R. Beck, A.W. Hyatt and J.H. Malmberg, Phys. Fluids B 4, 3432 (1992).
A simplified approach to calculate atomic partition functions in plasmas
D'Ammando, Giuliano; Colonna, Gianpiero
2013-03-15
A simplified method to calculate the electronic partition functions and the corresponding thermodynamic properties of atomic species is presented and applied to C(I) up to C(VI) ions. The method consists in reducing the complex structure of an atom to three lumped levels. The ground level of the lumped model describes the ground term of the real atom, while the second lumped level represents the low lying states and the last one groups all the other atomic levels. It is also shown that for the purpose of thermodynamic function calculation, the energy and the statistical weight of the upper lumped level, describing high-lying excited atomic states, can be satisfactorily approximated by an analytic hydrogenlike formula. The results of the simplified method are in good agreement with those obtained by direct summation over a complete set (i.e., including all possible terms and configurations below a given cutoff energy) of atomic energy levels. The method can be generalized to include more lumped levels in order to improve the accuracy.
Programmable calculator software for computation of the plasma binding of ligands.
Conner, D P; Rocci, M L; Larijani, G E
1986-01-01
The computation of the extent of plasma binding of a ligand to plasma constituents using radiolabeled ligand and equilibrium dialysis is complex and tedious. A computer program for the HP-41C Handheld Computer Series (Hewlett-Packard) was developed to perform these calculations. The first segment of the program constructs a standard curve for quench correction of post-dialysis plasma and buffer samples, using either external standard ratio (ESR) or sample channels ratio (SCR) techniques. The remainder of the program uses the counts per minute, SCR or ESR, and post-dialysis volume of paired plasma and buffer samples generated from the dialysis procedure to compute the extent of binding after correction for background radiation, counting efficiency, and intradialytic shifts of fluid between plasma and buffer compartments during dialysis. This program greatly simplifies the analysis of equilibrium dialysis data and has been employed in the analysis of dexamethasone binding in normal and uremic sera. PMID:3754197
Nonrelativistic structure calculations of two-electron ions in a strongly coupled plasma environment
Bhattacharyya, S.; Saha, J. K.; Mukherjee, T. K.
2015-04-01
In this work, the controversy between the interpretations of recent measurements on dense aluminum plasma created with the Linac coherent light source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser (FEL) and the Orion laser has been addressed. In both kinds of experiments, heliumlike and hydrogenlike spectral lines are used for plasma diagnostics. However, there exist no precise theoretical calculations for He-like ions within a dense plasma environment. The strong need for an accurate theoretical estimate for spectral properties of He-like ions in a strongly coupled plasma environment leads us to perform ab initio calculations in the framework of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle in Hylleraas coordinates where an ion-sphere potential is used. An approach to resolve the long-drawn problem of numerical instability for evaluating two-electron integrals with an extended basis inside a finite domain is presented here. The present values of electron densities corresponding to the disappearance of different spectral lines obtained within the framework of an ion-sphere potential show excellent agreement with Orion laser experiments in Al plasma and with recent theories. Moreover, this method is extended to predict the critical plasma densities at which the spectral lines of H-like and He-like carbon and argon ions disappear. Incidental degeneracy and level-crossing phenomena are being reported for two-electron ions embedded in strongly coupled plasma. Thermodynamic pressure experienced by the ions in their respective ground states inside the ion spheres is also reported.
A 3-D Theoretical Model for Calculating Plasma Effects in Germanium Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Wenzhao; Liu, Jing; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration
2015-04-01
In the detection of WIMP-induced nuclear recoil with Ge detectors, the main background source is the electron recoil produced by natural radioactivity. The capability of discriminating nuclear recoil (n) from electron recoil (γ) is crucial to WIMP searches. Digital pulse shape analysis is an encouraging approach to the discrimination of nuclear recoil from electron recoil since nucleus is much heavier than electron and heavier particle generates ionization more densely along its path, which forms a plasma-like cloud of charge that shields the interior from the influence of the electric field. The time needed for total disintegration of this plasma region is called plasma time. The plasma time depends on the initial density and radius of the plasma-like cloud, diffusion constant for charge carriers, and the strength of electric field. In this work, we developed a 3-D theoretical model for calculating the plasma time in Ge detectors. Using this model, we calculated the plasma time for both nuclear recoils and electron recoils to study the possibility for Ge detectors to realize n/ γ discrimination and improve detector sensitivity in detecting low-mass WIMPs. This work is supported by NSF in part by the NSF PHY-0758120, DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709, and the State of South Dakota.
Viscosity calculated in simulations of strongly coupled dusty plasmas with gas friction
Feng Yan; Goree, J.; Liu Bin
2011-05-15
A two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma is modeled using Langevin and frictionless molecular dynamical simulations. The static viscosity {eta} and the wave-number-dependent viscosity {eta}(k) are calculated from the microscopic shear in the random motion of particles. A recently developed method of calculating the wave-number-dependent viscosity {eta}(k) is validated by comparing the results of {eta}(k) from the two simulations. It is also verified that the Green-Kubo relation can still yield an accurate measure of the static viscosity {eta} in the presence of a modest level of friction as in dusty plasma experiments.
Quantum-Mechanical Calculation of Ionization-Potential Lowering in Dense Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Sang-Kil; Thiele, Robert; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin
2014-07-01
The charged environment within a dense plasma leads to the phenomenon of ionization-potential depression (IPD) for ions embedded in the plasma. Accurate predictions of the IPD effect are of crucial importance for modeling atomic processes occurring within dense plasmas. Several theoretical models have been developed to describe the IPD effect, with frequently discrepant predictions. Only recently, first experiments on IPD in Al plasma have been performed with an x-ray free-electron laser, where their results were found to be in disagreement with the widely used IPD model by Stewart and Pyatt. Another experiment on Al, at the Orion laser, showed disagreement with the model by Ecker and Kröll. This controversy shows a strong need for a rigorous and consistent theoretical approach to calculate the IPD effect. Here, we propose such an approach: a two-step Hartree-Fock-Slater model. With this parameter-free model, we can accurately and efficiently describe the experimental Al data and validate the accuracy of standard IPD models. Our model can be a useful tool for calculating atomic properties within dense plasmas with wide-ranging applications to studies on warm dense matter, shock experiments, planetary science, inertial confinement fusion, and nonequilibrium plasmas created with x-ray free-electron lasers.
Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas
Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Phillips, Cynthia K.
2014-06-15
It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion “burn” may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to “demo” and “fusion power plant.” A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of
Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Phillips, Cynthia K.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio
2014-06-01
It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion "burn" may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to "demo" and "fusion power plant." A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of power to the
Improved Frequency Fluctuation Model for Spectral Line Shape Calculations in Fusion Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Mossé, C.; Talin, B.; Lisitsa, V.
2010-10-01
A very fast method to calculate spectral line shapes emitted by plasmas accounting for charge particle dynamics and effects of an external magnetic field is proposed. This method relies on a new formulation of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM), which yields to an expression of the dynamic line profile as a functional of the static distribution function of frequencies. This highly efficient formalism, not limited to hydrogen-like systems, allows to calculate pure Stark and Stark-Zeeman line shapes for a wide range of density, temperature and magnetic field values, which is of importance in plasma physics and astrophysics. Various applications of this method are presented for conditions related to fusion plasmas.
A calculational approach to electron impact excitation of ions in hot solar plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Temkin, A.
1974-01-01
The cross section requirements are presented for studying UV and X-ray emission spectra associated with active and flare-produced plasmas in the sun's corona. The general approach to the calculation of the distorted wave approximation problem is also given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evstatiev, Evstati; Svidzinski, Vladimir; Spencer, Andy; Galkin, Sergei
2014-10-01
Full wave 3-D modeling of RF fields in hot magnetized nonuniform plasma requires calculation of nonlocal conductivity kernel describing the dielectric response of such plasma to the RF field. In many cases, the conductivity kernel is a localized function near the test point which significantly simplifies numerical solution of the full wave 3-D problem. Preliminary results of feasibility analysis of numerical calculation of the conductivity kernel in a 3-D hot nonuniform magnetized plasma in the electron cyclotron frequency range will be reported. This case is relevant to modeling of ECRH in ITER. The kernel is calculated by integrating the linearized Vlasov equation along the unperturbed particle's orbits. Particle's orbits in the nonuniform equilibrium magnetic field are calculated numerically by one of the Runge-Kutta methods. RF electric field is interpolated on a specified grid on which the conductivity kernel is discretized. The resulting integrals in the particle's initial velocity and time are then calculated numerically. Different optimization approaches of the integration are tested in this feasibility analysis. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.
Plasma induced sputtering yield and backscattering for ITER-relevant materials as calculated by TRIM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, P.; Ahmad, A.; Carrère, M.
2015-07-01
In this paper, we report an analytical model to estimate the variation of the yield (and hence the pressure) from sputtering, elastic collisions, and backscattering on a surface exposed to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-relevant plasmas. To study the yield and the pressure exerted on the surfaces of carbon (C), silicon (Si) and tungsten (W) due to plasma exposure, the irradiation of H, Ar and Xe ions at normal incidence was considered. Transport and range of ions in matter simulations were done to calculate the backscattering/sputtering yields and the energies on the surfaces. The calculations are significant for the optimization of material facing the plasma in future fusion reactors where erosion and long term operation are key issues. The results show that yield increases with the increase of ion energy. The carbon surface is the least affected to exposure of the plasma. In the chosen ion energy range (0-1 keV), the simulations/calculations (for Ar ion incident on Si and W) are in good agreement with published experimental results.
Calculation of optical properties for hot plasmas using a screened hydrogenic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubiano, J. G.; Rodríguez, R.; Florido, R.; Mendoza, M. A.; Gil, J. M.; Martel, P.; Mínguez, E.
2006-06-01
In work a hydrogenic versions of the code ATOM3R-OP is presented. This flexible code has been developed to obtain optical properties for plasmas in a wide range of densities and temperatures named and the Hydrogenic versions is intended to couple with hydrodynamic codes. The code is structured in three modules devoted to the calculation of the atomic magnitudes, the ionic abundances and the optical properties, respectively, which are briefly described. Finally, bound-bound opacities and emissivities of Carbon plasma computed with this model are compared with more sophisticated self-consistent codes.
A method for calculating plasma rotation velocity due to internal and external sources
Taguchi, M.
2011-10-15
A method for calculating the plasma rotation velocity caused by the effect of fluctuations due to instabilities and/or by externally imposed sources is presented for multiple ion species plasmas in a general toroidal magnetic field. The rotation velocity is shown to be obtained by solving generalized Spitzer equations, accompanied with the drift kinetic equations employing the pitch-angle-scattering and Krook collision terms. This method reduces to the moment equation approach in the conventional neoclassical transport theory when the source term can be approximated by a momentum source.
Calculated non-linear magnetic field penetration of plasma opening switches
Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.; Wilson, D.C.; Bergman, C.; Thiem, K. ); Grossmann, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F. )
1990-06-15
We examine magnetic field penetration in the Plasma Opening Switch, exploring, in particular, advective field penetration arising in conjunction with radial density gradients across the cathode anode gap. Our calculations have been completed with the implicit multi-fluid, ANTHEM code. We show favored penetration along a radial density jump, unstable plain wave penetration for a 1/(y {minus} y{sub {alpha}+{epsilon}}) density dependence (with y measured from cathode to anode at Y{sub {alpha}}) in planar switches, and the penetration of finger-like magnetic field perturbations, when the fill plasmas bears initial sinusoidal disturbances on its generator interface. 7 refs., 4 figs.
Calculation of sheath and wake structure about a pillbox-shaped spacecraft in a flowing plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, L. W.
1977-01-01
A computer program was used for studies of the disturbed zones around bodies in flowing plasmas, particularly spacecraft and their associated sheaths and wakes. The program solved a coupled Poisson-Vlasov system of nonlinear partial differential integral equations to obtain distributions of electric potential and ion and electron density about a finite length cylinder in a plasma flow at arbitrary ion Mach numbers. The approach was applicable to a larger range of parameters than other available approaches. In sample calculations, bodies up to 100 Debye lengths in radius were treated, that is, larger than any previously treated realistically. Applications were made to in-situ satellite experiments.
Transport timescale calculations of sawteeth and helical structures in non-circular tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jardin, Stephen; Ferraro, Nate; Breslau, Josh; Chen, Jin
2012-10-01
We present results of using the implicit 3D MHD code M3D-C^1 [1,2] to perform 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics calculations of the internal dynamics of a shaped cross-section tokamak plasma that span the timescales associated with ideal and resistive stability as well as parallel and perpendicular transport. We specify the transport coefficients and apply a ``current controller'' that adjusts the boundary loop-voltage to keep the total plasma current fixed. The 3D 2-fluid plasma model advances the magnetic field, velocities, electron and ion temperatures, and plasma density. We find that the plasma either reaches a stationary quasi-helical state in which the central safety factor is approximately unity, or it periodically undergoes either simple or compound sawtooth oscillations [3] with a period that approaches a constant value. By comparing a dee-shaped cross section with an elliptical shaped cross section, it is shown that the plasma shape has a large effect on determining the sawtooth behavior and the associated mode activity. Application to ITER shaped tokamak plasmas predict the magnitude of the 3D boundary deformation as a result of a stationary quasi-helical state forming in the interior. [4pt] [1] J. Breslau, N. Ferraro, S.C. Jardin, Physics of Plasmas 16 092503 (2009) [0pt] [2] S. C. Jardin, N. Ferraro, J. Breslau, J. Chen, Computational Science and Discovery 5 014002 (2012) [0pt] [3] X. von Goeler, W. Stodiek, and N. Sauthoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1201 (1974)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luna, Pat
Designed for middle school students, this award winning, six-day teaching unit helped students learn about the concepts of specialization, interdependence, efficiency, and profit. At the onset of the lesson the students were already familiar with the concepts of scarcity, goods, services, profits, supply, demand, and opportunity costs. The unit's…
Plasma turbulence calculations on the Intel iPSC/860 (rx) hypercube
Lynch, V.E. . Computing and Telecommunications Div.); Carreras, B.A.; Drake, J.B.; Leboeuf, J.N. ); Ruiter, J.R. )
1990-01-01
One approach to improving the real-time efficiency of plasma turbulence calculations is to use a parallel algorithm. A serial algorithm used for plasma turbulence calculations was modified to allocate a radial region in each node. In this way, convolutions at a fixed radius are performed in parallel, and communication is limited to boundary values for each radial region. For a semi-implicity numerical scheme (tridiagonal matrix solver), there is a factor of 3 improvement in efficiency with the Intel iPSC/860 machine using 64 processors over a single-processor Cray-II. For block-tridiagonal matrix cases (fully implicit code), a second parallelization takes place. The Fourier components are distributed in nodes. In each node, the block-tridiagonal matrix is inverted for each of allocated Fourier components. The algorithm for this second case has not yet been optimized. 10 refs., 4 figs.
Calculation of a plasma HgDyI{sub 3} transport coefficients
Hajji, S.; HadjSalah, S.; Benhalima, A.; Charrada, K.; Zissis, G.
2015-05-15
This work is devoted to the calculation of the chemical composition and transport coefficients of HgDyI{sub 3} plasmas in thermal equilibrium. These calculations are performed for pressures equal to 2MP and for temperatures varying from 1000 to 10 000 K. The thermal and electrical conductivity as well as viscosity have been computed as a function of temperature at different atomic ratios. The computational method proposed by Devoto from the classical formalism described by Hirschfelder et al. [Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1954)] is used.
Calculation and observation of thermal electrostatic noise in solar wind plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kellogg, P. J.
1981-01-01
Calculations, both approximate algebraic and numerical, have been carried out for the noise due to electrostatic waves incident on a dipole antenna. The noise is calculated both for a thermal equilibrium plasma, and one having several components at different temperatures. The results are compared with measurements from the IMP-6 satellite. In various frequency ranges, the noise power is dominated by Langmuir oscillations, by electron acoustic waves and by ion acoustic waves. The measurements are consistent with all of these, although the ion waves are not definitely observed, due to interference from shot noise.
Multi-Center Electronic Structure Calculations for Plasma Equation of State
Wilson, B G; Johnson, D D; Alam, A
2010-12-14
We report on an approach for computing electronic structure utilizing solid-state multi-center scattering techniques, but generalized to finite temperatures to model plasmas. This approach has the advantage of handling mixtures at a fundamental level without the imposition of ad hoc continuum lowering models, and incorporates bonding and charge exchange, as well as multi-center effects in the calculation of the continuum density of states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X. N.; Li, H. P.; Murphy, A. B.; Xia, W. D.
2015-06-01
Two main methods have been used to calculate the transport properties of two-temperature (2-T) plasmas in local chemical equilibrium: the method of Devoto (method B), in which coupling between electrons and heavy species is neglected, and the method of Rat et al (method C), in which coupling is included at the cost of a considerable increase in complexity. A new method (method A) has recently been developed, based on the modified Chapman-Enskog solution of the species Boltzmann equations. This method retains coupling between electrons and heavy species by including the electron-heavy-species collision term in the heavy-species Boltzmann equation. In this paper, the properties of 2-T argon plasmas calculated using the three methods are compared. The viscosity, electrical conductivity and translational thermal conductivity obtained using all three methods are very similar. method B does not allow a complete set of species diffusion coefficient to be obtained. It is shown that such a set can be calculated using method A without any significant loss of accuracy. Finally, it is important to note that, by using the physical fact that the mass of heavy particles is much larger than that of electrons (i.e. me << mh), the complexity of calculations using method A is not increased compared with method B; that is to say, the calculation procedure is much simpler than with method C.
Study of plasma equilibrium in toroidal fusion devices using mesh-free numerical calculation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasouli, C.; Abbasi Davani, F.; Rokrok, B.
2016-08-01
Plasma confinement using external magnetic field is one of the successful ways leading to the controlled nuclear fusion. Development and validation of the solution process for plasma equilibrium in the experimental toroidal fusion devices is the main subject of this work. Solution of the nonlinear 2D stationary problem as posed by the Grad-Shafranov equation gives quantitative information about plasma equilibrium inside the vacuum chamber of hot fusion devices. This study suggests solving plasma equilibrium equation which is essential in toroidal nuclear fusion devices, using a mesh-free method in a condition that the plasma boundary is unknown. The Grad-Shafranov equation has been solved numerically by the point interpolation collocation mesh-free method. Important features of this approach include truly mesh free, simple mathematical relationships between points and acceptable precision in comparison with the parametric results. The calculation process has been done by using the regular and irregular nodal distribution and support domains with different points. The relative error between numerical and analytical solution is discussed for several test examples such as small size Damavand tokamak, ITER-like equilibrium, NSTX-like equilibrium, and typical Spheromak.
Calculated radiative power losses from mid- and high-Z impurities in Tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fournier, Kevin B.; May, M. J.; Pacella, D.; Gregory, B. C.; Rice, J. E.; Terry, J. L.; Finkenthal, M.; Goldstein, W. H.
1998-09-01
This paper summarizes recent calculations of the radiative cooling coefficient for molybdenum (Z=42), krypton (Z=36) and argon (Z=18). The radiative processes considered are collisional-radiative line emission, dielectronic recombination line emission, and radiative recombination and bremsstrahlung continuum emission. Collisional-radiative line emission dominates the power loss channels for a given impurity at all but the highest plasma electron temperatures. The atomic data for the line emission are computed ab initio with the HULLAC atomic physics suite of codes. Relativistic, ab initio atomic physics data are used to compute ionization and recombination rate coefficients; the resulting charge state distribution and recombination rates are used to estimate the radiative power from recombination processes. The calculations in the present work are benchmarked against absolute measurements of ion brightness profiles in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade plasma. Integrated measurements from tokamak plasmas such as bolometry are then simulated. The atomic physics data used to predict the emissivity of individual ions is validated; the calculated cooling coefficients agree well with bolometric measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Johannes; Kostyukov, Igor Yu.; Pronold, Jari; Golovanov, Anton; Pukhov, Alexander
2016-05-01
We introduce a complete semi-analytical model for a cavitated electron wake driven by an electron beam in a radially inhomogeneous plasma. The electron response to the driver, dynamics of electrons in a thin sheath surrounding the cavity, as well as accelerating and focusing fields inside the cavity are calculated in the quasistatic approximation. Our theory holds for arbitrary radial density profiles and reduces to known models in the limit of a homogeneous plasma. A free-propagating blow-out in an evacuated channel experiences longitudinal squeezing, qualitatively the same as observed in particle-in-cell simulations for the laser pulse-driven case [Pukhov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 245003 (2014)]. Our model also permits qualitative interpretation of the earlier observed cancellation of the focusing gradient in the cavity [Pukhov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 245003 (2014)]. In this work, we show the underlying mechanism that causes the radial fields in the vacuum part of a channel to become defocussing.
Yamamoto, K.; Mizuno, Y.; Hibino, S.; Inuzuka, H.; Cao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Yazawa, K.
2006-01-15
Simulations of dusty plasmas were performed using GRAPE-6, a special-purpose computer designed for gravitational N-body problems. The collective behavior of dust particles, which are injected into the plasma, was studied by means of three-dimensional computer simulations. As an example of a dusty plasma simulation, experiments on Coulomb crystals in plasmas are simulated. Formation of a quasi-two-dimensional Coulomb crystal has been observed under typical laboratory conditions. Another example was to simulate movement of dust particles in plasmas under microgravity conditions. Fully three-dimensional spherical structures of dust clouds have been observed. For the simulation of a dusty plasma in microgravity with 3x10{sup 4} particles, GRAPE-6 can perform the whole operation 1000 times faster than by using a Pentium 4 1.6 GHz processor.
Liu, Li; Xiao, Ping-ping
2016-02-01
Temperature is one of the most important parameters in studying of laser-induced plasma characteristics. To reduce the impact of continuous background on the calculation of temperatures using Boltzmann plots, the wavelet transform was used to decompose the spectrums, and the low-frequency signals represented the spectral baseline were deducted by using soft-threshold method. Selecting the appropriate wavelet decomposition level L and threshold coefficient a can increase the linear regression coefficient R2 of Boltzmann plots, and the calculation accuracy of plasma temperature was improved. The LIBS spectra of low alloy steel sample region from 417 to 445 nm were decomposed by using db4 wavelet, and then baseline subtraction and signal reconstruction were carried out, respectively. Twelve Fe atomic lines were chosen to establish Boltzmann plots, and the temperatures were calculated from the slope of the fitted lines in the plots. The value L and a were optimized according R², the results showed that the 8-layer db4 wavelet decomposition can gain the high R², while the value of a associated with the delay time td, e. g. , the optimum a corresponding to maximum values of R² is 0.3 when td ≤ 4.0 µs, and then decrease with the increasing of td, and reduced to 0 when td ≥ 6. 0 µs. The interference due to baseline on the spectral characteristic lines gradually reduced with the increasing of td, and therefore a decreased with td increase. After the baseline was deducted, the temperature calculated by Boltzmann plot decrease of about 2 000 to 3 000 K. The temperature gradually decreased with the increasing of the td, and the temperature fluctuation is reduced after baseline subtraction, these results are consistent with the physical process of plasma expansion. PMID:27209766
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, Daniel K.; Dubin, Daniel H. E.
2015-11-01
This poster presents theory and numerical calculations of electrostatic Bernstein modes in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma column. These modes rely on FLR effects to propagate radially across the column until they are reflected when their frequency matches the local upper hybrid frequency, setting up an internal normal mode on the column, and also mode-coupling to the electrostatic surface cyclotron wave (which allows the normal mode to be excited and observed using external electrodes). Numerical results predicting the mode spectra, using a novel linear Vlasov code on a cylindrical grid, will be presented and compared to an analytic WKB theory. A previous version of the theory expanded the plasma response in powers of 1/B, approximating the local upper hybrid frequency, and consequently its frequency predictions are shifted with respect to the numerical results. A new version of the WKB theory uses the exact cold fluid plasma response and does a better job of reproducing the numerical frequency spectrum. The eventual goal is to compare the theory to recent experiments that have observed these waves in pure electron and pure ion plasmas. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570.
Core Physics and Kinetics Calculations for the Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, C.; Albright, D.
2007-01-01
Highly efficient, compact nuclear reactors would provide high specific impulse spacecraft propulsion. This analysis and numerical simulation effort has focused on the technical feasibility issues related to the nuclear design characteristics of a novel reactor design. The Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor (FPCR) is a shockwave-driven gaseous-core nuclear reactor, which uses Magneto Hydrodynamic effects to generate electric power to be used for propulsion. The nuclear design of the system depends on two major calculations: core physics calculations and kinetics calculations. Presently, core physics calculations have concentrated on the use of the MCNP4C code. However, initial results from other codes such as COMBINE/VENTURE and SCALE4a. are also shown. Several significant modifications were made to the ISR-developed QCALC1 kinetics analysis code. These modifications include testing the state of the core materials, an improvement to the calculation of the material properties of the core, the addition of an adiabatic core temperature model and improvement of the first order reactivity correction model. The accuracy of these modifications has been verified, and the accuracy of the point-core kinetics model used by the QCALC1 code has also been validated. Previously calculated kinetics results for the FPCR were described in the ISR report, "QCALC1: A code for FPCR Kinetics Model Feasibility Analysis" dated June 1, 2002.
Zheng, Kai; Li, Huan; Yang, Li-Jun; Gu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Ying
2013-04-01
The plasma radiation of laser-double wire hybrid welding was collected by using fiber spectrometer, the coupling mechanism of arc with laser was studied through high-speed photography during welding process, and the temperature of hybrid plasma was calculated by using the method of Boltzmann plot. The results indicated that with laser hybrid, luminance was enhanced; radiation intensity became stronger; arc was attracted to the laser point; cross section contracted and arc was more stable. The laser power, welding current and arc-arc distance are important factors that have great influence on electron temperature. Increase in the laser power, amplification of welding current and reduction of arc-arc distance can all result in the rise of temperature. PMID:23841392
Special methods for aerodynamic-moment calculations from parachute FSI modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Boswell, Cody; Tsutsui, Yuki; Montel, Kenneth
2015-06-01
The space-time fluid-structure interaction (STFSI) methods for 3D parachute modeling are now at a level where they can bring reliable, practical analysis to some of the most complex parachute systems, such as spacecraft parachutes. The methods include the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST method as the core computational technology, and a good number of special FSI methods targeting parachutes. Evaluating the stability characteristics of a parachute based on how the aerodynamic moment varies as a function of the angle of attack is one of the practical analyses that reliable parachute FSI modeling can deliver. We describe the special FSI methods we developed for this specific purpose and present the aerodynamic-moment data obtained from FSI modeling of NASA Orion spacecraft parachutes and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) subscale parachutes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grach, Savely; Bareev, Denis; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Sergeev, Evgeny
Damping rates of plasma waves with ω ˜ ωuh (ω is the plasma wave frequency, ωuh is the upper hybrid frequency) were calculated for frequencies close to and distant from the double resonance where ωuh ˜ nωce (ωce is the electron cyclotron frequency, n=4,5 are the gyroharmonic num-bers). The calculations were performed numerically on the base of full plasma wave dispersion relation not restricted by both the 'long wave limit' and 'short wave limit', i.e. a fulfillment of the inequalities |∆| |k |vTe and |∆| |k |vTe was not required. Here ∆ = ω - nωce , vTe = (Te /me )1/2 is the electron thermal velocity and k is the projection of the wave vector onto the magnetic field direction. It is shown that the plasma wave damping rates do not differ noticeably from ones calculated under the long wave and short wave limits. The results obtained are compared with the data of the relaxation of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) after the pump wave turn off, which demonstrate an essential decrease of the relaxation time near 4th electron gyroharmonic, so far as the SEE relaxation is attributed to the damping of plasma waves responsible for the SEE generation. The comparison allows to determine characteristics of plasma waves mostly contributing to the SEE generation, such as wave numbers and the angles between the wave vectors and geomagnetic field, and the altitude region of the SEE source. The dependence of the decay rate on ∆ can be applied also to interpretation of the SEE spectral shape at different pump frequencies near gyroharmonics. The work is supported by RFBR grants 10-02-00642, 09-02-01150 and Federal Special-purpose Program "Scientific and pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia".
Bar-Shalon, A.; Oreg, J. . Nuclear Research Center-Negev); Goldstein, W.H. )
1991-01-11
Recent improvements in the Super Transition Array (STA) method for calculating Bound-Bound (BB) and Bound-Free (BF) emission and absorption spectra for LTE plasma are described and illustrated. The method accounts for all possible BB and BF radiative transitions in the plasma. Full detailed first order quantum relativistic treatment is used for calculating transition energies and probabilities. The enormous number of configurations are divided into sets of superconfigurations comprised of a collection of energetically grouped configurations. The contribution of the transition array between two superconfigurations to a specific one-electron transition is then represented by a Gaussian whose moments are calculated accurately using a technique that bypasses the necessity of direct summation over all the levels involved. The calculation of these moments involves the populations of the configurations given by their statistical weights and the Boltzmann factor. For each configuration within the super configuration we use zeroeth order energies in the Boltzmann factor corrected by a super configuration averaged first order term. The structure of the spectrum is increasingly revealed by splitting each STA into a number of smaller STAs. When the spectrum converges it describes the detailed UTA' structure, where each configuration-to-configuration array is represented by a separate Gaussian with first order energy in the Boltzmann factor. Convergence is reached with only a few thousand STAs, at most, which makes the calculations practical. It should be pointed out that in this treatment the STA moments are obtained by summing over all level-to-level transitions, rather than configuration-to-configuration average transitions. 4 refs., 9 figs.
Collisional-radiative calculations of He line emission in low-temperature plasmas
Ballance, C. P.; Griffin, D. C.; Loch, S. D.; Boivin, R. F.; Pindzola, M. S.
2006-07-15
We present spectral modeling results for neutral helium. Our underlying atomic data contains radiative transition rates that are generated from atomic structure calculations and electron-impact excitation rates, that are determined from both the standard R-matrix method and the R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method. In this paper, we focus on transitions of particular importance to diagnostic line ratios. For example, our calculated rate coefficient for the electron-impact transition 1s3s {sup 1}S{yields}1s3p {sup 1}P, which has a pronounced effect on the 728.1 nm diagnostic spectral line, is found to be in good agreement with previous experimental measurements. We also consider transitions from the 1s{sup 2} {sup 1}S ground and 1s2s {sup 3}S terms to terms of the n=4 shell. They are found to be affected significantly by coupling of the bound states to the target continuum (continuum coupling), which is included in our RMPS calculation, but not in our standard R-matrix calculation. We perform collisional-radiative calculations to determine spectral line intensity ratios for three ratios of particular interest, namely the 504.8 nm/471.3 nm, 492.2 nm/471.3 nm, and 492.2 nm/504.8 nm line ratios. Comparing our results determined from the RMPS excitation rates with those from the standard R-matrix excitation rates, we find that continuum coupling affects the rate coefficients significantly, leading to different values for all three line ratios. We also compare our modeling results with spectral measurements taken recently on the Auburn Helicon plasma device, finding that the ground and metastable populations are not in equilibrium, and that the experimental measurements are more consistent with the 1s2s {sup 3}S metastable term populations being short lived in the plasma.
MCDHF calculations and study of plasma parameters for Li-like ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatri, Indu; Goyal, Arun; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A. K.; Man Mohan
2016-06-01
Extensive configuration interaction calculations for several Li-like ions (Z=32, 36, 42, 46, 50, 54 and 56) are performed using the code GRASP2K based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) method. Breit interaction and leading quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects are also included by applying active-space techniques to enlarge the configuration set. Results for fine-structure energy levels for 1s22p, 1s23s, 1s23p and 1s23d configurations with relative to ground states 1s22s are presented. The wavelengths, transition rates and oscillator strengths for the 1s22s 2S1/2-1s22p 1/2,3/2,0 2P, 1s22p 1/2,3/2,0,2P - -1s23s 2S1/2, 1s22p calculated results are in good agreement with previous theoretical results and compiled values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). We have also provided the line intensity ratios and plasma parameters for optically thin plasma. Our calculated data may be useful for experimentalists in identifying the fine-structure levels, for plasma modeling, astrophysical research applications.
Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit calculation for toroidal plasmas of arbitrary cross section
White, R.B.; Chance, M.S.
1984-02-01
A Hamiltonian guiding center drift orbit formalism is developed which permits the efficient calculation of particle trajectories in toroidal devices of arbitrary cross section with arbitrary plasma ..beta... The magnetic field is assumed to be a small perturbation from a zero order toroidal equilibrium field possessing either axial or helical symmetry. The equilibrium field can be modelled analytically or obtained numerically from equilibrium codes. A numerical code based on the formalism is used to study particle orbits in circular and bean-shaped tokamak configurations.
Numerical methods for the calculation of special functions of wave catastrophes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ipatov, E. B.; Lukin, D. S.; Palkin, E. A.
1985-02-01
The paper investigates the properties of special functions which are used for the asymptotic description of the structure of wave fields near various types of focusings. These functions are realized in software packages for the BESM-6 computer using FORTRAN. The canonical equations and basic properties of these functions are examined along with the development of numerical algorithms for their computation. These functions may be applied in the study of various types of wave problems, including: (1) radio wave propagation in the ionosphere and ionospheric waveguide channels; (2) the fine structure of sound fields in an acoustic duct; and (3) the focusing of laser radiation reflected from a rough surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anoshko, I. A.; Ermachenko, V. S.
2006-05-01
The velocity of a plasma jet in the nozzle exit section and the pressure in the discharge zone of a coaxial-electrode Hall accelerator have been calculated on the basis of the experimentally measured enthalpy, temperature, and electron concentration near the indicated section within the framework of a model of the magnetic hydrodynamics of a plasma flow.
Beta electron fluxes inside a magnetic plasma cavern: Calculation and comparison with experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stupitskii, E. L.; Smirnov, E. V.; Kulikova, N. A.
2010-12-01
We study the possibility of electrostatic blanking of beta electrons in the expanding spherical blob of a radioactive plasma in a rarefied ionosphere. From numerical studies on the dynamics of beta electrons departing a cavern, we obtain the form of a function that determines the portion of departing electrons and calculate the flux density of beta electrons inside the cavern in relation to the Starfish Prime nuclear blast. We show that the flux density of electrons in geomagnetic flux tubes and inside the cavern depend on a correct allowance for the quantity of beta electrons returning to the cavern. On the basis of a physical analysis, we determine the approximate criterion for the return of electrons from a geomagnetic flux tube to the cavern. We compare calculation results in terms of the flux density of beta electrons inside the cavern with the recently published experimental results from operation Starfish Prime.
Kokkoris, George; Boudouvis, Andreas G.; Gogolides, Evangelos
2006-11-15
An integrated framework for the neutral flux calculation inside trenches and holes during plasma etching is described, and a comparison between the two types of structure in a number of applications is presented. First, a detailed and functional set of equations for the neutral and ion flux calculations inside long trenches and holes with cylindrical symmetry is explicitly formulated. This set is based on early works [T. S. Cale and G. B. Raupp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1242 (1990); V. K. Singh et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1091 (1992)], and includes new equations for the case of holes with cylindrical symmetry. Second, a method for the solution of the respective numerical task, i.e., one or a set of linear or nonlinear integral equations, is described. This method includes a coupling algorithm with a surface chemistry model and resolves the singularity problem of the integral equations. Third, the fluxes inside trenches and holes are compared. The flux from reemission is the major portion of the local flux at the bottom of both types of structure. The framework is applied in SiO{sub 2} etching by fluorocarbon plasmas to predict the increased intensity of reactive ion etching lag in SiO{sub 2} holes compared to trenches. It is also applied in deep Si etching: By calculating the flux of F atoms at the bottom of very high aspect ratio (up to 150) Si trenches and holes during the gas chopping process, the aspect ratio at which the flux of F atoms is eliminated and etching practically stops is estimated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchand, R.; Purschke, D.; Samson, J.
2013-03-01
Understanding the physics of interaction between satellites and the space environment is essential in planning and exploiting space missions. Several computer models have been developed over the years to study this interaction. In all cases, simulations are carried out in the reference frame of the spacecraft and effects such as charging, the formation of electrostatic sheaths and wakes are calculated for given conditions of the space environment. In this paper we present a program used to compute magnetic fields and a number of space plasma and space environment parameters relevant to Low Earth Orbits (LEO) spacecraft-plasma interaction modeling. Magnetic fields are obtained from the International Geophysical Reference Field (IGRF) and plasma parameters are obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. All parameters are computed in the spacecraft frame of reference as a function of its six Keplerian elements. They are presented in a format that can be used directly in most spacecraft-plasma interaction models. Catalogue identifier: AENY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270308 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2323222 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90. Computer: Non specific. Operating system: Non specific. RAM: 7.1 MB Classification: 19, 4.14. External routines: IRI, IGRF (included in the package). Nature of problem: Compute magnetic field components, direction of the sun, sun visibility factor and approximate plasma parameters in the reference frame of a Low Earth Orbit satellite. Solution method: Orbit integration, calls to IGRF and IRI libraries and transformation of coordinates from geocentric to spacecraft
Finite time calculations for hard parton production relevant to the quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meiring, Ben; Horowitz, W. A.
2015-10-01
AdS/CFT computations have been used to describe the energy loss of QCD-like particles moving through a strongly coupled plasma, but little is understood regarding the initial conditions of these jets. We use the Schwinger-Keldysh finite-time formalism applied to an interacting scalar field theory to derive perturbative expressions detailing the system which exists during the initial stages of a high energy collision. In this paper we calculate <ϕ>(x) for a scalar Yukawa model, demonstrate the finiteness of the energy momentum tensor for λϕ4 to leading order, and derive an expression for the conditional expectation value of operators to aid in the description jet-like behaviour in interacting theories.
Neoclassical orbit calculations with a full-f code for tokamak edge plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rognlien, T. D.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M.; Hittinger, J.; Xu, X. Q.; Collela, P.; Martin, D.
2008-11-01
Ion distribution function modifications are considered for the case of neoclassical orbit widths comparable to plasma radial-gradient scale-lengths. Implementation of proper boundary conditions at divertor plates in the continuum TEMPEST code, including the effect of drifts in determining the direction of total flow, enables such calculations in single-null divertor geometry, with and without an electrostatic potential. The resultant poloidal asymmetries in densities, temperatures, and flows are discussed. For long-time simulations, a slow numerical instability develops, even in simplified (circular) geometry with no endloss, which aids identification of the mixed treatment of parallel and radial convection terms as the cause. The new Edge Simulation Laboratory code, expected to be operational, has algorithmic refinements that should address the instability. We will present any available results from the new code on this problem as well as geodesic acoustic mode tests.
Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Fuentes, L. M.; Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C. Rosa, M. I. de la
2014-10-07
We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.
Sugama, H.; Nishimura, S.
2008-04-15
A detailed comparison is made between moment-equation methods presented by H. Sugama and S. Nishimura [Phys. Plasmas 9, 4637 (2002)] and by M. Taguchi [Phys. Fluids B 4, 3638 (1992)] for calculating neoclassical transport coefficients in general toroidal plasmas including nonsymmetric systems. It is shown that these methods can be derived from the drift kinetic equation with the same collision model used for correctly taking account of collisional momentum conservation. In both methods, the Laguerre polynomials of the energy variable are employed to expand the guiding-center distribution function and to obtain the moment equations, by which the radial neoclassical transport fluxes and the parallel flows are related to the thermodynamic forces. The methods are given here in the forms applicable for an arbitrary truncation number of the Laguerre-polynomial expansion so that their accuracies can be improved by increasing the truncation number. Differences between results from the two methods appear when the Laguerre-polynomial expansion is truncated up to a finite order because different weight functions are used in them to derive the moment equations. At each order of the truncation, the neoclassical transport coefficients obtained from the Sugama-Nishimura method show the Onsager symmetry and satisfy the ambipolar-diffusion condition intrinsically for symmetric systems. Also, numerical examples are given to show how the transport coefficients converge with the truncation number increased for the two methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruggeman, Peter; Degrez, Gérard; Delplancke, Marie-Paule; Gleizes, Alain
2011-05-01
The 11th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP) was held in Brussels, Belgium, 27 June-2 July, 2010. HTPP started as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include low-temperature plasmas. The conference was founded by Jacques Amouroux and Pierre Fauchais, and aims to bring together different scientific communities to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry, providing a platform for the exploration of elementary processes and applications in and by plasmas. The first HTPP was held in Odeillo, France, in 1990. Since then it has been held every other year in different European cities: Paris, Aachen, Athens, Strasbourg, Saint-Petersburg, Patras and Brussels. The 11th HTPP conference was attended by 125 participants from 19 countries. The program involved 14 invited talks, 34 contributed talks, 72 posters and a software demonstration and hands-on session for plasma modelling. The 12th HTPP conference will be held 24-28 June 2012, in Bologna, Italy. A larger part of the contributions to the 11th HTPP has been published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) volume 275, 2011. All invited speakers and other contributors, as selected by the Steering, Scientific and Organizing Committee, were invited to submit a paper based on their contributions for this special issue which is peer reviewed by the journal. Both this special issue and the JPCS volume aim to bring the 11th HTPP to a wider audience. The publications are a nice example of the broad topic range of the conference. The JPCS volume contains papers covering fundamental aspects on radiative processes of thermal plasmas, modelling of thermal arcs and non-thermal RF plasma jets, plasma diagnostics including flow and heat flux measurements of thermal plasmas, radical density measurements and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The applications-oriented contributions of the JPCS volume include plasma spraying, synthesis of (nano-sized) materials, surface
Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.
1990-01-01
The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Pakmanesh, Nahid; Rastegari, Ali; Abdolghader, Pedram; Feizollah, Peyman; Siadati, Neda
2016-04-01
The performance of an atmospheric pressure pulsed carbon dioxide laser employing surface plasma preionization, produced on a specially patterned printed circuit board (PCB), is reported. The surface plasma is formed due to many tiny plasma channels produced in millimeter sized open circular gaps, made by lithography on one side of PCB. The preionizing plasma is mostly consisted of corona or glow stage and transition to spark one hardly occurs. This type of preionization allows a maximum of 220 J/l energy deposition into the main plasma, while up scaling is yet possible by more optimization of PCB and the pattern. The laser output energy of 1.2 J per pulse with overall efficiency of 7% has been obtained with gas mixture of He:CO2:N2=3:1:1. This type of surface plasma preionization is specifically appropriate for very large volumes and high pressures, where the conventional UV emitting preionizations like spark arrays or corona are not effective.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, D.; Wang, J.
2015-12-01
The moon-plasma interactions and the resulting surface charging have been subjects of extensive recent investigations. While many particle-in-cell (PIC) based simulation models have been developed, all existing PIC simulation models treat the surface of the Moon as a boundary condition to the plasma flow. In such models, the surface of the Moon is typically limited to simple geometry configurations, the surface floating potential is calculated from a simplified current balance condition, and the electric field inside the regolith layer cannot be resolved. This paper presents a new full particle PIC model to simulate local scale plasma flow and surface charging. A major feature of this new model is that the surface is treated as an "interface" between two mediums rather than a boundary, and the simulation domain includes not only the plasma but also the regolith layer and the bedrock underneath it. There are no limitations on the surface shape. An immersed-finite-element field solver is applied which calculates the regolith surface floating potential and the electric field inside the regolith layer directly from local charge deposition. The material property of the regolith layer is also explicitly included in simulation. This new model is capable of providing a self-consistent solution to the plasma flow field, lunar surface charging, the electric field inside the regolith layer and the bedrock for realistic surface terrain. This new model is applied to simulate lunar surface-plasma interactions and surface charging under various ambient plasma conditions. The focus is on the lunar terminator region, where the combined effects from the low sun elevation angle and the localized plasma wake generated by plasma flow over a rugged terrain can generate strongly differentially charged surfaces and complex dust dynamics. We discuss the effects of the regolith properties and regolith layer charging on the plasma flow field, dust levitation, and dust transport.
Calculation of the Non-Inductive Current Profile in High-Performance NSTX Plasmas
Gerhardt, S P; Gates, D; Kaye, S; Menard, J; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Le Blanc, B P; Kugel, H; Sabbagh, S A
2011-02-09
The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]; these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β, or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven, and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfven eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n=1/1+2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast ion diffusivity of ~0.5-1 m2/sec is found in “MHD-free” discharges, based on the neutron emission, time rate of change of the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped, and reconstructed on-axis current density.
Calculation of the non-inductive current profile in high-performance NSTX plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Yuh, H.
2011-03-01
The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557); these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast-ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast-ion diffusivity of ~0.5-1 m2 s-1 is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, the time rate of change in the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped and reconstructed on-axis current density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stallcop, J. R.
1974-01-01
The theory for calculating the absorption of laser radiation by hydrogen is outlined for the temperatures and pressures of common laboratory plasmas. Nonhydrogenic corrections for determining the absorption by helium are also included. The coefficients for the absorption of He-Ne laser radiation at the wavelengths of 0.633, 1.15, and 3.39 microns in a H plasma is presented for temperatures in the range from 10,000 to 40,000 K and electron number densities in the range from 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 18th power per cu cm. The total absorption of a H-He plasma calculated from this theory is compared with the measured absorption. The theoretical composition of the H-He absorption is analyzed with respect to the significant absorption processes, inverse bremsstrahlung, photoionization, resonance excitation, and photodetachment.
Wave Normal and Poynting Vector Calculations using the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Instrument
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hospodarsky, G. B.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Dougherty, M.; Inan, Umran; Wood, Troy
2001-01-01
Wave normal and Poynting vector measurements from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWS) are used to examine the propagation characteristics of various plasma waves during the Earth flyby on August 18, 1999. Using the five-channel waveform receiver (WFR), the wave normal vector is determined using the Means method for a lightning-induced whistler, equatorial chorus, and a series of low-frequency emissions observed while Cassini was in the magnetosheath. The Poynting vector for these emissions is also calculated from the five components measured by the WFR. The propagation characteristics of the lightning-induced whistler were found to be consistent with the whistler wave mode of propagation, with propagation antiparallel to the magnetic field (southward) at Cassini. The sferic associated with this whistler was observed by both Cassini and the Stanford VLF group at the Palmer Station in Antarctica. Analysis of the arrival direction of the sferic at the Palmer Station suggests that the lightning stroke is in the same sector as Cassini. Chorus was observed very close (within a few degrees) to the magnetic equator during the flyby. The chorus was found to propagate primarily away from the magnetic equator and was observed to change direction as Cassini crossed the magnetic equator. This suggests that the source region of the chorus is very near the magnetic equator. The low-frequency emission in the magnetosheath has many of the characteristics of lion roars. The average value of the angle between the wave normal vector and the local magnetic field was found to be 16 degrees, and the emissions ranged in frequency from 0. 19 to 0.75 f(sub ce), where f(sub ce) is the electron cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors of these waves were primarily in one direction for each individual burst (either parallel or antiparallel to the local field) but varied in direction throughout the magnetosheath. This suggests that the sources of the emissions are far from
Ralchenko, Yu.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Colgan, J.; Fontes, C. J.; Foster, M.; Zhang, H. L.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Bauche, J.; Bauche-Arnoult, C.; Bowen, C.; Faussurier, G.; Chung, H.-K.; Hansen, S. B.; Lee, R. W.; Scott, H.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de; Poirier, M.; Golovkin, I.; Novikov, V.
2009-09-10
We present calculations of ionization balance and radiative power losses for tungsten in magnetic fusion plasmas. The simulations were performed within the framework of Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) Code Comparison Workshops utilizing several independent collisional-radiative models. The calculations generally agree with each other; however, a clear disagreement with experimental ionization distributions at low temperatures 2 keV
Alis, Rafael; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lippi, Giuseppe; Roamgnoli, Marco
2016-06-01
The assessment of plasma volume loss (∆PV) induced by exercise can be estimated from changes in hematocrit (Htc) and hemoglobin (Hb), and it is essential when investigating the metabolic or biologic response to exercise of circulating biomarkers. We aimed to ascertain whether the estimation of ∆PV may differ when Hb and Htc are determined by automated hematological analyzer (AHA) versus manual methods. Twenty-five healthy male subjects performed a maximal running incremental exercise. Blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after a 30-min recovery. Hb and Htc (Htc-AHA) were determined by an AHA. Htc was also determined by microcentrifugation (Htc-M). The ∆PV immediately after exercise and after recovery was calculated. The serum concentrations of several specimens were determined and corrected for ∆PV derived from Htc-AHA (∆PVAHA) and from Htc-M (∆PVM). Htc-M was found to be higher than Htc-AHA at all time points (p < 0.001). However, no differences were observed between ∆PVM and ∆PVAHA either post exercise (∆PVM -12.43% versus ∆PVAHA -12.41%, p = 0.929) or after recovery (∆PVM 1.47% versus ∆PVAHA 1.97%, p = 0.171). No significant differences were found between both ∆PV corrected concentrations of any biomarker (p ≥ 0.076). In conclusion, both AHA and the microcentrifuge may be reliably used to estimate ∆PV during exercise. PMID:25795010
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adineh, V. R.; Coufal, O.; Bartlova, M.
2015-10-01
This work reports theoretical calculations of electrical discharge machining (EDM) radiative properties for mixture systems of N2-C, N2-Cu and N2-W arc plasmas, in the temperature range of 3000-10 000 K, and at 1 and 10 bar pressures. Radiative properties are computed for various plasma sizes as well as vapour proportions. Calculations consider line overlapping with spectrum coverage from 30 to 10 000 nm. Doppler, Natural, Van-der-Waals, Resonance and Stark broadening are taken into account as the line broadening mechanisms. Besides, continuum calculations consider bound-free and free-free emissions along with molecular bands radiation for selected molecular systems. Results show that contamination vapours of EDM electrode have strong influence on the amount of EDM plasma radiation to the surrounding environment. However, comparison of impurities from workpiece with electrode one indicates that Fe vapour has stronger impact on modifying the EDM arc plasma radiative properties, compared to the C, Cu and W species studied in this research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Tashiro, S.; Nakata, K.; Yamamoto, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Suzuki, K.; Murphy, A. B.; Lowke, J. J.
2010-11-01
A gas tungsten arc (GTA) was modelled taking into account the contamination of the plasma by metal vapour from the molten anode. The whole region of GTA atmosphere including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode was treated using a unified numerical model. A viscosity approximation was used to express the diffusion coefficient in terms of viscosity of the shielding gas and metal vapour. The transient two-dimensional distributions of temperature, velocity of plasma flow and iron vapour concentration were predicted, together with the molten pool as a function of time for a 150 A arc current at atmospheric pressure, both for helium and argon gases. It was shown that the thermal plasma in the GTA was influenced by iron vapour from the molten pool surface and that the concentration of iron vapour in the plasma was dependent on the temperature of the molten pool. GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was calculated to discuss the differences between a low sulfur and a high sulfur stainless steel anode. Helium was selected as the shielding gas because a helium GTA produces more metal vapour than an argon GTA. In the GTA on a high sulfur stainless steel anode, iron vapour and current path were constricted. Radiative emission density in the GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was also concentrated in the centre area of the arc plasma together with the iron vapour although the temperature distributions were almost the same as that in the case of a low sulfur stainless steel anode.
Cucuianu, M; Rus, H G; Cristea, A; Niculescu, F; Bedeleanu, D; Poruţiu, D; Roman, S
1985-04-30
When compared to age-matched normal weight normolipidemic control subjects, plasma factor XIII, plasma fibronectin and serum cholinesterase levels were found to be markedly decreased in patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver, not significantly changed in hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa (heterozygous subjects) and increased in hypertriglyceridemic subjects (type IIb and IV) as well as in hyperlipidemic nephrotic patients. A possible accelerated hepatic synthesis of certain plasma proteins including factor XIII and fibronectin in patients with the nephrotic syndrome as well as in endogenous hypertriglyceridemia is envisaged. It is also considered that mural thrombi, richer in factor XIII and fibronectin, would be more resistant to fibrinolysis and more readily attached to subendothelial structures. PMID:3922652
Special Features of the Structure of Copper-containing Products of Plasma Dynamic Synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivashutenko, A. S.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Sivkov, A. A.; Saigash, A. S.; Stepanov, K. I.
2015-03-01
Results of investigation of the dispersed, phase, and chemical compositions of products of plasma dynamic synthesis in a high-speed pulsed jet of copper-containing electroerosive plasma flowing into a closed volume with the air atmosphere are presented. Products of synthesis are investigated by the methods of x-ray phase and thermal analyses, electron microscopy, and IR spectroscopy. The structure of the synthesized powder includes metal copper, Cu2O and CuO copper oxides, and hydrated copper hydroxide Cu(OH)2·N2O. Results of investigations of structural changes of the synthesized products during heating in vacuum and air are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukurov, Anvar; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Schekochihin, Alexander
2015-08-01
This issue commemorates an outstanding scientist of the twentieth century, Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich, in connection with the centenary of his birth (8 March 1914), with a collection of reviews and research articles broadly related to large-scale random phenomena in astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Yamauchi, M.
2015-12-01
Within our solar system, the planets, moons, comets and asteroids all have plasma interactions. The interaction depends on the nature of the object, particularly the presence of an atmosphere and a magnetic field. Even the size of the object matters through the finite gyroradius effect and the scale height of cold ions of exospheric origin. It also depends on the upstream conditions, including position within the solar wind or the presence within a planetary magnetosphere. Soon after ESA's Rosetta reached comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, NASA's Maven and ISRO's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) reached Mars, and ESA's Venus Express mission was completed, this issue explores our understanding of plasma interactions with comets, Mars, Venus, and moons in the solar system. We explore the processes which characterise the interactions, such as ion pickup and field draping, and their effects such as plasma escape. Papers are based on data from current and recent space missions, modelling and theory, as we explore our local part of the 'plasma universe'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinko, Sam
2014-10-01
An accurate description of the ionization potential depression (IPD) of ions in plasmas due to their interaction with the environment is a fundamental problem in plasma physics, playing a key role in determining the ionization balance, charge state distribution, opacity and plasma equation of state. Here I present the first experimental investigation of the IPD as a function of ionic charge state in a range of dense Mg, Al and Si plasmas, using the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. The measurements show significantly larger IPDs than are predicted by the most commonly used models, such as that of Stewart-Pyatt, or the ion-sphere model of Zimmerman-More. Instead, plasma simulations using finite-temperature density functional theory with excited-state projector augmented-wave potentials show excellent agreement with the experimental results and explain the stronger-than-expected continuum lowering through the electronic structure of the valence states in these strong-coupling conditions, which retain much of their atomic characteristics close to the ion core regions. These results have a profound impact on the understanding and modelling of plasmas over a wide range of warm- and hot-dense matter conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H.
2008-07-01
The ion drag force on a spherical dust particle immersed in a flowing plasma with an external electric field is self-consistently calculated using the particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC in the entire range of charge-exchange collisionality. Our results, not based on questionable approximations, extend prior analytic calculations valid only in a few limiting regimes. Particular attention is given to the force direction, shown never to be directed opposite to the flow except in the continuum limit, where other forces are of a much stronger magnitude.
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H.
2008-07-11
The ion drag force on a spherical dust particle immersed in a flowing plasma with an external electric field is self-consistently calculated using the particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC in the entire range of charge-exchange collisionality. Our results, not based on questionable approximations, extend prior analytic calculations valid only in a few limiting regimes. Particular attention is given to the force direction, shown never to be directed opposite to the flow except in the continuum limit, where other forces are of a much stronger magnitude.
Ristanović, D; Ristanović, D; Malesević, J; Milutinović, B
1983-01-01
Plasma kinetics of bromsulphalein (BSP) after a single injection into the bloodstream of the rat with total obstruction of the common bile duct was examined. The concentrations of BSP were determined colorimetrically. A monoexponential plus a general first-degree function in time with four unknown parameters was fitted. Two programs were developed for the Texas Instruments 59 programmable calculator to estimate the values of all the parameters by an iteration procedure. The programs executed at about twice normal speed. PMID:6617168
Radiation cooling and gain calculation for C VI 182 A line in C/Se plasma
Nam, C.H.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.; Feldman, U.
1986-04-01
A model is developed which is capable of describing the evolution of gain resulting from both rapid radiative and expansion cooling of a recombining, freely expanding plasma. It is demonstrated for the particular case of a carbon/selenium plasma that the cooling rate which leads to optimal gain can be achieved by adjusting the admixture of an efficiently radiating material (selenium) in the gain medium (carbon). Comparison is made to a recent observation of gain in a recent NRL/Rochester experiment with carbon/selenium plasma for the n = 3 ..-->.. 2 transition in C VI occurring at 182 A. The predicted maximum gain is approx.10 cm/sup -1/, as compared to observation of 2 to 3 cm/sup -1/.
UAH mathematical model of the variable polarity plasma ARC welding system calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.
1994-01-01
Significant advantages of Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) welding process include faster welding, fewer repairs, less joint preparation, reduced weldment distortion, and absence of porosity. A mathematical model is presented to analyze the VPPA welding process. Results of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental observation accomplished by the GDI team.
Calculation of Moments from Measurements by the Los Alamos Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer
M. F. Thomsen; E. Noveroske; J. E. Borovsky; D. J. McComas
1999-05-01
The various steps involved in computing the moments (density, velocity, and temperature) of the ion and electron distributions measured with the Los Alamos Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) are described. The assumptions, constants, and algorithms contained in the FORTRAN code are presented, as well as the output parameters produced by the code.
Goncharov, P R; Ozaki, T; Sudo, S; Tamura, N; Tolstikhina, I Yu; Sergeev, V Yu
2008-10-01
Measurements of energy- and time-resolved neutral hydrogen and helium fluxes from an impurity pellet ablation cloud, referred to as pellet charge exchange or PCX experiments, can be used to study local fast ion energy distributions in fusion plasmas. The estimation of the local distribution function f(i)(E) of fast ions entering the cloud requires knowledge of both the fraction F(0)(E) of incident ions exiting the cloud as neutral atoms and the attenuation factor A(E,rho) describing the loss of fast atoms in the plasma. Determination of A(E,rho), in turn, requires the total stopping cross section sigma(loss) of neutral atoms in the plasma and the Jacobian reflecting the measurement geometry and the magnetic surface shape. The obtained functions F(0)(E) and A(E,rho) enter multiplicatively into the probability density for escaping neutral particle kinetic energy. A general calculation scheme has been developed and realized as a FORTRAN code, which is to be applied for the calculation of f(i)(E) from PCX experimental results obtained with low-Z impurity pellets. PMID:19044625
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2010-11-15
Electron-hydrogen scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense plasmas has been investigated using the convergent-close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe the plasma screening effects. The target structure, excitation dynamics, and ionization process change dramatically as the screening is increased. Excitation cross sections for the 1s{yields}2s,2p,3s,3p,3d and 2s{yields}2p,3s,3p,3d transitions and total and total ionization cross sections for the scattering from the 1s and 2s states are presented. Calculations cover the energy range from thresholds to high energies (250 eV) for various Debye lengths. We find that as the screening increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
Three-dimensional plasma particle-in-cell calculations of ion thruster backflow contamination
Roy, R.I.S.; Hastings, D.E.; Taylor, S.
1996-10-01
A fully three-dimensional hybrid plasma particle-in-cell model for multi-computer environments was developed to assess the spacecraft backflow contamination of an ion thruster. Results of plume backflow are presented for a 13-cm xenon ion thruster operating with a current level of 0.4 A on a model spacecraft. The computational domain was over 40 m{sup 3} in volume, and used over 35 million particles representing charge-exchange (CEX) xenon ions produced in the plume. Results obtained on a massively parallel 256-node Cray T3D clearly show the plasma density enhancement around the spacecraft due to the CEX ions. Three-dimensional results are compared with the results of a two-dimensional axisymmetric model to explore the three-dimensionality of the backstreaming flowfield. 15 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.
Stenbøg, Poul; Busk, Troels; Larsen, Fin Stolze
2013-06-01
Severe liver injury result in development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and often also in brain edema that is a potentially fatal complication. HE and brain edema are correlated to the level and persistence of hyperammonemia and the presence of systemic inflammation. Treatment of HE and brain edema is based on restoring and keeping normal physiological variables including tonicity, blood gasses, lactate, temperature and vascular resistance by a wide variety of interventions. In addition liver support devices improve the stage of HE, cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen and glucose, and are used either as a bridge to liver transplantation or liver recovery in patients with fulminant hepatic failure and in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. This short review will mainly focus on the management and efficacy of doing plasma exchange on HE in patients with acute HE. PMID:23572273
Calculation of two-dimensional plasma sheath with application to radial dust oscillations
Sheridan, T.E.
2005-07-15
Dust particles are often confined radially in a plasma potential well above a cylindrical depression in an otherwise flat electrode. The structure of the two-dimensional, time-independent sheath is computed for this geometry using cold, collisionless ions and Boltzmann electrons. A depression with a radius of 16 Debye lengths and a depth of 2 Debye lengths is modeled for negative electrode biases from 6 to 32 times the electron temperature. The normalized radial oscillation frequency for a dust particle in the well is computed from the sheath potential structure. The model results agree qualitatively with the experimental measurements.
TMRBAR: a code to calculate plasma parameters for tandem-mirror reactors operating in the MARS mode
Campbell, R.B.
1983-08-30
The purpose of this report is to document the plasma power balance model currently used by LLNL to calculate steady state operating points for tandem mirror reactors. The code developed from this model, TMRBAR, has been used to predict the performance and define supplementary heating requirements for drivers used in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) and for the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) study. The equations solved included particle and energy balance for central cell and end cell species, quasineutrality at several cardinal points in the end cell region, as well as calculations of volumes, densities and average energies based on given constraints of beta profiles and fusion power output. Alpha particle ash is treated self-consistently, but no other impurity species is treated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolova, A. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Charakhch'yan, A. A.
2016-03-01
Integral formulas for the three-dimensional case that give the plasma heating rate per unit volume are obtained using the track method and by integrating the well-known Cauchy problem for the steady-state homogeneous kinetic equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation in the absence of diffusion of the distribution function in the velocity space and under the condition that the velocity of the produced particles is independent on the direction of their escape. It is shown that both integral formulas are equivalent and, in the case of space homogeneous coefficients, turn into the model of local plasma heating away from the domain boundary. In addition to the known direct track method, the inverse method based on the approximation of the integral formula is developed. It is shown that the accuracy of the direct method is significantly decreased in the vicinity of the symmetry axis for not very fine angular grids. In the inverse method, the accuracy is not lost. It is shown that the computational cost of the inverse method can be significantly reduced without the considerable reduction of the computation accuracy.
Generalized Lenard-Balescu calculations of electron-ion temperature relaxation in beryllium plasma.
Fu, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Da-Fang; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping
2015-09-01
The problem of electron-ion temperature relaxation in beryllium plasma at various densities (0.185-18.5g/cm^{3}) and temperatures [(1.0-8)×10^{3} eV] is investigated by using the generalized Lenard-Balescu theory. We consider the correlation effects between electrons and ions via classical and quantum static local field corrections. The numerical results show that the electron-ion pair distribution function at the origin approaches the maximum when the electron-electron coupling parameter equals unity. The classical result of the Coulomb logarithm is in agreement with the quantum result in both the weak (Γ_{ee}<10^{-2}) and strong (Γ_{ee}>1) electron-electron coupling ranges, whereas it deviates from the quantum result at intermediate values of the coupling parameter (10^{-2}<Γ_{ee}<1). We find that with increasing density of Be, the Coulomb logarithm will decrease and the corresponding relaxation rate ν_{ie} will increase. In addition, a simple fitting law ν_{ie}/ν_{ie}^{(0)}=a(ρ_{Be}/ρ_{0})^{b} is determined, where ν_{ie}^{(0)} is the relaxation rate corresponding to the normal metal density of Be and ρ_{0}, a, and b are the fitting parameters related to the temperature and the degree of ionization 〈Z〉 of the system. Our results are expected to be useful for future inertial confinement fusion experiments involving Be plasma. PMID:26465571
Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Li, Yao; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli
2014-03-15
The electron chemical potential and ion charge state (average ion charge and ion distribution) are important parameters in calculating plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire. In this paper, the calculating method of electron chemical potential and ion charge state is discussed at first. For the calculation of electron chemical potential, the ideal free electron gas model and Thomas-Fermi model are compared and analyzed in terms of the coupling constant of plasma. The Thomas-Fermi ionization model, which is used to calculate ion charge state, is compared with the method based on Saha equation. Furthermore, the influence of electron degenerated energy levels and ion excited states in Saha equation on the ion charge state is also analyzed. Then the influence of different calculating methods of electron chemical potential and ion charge state on plasma conductivity is discussed by applying them in the Lee-More conductivity model.
Benn, Peter
2016-06-01
Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal chromosome defects has high sensitivity and specificity but is not fully diagnostic. In response to a desire to provide more information to individual women with positive NIPS results, 2 online calculators have been developed to calculate posttest risk (PTR). Use of these calculators is critically reviewed. There is a mathematically dictated requirement for a precise estimate for the specificity to provide an accurate PTR. This is illustrated by showing that a 0.1% decrease in the value for specificities for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 can reduce the PTR from 79-64% for trisomy 21, 39-27% for trisomy 18, and 21-13% for trisomy 13, respectively. Use of the calculators assumes that sensitivity and specificity are constant for all women receiving the test but there is evidence that discordancy between screening results and true fetal karyotype is more common for older women. Use of an appropriate value for the prior risk is also important and for rare disorders there is considerable uncertainty regarding prevalence. For example, commonly used rates for trisomy 13, monosomy-X, triploidy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome can vary by >4-fold and this can translate into large differences in PTR. When screening for rare disorders, it may not be possible to provide a reliable PTR if there is uncertainty over the false-positive rate and/or prevalence. These limitations, per se, do not negate the value of screening for rare conditions. However, counselors need to carefully weigh the validity of PTR before presenting them to patients. Additional epidemiologic and NIPS outcome data are needed. PMID:26772793
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Howling, A. A.; Furno, I.
2015-12-01
Measurements and analysis of a radio-frequency planar antenna are presented for applications in inductively-coupled plasma processing. The network of inductive and capacitive elements exhibits high currents under resonance which are efficient for plasma generation. Mode frequencies and impedances are accurately calculated by accounting for the mutual partial inductances using the impedance matrix. The effect of plasma inductive coupling on mode frequency shift and mode impedance is estimated using the complex image method, giving good agreement with experiment. It is proposed that the complex image method combined with the partial inductance concept (see the accompanying paper, Part I (Howling et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065014)) offers a general way to calculate the impedance characteristics of inductively-coupled plasma sources in planar geometry.
Convergence of Chapman-Enskog calculation of transport coefficients of magnetized argon plasma
Bruno, D.; Catalfamo, C.; Laricchiuta, A.; Giordano, D.; Capitelli, M.
2006-07-15
Convergence properties of the Chapman-Enskog method in the presence of a magnetic field for the calculation of the transport properties of nonequilibrium partially ionized argon have been studied emphasizing the role of the different collision integrals. In particular, the Ramsauer minimum of electron-argon cross sections affects the convergence of the Chapman-Enskog method at low temperature, while Coulomb collisions affect the results at higher temperatures. The presence of an applied magnetic field mitigates the slow convergence for the components affected by the field.
Equation of state of the one-component plasma derived from precision Monte Carlo calculations
Stringfellow, G.S. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 ); DeWitt, H.E. ); Slattery, W.L. )
1990-01-15
Analytical fits to the one-component plasma (OCP) equation of state have been derived for internal energies that have reduced all {ital N}-dependent effects to within the statistical uncertainties introduced by the Monte Carlo computational process, which themselves are very small. Values of {ital N}{approx gt}500 adequately represent the thermodynamic limit. Using the fluid internal energies for only {ital N}=686, various analytical fits are generated, compared, and discussed. The thermal energy is accurately represented by a simple power-series fit with the leading term given by {Gamma}{sup 1/3}, but also requires a small correction to the bcc Madelung term that brings that coefficient down to nearly {minus}0.9, the value derived for hypernetted-chain theory. The fluid thermal energy data are reproduced to better than 0.2% over all {Gamma} by our fit(s). The solid phase requires {ital both} anharmonic terms to be included in the fit, implying that the previous justification for dropping the first anharmonic correction is unwarranted. The location of the fluid-solid phase transition utilizing these new fits yields {Gamma}{sub bcc}=178 and {Gamma}{sub fcc}=192.
Shurygin, R. V.
2012-02-15
A one-dimensional evolution equation for the angle-averaged poloidal momentum of the tokamak plasma is derived in the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics with allowance for density inhomogeneity and diamagnetic drift of ions. In addition to fluctuations of the E Multiplication-Sign B drift velocity, the resulting turbulent Reynolds stress tensor includes fluctuations of the ion density and ion pressure, as well as turbulent radial fluxes of particles and heat. It is demonstrated numerically by using a particular example that the poloidal velocity calculated using the refined one-dimensional evolution equation differs substantially from that provided by the simplified model. When passing to the new model, both the turbulent Reynolds force and the Stringer-Winsor force increase, which leads to an increase in the amplitude of the ion poloidal velocity. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in turbulent fluxes of particles and heat due to the effect of shear decorrelation.
Goldman, S. R.; Fernández, J. C.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kindel, J. M.; Langdon, A. Bruce
2004-01-01
The first quad of the NIF provides four nearly collinear f/20 laser beams, which can be treated as a single f/8 beam of maximum energy 16 kJ. We are designing experiments on halfraums in which the composite beam is focused in the plane of the (single) halfraum laser entry hole (LEH) with its symmetry axis collinear with the halfiaum symmetry axis. For most of the calculations, the halfraum diameter is 1.6mm, the LEH is 1.2mm, and axial length is 3.0mm. The incident laser power consists of an early foot followed by a final peak. Peak radiation temperatures for this relatively narrow hohlraum are greater than for wider hohlraums of the same length. Plasma conditions within the halfraum are calculated with Lasnex using azimuthally symmetric, (r,z) geometry, taking into account a polyimide membrane which contains the fill gas (CH{sub 2}) within the halfraum. Estimates for microstructure growth due to the volume crystalline structure within a beryllium slab mounted in the halfraum sidewall are obtained by a post-processor, which applies plasma conditions within the halfraum to an ablatively accelerated, two-dimensional beryllium slab. We present a detailed simulation of the hohlraum conditions resulting from a laser spot of diameter 500 {mu}m, with peak intensity at 3.5 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, a comparison with a simulation with the same power-time profile at an intensity about 1/4 as great, and a comparison with a simulation with more detailed attention to hydro coupling between the gold and gas-fill regions of the hohlraum. We are currently attempting to model the consequences of possible beam filamentation during the pulse.
Kaplan, D
2005-08-31
The purpose of this document is to provide a technically defensible list of distribution coefficients, or Kd values, for use in performance assessment (PA) and special analysis (SA) calculations on the SRS. Only Kd values for radionuclides that have new information related to them or that have recently been recognized as being important are discussed in this report. Some 150 Kd values are provided in this report for various waste-disposal or tank-closure environments: soil, corrosion in grout, oxidizing grout waste, gravel, clay, and reducing concrete environments. Documentation and justification for the selection of each Kd value is provided.
Lyons, B. C.; Jardin, S. C.; Ramos, J. J.
2012-08-15
A new code, the Neoclassical Ion-Electron Solver (NIES), has been written to solve for stationary, axisymmetric distribution functions (f) in the conventional banana regime for both ions and electrons using a set of drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) with linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. Solvability conditions on the DKEs determine the relevant non-adiabatic pieces of f (called h). We work in a 4D phase space in which {psi} defines a flux surface, {theta} is the poloidal angle, v is the magnitude of the velocity referenced to the mean flow velocity, and {lambda} is the dimensionless magnetic moment parameter. We expand h in finite elements in both v and {lambda}. The Rosenbluth potentials, {Phi} and {Psi}, which define the integral part of the collision operator, are expanded in Legendre series in cos{chi}, where {chi} is the pitch angle, Fourier series in cos{theta}, and finite elements in v. At each {psi}, we solve a block tridiagonal system for h{sub i} (independent of f{sub e}), then solve another block tridiagonal system for h{sub e} (dependent on f{sub i}). We demonstrate that such a formulation can be accurately and efficiently solved. NIES is coupled to the MHD equilibrium code JSOLVER [J. DeLucia et al., J. Comput. Phys. 37, 183-204 (1980)] allowing us to work with realistic magnetic geometries. The bootstrap current is calculated as a simple moment of the distribution function. Results are benchmarked against the Sauter analytic formulas and can be used as a kinetic closure for an MHD code (e.g., M3D-C{sup 1}[S. C. Jardin et al., Comput. Sci. Discovery 5, 014002 (2012)]).
B.C. Lyons, S.C. Jardin, and J.J. Ramos
2012-06-28
A new code, the Neoclassical Ion-Electron Solver (NIES), has been written to solve for stationary, axisymmetric distribution functions (f ) in the conventional banana regime for both ions and elec trons using a set of drift-kinetic equations (DKEs) with linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operators. Solvability conditions on the DKEs determine the relevant non-adiabatic pieces of f (called h ). We work in a 4D phase space in which Ψ defines a flux surface, θ is the poloidal angle, v is the total velocity referenced to the mean flow velocity, and λ is the dimensionless magnetic moment parameter. We expand h in finite elements in both v and λ . The Rosenbluth potentials, φ and ψ, which define the integral part of the collision operator, are expanded in Legendre series in cos χ , where χ is the pitch angle, Fourier series in cos θ , and finite elements in v . At each ψ , we solve a block tridiagonal system for hi (independent of fe ), then solve another block tridiagonal system for he (dependent on fi ). We demonstrate that such a formulation can be accurately and efficiently solved. NIES is coupled to the MHD equilibrium code JSOLVER [J. DeLucia, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 37 , pp 183-204 (1980).] allowing us to work with realistic magnetic geometries. The bootstrap current is calculated as a simple moment of the distribution function. Results are benchmarked against the Sauter analytic formulas and can be used as a kinetic closure for an MHD code (e.g., M3D-C1 [S.C. Jardin, et al ., Computational Science & Discovery, 4 (2012).]).
Valero, Francisco P. J.; Bush, Brett C.
1999-11-27
Modeled and measured surface insolations are compared with the purpose of evaluating the ability of a radiative transfer model to predict the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface under clear-sky conditions. Model uncertainties are estimated by performing sensitivity studies for variations in aerosol optical depth, aerosol optical properties, water vapor profiles, ozone content, solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, and surface albedo. In this fashion, a range of possible calculated values is determined and compared to observations. Experimental errors are evaluated by comparison with independent, simultaneous measurements performed using two World Radiation Reference instrument arrays that were operational for a limited period during SUCCESS. Assuming a mineral aerosol, it is found that there is agreement between calculated and measured fluxes, with differences approximately equal to and within one standard deviation. Such agreement improves further if a layer containing a small amount of carbonaceous aerosol is added. The presence of carbonaceous aerosols is likely because occasional biomass burning activities took place during SUCCESS in the area around the experimental site (the clouds and radiation test bed operated by the Department of Energy in Oklahoma). (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.
Kluy, N.; Angioni, C.; Camenen, Y.; Peeters, A. G.
2009-12-15
The toroidal momentum transport in the presence of trapped electron mode microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas is studied by means of quasilinear gyrokinetic calculations. In particular, the role of the Coriolis drift in producing an inward convection of toroidal momentum is investigated. The Coriolis drift term has been implemented in the gyrokinetic code GS2 [W. Dorland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)] specifically for the completion of this work. A benchmark between the GS2 implementation of the Coriolis drift and the implementations included in two other gyrokinetic codes is presented. The numerical calculations show that in the presence of trapped electron modes, despite of a weaker symmetry breaking of the eigenfunctions with respect to the case of ion temperature gradient modes, a pinch of toroidal momentum is produced in most conditions. The toroidal momentum viscosity is also computed, and found to be small as compared with the electron heat conductivity, but significantly larger than the ion heat conductivity. In addition, interesting differences are found in the dependence of the toroidal momentum pinch as a function of collisionality between trapped electron modes and ion temperature gradient modes. The results identify also parameter domains in which the pinch is predicted to be small, which are also of interest for comparisons with the experiments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools, New Brunswick, NJ.
A project studied a method to overcome possible embarrassment and "math anxiety" of secondary level students in remedial and special needs math classes and to sustain interest in drill practice while allowing for better utilization of the teacher's time. One Monroe Calculator "Classmate 88" programmed calculator was placed in each of five remedial…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borodkina, I. E.; Komm, M.; Tsvetkov, I. V.
2015-08-01
Simple analytical formulas are derived for calculation of the electric field potential distribution in the magnetic pre-layer and the Debye layer near the plasma facing surfaces. It is shown that the calculated potential profiles are in good agreement with the dependences of the potential distribution on the magnetic field inclination obtained by solving the magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) equations and modeling using the PIC code SPICE2. Dependences of the angular distribution of ions incident on the surface of plasma facing elements on the magnetic field inclination are obtained. Results of calculations demonstrate that the surface areas, on which the magnetic field is incident at sliding angles, are critical from the viewpoint of the increase of sputtering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habib, A. A. M.
2014-06-01
The mean probability of photon capture for the resonance lines emitted by a neutral fluorine atom is calculated assuming a Voigt line shape. The calculations allow a quantitative estimate of the self-absorption effect of spectral lines of neutral fluorine atoms occurring far below the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range. The calculations are made for the bound-bound resonance lines emitted at 95.48, 77.81, 95.85, 79.44 and 77.94 nm in the case of SF6-N2 thermal plasma mixture. The dependence of the mean probability of photon capture on the Doppler and collision (Stark, resonance and van der Waals) broadening mechanisms is considered. The same method is equally applied to free-bound transitions of the recombination continuum. The variation of the mean probability of photon capture with the temperature, the SF6 proportions and the size of the plasma are considered. The results obtained may be of practical importance in plasma modeling and plasma diagnostics. In view of its simplicity, the method may also be applied to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectral analysis.
Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto
2016-03-01
The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Q(eq). This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Q(eff) is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Q(eff) is larger than the equilibrium charge state Q(eq) due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ∼42-62.5% and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ∼2.2 and 5.1%, for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ∼38.8-57.4%, where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma. PMID:27078472
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto
2016-03-01
The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Qeq. This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Qeff is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Qeff is larger than the equilibrium charge state Qeq due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ˜42 -62.5 % and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ˜2.2 and 5.1 % , for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ˜38.8 -57.4 % , where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma.
Florido, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Rubiano, J. G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Sauvan, R.; Mancini, R.
2008-10-22
This work describes ABAKO/RAPCAL, a flexible computational package for the study of population kinetics and radiative properties of non-equilibrium plasmas in a wide range of physical conditions. The code was developed looking for an optimal compromise between accuracy and computational cost. ABAKO/RAPCAL assembles a set of simple analytical models which yield substantial savings of computer resources, but yet still providing good comparisons with more elaborated codes and experimental data. Here we present some results to show the ABAKO/RAPCAL capabilities to calculate the charge distribution and radiative properties of both low- and high-Z plasmas. Finally, an application for K-shell spectroscopic determination of the electron temperature and density of laser-produced plasmas is also shown.
Wang, Qingqing; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A
2016-09-01
Estrogen measurements play an important role in the clinical evaluation of many endocrine disorders as well as in research on the role of hormones in human biology and disease. It remains an analytical challenge to quantify estrogens and their metabolites in specimens from special populations including older men, children, postmenopausal women and women receiving aromatase inhibitors. Historically, immunoassays have been used for measuring estrogens and their metabolites in biological samples for risk assessment. However, the lack of specificity and accuracy of immunoassay-based methods has caused significant problems when interpreting data generated from epidemiological studies and across different laboratories. Stable isotope dilution (SID) methodology coupled with liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (LC-SRM/MS) is now accepted as the 'gold-standard' to quantify estrogens and their metabolites in serum and plasma due to improved specificity, high accuracy, and the ability to monitor multiple estrogens when compared with immunoassays. Ultra-high sensitivity can be obtained with pre-ionized derivatives when using triple quadruple mass spectrometers in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode coupled with nanoflow LC. In this review, we have examined the special issues related to utilizing ultra-high sensitivity SID LC-SRM/MS-based methodology to accurately quantify estrogens and their metabolites in the serum and plasma from populations with low estrogen levels. The major issues that are discussed include: sample preparation for both unconjugated and conjugated estrogens, derivatization, chromatographic separation, matrix effects, and assay validation. PMID:26767303
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hey, J. D.
2015-09-01
On the basis of the original definition and analysis of the vector operator by Pauli (1926 Z. Phys. 36 336-63), and further developments by Flamand (1966 J. Math. Phys. 7 1924-31), and by Becker and Bleuler (1976 Z. Naturforsch. 31a 517-23), we consider the action of the operator on both spherical polar and parabolic basis state wave functions, both with and without direct use of Pauli’s identity (Valent 2003 Am. J. Phys. 71 171-75). Comparison of the results, with the aid of two earlier papers (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641-64, Hey 2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 4077-96), yields a convenient ladder technique in the form of a recurrence relation for calculating the transformation coefficients between the two sets of basis states, without explicit use of generalized hypergeometric functions. This result is therefore very useful for application to Stark effect and impact broadening calculations applied to high-n radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas. We also demonstrate the versatility of the Runge-Lenz-Pauli vector operator as a means of obtaining recurrence relations between expectation values of successive powers of quantum mechanical operators, by using it to provide, as an example, a derivation of the Kramers-Pasternack relation. It is suggested that this operator, whose potential use in Stark- and Zeeman-effect calculations for magnetically confined fusion edge plasmas (Rosato, Marandet and Stamm 2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47 105702) and tenuous space plasmas ( H II regions) has not been fully explored and exploited, may yet be found to yield a number of valuable results for applications to plasma diagnostic techniques based upon rate calculations of atomic processes.
Zock, J P; Rispens, P; Zijlstra, W G
1981-08-01
As a contribution to solving the problem of pH disequilibrium in arterial blood, the results of two modes of gas exchange in the lung have been calculated using an equilibrium state model of the blood. In both cases the HCO3-/Cl-exchange was assumed to occur after the gas exchange in the pulmonary capillaries. When the gas exchange was assumed to be dependent on intra-erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase, the plasma pH in the arterial blood increased. When plasma erythrocytes were assumed to equilibrate separately with the alveolar gas due to pressure of extra-erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase, plasma pH in the arterial blood decreased. In each case there was a slight increase in pCO2 after the blood had left the pulmonary capillaries. PMID:6793999
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vergunova, G. A.; Ivanov, E. M.; Rozanov, Vladislav B.
2003-02-01
The spectral radiative losses are investigated in a plasma under conditions typical of a plasma produced upon irradiation of solid targets by high-intensity (up to 1017 W cm-2 ultrashort (10-13-10-9 s) laser pulses. The comparison of the calculated X-ray spectra with the experimental data for aluminum and carbon plasmas shows their satisfactory agreement. These studies made it possible to test the methods in use and to conclude that it is necessary to introduce supplements into the collision — radiation model for calculating the optical characteristics of a nonequilibrium plasma of complex chemical composition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silin, I.; Toffoletto, F.; Wolf, R.; Sazykin, S. Y.
2013-12-01
We present a finite-volume MHD code for simulations of magnetospheric dynamics of the plasma sheet and the inner magnetosphere. The code uses staggered non-uniform Cartesian grids to preserve the divergence-free magnetic fields, along with various numerical approximations and flux limiters for the plasma variables. The code can be initialized with empirical magnetic field models, such as the Tsyganenko models along with pressure information from either the Tsyganenko-Mukai models, or observational data, such as DMSP pressure maps. Artificial "friction term" can be added to the momentum equation, which turns the MHD code into "magnetofriction" code which can be used to construct approximate equilibrium solutions. We demonstrate some applications for our code, in both the "magnetofriction" and MHD mode, including relaxation of the empirical models to equilibrium and the evolution of a plasma bubble in the near magnetotail. The latter MHD simulation results exhibit oscillations about their equilibrium position in agreement with recent observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oya, H.
1971-01-01
The dispersion curves have been computed for a wide range of wavelengths from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves in a magnetoactive warm plasma with a Maxwellian velocity distribution function. The computation was carried out mainly for the perpendicular propagation mode. The upper hybrid resonance is the connection point of the electrostatic waves and the electromagnetic waves. The electrostatic waves not associated with the upper hybrid resonance are subjected to electron cyclotron damping when the wavelength becomes long. Oblique propagation is allowed for the electrostatic waves in a frequency range from the plasma frequency to the upper hybrid resonance frequency in the long-wavelength region where Landau damping can be neglected and where the electrostatic mode smoothly connects to the electromagnetic X-mode. In a slightly inhomogeneous plasma, the Bernstein-mode electrostatic wave can escape by being converted into the O-mode electromagnetic wave; two reflections take place during this escape process.
Whitley, Heather D.; Scullard, Christian R.; Benedict, Lorin X.; Castor, John I.; Randles, Amanda; Glosli, James N.; Richards, David F.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Graziani, Frank R.
2014-08-31
Here, we present a discussion of kinetic theory treatments of linear electrical and thermal transport in hydrogen plasmas, for a regime of interest to inertial confinement fusion applications. In order to assess the accuracy of one of the more involved of these approaches, classical Lenard-Balescu theory, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen plasmas using 2-body quantum statistical potentials and compute both electrical and thermal conductivity from out particle trajectories using the Kubo approach. Our classical Lenard-Balescu results employing the identical statistical potentials agree well with the simulations.
Whitley, Heather D.; Scullard, Christian R.; Benedict, Lorin X.; Castor, John I.; Randles, Amanda; Glosli, James N.; Richards, David F.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Graziani, Frank R.
2015-12-04
Here, we present a discussion of kinetic theory treatments of linear electrical and thermal transport in hydrogen plasmas, for a regime of interest to inertial confinement fusion applications. In order to assess the accuracy of one of the more involved of these approaches, classical Lenard-Balescu theory, we perform classical molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen plasmas using 2-body quantum statistical potentials and compute both electrical and thermal conductivity from out particle trajectories using the Kubo approach. Our classical Lenard-Balescu results employing the identical statistical potentials agree well with the simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bathke, C. G.
1976-01-01
Electron energy distribution functions were calculated in a U235 plasma at 1 atmosphere for various plasma temperatures and neutron fluxes. The distributions are assumed to be a summation of a high energy tail and a Maxwellian distribution. The sources of energetic electrons considered are the fission-fragment induced ionization of uranium and the electron induced ionization of uranium. The calculation of the high energy tail is reduced to an electron slowing down calculation, from the most energetic source to the energy where the electron is assumed to be incorporated into the Maxwellian distribution. The pertinent collisional processes are electron-electron scattering and electron induced ionization and excitation of uranium. Two distinct methods were employed in the calculation of the distributions. One method is based upon the assumption of continuous slowing and yields a distribution inversely proportional to the stopping power. An iteration scheme is utilized to include the secondary electron avalanche. In the other method, a governing equation is derived without assuming continuous electron slowing. This equation is solved by a Monte Carlo technique.
Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M
2016-08-01
An uncommon innovative consideration of the well-stirred linear physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the drug plasma concentration-time profile, which is measured in routine intravenous bolus pharmacokinetic study, was applied for the calculation of the drug time course in human tissues. This cannot be obtained in the in vivo pharmacokinetic study. The physiological parameters of the organ such as organ tissue volume, organ blood flow rate, and its vascular volume were used in the calculation. The considered method was applied to calculate the time course of midazolam, alprazolam, quinidine, and diclofenac in human organs or tissues. The suggested method might be applied for the prediction of drug concentration-time profile in tissues and consequently the drug concentration level in the targeted tissue, as well as the possible undesirable toxic levels in other tissues. PMID:27290628
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amarante-Segundo, G.; Elfimov, A. G.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Ross, D. W.; Nascimento, I. C.
2001-01-01
The current and plasma flows driven by ponderomotive forces are calculated for tokamak plasmas, using a kinetic code in the Alfvén range of frequencies. The rf (radio frequency) ponderomotive force is expressed as a sum of a gradient part and of a wave momentum transfer force, which is proportional to wave dissipation (electron Landau damping and transit time magnetic pumping). Finally, the rf force is balanced by the viscous force in the fluid momentum response to the rf fields in the plasma. The relative magnitudes of the different forces for kinetic and global Alfvén waves with low phase velocities are explicitly calculated. It is shown that, dissipating in electrons, Alfvén waves can drive ion flow via the gradient force, which is dominated in m=0-sideband harmonic resonance induced by toroidal mode coupling. Estimates of power requirements to drive substantial poloidal flow in the Tokamak Chauffage Alfvén wave heating experiment in Brazil (TCABR) [L. Ruchko, M. C. Andrade, R. M. O. Galvão, Nucl. Fusion 30, 503 (1996)] are made.
Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph.; Gleizes, A.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.; Taieeb, G.
2007-09-19
The resonance escape factors for the lines emitted by a neutral magnesium atom MgI at 285.2127 nm (3 {sup 1}S-3 {sup 1}P) and of ionic magnesium MgII at 279.5528 nm (3 {sup 2}S-3 {sup 2}P) are calculated assuming a Voigt profile and in the case of MgCl{sub 2}-water plasma. The dependence of the escape factor on the optical thickness {tau}{sub 0} from the line center which itself depends on the two main spectral line shape broadening mechanisms (pressure and Doppler effects) are considered. The variation of the resonance escape factors with the temperature and the MgCl{sub 2} molar proportion are also investigated. This calculation is useful for the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the quantitative analysis of elemental composition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boumans, P. W. J. M.
About 600 prominent lines for inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using an argon ICP were studied with the triple objective of (1) compiling a library of prominent lines for spectrographic general survey analysis in this laboratory, (2) comparing the detection limits and sensitivities of the lines with literature data, in particular those in the author's Line Coincidence Tables for ICP-AES [Pergamon Press, Oxford (1980)], and (3) providing a list of lines with "universal" sensitivities that can be generally used for semiquantitative analysis. A 50 MHz ICP operated under compromise conditions and spectrographic detection were used. The latter limited the wavelength region of the prominent lines covered to a range between 235 and 446 nm. For 598 lines listed in the Line Coincidence Tables (LCT) the paper presents the visually estimated detection limits and an assessment of band interferences in regions of ±0.05nm about the prominent lines. Similar data are presented for 88 computer predicted, supplementary prominent lines [Spectrochim. Acta 36B, 169 (1981)] for which the predictions came true. For the 383 prominent lines located between 252 and 446 nm densitometrically determined detection limits and sensitivities are given. The sensitivities were converted to a "universal scale", independent of the spectral characteristics of the optics and the detector. The results of the visual and densitometric determinations are compared mutually and with the data given in the LCT, which are primarily based on the experimental work of Winge et al. [Appt. Specirosc. 33, 206 (1979)]; consequently the present paper also assesses the extent to which data for prominent lines can be transferred from the one ICP to the other, if both are operated under compromise conditions. The conversion of sensitivities on the "universal scale" to a scale applicable to a particular apparatus using the corresponding spectral distributions of the background intensity is
Rudenko, V. V.
2010-12-15
The problem of laser deposition with allowance for thermal radiation transport inside and outside the laser torch is considered in a multigroup approximation. The energy fluxes of laser torch thermal radiation onto a target in the far and near zones are calculated as functions of time and the character of the exposure. It is shown that absorption of thermal fluxes in the substrate and target in the course of laser deposition results in their substantial heating. The possibility of diagnosing thermal radiation fluxes from the laser torch by using photodetectors is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro
2008-06-01
We describe quasi-three-dimensional numerical simulations of a high-performance nonequilibrium-plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator using a slightly divergent configuration. The slightly divergent generator provides greater isentropic efficiency (IE) than a highly divergent generator when an identical enthalpy extraction ratio (EER) is obtained. The inherent feature of a small divergent geometry is clarified; MHD energy conversion is accompanied by less entropy production as well as less gas expansion. The orientation of the performance improvement on an IE-EER map is consistent with the theoretically predicted orientation, which is formulated using an algebraic method based on classical thermodynamic results for supersonic compressible fluid dynamics. The power-generating performance indicators, IE and EER, are clearly determined by modified magnetic flux density, that is, the square of magnetic flux density divided by total inflow pressure. A virtual operating condition for a practical closed-cycle MHD system is proposed considering the relationships between the applied magnetic flux density, the total inflow pressure and the total pressure gradient throughout the generator. This paper is the first part of a duology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valipa, Mayur S.; Aydil, Eray S.; Maroudas, Dimitrios
2004-11-01
We report a direct, statistically significant calculation of the surface reactivity of the SiH 3 radical on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) using molecular-dynamics simulations of repeated impingement of SiH 3 radicals on growth surfaces of smooth a-Si:H films over the temperature range 475-800 K. SiH 3 can either incorporate into the film by adsorbing onto a surface Si dangling bond or inserting into Si-Si bonds (sticking), or abstract surface H through Eley-Rideal (ER) or Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) pathways to produce SiH 4 gas, or react with another surface SiH 3 to desorb as Si 2H 6 (recombination), or leave the film by reflection or desorption. The overall surface reaction probability, β, includes both radical sticking and recombination. In agreement with experimental measurements, β is almost constant over the temperature range studied, as are the probabilities for sticking and recombination, s and γ, respectively; the calculated mean value of β is 0.47 ± 0.03. Energetic analysis of the various surface reactions shows that radical adsorption, radical insertion, and ER abstraction are barrierless processes, which explains the measured temperature independence of β. LH abstraction is activated, but competes with disilane formation, yielding a temperature-independent γ. Also, LH abstraction leads to H elimination from a-Si:H during growth and can partly explain the experimentally measured temperature dependence of the H content in the a-Si:H film.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.
2015-03-01
In the MHD tokamak plasma theory, the plasma pressure is usually assumed to be isotropic. However, plasma heating by neutral beam injection and RF heating can lead to a strong anisotropy of plasma parameters and rotation of the plasma. The development of MHD equilibrium theory taking into account the plasma inertia and anisotropic pressure began a long time ago, but until now it has not been consistently applied in computational codes for engineering calculations of the plasma equilibrium and evolution in tokamak. This paper contains a detailed derivation of the axisymmetric plasma equilibrium equation in the most general form (with arbitrary rotation and anisotropic pressure) and description of the specialized version of the SPIDER code. The original method of calculation of the equilibrium with an anisotropic pressure and a prescribed rotational transform profile is proposed. Examples of calculations and discussion of the results are also presented.
Ivanov, A. A. Martynov, A. A. Medvedev, S. Yu. Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.
2015-03-15
In the MHD tokamak plasma theory, the plasma pressure is usually assumed to be isotropic. However, plasma heating by neutral beam injection and RF heating can lead to a strong anisotropy of plasma parameters and rotation of the plasma. The development of MHD equilibrium theory taking into account the plasma inertia and anisotropic pressure began a long time ago, but until now it has not been consistently applied in computational codes for engineering calculations of the plasma equilibrium and evolution in tokamak. This paper contains a detailed derivation of the axisymmetric plasma equilibrium equation in the most general form (with arbitrary rotation and anisotropic pressure) and description of the specialized version of the SPIDER code. The original method of calculation of the equilibrium with an anisotropic pressure and a prescribed rotational transform profile is proposed. Examples of calculations and discussion of the results are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Alun R.
1940-01-01
This report has been prepare in response to a request for information from an aircraft company. A typical example was selected for the presentation of an approximate method of calculation of the relative humidity required to prevent frosting on the inside of a plastic window in a pressure type cabin on a high speed airplane. The results of the study are reviewed.
Programmable calculator stress analysis
Van Gulick, L.A.
1983-01-01
Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollmann, D.; Leis, F.; Tölg, G.; Tschöpel, P.; Broekaert, J. A. C.
1994-12-01
The use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of trace elements in Al 2O 3 powders is reported. Special interest is given to a preconcentration of the trace elements by on-line coupling of chromatography to ICP-MS. This is based on the complexation of Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Ga, Mn, Ni, V and Zn with hexamethylene-dithiocarbamate (HMDC), their preconcentration on a C18 RP column by reversed phase liquid chromatography and their elution with CH 3OH-H 2O mixtures. A direct coupling of the HPLC system to the ICP-MS has been realized by high pressure pneumatic nebulization using desolvation. With the Chromatographie method developed, removal of the AI by at least 99% was achieved. For the trace elements V, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu and Ga, high and reproducible recoveries (ranging from 96-99%) were reached. The method developed has been shown to considerably enhance the power of detection as compared with direct procedures, namely down to 0.02-0.16 ( μg/g for V and Fe, respectively. The possibilities of the method are shown by the determinations of V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn and Ga at the μg/g level in A1 2O 3 powders. The accuracy of the method at the 0.06 to 9.0 μg/g level for Co and Fe, respectively, is demonstrated by a comparison with results of independent methods from the literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Jacqueline
2001-01-01
Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…
Slater, C.O.
1992-01-01
The DRC2 code, which couples MASH or MASHX adjoint leakages with DORT 2-D discrete ordinates forward directional fluences, is described. The forward fluences are allowed to vary both axially and radially over the coupling surface, as opposed to the strictly axial variation allowed by the predecessor DRC code. Input instructions are presented along with descriptions and results from several sample problems. Results from the sample problems are used to compare DRC2 with DRC, DRC2 with DORT, and DRC2 with itself for the case of x-y dependence versus no x-y dependence of the forward fluence. The test problems demonstrate that for small systems DRC and DRC2 give essentially the same results. Some significant differences are noted for larger systems. Additionally, DRC2 results with no x-y dependence of the forward directional fluences are practically the same as those calculated by DRC.
Molecular dynamic study of pressure fluctuations spectrum in plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bystryi, R. G.
2015-11-01
Pressure of plasma is calculated by using classical molecular dynamics method. The formula based on virial theorem was used. Spectrum pressure's fluctuations of singly ionized non-ideal plasma are studied. 1/f-like spectrum behavior is observed. In other words, flicker noise is observed in fluctuations of pressure equilibrium non-ideal plasma. Relations between the obtained result and pressure fluctuations within the Gibbs and Einstein approaches are discussed. Special attention is paid to features of calculating the pressure in strongly coupled systems.
Plasma simulation and fusion calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzbee, B. L.
Particle-in-cell (PIC) models are widely used in fusion studies associated with energy research and in certain fluid dynamical studies. Parallel computation is relevant to them because (1) PIC models are not amenable to a lot of vectorization - about 50% of the total computation is vectorized in the average model; (2) the volume of data processed by PIC models typically necessitates use of secondary storage with an attendant requirements for high-speed I/O; and (3) PIC models exist today whose implementation requires a computer 10 to 100 times faster than the Cray-1. Parallel formulation of PIC models for master/slave architectures and ring architectures is discussed. Because interprocessor communication is a decisive factor in the overall efficiency of a parallel system, division of these models into large granules that can be executed in parallel with relatively little need for communication is shown. Measurements of speedup obtained from experiments on the UNIVAC 1100/84 and the Denelcor HEP are also reported.
Plasma simulation and fusion calculation
Buzbee, B.L.
1983-01-01
Particle-in-cell (PIC) models are widely used in fusion studies associated with energy research. They are also used in certain fluid dynamical studies. Parallel computation is relevant to them because (1) PIC models are not amenable to a lot of vectorization - about 50% of the total computation can be vectorized in the average model; (2) the volume of data processed by PIC models typically necessitates use of secondary storage with an attendant requirements for high-speed I/O; and (3) PIC models exist today whose implementation requires a computer 10 to 100 times faster than the Cray-1. This paper discusses parallel formulation of PIC models for master/slave architectures and ring architectures. Because interprocessor communication can be a decisive factor in the overall efficiency of a parallel system, we show how to divide these models into large granules that can be executed in parallel with relatively little need for communication. We also report measurements of speedup obtained from experiments on the UNIVAC 1100/84 and the Denelcor HEP.
Bao, Junwei Lucas; Truhlar, Donald G
2016-04-21
The growth of anionic silicon hydride clusters is a critically important process in nanodusty plasmas. In the current study, we focus on the formation of homologs of silylene (Sin+1H2n+2(-), n = 3, 4) and silyl (SinH2n+1(-), n = 4, 5) anions via anion-neutral reaction pathways. Species like silyl or silylene anions and their related elementary reactions, which are involved in the formation of silicon hydride clusters, were not used in developing exchange-correlation (xc) density functionals (i.e., they were not included in the training set of semiempirical density functionals); therefore, we explored the accuracy of various widely used xc density functionals based on reaction energies and barrier heights. Among the 21 density functionals we tested, M06-2X has the best performance for a hybrid functional, and MN15-L has the best performance for a local functional. Thermal rate constants of the elementary reactions involved in the reaction mechanism are calculated using M06-2X and multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with the small-curvature tunneling approximation (MS-CVT/SCT). The pressure dependence of unimolecular isomerization reactions is treated with system-specific quantum RRK theory (SS-QRRK) and the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism. PMID:27009479
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brualla, L.; Mayorga, P. A.; Flühs, A.; Lallena, A. M.; Sempau, J.; Sauerwein, W.
2012-11-01
Retinoblastoma is the most common eye tumour in childhood. According to the available long-term data, the best outcome regarding tumour control and visual function has been reached by external beam radiotherapy. The benefits of the treatment are, however, jeopardized by a high incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignancies and the fact that irradiated bones grow asymmetrically. In order to better exploit the advantages of external beam radiotherapy, it is necessary to improve current techniques by reducing the irradiated volume and minimizing the dose to the facial bones. To this end, dose measurements and simulated data in a water phantom are essential. A Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV is used in conjunction with a dedicated collimator for the retinoblastoma treatment. This collimator conforms a ‘D’-shaped off-axis field whose irradiated area can be either 5.2 or 3.1 cm2. Depth dose distributions and lateral profiles were experimentally measured. Experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations’ run with the penelope code and with calculations performed with the analytical anisotropic algorithm implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system using the gamma test. penelope simulations agree reasonably well with the experimental data with discrepancies in the dose profiles less than 3 mm of distance to agreement and 3% of dose. Discrepancies between the results found with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data reach 3 mm and 6%. Although the discrepancies between the results obtained with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data are notable, it is possible to consider this algorithm for routine treatment planning of retinoblastoma patients, provided the limitations of the algorithm are known and taken into account by the medical physicist and the clinician. Monte Carlo simulation is essential for knowing these limitations. Monte Carlo simulation is required for optimizing the
Skiff, Fred; Davidson, Ronald C.
2013-05-15
Each year, the annual meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics (DPP) brings together a broad representation of the many active subfields of plasma physics and enjoys an audience that is equally diverse. The meeting was well attended and largely went as planned despite the interventions of hurricane Sandy which caused the city of Providence to shut-down during the first day of the conference. The meeting began on Monday morning with a review of the physics of cosmic rays, 2012 being the 100th year since their discovery, which illustrated the central importance of plasma physics to astrophysical problems. Subsequent reviews covered the importance of tokamak plasma boundaries, progress towards ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and magnetized plasma turbulence. The Maxwell prize address, by Professor Liu Chen, covered the field of nonlinear Alfvén wave physics. Tutorial lectures were presented on the verification of gyrokinetics, new capabilities in laboratory astrophysics, magnetic flux compression, and tokamak plasma start-up.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skiff, Fred; Davidson, Ronald C.
2013-05-01
Each year, the annual meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics (DPP) brings together a broad representation of the many active subfields of plasma physics and enjoys an audience that is equally diverse. The meeting was well attended and largely went as planned despite the interventions of hurricane Sandy which caused the city of Providence to shut-down during the first day of the conference. The meeting began on Monday morning with a review of the physics of cosmic rays, 2012 being the 100th year since their discovery, which illustrated the central importance of plasma physics to astrophysical problems. Subsequent reviews covered the importance of tokamak plasma boundaries, progress towards ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and magnetized plasma turbulence. The Maxwell prize address, by Professor Liu Chen, covered the field of nonlinear Alfvén wave physics. Tutorial lectures were presented on the verification of gyrokinetics, new capabilities in laboratory astrophysics, magnetic flux compression, and tokamak plasma start-up.
Relativistic Thomson Scatter from Factor Calculation
2009-11-01
The purpose of this program is calculate the fully relativistic Thomson scatter from factor in unmagnetized plasmas. Such calculations are compared to experimental diagnoses of plasmas at such facilities as the Jupiter laser facility here a LLNL.
Liu, Chang; Dodin, Ilya Y.
2015-08-15
The nonlinear frequency shift is derived in a transparent asymptotic form for intense Langmuir waves in general collisionless plasma. The formula describes both fluid and kinetic effects simultaneously. The fluid nonlinearity is expressed, for the first time, through the plasma dielectric function, and the kinetic nonlinearity accounts for both smooth distributions and trapped-particle beams. Various known limiting scalings are reproduced as special cases. The calculation avoids differential equations and can be extended straightforwardly to other nonlinear plasma waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobel'man, Igor I.; Shevelko, A. P.; Yakushev, O. F.; Knight, L. V.; Turley, R. S.
2003-01-01
The results of investigation of a capillary discharge plasma, used as a source of intense VUV radiation and soft X-rays, are presented. The plasma was generated during the discharge of low-inductance condensers in a gas-filled ceramic capillary. Intense line radiation was observed in a broad spectral range (30-400 Å) in various gases (CO2, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). The absolute radiation yield for the xenon discharge was ~5 mJ (2π sr)-1 pulse-1 within a spectral band of width 9 Å at 135 Å. Such a radiation source can be used for various practical applications, such as EUV projection lithography, microscopy of biological objects in a 'water window', reflectometry, etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livadiotis, George
2015-03-01
Empirical kappa distributions provide a straightforward replacement of the Maxwell distribution for systems out of thermal equilibrium such as space plasmas. Kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across space physics with the number of relevant publications following, remarkably, an exponential growth rate. However, a breakthrough in the field came with the connection of kappa distributions with the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics. This introductory paper clarifies fundamental physical concepts and provides mathematical formulations of the theory of kappa distributions, which are a consequence of the connection of kappa distributions with a solid statistical background. Among others, the paper presents the existence of a consistent definition of temperature in systems out of thermal equilibrium described by kappa distributions, the physical meaning of the kappa index, and the formulation of the kappa distribution of a Hamiltonian. In addition, the paper examines the most frequent values of kappa indices in space plasmas. Statistical analysis reveals trends between the characteristic values of density, temperature, and kappa index of space plasmas. Finally, understanding the kinetic interpretation of the temperature as the mean kinetic energy, and of the kappa index as the correlation of kinetic energies, helps to develop all the possible formulations of isotropic/anisotropic kappa distributions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alfven, H.
1986-01-01
Traditionally the views on the cosmic environent have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasmas. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If a model of the universe is based on the plasma phenomena mentioned it is found that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasmas. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasmas are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model it is applied to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4 to 5 billions of years ago with an accuracy of better than 1%.
Fang, Ferric C.
2014-01-01
As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Braswell, Ray, Ed.
This document contains the following papers on special needs instruction and technology: (1) "Hawaii Special Education Teacher Induction" (Kalena Oliva and Quinn Avery); (2) "The Impact of Group v Individual Use of Hypermedia-Based Instruction" (Lewis R. Johnson, Louis P. Semrau, and Gail E. Fitzgerald); (3) "Assistive Technology Meets…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayoub, Ayoub B.
2006-01-01
In this article, the author takes up the special trinomial (1 + x + x[squared])[superscript n] and shows that the coefficients of its expansion are entries of a Pascal-like triangle. He also shows how to calculate these entries recursively and explicitly. This article could be used in the classroom for enrichment. (Contains 1 table.)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Yakovlenko, Sergei I.
2003-02-01
The use of electron beams for pumping dense gases made it possible to obtain lasing on atomic and molecular transitions in different spectral ranges and to develop high-power pulsed lasers. N.G. Basov and coworkers made a substantial contribution to the formation and advancement of this field. A brief review of the research on efficient elevated-pressure active media and high-power pulsed lasers utilising plasmas produced both by an electron beam and an electron-beam-controlled discharge is presented. These are excimer and exciplex lasers, lasers utilising atomic transitions in xenon and neon, an Ar —N2 mixture laser, a molecular nitrogen ion laser, and a high-pressure CO2 laser. Data obtained in the investigation of the radiation of rare-gas halide complexes are given.
Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dermer, C. D.
1985-01-01
Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmer, Phil
1986-01-01
Specialized publications such as "Opera News,""Gourmet," and "Forbes" can bring an institution's story to targeted audiences. The experiences of Chautauqua Institution are described. Some of the benefits of marketing articles to these publications are discussed. (MLW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lavendel, Giuliana
1977-01-01
Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)
Hur, M.; Kang, K.D.; Hong, S.H.
1997-12-31
In this study, the plasma characteristics of a high power nontransferred plasma torch with hollow electrodes are investigated in the atmospheric condition by analyzing the distributions of plasma temperature, velocity and current density. Typical assumptions of steady state, axisymmetry, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optically thin plasma are adopted in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling of thermal plasma with a special treatment of arc spot positions. A control volume method and the modified SIMPLER algorithm are used for solving the governing equations numerically, i.e., conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy along with the equations describing the {Kappa}-{var_epsilon} model for turbulence and the current continuity for arc discharge. The distributions of plasma temperature, velocity, and current density are calculated in various operation conditions such as gas species, gas flowrate, input current, and electrode geometry. The calculated results of plasma characteristics in various operations can be useful to determine the design parameters of the high power plasma torch of hollow electrode type for incinerating the hospital and municipal solid wastes.
Airborne antenna pattern calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.
1980-01-01
A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.
Electrostatic ion thruster optics calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whealton, John H.; Kirkman, David A.; Raridon, R. J.
1992-01-01
Calculations have been performed which encompass both a self-consistent ion source extraction plasma sheath and the primary ion optics including sheath and electrode-induced aberrations. Particular attention is given to the effects of beam space charge, accelerator geometry, and properties of the downstream plasma sheath on the position of the electrostatic potential saddle point near the extractor electrode. The electron blocking potential blocking is described as a function of electrode thickness and secondary plasma processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vander Weele, Maribeth
1992-01-01
Thomas Hehir, special education chief of Chicago Public Schools, is evangelist of integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. By completely reorganizing department viewed as political patronage dumping ground, Hehir has made remarkable progress in handling large number of children awaiting evaluation and placement in special…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sartori, L.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
The special theory of relativity (SR), developed by ALBERT EINSTEIN in 1905, represents a revolutionary change in the human conception of the nature of space and time. According to SR, space and time are not absolute but must be viewed as components of a single entity, SPACE-TIME. This idea has numerous important implications, both conceptual and practical....
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiant, Sarah K.; Lynch, Clifford; Nevins, Kate; Juergens, Bonnie
1998-01-01
Contains three special reports: developments in copyright law, 1997 (World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation, Ashcroft Bill, No Electronic Theft Act, database protection, Conference on Fair Use (CONFU), judicial decisions, principles for licensing electronic resources, and Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B); Internet2 and the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hammond, Carol; And Others
1992-01-01
Six articles discuss librarians as mediators in special circumstances. Highlights include the reference librarian and the information paraprofessional; effective reference mediation for nontraditional public library users, including mentally impaired patrons and illiterate adults; the academic librarian's role in the education process; and…
Sun, Yu; Liu, Yanan; Li, Rui; Xue, Gang; Ognier, Stéphanie
2016-07-01
This study investigated the degradation of a model organic compound, reactive blue (RB-19), in aqueous solution using a needle-plate non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, which was operated using three gas atmospheres (Ar, air, O2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The relative discharge and degradation parameters, including the peak to peak applied voltage, power, ozone generation, pH, decolorization rates, energy density and the total organic carbon (TOC) reduction were analyzed to determine the various dye removal efficiencies. The decolorization rate for Ar, air and O2 were 59.9%, 49.6% and 89.8% respectively at the energy density of 100 kJ/L. The best TOC reduction was displayed by Ar with about 8.8% decrease, and 0% with O2 and air atmospheres. This phenomenon could be explained by the formation of OH• and O3 in the Ar and O2 atmospheres, which are responsible for increased mineralization and efficient decolorization. A one-dimension model was developed using software COMSOL to simulate the RB-19-ozone reaction and verify the experiments by comparing the simulated and experimental results. It was determined that ozone plays the most important role in the dye removal process, and the ozone contribution rate ranged from 0.67 to 0.82. PMID:27124311
Kopittke, Peter M; Blamey, F Pax C; Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W
2011-07-01
Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth but is often toxic in acid or waterlogged soils. Using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown with 0.05-1500 μM Mn in solution, two short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments examined if the effects of cations (Ca, Mg, Na, Al, or H) on Mn nutrition are related to the root cells' plasma membrane (PM) surface potential, ψ(0)(0). When grown in solutions containing levels of Mn that were toxic, both relative root elongation rate (RRER) and root tissue Mn concentration were more closely related to the activity of Mn(2+) at the outer surface of the PM, {Mn(2+)}(0)(0) (R(2)=0.812 and 0.871) than to its activity in the bulk solution, {Mn(2+)}(b) (R(2)=0.673 and 0.769). This was also evident at lower levels of Mn (0.05-10 μM) relevant to studies investigating Mn as an essential micronutrient (R(2)=0.791 versus 0.590). In addition, changes in the electrical driving force for ion transport across the PM influenced both RRER and the Mn concentration in roots. The {Mn(2+)}(b) causing a 50% reduction in root growth was found to be c. 500 to >1000 μM (depending upon solution composition), whilst the corresponding value was 3300 μM when related to {Mn(2+)}(0)(0). Although specific effects such as competition are not precluded, the data emphasize the importance of non-specific electrostatic effects in the Mn nutrition of cowpea seedlings over a 1×10(5)-fold range of Mn concentration in solution. PMID:21511910
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weatherly, Julie J.
2000-01-01
School districts are on safer legal ground if they recommend appropriate educational services for each special-needs child, convene parents and school personnel for Individual Education Plan meetings, make placement decisions based on individualized, thorough evaluations; document alternative options; develop behavior-management programs, and use…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodhouse, Nicholas M. J.
This course on special relativity emphasizes the coordinate-free and tensorial approach to Einstein's theory. The author encourages the reader to look at problems from a four-dimensional point of view, so preparing them for further study in relativistic physics, gravitation and cosmology. The book will be especially appealing to students with a mathematical bent and those who like brevity and clarity of reasoning.
Piron, R.; Blenski, T.
2011-02-15
The numerical code VAAQP (variational average atom in quantum plasmas), which is based on a fully variational model of equilibrium dense plasmas, is applied to equation-of-state calculations for aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime. VAAQP does not impose the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz ion sphere; it provides the average-atom structure and the mean ionization self-consistently from the solution of the variational equations. The formula used for the electronic pressure is simple and does not require any numerical differentiation. In this paper, the virial theorem is derived in both nonrelativistic and relativistic versions of the model. This theorem allows one to express the electron pressure as a combination of the electron kinetic and interaction energies. It is shown that the model fulfills automatically the virial theorem in the case of local-density approximations to the exchange-correlation free-energy. Applications of the model to the equation-of-state and Hugoniot shock adiabat of aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime are presented. Comparisons with other approaches, including the inferno model, and with available experimental data are given. This work allows one to understand the thermodynamic consistency issues in the existing average-atom models. Starting from the case of aluminum, a comparative study of the thermodynamic consistency of the models is proposed. A preliminary study of the validity domain of the inferno model is also included.
Piron, R; Blenski, T
2011-02-01
The numerical code VAAQP (variational average atom in quantum plasmas), which is based on a fully variational model of equilibrium dense plasmas, is applied to equation-of-state calculations for aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime. VAAQP does not impose the neutrality of the Wigner-Seitz ion sphere; it provides the average-atom structure and the mean ionization self-consistently from the solution of the variational equations. The formula used for the electronic pressure is simple and does not require any numerical differentiation. In this paper, the virial theorem is derived in both nonrelativistic and relativistic versions of the model. This theorem allows one to express the electron pressure as a combination of the electron kinetic and interaction energies. It is shown that the model fulfills automatically the virial theorem in the case of local-density approximations to the exchange-correlation free-energy. Applications of the model to the equation-of-state and Hugoniot shock adiabat of aluminum, iron, copper, and lead in the warm-dense-matter regime are presented. Comparisons with other approaches, including the inferno model, and with available experimental data are given. This work allows one to understand the thermodynamic consistency issues in the existing average-atom models. Starting from the case of aluminum, a comparative study of the thermodynamic consistency of the models is proposed. A preliminary study of the validity domain of the inferno model is also included. PMID:21405914
Analysis of Power Model for Linear Plasma Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Weiwei; Deng, Baiquan; Zuo, Haoyi; Zheng, Xianjun; Cao, Xiaogang; Xue, Xiaoyan; Ou, Wei; Cao, Zhi; Gou, Fujun
2016-08-01
A single cathode linear plasma device has been designed and constructed to investigate the interactions between plasma and materials at the Sichuan University. In order to further investigate the Ohmic power of the device, the output heat load on the specimen and electric potential difference (between cathode and anode) have been tested under different discharge currents. This special power distribution in the radial direction of the plasma discharge channel has also been discussed and described by some improved integral equations in this paper; it can be further simplified as P ∝ α‑2 in one-parameter. Besides, we have measured the power loss of the channel under different discharge currents by the calorimetric method, calculated the effective power of the device and evaluated the performances of the plasma device through the power efficiency analysis. supported by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Program (No. 2013GB114003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11275135 and 11475122)
Plasma heating power dissipation in low temperature hydrogen plasmas
Komppula, J. Tarvainen, O.
2015-10-15
A theoretical framework for power dissipation in low temperature plasmas in corona equilibrium is developed. The framework is based on fundamental conservation laws and reaction cross sections and is only weakly sensitive to plasma parameters, e.g., electron temperature and density. The theory is applied to low temperature atomic and molecular hydrogen laboratory plasmas for which the plasma heating power dissipation to photon emission, ionization, and chemical potential is calculated. The calculated photon emission is compared to recent experimental results.
High-performance simulations for atmospheric pressure plasma reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chugunov, Svyatoslav
Plasma-assisted processing and deposition of materials is an important component of modern industrial applications, with plasma reactors sharing 30% to 40% of manufacturing steps in microelectronics production. Development of new flexible electronics increases demands for efficient high-throughput deposition methods and roll-to-roll processing of materials. The current work represents an attempt of practical design and numerical modeling of a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The system utilizes plasma at standard pressure and temperature to activate a chemical precursor for protective coatings. A specially designed linear plasma head, that consists of two parallel plates with electrodes placed in the parallel arrangement, is used to resolve clogging issues of currently available commercial plasma heads, as well as to increase the flow-rate of the processed chemicals and to enhance the uniformity of the deposition. A test system is build and discussed in this work. In order to improve operating conditions of the setup and quality of the deposited material, we perform numerical modeling of the plasma system. The theoretical and numerical models presented in this work comprehensively describe plasma generation, recombination, and advection in a channel of arbitrary geometry. Number density of plasma species, their energy content, electric field, and rate parameters are accurately calculated and analyzed in this work. Some interesting engineering outcomes are discussed with a connection to the proposed setup. The numerical model is implemented with the help of high-performance parallel technique and evaluated at a cluster for parallel calculations. A typical performance increase, calculation speed-up, parallel fraction of the code and overall efficiency of the parallel implementation are discussed in details.
Calibration of the ISEE plasma composition experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baugher, C. R.; Olsen, R. C.; Reasoner, D. L.
1986-01-01
The Plasma Composition experiment on the ISEE-1 satellite was designed to measure ions from 1 to 16 amu, at energies from near zero to 16 keV. The two nearly identical flight instruments were calibrated by means of preflight laboratory tests and in-flight data comparisons. This document presents most of the details of those efforts, with special emphasis on the low energy (0 to 100 eV) portion of the instrument response. The analysis of the instrument includes a ray-tracing calculation, which follows an ensemble of test particles through the detector.
Special issue on filamentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ruxin; Milchberg, Howard; Mysyrowicz, André
2014-05-01
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is delighted to announce a forthcoming special issue on filamentation, to appear in the spring of 2015, and invites you to submit a paper. This special issue will attempt to give an overview of the present status of this field in order to create synergies and foster future developments. The issue is open to papers on the following issues: Theoretical advances on filamentation. Self-focusing and collapse. Filamentation in various media. Pulse self-compression and ultrafast processes in filaments. Molecular alignment and rotation. Filamentation tailoring. Interaction between filaments. Filament weather and pollution control. Filament induced condensation and precipitation. Terahertz science with filaments. Lasing in filaments. Filament induced molecular excitation and reaction. Electric discharge and plasma. Cross-disciplinary applications. Novel concepts related to these topics are particularly welcome. Please submit your article by 1 October 2014 (expected web publication: spring 2015) using our website http://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/jphysb-iop. Submissions received after this date will be considered for the journal, but may not be included in the special issue. The issue will be edited by Ruxin Li, Howard Milchberg and André Mysyrowicz.
Albers, R.C.; Gubernatis, J.E.
1981-01-01
The efficiency of four different Brillouin-zone integration schemes including the uniform mesh, special point method, special directions method, and Holas method are compared for calculating moments of the harmonic phonon frequencies of the solid one-component plasma. Very accurate values for the moments are also presented. The Holas method for which weights and integration points can easily be generated has roughly the same efficiency as the special directions method, which is much superior to the uniform mesh and special point methods for this problem.
Characteristics of multiarc plasma devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klubnikin, V. S.; Smirnov, B. G.
1985-03-01
Multiarc plasma devices such as plasmatrons operate with lower arc currents than single-arc counterparts, which not contributes to a higher efficiency but also extends the life of electrodes. Typically, reduction of the arc current for producing an air plasma from 400 A to 100 A or further to 50 A lengthens the life of zirconium electrodes from 24 h to 400 h and 1600 h, respectively. The electric arcs can be connected in series or in parallel. A series connection features high arching stability but requires special mixing chambers for prevention of mutual arc shunting. A parallel connection eliminates this drawback but limits the arcing stability, the latter decreasing as the number of arcs in parallel increases. A third possibility is a multiarc device with separate voltage supplies and a single common control system. The performance of any multiarc plasma device is determined by its current-voltage characteristic. For determining the optimum operating mode, not only the dependence of the arc voltage on the arc current but also its dependence on the arc length, the channel diameter, the gas flow rate, and the gas pressure were evaluated. Calculations are based on semiempirical and dimensional analysis of experimental data from about 200 measurements over wide ranges of variable parameters for discharge in argon.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access) This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yue; Cai, Yan; Sun, Dawei; Zhu, Junjie; Wu, Yixiong
2014-12-01
A novel lateral restraint method was proposed to suppress plasma plume of high power CO2 laser welding using a pair of copper blocks with cooling water. The plasma plume was observed with a high-speed camera, and its core zone and periphery zone were investigated based on the specific processing algorithm. With the specially designed shifting unit, the spectrum of plasma plume was scanned both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Based on the selected spectral lines, electron temperature and electron number density of plasma plume were calculated. The characteristics of plasma plume, as well as the restraint mechanism, were discussed both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Results showed that the cooling effect, blowing effect and the static pressure were enhanced by the lateral restraint, and the restraint effect of the near-wall low-temperature area limited the expansion of plasma plume greatly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.
2016-01-01
Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.
What's so special about cholesterol?
Mouritsen, Ole G; Zuckermann, Martin J
2004-11-01
Cholesterol (or other higher sterols such as ergosterol and phytosterols) is universally present in large amounts (20-40 mol%) in eukaryotic plasma membranes, whereas it is universally absent in the membranes of prokaryotes. Cholesterol has a unique ability to increase lipid order in fluid membranes while maintaining fluidity and diffusion rates. Cholesterol imparts low permeability barriers to lipid membranes and provides for large mechanical coherence. A short topical review is given of these special properties of cholesterol in relation to the structure of membranes, with results drawn from a variety of theoretical and experimental studies. Particular focus is put on cholesterol's ability to promote a special membrane phase, the liquid-ordered phase, which is unique for cholesterol (and other higher sterols like ergosterol) and absent in membranes containing the cholesterol precursor lanosterol. Cholesterol's role in the formation of special membrane domains and so-called rafts is discussed. PMID:15726825
Arc plasma jets of a nontransferred plasma torch
Kang, K.D.; Hong, S.H.
1996-02-01
The dc plasma torches have been widely used as clean plasma sources for plasma processings such as plasma spraying and synthesis. The plasma flow of a nontransferred plasma torch used for thermal plasma processings is produced by the arc-gas interactions between a cathode tip and an anode nozzle and expands as a jet through the nozzle. In this work, numerically calculated images of the arc plasma characteristics are found over the entire plasma region, including both an arc-gas interacting region inside the torch and a jet expanding region outside the torch. A numerical model used assumes a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) with near-electrode phenomena and compressible flow effects. The computational system is described by a two-dimensional (2-D) axisymmetric model which is solved for plasma temperature and velocity by a control volume approach with the modified SIMPLER algorithm in a real torch geometry.
How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Practical Guide
Kaganovich, Igor D.
2002-08-22
Most plasmas have a very thin sheath compared with the plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculations of the plasma and sheath. The Bohm criterion provides the boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties, a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to the Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy are reported.
Neyrinck, Marleen M; Vrielink, Hans
2015-02-01
It's important to work smoothly with your apheresis equipment when you are an apheresis nurse. Attention should be paid to your donor/patient and the product you're collecting. It gives additional value to your work when you are able to calculate the efficiency of your procedures. You must be capable to obtain an optimal product without putting your donor/patient at risk. Not only the total blood volume (TBV) of the donor/patient plays an important role, but also specific blood values influence the apheresis procedure. Therefore, not all donors/patients should be addressed in the same way. Calculation of TBV, extracorporeal volume, and total plasma volume is needed. Many issues determine your procedure time. By knowing the collection efficiency (CE) of your apheresis machine, you can calculate the number of blood volumes to be processed to obtain specific results. You can calculate whether you need one procedure to obtain specific results or more. It's not always needed to process 3× the TBV. In this way, it can be avoided that the donor/patient is needless long connected to the apheresis device. By calculating the CE of each device, you can also compare the various devices for quality control reasons, but also nurses/operators. PMID:25041907
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.
2013-09-01
Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous
The plasma environment of comets
Gombosi, T.I. )
1991-01-01
U.S. research activities in the area of cometary plasma physics during 1987-1990 are reviewed. Consideration is given to mass loading and its consequences in the upstream region, the cometary shock, the cometosheath, the diamagnetic cavity boundary and the inner shock, and the plasma tail. Special attention is given to models and observations that have modified the pre-encounter understanding of cometary plasma environments. 211 refs.
2000-05-22
This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulatemore » the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.« less
Hunter, Charles H.
2000-05-22
This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.
Electric Calculators; Business Education: 7718.06.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McShane, Jane
The course was developed to instruct students in the use of mechanical and/or electronic printing calculators, electronic display calculators, and rotary calculators to solve special business problems with occupational proficiency. Included in the document are a list of performance objectives, a course content outline, suggested learning…
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy... ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a) Calculation of Domestic Utilities' Annual Assessment Ratio to the Fund. Domestic utilities shall be...
46 CFR 172.225 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculations. 172.225 Section 172.225 Shipping COAST... BULK CARGOES Special Rules Pertaining to Great Lakes Dry Bulk Cargo Vessels § 172.225 Calculations. (a) Each vessel must be shown by design calculations to meet the survival conditions in § 172.245 in...
Decimals, Denominators, Demons, Calculators, and Connections
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparrow, Len; Swan, Paul
2005-01-01
The authors provide activities for overcoming some fraction misconceptions using calculators specially designed for learners in primary years. The writers advocate use of the calculator as a way to engage children in thinking about mathematics. By engaging with a calculator as part of mathematics learning, children are learning about and using the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cayzac, W.; Bagnoud, V.; Basko, M. M.; Blažević, A.; Frank, A.; Gericke, D. O.; Hallo, L.; Malka, G.; Ortner, A.; Tauschwitz, An.; Vorberger, J.; Roth, M.
2015-11-01
The energy loss of light ions in dense plasmas is investigated with special focus on low to medium projectile energies, i.e., at velocities where the maximum of the stopping power occurs. In this region, exceptionally large theoretical uncertainties remain and no conclusive experimental data are available. We perform simulations of beam-plasma configurations well suited for an experimental test of ion energy loss in highly ionized, laser-generated carbon plasmas. The plasma parameters are extracted from two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, and a Monte Carlo calculation of the charge-state distribution of the projectile ion beam determines the dynamics of the ion charge state over the whole plasma profile. We show that the discrepancies in the energy loss predicted by different theoretical models are as high as 20-30%, making these theories well distinguishable in suitable experiments.
Propagation of an atmospheric pressure plasma plume
Lu, X.; Xiong, Q.; Xiong, Z.; Hu, J.; Zhou, F.; Gong, W.; Xian, Y.; Zou, C.; Tang, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Pan, Y.
2009-02-15
The ''plasma bullet'' behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma plumes has recently attracted significant interest. In this paper, a specially designed plasma jet device is used to study this phenomenon. It is found that a helium primary plasma can propagate through the wall of a dielectric tube and keep propagating inside the dielectric tube (secondary plasma). High-speed photographs show that the primary plasma disappears before the secondary plasma starts to propagate. Both plumes propagate at a hypersonic speed. Detailed studies on the dynamics of the plasma plumes show that the local electric field induced by the charges on the surface of the dielectric tube plays an important role in the ignition of the secondary plasma. This indicates that the propagation of the plasma plumes may be attributed to the local electric field induced by the charges in the bulletlike plasma volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sosedkin, A. P.; Lotov, K. V.
2016-09-01
LCODE is a freely distributed quasistatic 2D3V code for simulating plasma wakefield acceleration, mainly specialized at resource-efficient studies of long-term propagation of ultrarelativistic particle beams in plasmas. The beam is modeled with fully relativistic macro-particles in a simulation window copropagating with the light velocity; the plasma can be simulated with either kinetic or fluid model. Several techniques are used to obtain exceptional numerical stability and precision while maintaining high resource efficiency, enabling LCODE to simulate the evolution of long particle beams over long propagation distances even on a laptop. A recent upgrade enabled LCODE to perform the calculations in parallel. A pipeline of several LCODE processes communicating via MPI (Message-Passing Interface) is capable of executing multiple consecutive time steps of the simulation in a single pass. This approach can speed up the calculations by hundreds of times.
Wilde, B.H.; Fernandez, J.C.; Hsing, W.W.; Cobble, J.A.; Delamater, N.D.; Krauser, W.J.; Lindman, E.L.; Failor, B.H.
1995-07-01
Special Nova hohlraums have been designed to simulate the plasma conditions calculated for various NIF hohlraum point designs. These hohlraums attempt to maximize the laser pathlength for parametric instability measurements. A toroidal-shaped hohlraum with a diameter of 3200 microns and a length of 1600 microns allows a laser pathlength of about 2 mm. Filling the hohlraum with 1 atmosphere of neopentane gas gives an electron temperature of 3 keV and electron density near 0.1 of critical. Detailed LASNEX calculations for these hohlraums and comparisons to the NIF point design will be presented. Comparisons between data and calculations that characterize the plasma conditions (electron, radiation, and ion temperatures, electron density, etc) in these Nova hohlraums will also be shown.
Horton, W.; Hu, G.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.
75 FR 66743 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; List of Correspondence
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-29
... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; List of Correspondence AGENCY: Department of... State Directors of Special Education Executive Director Bill East, reiterating that the calculation of State financial support for special education and related services for children with...
Slide Rule For Calculating Curing Schedules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heater, Don
1995-01-01
Special-purpose slide rule devised for calculating schedules for storing and curing adhesives, sealants, and other materials characterized by known curing times and shelf lives. Prevents mistakes commonly made in determining storage and curing schedules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung
The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann
2001-01-01
Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…
Foster, J.S. Jr.
1958-03-11
This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.
Analysis of nuclear induced plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.
1976-01-01
A kinetic model is developed for a plasma generated by fission fragments, and the results are employed to study He plasma generated in a tube coated with fissionable material. Because both the heavy particles and electrons play important roles in creating the plasma, their effects are considered simultaneously. The calculations are carried out for a range of neutron fluxes and pressures. In general, the predictions of the theory are in good agreement with available intensity measurements. Moreover, the theory predicts the experimentally measured inversions. However, the calculated gain coefficients are such that lasing is not expected to take place in a helium plasma generated by fission fragments.
Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Ian Norman
Plasma wave wakes, which are the collective oscillatory response near the plasma frequency to the propagation of particles or electromagnetic waves through a plasma, play a critical role in many plasma processes. New results from backwards stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), in which wakes with phase velocities much less than the speed of light are induced by the beating of counter-propagating light waves, and from electron beam stopping, in which the wakes are produced by the motion of relativistically propagating electrons through the dense plasma, are discussed. Both processes play important roles in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In BSRS, laser light is scattered backwards out of the plasma, decreasing the energy available to compress the ICF capsule and affecting the symmetry of where the laser energy hits the hohlraum wall in indirect drive ICF. The plasma wave wake can also generate superthermal electrons that can preheat the core and/or the ablator. Electron beam stopping plays a critical role in the Fast Ignition (FI) ICF concept, in which a beam of relativistic electrons is used to heat the target core to ignition temperatures after the compression stage. The beam stopping power determines the effectiveness of the heating process. This dissertation covers new discoveries on the importance of plasma wave wakes in both BSRS and electron beam stopping. In the SRS studies, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS are performed, which model a short-duration (˜500/ω0 --1FWHM) counter-propagating scattered light seed pulse in the presence of a constant pump laser with an intensity far below the absolute instability threshold for plasma waves undergoing Landau damping. The seed undergoes linear convective Raman amplification and dominates over the amplification of fluctuations due to particle discreteness. The simulation results are in good agreement with results from a coupled-mode solver when special relativity and the effects of finite size PIC
EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.
2012-06-01
-mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked
Nuclear Material Variance Calculation
1995-01-01
MAVARIC (Materials Accounting VARIance Calculations) is a custom spreadsheet that significantly reduces the effort required to make the variance and covariance calculations needed to determine the detection sensitivity of a materials accounting system and loss of special nuclear material (SNM). The user is required to enter information into one of four data tables depending on the type of term in the materials balance (MB) equation. The four data tables correspond to input transfers, output transfers,more » and two types of inventory terms, one for nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and one for measurements made by chemical analysis. Each data entry must contain an identification number and a short description, as well as values for the SNM concentration, the bulk mass (or solution volume), the measurement error standard deviations, and the number of measurements during an accounting period. The user must also specify the type of error model (additive or multiplicative) associated with each measurement, and possible correlations between transfer terms. Predefined spreadsheet macros are used to perform the variance and covariance calculations for each term based on the corresponding set of entries. MAVARIC has been used for sensitivity studies of chemical separation facilities, fuel processing and fabrication facilities, and gas centrifuge and laser isotope enrichment facilities.« less
Quantitative diagnostics of reactive, multicomponent low-temperature plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas
2013-09-01
The special emphasis in this work is put on the quantitative determination of the plasma composition of an inductively coupled low temperature plasma (ICP). Several standard plasma diagnostic techniques were applied. As a test case for a multi-component low-temperature plasma argon-hydrogen as well as argon-hydrogen-nitrogen mixed plasmas were investigated. For steady-state plasma operation the ion density and electron temperature were determined with a single tip Langmuir probe. A multi-grid miniature retarding-field analyzer was used to measure the mass integrated ion flux. An energy-dispersive mass spectrometer - a so-called plasma monitor (PM) - was applied to sample ions from the plasma to derive the ion composition. The degree of dissociation of hydrogen and the gas temperature were derived from optical emission spectroscopy. The gas temperature was estimated by the rotational distribution of the Q-branch lines of the hydrogen Fulcher- α diagonal band for the argon-hydrogen mixed plasmas and from the second positive system of N2 in argon-hydrogen-nitrogen mixed plasmas. The degree of dissociation of hydrogen was measured by actinometry. The influence of the substrate material of the counter electrode (stainless steel, copper, tungsten, Macor, and aluminium) on the atomic hydrogen concentration was investigated by OES. In addition, ionization-threshold mass spectrometry (ITMS) was used to determine the densities of atomic nitrogen (N) and atomic hydrogen (H and D). Pulsed plasma operation was applied to directly measure the loss rate of H, D and N in the afterglow from the temporal decay of the ITMS signal. From these data the wall loss probability of atomic hydrogen was determined. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional rate equation model was devised to explain the ion composition in these mixed plasmas with different admixture ratios. In addition to the experimental data on electron density, gas temperature, total pressure, atomic hydrogen density, and Ar, H2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.
2012-05-01
Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.
Mississippi Special Olympics: Special Events Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heinze, Toni; Cooper, Walter E.
Provided in the manual are organizational guidelines and suggested activities for a Special Evants segment of the Mississippi Special Olympics Program to encourage participation by low motor functioning, multihandicapped, mentally retarded persons. Information is provided concerning objectives, organizational set-up, guidelines, communication…
SPECIAL CLASSES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DOWELL, G.L.
A SPECIAL 3-YEAR TRAINING PROGRAM IN FARM POWER AND MACHINERY WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND TO HELP MEET THE NEED FOR SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA AREA. CHANGES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED FROM REGULAR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSES TO THE SPECIAL CLASSES PROVIDE A MORE…
Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing
Tsai, C.C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.
1991-07-16
A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm[sup 2]. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity. 3 figures.
Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing
Tsai, Chin-Chi; Gorbatkin, Steven M.; Berry, Lee A.
1991-01-01
A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm.sup.2. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity.
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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harries, W. L.
1977-01-01
The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments was investigated, as well as the probability of utilizing the energy of these particles to create population inversion leading to laser action. Eventually, it is hoped that the same medium could be used for both fissioning and lasing, thus avoiding inefficiences in converting one form of energy to the other. A central problem in understanding a fission induced plasma is to obtain an accurate model of the electron behavior; some calculations are presented to this end. The calculations are simple, providing a compendium of processes for reference.
Cai Hongbo; Zhu Shaoping; Wu Sizhong; Chen Mo; Zhou Cangtao; He, X. T.; Yu Wei; Nagatomo, Hideo
2011-02-15
The efficient magnetic collimation of fast electron flow transporting in overdense plasmas is investigated with two-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell numerical simulations. It is found that the specially engineered targets exhibiting either high-resistivity-core-low-resistivity-cladding structure or low-density-core-high-density-cladding structure can collimate fast electrons. Two main mechanisms to generate collimating magnetic fields are found. In high-resistivity-core-low-resistivity-cladding structure targets, the magnetic field at the interfaces is generated by the gradients of the resistivity and fast electron current, while in low-density-core-high-density-cladding structure targets, the magnetic field is generated by the rapid changing of the flow velocity of the background electrons in transverse direction (perpendicular to the flow velocity) caused by the density jump. The dependences of the maximal magnetic field on the incident laser intensity and plasma density, which are studied by numerical simulations, are supported by our analytical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polomarov, Oleg; Theodosiou, Constantine; Kaganovich, Igor
2003-10-01
A self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of non-local, non-uniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is presented. The system consists of a non-local conductivity operator, and a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function (EEDF) averaged over fast electron bounce motions. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method was applied to speed up the numerical simulations. The importance of accounting for the non-uniform plasma density profile in computing the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated. Effects of plasma non-uniformity on electron heating in rf electric field have also been studied. An enhancement of the electron heating due to the bounce resonance between the electron bounce motion and the rf electric field has been observed. Additional information on the subject is posted in http://www.pppl.gov/pub_report/2003/PPPL-3814-abs.html and in http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0211009
Tapered plasma channels to phase-lock accelerating and focusing forces in laser-plasma accelerators
Rittershofer, W.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Gruner, F.J.; Leemans, W.P.
2010-05-17
Tapered plasma channels are considered for controlling dephasing of a beam with respect to a plasma wave driven by a weakly-relativistic, short-pulse laser. Tapering allows for enhanced energy gain in a single laser plasma accelerator stage. Expressions are derived for the taper, or longitudinal plasma density variation, required to maintain a beam at a constant phase in the longitudinal and/or transverse fields of the plasma wave. In a plasma channel, the phase velocities of the longitudinal and transverse fields differ, and, hence, the required tapering differs. The length over which the tapered plasma density becomes singular is calculated. Linear plasma tapering as well as discontinuous plasma tapering, which moves beams to adjacent plasma wave buckets, are also considered. The energy gain of an accelerated electron in a tapered laser-plasma accelerator is calculated and the laser pulse length to optimize the energy gain is determined.
Laboratory photoionized plasma experiments at Z - Comparison with modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayes, D.; Lockard, T.; Durmaz, T.; Hall, I.; Mancini, R.; Bailey, J.; Rochau, G.; Loisel, G.; Heeter, R.; Liedahl, D.
2013-10-01
Photoionized plasmas are common in astrophysical environments, such as x-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. We discuss an experimental and modeling effort to study the atomic kinetics in plasmas of this type via K-shell line absorption spectroscopy. Results from a first pass thru our 2nd-generation dataset are compared with results of several modeling codes attempting to simulate our experimental conditions. The experiment employs the intense x-ray flux emitted by the collapse of a z-pinch to produce and backlight a Neon photoionized plasma in a cm-scale gas cell at various distances from the z-pinch. The filling pressure is monitored in situ providing the plasma particle number density. High-resolution spectra from a TREX spectrometer are processed with a suite of specially designed IDL tools to produce transmission spectra, which show absorption in several ionization stages of Neon. Analysis independent of atomic kinetics calculations yields the charge state distribution and ion areal densities used to benchmark atomic kinetics codes. In addition, the electron temperature, extracted from a level population ratio, is used to test heating models. This work is sponsored in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas grant program through DOE Grant DE-FG52-09NA29551, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riemann, Karl-Ulrich
2012-10-01
In typical gas discharges a quasineutral plasma is shielded from a negativ absorbing wall by a thin positive sheath that is nearly planar and collision-free. The subdivision of ``plasma'' and ``sheath'' was introduced by Langmuir and is based on a small ratio of the electron Debye lenghth λD to the dominant competing characteristic plasma length l. Depending on the special conditions, l may represent, e.g., the plasma extension, the ionization length, the ion mean free path, the ion gyro radius, or a geometric length. Strictly speaking, this subdivion is possible only in the asymptotic limit λD/l->0. The asymptotic analysis results in singularities at the ``sheath edge'' closely related to the ``Bohm criterion.'' Due to these singularities a direct smooth matching of the separate plasma and sheath soltions is not possible. To obtain a consistent smooth transition, the singular sheath edge must be bridged by an additinal narrow ``intermediate'' model zone accounting both for plasma processes (e.g., collisions) and for the first build up of space charge. Due to this complexity and to different interpretations of the ``classical'' papers by Langmuir and Bohm, the asymptotic plasma-sheath concept and the definition of the sheath edge were questioned and resulted in controversies during the last two decades. We discuss attempts to re-define the sheath edge, to account for finite values of λD/l in the Bohm criterion, and demonstrate the consistent matching of plasma and sheath. The investigations of the plasma-sheath transition discussed so far are based on a simplified fluid analysis that cannot account for the essential inhomogeneity of the boundary layer and for the dominant role of slow ions in space charge formation. Therefore we give special emphasis to the kinetic theory of the plasma-sheath transition. Unfortunately this approach results in an additional mathematical difficulty caused by ions with zero velocity. We discuss attempts to avoid this singularity by
PREFACE: Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasyutinskii, Oleg
2009-10-01
This special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta presents highlights from the scientific contributions presented at the European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems (MOLEC XVII) held on 23-29 August 2008 at St Petersburg, Russia. This meeting was the seventeenth in a series of biannual meetings that started in 1976, when the first conference was held in Trento, Italy. Subsequent meetings were held at Brandbjerg Hojskole (Denmark), Oxford (UK), Nijmegen (The Netherlands), Jerusalem (Israel), Aussois (France), Assisi (Italy), Bernkastel-Kues (Germany), Prague (Czech Republic), Salamanca (Spain), Nyborg Strand (Denmark), Bristol (UK), Jerusalem (Israel), Istanbul (Turkey), Nunspeet (The Netherlands) and Trento (Italy). In 2008, the meeting was jointly organized by scientists from the Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg, Herzen State University, St Petersburg, Moscow State University, St Petersburg Polytechnical University, and St Petersburg State University. About 150 scientists from 21 countries visited Pushkin, a beautiful suburb of St Petersburg near the famous palace of Empress Catherine II, and discussed the state of the art and trends in the field, as well as new methods and applications, during 24 plenary lectures, 36 hot topic talks and two evening poster sessions. A special event was the presentation of the MOLEC XVII award to Professor Grabriel Balint-Kurti for his outstanding contributions to the theory of reaction dynamics and molecular photodissociation. Further information is available from the homepage of the meeting: http://www.ioffe.ru/MOLEC17/. This special issue covers different aspects of atomic and molecular interactions, with emphasis on both experimental and theoretical studies of the dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. More specifically, it includes molecular collisions in different environments; plasma, atmospheric, interstellar and combustion
Surface currents on ideal plasmas
Webster, Anthony J.
2010-11-15
The surface (or 'skin') current that can flow at a perturbed interface between plasma and vacuum is considered in the approximation where a surface marks a sharp transition from plasma to vacuum. A short magnetohydrodynamic calculation gives an exact and general expression for the component perpendicular to the average of the magnetic field either side of the surface, finding it proportional to the edge plasma pressure. A consequence is that for all plasmas with zero surface current at equilibrium, the surface current associated with any linear instability will flow parallel to the magnetic field. The surface current is calculated for a simple but realistic model of a cylindrical plasma, and found to depend on the type of instability, and consequently on the particular plasma equilibrium. This is illustrated for two well known cases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abang, Theresa B.
1992-01-01
This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)
Codes with special correlation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumert, L. D.
1964-01-01
Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets
Algorithmically specialized parallel computers
Snyder, L.; Jamieson, L.H.; Gannon, D.B.; Siegel, H.J.
1985-01-01
This book is based on a workshop which dealt with array processors. Topics considered include algorithmic specialization using VLSI, innovative architectures, signal processing, speech recognition, image processing, specialized architectures for numerical computations, and general-purpose computers.
46 CFR 174.360 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
..., as amended, chapter II-1, part B-1. 46 CFR Ch. I (10-1-10 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculations. 174.360 Section 174.360 Shipping COAST... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Dry Cargo Ships § 174.360 Calculations. Each ship...
Mentorship of Special Educators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madigan, Jennifer Booker; Schroth-Cavataio, Georganne
2012-01-01
The national shortage and exceptionally high attrition rate of special education teachers are impediments to serving students with special needs. Given that only 64 percent of special education teachers have access to a mentor compared with 86 percent of general education teachers, this book meets an essential need for attracting, retaining, and…
Special Effects Activity Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol
This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitfield, Keith E.; Edwards, Christopher L.
2011-01-01
Mentorship is critical for career development. Members of special populations are at increased risk of information shortfalls and advice that is not framed with cultural sensitivity. Special knowledge and skills are needed to successfully mentor members of ethnic minority and other special populations. Midlevel and senior scientists need…
Assessing Special Educational Needs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolfendale, Sheila, Ed.
This essays in this book contain valuable and up-to-date information about current issues and developments in assessing special educational needs. The context of the book is the mainstream setting in the United Kingdom. The aim of these chapters is to consider special needs in inclusive education, consistent with British special needs legislation.…
Modelling the Plasma Jet in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Schein, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Möhwald, K.; Lummer, C.
2016-08-01
Particle in-flight characteristics in atmospheric plasma spraying process are determined by impulse and heat energy transferred between the plasma jet and injected powder particles. One of the important factors for the quality of the plasma-sprayed coatings is thus the distribution of plasma gas temperatures and velocities in plasma jet. Plasma jets generated by conventional single-arc plasma spraying systems and their interaction with powder particles were subject matter of intensive research. However, this does not apply to plasma jets generated by means of multi-arc plasma spraying systems yet. In this study, a numerical model has been developed which is designated to dealing with the flow characteristics of the plasma jet generated by means of a three-cathode spraying system. The upstream flow conditions, which were calculated using a priori conducted plasma generator simulations, have been coupled to the plasma jet simulations. The significances of the relevant numerical assumptions and aspects of the models are analyzed. The focus is placed on to the turbulence and diffusion/demixing modelling. A critical evaluation of the prediction power of the models is conducted by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results determined by means of emission spectroscopic computed tomography. It is evident that the numerical models exhibit a good accuracy for their intended use.
Conductivity of a relativistic plasma
Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.
1989-03-01
The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Lysosomes and the plasma membrane
Andrews, Norma W.
2002-01-01
Studies of the cell invasion mechanism of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi led to a series of novel findings, which revealed a previously unsuspected ability of conventional lysosomes to fuse with the plasma membrane. This regulated exocytic process, previously regarded mostly as a specialization of certain cell types, was recently shown to play an important role in the mechanism by which cells reseal their plasma membrane after injury. PMID:12147679
Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide
2013-11-01
In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of
Io Plasma Torus: Nature of the Iogenic Plasma Source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marconi, M. L.; Smyth, W. H.
1996-09-01
The primary source of plasma for Jupiter's magnetosphere is supplied internally by Io, the innermost Galilean satellite. The Iogenic plasma source is created by gases (e.g., Na, K, O, S, and SO_2) lost from Io as they undergo electron impact and charge exchange reactions in the plasma torus. This Iogenic plasma source provides mass, momentum, pick-up electrical conductivity, and energy to the plasma torus. The three-dimensional nature of the Iogenic plasma source is an important input quantity (1) in local studies to understand the plasma torus properties (density, composition, subcorotational motion, electric currents, and temperature) and the plasma torus near-Io MHD flow and atmosphere interactions, and (2) in more global studies to understand the spacetime structure of the outward transport dynamics of the plasma torus, such as in RCM-J (Rice Convection Model for Jupiter) calculations. To elucidate and quantify the nature of the Iogenic plasma source for such studies, we have undertaken simulations of it using the AER neutral cloud models. Calculations will be presented to illustrate the spacetime nature of the Iogenic plasma source and to estimate the net-mass, momentum and energy input rates to the plasma torus and the height-integrated electrical conductivity near Io and in Jupiter's ionosphere. These calculations show that the instantaneous Iogenic plasma source is highly peaked at Io's position in the plasma torus and that its rates vary significantly with Io System III longitude and also with Io phase angle because of the east-west electric field. For the lower-velocity escape of gases by incomplete collisional cascade processes (i.e., plasma torus ion sputtering), contributions to the instantaneous Iogenic plasma source are primarily confined to a broader (but still limited) spatial region in L-shell and System III longitude angle near Io. For the higher-velocity loss of gases by charge exchange, contributions to the Iogenic plasma source are more
Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas.
Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E
2014-04-01
The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it nonoscillatory and weaker. PMID:24827356
General very special relativity in Finsler cosmology
Kouretsis, A. P.; Stathakopoulos, M.; Stavrinos, P. C.
2009-05-15
General very special relativity (GVSR) is the curved space-time of very special relativity (VSR) proposed by Cohen and Glashow. The geometry of general very special relativity possesses a line element of Finsler geometry introduced by Bogoslovsky. We calculate the Einstein field equations and derive a modified Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology for an osculating Riemannian space. The Friedmann equation of motion leads to an explanation of the cosmological acceleration in terms of an alternative non-Lorentz invariant theory. A first order approach for a primordial-spurionic vector field introduced into the metric gives back an estimation of the energy evolution and inflation.
Plasma stabilization experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sziklas, E. A.; Fader, W. J.; Jong, R. A.; Stufflebeam, J. H.
1980-07-01
The plasma stabilization experiment is an effort to enhance stability in a mirror-confined plasma by trapping cold ions with rf fields applied near the mirror throats. Nagoya Type 3 antennas, coupled to a 60 kW rf power supply are mounted in the throats of the UTRC baseball magnet. An external washer gun provides a source of plasma for both streaming and confined plasma tests. Results show a strong stoppering effect on streaming plasmas and a marginal effect on confined plasmas. Theoretical calculations provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The field generates a ponderomotive force acting on the electrons. The resultant improvement in electron confinement changes the ambipolar potential and inhibits the flow of ions through the mirror throat. Criteria are derived for the validity of this trapping concept. The requisite field strengths are significantly lower than those required to trap ions directly. Scaling laws are developed for application of cold ion trapping to large mirror devices containing dense plasmas. The use of slow-wave antenna structures operated at frequencies above the lower hybrid frequency is recommended for these applications.
Mathematical and computational models of plasma flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brushlinsky, K. V.
Investigations of plasma flows are of interest, firstly, due to numerous applications, and secondly, because of their general principles, which form a special branch of physics: the plasma dynamics. Numerical simulation and computation, together with theoretic and experimental methods, play an important part in these investigations. Speaking on flows, a relatively dense plasma is mentioned, so its mathematical models appertain to the fluid mechanics, i.e., they are based on the magnetohydrodynamic description of plasma. Time dependent two dimensional models of plasma flows of two wide-spread types are considered: the flows across the magnetic field and those in the magnetic field plane.
Theory and observation of a dynamically evolving negative ion plasma. [in F region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendillo, M.; Forbes, J.
1982-01-01
The study described here examines the full range of negative-ion chemistry in the upper ionosphere by using current reaction rate data to investigate the many chemical paths SF6-type injections might take in an F region environment. Special attention is given to the conditions required to create heavy negative ions that persist long enough to affect the dynamical properties of the F region. The ambipolar diffusion characteristics of a three-component plasma are described, and estimates are given of the incoherent scatter spectra obtained from such a plasma. Model calculations using a first-order chemical code are defined and tested in order to investigate the actual types of negative-ion plasma capable of being created under nighttime conditions.
Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich
1999-10-01
A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have
Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volokitin, Oleg; Vlasov, Viktor; Volokitin, Gennady; Skripnikova, Nelli; Shekhovtsov, Valentin
2016-01-01
Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ rp ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ rp ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.
Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.
1996-05-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities.
Coating of plasma polymerized film
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.
1980-01-01
Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.
Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.
1986-03-01
In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.
Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter
2015-09-01
Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use
On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...
Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator
... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...
Radiation characteristics of femtosecond laser-induced plasma channel Vee antenna
Choe, Yun-Sik; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan
2015-06-15
A virtual reconfigurable plasma Vee antenna consisting of a set of laser plasma filaments produced by femtosecond laser pulses in air is investigated in this paper. The calculation results show that radiation pattern becomes more complex and gain shows initially rapid rise but gradually saturate as the leg length increases, but the pattern and gain are not seriously affected by the plasma conductivity; particularly, the gain of the Vee antenna with plasma conductivity σ = 100S/m can reach about 80% of that of a copper antenna. Radiation efficiency of the antenna has shown a strong dependence on radius of the antenna leg, and an efficiency of 65%, considered to have a proper performance, can be obtained with the channel radius of about 10 mm. Apex angle variation can lead to significant change of the radiation pattern and influence the gain; the best apex angle corresponding to maximal gain and good directivity for the third resonance antenna leg length is found to be at 74° at 600 MHz and σ = 100 S/m. The calculation has shown that at terawatt laser power level, the plasma channel conductivity is close to that of conventional plasma antenna, and peak gain of the Vee antenna is more than 8 dB with a good directivity. In addition, the radiation pattern of special Vee antennas with apex angle 180°-dipole antennas, for first and third resonance leg lengths, is compared and underneath physics of the difference is given. The laser-induced plasma channel antenna is especially suitable for achieving good directivity and gain, which has advantage over conventional plasma antenna with gas discharge tube or metal antenna.
Radiation characteristics of femtosecond laser-induced plasma channel Vee antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Yun-Sik; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan
2015-06-01
A virtual reconfigurable plasma Vee antenna consisting of a set of laser plasma filaments produced by femtosecond laser pulses in air is investigated in this paper. The calculation results show that radiation pattern becomes more complex and gain shows initially rapid rise but gradually saturate as the leg length increases, but the pattern and gain are not seriously affected by the plasma conductivity; particularly, the gain of the Vee antenna with plasma conductivity σ = 100S/m can reach about 80% of that of a copper antenna. Radiation efficiency of the antenna has shown a strong dependence on radius of the antenna leg, and an efficiency of 65%, considered to have a proper performance, can be obtained with the channel radius of about 10 mm. Apex angle variation can lead to significant change of the radiation pattern and influence the gain; the best apex angle corresponding to maximal gain and good directivity for the third resonance antenna leg length is found to be at 74° at 600 MHz and σ = 100 S/m. The calculation has shown that at terawatt laser power level, the plasma channel conductivity is close to that of conventional plasma antenna, and peak gain of the Vee antenna is more than 8 dB with a good directivity. In addition, the radiation pattern of special Vee antennas with apex angle 180°-dipole antennas, for first and third resonance leg lengths, is compared and underneath physics of the difference is given. The laser-induced plasma channel antenna is especially suitable for achieving good directivity and gain, which has advantage over conventional plasma antenna with gas discharge tube or metal antenna.
Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas
Kinney, R.; Tajima, T. ); McWilliams, J.C. ); Petviashvili, N. )
1994-02-01
A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics based on the Elsaesser variables is developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to those based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected, the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. A statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations is given. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories, but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is presented as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected. A statistical calculation in the canonical ensemble and numerical simulations show that a nonzero large-scale magnetic field is statistically favored, and that the preferred shape of this field is a long, thin tube of flux. Possible applications to a variety of physical phenomena are suggested.
Devaney, J.J.
1982-04-01
The importance of single, large-angle, nuclear-coulombic, nuclear-hadronic, hadronic-coulombic interference, and multiple nuclear-coulombic scattering is investigated for tritons incident on deuterium, iron, and plutonium for very high temperatures and densities and for ordinary liquid and solid densities at low temperature. Depending on the accuracy desired, we conclude that for 10-keV-temperature DT plasmas it is not necessary to include elastic scattering deflection in reaction-in-flight calculations. For higher temperatures or where angular accuracies greater than 10/sup 0/ are significant or for higher Z targets or for other special circumstances, one must include elastic scattering from coulomb forces.
Ferroelectric plasma thruster for microspacecraft propulsion
Kemp, Mark A.; Kovaleski, Scott D.
2006-12-01
This paper presents a technology in microthruster design: the ferroelectric plasma thruster (FEPT). The FEPT utilizes an applied rf electric field to create plasma on the surface of a ferroelectric dielectric. Acceleration of ions from this plasma provides thrust. Advantages of the FEPT include emission of both electrons and ions leading to self-neutralization, creation of plasma, and acceleration of ions with a single power supply, and application of thrust in a short amount of time. We present the concept of the thruster, operational physics, as well as experimental results demonstrating plasma creation and ion acceleration. These results along with plasma spectroscopy allow us to calculate thruster parameters.
2008-01-25
BOUT is a parallelized 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code. The principal calculations are the boundary plasma turbulence in a realistic magnetic geometry. BOUT uses fluid Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density, electron and ion temperature and Parallel mementum. With sources added in the core-edge region and sinks in the scrape-off-layer (SOL), BOUT follows the self-consistent profile evolution together with turbulence. BOUT also includes coupling to a magnetohyfrodynamic equlibrium (EFIT package) and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic edgemore » transport model (UEDGE package).« less
Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide
2013-11-01
In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of
Universal flash calculation program for TI-59 calculator fits almost all industry conditions
Janos, T.
1984-01-01
The programmable hand-held calculator has become a widely used tool in engineering. Although these calculators cannot compete with large computers in either speed or accuracy, they have a special advantage in simple and easy accessibility. They can be used very well for preliminary data processing, particularly during mathematical model building or when a process is in the experimental phase.
Special Education in Singapore.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Levan; Nam, Sang Seok
2000-01-01
This article describes the development and current status of special education in Singapore. Topics include organization of service delivery, integration, teacher training, and achievements. Challenges to improve the quality of special education services through integration opportunities, preservice teacher training, and greater coordination among…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Granstrom, Jane; And Others
1982-01-01
The article reports on the organization and implementation of a "Special Needs Awareness Month" in Quincy, Massachusetts. Noted are the heavy involvement of parents in the multiagency planning committee, and the resulting citywide displays, publications, programs, and publicity on children with special needs. (DB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Hanlin; Wang, HongBo
1994-01-01
This article reviews the history and development of special education in China. The historical review covers antiquity to the 1800s, 1800s to 1900s, 1949 to 1965, and 1966 to 1976. Current special education in China is discussed in terms of laws and regulations and major achievements. Major problems and future prospects are also noted. (Author/DB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.
2009-01-01
Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…
Evaluating Special Education Facilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elkins, John
1987-01-01
The paper discusses early research on evaluating services for Australian disabled persons, the Schonell Evaluation Procedure (SEP) developed for use in Activity Therapy Centres (adult continuing education programs), the modification of SEP for use in special schools for children, and emergent and unmet needs for evaluating adult special education…
Special Education Resource System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kampert, George J.
The guide to the Special Education Resource System (SERS) of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school system contains policies and procedures regarding organization, services, and process of the system. Noted is the SERS purpose of providing information and access to appropriate instructional media and materials for special education personnel. Briefly…
Challenges Facing Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others
This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This special issue is published for the International Society of Biocatalysis and Biotechnology (ISBB). The ISBB special issue is devoted to all areas of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology in which biological systems are developed and/or used for the provision of commercial goods or serv...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neff, Bonita Dostal
Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization. Little…
Handbook of Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.
Intended to serve as a basic reference work for students and professionals in special education, the book contains 34 author contributed chapters concerned with the conceptual foundations of special education, service delivery systems, curriculum and methods, and child and child/environmental management. Chapters have the following titles and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan
2014-01-01
The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…
Special Education in Bangladesh.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zaman, Sultana S.; Munir, Shirin Z.
1992-01-01
This review of special education in Bangladesh describes the prevalence of major disabilities and government and nongovernment programs for children with various types of disabilities. The paper concludes that most special education is supported by nongovernment organizations and that implementation has been restricted by economic constraints.…
Special Education Teacher Persistence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorp, Sally A.
2013-01-01
The focus of this study was special education teachers, who remained in the teaching field 5 or more years. Through the use of qualitative mixed-methods study, variables contributing to their longevity were explored. Research indicates that 50% of special education teachers leave the field within five years of employment (Alliance for Education,…
Plasma probe characteristics in low density hydrogen pulsed plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astakhov, D. I.; Goedheer, W. J.; Lee, C. J.; Ivanov, V. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Zotovich, A. I.; Zyryanov, S. M.; Lopaev, D. V.; Bijkerk, F.
2015-10-01
Probe theories are only applicable in the regime where the probe’s perturbation of the plasma can be neglected. However, it is not always possible to know, a priori, that a particular probe theory can be successfully applied, especially in low density plasmas. This is especially difficult in the case of transient, low density plasmas. Here, we applied probe diagnostics in combination with a 2D particle-in-cell model, to an experiment with a pulsed low density hydrogen plasma. The calculations took into account the full chamber geometry, including the plasma probe as an electrode in the chamber. It was found that the simulations reproduce the time evolution of the probe IV characteristics with good accuracy. The disagreement between the simulated and probe measured plasma density is attributed to the limited applicability of probe theory to measurements of low density pulsed plasmas on a similarly short time scale as investigated here. Indeed, in the case studied here, probe measurements would lead to, either a large overestimate, or underestimate of the plasma density, depending on the chosen probe theory. In contrast, the simulations of the plasma evolution and the probe characteristics do not suffer from such strict applicability limits. These studies show that probe theory cannot be justified through probe measurements. However, limiting cases of probe theories can be used to estimate upper and lower bounds on plasma densities. These theories include and neglect orbital motion, respectively, with different collisional terms leading to intermediate estimates.
[IOL calculation for high ametropia].
Haigis, W
2008-11-01
Long and short eyes are connected with high ametropia and constitute special problems for biometry and IOL calculations. Ultrasound measurements on these eyes, which often have altered geometries, are frequently more difficult than in normal eyes. This holds especially for long eyes, which significantly benefit from optical biometry. Measurement errors, IOL manufacturing tolerances and uncertainties regarding the effective lens position affect short eyes much more than normal eyes. The selection of a suitable IOL formula is of special importance for the refractive outcome. For short eyes, Holladay-2, HofferQ and Haigis are recommended, for long eyes Holladay-1, Holladay-2 and Haigis. In each case, optimized IOL constants must be used. If minus lenses for extremely long eyes are calculated with the same constants as plus lenses, a hyperopic refractive error is created, which can be avoided by a separate set of constants for minus lenses. For extremely short eyes the commonly used approximation of thinner lenses fails necessitating a thick lens calculation or raytracing. PMID:18998145
ALE advantage in hypervelocity impact calculations
Gerassimenko, M.; Rathkopf, J.
1998-10-01
The ALE3D code is used to model experiments relevant to hypervelocity impact lethality, carried out in the 4-5 km/s velocity range. The code is run in the Eulerian and ALE modes. Zoning in the calculations is refined beyond the level found in most lethality calculations, but still short of convergence. The level of zoning refinement that produces equivalent results in uniformly zoned Eulerian calculations and ALE ones utilizing specialized zoning, weighting and relaxation techniques is established. It takes 11 times fewer zones and about 60% as many cycles when ALE capabilities are used. Calculations are compared to experimental results.
Phenomena on Plasma-Liquid Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Nozomi
Recent researches on plasma-liquid interface are introduced. One is about plasma-water interaction at the interface of pulsed dielectric-barrier plasma in gas-liquid two-phase flow for water treatment. Acetic acid in water is decomposed as a persistent material. Numerical calculation indicates that plasma-water interaction which is O-radical-induced generation of liquid-phase-OH radical occurs. The other reports highly-concentrated adsorption of a surfactant at plasma-water interface, and an interfacial reaction decomposing the surfactant. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid is an extremely persistent surfactant, but can be decomposed by plasma attached to the solution. The decomposing reaction occurs at the plasma-water interface. Estimation of the amount of PFOS adsorbing to the plasma-water interface shows much higher mole fraction of PFOS than that in bulk water. Thus, the plasma can effectively react with PFOS at the water surface and exhibits high energy efficiency.
Optical properties of fast-diffusing solid-state plasmas
Forchel, A.; Schweizer, H.; Mahler, G.
1983-08-08
Transmission and emission spectra of fast-diffusing nonequilibrium electron-hole plasmas in semiconductors are calculated with use of displaced Fermi distributions. The carrier drift significantly alters the plasma spectra and removes previously reported incomprehensible discrepancies between experimental and theoretical plasma parameters, indicating the necessity to reinterpret entirely the spectroscopic data from nonequilibrium plasmas.
Geometric Gyrokinetic Theory for Edge Plasma
Qin, H; Cohen, R H; Nevins, W M; Xu, X Q
2007-01-18
It turns out that gyrokinetic theory can be geometrically formulated as special cases of a geometrically generalized Vlasov-Maxwell system. It is proposed that the phase space of the spacetime is a 7-dimensional fiber bundle P over the 4-dimensional spacetime M, and that a Poincare-Cartan-Einstein 1-form {gamma} on the 7-dimensional phase space determines particles worldlines in the phase space. Through Liouville 6-form {Omega} and fiber integral, the 1-form {gamma} also uniquely defines a geometrically generalized Vlasov-Maxwell system as a field theory for the collective electromagnetic field. The geometric gyrokinetic theory is then developed as a special case of the geometrically generalized Vlasov-Maxwell system. In its most general form, gyrokinetic theory is about a symmetry, called gyro-symmetry, for magnetized plasmas, and the 1-form {gamma} again uniquely defines the gyro-symmetry. The objective is to decouple the gyro-phase dynamics from the rest of particle dynamics by finding the gyro-symmetry in {gamma}. Compared with other methods of deriving the gyrokinetic equations, the advantage of the geometric approach is that it allows any approximation based on mathematical simplification or physical intuition to be made at the 1-form level, and yet the field theories still have the desirable exact conservation properties such as phase space volume conservation and energy-momentum conservation if the 1-form does not depend on the spacetime coordinate explicitly. A set of generalized gyrokinetic equations valid for the edge plasmas is then derived using this geometric method. This formalism allows large-amplitude, time-dependent background electromagnetic fields to be developed fully nonlinearly in addition to small-amplitude, short-wavelength electromagnetic perturbations. The fact that we adopted the geometric method in the present study does not necessarily imply that the major results reported here can not be achieved using classical methods. What the
Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.
Dangott, Bryan
2016-03-01
Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663
Castejon, F.; Pavlov, S. S.
2006-07-15
The fully relativistic plasma dielectric tensor for any wave and plasma parameter is estimated on the basis of the exact plasma dispersion functions concept. The inclusion of this concept allows one to write the tensor in a closed and compact form and to reduce the tensor evaluation to the calculation of those functions. The main analytical properties of these functions are studied and two methods are given for their evaluation. The comparison between the exact dielectric tensor with the weakly relativistic approximation, widely used presently in plasma waves calculations, is given as well as the range of plasma temperature, harmonic number, and propagation angle in which the weakly relativistic approximation is valid.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Hilda B.
1973-01-01
Granite School District, a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah, has a staff of 349 teachers and other professional personnel who provide career education and job experience for more than 5,000 special children. (DS)
Special parallel processing workshop
1994-12-01
This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, Barbara
1974-01-01
Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)
Revisiting the plasma sheath—dust in plasma sheath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, G. C.; Deka, R.; Bora, M. P.
2016-04-01
In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of plasma sheath formed around surfaces of various solid bodies in space, though the results obtained in this work can be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. It is important to note that our calculations are valid only when the amount of dust particles is not sufficient so as to affect the plasma dynamics in the dust-acoustic time scale, but enough to affect the plasma sheath. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisson equation.
Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas
Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; Petviashvili, N.; McWilliams, J.C.
1993-05-01
A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics, based on the Elsasser variables was developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to ones based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected. the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. For a system with many such vortices we present a statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories. but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is outlined as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected.
Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; Petviashvili, N.; McWilliams, J. C.
1993-05-01
A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics, based on the Elsasser variables was developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to ones based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected, the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. For a system with many such vortices we present a statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories, but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is outlined as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected.
Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.
2002-01-01
There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
2015-01-01
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Furth, H.P.; Chambers, E.S.
1962-03-01
BS>A method is given for ion cyclotron resonance heatthg of a magnetically confined plasma by an applied radio-frequency field. In accordance with the invention, the radiofrequency energy is transferred to the plasma without the usual attendent self-shielding effect of plasma polarlzatlon, whereby the energy transfer is accomplished with superior efficiency. More explicitly, the invention includes means for applying a radio-frequency electric field radially to an end of a plasma column confined in a magnetic mirror field configuration. The radio-frequency field propagates hydromagnetic waves axially through the column with the waves diminishing in an intermediate region of the column at ion cyclotron resonance with the fleld frequency. In such region the wave energy is converted by viscous damping to rotational energy of the plasma ions. (AEC)
Baker, W.R.
1961-08-22
A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smarandache, Florentin
2015-11-01
``Unmatter Plasma'' is a novel form of plasma, exclusively made of matter and its antimatter counterpart. An experiment (2015) on matter-antimatter plasma [or unmatter plasma] was recently successful at the Astra Gemini laser facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford, United Kingdom. The experiment that was made has produced electron-positron plasma. The positron is the antimatter of the electron, having an opposite charge of the electron, but the other properties are the same. Unmatter is considered as a combination of matter and antimatter. For example electron-positron is a type of unmatter. We coined the word ``unmatter'' (2004) that means neither matter nor antimatter, but something in between. Besides matter and antimatter there may exist unmatter (as a new form of matter) in accordance with the neutrosophy theory that between an entity and its opposite there exist intermediate entities.
Neutral Gas Plasma Interactions in Space Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, Kan
A sounding rocket experiment, CRIT-II, involving the injection of shaped-charge barium in ionospheric plasma was conducted on May 7, 1989, to investigate Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) hypothesis in space. The CRIT -II main payload was instrumented to make in situ measurements within the neutral barium beam. Among the detectors, UNH provided three energetic particle detectors and two photometers. The data from these detectors are presented. The typical features of the CIV effect were observed including plasma density enhancement, energy and momentum loss of a fast ion beam, excitation of plasma waves, and electron heating. It was found by optical observations that about 4% of the neutral barium was ionized. We believe that about one half of these barium ions were created by electron impact ionization --a CIV mechanism. The cross section for collisions between the barium atoms and the ionospheric oxygen ions was also calculated, assuming that the other half of ionizing barium ions were mainly generated by charge exchange, and found to be in the range from 1 times 10 ^{-17} cm^{-2} at a velocity of 4 km/s to 1 times 10^{-15} cm^{-2} at a velocity of 20 km/s. We also confirmed that the early observed ions were originally from the collisionally accelerated neutral oxygen which charge exchanges with the local oxygen ions. The early stage of electron heating was confirmed to be the result of lower hybrid instabilities excited by the precursor ion beam, using our quasi-linear model calculation. However, the wave spectrum during the passage of main streaming barium was found to be inconsistent with the lower hybrid instabilities proposed by current CIV theories. This could be the main reason for a relatively low ionization yield that one otherwise would expect from CRIT-II. A multi-fluid model of the wave dispersion relation for an unmagnetized beam with finite width in a magnetized plasma was also derived. We found that the nonuniform beam density effect
Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator
Dudnikov, Vadim
2012-02-15
Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.
Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.
1983-01-01
Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…
7 CFR 760.506 - Payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Tree Assistance Program § 760.506 Payment calculations. (a) Payment to an eligible orchardist or nursery tree grower for the cost of replanting or rehabilitating trees, bushes, or vines damaged or lost due to a natural disaster, in excess of 15 percent...
7 CFR 760.506 - Payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Tree Assistance Program § 760.506 Payment calculations. (a) Payment to an eligible orchardist or nursery tree grower for the cost of replanting or rehabilitating trees, bushes, or vines damaged or lost due to a natural disaster, in excess of 15 percent...
7 CFR 760.506 - Payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Tree Assistance Program § 760.506 Payment calculations. (a) Payment to an eligible orchardist or nursery tree grower for the cost of replanting or rehabilitating trees, bushes, or vines damaged or lost due to a natural disaster, in excess of 15 percent...
7 CFR 760.506 - Payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Tree Assistance Program § 760.506 Payment calculations. (a) Payment to an eligible orchardist or nursery tree grower for the cost of replanting or rehabilitating trees, bushes, or vines damaged or lost due to a natural disaster, in excess of 15 percent...
ITER Port Interspace Pressure Calculations
Carbajo, Juan J; Van Hove, Walter A
2016-01-01
The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is equipped with 54 access ports. Each of these ports has an opening in the bioshield that communicates with a dedicated port cell. During Tokamak operation, the bioshield opening must be closed with a concrete plug to shield the radiation coming from the plasma. This port plug separates the port cell into a Port Interspace (between VV closure lid and Port Plug) on the inner side and the Port Cell on the outer side. This paper presents calculations of pressures and temperatures in the ITER (Ref. 1) Port Interspace after a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a pipe of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) with high temperature water. It is assumed that this DEGB occurs during the worst possible conditions, which are during water baking operation, with water at a temperature of 523 K (250 C) and at a pressure of 4.4 MPa. These conditions are more severe than during normal Tokamak operation, with the water at 398 K (125 C) and 2 MPa. Two computer codes are employed in these calculations: RELAP5-3D Version 4.2.1 (Ref. 2) to calculate the blowdown releases from the pipe break, and MELCOR, Version 1.8.6 (Ref. 3) to calculate the pressures and temperatures in the Port Interspace. A sensitivity study has been performed to optimize some flow areas.
Pushing the Limits of Plasma Length in Inertial-Fusion Laser-Plasma Interaction Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Froula, D. H.; Divol, L.; London, R. A.; Michel, P.; Berger, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Neumayer, P.; Ross, J. S.; Wallace, R.; Glenzer, S. H.
2008-01-01
We demonstrate laser beam propagation and low backscatter in laser produced hohlraum plasmas of ignition plasma length. At intensities I<5×1014Wcm-2 greater than 80% of the energy in a blue (3ω, 351 nm) laser is transmitted through a L=5-mm long, high-temperature (Te=2.5keV), high-density (ne=5×1020cm-3) plasma. These experiments show that the backscatter scales exponentially with plasma length which is consistent with linear theory. The backscatter calculated by a new steady state 3D laser-plasma interaction code developed for large ignition plasmas is in good agreement with the measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.
1972-01-01
Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.
Evaporative cooling of flare plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antiochos, S. K.; Sturrock, P. A.
1978-01-01
We investigate a one-dimensional loop model for the evaporative cooling of the coronal flare plasma. The important assumptions are that conductive losses dominate radiative cooling and that the evaporative velocities are small compared with the sound speed. We calculate the profile and evolution of the temperature and verify the accuracy of our assumptions for plasma parameters typical of flare regions. The model is in agreement with soft X-ray observations on the evolution of flare temperatures and emission measures. The effect of evaporation is to greatly reduce the conductive heat flux into the chromosphere and to enhance the EUV emission from the coronal flare plasma.
Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patti, Paul J.
This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…
Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization
Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis
2010-01-01
A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, I. H.; Patacchini, L.
2007-01-01
The Specialized-Coordinate Electrostatic Particle and Thermals in Cell (SCEPTIC) code [I. H. Hutchinson, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 45, 1447 (2003)] is used to compute the ion flux to a floating sphere in a stationary plasma, including the effects of charge-exchange collisions with neutrals. The results agree well with the available prior calculations at very low and very high collisionality thus validating the code and those prior calculations. In addition, SCEPTIC provides quantitative results at intermediate collisionalities where no analytic theory is available. Reasonable agreement in the floating potential is found there with some prior numerical results. For λDe much greater than the sphere radius, enhancements of the ion collection above the orbital motion limited value by factors as high as 5 occur, enough to exceed slightly the radial motion value, but only over a restricted range of collisionality. An explicit analytic fit to SCEPTIC's results is provided for easy evaluation over the entire range of collisionality.
The plasma focus as a tool for plasma-wall-interaction studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, G.; Martinez, M.; Herrera, J. J. E.; Castillo, F.
2015-03-01
The study of the interaction of magnetized plasmas with candidate materials for fusion reactors, as for example tungsten, is a main topic in fusion research. Many studies simulate the plasma wall interaction using ion beams, while only a few use plasma simulators. Plasma foci can produce dense magnetized plasmas of deuterium and helium among other species. We used the plasma focus Fuego-Nuevo II, to expose tungsten samples to deuterium and helium plasmas. The samples were analysed by means of SEM, RBS and NRA, evidencing surface erosion, surface melting and retention of deuterium in a shallow surface layer of 250 nm amounting 6.5·1016 D/cm2. The plasma temperature has been measured at the position of the samples using a triple Langmuir probe and compared to calculations of a snowplow model. The modelling of the electrode to reach desired plasma parameters is discussed.
Warm wavebreaking of nonlinear plasma waves with arbitrary phasevelocities
Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.
2004-11-12
A warm, relativistic fluid theory of a nonequilibrium, collisionless plasma is developed to analyze nonlinear plasma waves excited by intense drive beams. The maximum amplitude and wavelength are calculated for nonrelativistic plasma temperatures and arbitrary plasma wave phase velocities. The maximum amplitude is shown to increase in the presence of a laser field. These results set a limit to the achievable gradient in plasma-based accelerators.
Trapping and dark current in plasma-based accelerators
Schroder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Leemans, W.P.
2004-06-01
The trapping of thermal electrons in a nonlinear plasma wave of arbitrary phase velocity is investigated. The threshold plasma wave amplitude for trapping plasma electrons is calculated, thereby determining the fraction trapped and the expected dark current in a plasma-based accelerator. It is shown that the presence of a laser field (e.g., trapping in the self-modulated regime of the laser wakefield accelerator) increases the trapping threshold. Implications for experimental and numerical laser-plasma studies are discussed.
Plasma neutralization models for intense ion beam transport in plasma
Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; O'Rourke, Sean; Lee, Edward P.
2003-05-01
Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed based on the assumption of long charge bunches (l{sub b} >> r{sub b}). Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The analytical predictions for the degree of ion beam charge and current neutralization also agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The model predicts very good charge neutralization (>99%) during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration {tau}{sub b} is much longer than the electron plasma period 2{pi}/{omega}{sub p}, where {omega}{sub p} = (4{pi}e{sup 2}n{sub p}/m){sup 1/2} is the electron plasma frequency, and n{sub p} is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. The analytical formulas derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes, and provide scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters.
On April 19, 2010 AIA observed one of the largest prominence eruptions in years. The huge structure erupts, but a great deal of the plasma (hundreds of millions of tons) is unable to escape the gra...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hintze, Paul E.
2016-01-01
NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.
75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-09-23
..., 2009, (74 FR 67145), VA proposed to amend its regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN21 Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation AGENCY... housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain provisions from...
Special Issue: "Functional Dendrimers".
Tomalia, Donald A
2016-01-01
This special issue entitled "Functional Dendrimers" focuses on the manipulation of at least six "critical nanoscale design parameters" (CNDPs) of dendrimers including: size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture and elemental composition. These CNDPs collectively define properties of all "functional dendrimers". This special issue contains many interesting examples describing the manipulation of certain dendrimer CNDPs to create new emerging properties and, in some cases, predictive nanoperiodic property patterns (i.e., dendritic effects). The systematic engineering of CNDPs provides a valuable strategy for optimizing functional dendrimer properties for use in specific applications. PMID:27517890
Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations
Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie
2014-01-01
This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079
Kinetic theory of plasma adiabatic major radius compression in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorelenkova, M. V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Azizov, E. A.; Romannikov, A. N.; Herrmann, H. W.
1998-05-01
In order to understand the individual charged particle behavior as well as plasma macroparameters (temperature, density, etc.) during the adiabatic major radius compression (R-compression) in a tokamak, a kinetic approach is used. The perpendicular electric field from the Ohm's law at zero resistivity is made use of in order to describe particle motion during the R-compression. Expressions for both passing and trapped particle energy and pitch angle change are derived for a plasma with high aspect ratio and circular magnetic surfaces. The particle behavior near the passing trapped boundary during the compression is studied to simulate the compression-induced collisional losses of alpha particles. Qualitative agreement is obtained with the alphas loss measurements in deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [World Survey of Activities in Controlled Fusion Research [Nucl. Fusion special supplement (1991)] (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991)]. The plasma macroparameters evolution at the R-compression is calculated by solving the gyroaveraged drift kinetic equation.
Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; McWilliams, J. C.; Petviashvili, N.
1994-02-01
A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics based on the Elsässer variables is developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to those based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected, the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. A statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations is given. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories, but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is presented as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected. A statistical calculation in the canonical ensemble and numerical simulations show that a nonzero large-scale magnetic field is statistically favored, and that the preferred shape of this field is a long, thin tube of flux. Possible applications to a variety of physical phenomena are suggested.
Plasma in sonoluminescing bubble.
An, Yu
2006-12-22
With the new accommodation coefficient of water vapor evaluated by molecular dynamics model, the maximum temperature of a sonoluminescing bubble calculated with the full partial differential equations easily reaches few tens of thousands degrees. Though at this temperature the gas is weakly ionized (10% or less), the gas density inside a sonoluminescing bubble at the moment of the bubble's flashing is so high that there still forms a dense plasma. The light emission of the bubble is calculated by the plasma model which is compared with that by the bremsstrahlung (electron-ion, electron-neutral atom) and recombination model. The calculation by the two models shows that for the relatively low maximum temperature (< 30,000 K) of the bubble, the pulse width is independent of the wavelength and the spectrum deviates the black body radiation type; while for the relatively high maximum temperature (approximately 60,000 K), the pulse width is dependent of the wavelength and the spectrum is an almost perfect black body radiation spectrum. The maximum temperature calculated by the gas dynamics equations is much higher than the temperature fitted by the black body radiation formula. PMID:16797657
Gorini, G.; Kaellne, J.; Ognissanto, F.; Tardocchi, M.
2011-03-15
A parametric relationship between total neutron yield rate and collimated fluxes related to the brightness (B) of plasma chords ({lambda}) is developed for different emissivity distributions of tokamak plasmas. Specifically, the brightness was expressed as a function of chord coordinates of radial position using a simple model for the emissivity profiles of width parameter w. The functional brightness dependence B({lambda},w) was calculated to examine the relationship between measured flux and deduced yield rate, and its plasma profile dependence. The results were used to determine the chord range of minimum profile sensitivity in order to identify the preferred collimator sight for the determination of yield rate from neutron emission spectroscopy (YNES) measurements. The YNES method is discussed in comparison to conventional methods to determine the total neutron yield rates and related plasma fusion power relying on uncollimated flux measurements and a different calibration base for the flux-yield relationship. The results have a special bearing for tokamaks operating with both deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas and future high power machines such as for ITER, DEMO, and IGNITOR.
Atomic processes for astrophysical plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badnell, N. R.; Del Zanna, G.; Fernández-Menchero, L.; Giunta, A. S.; Liang, G. Y.; Mason, H. E.; Storey, P. J.
2016-05-01
In this review we summarize the recent calculations and improvements of atomic data that we have carried out for the analysis of astrophysical spectroscopy within the atomic processes for astrophysical plasmas network. We briefly discuss the various methods used for the calculations, and highlight several issues that we have uncovered during such extensive work. We discuss the completeness and accuracy of the cross sections for ionic excitation by electron impact for the main isoelectronic sequences, which we have obtained with large-scale calculations. Given its astrophysical importance, we emphasize the work on iron. Some examples on the significant improvement that has been achieved over previous calculations are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunes, I.; JET Contributors
2016-01-01
Operation with a Be/W wall at JET (JET-ILW) has an impact on scenario development and energy confinement with respect to the carbon wall (JET-C). The main differences observed were (1) strong accumulation of W in the plasma core and (2) the need to mitigate the divertor target temperature to avoid W sputtering by Be and other low Z impurities and (3) a decrease of plasma energy confinement. A major difference is observed on the pedestal pressure, namely a reduction of the pedestal temperature which, due to profile stiffness the plasma core temperature is also reduced leading to a degradation of the global confinement. This effect is more pronounced in low β N scenarios. At high β N, the impact of the wall on the plasma energy confinement is mitigated by the weaker plasma energy degradation with power relative to the IPB98(y, 2) scaling calculated empirically for a CFC first wall. The smaller tolerable impurity concentration for tungsten (<10-5) compared to that of carbon requires the use of electron heating methods to prevent W accumulation in the plasma core region as well as gas puffing to avoid W entering the plasma core by ELM flushing and reduction of the W source by decreasing the target temperature. W source and the target temperature can also be controlled by impurity seeding. Nitrogen and Neon have been used and with both gases the reduction of the W source and the target temperature is observed. Whilst more experiments with Neon are necessary to assess its impact on energy confinement, a partial increase of plasma energy confinement is observed with Nitrogen, through the increase of edge temperature. The challenge for scenario development at JET is to extend the pulse length curtailed by its transient behavior (W accumulation or MHD), but more importantly by the divertor target temperature limits. Re-optimisation of the scenarios to mitigate the effect of the change of wall materials maintaining high global energy confinement similar to JET-C is
Rapidity: The Special Relativity Work of Dr. Vladimir Karapetoff
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Hamilton
2014-03-01
Between 1924 and 1944 Dr. Vladimir Karapetoff, a professor in the electrical engineering department of Cornell University, authored 11 papers on the topic of special relativity. While his initial papers focused on the then popular oblique angle treatment of special relativity, he soon became a vocal proponent of performing special relativistic calculations using rapidity, a technique that emphasizes the hyperbolic geometric nature of Minkowski space-time. While rapidity has fallen out of usage with the exception of a specialized dialect within particle physics, it offers interesting technical and pedagogical perspectives on the geometrical nature of space-time not evident in the present day relativistic parlance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaisberg, O.
Evolution of corpuscular diagnostics of space plasmas led to development of very sophisticated plasma spectrometers. There are very specialized spectrometers providing unique identification of mass, energy and charge. Top-hat analyzer became the working horse of contemporary plasma diagnostics on most of spin-stabilized spacecraft. Miniaturized plasma analyzers are developed for new low-cost missions. Still there is a need for instruments with higher temporal resolution and better phase space coverage. Representative examples of high-end plasma analyzers are presented and the trends in corpuscular diagnostics of space plasma are discussed. The new type of plasma analyzer CAMERA is described that allows fast measurements on stabilized or rotating spacecraft. It provides instantaneous 2π field of view without gaps, flexible control of the energy bandwidth and angular resolution, high temporal resolution, and high UV rejection. CAMERA can be used as a feeding optics for additional analyzers including mass-spectrometers.
Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources
Chen Guangye; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Lee, Charles A.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2006-12-15
Helicon discharges produce plasmas with a density gradient across the confining magnetic field. Such plasmas can create a radial potential well for nonaxisymmetric whistlers, allowing radially localized helicon (RLH) waves. This work presents new evidence that RLH waves play a significant role in helicon plasma sources. An experimentally measured plasma density profile in an argon helicon discharge is used to calculate the rf field structure. The calculations are performed using a two-dimensional field solver under the assumption that the density profile is axisymmetric. It is found that RLH waves with an azimuthal wave number m=1 form a standing wave structure in the axial direction and that the frequency of the RLH eigenmode is close to the driving frequency of the rf antenna. The calculated resonant power absorption, associated with the RLH eigenmode, accounts for most of the rf power deposited into the plasma in the experiment.
Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Guangye; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Lee, Charles A.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2006-12-01
Helicon discharges produce plasmas with a density gradient across the confining magnetic field. Such plasmas can create a radial potential well for nonaxisymmetric whistlers, allowing radially localized helicon (RLH) waves. This work presents new evidence that RLH waves play a significant role in helicon plasma sources. An experimentally measured plasma density profile in an argon helicon discharge is used to calculate the rf field structure. The calculations are performed using a two-dimensional field solver under the assumption that the density profile is axisymmetric. It is found that RLH waves with an azimuthal wave number m =1 form a standing wave structure in the axial direction and that the frequency of the RLH eigenmode is close to the driving frequency of the rf antenna. The calculated resonant power absorption, associated with the RLH eigenmode, accounts for most of the rf power deposited into the plasma in the experiment.
Special Education in Pakistan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sultana, Qaisar
This paper briefly describes the current status of special education in Pakistan, noting its relatively brief history, the lack of incidence figures, the administrative organization and structure, personnel preparation, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the recognition of four categories of disability: mental retardation, physical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Los Angeles City Schools, CA.
A total of eight specially funded programs designed to improve social and human conditions are described. These programs are Adult Basic Education (ABE), Adult Personal Traffic Safety (APTS), Emergency Employment Act (EEA), Industry Sponsored Programs (ISP), Manpower Development Training Act (MDTA), Model Cities Projects, Work Incentive Program…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
US Department of Agriculture, 2009
2009-01-01
The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…
Seeking: Special Education Director
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collins, Jeanne
2007-01-01
The author recently left her position as special services director in an urban school district in Vermont, a state that embraces inclusion for students with disabilities, to accept the position of superintendent of schools in the same district. The new job requires overseeing the educational mission of six elementary schools, two middle schools, a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tringo, John L.
Listed are approximately 500 films in the various areas of special education. The listing has been compiled from film company catalogs, social agency listings, and National Audiovisual Center listings. Information stated is that which was in the source materials (usually name, length, source, and brief description). Films are listed under the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Michayluk, J. O.; Saklofske, D. H.
1988-01-01
The article examines the current status of the LOGO programming language and LOGO research within special education. Efficacy conclusions include LOGO's strengths: (1) as a socializing agent; (2) in maintaining the attention of hyperactive children; (3) in improving academic performance; and (4) in increasing self esteem. (Author/DB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.
This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…
Special Attachments. Module 19.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.
This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…
Fitness in Special Populations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shephard, Roy J.
This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…
Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.
1995-10-01
The purpose of this task is to perform various special analytical and experimental investigations to support the NRC in resolving regulatory research issues related to irradiation effects on materials. This task currently addresses two major areas: (1) providing technical expertise and assistance in the review of national codes and standards and (2) experimental evaluations of test specimens and practices and material properties.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.
This document is a directory of magazines in special media. It consists of two main parts: (1) an alphabetical listing of magazines produced by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS); and (2) an alphabetical listing of magazines available from other sources. Appended to the second part are addresses of sources…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Randal, Judith
1978-01-01
The "Getaway Special" is NASA's semiofficial program for low-budget researchers, who can arrange bookings for their own space experiments on regular flights of the space shuttle. Information about arranging for NASA to take individual experiment packages is presented. (LBH)
Spotlight on Special Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Lasky, Beth
2009-01-01
With the everyday juggling act principals perform, they have a daunting challenge to keep up the latest research in education. At the same time, the literature documents an intensive need for increased professional development of principals in special education (Goar, Schwenn, & Boyer, 1997; Lasky & Karge, 2006; McLaughlin & Nolet, 2004). To…
Online Learning. Special Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Training, 1998
1998-01-01
Special section includes "World Wide Weeds" (Ann M. Bauer), about trainers as webmasters; "Get the Picture?" (Frank Jossi)--the role of digital video in computer-based training; and "The Reluctant Executive" (Anne K. Fredrickson), how to get administrators into the information age. (JOW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Degi, Bruce J.
1999-01-01
Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)
Mentoring Special Youth Populations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Britner, Preston A.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Blechman, Elaine A.; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Larose, Simon
2006-01-01
Whereas mentoring programs are well received as support services, very little empirical research has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of these programs to meet the diverse needs of different special populations of youth. Potentially useful theoretical orientations (attachment, parental acceptance-rejection, social support, adult…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.
2011-01-01
Special education is now an established part of public education in the United States--by law and by custom. However, it is still widely misunderstood and continues to be dogged by controversies related to such things as categorization, grouping, assessment, placement, funding, instruction, and a variety of legal issues. The purpose of this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
deLisle, Lee
2009-01-01
"Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, 2002
2002-01-01
Includes "Writing Effective Resumes" (Kursmark); "Writing Cover Letters with Credibility" (Davis); "Career Portfolios" (Miller); "Writing a Top-Flight Vitae" (Orlando); "Converting a Curriculum Vitae to a Resume" (Katz, Morahan); "Special Reports" (Chapman); "Every Job Searcher Needs an e-Resume" (Dixson); "Military Value" (Burns); "Key Words"…
Columbia Quincentenary. Special Issue.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foard, Douglas, Ed.; Regoli, Michael, Ed.
1991-01-01
This special theme issue of the OAH Magazine of History contains articles that present a variety of perspectives on the Columbian Quincentenary--the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's voyages of discovery. The articles include: "Exploring the Columbian Quincentenary through Historiography" (John Hebert); "Science, Religion, and Columbus's…
Special Needs Curriculum Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Idaho State Board of Vocational Education, Boise.
The curriculum guide was designed for Vocational Special Needs Programs in Idaho and concentrates on preparing handicapped and disadvantaged students to succeed in regular vocational programs. The subjects, pre-vocational in nature, include: Living Skills (self concept, life management, community resources, food and nutrition, clothing and…
Special Education: Procedural Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.
The guide is intended to provide information to administrators and regional and local case study committees on special education procedures within Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). The manual addresses a step-by step approach from referral to the implementation of individualized education programs (IEP). The following topics are…
Calculation of rf current drive in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.
2008-11-01
The toroidal plasma current is a key parameter for controlling MHD stability and fusion performances in tokamaks. Among the various methods for driving current, rf waves are a flexible and powerful tool. Therefore, their role in the design and optimization of advanced scenarios is considerable. The universal ray-tracing code C3PO coupled with the fully implicit linearized 3-D bounce-averaged relativistic electron Fokker-Planck solver LUKE is an illustration of the present day effort for performing fast and realistic calculations of the rf driven plasma current. The versatility of this tool is highlighted by simulations concerning the lower hybrid and electron cyclotron waves.
Promoting Positive Special Education Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conderman, Greg; Pedersen, Theresa
2005-01-01
Special education is defined as specialized instruction for students with disabilities. Sometimes, however, legal requirements as well as the day-to-day demands of teaching secondary students with disabilities cloud the real intent of special education. This article acknowledges some poor practices occurring in secondary special education and…
Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.
2016-07-01
On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel–Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.
Modeling of Plasma Spray Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chong H.
1996-10-01
A comprehensive computational model for thermal plasma processes is being developed with sufficient generality and flexibility to apply to a wide variety of present and proposed plasma processing concepts and devices. In our model for gas-particle flows, the gas is represented as a continuous multicomponent chemically reacting gas with temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties. Ions and electrons are considered as separate components or species of the mixture, while ionization and dissociation reactions are treated as chemical reactions. Entrained particles interacting with the plasma are represented by a stochastic particle model in which the velocities, temperatures, sizes, and other characteristics of typical particles are computed simultaneously with the plasma flow. The model in its present form can simulate particle injection, heating, and melting, but not evaporation and condensation. This model is embodied in the LAVA computer code, which has previously been applied to simulate plasma spraying, mixing and demixing of plasma gases, and departures from chemical (ionization/dissociation), thermal, and excitation equilibrium in plasmas. A transient simulation has been performed of stainless steel particles injected into a swirling high-velocity nitrogen-hydrogen plasma jet in air under typical operating conditions for a newly developed high-velocity high-power (HVHP) torch, which produces plasma jets with peak velocities in excess of 3000 m/s. The calculational results show that strong departures from ionization and dissociation equilibrium develop in the downstream region as the chemical reactions freeze out at lower temperatures. The calculational results also show good agreement with experimental data on particle temperature, velocity, and spray pattern, together with important statistical effects associated with distributions in particle properties and injection conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denman, Theresa
1974-01-01
Calculators are fast becoming accepted as needed household appliances. Certainly, children in school now will, as adults, look on calculators as being as necessary to everyday life as telephones. (Author)
Personal Finance Calculations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Argo, Mark
1982-01-01
Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)
2016-09-01
Numeracy and calculation are key skills for nurses. As nurses are directly accountable for ensuring medicines are prescribed, dispensed and administered safely, they must be able to understand and calculate drug doses. PMID:27615351
Studies on plasma processing of blue dust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samal, S. K.; P, Sindhoora L.; Mishra, S. C.; Mishra, B.
2015-02-01
Plasma smelting was carried out using blue dust and petroleum coke mixtures for five different compositions. By altering percentage of reductant and type of plasma forming gas, recovery rate and degree of metallization were calculated in order to examine the extent of reduction of blue dust. The products were characterized by XRD and optical microscopy techniques. The results of these investigations exhibited that highest degree of metallization and recovery rate of about 98% and 86% respectively, were achieved for nitrogen plasma smelted products.
Singularity embedding method in potential flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jou, W. H.; Huynh, H.
1982-01-01
The so-called H-type mesh is used in a finite-element (or finite-volume) calculation of the potential flow past an airfoil. Due to coordinate singularity at the leading edge, a special singular trial function is used for the elements neighboring the leading edge. The results using the special singular elements are compared to those using the regular elements. It is found that the unreasonable pressure distribution obtained by the latter is removed by the embedding of the singular element. Suggestions to extend the present method to transonic cases are given.
Stennis hosts 2010 Special Olympics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
B.J. Matherne, 27, of Gulfport, scores a soccer goal during one of the 2010 Special Olympic games at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on March 27. Stennis serves as an annual host for the special needs event. Each year, local, regional and national Special Olympics events are hosted in more than 150 countries for persons with special needs. An international Special Olympics competition is held every two years.
Calculators, Computers, and Classrooms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Jon L.; Kirschner, Vicky
Suggestions for using four-function calculators, programmable calculators, and microcomputers are considered in this collection of 36 articles. The first section contains articles considering general implications for mathematics curricula implied by the freedom calculators offer students from routine computation, enabling them to focus on results…
Stark broadening data for stellar plasma research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrijević, M. S.
Results of an effort to provide to astrophysicists and physicists an as much as possible complete set of Stark broadening parameters needed for stellar opacity calculations, stellar atmosphere modelling, abundance determinations and diagnostics of different plasmas in astrophysics, physics and plasma technology, are presented. Stark broadening has been considered within the semiclassical perturbation, and the modified semiempirical approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhim, Lauren Morando; Kowal, Julie
2008-01-01
This special report is a supplement to a series of special education primers created to inform state officials, authorizers and charter school operators about special education in the charter sector. The primer series also provides tools to help these stakeholders build charter school capacity to provide special education and related services. In…
How Do Calculators Calculate Trigonometric Functions?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Underwood, Jeremy M.; Edwards, Bruce H.
How does your calculator quickly produce values of trigonometric functions? You might be surprised to learn that it does not use series or polynomial approximations, but rather the so-called CORDIC method. This paper will focus on the geometry of the CORDIC method, as originally developed by Volder in 1959. This algorithm is a wonderful…
Baker, W.R.; Brathenahl, A.; Furth, H.P.
1962-04-10
A device for producing a confined high temperature plasma is described. In the device the concave inner surface of an outer annular electrode is disposed concentrically about and facing the convex outer face of an inner annular electrode across which electrodes a high potential is applied to produce an electric field there between. Means is provided to create a magnetic field perpendicular to the electric field and a gas is supplied at reduced pressure in the area therebetween. Upon application of the high potential, the gas between the electrodes is ionized, heated, and under the influence of the electric and magnetic fields there is produced a rotating annular plasma disk. The ionized plasma has high dielectric constant properties. The device is useful as a fast discharge rate capacitor, in controlled thermonuclear research, and other high temperature gas applications. (AEC)
Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.
1961-12-26
A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, J. W.
1983-01-01
Radio communication with space probes requires sending signals through the Earth's ionosphere and usually the solar wind. During planetary flybys, the signal may also pass through the ionosphere of another planet. These ionized media can perturb the radio signal in a variety of ways. Examples of these perturbations are variations in the electrical length between the spacecraft and the ground station, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized signals, amplitude and phase scintillations, and spectral and angular broadening. These plasma effects can have undesirable influences on telemetry performance and thus need to be understood from a communications engineering viewpoint. The plasma effects are, however, useful from a scientific viewpoint, since the effects on the communications link can often be inverted to estimate the physical conditions in the plasma.
Space-plasma campaign on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koepke, M. E.; Finnegan, S. M.; Knudsen, D. J.; Vincena, S.
2007-05-01
Knudsen [JGR, 1996] describes a potential role for stationary Alfvén (StA) waves in auroral arcs' frequency dependence. Magnetized plasmas are predicted to support electromagnetic perturbations that are static in a fixed frame if there is uniform background plasma convection. These stationary waves should not be confused with standing waves that oscillate in time with a fixed, spatially varying envelope. Stationary waves have no time variation in the fixed frame. In the drifting frame, there is an apparent time dependence as plasma convects past fixed electromagnetic structures. We describe early results from an experimental campaign to reproduce in the lab the basic conditions necessary for the creation of StA waves, namely quasi-steady-state convection across magnetic field-aligned current channels. We show that an off-axis, fixed channel of electron current (and depleted density) is created in the Large Plasma Device Upgrade (LAPD) at UCLA, using a small, heated, oxide-coated electrode at one plasma-column end and we show that the larger plasma column rotates about its cylindrical axis from a radial electric field imposed by a special termination electrode on the same end. Initial experimentation with plasma-rotation-inducing termination electrodes began in May 2006 in the West Virginia Q Machine, leading to two designs that, in January 2007, were tested in LAPD. The radial profile of azimuthal velocity was consistent with predictions of rigid-body rotation. Current-channel experiments in LAPD, in August 2006, showed that inertial Alfvén waves could be concentrated in an off-axis channel of electron current and depleted plasma density. These experimental results will be presented and discussed. This research is supported by DOE and NSF.
Cohen, Andrew G; Glashow, Sheldon L
2006-07-14
By very special relativity (VSR) we mean descriptions of nature whose space-time symmetries are certain proper subgroups of the Poincaré group. These subgroups contain space-time translations together with at least a two-parameter subgroup of the Lorentz group isomorphic to that generated by K(x) + J(y) and K(y)- J(x). We find that VSR implies special relativity (SR) in the context of local quantum field theory or of conservation. Absent both of these added hypotheses, VSR provides a simulacrum of SR for which most of the consequences of Lorentz invariance remain wholly or essentially intact, and for which many sensitive searches for departures from Lorentz invariance must fail. Several feasible experiments are discussed for which Lorentz-violating effects in VSR may be detectable. PMID:16907430
Specialized progenitors and regeneration
Reddien, Peter W.
2013-01-01
Planarians are flatworms capable of regenerating all body parts. Planarian regeneration requires neoblasts, a population of dividing cells that has been studied for over a century. Neoblast progeny generate new cells of blastemas, which are the regenerative outgrowths at wounds. If the neoblasts comprise a uniform population of cells during regeneration (e.g. they are all uncommitted and pluripotent), then specialization of new cell types should occur in multipotent, non-dividing neoblast progeny cells. By contrast, recent data indicate that some neoblasts express lineage-specific transcription factors during regeneration and in uninjured animals. These observations raise the possibility that an important early step in planarian regeneration is the specialization of neoblasts to produce specified rather than naïve blastema cells. PMID:23404104
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlickeiser, R.
2010-11-01
The dielectric tensor of a collision poor plasma determines all the physical properties of small-amplitude fluctuations for given initial plasma particle distribution functions, as it enters the Maxwell operator as the only plasma-specific quantity. For the important class of gyrotropic initial particle distribution functions fa(0)(p∥,p⊥) in a uniform magnetic field, we rigorously investigate the general properties of the plasma fluctuations without specifying the explicit momentum dependence of the gyrotropic distribution function. Two alternative forms of the relativistically correct dielectric tensor are derived which differ from nonrelativistic expressions in the literature. The first standard form is expressed in terms of infinite series of Bessel functions, whereas in the second form these infinite series are calculated with the Lerche-Newberger sum rules, yielding products of Bessel functions with complex indices for the individual elements of the Maxwell operator. The second form of the dielectric tensor is well suited to simplify the tensor in the special cases of parallel wave vectors and unmagnetized plasmas. For unmagnetized plasmas it is shown that aperiodic electrostatic and transverse fluctuations can only exist in symmetric distribution functions with f(-p ∥,p⊥)=f(p∥,p⊥). Because this includes isotropic distribution functions, the more thorough investigation of this special case reveals that no electrostatic and fluctuations with positive growth rates γ =kcS>0 exist in an isotropic unmagnetized plasma, excluding both aperiodic (with R =0) and wave-like (with R ≠0) instabilities, where R =ωR/(kc) denotes the real part of the phase speed. The second form of the dielectric tensor is also most appropriate to investigate fluctuations in magnetized equal mass plasmas, such as electron-positron-pair and/or proton-antiproton plasmas. Here for arbitrary wave vector orientation the dispersion relation factorizes into three separate modes. For
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, Ian H.
2003-10-01
The interaction of a spherical ion-absorbing body with an unmagnetized collisionless plasma is the archetype of plasma probe problems and is vital to calculating the plasma charging of dust grains and spacecraft. The problem was solved for stationary plasmas in the 1960s, but in a flowing plasma the spherical symmetry of the surrounding potential is broken and a multidimensional calculation is required, which has not been fully carried out until now. This talk will report results obtained with the Specialized Coordinate Electrostatic Particle and Thermals in Cell PIC code (SCEPTIC) written for the purpose. The code takes into account the self-consistently shielded electric field and the full particle dynamics. It models the full ion distribution function, including all ion kinetic effects, for arbitrary Debye length, ion temperature, flow velocity, and sphere potential. The angular dependence of the ion flux to the sphere is the quantity most important for practical purposes. It provides the calibration of a Mach Probe for measuring the velocity by observation of the upstream to downstream ratio of ion saturation current, and it determines the surface charging rate and its asymmetries for grains and spacecraft. The results show that for infinitesimal Debye length (compared to probe radius), a consistent Mach Probe calibration is obtained. As the Debye length increases, however, a dramatic and unexpected effect occurs. The direction of ion flux asymmetry reverses! That is, the upstream collection flux becomes smaller than the downstream flux. This counter-intuitive effect is caused not by the potential's deviations from spherical symmetry, but its radial dependence. When the Debye length becomes much larger than the probe (so that a Coulomb potential variation is obtained) the symmetry direction reverts to its more intuitive direction.
Brain specialization for music.
Peretz, Isabelle
2002-08-01
Music, like language, is a universal and specific trait to humans. Similarly, music appreciation, like language comprehension, appears to be the product of a dedicated brain organization. Support for the existence of music-specific neural networks is found in various pathological conditions that isolate musical abilities from the rest of the cognitive system. Cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain damage, and congenital brain anomalies can lead to selective disorders of music processing. Conversely, autism and epilepsy can reveal the autonomous functioning and the selectivity, respectively, of the neural networks that subserve music. However, brain specialization for music should not be equated with the presence of a singular "musical center" in the brain. Rather, multiple interconnected neural networks are engaged, of which some may capture the essence of brain specialization for music. The encoding of pitch along musical scales is likely such an essential component. The implications of the existence of such special-purpose cortical processes are that the human brain might be hardwired for music. PMID:12194505
Current in wave driven plasmas
Karney, C.F.F.; Fisch, N.J.
1985-06-01
A theory for the generation of current in a toroidal plasma by radio-frequency waves is presented. The effect of an opposing electric field is included, allowing the case of time varying currents to be studied. The key quantities that characterize this regime are identified and numerically calculated. Circuit equations suitable for use in ray-tracing and transport codes are given.
Population kinetics in dense plasmas
Schlanges, M.; Bornath, T.; Prenzel, R.; Kremp, D.
1996-07-01
Starting from quantum kinetic equations, rate equations for the number densities of the different atomic states and equations for the energy density are derived which are valid for dense nonideal plasmas. Statistical expressions are presented for the rate coefficients taking into account many-body effects as dynamical screening, lowering of the ionization energy and Pauli-blocking. Based on these generalized expressions, the coefficients of impact ionization, three-body recombination, excitation and deexcitation are calculated for nonideal hydrogen and carbon plasmas. As a result, higher ionization and recombination rates are obtained in the dense plasma region. The influence of the many-body effects on the population kinetics, including density and temperature relaxation, is shown then for a dense hydrogen plasma. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Beam-plasma amplifiers based on nonhomogeneous plasma-cavity slow-wave structure
Perevodchikov, V.I.; Mitin, L.A.; Shapiro, A.L.; Zavjalov, M.A.
1995-11-01
The investigation of interaction of E-beam with hybrid waves of nonhomogeneous plasma-cavity slow-wave structure have been carried out. It`s shown that depression of external magnetic field at out-put part of plasma-cavity structure may be used for decreasing of phase velocity of active waves and phase space synchronization ones with space charge fields, induced in plasma. This mode of operation of plasma TWT was calculated. The investigations carried out theoretically has been supported by experiments with plasma TWT.
Thomson scattering from laser plasmas
Moody, J D; Alley, W E; De Groot, J S; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H; Hammer, J H; Jadaud, J P; MacGowan, B J; Rozmus, W; Suter, L J; Williams, E A
1999-01-12
Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acous- tic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4{omega} probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In partic- ular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calcula- tions which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.
Electrostatic analysis of the tokamak edge plasma
Motley, R.W.
1981-07-01
The intrusion of an equipotential poloidal limiter into the edge plasma of a circular tokamak discharge distorts the axisymmetry in two ways: (1) it (partially) shorts out the top-to-bottom Pfirsch-Schlueter driving potentials, and (2) it creates zones of back current flow into the limiter. The resulting boundary mismatch between the outer layers and the inner axisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlueter layer provides free energy to drive the edge plasma unstable. Special limiters are proposed to symmetrize the edge plasma and thereby reduce the electrical and MHD activity in the boundary layer.
Evolutionary development of the space plasma laboratory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, W. T.
1984-01-01
In connection with payload definition studies for the Shuttle, one particular study, initiated in 1971, was concerned with the Definition of a Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory (PPEPL). Possibilities were explored for performing, from a manned Shuttle-borne laboratory, investigations utilizing the natural space plasma environment around the Shuttle, and investigations employing controlled active experiments within the space plasma environment. Special emphasis was placed on employing controlled active experiment techniques using a manned Shuttle for short duration (7 to 30 days) missions and frequent reflights.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Vaganova, Irina K.
A model for predicting mechanical properties of ultra-high temperature ceramics and composites manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) under shock loading is presented. The model takes into account the porous structure, the specific volume and average sizes of phases, and the temperature of sintering. Residual stresses in ceramic composites reinforced with particles of refractory borides, carbides and nitrides after SLS or SPS were calculated. It is shown that the spall strength of diboride-zirconium matrix composites can be increased by the decreasing of porosity and the introduction of inclusions of specially selected refractory strengthening phases.
Axisymmetric plasma equilibrium in gravitational and magnetic fields
Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Catto, P. J.
2015-12-15
Plasma equilibria in gravitational and open-ended magnetic fields are considered for the case of topologically disconnected regions of the magnetic flux surfaces where plasma occupies just one of these regions. Special dependences of the plasma temperature and density on the magnetic flux are used which allow the solution of the Grad–Shafranov equation in a separable form permitting analytic treatment. It is found that plasma pressure tends to play the dominant role in the setting the shape of magnetic field equilibrium, while a strong gravitational force localizes the plasma density to a thin disc centered at the equatorial plane.
Double layer formation at the interface of complex plasmas
Yaroshenko, V. V.; Thoma, M. H.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.
2008-08-15
Necessary conditions are formulated for the generation of a double layer at the interface of a complex plasma and a particle-free electron-ion plasma in a weakly collisional discharge. Examples are calculated for realistic observed complex plasmas, and it is shown that situations of both ''smooth'' transitions and 'sharp' transitions can exist. The model can explain the abrupt boundaries observed.
The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Książek, Mariusz
2016-07-01
Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albrecht, Bob
1978-01-01
This is the fourth installment of a "teach yourself" style workbook about simple four function calculators and elementary concepts in computer programing. This installment introduces mixed operations. (MN)
Multiphase flow calculation software
Fincke, James R.
2003-04-15
Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.
Waste Package Lifting Calculation
H. Marr
2000-05-11
The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.
ECR Plasma Sterilisation, Argon and Nitrogen Treated Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helhel, Selcuk; Oksuz, Lutfi; Cerezci, Osman; Rad, Abbas Y.
2004-09-01
ECR type plasma system was built to produce plasma in axial direction. Plasma was initiated in a specially designed Nickel - Chrome cylindrical vacuum tube which is being driven through dielectric window by 2.45GHz commercial magnetron source. Tube is also surrounded by a coil driving 150ADC to generate approximately 875Gauss magnetic field at the center. Langmuir probe and ICCD for optical spectrometry were used to characterize internal parameters like electron density, electron temperature and different characteristics of the plasma. Bacillus Subtilis var nigar, bacillus Stearothermophilus, bacillus pumilus E601, Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus type bacteria were selected as a reference. Each is resistant for different actions while the Bacilus cereus is the most resistant bacteria for microwave interaction. This study presents the effect of system on used bacteria. Those are gram positive and gram negative bacteria that refers to structure of cell wall. The sterilization efficacy of Argon type ECR plasma was found to be over 99, 5% in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis (vegetative cell), Bacillus cereus (vegetative cell), Bacillus pumilus and Escherichia coli. System response type is less than 2 minutes.
7 CFR 760.210 - Honeybee payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honeybee payment calculations. 760.210 Section 760.210... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.210 Honeybee payment calculations. (a) An eligible honeybee producer...
7 CFR 760.210 - Honeybee payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honeybee payment calculations. 760.210 Section 760.210... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.210 Honeybee payment calculations. (a) An eligible honeybee producer...
7 CFR 760.210 - Honeybee payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honeybee payment calculations. 760.210 Section 760.210... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.210 Honeybee payment calculations. (a) An eligible honeybee producer...
7 CFR 760.210 - Honeybee payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Honeybee payment calculations. 760.210 Section 760.210... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.210 Honeybee payment calculations. (a) An eligible honeybee producer...
7 CFR 760.210 - Honeybee payment calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honeybee payment calculations. 760.210 Section 760.210... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.210 Honeybee payment calculations. (a) An eligible honeybee producer...
46 CFR 172.170 - Damage stability calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Damage stability calculations. 172.170 Section 172.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Under Subchapter O of This Chapter § 172.170 Damage stability calculations. (a) Each tankship must...
46 CFR 172.170 - Damage stability calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage stability calculations. 172.170 Section 172.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Under Subchapter O of This Chapter § 172.170 Damage stability calculations. (a) Each tankship must...
34 CFR Appendix A to Part 300 - Excess Costs Calculation
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess Costs Calculation A Appendix A to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. A Appendix A to Part 300—Excess Costs Calculation Except...
Entropy in an Arc Plasma Source
Kaminska, A.; Dudeck, M
2008-03-19
The entropy properties in a D.C. argon arc plasma source are studied. The local thermodynamical entropy relations are established for a set of uniform sub-systems (Ar, Ar{sup +}, e) in order to deduce the entropy balance equation in presence of dissipative effects and in the case of a thermal non equilibrium. Phenomenological linear laws are deduced in near equilibrium situation. The flow parameters inside the plasma source are calculated by a Navier-Stokes fluid description taking into account a thermal local non equilibrium. The entropy function is calculated in the plasma source using the values of the local variables obtained from the numerical code.
Physical processes associated with current collection by plasma contactors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.
1990-01-01
Recent flight data confirms laboratory observations that the release of neutral gas increases plasma sheath currents. Plasma contactors are devices which release a partially ionized gas in order to enhance the current flow between a spacecraft and the space plasma. Ionization of the expellant gas and the formation of a double layer between the anode plasma and the space plasma are the dominant physical processes. A theory is presented of the interaction between the contactor plasma and the background plasma. The conditions for formation of a double layer between the two plasmas are derived. Double layer formation is shown to be a consequence of the nonlinear response of the plasmas to changes in potential. Numerical calculations based upon this model are compared with laboratory measurements of current collection by hollow cathode-based plasma contactors.
Some Speculations about Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hope, Mary
1982-01-01
Discusses the possible impact of microelectronics/microtechnology in the special education setting, including availability of hardware and Microelectronics Education Programme involvement in determining the best use of microcomputers with special education students. (Author/JN)
Dusty Plasma Technology of DCM with Nanostructure Surface Layer Production
Gavrikov, A. V.; Ivanov, A. S.; Petrov, O. F.; Shulga, Yu. M.; Starostin, A. N.; Fortov, V. E.
2008-09-07
The technique of disperse composite material (DCM) production was developed. The technique based on using special dusty plasma trap in RF plasma, in which fine particles levitate and are exposed by the atomic beam. The two types of covering were obtained: ''cauliflower'' or smooth, depending on process condition.
Laser-driven Acceleration in Clustered Plasmas
Gao, X.; Wang, X.; Shim, B.; Downer, M. C.
2009-01-22
We propose a new approach to avoid dephasing limitation of laser wakefield acceleration by manipulating the group velocity of the driving pulse using clustered plasmas. We demonstrated the control of phase velocity in clustered plasmas by third harmonic generation and frequency domain interferometry experiments. The results agree with a numerical model. Based on this model, the group velocity of the driving pulse in clustered plasmas was calculated and the result shows the group velocity can approach the speed of light c in clustered plasmas.
Dielectric permittivity of quantum plasma. Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobylev, Yu. V.; Kuzelev, M. V.
2014-05-01
The transverse and longitudinal dielectric permittivities of isotropic quantum plasma are calculated in the quantum plasma models based on the Dirac and Pauli equations. The dispersion relations for transverse-longitudinal waves in quantum particle beams are derived. Relativistic longitudinal and transverse waves in cold isotropic quantum plasma in models based on the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, as well as spin waves in the model based on the Pauli equation, are considered. Conditions for wave-particle resonance interactions in relativistic quantum plasma are analyzed.
Plasma Instabilities in Heavy Ion Collisions
Attems, M.; Rebhan, A.; Strickland, M.
2011-05-23
Non-Abelian plasma instabilities play a crucial role in the nonequilibrium dynamics of a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma. The Chromo-Weibel instabilities have been proposed as a possible mechanism for the fast apparent thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma and have been extensively studied in stationary anisotropic plasmas using the so-called hard-loop approximation. The generalization to the hard-expanding-loop (HEL) formalism allows the (numerical) calculation of the time evolution of gluonic mean fields in the more realistic dynamical case of anisotropic expansion.
Plasma temperatures in Saturn's ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Luke; Galand, Marina; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Yelle, Roger; Mendillo, Michael
2008-10-01
We have calculated self-consistent electron and ion temperatures in Saturn's ionosphere using a series of coupled fluid and kinetic models developed to help interpret Cassini observations and to examine the energy budget of Saturn's upper atmosphere. Electron temperatures in the midlatitude topside ionosphere during solar maximum are calculated to range between 500 and 560 K during the Saturn day, approximately 80-140 K above the neutral temperature. Ion temperatures, calculated for only the major ions H+ and H3+, are nearly equal to the neutral temperature at altitudes near and below the height of peak electron density, while they can reach 500 K during the day at the topside. Plasma scale heights of the dusk electron density profile from radio occultation measurements of the Voyager 2 flyby of Saturn have been used to estimate plasma temperature as a comparison. Such an estimate agrees well with the temperatures calculated here, although there is a topside enhancement in electron density that remains unexplained by ionospheric calculations that include photochemistry and plasma diffusion. Finally, parameterizations of the heating rate from photoelectrons and secondary electrons to thermal, ambient electrons have been developed. They may apply for other conditions at Saturn and possibly at other giant planets and exoplanets as well.
Special SLC linac developments
Seeman, J.T.; Sheppard, J.C.
1986-04-01
The linac of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is required to accelerate several intense electron and positron bunches to high energy while maintaining their small transverse dimensions and energy spectra. Many of the linac systems have been upgraded to the new stringent SLC design criteria. The remaining systems will be completed in the summer of 1986. Special instruments and controls have been developed to monitor and manipulate these small but potent beams. A brief review of the SLC requirements is given. A broad survey of the recent development is made encompassing longitudinal and transverse wakefield reductions, Landau damping, energy and position feedback systems, beam diagnostic and beam current fluctuations.
Systems special investigation group
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
An interim report concerning the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented by a Boeing Systems special investigation group (SIG). The SIG activities were divided into five engineering disciplines: electrical, mechanical, optics, thermal, and batteries/solar cells. The responsibilities of the SIG included the following areas: support de-integration at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); testing of hardware at Boeing; review of principal investigator (PI) test plans and test results; support of test activities at PI labs; and collation of all test results into the SIG database.
Calculation reliability in vehicle accident reconstruction.
Wach, Wojciech
2016-06-01
The reconstruction of vehicle accidents is subject to assessment in terms of the reliability of a specific system of engineering and technical operations. In the article [26] a formalized concept of the reliability of vehicle accident reconstruction, defined using Bayesian networks, was proposed. The current article is focused on the calculation reliability since that is the most objective section of this model. It is shown that calculation reliability in accident reconstruction is not another form of calculation uncertainty. The calculation reliability is made dependent on modeling reliability, adequacy of the model and relative uncertainty of calculation. All the terms are defined. An example is presented concerning the analytical determination of the collision location of two vehicles on the road in the absence of evidential traces. It has been proved that the reliability of this kind of calculations generally does not exceed 0.65, despite the fact that the calculation uncertainty itself can reach only 0.05. In this example special attention is paid to the analysis of modeling reliability and calculation uncertainty using sensitivity coefficients and weighted relative uncertainty. PMID:27061147
Flow field calculations for afterburner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jianxing; Liu, Quanzhong; Liu, Hong
1995-04-01
In this paper a calculation procedure for simulating the combustion flow in the afterburner with the heat shield, flame stabilizer and the contracting nozzle is described and evaluated by comparison with experimental data. The modified two-equation k ɛ model is employed to consider the turbulence effects, and the k ɛ g turbulent combustion model is used to determine the reaction rate. To take into account the influence of heat radiation on gas temperature distribution, heat flux model is applied to predictions of heat flux distributions. The solution domain spanned the entire region between centerline and afterburner wall, with the heat shield represented as a blockage to the mesh. The enthalpy equation and wall boundary of the heat shield require special handling for two passages in the afterburner. In order to make the computer program suitable to engineering applications, a subregional scheme is developed for calculating flow fields of complex geometries. The computational grids employed are 100×100 and 333×100 (non-uniformly distributed). The numerical results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between predictions and measurements shows that the numerical method and the computational program used in the study are fairly reasonable and appropriate for primary design of the afterburner.
Low voltage operation of plasma focus
Shukla, Rohit; Sharma, S. K.; Banerjee, P.; Das, R.; Deb, P.; Prabahar, T.; Das, B. K.; Adhikary, B.; Shyam, A.
2010-08-15
Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 {mu}F capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar.
Special Education and Student Services.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brazeau, Karen; And Others
This report examines the current status and plans for special education, student services, and special projects and studies in Oregon. The first section offers an overview of special education long-range planning in secondary and transition programs, the student population with severe emotional disturbance, low incidence populations, families, the…
Desperately Seeking Special Ed Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Kevin
2008-01-01
It's no secret that the dearth of special education teachers has created huge headaches for district human resources departments, especially in suburban and rural areas. In addition to insufficient numbers of candidates applying for special education jobs, retention of special education teachers is an ever-greater problem, as research indicates…
Comparative Studies in Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed.
This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of…
The ARL Special Collections Initiative.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewitt, Joe A.; Panitch, Judith M.
2003-01-01
Reviews the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) activities regarding special collections. Highlights include local and collaborative approaches; budget pressures; access to special collections; digitization programs; recruiting qualified staff; results of a survey of ARL special collections; and the need for ongoing statistics for special…
Title III in Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
The Title III Quarterly, 1972
1972-01-01
The journal on special education programs funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act contains articles on three projects, abstracts of other projects, a picture story on San Diego Schools' outdoor classroom for special education, and a state by state listing of all Title III special education projects. The programs…
Manual for Special Education Nurses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schnetter, Vicki A., Ed.
This manual aims (1) to provide a standard, well-referenced resource for Iowa special education nurses and (2) to provide direction and continuity for health services to pupils with special needs. The first chapter provides an overview of the special education nurse's role, including philosophy, definitions of assignments, levels of service, and…
Ohio Special Education Profile, 2011
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2011
2011-01-01
This report provides a brief, but substantive, profile of the special needs student population in Ohio, including academic performance and graduation trends and an overview of special education funding and related policy issues. The report's central message is that investments in students with special educational needs produce substantial results…
Response Essay: Special Education Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGee, Paid
2000-01-01
This commentary reflects on findings from previous articles that reviewed trends in special education research in the United States, Norway, Botswana, Ecuador, Australia, and Turkey. It discusses the function, funding, and subject matter of special education research, on research on the education of special education teachers, and on research…
Replication Research and Special Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.
2016-01-01
Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Phillips-Bey, Carol K.
2004-01-01
This article describes TI-73 calculator activities appropriate for middle school students. It was found that the use of the calculator allowed for higher-level thinking and a richer exploration of mathematical ideas by students. [Included with this article are "Dice Roll Worksheet" and "Transforming Tree Worksheet".] (Contains 9 figures.)
Calculators and Polynomial Evaluation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weaver, J. F.
The intent of this paper is to suggest and illustrate how electronic hand-held calculators, especially non-programmable ones with limited data-storage capacity, can be used to advantage by students in one particular aspect of work with polynomial functions. The basic mathematical background upon which calculator application is built is summarized.…
Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J
2011-01-01
The sample size is the number of patients or other experimental units that need to be included in a study to answer the research question. Pre-study calculation of the sample size is important; if a sample size is too small, one will not be able to detect an effect, while a sample that is too large may be a waste of time and money. Methods to calculate the sample size are explained in statistical textbooks, but because there are many different formulas available, it can be difficult for investigators to decide which method to use. Moreover, these calculations are prone to errors, because small changes in the selected parameters can lead to large differences in the sample size. This paper explains the basic principles of sample size calculations and demonstrates how to perform such a calculation for a simple study design. PMID:21293154
Eukaryogenesis, how special really?
Booth, Austin; Doolittle, W Ford
2015-08-18
Eukaryogenesis is widely viewed as an improbable evolutionary transition uniquely affecting the evolution of life on this planet. However, scientific and popular rhetoric extolling this event as a singularity lacks rigorous evidential and statistical support. Here, we question several of the usual claims about the specialness of eukaryogenesis, focusing on both eukaryogenesis as a process and its outcome, the eukaryotic cell. We argue in favor of four ideas. First, the criteria by which we judge eukaryogenesis to have required a genuinely unlikely series of events 2 billion years in the making are being eroded by discoveries that fill in the gaps of the prokaryote:eukaryote "discontinuity." Second, eukaryogenesis confronts evolutionary theory in ways not different from other evolutionary transitions in individuality; parallel systems can be found at several hierarchical levels. Third, identifying which of several complex cellular features confer on eukaryotes a putative richer evolutionary potential remains an area of speculation: various keys to success have been proposed and rejected over the five-decade history of research in this area. Fourth, and perhaps most importantly, it is difficult and may be impossible to eliminate eukaryocentric bias from the measures by which eukaryotes as a whole are judged to have achieved greater success than prokaryotes as a whole. Overall, we question whether premises of existing theories about the uniqueness of eukaryogenesis and the greater evolutionary potential of eukaryotes have been objectively formulated and whether, despite widespread acceptance that eukaryogenesis was "special," any such notion has more than rhetorical value. PMID:25883267
Time-Dependence of the Survival Probability of Quarkonia in Quark-Gluon Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mah Hussin, Noor Sabrina; Shalaby, Asmaa; Petridis, Athanasios
2015-10-01
The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is used to study the formation of quarkonia and their propagation in Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The initial bound (ground) state is computed using imaginary-time propagation in a confining potential. The QGP is simulated with a confining potential of an extended asymptotic freedom region. The interior of the QGP potential may correspond to a vacuum that differs from that of the exterior region. The initial state propagates through this potential in real time. The survival probability is calculated versus time for various potential parameters and relative momenta of the quarkonium by projecting the interacting wavefunction onto its freely-propagating counterpart. In these calculations the staggered-leap frog method is used with special attention paid to the issue of stability. It is found that quarkonium decay is typically non-exponential. Fast moving states decay faster. Connection with experimental results is done by means of cross-section ratios.
Wilcox, J.M.; Baker, W.R.
1963-09-17
This invention is a magnetohydrodynamic device for generating a highly ionized ion-electron plasma at a region remote from electrodes and structural members, thus avoiding contamination of the plasma. The apparatus utilizes a closed, gas-filled, cylindrical housing in which an axially directed magnetic field is provided. At one end of the housing, a short cylindrical electrode is disposed coaxially around a short axial inner electrode. A radial electrical discharge is caused to occur between the inner and outer electrodes, creating a rotating hydromagnetic ionization wave that propagates aiong the magnetic field lines toward the opposite end of the housing. A shorting switch connected between the electrodes prevents the wave from striking the opposite end of the housing. (AEC)
Efficient magnetic fields for supporting toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landreman, Matt; Boozer, Allen H.
2016-03-01
The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However, the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The efficiency of an externally generated magnetic field is a measure of the field's shaping component magnitude at the plasma compared to the magnitude near the coils; the efficiency of a plasma equilibrium can be measured using the efficiency of the required external shaping field. Counterintuitively, plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may have low efficiency, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may have high efficiency. Two precise measures of magnetic field efficiency, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix yields an efficiency ordered basis for the magnetic field distributions. Calculations are carried out for both tokamak and stellarator cases. For axisymmetric surfaces with circular cross-section, the SVD is calculated analytically, and the range of poloidal and toroidal mode numbers that can be controlled to a given desired level is determined. If formulated properly, these efficiency measures are independent of the coordinates used to parameterize the surfaces.
Multiple (eight) plasma bullets in helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet and the role of nitrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sanghoo; Youn Moon, Se; Choe, Wonho
2013-11-01
As many as eight multiple plasma bullets produced at atmospheric pressure were observed in one voltage period in a capillary helium dielectric barrier plasma jet. We found that the number of the bullets strongly depends on the nitrogen fraction added to the helium supply gas. Using optical emission spectroscopy and ionization rate calculation, this study demonstrates that nitrogen gas plays an important role in the generation and dynamics of multiple plasma bullets through Penning ionization of nitrogen by helium metastables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akdim, Mohamed Reda
2003-09-01
Nowadays plasmas are used for various applications such as the fabrication of silicon solar cells, integrated circuits, coatings and dental cleaning. In the case of a processing plasma, e.g. for the fabrication of amorphous silicon solar cells, a mixture of silane and hydrogen gas is injected in a reactor. These gases are decomposed by making a plasma. A plasma with a low degree of ionization (typically 10_5) is usually made in a reactor containing two electrodes driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power source in the megahertz range. Under the right circumstances the radicals, neutrals and ions can react further to produce nanometer sized dust particles. The particles can stick to the surface and thereby contribute to a higher deposition rate. Another possibility is that the nanometer sized particles coagulate and form larger micron sized particles. These particles obtain a high negative charge, due to their large radius and are usually trapped in a radiofrequency plasma. The electric field present in the discharge sheaths causes the entrapment. Such plasmas are called dusty or complex plasmas. In this thesis numerical models are presented which describe dusty plasmas in reactive and nonreactive plasmas. We started first with the development of a simple one-dimensional silane fluid model where a dusty radio-frequency silane/hydrogen discharge is simulated. In the model, discharge quantities like the fluxes, densities and electric field are calculated self-consistently. A radius and an initial density profile for the spherical dust particles are given and the charge and the density of the dust are calculated with an iterative method. During the transport of the dust, its charge is kept constant in time. The dust influences the electric field distribution through its charge and the density of the plasma through recombination of positive ions and electrons at its surface. In the model this process gives an extra production of silane radicals, since the growth of dust is
Screening Resonances In Plasmas
Winkler, P.
1998-12-01
When it was suggested that a new recombination mechanism (Resonant Radiative Recombination (RRR)) which, based on very general physical arguments, should happen in dense plasmas and promises to provide useful information for the local temperature and density diagnostics of plasmas, they assumed the existence of screening resonances. For model potentials the existence of screening resonances has been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt in a number of calculations. The key question, how well those potentials describe the dominant effects of a real plasma remains open. The relation of theoretical predictions to experimentally measurable effects is an important issue at the present stage of their research. In particular, RRR is expected to account for enhanced recombination rates of low energetic electrons with their ions, since the first stage is the resonant capture of a slow electron by an atom or ion. The mechanism that traps an electron is a combination of complicated many-body interactions of the ions and electrons. For clarity they start here, however, with a discussion in terms of local potential traps the shapes of which are determined predominantly and in an average way by two factors: the degree of screening present at the ionic site and the degree of short-range order in the immediate neighborhood of this ion.
Modeling electronegative plasma discharge
Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.
1995-12-31
Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.
CALCULATION OF STOPPING POWER VALUES AND RANGES OF FAST IONS.
2003-03-18
STOPOW calculates a set of stopping power values and ranges of fast ions in matter for any materials. Furthermore STOPOW can calculate a set of values for one special auxiliary function (e.g. kinematic factors, track structure parameters, time of flight or correction factors in the stopping function) . The user chooses the physical units for stopping powers and ranges and the energy range for calculations.
Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface
Shavlov, A. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.
2015-09-15
The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.
Analysis of multifrequency interferometry in a cylindrical plasma
Kraft, D. J.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, B. N.; Chavers, D. G.; Dobson, C. C.; Jones, J. E.; Jacobson, V. T.
2006-10-15
A microwave interferometer operating simultaneously at 70, 90, and 110 GHz is used to measure line integrated electron density in a plasma column in the VX-20 experiment. Interferometer beam sizes are a significant part of the plasma radius at some locations. We model the wave propagation through the plasma using a scalar wave approximation with assumptions of a Gaussian beam profile and plasma spatial profile. The phase shifts obtained from this model are compared with standard thin beam calculations and experimental data.
Neoclassical diffusion of heavy impurities in a rotating tokamak plasma
Wong, K.L.; Cheng, C.Z.
1987-08-01
Particle orbits in a rotating tokamak plasma are calculated from the equation of motion in the frame that rotates with the plasma. It is found that heavy particles in a rotating plasma can drift away from magnetic surfaces significantly faster, resulting in a diffusion coefficient much larger than that for a stationary plasma. Particle simulation is carried out and the results offer a qualitative explanation for some experimental data from the Tokamak Test Reactor (TFTR). 13 refs., 2 figs.
Airborne antenna pattern calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knerr, T. J.; Mielke, R. R.
1981-01-01
Progress on the development of modeling software, testing software against caclulated data from program VPAP and measured patterns, and calculating roll plane patterns for general aviation aircraft is reported. Major objectives are the continued development of computer software for aircraft modeling and use of this software and program OSUVOL to calculate principal plane and volumetric radiation patterns. The determination of proper placement of antennas on aircraft to meet the requirements of the Microwave Landing System is discussed. An overview of the performed work, and an example of a roll plane model for the Piper PA-31T Cheyenne aircraft and the resulting calculated roll plane radiation pattern are included.
1997-06-10
VENTSAR XL is an EXCEL Spreadsheet that can be used to calculate downwind doses as a result of a hypothetical atmospheric release. Both building effects and plume rise may be considered. VENTSAR XL will run using any version of Microsoft EXCEL version 4.0 or later. Macros (the programming language of EXCEL) was used to automate the calculations. The user enters a minimal amount of input and the code calculates the resulting concentrations and doses atmore » various downwind distances as specified by the user.« less
Evaporative cooling of flare plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antiochos, S. K.; Sturrock, P. A.
1976-01-01
A one-dimensional loop model for the evaporative cooling of the coronal flare plasma was investigated. Conductive losses dominated radiative cooling, and the evaporative velocities were small compared to the sound speed. The profile and evolution of the temperature were calculated. The model was in agreement with soft X-ray observations on the evolution of flare temperatures and emission measures. The effect of evaporation was to greatly reduce the conductive heat flux into the chromosphere and to enhance the EUV emission from the coronal flare plasma.
Pallagi, E; Vass, K; Pintye-Hódi, K; Kása, P; Falkay, G; Eros, I; Szabó-Révész, P
2004-03-01
Iron(II) sulfate-containing lipophilic matrices were developed by a special hot-melt technology (melt solidification in drops), using stearin, white wax and their mixture as conventional bed materials. The special technology resulted in spherical particles which can be filled directly into capsules; these store iron as a depot and ensure a slow and uniform release, whereby the irritation of the gastric mucosa by the iron can be decreased. The rates of dissolution of the iron(II) sulfate from the various lipophilic matrices were different, but fundamentally low. Kinetic calculations demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of the iron(II) sulfate was of approximately zero kinetic order. The results of in vivo experiments on rabbits correlated well with the in vitro data. The plasma curves for the animals treated with the iron(II) sulfate preparations varied with the excipients in the depot products. The properties and ratio of the bed materials influenced the release of the iron(II) sulfate. In all probability, the release of the active agent can be regulated through the use of a melt of stearin and white wax in different ratios. The development products functioned as a sustained-release system and ensured elimination of the irritation of the gastric mucosa. At the same time, the results justified the applicability of the special hot-melt technology in the development of the solid dosage form. PMID:15018986
Atomic Transitions in Dense Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murillo, Michael Sean
Motivation for the study of hot, dense ( ~solid density) plasmas has historically been in connection with stellar interiors. In recent years, however, there has been a growing interest in such plasmas due to their relevance to short wavelength (EUV and x-ray) lasers, inertial confinement fusion, and optical harmonic generation. In constrast to the stellar plasmas, these laboratory plasmas are typically composed of high-z elements and are not in thermal equilibrium. Descriptions of nonthermal plasma experiments must necessarily involve the consideration of the various atomic processes and the rates at which they occur. Traditionally, the rates of collisional atomic processes are calculated by considering a binary collision picture. For example, a single electron may be taken to collisionally excite an ion. A cross section may be defined for this process and, multiplying by a flux, the rate may be obtained. In a high density plasma this binary picture clearly breaks down as the electrons no longer act independently of each other. The cross section is ill-defined in this regime and another approach is needed to obtain rates. In this thesis an approach based on computing rates without recourse to a cross section is presented. In this approach, binary collisions are replaced by stochastic density fluctuations. It is then these density fluctuations which drive transitions in the ions. Furthermore, the oscillator strengths for the transitions are computed in screened Coulomb potentials which reflect the average polarization of the plasma near the ion. Numerical computations are presented for the collisional ionization rate. The effects of screening in the plasma -ion interaction are investigated for He^+ ions in a plasma near solid density. It is shown that dynamic screening plays an important role in this process. Then, density effects in the oscillator strength are explored for both He^+ and Ar^{+17}. Approximations which introduce a nonorthogonality between the initial
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section 174.055 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in...
Chemistry and Special Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riendl, Pamela A.; Haworth, Daniel T.
1995-11-01
Secondary and post-secondary science teachers are beginning to see increasing numbers of students with mild disabilities enrolled in their classes. These students can be classified as having one of a variety of mild disabilities that might impact the way they receive and process educational information. As a result of the passage in 1975 of PL 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), disabled students now have the opportunity to receive special education in the public schools and to be placed in regular classrooms whenever possible. Very little information for science teachers is provided in teacher preparation courses or is available in the literature to offer concrete suggestions for teaching science to these students. This paper describes the political gains made in education for the disabled, identifies various types of mild disabilities, and suggests possible teaching interventions for the chemistry teacher who has a student with a mild disability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Huifeng; Yuan, Hong; Tang, Zhiping
2013-01-01
When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.
Tong Huifeng; Yuan Hong; Tang Zhiping
2013-01-28
When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.
Eukaryogenesis, how special really?
Booth, Austin; Doolittle, W. Ford
2015-01-01
Eukaryogenesis is widely viewed as an improbable evolutionary transition uniquely affecting the evolution of life on this planet. However, scientific and popular rhetoric extolling this event as a singularity lacks rigorous evidential and statistical support. Here, we question several of the usual claims about the specialness of eukaryogenesis, focusing on both eukaryogenesis as a process and its outcome, the eukaryotic cell. We argue in favor of four ideas. First, the criteria by which we judge eukaryogenesis to have required a genuinely unlikely series of events 2 billion years in the making are being eroded by discoveries that fill in the gaps of the prokaryote:eukaryote “discontinuity.” Second, eukaryogenesis confronts evolutionary theory in ways not different from other evolutionary transitions in individuality; parallel systems can be found at several hierarchical levels. Third, identifying which of several complex cellular features confer on eukaryotes a putative richer evolutionary potential remains an area of speculation: various keys to success have been proposed and rejected over the five-decade history of research in this area. Fourth, and perhaps most importantly, it is difficult and may be impossible to eliminate eukaryocentric bias from the measures by which eukaryotes as a whole are judged to have achieved greater success than prokaryotes as a whole. Overall, we question whether premises of existing theories about the uniqueness of eukaryogenesis and the greater evolutionary potential of eukaryotes have been objectively formulated and whether, despite widespread acceptance that eukaryogenesis was “special,” any such notion has more than rhetorical value. PMID:25883267
Calculating scattering amplitudes efficiently
Dixon, L.
1996-01-01
We review techniques for more efficient computation of perturbative scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, in particular tree and one- loop multi-parton amplitudes in QCD. We emphasize the advantages of (1) using color and helicity information to decompose amplitudes into smaller gauge-invariant pieces, and (2) exploiting the analytic properties of these pieces, namely their cuts and poles. Other useful tools include recursion relations, special gauges and supersymmetric rearrangements. 46 refs., 11 figs.
Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming
2013-01-15
A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Nonlinear Plasma Waves Excitation by Intense Ion Beams in Background Plasma
Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson
2004-04-15
Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration {tau}{sub b} is much longer than the electron plasma period 2{pi}/{omega}{sub p}, where {omega}{sub p} = (4{pi}e{sup 2}n{sub p}/m){sup 1/2} is the electron plasma frequency and n{sub p} is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. If the beam density is larger than the background plasma density, the plasma waves break. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The reduced fluid description derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes and yield scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters. The visualization of numerical simulation data shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry and exit from the plasma.
EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finken, K. H.
2006-04-01
In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasma has become more and more recognized. These fields will cause ergodization at well defined plasma layers and can induce large size islands at rational q-surfaces. A hope for future large scale tokamak devices is the development of a reliable method for mitigating the large ELMs of type 1 ELMy-H-modes by modifying the edge transport. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area and optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, or the understanding of the transport around tearing mode instabilities. The cluster of papers in this issue of Nuclear Fusion is a successor to the 2004 special issue (Nuclear Fusion 44 S1-122 ) intended to raise interest in the subject. The contents of this present issue are based on presentations at the Second Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Juelich, Germany, 15-17 March 2005. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop was originally devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge but it has been broadened to transport questions over the whole plasma cross-section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2007 in Juelich, Germany. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. The content of the workshop is summarized in the following conference summary (K.H. Finken 2006 Nuclear Fusion 46 S107-112). At the workshop experimental results on the plasma transport resulting from ergodization in various devices were presented. Highlights were the results from DIII-D on the mitigation of ELMs (see also T.E. Evans et al 2005 Nuclear Fusion 45 595 ). Theoretical work was focused around the topics
A Simple Calculator Algorithm.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cook, Lyle; McWilliam, James
1983-01-01
The problem of finding cube roots when limited to a calculator with only square root capability is discussed. An algorithm is demonstrated and explained which should always produce a good approximation within a few iterations. (MP)
The CIPW Normative Calculation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bickel, Charles
1979-01-01
The author has rewritten rules for CIPW norm calculation and has written FORTRAN IV programs to assist the student in this procedure. Includes a set of problems utilizing the CIPW norm to illustrate principles of chemical petrology. (MA)
Calculator Function Approximation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schelin, Charles W.
1983-01-01
The general algorithm used in most hand calculators to approximate elementary functions is discussed. Comments on tabular function values and on computer function evaluation are given first; then the CORDIC (Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer) scheme is described. (MNS)
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS
Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...
Small portable speed calculator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.
1973-01-01
Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.
... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...
... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...
More Experiments and Calculations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siddons, J. C.
1984-01-01
Describes two experiments that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and experiments on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)
Source and replica calculations
Whalen, P.P.
1994-02-01
The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.
Systematics and limit calculations
Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab
2006-12-01
This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The current methods of quantum chemical calculations will be reviewed. The accent will be on the accuracy that can be achieved with these methods. The basis set requirements and computer resources for the various methods will be discussed. The utility of the methods will be illustrated with some examples, which include the calculation of accurate bond energies for SiF$_n$ and SiF$_n^+$ and the modeling of chemical data storage.
Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, H. F.
1972-01-01
Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma for postulated conditions present in a stagnation shock layer of a spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Jupiter. These properties can be used to evaluate transport properties, to calculate convective heating, and to investigate nonequilibrium behavior. The calculations have been made for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K, densities of 10 to the minus 7th and .00001 g cu cm, and three plasma compositions: pure hydrogen, 50% hydrogen/50% helium, and pure helium. The shock layer plasma consists of electrons, protons, atomic hydrogen, atomic helium, singly ionized helium, and doubly atomized helium. The thermodynamic properties which have been investigated are: pressure, average molecular weight, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, and isentropic speed of sound. A consistent model was used for the reduction of the ionization potential in the calculation of the partition functions.
Plasma disruption modeling and simulation
Hassanein, A.
1994-07-01
Disruptions in tokamak reactors are considered a limiting factor to successful operation and a reliable design. The behavior of plasma-facing components during a disruption is critical to the overall integrity of the reactor. Erosion of plasma facing-material (PFM) surfaces due to thermal energy dump during the disruption can severely limit the lifetime of these components and thus diminish the economic feasibility of the reactor.Initially, the incident plasma particles will deposit their energy directly on the PFM surface, heating it to a very high temperature where ablation occurs. Models for plasma-material interactions have been developed and used to predict material thermal evolution during the disruption. Within a few microseconds after the start of the disruption, enough material is vaporized to intercept most of the incoming plasma particles. Models for plasma-vapor interactions are necessary to predict vapor cloud expansion and hydrodynamics. Continuous heating of the vapor cloud above the material surface by the incident plasma particles will excite, ionize, and cause vapor atoms to emit thermal radiation. Accurate models for radiation transport in the vapor are essential for calculating the net radiated flux to the material surface which determines the final erosion thickness and consequently component lifetime. A comprehensive model that takes into account various stages of plasma-material interaction has been developed and used to predict erosion rates during reactor disruption, as well during induced disruption in laboratory experiments. Differences between various simulation experiments and reactor conditions are discussed. A two-dimensional radiation transport model has been developed to particularly simulate the effect of small test samples used in laboratory disruption experiments.
ON-LINE CALCULATOR: FORWARD CALCULATION JOHNSON ETTINGER MODEL
On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...
Calculations of heavy ion charge state distributions for nonequilibrium conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luhn, A.; Hovestadt, D.
1985-01-01
Numerical calculations of the charge state distributions of test ions in a hot plasma under nonequilibrium conditions are presented. The mean ionic charges of heavy ions for finite residence times in an instantaneously heated plasma and for a non-Maxwellian electron distribution function are derived. The results are compared with measurements of the charge states of solar energetic particles, and it is found that neither of the two simple cases considered can explain the observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavodszky, Peter; Marti, Felix; Zeller, Al; Biri, Sandor
2002-04-01
An ECR Ion Source (ECRIS) is designed to serve as a test bench for development of different ion species, emittance optimization and other applications. The radial confinement for this ECRIS will be provided by a special permanent magnet hexapole reaching 1.5 T at the aluminum plasma chamber wall (R=37 mm). The axial trapping will be produced with normal conducting solenoids enclosed in an iron yoke. The maximum magnetic field at the injection end will be 2.6 T and 1.5 T at extraction. A third set of coils polarized in the opposite direction between the injection and extraction coils is used to decrease the minimum value of the axial magnetic field to produce magnetic mirror ratios as high as 20. Three different microwave frequencies (6.4, 14.5 and 18 GHz) will be used to heat the plasma. Detailed magnetic field calculations will be presented comparing the results obtained with the SUPERFISH, TrapCAD and OPERA codes.
Special and general superatoms.
Luo, Zhixun; Castleman, A Welford
2014-10-21
of application of the jellium model and modification of the theory to account for nonspherical symmetry and nonmetal-doped metal clusters are still illusive to be further developed. It is still worth mentioning that a superatom concept has also been introduced in ligand-stabilized metal clusters which could also follow the major shell-closing electron count for a spherical, square-well potential. By proposing a new concept named as special and general superatoms, herein we try to summarize all these investigations in series, expecting to provide an overview of this field with a primary focus on the joint undertakings which have given rise to the superatom concept. To be specific, for special superatoms, we limit to clusters under a strict jellium model and simply classify them into groups based on their valence electron counts. While for general superatoms we emphasize on nonmetal-doped metal clusters and ligand-stabilized metal clusters, as well as a few isovalent cluster systems. Hopefully this summary of special and general superatoms benefits the further development of cluster-related theory, and lights up the prospect of using them as building blocks of new materials with tailored properties, such as inexpensive isovalent systems for industrial catalysis, semiconductive superatoms for transistors, and magnetic superatoms for spin electronics. PMID:25252219
FOREWORD: 23rd National Symposium on Plasma Science & Technology (PLASMA-2008)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, A. K.
2010-01-01
The Twentieth Century has been a defining period for Plasma Science and Technology. The state of ionized matter, so named by Irving Langmuir in the early part of twentieth century, has now evolved in to a multidisciplinary area with scientists and engineers from various specializations working together to exploit the unique properties of the plasma medium. There have been great improvements in the basic understanding of plasmas as a many body system bound by complex collective Coulomb interactions of charges, atoms, molecules, free radicals and photons. Simultaneously, many advanced plasma based technologies are increasingly being implemented for industrial and societal use. The emergence of the multination collaborative project International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project has provided the much needed boost to the researchers working on thermonuclear fusion plasmas. In addition, the other plasma applications like MHD converters, hydrogen generation, advanced materials (synthesis, processing and surface modification), environment (waste beneficiation, air and water pollution management), nanotechnology (synthesis, deposition and etching), light production, heating etc are actively being pursued in governmental and industrial sectors. For India, plasma science and technology has traditionally remained an important area of research. It was nearly a century earlier that the Saha ionization relation pioneered the way to interpret experimental data from a vast range of near equilibrium plasmas. Today, Indian research contributions and technology demonstration capabilities encompass thermonuclear fusion devices, nonlinear plasma phenomena, plasma accelerators, beam plasma interactions, dusty and nonneutral plasmas, industrial plasmas and plasma processing of materials, nano synthesis and structuring, astrophysical and space plasmas etc. India's participation in the ITER programme is now reflected in increased interest in the research and development
Calculating incoherent diffraction MTF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, Melvin; Vizgaitis, Jay
2008-04-01
The incoherent diffraction MTF plays an increasingly important role in the range performance of imaging systems as the wavelength increases and the optical aperture decreases. Accordingly, all NVESD imager models have equations that describe the incoherent diffraction MTF of a circular entrance pupil. NVThermIP, a program which models thermal imager range performance, has built in equations which analytically model the incoherent diffraction MTF of a circular entrance pupil and has a capability to input a table that describes the MTF of other apertures. These can be calculated using CODE V, which can numerically calculate the incoherent diffraction MTF in the vertical or horizontal direction for an arbitrary aperture. However, we are not aware of any program that takes as input a description of the entrance pupil and analytically outputs equations that describe the incoherent diffraction MTF. This work explores the effectiveness of Mathematica to analytically and numerically calculate the incoherent diffraction MTF for an arbitrary aperture. In this work, Mathematica is used to analytically and numerically calculate the incoherent diffraction MTF for a variety of apertures and the results are compared with CODE V calculations.
Calculation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Gunter
The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) for fcc Ni and bcc Fe is calculated as the difference of single particle energy eigenvalue sums using a tight-binding model. For nickel we predict a MAE of -0.15 eV and the wrong easy axis, for iron we find a MAE of -0.7 eV with the easy axis in agreement with experiment. Our results compare favorably with previously reported first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the local spin density approximation. The inclusion of an orbital polarization correction improves the magnitude of the MAE for iron, but fails to bring the result for nickel closer to the experimental value. The outstanding feature of our calculations is the careful handling of the necessary Brillouin zone integrals. Linear interpolation schemes and methods based on Fermi surface smearing were used and analyzed. An alternative method of calculating the MAE based on the torque on a magnetic moment centered on an atom is found to be equivalent to the calculation of the MAE in terms of energy differences.
Unthermalized plasma in bursts sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karakula, S.; Tkaczyk, W.
1985-01-01
The pair e(+)-e(-) annihilation phenomena in hot plasma was studied in order to evaluate the photon energy spectrum. The spectra of the broadening 0.511 MeV annihilation line was calculated in the case of unthermalized plasma, i.e., T sub e(-) does not equal T sub e(+). The energy spectra from annihilation process for unthermalized positrons are characterized by the presence of flat part for energies greater than 0.511 MeV. The flattening in the spectrum of annihilation unthermalized plasma is a strong indication that the observed features of the hard tailed spectrum of the gamma bursts can be well described by annihilation of hot positrons and cold electrons. It is proposed that the mechanism for the production of unthermalized positrons is associated with the charge separation in Eddington limited accretion onto a neutron star.
PREFACE: 23rd National Symposium on Plasma Science & Technology (PLASMA-2008)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mago, V. K.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Patil, D. S.; Das, A. K.
2010-01-01
It is our pleasure to present the proceedings of the 23rd National Symposium on Plasma Science and Technology (PLASMA-2008) held at Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai, 10- December 2008 in association with the Plasma Science Society of India. The Plasma Science Society of India has been holding regular symposia on general topics related to Plasma. The symposium was designed to provide a forum for young researchers in Plasma Science and Technology to interact with eminent plasma scientists from India and abroad and to present their work. The scope of the symposium included frontline research in Basic Plasma Physics as well as significant advances in Plasma Technology. In view of the ever-growing importance of Plasma Science and Technology to India's Nuclear Energy program, the focal theme of the symposium was chosen as 'Plasmas in Nuclear Fuel Cycle'. The scientific program of this four day symposium consisted of review talks, invited topical lectures, contributed oral and poster presentations in the following areas of Plasma Science & Technology. Basic Plasma Physics, simulations and modeling (BP) Nuclear fusion and Technology (NF) Space & Astrophysical Plasma(SA) Exotic Plasmas, Non-linear Dynamics(EP) Laser Plasma Interaction and Beam Physics (LP) Industrial applications of plasmas (IP) Plasma Diagnostics(PD) Plasmas and clean environment(PC) There was also a Special Session devoted to the focal theme Plasmas in Nuclear Fuel Cycle (PANFC) Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology (ANFT) Physics and technology of Processing Plasmas in Nuclear Fuel Cycle (PPNFC). Plasma Technology finds wide applications not only in nuclear, space and defense-related industries but also in medical, nano-technology and semiconductor industries. Plasma technologies have distinguished themselves in terms of compactness, process efficiency, techno economics and innovative possibilities. As we advance into the new technology era, there is a need for evolving strategies to apply the
Calculations for waste characterization
Hemmer, R.J.
1994-09-01
Measurements are the first step in the characterization of waste forms. The results are used to determine the types and amounts of radioactive material present. From this data, several characteristics are calculated which are used to satisfy site, Department of Energy (DOE), and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) requirements. How well these calculations are made becomes important to the waste characterization program. Several sources are available to obtain the required values needed to calculate these characteristics. To ensure consistency among all sites within the DOE complex, a standardized program for all necessary data needs to be established. The effects of several of the inconsistencies are presented along with a recommended list of criteria to be used.
Structure of micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas: Stiff transport or plasma eruptions?
Dickinson, D.
2014-01-15
Solutions to a model 2D eigenmode equation describing micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas are presented that demonstrate a sensitivity of the mode structure and stability to plasma profiles. In narrow regions of parameter space, with special plasma profiles, a maximally unstable mode is found that balloons on the outboard side of the tokamak. This corresponds to the conventional picture of a ballooning mode. However, for most profiles, this mode cannot exist, and instead, a more stable mode is found that balloons closer to the top or bottom of the plasma. Good quantitative agreement with a 1D ballooning analysis is found, provided the constraints associated with higher order profile effects, often neglected, are taken into account. A sudden transition from this general mode to the more unstable ballooning mode can occur for a critical flow shear, providing a candidate model for why some experiments observe small plasma eruptions (Edge Localised Modes, or ELMs) in place of large Type I ELMs.
Plasma propulsion for space applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fruchtman, Amnon
2000-04-01
The various mechanisms for plasma acceleration employed in electric propulsion of space vehicles will be described. Special attention will be given to the Hall thruster. Electric propulsion utilizes electric and magnetic fields to accelerate a propellant to a much higher velocity than chemical propulsion does, and, as a result, the required propellant mass is reduced. Because of limitations on electric power density, electric thrusters will be low thrust engines compared with chemical rockets. The large jet velocity and small thrust of electric thrusters make them most suitable for space applications such as station keeping of GEO communication satellites, low orbit drag compensation, orbit raising and interplanetary missions. The acceleration in the thruster is either thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic. The arcjet is an electrothermal device in which the propellant is heated by an electric arc and accelerated while passing through a supersonic nozzle to a relatively low velocity. In the Pulsed Plasma Thruster a solid propellant is accelerated by a magnetic field pressure in a way that is similar in principle to pulsed acceleration of plasmas in other, very different devices, such as the railgun or the plasma opening switch. Magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters also employ magnetic field pressure for the acceleration but with a reasonable efficiency at high power only. In an ion thruster ions are extracted from a plasma through a double grid structure. Ion thrusters provide a high jet velocity but the thrust density is low due to space-charge limitations. The Hall thruster, which in recent years has enjoyed impressive progress, employs a quasi-neutral plasma, and therefore is not subject to a space-charge limit on the current. An applied radial magnetic field impedes the mobility of the electrons so that the applied potential drops across a large region inside the plasma. Methods for separately controlling the profiles of the electric and the magnetic fields will
Plasma waves in a relativistic, strongly anisotropic plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Onishchenko, O. G.
1980-01-01
The dispersion properties of plasma waves in a relativistic homogeneous plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field are studied. It is shown that the non-damping plasma waves exist in the frequency range omega sub p or = omega or = omega sub L. The values of omega sub p and omega sub L are calculated for an arbitrary homogeneous relativistic function of the particle distribution. In the case of a power ultrarelativistic distribution, it is shown that, if the ultrarelativistic tail of the distribution drops very rapidly, slightly damping plasma waves are possible with the phase velocity (omega/K)c.
Tourette Syndrome in the Classroom: Special Problems, Special Needs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stefl, Mary E.; Rubin, Milton
1985-01-01
A survey of affiliates of the Tourette Syndrome Association of Ohio was conducted to document the special problems and needs of the Tourette Syndrome student. Findings indicate that students reported problems similiar to adults and that many students were in need of specialized educational services. Suggestions for dealing more effectively with…
Defining the Infancy Specialization in Early Childhood Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorp, Eva K.; McCollum, Jeanette A.
Part of a volume which explores current issues in service delivery to infants and toddlers with handicapping conditions (ages birth to 3), this chapter treats the subject of competencies needed by the early childhood special educator specializing in infancy. First, the following context variables are discussed as they relate to definitions of…
What's "Special" about Special Education? A Field under Siege.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.
Special education is under fire from full inclusionists who advocate for children with severe mental retardation and who contend that special education settings are immoral dumping grounds for children deemed "unteachable." Other advocates of inclusion focus on the invalidity of disability categories, tests, and instructional services which, in…
Spin resonance strength calculations
Courant,E.D.
2008-10-06
In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.
Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator
Sullivan, John
2014-03-11
This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.
Three recent TDHF calculations
Weiss, M.S.
1981-05-01
Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision /sup 40/Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for /sup 16/O + /sup 24/Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of /sup 86/Kr + /sup 139/La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed.
Graphing Calculator Mini Course
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karnawat, Sunil R.
1996-01-01
The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.
Confidence Calculation with AMV+
Fossum, A.F.
1999-02-19
The iterative advanced mean value algorithm (AMV+), introduced nearly ten years ago, is now widely used as a cost-effective probabilistic structural analysis tool when the use of sampling methods is cost prohibitive (Wu et al., 1990). The need to establish confidence bounds on calculated probabilities arises because of the presence of uncertainties in measured means and variances of input random variables. In this paper an algorithm is proposed that makes use of the AMV+ procedure and analytically derived probability sensitivities to determine confidence bounds on calculated probabilities.
2013-01-01
When capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is used to generate large-area plasma, the standing wave effect becomes significant, which results in the hindering of the uniform plasma process such as in a plasma etcher or plasma chemical vapor deposition. In this study, the transmission line modeling method is applied to calculate the voltage distribution over atmospheric-pressure CCP electrodes with the size of 1 m × 0.2 m. The measured plasma impedance in our previous study was used in the present calculation. The results of the calculations clearly showed the effects of excitation frequency and the impedance of the plasma on the form of the voltage distribution caused by the standing wave effect. In the case of 150 MHz frequency, the standing wave effect causes a drastic change in the voltage distribution via plasma ignition; however, the change is small for 13.56 MHz. It was also clarified that the power application position is important for obtaining a uniform voltage distribution. PMID:23634893
Simple model of plasma acceleration in a magnetic nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sercel, Joel C.
1990-01-01
A collisionless, steady-state, cold-plasma model is used to calculate the three-dimensional trajectory of a plasma as it is accelerated through a diverging magnetic field. The magnetic field is assumed to be axisymmetric with nonzero radial and axial components and zero azimuthal component. Although random thermal motion of plasma species is neglected in the cold plasma approximation, an important effect of plasma thermal energy is accounted for in the model as the kinetic energy of electrons in their Larmor motion about magnetic field lines. Calculations based on this model confirm previous studies which suggested that plasma separation from the field of a magnetic nozzle can take place even in the absence of collisional diffusion. It is shown that plasma divergence in a magnetic nozzle can be controlled by tailoring the field geometry.
Norman Rostoker and strongly correlated plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichimaru, Setsuo
2016-03-01
If Norman were alive and attended this symposium, he might have quipped: "Setsuo! What are you talking about! A plasma is, after all, a strongly correlated object, and there is nothing so special about it!" "Yes, Norman, you are so correct! A statistical system consisting of mutually non-interacting and thus uncorrelated particles may be an "ideal-gas" system from a physics teacher's pedagogical point of view, but real systems do consist of mutually interacting and thus strongly correlated particles; a plasma is definitely one of them.Here, in the memory of Professor Rostoker's outstanding contributions to strongly correlated plasmas for the past 60 years, we wish to survey on "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by a Strongly Correlated Plasma" and "Multi-particle Correlation, Equations of State, and Phase Diagrams" in what follows.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazria, Edward; Winitsky, David
This guide provides users with a basic understanding of where and how the sun works in relation to a building and site and provides a simplified method of calculating sun angles and the available heat energy from the sun on vertical and horizontal surfaces. (Author/IRT)
Calendrical Calculation and Intelligence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Connor, Neil; Cowan, Richard; Samella, Katerina
2000-01-01
Studied the ability to name the days of the week for dates in the past and future (calendrical calculation) of 10 calendrical savants with Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale scores from 50 to 97. Results suggest that although low intelligence does not prevent the development of this skill, the talent depends on general intelligence. (SLD)
Calculation of enviromental indices
1995-10-01
This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the development of environmental indices. These indices were developed to be a quantitative measure of characterizing how TVA power system operations and alternative energy strategies might affect the environment. All indices were calculated relative to the reference strategy, and for the environmental review, the reference strategy was `no action`.
Problem Solving Using Calculators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Billings, Karen; Moursund, David
1978-01-01
The first part in the serialized version of a book on the use of calculators for problem solving is presented. It contains prefaces for teachers and students and a chapter on getting started which includes topics such as symmetries, operations, powers, and chaining. (MP)
Airborne antenna pattern calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bagherian, A. B.; Mielke, R. R.
1983-01-01
Use of calculation program START and modeling program P 3D to produce radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a space station is discussed. Basic components of two space stations in the early design stage are simulated and radiation patterns for antennas mounted on the modules are presented.
Airborne antenna pattern calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knerr, T. J.; Owens, T. M.; Mielke, R. R.
1981-01-01
Calculated principal-and off-principal plane patterns are presented for the following aircraft: de Havilland DHC-7, Rockwell Sabreliner 75A, Piper PA-31T Cheyenne, Lockheed Jet Star II, Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftain, Beechcraft Duke B60, Rockwell Commander 700, Cessna Citation 3, Piper PA-31P Pressurized Navajo, Lear Jet, and Twin Otter DHC-6.
Nonperturbative QCD Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dellby, Niklas
1995-01-01
The research described in this thesis is an exact transformation of the Yang-Mills quantum chromodynamics (QCD) Lagrangrian into a form that is suitable for nonperturbative calculations. The conventional Yang-Mills Lagrangian has proven to be an excellent basis for perturbative calculations, but in nonperturbative calculations it is difficult to separate gauge problems from physical properties. To mitigate this problem, I develop a new equivalent Lagrangian that is not only expressed completely in terms of the field strengths ofthe gauge field but is also manifestly Lorentz and gauge invariant. The new Lagrangian is quadratic in derivatives, with non-linear local couplings, thus it is ideally suited for a numerical calculation. The field-strength Lagrangian is of such a form that it is possible to do a straightforward numerical stationary path expansion and find the fundamental QCD properties. This thesis examines several approximations analytically, investigating different ways to utilize the new Lagrangian. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).
Water vapor pressure calculation.
Hall, J R; Brouillard, R G
1985-06-01
Accurate calculation of water vapor pressure for systems saturated with water vapor can be performed using the Goff-Gratch equation. A form of the equation that can be adapted for computer programming and for use in electronic databases is provided. PMID:4008425
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Francis J.
The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…